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Sample records for layered carbon lattices

  1. Josephson vortex lattice in layered superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelev, A. E.; Dodgson, M. J. W.

    2013-09-15

    Many superconducting materials are composed of weakly coupled conducting layers. Such a layered structure has a very strong influence on the properties of vortex matter in a magnetic field. This review focuses on the properties of the Josephson vortex lattice generated by the magnetic field applied in the direction of the layers. The theoretical description is based on the Lawrence-Doniach model in the London limit, which takes only the phase degree of freedom of the superconducting order parameter into account. In spite of its simplicity, this model leads to an amazingly rich set of phenomena. We review in detail the structure of an isolated vortex line and various properties of the vortex lattice, in both dilute and dense limits. In particular, we extensively discuss the influence of the layered structure and thermal fluctuations on the selection of lattice configurations at different magnetic fields.

  2. Buried Porous Silicon-Germanium Layers in Monocrystalline Silicon Lattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Monocrystalline semiconductor lattices with a buried porous semiconductor layer having different chemical composition is discussed and monocrystalline semiconductor superlattices with a buried porous semiconductor layers having different chemical composition than that of its monocrystalline semiconductor superlattice are discussed. Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si-Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are strain etched resulting in porosification of the Si-Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si-Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  3. Layer Anti-Ferromagnetism on Bilayer Honeycomb Lattice

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hong-Shuai; Chen, Yao-Hua; Lin, Heng-Fu; Liu, Hai-Di; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Bilayer honeycomb lattice, with inter-layer tunneling energy, has a parabolic dispersion relation, and the inter-layer hopping can cause the charge imbalance between two sublattices. Here, we investigate the metal-insulator and magnetic phase transitions on the strongly correlated bilayer honeycomb lattice by cellular dynamical mean-field theory combined with continuous time quantum Monte Carlo method. The procedures of magnetic spontaneous symmetry breaking on dimer and non-dimer sites are different, causing a novel phase transition between normal anti-ferromagnet and layer anti-ferromagnet. The whole phase diagrams about the magnetism, temperature, interaction and inter-layer hopping are obtained. Finally, we propose an experimental protocol to observe these phenomena in future optical lattice experiments. PMID:24947369

  4. A theoretical study of a carbon lattice system for lithium intercalated carbon anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, L.G.; Storch, D.M.; Newton, J.H.; Sandi, G.

    1997-09-01

    A theoretical study was performed using computational chemistry to describe the intermolecular forces between graphite layers as well as spacing and conformation. It was found that electron correlation and a diffuse basis set were important for this calculation. In addition, the high reactivity of edge sites in lithium intercalated carbon anodes was also investigated. In this case, the reactive sites appear to strongly correlate with the relative distribution of the total atomic spin densities as well as total atomic charges. The spacing of graphite layers and lithium ion separation within an {open_quotes}approximated{close_quotes} lithium intercalated carbon anode was also investigated. The spacing of the carbon layers used in this investigation agrees most closely for that found in disordered carbon lattices.

  5. Beyond the simple hexagonal Abrikosov vortex lattice in layered superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, D.; Ettouhami, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    In layered superconductors as high-Tc materials but also organic superconductors, chalcogenides and superlattices, the simple concept of an distorted hexagonal lattice of straight vortices becomes unsufficient. Due to anisotropy and short coherence lengths, quite new vortex structures may arise. Some of them, as staircase vortices, simply add a modulation in the direction of vortex lines. This phenomenon is reviewed, together with the resulting lock-in transition, especially when the effects of the layered structure are weak. More exotic structures like a decomposed vortex lattice can also occur in specific situations: they involve two perpendicular sublattices, one parallel and one normal to the layers. We propose that extended defects as twin boundaries or irradiation tracks can trigger such a structure even in moderately anisotropic compounds as Y:123.

  6. Lattice-Matched Semiconductor Layers on Single Crystalline Sapphire Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang; King, Glen; Park, Yeonjoon

    2009-01-01

    SiGe is an important semiconductor alloy for high-speed field effect transistors (FETs), high-temperature thermoelectric devices, photovoltaic solar cells, and photon detectors. The growth of SiGe layer is difficult because SiGe alloys have different lattice constants from those of the common Si wafers, which leads to a high density of defects, including dislocations, micro-twins, cracks, and delaminations. This innovation utilizes newly developed rhombohedral epitaxy of cubic semiconductors on trigonal substrates in order to solve the lattice mismatch problem of SiGe by using trigonal single crystals like sapphire (Al2O3) as substrate to give a unique growth-orientation to the SiGe layer, which is automatically controlled at the interface upon sapphire (0001). This technology is different from previous silicon on insulator (SOI) or SGOI (SiGe on insulator) technologies that use amorphous SiO2 as the growth plane. A cubic semiconductor crystal is a special case of a rhombohedron with the inter-planar angle, alpha = 90 deg. With a mathematical transformation, all rhombohedrons can be described by trigonal crystal lattice structures. Therefore, all cubic lattice constants and crystal planes (hkl) s can be transformed into those of trigonal crystal parameters. These unique alignments enable a new opportunity of perfect lattice matching conditions, which can eliminate misfit dislocations. Previously, these atomic alignments were thought to be impossible or very difficult. With the invention of a new x-ray diffraction measurement method here, growth of cubic semiconductors on trigonal crystals became possible. This epitaxy and lattice-matching condition can be applied not only to SiGe (111)/sapphire (0001) substrate relations, but also to other crystal structures and other materials, including similar crystal structures which have pointgroup rotational symmetries by 120 because the cubic (111) direction has 120 rotational symmetry. The use of slightly miscut (less than

  7. nBn and pBp infrared detectors with graded barrier layer, graded absorption layer, or chirped strained layer super lattice absorption layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An nBn detector is described where for some embodiments the barrier layer has a concentration gradient, for some embodiments the absorption layer has a concentration gradient, and for some embodiments the absorption layer is a chirped strained layer super lattice. The use of a graded barrier or absorption layer, or the use of a chirped strained layer super lattice for the absorption layer, allows for design of the energy bands so that the valence band may be aligned across the device. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  8. Growth of coincident site lattice matched semiconductor layers and devices on crystalline substrates

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Andrew G; Ptak, Aaron J

    2013-08-13

    Methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and said devices are disclosed. The methods include but are not limited to providing a substrate having a crystalline surface with a known lattice parameter (a). The method further includes growing a crystalline semiconductor layer on the crystalline substrate surface by coincident site lattice matched epitaxy, without any buffer layer between the crystalline semiconductor layer and the crystalline surface of the substrate. The crystalline semiconductor layer will be prepared to have a lattice parameter (a') that is related to the substrate lattice parameter (a). The lattice parameter (a') maybe related to the lattice parameter (a) by a scaling factor derived from a geometric relationship between the respective crystal lattices.

  9. Method of producing buried porous silicon-geramanium layers in monocrystalline silicon lattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si--Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are stain etched resulting in porosification of the Si--Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si--Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  10. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Enzymes on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-06-01

    The use of Layer-by-layer techniques for immobilizing several types of enzymes, e.g. glucose oxidase (GOx), horse radish oxidases(HRP), and choline oxidase(CHO) on carbon nanotubes and their applications for biosenseing are presented. The enzyme is immobilized on the negatively charged CNT surface by alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and a enzyme layer. The sandwich-like layer structure (PDDA/enzyme/PDDA/CNT) formed by electrostatic assembling provides a favorable microenvironment to keep the bioactivity of enzyme and to prevent enzyme molecule leakage. The morphologies and electrocatalytic acitivity of the resulted enzyme film were characterized using TEM and electrochemical techniques, respectively. It was found that these enzyme-based biosensors are very sensitive, selective for detection of biomolecules, e.g. glucose, choline.

  11. Inverse Melting of Vortex Lattice in Layered Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. J.; He, Y. W.; Zhao, Z. G.; Liu, M.; Yang, Y. H.

    Using molecular dynamic simulations for the melting transition of a flux line lattice(FLL) with point disordered pinnings, thermal fluctuations and magnetic interactions between pancake vortices, we study the disorder-driven melting transition from a disentangled and ordered Bragg glass (BG) to an entangled amorphous vortex glass (VG) or a vortex liquid (VL) in the pinning strength-temperature phase diagram. A portion of the BG region is found to be sandwiched in between the VG phase at lower temperatures and VL phase at higher temperatures, exhibiting inverse melting behavior observed recently on BSCCO crystals.

  12. Double layer capacitance of carbon foam electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Delnick, F.M.; Ingersoll, D.; Firsich, D.

    1993-11-01

    We have evaluated a wide variety of microcellular carbon foams prepared by the controlled pyrolysis and carbonization of several polymers including: polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF), divinylbenzene/methacrylonitrile (DVB), phenolics (furfuryl/alcohol), and cellulose polymers such as Rayon. The porosity may be established by several processes including: Gelation (1-5), phase separation (1-3,5-8), emulsion (1,9,10), aerogel/xerogel formation (1,11,12,13), replication (14) and activation. In this report we present the complex impedance analysis and double layer charging characteristics of electrodes prepared from one of these materials for double layer capacitor applications, namely activated cellulose derived microcellular carbon foam.

  13. Double layer capacitance of carbon foam electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnick, F. M.; Ingersoll, D.; Firsich, D.

    We have evaluated a wide variety of microcellular carbon foams prepared by the controlled pyrolysis and carbonization of several polymers including: polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF), divinylbenzene/methacrylonitrile (DVB), phenolics (furfuryl/alcohol), and cellulose polymers such as Rayon. The porosity may be established by several processes including: gelation (1-5), phase separation (1-3,5-8), emulsion (1,9,10), aerogel/xerogel formation (1,11,12,13), replication (14), and activation. In this report we present the complex impedance analysis and double layer charging characteristics of electrodes prepared from one of these materials for double layer capacitor applications, namely activated cellulose derived microcellular carbon foam.

  14. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  15. Triangular lattice of carbon nanotube arrays for negative index of refraction and subwavelength lensing effect

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Rybczynski, J.; Wang, D.Z.; Kempa, K.; Ren, Z.F.

    2005-04-11

    Self-assembly of polystyrene microspheres has been utilized in a two-step masking technique to prepare triangular lattices of catalytic nanodots at low cost. Subsequent triangular lattices of aligned carbon nanotubes on a silicon substrate are achieved by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Nickel is used both in the nanodots and in the secondary mask. The triangular lattices of carbon nanotube arrays as two-dimensional photonic crystals show higher geometrical symmetry than the hexagonal lattices previously reported, enabling broader applications including negative index of refraction and subwavelength lensing effect.

  16. Lattice curvature generation in graded InxGa1-xAs/GaAs buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, M.; Romanato, F.; Napolitani, E.; de Salvador, D.; Drigo, A. V.

    2000-10-01

    Position dependent lattice tilts in InGaAs/GaAs(001) compositionally graded buffer layers are investigated. The lateral dependence of the tilt defines a concave buffer layer curvature of up to 3 deg cm-1. The buffer layer curvature is associated with a distribution of the misfit dislocation Burgers vectors that varies nearly linearly across the sample. The origin of this peculiar distribution is discussed and is explained in terms of a Burgers-vector selection rule, which governs the cross slip of gliding threading dislocations and that has been experimentally observed by Capano in Phys. Rev. B 45, 11 768 (1992). A quantitative model of lattice curvature formation is presented that satisfactorily accounts for the main features of the observed buffer layer curvature.

  17. Mode dependent lattice thermal conductivity of single layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiyong; Yang, Juekuan; Bi, Kedong; Chen, Yunfei

    2014-10-21

    Molecular dynamics simulation is performed to extract the phonon dispersion and phonon lifetime of single layer graphene. The mode dependent thermal conductivity is calculated from the phonon kinetic theory. The predicted thermal conductivity at room temperature exhibits important quantum effects due to the high Debye temperature of graphene. But the quantum effects are reduced significantly when the simulated temperature is as high as 1000 K. Our calculations show that out-of-plane modes contribute about 41.1% to the total thermal conductivity at room temperature. The relative contribution of out-of-plane modes has a little decrease with the increase of temperature. Contact with substrate can reduce both the total thermal conductivity of graphene and the relative contribution of out-of-plane modes, in agreement with previous experiments and theories. Increasing the coupling strength between graphene and substrate can further reduce the relative contribution of out-of-plane modes. The present investigations also show that the relative contribution of different mode phonons is not sensitive to the grain size of graphene. The obtained phonon relaxation time provides useful insight for understanding the phonon mean free path and the size effects in graphene.

  18. Anomalous Raman scattering and lattice dynamics in mono- and few-layer WTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younghee; Jhon, Young In; Park, June; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Seok; Jhon, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a layered material that exhibits excellent magnetoresistance and thermoelectric behaviors, which are deeply related with its distorted orthorhombic phase that may critically affect the lattice dynamics of this material. Here, we report comprehensive characterization of Raman spectra of WTe2 from bulk to monolayer using experimental and computational methods. We find that mono and bi-layer WTe2 are easily identified by Raman spectroscopy since two or one Raman modes that are observed in higher-layer WTe2 are greatly suppressed below the noise level in the mono- and bi-layer WTe2, respectively. In addition, the frequency of in-plane A17 mode of WTe2 remains almost constant as the layer number decreases, while all the other Raman modes consistently blueshift, which is completely different from the vibrational behavior of hexagonal metal dichalcogenides. First-principles calculation validates experimental results and reveals that anomalous lattice vibrations in WTe2 are attributed to the formation of tungsten chains that make WTe2 structurally one-dimensional.Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a layered material that exhibits excellent magnetoresistance and thermoelectric behaviors, which are deeply related with its distorted orthorhombic phase that may critically affect the lattice dynamics of this material. Here, we report comprehensive characterization of Raman spectra of WTe2 from bulk to monolayer using experimental and computational methods. We find that mono and bi-layer WTe2 are easily identified by Raman spectroscopy since two or one Raman modes that are observed in higher-layer WTe2 are greatly suppressed below the noise level in the mono- and bi-layer WTe2, respectively. In addition, the frequency of in-plane A17 mode of WTe2 remains almost constant as the layer number decreases, while all the other Raman modes consistently blueshift, which is completely different from the vibrational behavior of hexagonal metal dichalcogenides

  19. Coupled double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters with lattice-displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Shuai, Yichen; Zhao, Deyin; Singh Chadha, Arvinder; Zhou, Weidong; Seo, Jung-Hun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yang, Hongjun; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-12-09

    We present here ultra-compact high-Q Fano resonance filters with displaced lattices between two coupled photonic crystal slabs, fabricated with crystalline silicon nanomembrane transfer printing and aligned e-beam lithography techniques. Theoretically, with the control of lattice displacement between two coupled photonic crystal slabs layers, optical filter Q factors can approach 211 000 000 for the design considered here. Experimentally, Q factors up to 80 000 have been demonstrated for a filter design with target Q factor of 130 000.

  20. Growth of high quality GaN layer on carbon nanotube-graphene network structure as intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Taeo Hoon; Park, Ah Hyun; Park, Sungchan; Kim, Myung Jong; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2015-03-01

    In general, high-quality GaN layers are synthesized on low-temperature (LT) GaN buffer layer on a single crystal sapphire substrate. However, large differences in fundamental properties such as lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients between GaN layer and sapphire substrate generate high density of threading dislocation (TD) that leads to deterioration of optical and structural properties. Graphene has been attracting much attention due to its excellent physical properties However, direct epitaxial growth of GaN film onto graphene layer on substrates is not easily accessible due to the lack of chemical reactivity on graphene which consisted of C-C bond of sp2 hexagonally arranged carbon atoms with no dangling bonds. In this work, an intermediate layer for the GaN growth on sapphire substrate was constructed by inserting carbon nanotubes and graphene hybrid structure (CGH) Optical and structural properties of GaN layer grown on CGH were compared with those of GaN layer directly grown on sapphire CNTs act as nucleation sites and play a crucial role in the growth of single crystal high-quality GaN on graphene layer. Also, graphene film acts as a mask for epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN layer, which can effectively reduce TD density. A grant from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) institutional program.

  1. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced.

  2. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1998-10-13

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications is disclosed. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. 8 figs.

  3. Coincident site lattice-matched growth of semiconductors on substrates using compliant buffer layers

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Andrew

    2016-08-23

    A method of producing semiconductor materials and devices that incorporate the semiconductor materials are provided. In particular, a method is provided of producing a semiconductor material, such as a III-V semiconductor, on a silicon substrate using a compliant buffer layer, and devices such as photovoltaic cells that incorporate the semiconductor materials. The compliant buffer material and semiconductor materials may be deposited using coincident site lattice-matching epitaxy, resulting in a close degree of lattice matching between the substrate material and deposited material for a wide variety of material compositions. The coincident site lattice matching epitaxial process, as well as the use of a ductile buffer material, reduce the internal stresses and associated crystal defects within the deposited semiconductor materials fabricated using the disclosed method. As a result, the semiconductor devices provided herein possess enhanced performance characteristics due to a relatively low density of crystal defects.

  4. Engineered oxide thin films as 100% lattice match buffer layers for YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Y.; Heiba, Z. K.; Sigmund, W.; Hascicek, Y. S.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most important qualities of buffer layers for RE-BCO coated conductors' growth is close lattice match with RE-BCO. However, there is no natural material with a 100% lattice match with RE-BCO. In this study mixtures of europium oxide (Eu 2O 3) and ytterbium oxide (Yb 2O 3), (Eu 1- uYb u) 2O 3 (0.0⩽ u⩽1.0), were investigated as a candidate buffer layer that could have same lattice parameter as YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ(YBCO). Because the pseudocubic lattice parameter of Eu 2O 3 is bigger, and that of Yb 2O 3 is smaller than lattice parameter of YBCO, and the mixed oxides with appropriate ratio would have same lattice parameter of YBCO. The mixtures were prepared using metal-organic precursor by sol-gel process, and it was found that all mixed samples are single phase, complete solid solutions, and have same crystal system over the whole range of " u". Lattice parameters of mixed (Eu 1- uYb u) 2O 3 oxide powders were changed between 10.86831 and 10.42828 Å which are lattice parameter of Eu 2O 3 and Yb 2O 3, respectively by changing the ratio of Eu/Yb in the mixture. Phase and lattice parameter analysis revealed that pseudocubic lattice parameter of (Eu 0.893Yb 0.107) 2O 3 is 3.82 Å which is same as the lattice parameter of YBCO. Textured (Eu 0.893Yb 0.107) 2O 3 buffer layers were grown on biaxially textured-Ni (1 0 0) substrates. The solution was prepared from Europium and Ytterbium 2,4-pentadioanate, and was deposited on the Ni substrates using a reel-to-reel sol-gel dip coating system. The textured films were annealed at 1150 °C for 10 min under 4% H 2-Ar gas flow. Extensive texture analysis has been done to characterize the texture of (Eu 0.893Yb 0.107) 2O 3 buffer layers. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the buffer layer showed strong out-of-plane orientation on Ni tape. The (Eu 0.893Yb 0.107) 2O 3 (2 2 2) pole figure indicated a single cube-on-cube textured structure. The omega and phi scans revealed good out-of-plane and in-plane alignments. The full

  5. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides: promising near-lattice-matched substrates for GaN growth

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priti; Rahman, A. A.; Subramanian, Shruti; Gupta, Shalini; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Orlova, Tatyana; Rouvimov, Sergei; Vishwanath, Suresh; Protasenko, Vladimir; Laskar, Masihhur R.; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Most III-nitride semiconductors are grown on non-lattice-matched substrates like sapphire or silicon due to the extreme difficulty of obtaining a native GaN substrate. We show that several layered transition-metal dichalcogenides are closely lattice-matched to GaN and report the growth of GaN on a range of such layered materials. We report detailed studies of the growth of GaN on mechanically-exfoliated flakes WS2 and MoS2 by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. Structural and optical characterization show that strain-free, single-crystal islands of GaN are obtained on the underlying chalcogenide flakes. We obtain strong near-band-edge emission from these layers, and analyse their temperature-dependent photoluminescence properties. We also report a proof-of-concept demonstration of large-area growth of GaN on CVD MoS2. Our results show that the transition-metal dichalcogenides can serve as novel near-lattice-matched substrates for nitride growth. PMID:27025461

  6. Tunable Lattice Constant and Band Gap of Single- and Few-Layer ZnO.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junseok; Sorescu, Dan C; Deng, Xingyi

    2016-04-01

    Single and few-layer ZnO(0001) (ZnO(nL), n = 1-4) grown on Au(111) have been characterized via scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that the in-plane lattice constants of the ZnO(nL, n ≤ 3) are expanded compared to that of the bulk wurtzite ZnO(0001). The lattice constant reaches a maximum expansion of 3% in the ZnO(2L) and decreases to the bulk wurtzite ZnO value in the ZnO(4L). The band gap decreases monotonically with increasing number of ZnO layers from 4.48 eV (ZnO(1L)) to 3.42 eV (ZnO(4L)). These results suggest that a transition from a planar to the bulk-like ZnO structure occurs around the thickness of ZnO(4L). The work also demonstrates that the lattice constant and the band gap in ultrathin ZnO can be tuned by controlling the number of layers, providing a basis for further investigation of this material. PMID:27003692

  7. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides: promising near-lattice-matched substrates for GaN growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Priti; Rahman, A. A.; Subramanian, Shruti; Gupta, Shalini; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Orlova, Tatyana; Rouvimov, Sergei; Vishwanath, Suresh; Protasenko, Vladimir; Laskar, Masihhur R.; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2016-03-01

    Most III-nitride semiconductors are grown on non-lattice-matched substrates like sapphire or silicon due to the extreme difficulty of obtaining a native GaN substrate. We show that several layered transition-metal dichalcogenides are closely lattice-matched to GaN and report the growth of GaN on a range of such layered materials. We report detailed studies of the growth of GaN on mechanically-exfoliated flakes WS2 and MoS2 by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. Structural and optical characterization show that strain-free, single-crystal islands of GaN are obtained on the underlying chalcogenide flakes. We obtain strong near-band-edge emission from these layers, and analyse their temperature-dependent photoluminescence properties. We also report a proof-of-concept demonstration of large-area growth of GaN on CVD MoS2. Our results show that the transition-metal dichalcogenides can serve as novel near-lattice-matched substrates for nitride growth.

  8. Anomalous Raman scattering and lattice dynamics in mono- and few-layer WTe2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghee; Jhon, Young In; Park, June; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Seok; Jhon, Young Min

    2016-01-28

    Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a layered material that exhibits excellent magnetoresistance and thermoelectric behaviors, which are deeply related with its distorted orthorhombic phase that may critically affect the lattice dynamics of this material. Here, we report comprehensive characterization of Raman spectra of WTe2 from bulk to monolayer using experimental and computational methods. We find that mono and bi-layer WTe2 are easily identified by Raman spectroscopy since two or one Raman modes that are observed in higher-layer WTe2 are greatly suppressed below the noise level in the mono- and bi-layer WTe2, respectively. In addition, the frequency of in-plane A1(7) mode of WTe2 remains almost constant as the layer number decreases, while all the other Raman modes consistently blueshift, which is completely different from the vibrational behavior of hexagonal metal dichalcogenides. First-principles calculation validates experimental results and reveals that anomalous lattice vibrations in WTe2 are attributed to the formation of tungsten chains that make WTe2 structurally one-dimensional. PMID:26750205

  9. Direct chemical conversion of graphene to boron- and nitrogen- and carbon-containing atomic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yongji; Shi, Gang; Zhang, Zhuhua; Zhou, Wu; Jung, Jeil; Gao, Weilu; Ma, Lulu; Yang, Yang; Yang, Shubin; You, Ge; Vajtai, Robert; Xu, Qianfan; MacDonald, Allan H.; Yakobson, Boris I.; Lou, Jun; Liu, Zheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene and hexagonal boron nitride are typical conductor and insulator, respectively, while their hybrids hexagonal boron carbonitride are promising as a semiconductor. Here we demonstrate a direct chemical conversion reaction, which systematically converts the hexagonal carbon lattice of graphene to boron nitride, making it possible to produce uniform boron nitride and boron carbonitride structures without disrupting the structural integrity of the original graphene templates. We synthesize high-quality atomic layer films with boron-, nitrogen- and carbon-containing atomic layers with full range of compositions. Using this approach, the electrical resistance, carrier mobilities and bandgaps of these atomic layers can be tuned from conductor to semiconductor to insulator. Combining this technique with lithography, local conversion could be realized at the nanometre scale, enabling the fabrication of in-plane atomic layer structures consisting of graphene, boron nitride and boron carbonitride. This is a step towards scalable synthesis of atomically thin two-dimensional integrated circuits.

  10. Coherent Lattice Vibrations in Mono- and Few-Layer WSe2.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae Young; Jin, Byung Moon; Rhim, Sonny H; Debbichi, Lamjed; Park, Jaesung; Jang, Yu Dong; Lee, Hyang Rok; Chae, Dong-Hun; Lee, Donghan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Jung, Suyong; Yee, Ki Ju

    2016-05-24

    We report the observation of coherent lattice vibrations in mono- and few-layer WSe2 in the time domain, which were obtained by performing time-resolved transmission measurements. Upon the excitation of ultrashort pulses with the energy resonant to that of A excitons, coherent oscillations of the A1g optical phonon and longitudinal acoustic phonon at the M point of the Brillouin zone (LA(M)) were impulsively generated in monolayer WSe2. In multilayer WSe2 flakes, the interlayer breathing mode (B1) is found to be sensitive to the number of layers, demonstrating its usefulness in characterizing layered transition metal dichalcogenide materials. On the basis of temperature-dependent measurements, we find that the A1g optical phonon mode decays into two acoustic phonons through the anharmonic decay process. PMID:27102714

  11. Effect of interfacial layer on water flow in nanochannels: Lattice Boltzmann simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yakang; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Zilong; Lu, Shuangfang; Xue, Qingzhong

    2016-04-01

    A novel interfacial model was proposed to understand water flow mechanism in nanochannels. Based on our pore-throat nanochannel model, the effect of interfacial layer on water flow in nanochannels was quantitatively studied using Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). It is found that both the permeability of nanochannel and water velocity in the nanochannel dramatically decrease with increasing the thickness of interfacial layer. The permeability of nanochannel with pore radius of 10 nm decreases by about three orders of magnitude when the thickness of interfacial layer is changed from 0 nm to 3 nm gradually. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the cross-section shape has a great effect on the water flow inside nanochannel and the effect of interfacial layer on the permeability of nanochannel has a close relationship with cross-section shape when the pore size is smaller than 12 nm. Besides, both pore-throat ratio and throat length can greatly affect water flow in nanochannels, and the influence of interfacial layer on water flow in nanochannels becomes more evident with increasing pore-throat ratio and throat length. Our theoretical results provide a simple and effective method to study the flow phenomena in nano-porous media, particularly to quantitatively study the interfacial layer effect in nano-porous media.

  12. Strength, hardness, and lattice vibrations of Z-carbon and W-carbon: First-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiping; Gao, Faming; Xu, Ziming

    2012-04-01

    The strength, hardness, and lattice vibrations of two superhard carbon allotropies, Z-carbon and W-carbon are investigated by first-principles calculations. Phonon dispersion calculations indicate that Z-carbon and W-carbon are dynamically stable at least up to 300 GPa. The strength calculations reveal that the failure mode in Z-carbon is dominated by the tensile type, and the [010] direction is the weakest one. In W-carbon, the failure mode is dominated by the shear type, and the (101)[111¯] direction is the weakest one. Although the ideal strength of diamond is distinctly greater than that of Z-carbon and W-carbon, the tensile strength and shear strength for Z-carbon and W-carbon show much lower anisotropies than that of diamond. The hardness calculations indicate that the average hardness of Z-carbon is less than that of diamond but greater than that of the W-carbon, M-carbon, and body-centered-tetragonal-C4 carbon. The simulated Raman spectra show that the Ag modes at 1094 cm-1 for Z-carbon and 1109.7 cm-1 for W-carbon are in agreement with that of 1082 cm-1 observed in the experiment of cold-compressed graphite at 9.8 GPa.

  13. Photochemical bonding of epithelial cell-seeded collagen lattice to rat muscle layer for esophageal tissue engineering: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Barbara P.; Sato, M.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Kochevar, Irene E.; Redmond, Robert W.

    2005-04-01

    Bilayered tube structures consist of epithelial cell-seeded collagen lattice and muscle layer have been fabricated for esophageal tissue engineering. Good adhesion between layers in order to facilitate cell infiltration and neovascularization in the collagen lattice is required. Previous efforts include using other bioglues such as fibrin glue and silicone tube as the physical support. However, the former is subjected to chances of transmitting blood-born infectious disease and is time consuming while the latter requires a second surgical procedure. The current project aimed to bond the cell-seeded collagen lattice to muscle layer using photochemical bonding, which has previously been demonstrated a rapid and non-thermal procedure in bonding collagenous tissues. Rat esophageal epithelial cells were seeded on collagen lattice and together with the latissimus dorsi muscle layer, were exposed to a photosensitizer rose Bengal at the bonding surface. An argon laser was used to irradiate the approximated layers. Bonding strength was measured during the peeling test of the collagen layer from the muscle layer. Post-bonding cell viability was assessed using a modified NADH-diaphorase microassay. A pilot in vivo study was conducted by directly bonding the cell-seeded collagen layer onto the muscle flap in rats and the structures were characterized histologically. Photochemical bonding was found to significantly increase the adherence at the bonding interface without compromising the cell viability. This indicates the feasibility of using the technique to fabricate multi-layered structures in the presence of living cells. The pilot animal study demonstrated integration of the collagen lattice with the muscle layer at the bonding interface although the subsequent surgical manipulation disturbed the integration at some region. This means that an additional procedure removing the tube could be avoided if the approximation and thus the bonding are optimized. Cell infiltration

  14. Spectroscopy of dipolar fermions in layered two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Rey, Ana Maria; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2011-09-15

    Motivated by ongoing measurements at JILA, we calculate the recoil-free spectra of dipolar interacting fermions, for example ultracold heteronuclear molecules, in a one-dimensional lattice of two-dimensional layers or ''pancakes'', spectroscopically probing transitions between different internal (e.g., rotational) states. We additionally incorporate p-wave interactions and losses, which are important for reactive molecules such as KRb. Moreover, we consider other sources of spectral broadening: interaction-induced quasiparticle lifetimes and the different polarizabilities of the rotational states used for the spectroscopy. Although our main focus is molecules, some of the calculations are also useful for optical lattice atomic clocks. For example, understanding the p-wave shifts between identical fermions and small dipolar interactions coming from the excited clock state is necessary to reach future precision goals. Finally, we consider the spectra in a deep three-dimensional lattice and show how they give a great deal of information about static correlation functions, including all the moments of the density correlations between nearby sites. The range of correlations measurable depends on spectroscopic resolution and the dipole moment.

  15. An Absorbing Boundary Condition for the Lattice Boltzmann Method Based on the Perfectly Matched Layer.

    PubMed

    Najafi-Yazdi, A; Mongeau, L

    2012-09-15

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a well established computational tool for fluid flow simulations. This method has been recently utilized for low Mach number computational aeroacoustics. Robust and nonreflective boundary conditions, similar to those used in Navier-Stokes solvers, are needed for LBM-based aeroacoustics simulations. The goal of the present study was to develop an absorbing boundary condition based on the perfectly matched layer (PML) concept for LBM. The derivation of formulations for both two and three dimensional problems are presented. The macroscopic behavior of the new formulation is discussed. The new formulation was tested using benchmark acoustic problems. The perfectly matched layer concept appears to be very well suited for LBM, and yielded very low acoustic reflection factor. PMID:23526050

  16. An Absorbing Boundary Condition for the Lattice Boltzmann Method Based on the Perfectly Matched Layer

    PubMed Central

    Najafi-Yazdi, A.; Mongeau, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a well established computational tool for fluid flow simulations. This method has been recently utilized for low Mach number computational aeroacoustics. Robust and nonreflective boundary conditions, similar to those used in Navier-Stokes solvers, are needed for LBM-based aeroacoustics simulations. The goal of the present study was to develop an absorbing boundary condition based on the perfectly matched layer (PML) concept for LBM. The derivation of formulations for both two and three dimensional problems are presented. The macroscopic behavior of the new formulation is discussed. The new formulation was tested using benchmark acoustic problems. The perfectly matched layer concept appears to be very well suited for LBM, and yielded very low acoustic reflection factor. PMID:23526050

  17. Local atomic arrangements and lattice distortions in layered Ge-Sb-Te crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Lotnyk, Andriy; Ross, Ulrich; Bernütz, Sabine; Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Insights into the local atomic arrangements of layered Ge-Sb-Te compounds are of particular importance from a fundamental point of view and for data storage applications. In this view, a detailed knowledge of the atomic structure in such alloys is central to understanding the functional properties both in the more commonly utilized amorphous-crystalline transition and in recently proposed interfacial phase change memory based on the transition between two crystalline structures. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of local arrangement in the crystalline lattice with atomic resolution. However, due to the non-trivial influence of thermal diffuse scattering on the high-angle scattering signal, a detailed examination of the image contrast requires comparison with theoretical image simulations. This work reveals the local atomic structure of trigonal Ge-Sb-Te thin films by using a combination of direct imaging of the atomic columns and theoretical image simulation approaches. The results show that the thin films are prone to the formation of stacking disorder with individual building blocks of the Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge3Sb2Te6 crystal structures intercalated within randomly oriented grains. The comparison with image simulations based on various theoretical models reveals intermixed cation layers with pronounced local lattice distortions, exceeding those reported in literature. PMID:27220411

  18. Local atomic arrangements and lattice distortions in layered Ge-Sb-Te crystal structures

    PubMed Central

    Lotnyk, Andriy; Ross, Ulrich; Bernütz, Sabine; Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Insights into the local atomic arrangements of layered Ge-Sb-Te compounds are of particular importance from a fundamental point of view and for data storage applications. In this view, a detailed knowledge of the atomic structure in such alloys is central to understanding the functional properties both in the more commonly utilized amorphous–crystalline transition and in recently proposed interfacial phase change memory based on the transition between two crystalline structures. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of local arrangement in the crystalline lattice with atomic resolution. However, due to the non-trivial influence of thermal diffuse scattering on the high-angle scattering signal, a detailed examination of the image contrast requires comparison with theoretical image simulations. This work reveals the local atomic structure of trigonal Ge-Sb-Te thin films by using a combination of direct imaging of the atomic columns and theoretical image simulation approaches. The results show that the thin films are prone to the formation of stacking disorder with individual building blocks of the Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge3Sb2Te6 crystal structures intercalated within randomly oriented grains. The comparison with image simulations based on various theoretical models reveals intermixed cation layers with pronounced local lattice distortions, exceeding those reported in literature. PMID:27220411

  19. Local atomic arrangements and lattice distortions in layered Ge-Sb-Te crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotnyk, Andriy; Ross, Ulrich; Bernütz, Sabine; Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Insights into the local atomic arrangements of layered Ge-Sb-Te compounds are of particular importance from a fundamental point of view and for data storage applications. In this view, a detailed knowledge of the atomic structure in such alloys is central to understanding the functional properties both in the more commonly utilized amorphous–crystalline transition and in recently proposed interfacial phase change memory based on the transition between two crystalline structures. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of local arrangement in the crystalline lattice with atomic resolution. However, due to the non-trivial influence of thermal diffuse scattering on the high-angle scattering signal, a detailed examination of the image contrast requires comparison with theoretical image simulations. This work reveals the local atomic structure of trigonal Ge-Sb-Te thin films by using a combination of direct imaging of the atomic columns and theoretical image simulation approaches. The results show that the thin films are prone to the formation of stacking disorder with individual building blocks of the Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge3Sb2Te6 crystal structures intercalated within randomly oriented grains. The comparison with image simulations based on various theoretical models reveals intermixed cation layers with pronounced local lattice distortions, exceeding those reported in literature.

  20. Local lattice distortions in spherical carbon nanoparticles as studied by HRTEM image analysis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, M; Arnault, J C; Ehret, G; Banhart, F; Le Normand, F

    2002-08-01

    The study of lattice distortions in structures with spherical or cylindrical geometry is of growing interest in the field of carbon nanoparticles (onions, nanotubes, etc.). We report an image analysis procedure entirely performed in reciprocal space which provides a global map of the inter-shell distances in carbon nanoparticles. This procedure is applied to carbon nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm that are generated under CVD conditions and exhibit positive as well as negative curvature of the basal lattice planes. These nanoparticles are subjected to intense electron irradiation under the beam of a high-voltage electron microscope with an acceleration voltage of 1.25 MeV. We observe a compression in their centre and a dilation of the outer shells. The reciprocal-space analysis of the high-resolution electron microscopy images opens the way to investigate the stability and equilibrium structure of carbon nanoparticles and to conclude on the formation mechanism. PMID:12213022

  1. Single pentagon in a hexagonal carbon lattice revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    An, B.; Fukuyama, S.; Yokogawa, K.; Yoshimura, M.; Egashira, M.; Korai, Y.; Mochida, I.

    2001-06-04

    The electronic structure of a single pentagon in a hexagonal carbon lattice has been revealed on an atomic scale by scanning tunneling microscopy. The pentagon is located at the apex of the conical protuberance of the graphitic particle. The enhanced charge density localized at each carbon atom in the pentagon is identified, and the ringlike pattern of the ({radical}3{times}{radical}3)R30{degree} superstructure of graphite is clearly observed around the pentagon. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann method for short-pulsed laser transport in a multi-layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping

    2015-04-01

    We construct a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for transient radiative transfer in one-dimensional multi-layered medium with distinct refractive index in each layer. The left boundary is irradiated normally by a short-pulsed laser. The Fresnel interfaces conditions, which incorporate reflection and refraction, are used at the boundaries and the interfaces. Based on the Fresnel's law and Snell's law, the interfacial intensity formulas are introduced. The collimated and diffuse intensities are treated individually. At a transient time step, the collimated component is first solved by LBM and then embedded into the transient radiative transfer equation as a source term. To keep the consistency of the directions in all the layers, angular interpolation of the intensities at the interfaces is adopted. The transient radiative transfer in a two-layer medium is first investigated, and the time-resolved results are validated by comparing with those by the Monte Carlo method (MCM). Of particular interest, the angular intensities along the slab at different times are presented to illustrate a variety of interesting phenomena, and the discontinuous nature of the intensity at the interfaces is discussed. The effects of various parameters on the time-resolved signals are examined.

  3. Nucleation, Growth, and Strain Relaxation of Lattice-Mismatched III-V Semiconductor Epitaxial Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welser, R. E.; Guido, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the early stages of evolution of highly strained 2-D InAs layers and 3-D InAs islands grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on (100) and (111) B GaAs substrates. The InAs epilayer / GaAs substrate combination has been chosen because the lattice-mismatch is severe (approx. 7.20%), yet these materials are otherwise very similar. By examining InAs-on-GaAs composites Instead of the more common In(x)Ga(1-x)As alloy, we remove an additional degree of freedom (x) and thereby simplify data interpretation. A matrix of experiments is described in which the MOCVD growth parameters -- susceptor temperature, TMIn flux, and AsH3 flux -- have been varied over a wide range. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis have been employed to observe the thin film surface morphology. In the case of 3-D growth, we have extracted activation energies and power-dependent exponents that characterize the nucleation process. As a consequence, optimized growth conditions have been identified for depositing approx. 250 A thick (100) and (111)B oriented InAs layers with relatively smooth surfaces. Together with preliminary data on the strain relaxation of these layers, the above results on the evolution of thin InAs films indicate that the (111)B orientation is particularly promising for yielding lattice-mismatched films that are fully relaxed with only misfit dislocations at the epilayer / substrate interface.

  4. Nucleation, growth, and strain relaxation of lattice-mismatched 3-5 semiconductor epitaxial layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welser, R. E.; Guido, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the early stages of evolution of highly strained 2-D InAs layers and 3-D InAs islands grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on (100) and (111)B GaAs substrates. The InAs epilayer/GaAs substrate combination has been chosen because the lattice-mismatch is severe (approximately 7.2 percent), yet these materials are otherwise very similar. By examining InAs-on-GaAs composites instead of the more common In(x)Ga(1-x)As alloy we remove an additional degree of freedom (x) and thereby simplify data interpretation. A matrix of experiments is described in which the MOCVD growth parameters - susceptor temperature, Thin flux, and AsH3 flux - have been varied over a wide range. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis have been employed to observe the thin film surface morphology. In the case of 3-D growth, we have extracted activation energies and power-dependent exponents that characterize the nucleation process. As a consequence, optimized growth conditions have been identified for depositing approximately 250 A thick (100) and (111)B oriented InAs layers with relatively smooth surfaces. Together with preliminary data on the strain relaxation of these layers, the above results on the evolution of thin InAs films indicate that the (111)B orientation is particularly promising for yielding lattice-mismatched films that are fully relaxed with only misfit dislocations at the epilayer/substrate interface.

  5. Anisotropic Lattice Deformation of InAs Self-Assembled Quantum Dots Embedded in GaNAs Strain Compensating Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, N.; Muto, S.; Ganapathy, S.; Suemune, I.; Numata, K.; Yabuta, K.

    2006-01-01

    Lattice deformations of InAs self-assembled quantum dots, which were grown on (001)GaAs substrates and embedded in GaNAs strain compensating layers (SCLs), were examined with an ion-channeling method in Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The channeling experiments demonstrated that the increase of the nitrogen concentrations in the GaNAs SCLs caused the indium lattice displacements along the [001] growth direction while those parallel to the (001) crystal plane were kept unchanged.

  6. Nonlinear Dynamics of Layered Structures and the Generalized Sine-Lattice Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soboleva, Tatyana; Zeltser, Alexander; Kivshar, Yuri; Turitsyn, Sergei

    1995-07-01

    We analyze nonlinear waves in layered (anisotropic) structures with strong interlayer interaction. One of the important physical examples of nonlinear modes in such structures is the so-called supersolitons, localized excitations of the density of a vortex lattice propagating in a system of interacting (parallel) long Josephson junctions. We show that the dynamics of these structures may be described by the so-called sine-lattice (SL) equation first introduced by S. Takeno and S. Homma [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 55 (1986) 65] and its various generalizations, e.g. those which include a transverse degree of freedom or more general types of the interlayer (nonlinear) interactions described by periodic Jacobi elliptic functions. We analyze nonlinear localized waves in such generalized SL equations analytically and numerically, and show that, in general, density waves may be of three types, namely kinks, dynamical solitons, and envelope solitons. We investigate also the transverse stability of quasi-one-dimensional solitons in the framework of the effective modified Boussinesq equation valid for both small amplitudes and continuous approximation, as well as investigate numerically the effects of perturbations (dissipation or point-like impurities) on the dynamics of π -kinks.

  7. Turbulent boundary layer control through spanwise wall oscillation using Kagome lattice structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, James; Santer, Matthew; Morrison, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    It is well established that a reduction in skin-friction and turbulence intensity can be achieved by applying in-plane spanwise forcing to a surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer. It has also been shown in DNS (M. Quadrio, P. Ricco, & C. Viotti; J. Fluid Mech; 627, 161, 2009), that this phenomenon is significantly enhanced when the forcing takes the form of a streamwise travelling wave of spanwise perturbation. In the present work, this type of forcing is generated by an active surface comprising a compliant structure, based on a Kagome lattice geometry, supporting a membrane skin. The structural design ensures negligible wall normal displacement while facilitating large in-plane velocities. The surface is driven pneumatically, achieving displacements of 3 mm approximately, at frequencies in excess of 70 Hz for a turbulent boundary layer at Reτ ~ 1000 . As the influence of this forcing on boundary layer is highly dependent on the wavenumber and frequency of the travelling wave, a flat surface was designed and optimised to allow these forcing parameters to be varied, without reconfiguration of the experiment. Simultaneous measurements of the fluid and surface motion are presented, and notable skin-friction drag reduction is demonstrated. Airbus support agreement IW202838 is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Substrate/layer interface of amorphous-carbon hard coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, O.; Cebollada, A.; Yang, S.; Teer, D. G.; Albella, J. M.; Román, E.

    2000-08-01

    A combined study of the crystalline structure, the chemical interaction, and diffusion processes of the substrate/layer interface of amorphous-carbon hard coatings is presented. The structure of the coatings and their gradient layer interface to a chromium buffer layer has been investigated on two substrates [Si(100) and tool steel] using x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical interaction and diffusion processes at the interfaces and within the layers were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy depth profiles. The chromium buffer layer revealed similar textured structure on both substrates. The subsequent gradient layer was determined (within XRD limits) to be amorphous and composed of an amorphous-carbon and chromium-carbide composite. The chromium carbide maintains the same stoichiometry (Cr3C2), regardless of the gradually changing chromium content. No large-scale interdiffusion was measured, either between or within the layers.

  9. Intrinsic half-metallicity in fractal carbon nitride honeycomb lattices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aizhu; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-09-14

    Fractals are natural phenomena that exhibit a repeating pattern "exactly the same at every scale or nearly the same at different scales". Defect-free molecular fractals were assembled successfully in a recent work [Shang et al., Nature Chem., 2015, 7, 389-393]. Here, we adopted the feature of a repeating pattern in searching two-dimensional (2D) materials with intrinsic half-metallicity and high stability that are desirable for spintronics applications. Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the electronic properties of fractal frameworks of carbon nitrides have stable ferromagnetism accompanied by half-metallicity, which are highly dependent on the fractal structure. The ferromagnetism increases gradually with the increase of fractal order. The Curie temperature of these metal-free systems estimated from Monte Carlo simulations is considerably higher than room temperature. The stable ferromagnetism, intrinsic half-metallicity, and fractal characteristics of spin distribution in the carbon nitride frameworks open an avenue for the design of metal-free magnetic materials with exotic properties. PMID:26105981

  10. Microscopic model calculations for the magnetization process of layered triangular-lattice quantum antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Marmorini, Giacomo; Danshita, Ippei

    2015-01-16

    Magnetization processes of spin-1/2 layered triangular-lattice antiferromagnets (TLAFs) under a magnetic field H are studied by means of a numerical cluster mean-field method with a scaling scheme. We find that small antiferromagnetic couplings between the layers give rise to several types of extra quantum phase transitions among different high-field coplanar phases. Especially, a field-induced first-order transition is found to occur at H≈0.7H_{s}, where H_{s} is the saturation field, as another common quantum effect of ideal TLAFs in addition to the well-established one-third plateau. Our microscopic model calculation with appropriate parameters shows excellent agreement with experiments on Ba_{3}CoSb_{2}O_{9} [T. Susuki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267201 (2013)]. Given this fact, we suggest that the Co^{2+}-based compounds may allow for quantum simulations of intriguing properties of this simple frustrated model, such as quantum criticality and supersolid states. PMID:25635561

  11. Microscopic Model Calculations for the Magnetization Process of Layered Triangular-Lattice Quantum Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Marmorini, Giacomo; Danshita, Ippei

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization processes of spin-1 /2 layered triangular-lattice antiferromagnets (TLAFs) under a magnetic field H are studied by means of a numerical cluster mean-field method with a scaling scheme. We find that small antiferromagnetic couplings between the layers give rise to several types of extra quantum phase transitions among different high-field coplanar phases. Especially, a field-induced first-order transition is found to occur at H ≈0.7 Hs, where Hs is the saturation field, as another common quantum effect of ideal TLAFs in addition to the well-established one-third plateau. Our microscopic model calculation with appropriate parameters shows excellent agreement with experiments on Ba3CoSb2O9 [T. Susuki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267201 (2013)]. Given this fact, we suggest that the Co2 + -based compounds may allow for quantum simulations of intriguing properties of this simple frustrated model, such as quantum criticality and supersolid states.

  12. Lattice Strain Mapping of Platinum Nanoparticles on Carbon and SnO2 Supports

    PubMed Central

    Daio, Takeshi; Staykov, Aleksandar; Guo, Limin; Liu, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masaki; Matthew Lyth, Stephen; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    It is extremely important to understand the properties of supported metal nanoparticles at the atomic scale. In particular, visualizing the interaction between nanoparticle and support, as well as the strain distribution within the particle is highly desirable. Lattice strain can affect catalytic activity, and therefore strain engineering via e.g. synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles or compositional segregation has been intensively studied. However, substrate-induced lattice strain has yet to be visualized directly. In this study, platinum nanoparticles decorated on graphitized carbon or tin oxide supports are investigated using spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM) coupled with geometric phase analysis (GPA). Local changes in lattice parameter are observed within the Pt nanoparticles and the strain distribution is mapped. This reveals that Pt nanoparticles on SnO2 are more highly strained than on carbon, especially in the region of atomic steps in the SnO2 lattice. These substrate-induced strain effects are also reproduced in density functional theory simulations, and related to catalytic oxygen reduction reaction activity. This study suggests that tailoring the catalytic activity of electrocatalyst nanoparticles via the strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) is possible. This technique also provides an experimental platform for improving our understanding of nanoparticles at the atomic scale. PMID:26283473

  13. Lattice Strain Mapping of Platinum Nanoparticles on Carbon and SnO2 Supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daio, Takeshi; Staykov, Aleksandar; Guo, Limin; Liu, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masaki; Matthew Lyth, Stephen; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-08-01

    It is extremely important to understand the properties of supported metal nanoparticles at the atomic scale. In particular, visualizing the interaction between nanoparticle and support, as well as the strain distribution within the particle is highly desirable. Lattice strain can affect catalytic activity, and therefore strain engineering via e.g. synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles or compositional segregation has been intensively studied. However, substrate-induced lattice strain has yet to be visualized directly. In this study, platinum nanoparticles decorated on graphitized carbon or tin oxide supports are investigated using spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM) coupled with geometric phase analysis (GPA). Local changes in lattice parameter are observed within the Pt nanoparticles and the strain distribution is mapped. This reveals that Pt nanoparticles on SnO2 are more highly strained than on carbon, especially in the region of atomic steps in the SnO2 lattice. These substrate-induced strain effects are also reproduced in density functional theory simulations, and related to catalytic oxygen reduction reaction activity. This study suggests that tailoring the catalytic activity of electrocatalyst nanoparticles via the strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) is possible. This technique also provides an experimental platform for improving our understanding of nanoparticles at the atomic scale.

  14. Lattice Strain Mapping of Platinum Nanoparticles on Carbon and SnO2 Supports.

    PubMed

    Daio, Takeshi; Staykov, Aleksandar; Guo, Limin; Liu, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masaki; Lyth, Stephen Matthew; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    It is extremely important to understand the properties of supported metal nanoparticles at the atomic scale. In particular, visualizing the interaction between nanoparticle and support, as well as the strain distribution within the particle is highly desirable. Lattice strain can affect catalytic activity, and therefore strain engineering via e.g. synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles or compositional segregation has been intensively studied. However, substrate-induced lattice strain has yet to be visualized directly. In this study, platinum nanoparticles decorated on graphitized carbon or tin oxide supports are investigated using spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM) coupled with geometric phase analysis (GPA). Local changes in lattice parameter are observed within the Pt nanoparticles and the strain distribution is mapped. This reveals that Pt nanoparticles on SnO2 are more highly strained than on carbon, especially in the region of atomic steps in the SnO2 lattice. These substrate-induced strain effects are also reproduced in density functional theory simulations, and related to catalytic oxygen reduction reaction activity. This study suggests that tailoring the catalytic activity of electrocatalyst nanoparticles via the strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) is possible. This technique also provides an experimental platform for improving our understanding of nanoparticles at the atomic scale. PMID:26283473

  15. Numerical simulation of polarization beam splitter with triangular lattice of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xingxing; Yun, Maojin; Wang, Mei; Liu, Chao; Li, Kai; Qin, Xiheng; Kong, Weijin; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-12-01

    A kind of polarization beam splitter with triangular lattice of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays is designed and simulated. In the employed structure transverse-electric (TE) light is confined in the line defect with photonic band gap effect, while transverse-magnetic (TM) light is guided through it with extremely low diffraction. The performance of the designed polarization beam splitter is evaluated by utilizing optical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, finite element modeling of wave propagation and transmission through periodic arrays. Simulation results indicate that the designed polarization beam splitter has low loss and less cross talk, and thereby may have practical applications in the integrated optical field.

  16. Carbon additives for electrical double layer capacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarth, D.; Cericola, D.; Mornaghini, F. C. F.; Hucke, T.; Kötz, R.

    2014-11-01

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are inherently high power devices when compared to rechargeable batteries. While capacitance and energy storage ability are mainly increased by optimizing the electrode active material or the electrolyte, the power capability could be improved by including conductive additives in the electrode formulations. This publication deals with the use of four different carbon additives - two carbon blacks and two graphites - in standard activated carbon based EDLC electrodes. The investigations include: (i) physical characterization of carbon powder mixtures such as surface area, press density, and electrical resistivity measurements, and (ii), electrochemical characterization via impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry of full cells made with electrodes containing 5 wt.% of carbon additive and compared to cells made with pure activated carbon electrodes in organic electrolyte. Improved cell performance was observed in both impedance and cyclic voltammetry responses. The results are discussed considering the main characteristics of the different carbon additives, and important considerations about electrode structure and processability are drawn.

  17. Role of lattice structure and low temperature resistivity in fast-electron-beam filamentation in carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dance, R. J.; Butler, N. M. H.; Gray, R. J.; MacLellan, D. A.; Rusby, D. R.; Scott, G. G.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Xu, H.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Neely, D.; McKenna, P.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of low temperature (eV to tens-of-eV) electrical resistivity on the onset of the filamentation instability in fast-electron transport is investigated in targets comprising of layers of ordered (diamond) and disordered (vitreous) carbon. It is shown experimentally and numerically that the thickness of the disordered carbon layer influences the degree of filamentation of the fast-electron beam. Strong filamentation is produced if the thickness is of the order of 60 μm or greater, for an electron distribution driven by a sub-picosecond, mid-1020 Wcm‑2 laser pulse. It is shown that the position of the vitreous carbon layer relative to the fast-electron source (where the beam current density and background temperature are highest) does not have a strong effect because the resistive filamentation growth rate is high in disordered carbon over a wide range of temperatures up to the Spitzer regime.

  18. Dynamic behaviors of liquid droplets on a gas diffusion layer surface: Hybrid lattice Boltzmann investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Huang, Jun-Jie

    2015-07-01

    Water management is one of the key issues in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Fundamentally, it is related to dynamic behaviors of droplets on a gas diffusion layer (GDL) surface, and consequently they are investigated in this work. A two-dimensional hybrid method is employed to implement numerical simulations, in which the flow field is solved by using the lattice Boltzmann method and the interface between droplet and gas is captured by solving the Cahn-Hilliard equation directly. One or two liquid droplets are initially placed on the GDL surface of a gas channel, which is driven by the fully developed Poiseuille flow. At a fixed channel size, the effects of viscosity ratio of droplet to gas ( μ ∗ ), Capillary number (Ca, ratio of gas viscosity to surface tension), and droplet interaction on the dynamic behaviors of droplets are systematically studied. By decreasing viscosity ratio or increasing Capillary number, the single droplet can detach from the GDL surface easily. On the other hand, when two identical droplets stay close to each other or a larger droplet is placed in front of a smaller droplet, the removal of two droplets is promoted.

  19. Carbon vaporization into a nonequilibrium, stagnation-point boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, T.

    1978-01-01

    The heat transfer to the stagnation point of an ablating carbonaceous heat shield, where both the gas-phase boundary layer and the heterogeneous surface reactions are not in chemical equilibrium, is examined. Specifically, the nonequilibrium changes in the mass fraction profiles of carbon species calculated for frozen flow are studied. A set of equations describing the steady-state, nonequilibrium laminar boundary layer in the axisymmetric stagnation region, over an ablating graphite surface, is solved, with allowance for the effects of finite rate of carbon vaporization.

  20. Lattice-mismatched In(0. 40)Al(0. 60)As window layers for indium phosphide solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.K.; Landis, G.A.; Wilt, D.M.; Flood, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    The efficiency of indium phosphide (InP) solar cells is limited by its high surface recombination velocity (approximately 10(exp 7) cm/s). This might be reduced by a wide-bandgap window layer. The performance of InP solar cells with wide-bandgap (1.8 eV) lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As as a window layer was calculated. Because the required window layer thickness is less than the critical layer thickness, growth of strained (pseudomorphic) layers without interfacial misfit dislocations should be possible. Calculations using the PC-lD numerical code showed that the efficiencies of baseline and optimized p(+)n (p-on-n) cells are increased to more than 22 and 24 percent, (air mass zero (AMO), 25 C), respectively for a lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As window layer of 10-nm thickness. Currently, most cell development work has been focused on n(+)p (n-on-p) structures although comparatively little improvement has been found for n(+)p cells.

  1. Lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As window layers for indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Wilt, David M.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of indium phosphide (InP) solar cells is limited by its high surface recombination velocity (approximately 10(exp 7) cm/s). This might be reduced by a wide-bandgap window layer. The performance of InP solar cells with wide-bandgap (1.8 eV) lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As as a window layer was calculated. Because the required window layer thickness is less than the critical layer thickness, growth of strained (pseudomorphic) layers without interfacial misfit dislocations should be possible. Calculations using the PC-lD numerical code showed that the efficiencies of baseline and optimized p(+)n (p-on-n) cells are increased to more than 22 and 24 percent, (air mass zero (AMO), 25 C), respectively for a lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As window layer of 10-nm thickness. Currently, most cell development work has been focused on n(+)p (n-on-p) structures although comparatively little improvement has been found for n(+)p cells.

  2. Plasma polymerized thin coating as a protective layer of carbon nanotubes grafted on carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einig, A.; Rumeau, P.; Desrousseaux, S.; Magga, Y.; Bai, J. B.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles addition is widely studied to improve properties of carbon fiber reinforced composites. Here, hybrid carbon fiber results from grafting of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on the carbon fiber for mechanical reinforcement and conductive properties. Both tows and woven fabrics made of the hybrid fibers are added to the matrix for composite processing. However handling hybrid fibers may induce unwilling health risk due to eventual CNT release and a protective layer is required. A thin coating layer is deposited homogeneously by low pressure plasma polymerization of an organic monomer without modifying the morphology and the organization of grafted CNTs. The polymeric layer effect on the electrical behavior of hybrid fiber is assessed by conductivity measurements. Its influence on the mechanical properties is also studied regarding the interface adhesion between fiber and matrix. The protective role of layer is demonstrated by means of friction constraints applied to the hybrid fiber.

  3. Carbon transport in the bottom boundary layer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Y.C.

    1998-10-05

    This report summarizes the activities and findings from a field experiment devised to estimate the rates and mechanisms of transport of carbon across the continental shelves. The specific site chosen for the experiment was the mid-Atlantic Bight, a region off the North Carolina coast. The experiment involved a large contingent of scientists from many institutions. The specific component of the program was the transport of carbon in the bottom boundary layer. The postulate mechanisms of transport of carbon in the bottom boundary layer are: resuspension and advection, downward deposition, and accumulation. The high turbulence levels in the bottom boundary layer require the understanding of the coupling between turbulence and bottom sediments. The specific issues addressed in the work reported here were: (a) What is the sediment response to forcing by currents and waves? (b) What is the turbulence climate in the bottom boundary layer at this site? and (c) What is the rate at which settling leads to carbon sequestering in bottom sediments at offshore sites?

  4. Energy dissipation in intercalated carbon nanotube forests with metal layers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests were synthesized to study their quasi-static mechanical properties in a layered configuration with metallization. The top and bottom surfaces of CNT forests were metalized with Ag, Fe, and In using paste, sputtering, and thermal evaporation, respectiv...

  5. Self-assembled two-dimensional protein arrays in bionanotechnology: from S-layers to designed lattices.

    PubMed

    Baneyx, François; Matthaei, James F

    2014-08-01

    Although the crystalline S-layer arrays that form the exoskeleton of many archaea and bacteria have been studied for decades, a long-awaited crystal structure coupled with a growing understanding of the S-layer assembly process are injecting new excitement in the field. The trend is amplified by computational strategies that allow for in silico design of protein building blocks capable of self-assembling into 2D lattices and other prescribed quaternary structures. We review these and other recent developments toward achieving unparalleled control over the geometry, chemistry and function of protein-based 2D objects from the nanoscale to the mesoscale. PMID:24832073

  6. Carbon and nitrogen abundances determined from transition layer lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika; Mena-Werth, Jose

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of determining relative carbon, nitrogen, and silicon abundances from the emission-line fluxes in the lower transition layers between stellar chromospheres and coronae is explored. Observations for main-sequence and luminosity class IV stars with presumably solar element abundances show that for the lower transition layers Em = BT sup -gamma. For a given carbon abundance the constants gamma and B in this relation can be determined from the C II and C IV emission-line fluxes. From the N V and S IV lines, the abundances of these elements relative to carbon can be determined from their surface emission-line fluxes. Ratios of N/C abundances determined in this way for some giants and supergiants agree within the limits of errors with those determined from molecular bands. For giants, an increase in the ratio of N/C at B-V of about 0.8 is found, as expected theoretically.

  7. Lattice constants of pure methane and carbon dioxide hydrates at low temperatures. Implementing quantum corrections to classical molecular dynamics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K.; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Stubos, Athanassios K.; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a simple correction to the calculation of the lattice constants of fully occupied structure sI methane or carbon dioxide pure hydrates that are obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations using the TIP4PQ/2005 water force field. The obtained corrected lattice constants are subsequently used in order to obtain isobaric thermal expansion coefficients of the pure gas hydrates that exhibit a trend that is significantly closer to the experimental behavior than previously reported classical molecular dynamics studies.

  8. Energy dissipation in intercalated carbon nanotube forests with metal layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddu, Veera M.; Brenner, Matthew W.

    2016-02-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests were synthesized to study their quasi-static mechanical properties in a layered configuration with metallization. The top and bottom surfaces of CNT forests were metalized with Ag, Fe, and In using paste, sputtering, and thermal evaporation, respectively. Stacks of one, two, and three layers of these forests were assembled and compressed to measure their mechanical properties. The samples were strain limited to 0.7, and the results indicate that energy dissipation is approximately linear with respect to the number of layers and relatively independent of metal type. The energy per unit volume was approximately the same for all samples. Successive stacking of CNT forests reduces local buckling events, which is enhanced with a thick Ag deposition on the CNT forest surface. Young's modulus was also observed to increase as the number of layers was increased. These results are useful in the design of composite materials for high energy absorption and high stiffness applications.

  9. Effects of dislocation strain on the epitaxy of lattice-mismatched AlGaInP layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, K.; Beaton, D. A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Bulsara, M. T.; Fitzgerald, E. A.

    2014-04-01

    Strain fields arising from a non-uniform distribution of misfit dislocations in an underlying compositionally graded buffer are shown to be sufficiently strong to modify indium incorporation in III-phosphide light emitting layers. Composition fluctuations (xIn±0.02) in lattice-mismatched (AlyGa1-y)xIn1-xP thin films with length-scales of 5-10 μm and a broadened light emission spectra are observed. Cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence and wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopies are used in this analysis to generate spatial maps of luminescence spectra and element distributions in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown films. It is seen that these fluctuations due to misfit dislocations are hard to eliminate via growth-kinetics alone but can be lowered through the use of miscut substrates or spacer layers between the graded buffer layer and the active layer. A link between crosshatch surface-roughness and group-III atom distribution under group-V rich growth conditions in both AlInP and GaInP films is also demonstrated. In summary, the interaction of the dislocation strain field with the growth surface can affect the optical characteristics of lattice-mismatched LEDs even if the final threading dislocation density is low.

  10. Persistence Length Control of the Polyelectrolyte Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S J; Artyukhin, A B; Wang, Y; Ju, J; Stroeve, P; Noy, A

    2005-04-30

    One-dimensional inorganic materials such as carbon nanotubes1 and semiconductor nanowires have been central to important advances in materials science in the last decade. Unique mechanical and electronic properties of these molecular-scale wires enabled a variety of applications ranging from novel composite materials, to electronic circuits, to new sensors. Often, these applications require non-covalent modification of carbon nanotubes with organic compounds, DNA and biomolecules, and polymers to change nanotube properties or to add new functionality. We recently demonstrated a versatile and flexible strategy for non-covalent modification of carbon nanotubes using layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyelectrolytes. Researchers used this technique extensively for modification of flat surfaces, micro-, and nano-particles; however, little is known about the mechanism and the factors influencing layer-by-layer self-assembly in one-dimensional nanostructures. The exact conformation of polyelectrolyte chains deposited on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) is still unknown. There are two possible configurations: flexible polymers wrapping around the nanotube and stretched, rigid chains stacked parallel to the nanotube axis. Several factors, such as polymer rigidity, surface curvature, and strength of polymer-surface interactions, can determine the nature of assembly. Persistence length of the polymer chain should be one of the critical parameters, since it determines the chain's ability to wrap around the nanotube. Indeed, computer simulations for spherical substrates show that polymer rigidity and substrate surface curvature can influence the deposition process. Computational models also show that the persistence length of the polymer must fall below the threshold values determined by target surface curvature in order to initiate polyelectrolyte deposition process. Although these models described the effects of salt concentration and target surface curvature, they

  11. Toroidal order in a partially disordered state on a layered triangular lattice: implication to UNi4B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2015-03-01

    A partial disorder on a layered triangular lattice is theoretically investigated from a viewpoint of toroidal ordering and magnetoelectric effects. We consider an extended periodic Anderson model including a site-dependent antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling between conduction and localized electrons. We show that, by the mean-field approximation, the model exhibits a coplanar vortex-lattice-type magnetic order as observed in a hexagonal uranium compound UNi4B, in the parameter region with intermediate hybridization and electron correlation. This peculiar state accommodates a toroidal order, which leads to the linear magnetoelectric effect. We discuss the implications of our results to UNi4B, focusing on the possible source of the site-dependent antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling.

  12. Effect of compression on water transport in gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Dong Hyup; Kim, Hansang

    2015-10-01

    The effect of the compression ratio on the dynamic behavior of liquid water transport in a gas diffusion layer (GDL) is studied both experimentally and numerically. We experimentally study the emergence and growth of liquid droplets in a channel at various compression ratios by adopting a direct visualization device. The results of the experiment show that water breakthrough occurs at the channel for a low compression ratio, whereas it is observed at the channel/rib interface for a high compression ratio. To determine the mechanism of water transport in the GDL, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed for a simplified porous structure of the GDL. The observation of lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation shows that the compression ratio significantly affects the water transport in the GDL. The results indicate that the lower compression ratio reduces the water saturation in the GDL. The simulation and experimental result are similar.

  13. The reactivity of lattice carbon and nitrogen species in molybdenum (oxy)carbonitrides prepared by single-source routes

    SciTech Connect

    AlShalwi, M.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Liggat, J.J.; Todd, D.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molybdenum (oxy)carbonitrides have been prepared from single source routes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen species are more reactive than carbon species within the carbonitrides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reactivity of nitrogen species is a function of carbonitride composition. -- Abstract: Molybdenum (oxy)carbonitrides of different compositions have been prepared from hexamethylenetetramine molybdate and ethylenediamine molybdate precursors and the reactivity of the lattice carbon and nitrogen species within them has been determined by temperature programmed reduction and thermal volatilisation studies. Nitrogen is found to be much more reactive than carbon and the nature of its reactivity is influenced by composition with the presence of carbon enhancing the reactivity of nitrogen. The difference in reactivity observed indicates that molybdenum carbonitrides are not suitable candidates as reagents for which the simultaneous loss of nitrogen and carbon from the lattice would be desirable.

  14. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  15. Carbon Nanostructure Examined by Lattice Fringe Analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Street, Kenneth; Thompson, William K.; Hull, David R.

    2003-01-01

    The dimensions of graphitic layer planes directly affect the reactivity of soot towards oxidation and growth. Quantification of graphitic structure could be used to develop and test correlations between the soot nanostructure and its reactivity. Based upon transmission electron microscopy images, this paper provides a demonstration of the robustness of a fringe image analysis code for determining the level of graphitic structure within nanoscale carbon, i.e., soot. Results, in the form of histograms of graphitic layer plane lengths, are compared to their determination through Raman analysis.

  16. Carbon Nanostructure Examined by Lattice Fringe Analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Street, Kenneth; Thompson, William K.

    2002-01-01

    The dimensions of graphitic layer planes directly affect the reactivity of soot towards oxidation and growth. Quantification of graphitic structure could be used to develop and test correlations between the soot nanostructure and its reactivity. Based upon transmission electron microscopy images, this paper provides a demonstration of the robustness of a fringe image analysis code for determining the level of graphitic structure within nanoscale carbon, i.e. soot. Results, in the form of histograms of graphitic layer plane lengths, are compared to their determination through Raman analysis.

  17. Tilt-modulus enhancement of the vortex lattice in the layered superconductor 2 H -NbSe sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Koorevaar, P.; Aarts, J.; Berghuis, P.; Kes, P.H. )

    1990-07-01

    The field dependence of the pinning force has been studied in thin single crystals of the layered superconductor 2{ital H}-NbSe{sub 2} in fields directed perpendicular to the layers. At high fields a peak effect is observed which sets in at about {ital B}{sub co}{approx}0.8{ital B}{sub {ital c}2}. Below this field the pinning force agrees well with the theory of two-dimensional collective pinning. The onset of the peak is triggered by the transition to three-dimensional flux-line lattice (FLL) disorder at the field {ital B}{sub co}. Comparison of the crossover field with the criterion set by the collective-pinning theory reveals that the tilt modulus of the FLL in a layered superconductor is considerably reduced. The reduction factor corresponds very well to recent theoretical predictions. These results are of importance for the prediction of depinning and flux-line lattice melting in all kinds of anisotropic superconductors.

  18. Interaction of magnetoacoustic waves with flux-line lattice in superconducting-ferrite layered structure

    SciTech Connect

    Sayko, G.V.; Bugaev, A.S.; Popkov, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    The authors consider vortex lattice interaction with transverse surface magnetoacoustic wave in high-{Tc} superconductor-ferrite structure. It has been found that the magnetoacoustic waves excited in the ferrite can be efficiently coupled with vortex structure in superconducting film. The nonlinear effect of vortex drift as well as the possibility of the wave amplification are discussed.

  19. Layer-by-layer assembled carbon nanotube-acetylcholinesterase/biopolymer renewable interfaces: SPR and electrochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Arugula, Mary A; Kirsch, Jeffrey S; Yang, Xiaoyun; Olsen, Eric; Simonian, Aleksandr L

    2015-02-01

    Developing simple, reliable, and cost-effective methods of renewing an inhibited biocatalyst (e.g., enzymatic interfaces) on biosensors is needed to advance multiuse, reusable sensor applications. We report a method for the renewal of layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled inhibition-based enzymatic interfaces in multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) armored acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensors. The self-assembly process of MWCNT dispersed enzymes/biopolymers was investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The LbL fabrication consisted of alternating cushion layers of positively charged CNT-polyethylenimine (CNT-PEI) and negatively charged CNT-deoxyribonucleic acid (CNT-DNA) and a functional interface consisting of alternating layers of CNT-PEI and negatively charged CNT-acetylcholine esterase (CNT-AChE, pH 7.4). The observed SPR response signal increased while assembling the different layers, indicating the buildup of multiple layers on the Au surface. A partial desorption of the top enzymatic layer in the LbL structure was observed with a desorption strategy employing alkaline treatment. This indicates that the strong interaction of CNT-biopolymer conjugates with the Au surface was a result of both electrostatic interactions between biopolymers and the surface binding energy from CNTs: the closer the layers are to the Au surface, the stronger the interactions. In contrast, a similar LbL assembly of soluble enzyme/polyelectrolytes resulted in stronger desorption on the surface after the alkaline treatment; this led to the investigation of AChE layer removal, permanently inhibited after pesticide exposure on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, while keeping the cushion layers intact. The desorption strategy permitted the SPR and electrochemical electrode surfaces to be regenerated multiple times by the subsequent self-assembly of fresh PEI/AChE layers. Flow-mode electrochemical amperometric analysis demonstrated good stability toward the determination of

  20. The effect of neutron irradiation and annealing temperature on the electrical properties and lattice constant of epitaxial gallium nitride layers

    SciTech Connect

    Boyko, V. M.; Verevkin, S. S.; Kolin, N. G. Korulin, A. V.; Merkurisov, D. I.; Polyakov, A. Y.; Chevychelov, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    Effect of irradiation with high reactor-neutron fluences ({Phi} = 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17}-8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}) and subsequent heat treatments in the temperature range 100-1000 Degree-Sign C on the electrical properties and lattice constant of epitaxial GaN layers grown on an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate is considered. It is shown that, with the neutron fluence increasing to (1-2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}, the resistivity of the material grows to values of about 10{sup 10} {Omega} cm because of the formation of radiation defects, and, with the fluence raised further, the resistivity passes through a maximum and then decreases to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} {Omega} cm at 300 K, which is accounted for by the appearance of a hopping conductivity via deep defects in the overlapping outer parts of disordered regions. With the neutron fluence raised to 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}, the lattice constant c increases by 0.38% at a nearly unchanged parameter a. Heat treatment of irradiated samples at temperatures as high as 1000 Degree-Sign C does not fully restore the lattice constant and the electrical parameters of the material.

  1. Phase structure of the anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a layered triangular lattice: Spiral state and deconfined spin liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Nakane, Kazuya; Kamijo, Takeshi; Ichinose, Ikuo

    2011-02-01

    In the present paper, we study a spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic (AF) Heisenberg model on layered anisotropic triangular lattice and obtain its phase structure. We use the Schwinger bosons for representing spin operators and also a coherent-state path integral for calculating physical quantities. Finite-temperature properties of the system are investigated by means of the numerical Monte-Carlo simulations. A detailed phase diagram of the system is obtained by calculating internal energy, specific heat, spin correlation functions, etc. There are AF Neel, paramagnetic, and spiral states. Turning on the plaquette term (i.e., the Maxwell term on a lattice) of an emergent U(1) gauge field that flips a pair of parallel spin-singlet bonds, we found that there appears a phase that is regarded as a deconfined spin-liquid state, though 'transition' to this phase from the paramagnetic phase is not of second order but a crossover. In that phase, the emergent gauge boson is a physical gapless excitation coupled with spinons. These results support our previous study on an AF Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice at vanishing temperature.

  2. Selective Oxidation of Amorphous Carbon Layers without Damaging Embedded Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Chul; Lim, Seong Chu

    2013-11-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were synthesized by arc discharge, and then purified by selective oxidation of amorphous carbon layers that were found to encase SWCNT bundles and catalyst metal particles. In order to remove selectively the amorphous carbon layers with SWCNTs being intact, we have systematically investigated the thermal treatment conditions; firstly, setting the temperature by measuring the activation energies of SWCNTs and amorphous carbon layers, and then, secondly, finding the optimal process time. As a consequence, the optimal temperature and time for the thermal treatment was found to be 460 °C and 20 min, respectively. The complete elimination of surrounding amorphous carbon layers makes it possible to efficiently disperse the SWCNT bundles, resulting in high absorbance of SWCNT-ink. The SWCNTs which were thermal-treated at optimized temperature (460 °C) and duration (20 min) showed much better crystallinity, dispersibility, and transparent conducting properties, compared with as-synthesized and the nanotubes thermal-treated at different experimental conditions.

  3. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1999-08-10

    A novel field emitter device is disclosed for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials. 8 figs.

  4. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas A.

    1999-01-01

    A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

  5. Layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly of single-wall carbon nanotube polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Paloniemi, Hanna; Lukkarinen, Marjo; Aäritalo, Timo; Areva, Sami; Leiro, Jarkko; Heinonen, Markku; Haapakka, Keijo; Lukkari, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    We have used anionic and cationic single-wall carbon nanotube polyelectrolytes (SWNT-PEs), prepared by the noncovalent adsorption of ionic naphthalene or pyrene derivatives on nanotube sidewalls, for the layer-by-layer self-assembly to prepare multilayers from carbon nanotubes with polycations, such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium) or poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PDADMA or PAH, respectively), and polyanions (poly(styrenesulfonate), PSS). This is a general and powerful technique for the fabrication of thin carbon nanotube films of arbitrary composition and architecture and allows also an easy preparation of all-SWNT (SWNT/SWNT) multilayers. The multilayers were characterized with vis-near-IR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and imaging ellipsometry. The charge compensation in multilayers is mainly intrinsic, which shows the electrostatic nature of the self-assembly process. The multilayer growth is linear after the initial layers, and in SWNT/polyelectrolyte films it can be greatly accelerated by increasing the ionic strength in the SWNT solution. However, SWNT/SWNT multilayers are much more inert to the effect of added electrolyte. In SWNT/SWNT multilayers, the adsorption results in the deposition of 1-3 theoretical nanotube monolayers per adsorbed layer, whereas the nominal SWNT layer thickness is 2-3 times higher in SWNT/polyelectrolyte films prepared with added electrolyte. AFM images show that the multilayers contain a random network of nanotube bundles lying on the surface. Flexible polyelectrolytes (e.g., PDADMA, PSS) probably surround the nanotubes and bind them together. On macroscopic scale, the surface roughness of the multilayers depends on the components and increases with the film thickness. PMID:16378403

  6. Carbon transport in the bottom boundary layer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrenz, S.E.; Asper, V.L.

    1997-09-01

    The authors objective was to characterize distributions of chloropigment fluorescence in relation to physical processes in the benthic boundary layer in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Ocean Margins Program`s (OMP) goal of quantifying carbon transport across the continental shelf. Their approach involved participation in the Ocean Margins Program (OMP) field experiment on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras by conducting multi-sensor fluorescence measurements of photosynthetic pigments. Specific tasks included (1) pre- and post-deployment calibration of multiple fluorescence sensors in conjunction with Woods Hole personnel; (2) collection and analysis of photosynthetic pigment concentrations and total particulate carbon in water column samples to aid in interpretation of the fluorescence time-series during the field experiment; (3) collaboration in the analysis and interpretation of 1994 and 1996 time-series data in support of efforts to quantify pigment and particulate organic carbon transport on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras. This third component included analysis of data obtained with a multi-sensor fiber-optic fluorometer in the benthic boundary layer of the inner shelf off Cape Hatteras during summer 1994.

  7. Analysis of alignment effect on carbon nanotube layer in nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Preeti; Upadhyay, S. H.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, effect of various alignments of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) in composite is evaluated for axial, lateral and through plane properties. Layers of DWCNTs are incorporated in the matrix. Four models with different layer combinations are analysed using 3D representative volume element. The highest value of axial modulus is observed for composite in which DWCNTs are aligned in direction of loading. Enhancement in lateral stiffness is observed for the models in which layers are aligned in plane perpendicular direction. Through plane stiffness is improved in vertically aligned DWCNT composite. It is observed that both axial and lateral moduli of composite behave non-linearly with respect to DWCNT volume fraction. This is because of the effect of agglomeration, due to the higher content of DWCNT in the composite. The proposed simulation is based on the experimentally adopted alignment of carbon nanotubes. DWCNT based composites with specific properties along various directions can be designed by controlling the volume fractions and alignment of the DWCNT sheets.

  8. Application of continuum percolation theory for modeling single- and two-phase characteristics of anisotropic carbon paper gas diffusion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Cheng, Ping

    2016-03-01

    Percolation theory is used to model intrinsic and relative permeabilities as well as tortuosity in anisotropic carbon paper gas diffusion layers (GDL) and compared with existing results from lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations and experimental measurements. Although single- and two-phase characteristics of the carbon paper GDL are mainly affected by medium geometrical and topological properties, e.g., pore-size distribution, connectivity, and pore geometry, analyzing capillary pressure curves implies that the pore-size distribution of the carbon paper GDL is very narrow. This suggests that its effect on tortuosity and wetting- and nonwetting-phase relative permeabilities is trivial. However, integrated effects of pore geometry, surface area, connectivity, and tortuosity on intrinsic permeability might be substantial. Universal power laws from percolation theory predict the tortuosity-porosity and relative permeability-saturation curves accurately, indicating both characteristics not affected by the pore-size distribution. The permeability-porosity relationship, however, conforms to nonuniversality.

  9. Toward a stabilized lattice framework and surface structure of layered lithium-rich cathode materials with Ti modification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sihui; Li, Yixiao; Wu, Jue; Zheng, Bizhu; McDonald, Matthew J; Yang, Yong

    2015-04-21

    Layered lithium-rich oxides have several serious shortcomings such as fast voltage fading and poor cyclic stability of energy density which greatly hinder their practical applications. Fabrication of a stable framework of layered lithium-rich oxides during charging-discharging is crucial for addressing the above problems. In this work, we show that Ti modification is a promising way to realize this target with bifunctional roles. For example, it is able to substitute Mn in the lattice framework and form a stable surface layer. It therefore leads to an improved retention of energy density of the Ti-modified Li1.2Mn0.54-xTixNi0.13Co0.13O2 (x = 0.04, 0.08, and 0.15) materials during cycling. The evolution of dQ/dV curves show that the layered/spinel phase transformation is suppressed owing to the introduction of strong Ti-O bonds in the framework. In addition, SEM, TEM, and EIS results confirm that a more uniform and stable interface layer is formed on Ti-modified Li1.2Mn0.54-xTixNi0.13Co0.13O2 (x = 0.04, 0.08, and 0.15) materials compared with the Ti-free counterpart. The stable interface layer on the lithium-rich oxides is also beneficial for further reducing side reactions, resulting in stable interface layer resistance. Therefore, the improved cycling performance of the material is due to both contribution of the more stable framework and enhanced electrode/electrolyte interface by Ti modification. PMID:25790778

  10. Electrophoretic Deposition of Carbon Nitride Layers for Photoelectrochemical Applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingsan; Shalom, Menny

    2016-05-25

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is used for the growth of carbon nitride (C3N4) layers on conductive substrates. EPD is fast, environmentally friendly, and allows the deposition of negatively charged C3N4 with different compositions and chemical properties. In this method, C3N4 can be deposited on various conductive substrates ranging from conductive glass and carbon paper to nickel foam possessing complex 3D geometries. The high flexibility of this approach enables us to readily tune the photophysical and photoelectronic properties of the C3N4 electrodes. The advantage of this method was further illustrated by the tailored construction of a heterostructure between two complementary C3N4, with marked photoelectrochemical activity. PMID:27148889

  11. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-02-21

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively.

  12. Ultralight anisotropic foams from layered aligned carbon nanotube sheets.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Shaghayegh; Stano, Kelly L; Yildiz, Ozkan; Li, Ang; Zhu, Yuntian; Bradford, Philip D

    2015-10-28

    In this work, we present large scale, ultralight aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) structures which have densities an order of magnitude lower than CNT arrays, have tunable properties and exhibit resiliency after compression. By stacking aligned sheets of carbon nanotubes and then infiltrating with a pyrolytic carbon (PyC), resilient foam-like materials were produced that exhibited complete recovery from 90% compressive strain. With density as low as 3.8 mg cm(-3), the foam structure is over 500 times less dense than bulk graphite. Microscopy revealed that PyC coated the junctions among CNTs, and also increased CNT surface roughness. These changes in the morphology explain the transition from inelastic behavior to foam-like recovery of the layered CNT sheet structure. Mechanical and thermal properties of the foams were tuned for different applications through variation of PyC deposition duration while dynamic mechanical analysis showed no change in mechanical properties over a large temperature range. Observation of a large and linear electrical resistance change during compression of the aligned CNT/carbon (ACNT/C) foams makes strain/pressure sensors a relevant application. The foams have high oil absorption capacities, up to 275 times their own weight, which suggests they may be useful in water treatment and oil spill cleanup. Finally, the ACNT/C foam's high porosity, surface area and stability allow for demonstration of the foams as catalyst support structures. PMID:26419855

  13. Optically transparent carbon nanotube film electrode for thin layer spectroelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Daoli; Alvarez, Noe; Shanov, Vesselin N; Heineman, William R

    2015-10-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) film was evaluated as an optically transparent electrode (OTE) for thin layer spectroelectrochemistry. Chemically inert CNT arrays were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using thin films of Fe and Co as catalysts. Vertically aligned CNT arrays were drawn onto a quartz slide to form CNT films that constituted the OTE. Adequate conductivity and transparency make this material a good OTE for spectroelectrochemistry. These properties could be varied by the number of layers of CNTs used to form the OTE. Detection in the UV/near UV region down to 200 nm can be achieved using these transparent CNT films on quartz. The OTE was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and thin layer spectroelectrochemistry. Ferricyanide, tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) chloride, and cytochrome c were used as representative redox probes for thin layer spectroelectrochemistry using the CNT film OTE, and the results correlated well with their known properties. Direct electron transfer of cytochrome c was achieved on the CNT film electrode. PMID:26291731

  14. Carbon sequestration via aqueous olivine mineral carbonation: role of passivating layer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdallah Bearat; Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Deirdre Gormley; Ryan Nunez; R.W. Carpenter; Kyle Squires; George H. Wolf

    2006-08-01

    CO{sub 2} sequestration via carbonation of widely available low-cost minerals, such as olivine, can permanently dispose of CO{sub 2} in an environmentally benign and a geologically stable form. The paper reports the results of studies of the mechanisms that limit aqueous olivine carbonation reactivity under the optimum sequestration reaction conditions observed to date: 1 M NaCl + 0.64 M NaHCO{sub 3} at T {approx} 185{sup o}C and P{sub CO{sub 2}} {approx} 135 bar. A reaction limiting silica-rich passivating layer (PL) forms on the feedstock grains, slowing carbonate formation and raising process cost. The morphology and composition of the passivating layers are investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and atomic level modeling. Postreaction analysis of feedstock particles, recovered from stirred autoclave experiments at 1500 rpm, provides unequivocal evidence of local mechanical removal (chipping) of PL material, suggesting particle abrasion. This is corroborated by the observation that carbonation increases dramatically with solid particle concentration in stirred experiments. Multiphase hydrodynamic calculations are combined with experiment to better understand the associated slurry-flow effects. Large-scale atomic-level simulations of the reaction zone suggest that the PL possesses a 'glassy' but highly defective SiO{sub 2} structure that can permit diffusion of key reactants. Mitigating passivating layer effectiveness is critical to enhancing carbonation and lowering sequestration process cost. 30 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of electrostatic double layer interaction force for nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Grace X.; Jin, Yan; Lazouskaya, Volha; Wang, Chao; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2011-11-01

    Modeling the transport and retention of nanoparticles (NPs) through soil porous media requires an accurate description of the electrostatic interaction force between a nanoparticle and soil grain. In this study, we apply the lattice Boltzmann method to directly solve the nonlinear Poisson Boltzmann (PB) equation for several geometric configurations including plate-plate, NP-plate, and NP-NP interactions, for any surface potentials and interaction distances and for different boundary conditions. Interaction energy and force are then derived from the simulations. For the case of plate-plate interaction, the simulation results are compared to the exact solution of the nonlinear PB equation. It is shown that the linear PB solution is valid when the nondimensional surface potential is less than one, and that the linear PB solution over-predicts the interaction force for intermediate gap distances but under-predicts the force for small gap distances. For NP-plate and NP-NP interactions, an axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann formulation is developed to solve the governing equations. The results will be compared to the classic approximate expressions of interaction force to evaluate their validity and to study the effect of nanoparticle size. Work supported by NSF and USDA.

  16. Lattice constants of pure methane and carbon dioxide hydrates at low temperatures. Implementing quantum corrections to classical molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G

    2016-03-28

    We introduce a simple correction to the calculation of the lattice constants of fully occupied structure sI methane or carbon dioxide pure hydrates that are obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations using the TIP4PQ/2005 water force field. The obtained corrected lattice constants are subsequently used in order to obtain isobaric thermal expansion coefficients of the pure gas hydrates that exhibit a trend that is significantly closer to the experimental behavior than previously reported classical molecular dynamics studies. PMID:27036466

  17. Anomalous Lattice Vibrations of Single- and Few-Layer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changgu; Yan, Hugen; Brus, Louis; Heinz, Tony; Hone, James; Ryu, Sunmin

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) of single- and few-layer thickness was exfoliated on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate and characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The number of S−Mo−S layers of the samples was independently determined by contact-mode atomic force microscopy. Two Raman modes, E{sup 1}{sub 2g} and A{sub 1g}, exhibited sensitive thickness dependence, with the frequency of the former decreasing and that of the latter increasing with thickness. The results provide a convenient and reliable means for determining layer thickness with atomic-level precision. The opposite direction of the frequency shifts, which cannot be explained solely by van der Waals interlayer coupling, is attributed to Coulombic interactions and possible stacking-induced changes of the intralayer bonding. This work exemplifies the evolution of structural parameters in layered materials in changing from the three-dimensional to the two-dimensional regime.

  18. Generation of a functional monomolecular protein lattice consisting of an s-layer fusion protein comprising the variable domain of a camel heavy chain antibody.

    PubMed

    Pleschberger, Magdalena; Neubauer, Angela; Egelseer, Eva M; Weigert, Stefan; Lindner, Brigitte; Sleytr, Uwe B; Muyldermans, Serge; Sára, Margit

    2003-01-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layer (S-layer) proteins are composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species. Isolated S-layer subunits frequently recrystallize into monomolecular protein lattices on various types of solid supports. For generating a functional protein lattice, a chimeric protein was constructed, which comprised the secondary cell wall polymer-binding region and the self-assembly domain of the S-layer protein SbpA from Bacillus sphaericus CCM 2177, and a single variable region of a heavy chain camel antibody (cAb-Lys3) recognizing lysozyme as antigen. For construction of the S-layer fusion protein, the 3'-end of the sequence encoding the C-terminally truncated form rSbpA(31)(-)(1068) was fused via a short linker to the 5'-end of the sequence encoding cAb-Lys3. The functionality of the fused cAb-Lys3 in the S-layer fusion protein was proved by surface plasmon resonance measurements. Dot blot assays revealed that the accessibility of the fused functional sequence for the antigen was independent of the use of soluble or assembled S-layer fusion protein. Recrystallization of the S-layer fusion protein into the square lattice structure was observed on peptidoglycan-containing sacculi of B. sphaericus CCM 2177, on polystyrene or on gold chips precoated with thiolated secondary cell wall polymer, which is the natural anchoring molecule for the S-layer protein in the bacterial cell wall. Thereby, the fused cAb-Lys3 remained located on the outer S-layer surface and accessible for lysozyme binding. Together with solid supports precoated with secondary cell wall polymers, S-layer fusion proteins comprising rSbpA(31)(-)(1068) and cAbs directed against various antigens shall be exploited for building up monomolecular functional protein lattices as required for applications in nanobiotechnology. PMID:12643755

  19. Ab initio lattice dynamics and thermochemistry of layered bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurhelle, Alexander F.; Deringer, Volker L.; Stoffel, Ralf P.; Dronskowski, Richard

    2016-03-01

    We present density-functional theory calculations of the lattice dynamics of bismuth telluride, yielding force constants, mean-square displacements and partial densities of phonon states which corroborate and complement previous nuclear inelastic scattering experiments. From these data, we derive an element- and energy-resolved view of the vibrational anharmonicity, quantified by the macroscopic Grüneisen parameter γ which results in 1.56. Finally, we calculate thermochemical properties in the quasiharmonic approximation, especially the heat capacity at constant pressure and the enthalpy of formation for bismuth telluride; the latter arrives at ▵H f (Bi2Te3)  =  -102 kJ mol-1 at 298 K.

  20. Ab initio lattice dynamics and thermochemistry of layered bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3).

    PubMed

    Zurhelle, Alexander F; Deringer, Volker L; Stoffel, Ralf P; Dronskowski, Richard

    2016-03-23

    We present density-functional theory calculations of the lattice dynamics of bismuth telluride, yielding force constants, mean-square displacements and partial densities of phonon states which corroborate and complement previous nuclear inelastic scattering experiments. From these data, we derive an element- and energy-resolved view of the vibrational anharmonicity, quantified by the macroscopic Grüneisen parameter γ which results in 1.56. Finally, we calculate thermochemical properties in the quasiharmonic approximation, especially the heat capacity at constant pressure and the enthalpy of formation for bismuth telluride; the latter arrives at ΔHf (Bi2Te3)  =  -102 kJ mol(-1) at 298 K. PMID:26894844

  1. Active Layer Soil Carbon and Nutrient Mineralization, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stan D. Wullschleger; Holly M. Vander Stel; Colleen Iversen; Victoria L. Sloan; Richard J. Norby; Mallory P. Ladd; Jason K. Keller; Ariane Jong; Joanne Childs; Deanne J. Brice

    2015-10-29

    This data set consists of bulk soil characteristics as well as carbon and nutrient mineralization rates of active layer soils manually collected from the field in August, 2012, frozen, and then thawed and incubated across a range of temperatures in the laboratory for 28 day periods in 2013-2015. The soils were collected from four replicate polygons in each of the four Areas (A, B, C, and D) of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Soil samples were coincident with the established Vegetation Plots that are located in center, edge, and trough microtopography in each polygon. Data included are 1) bulk soil characteristics including carbon, nitrogen, gravimetric water content, bulk density, and pH in 5-cm depth increments and also by soil horizon, 2) carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization rates for soil horizons incubated aerobically (and in one case both aerobically and anaerobically) for 28 days at temperatures that included 2, 4, 8, and 12 degrees C. Additional soil and incubation data are forthcoming. They will be available when published as part of another paper that includes additional replicate analyses.

  2. Lattice-matched HfN buffer layers for epitaxy of GaN on Si

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, Robert; Yang, Qing; Feick, Henning; Gebauer, Joerg; Weber, Eicke R.; Shinkai, Satoko; Sasaki, Katsutaka

    2002-05-08

    Gallium nitride is grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (111) and (001) silicon substrates using sputter-deposited hafnium nitride buffer layers. Wurtzite GaN epitaxial layers are obtained on both the (111) and (001) HfN/Si surfaces, with crack-free thickness up to 1.2 (mu)m. Initial results for GaN grown on the (111) surface show a photoluminescence peak width of 17 meV at 11 K, and an asymmetric x-ray rocking curve width of 20 arcmin. Wurtzite GaN on HfN/Si(001) shows reduced structural quality and peculiar low-temperature luminescence features. However, growth on the (001) surface results in nearly stress-free films, suggesting that much thicker crack-free layers could be obtained.

  3. High quality InAlN single layers lattice-matched to GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Gacevic, Z.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Calleja, E.; Estrade, S.

    2011-07-18

    We report on properties of high quality {approx}60 nm thick InAlN layers nearly in-plane lattice-matched to GaN, grown on c-plane GaN-on-sapphire templates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Excellent crystalline quality and low surface roughness are confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. High annular dark field observations reveal a periodic in-plane indium content variation (8 nm period), whereas optical measurements evidence certain residual absorption below the band-gap. The indium fluctuation is estimated to be {+-} 1.2% around the nominal 17% indium content via plasmon energy oscillations assessed by electron energy loss spectroscopy with sub-nanometric spatial resolution.

  4. Carbon Doping of Compound Semiconductor Epitaxial Layers Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Carbon Tetrachloride.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A dilute mixture of CCl_4 in high purity H_2 has been used as a carbon dopant source for rm Al_ {x}Ga_{1-x}As grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). To understand the mechanism for carbon incorporation from CCl_4 doping and to provide experimental parameters for the growth of carbon doped device structures, the effects of various crystal growth parameters on CCl _4 doping have been studied, including growth temperature, growth rate, V/III ratio, Al composition, and CCl_4 flow rate. Although CCl _4 is an effective p-type dopant for MOCVD rm Al_{x}Ga_ {1-x}As, injection of CCl_4 into the reactor during growth of InP resulted in no change in the carrier concentration or carbon concentration. Abrupt, heavy carbon doping spikes in GaAs have been obtained using CCl_4 without a dopant memory effect. By annealing samples with carbon doping spikes grown within undoped, n-type, and p-type GaAs, the carbon diffusion coefficient in GaAs at 825 ^circC has been estimated and has been found to depend strongly on the GaAs background doping. Heavily carbon doped rm Al_{x}Ga _{1-x}As/GaAs superlattices have been found to be more stable against impurity induced layer disordering (IILD) than Mg or Zn doped superlattices, indicating that the low carbon diffusion coefficient limits the IILD process. Carbon doping has been used in the base region on an Npn AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Transistors with 3 x 10 μm self-aligned emitter fingers have been fabricated which exhibit a current gain cutoff frequency of f_ {rm t} = 26 GHz.

  5. Ultralight anisotropic foams from layered aligned carbon nanotube sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Shaghayegh; L. Stano, Kelly; Yildiz, Ozkan; Li, Ang; Zhu, Yuntian; Bradford, Philip D.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we present large scale, ultralight aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) structures which have densities an order of magnitude lower than CNT arrays, have tunable properties and exhibit resiliency after compression. By stacking aligned sheets of carbon nanotubes and then infiltrating with a pyrolytic carbon (PyC), resilient foam-like materials were produced that exhibited complete recovery from 90% compressive strain. With density as low as 3.8 mg cm-3, the foam structure is over 500 times less dense than bulk graphite. Microscopy revealed that PyC coated the junctions among CNTs, and also increased CNT surface roughness. These changes in the morphology explain the transition from inelastic behavior to foam-like recovery of the layered CNT sheet structure. Mechanical and thermal properties of the foams were tuned for different applications through variation of PyC deposition duration while dynamic mechanical analysis showed no change in mechanical properties over a large temperature range. Observation of a large and linear electrical resistance change during compression of the aligned CNT/carbon (ACNT/C) foams makes strain/pressure sensors a relevant application. The foams have high oil absorption capacities, up to 275 times their own weight, which suggests they may be useful in water treatment and oil spill cleanup. Finally, the ACNT/C foam's high porosity, surface area and stability allow for demonstration of the foams as catalyst support structures.In this work, we present large scale, ultralight aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) structures which have densities an order of magnitude lower than CNT arrays, have tunable properties and exhibit resiliency after compression. By stacking aligned sheets of carbon nanotubes and then infiltrating with a pyrolytic carbon (PyC), resilient foam-like materials were produced that exhibited complete recovery from 90% compressive strain. With density as low as 3.8 mg cm-3, the foam structure is over 500 times less dense than

  6. Diameter Dependence of Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Study from Ab Initio

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Sheng-Ying; Ouyang, Tao; Hu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The effects of temperature, tube length, defects, and surface functionalization on the thermal conductivity (κ) of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were well documented in literature. However, diameter dependence of thermal conductivity of SWCNTs received less attentions. So far, diverse trends of the diameter dependence have been discussed by different methods and all the previous results were based on empirical interatomic potentials. In this paper, we emphasize to clarify accurate κ values of SWCNTs with different diameters and in-plane κ of graphene. All the studies were under the framework of anharmonic lattice dynamics and Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on first principle calculations. We try to infer the right trend of diameter dependent thermal conductivity of SWCNTs. We infer that graphene is the limitation as SWCNT with an infinite diameter. We analyzed the thermal conductivity contributions from each phonon mode in SWCNTs to explain the trend. Meanwhile, we also identify the extremely low thermal conductivity of ultra-thin SWCNTs. PMID:26490342

  7. Diameter Dependence of Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Study from Ab Initio.

    PubMed

    Yue, Sheng-Ying; Ouyang, Tao; Hu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The effects of temperature, tube length, defects, and surface functionalization on the thermal conductivity (κ) of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were well documented in literature. However, diameter dependence of thermal conductivity of SWCNTs received less attentions. So far, diverse trends of the diameter dependence have been discussed by different methods and all the previous results were based on empirical interatomic potentials. In this paper, we emphasize to clarify accurate κ values of SWCNTs with different diameters and in-plane κ of graphene. All the studies were under the framework of anharmonic lattice dynamics and Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on first principle calculations. We try to infer the right trend of diameter dependent thermal conductivity of SWCNTs. We infer that graphene is the limitation as SWCNT with an infinite diameter. We analyzed the thermal conductivity contributions from each phonon mode in SWCNTs to explain the trend. Meanwhile, we also identify the extremely low thermal conductivity of ultra-thin SWCNTs. PMID:26490342

  8. Graphene coated with controllable N-doped carbon layer by molecular layer deposition as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Gao, Zhe; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Shichao; Qin, Yong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, graphene is coated with nitrogen-doped carbon layer, which is produced by a carbonization process of aromatic polyimide (PI) films deposited on the surfaces of graphene by molecular layer deposition (MLD). The utilization of MLD not only allows uniform coating of PI layers on the surfaces of pristine graphene without any surface treatment, but also enables homogenous dispersion of doped nitrogen atoms in the carbonized products. The as-prepared N-doped carbon layer coated graphene (NC-G) exhibited remarkable capacitance performance as electrode materials for supercapacitor, showing a high specific capacitance of 290.2 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, meanwhile maintaining good rate performance and stable cycle capability. The NC-G synthesized by this way represents an alternative promising candidate as electrode material for supercapacitors.

  9. The importance of a surface organic layer in simulating permafrost thermal and carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarov, Elchin; Schaefer, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Permafrost-affected soils contain twice as much carbon as currently exists in the atmosphere. Studies show that warming of the perennially frozen ground could initiate significant release of the frozen soil carbon into the atmosphere. Initializing the frozen permafrost carbon with the observed soil carbon distribution from the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database reduces the uncertainty associated with the modeling of the permafrost carbon feedback. To improve permafrost thermal and carbon dynamics we implemented a dynamic surface organic layer with vertical carbon redistribution, and introduced dynamic root growth controlled by active layer thickness, which improved soil carbon exchange between frozen and thawed pools. These changes increased the initial amount of simulated frozen carbon from 313 to 560 Gt C, consistent with observed frozen carbon stocks, and increased the spatial correlation of the simulated and observed distribution of frozen carbon from 0.12 to 0.63.

  10. Limiting factors for carbon based chemical double layer capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. Frank; Johnson, C.; Owens, T.; Stevens, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Chemical Double Layer (CDL) capacitor improves energy storage density dramatically when compared with conventional electrolytic capacitors. When compared to batteries, the CDL Capacitor is much less energy dense; however, the power density is orders of magnitude better. As a result, CDL-battery combinations present an interesting pulse power system with many potential applications. Due to the nature of the CDL it is inherently a low voltage device. The applications of the CDL can be tailored to auxiliary energy and burst mode storages which require fast charge/discharge cycles. Typical of the applications envisioned are power system backup, directed energy weapons concepts, electric automobiles, and electric actuators. In this paper, we will discuss some of the general characteristics of carbon-based CDL technology describing the structure, performance parameters, and methods of construction. Further, analytical and experimental results which define the state of the art are presented and described in terms of impact on applications.

  11. The outer layers of cool, non-Mira carbon stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    The outer layers and near circumstellar envelope (CSE) of a typical carbon star have been studied using available data from theoretical and empirical models. An attempt is made to match the density-velocity structure of the photosphere-chromosphere region to values from the radio CO observations, which arise from the outer CSE. It is concluded that the stellar atmosphere includes a relatively thin high-temperature region close to hydrostatic equilibrium and a much more extended cooler region of outflowing gas and dust. To extend the outer photosphere and chromosphere to match the mass loss density appears to require an injection of energy and momentum by some mechanism rather close to the stellar surface.

  12. Multifunctional carbon nanotube thin film composites by layer-by-layer assembly technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Bong Sup

    Polymeric layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly offers a pathway for multifunctional/multicomponent materials with molecular-scale control of stratified structures. Among the wide variety nanoscale building blocks such as nanowires and nanodots, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are regarded as one of the most versatile because of their superior mechanical and electrical properties as well as geometrical perfection. In this thesis, LBL assembled SWNT thin film nanocomposites with high mechanical strength/toughness and with high electrical/optical properties are presented. Exceptional exfoliation state of SWNTs and controlled nm-thick layered structures are the basis for achieving tunable physical properties. Highly anisotropic features of SWNTs are translated into 2 dimensional alignments by meniscus combing technique during LBL assemblies. Advanced LBL assemblies by dewetting methods are also introduced, which significantly accelerate the process with improved lateral organization of nanowires. Furthermore, SWNT composite coating on commodity cotton yarns produced intelligent electronic textiles (e-textiles) with intrinsic humidity sensibility. This e-textile has been further combined with antigen/antibody sensing capability in order to develop a selective albumin biosensor which provides a direct route for the application of these materials as wearable biomonitoring and telemedicine sensors.

  13. Development of spin-on carbon hardmasks with comparable etch resistance to Amorphous Carbon Layer (ACL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Hwan-Sung; Yoon, Kyong-Ho; Kim, Min-Soo; Oh, Seung Bae; Song, Jee-Yun; Tokareva, Nataliya; Kim, Jong-Seob; Chang, Tuwon

    2008-11-01

    In recent microlithography of semiconductor fabrication, spin-on hardmask (SOH) process continue to gain popularity as it replaces the traditional SiON/ACL hardmask scheme which suffers from high CoO, low productivity, particle contamination, and layer alignment issues. In the SOH process, organic polymer with high carbon content is spin-cast to form a carbon hardmask film. In the previous papers, we reported the development of organic SOH materials and their application in sub-70 nm lithography. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of organic polymers with very high carbon contents (>92 wt.%) and the evaluation of the spin-coated films for the hardmask application. The high carbon content of the polymer ensures improved etch resistance which amounts to >90% of ACL's resistance. However, as the carbon content of the polymers increases, the solubility in common organic solvents becomes lower. Here we report the strategies to improve the solubility of the high carbon content resins and optimization of the film properties for the SOH application.

  14. Growth of metal-free carbon nanotubes on glass substrate with an amorphous carbon catalyst layer.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jae Keun; Choi, Won Seok; Kim, Hee Dong; Lee, Jae-Hyeoung; Choi, Eun Chang; Kim, Hyung Jin; Hong, Byungyou

    2011-12-01

    We have investigated the direct growth of metal-free carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on glass substrates with microwave-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD). Amorphous carbon (a-C) films were used as a catalyst layer to grow metal-free CNTs. The a-C films were deposited on Corning glass substrates using RF magnetron sputtering with the use of a carbon target (99.99%) at room temperature. They were pretreated with hydrogen plasma using a microwave PECVD at 600 degrees C. Then, CNTs were prepared using microwave PECVD with a mixture of methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) gases. The CNTs were grown at different substrate temperatures (400 degrees C, 500 degrees C, and 600 degrees C) for 30 minutes. Other conditions were fixed. The growth trends of CNTs against substrate temperature were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The structure of a-C catalyst layer and grown CNTs were measured by Raman spectroscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images showed that the CNTs had bamboo-like multi-walled structures. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements confirmed that the CNTs consisted of only carbon. PMID:22409050

  15. Anisotropy measurement of pyrolytic carbon layers of coated particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesyolkin, Ju. A.; Ivanov, A. S.; Trushkina, T. V.

    2015-12-01

    Equipment at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute intended for the anisotropy determination of pyrolytic carbon layers in coated particles (CPs) of the GT-MGR reactor is tested and calibrated. The dependence of the anisotropy coefficient on the size of the measurement region is investigated. The results of measuring the optical anisotropy factor (OPTAF) for an aluminum mirror, rutile crystal, and available CP samples with the known characteristics measured previously using ORNL equipment (United States) are presented. In addition, measurements of CP samples prepared at VNIINM are performed. A strong dependence of the data on the preparation quality of metallographic sections is found. Our investigations allow us to make the conclusion on the working capacity of the existing equipment for measuring the anisotropy of pyrolytic carbon CP coatings using the equipment at the Kurchatov Institute with the relative error of about 1%. It is shown that the elimination of the errors caused by the stochastic fluctuations in a measuring path by mathematical processing of the signal allows us to decrease the relative error of OPTAF measurements to ~0.3%.

  16. Anisotropy measurement of pyrolytic carbon layers of coated particles

    SciTech Connect

    Vesyolkin, Ju. A. Ivanov, A. S.; Trushkina, T. V.

    2015-12-15

    Equipment at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute intended for the anisotropy determination of pyrolytic carbon layers in coated particles (CPs) of the GT-MGR reactor is tested and calibrated. The dependence of the anisotropy coefficient on the size of the measurement region is investigated. The results of measuring the optical anisotropy factor (OPTAF) for an aluminum mirror, rutile crystal, and available CP samples with the known characteristics measured previously using ORNL equipment (United States) are presented. In addition, measurements of CP samples prepared at VNIINM are performed. A strong dependence of the data on the preparation quality of metallographic sections is found. Our investigations allow us to make the conclusion on the working capacity of the existing equipment for measuring the anisotropy of pyrolytic carbon CP coatings using the equipment at the Kurchatov Institute with the relative error of about 1%. It is shown that the elimination of the errors caused by the stochastic fluctuations in a measuring path by mathematical processing of the signal allows us to decrease the relative error of OPTAF measurements to ∼0.3%.

  17. Local boundary reflections in lattice Boltzmann schemes: Spurious boundary layers and their impact on the velocity, diffusion and dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Irina; Roux, Laetitia; Silva, Goncalo

    2015-10-01

    This work demonstrates that in advection-diffusion Lattice Boltzmann schemes, the local mass-conserving boundary rules, such as bounce-back and local specular reflection, may modify the transport coefficients predicted by the Chapman-Enskog expansion when they enforce to zero not only the normal, but also the tangential boundary flux. In order to accommodate it to the bulk solution, the system develops a Knudsen-layer correction to the non-equilibrium part of the population solution. Two principal secondary effects-(i) decrease in the diffusion coefficient, and (ii) retardation of the average advection velocity, obtained in a closed analytical form, are proportional, respectively, to freely assigned diagonal weights for equilibrium mass and velocity terms. In addition, due to their transverse velocity gradients, the boundary layers affect the longitudinal diffusion coefficient similarly to Taylor dispersion, as they grow as the square of the Péclet number. These numerical artifacts can be eliminated or reduced by a proper space distribution of the free-tunable collision eigenvalue in two-relaxation-time schemes.

  18. Electronic structure and lattice dynamics at the interface of single layer FeSe and SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Balatsky, Alexander; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    Recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with the superconducting energy gap opening at temperatures close to or above the liquid nitrogen boiling point in the single-layer FeSe grown on SrTiO3 has attracted significant interest. It suggests that the interface effects can be utilized to enhance the superconductivity. It has been shown recently that the coupling between the electrons in FeSe and vibrational modes at the interface play an important role. Here we report on a detailed study of electronic structure and lattice dynamics in the single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 interface by using the state-of-art electronic structure method within the density functional theory. The nature of the vibrational modes at the interface and their coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom are analyzed. In addition, the effect of hole and electron doping in SrTiO3 on the electron-mode coupling strength is also considered. This work was carried out under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. DOE at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396, and was supported by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  19. Magnetic, thermoelectric, and electronic properties of layered oxides and carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudillo, Roman

    The structure and physical properties of layered oxides and carbon materials were studied. Two layered carbon materials were studied: carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized by electron irradiation from amorphous carbon in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a carbon and silver nanocomposite consisting of graphitic carbon nanospheres encapsulating Ag nanoparticles. In the CNT experiments, the effect of electron irradiation in the TEM is shown to alter drastically their structure and properties, even being able to transform amorphous carbon into a CNT. This suggests a possible alternative synthesis technique for the production of CNTs, in addition to providing a method for tailoring their properties. The structure and magnetic properties of the carbon and silver nanocomposite was characterized with x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques, and magnetic susceptibility measurements with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. While the sp2 bonding gives a graphene sheet its mechanical properties, the p pi electrons are responsible for its electronic and magnetic properties. In a flat graphene sheet the ppi electrons are itinerant, but in a narrow ppi band. The introduction of curvature to the graphene sheets that encapsulate the Ag nanoparticles is demonstrated to narrow the ppi band sufficiently to result in "ferromagnetic" behavior. A model that is able to explain spin localization and ferrimagnetic spin-spin interactions in graphitic materials with positive curvature is presented. Layered oxides from the family of the P2 NaxCoO 2 structure were synthesized and their properties studied. Na xCoO2 has a rich phase diagram ranging form a promising Na-rich thermoelectric composition to the hydrated Na-poor composition Na 0.33CoO2 1.3H2O that is superconductive. Intermediate to these two Na compositions exists an insulating phase with x ≈ 0.5 that presents a variety of interesting structural

  20. Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond and multi-layer-graphene-like hybrid carbon films

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Yonhua; Yeh, Shoupu; Fang, Wei Cheng; Chu, Yuehchieh

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) and multi-layer-graphene-like hybrid carbon films have been synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) on oxidized silicon which is pre-seeded with diamond nanoparticles. MPECVD of N-UNCD on nanodiamond seeds produces a base layer, from which carbon structures nucleate and grow perpendicularly to form standing carbon platelets. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering measurements reveal that these carbon platelets are comprised of ultrananocrystalline diamond embedded in multilayer-graphene-like carbon structures. The hybrid carbon films are of low electrical resistivity. UNCD grains in the N-UNCD base layer and the hybrid carbon platelets serve as high-density diamond nuclei for the deposition of an electrically insulating UNCD film on it. Biocompatible carbon-based heaters made of low-resistivity hybrid carbon heaters encapsulated by insulating UNCD for possible electrosurgical applications have been demonstrated. PMID:24681781

  1. Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond and multi-layer-graphene-like hybrid carbon films.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Yonhua; Yeh, Shoupu; Fang, Wei Cheng; Chu, Yuehchieh

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) and multi-layer-graphene-like hybrid carbon films have been synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) on oxidized silicon which is pre-seeded with diamond nanoparticles. MPECVD of N-UNCD on nanodiamond seeds produces a base layer, from which carbon structures nucleate and grow perpendicularly to form standing carbon platelets. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering measurements reveal that these carbon platelets are comprised of ultrananocrystalline diamond embedded in multilayer-graphene-like carbon structures. The hybrid carbon films are of low electrical resistivity. UNCD grains in the N-UNCD base layer and the hybrid carbon platelets serve as high-density diamond nuclei for the deposition of an electrically insulating UNCD film on it. Biocompatible carbon-based heaters made of low-resistivity hybrid carbon heaters encapsulated by insulating UNCD for possible electrosurgical applications have been demonstrated. PMID:24681781

  2. Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravazhi, Shanmugam; Geskus, Dimitri; van Dalfsen, Koop; Vázquez-Córdova, Sergio A.; Grivas, Christos; Griebner, Uwe; García-Blanco, Sonia M.; Pollnau, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Single-crystalline KY1- x-y-z GdxLuyYbz(WO4)2 layers are grown onto undoped KY(WO4)2 substrates by liquid-phase epitaxy. The purpose of co-doping the KY(WO4)2 layer with suitable fractions of Gd3+ and Lu3+ is to achieve lattice-matched layers that allow us to engineer a high refractive-index contrast between waveguiding layer and substrate for obtaining tight optical mode confinement and simultaneously accommodate a large range of Yb3+ doping concentrations by replacing Lu3+ ions of similar ionic radius for a variety of optical amplifier or laser applications. Crack-free layers, up to a maximum lattice mismatch of ~0.08 %, are grown with systematic variations of Y3+, Gd3+, Lu3+, and Yb3+ concentrations, their refractive indices are measured at several wavelengths, and Sellmeier dispersion curves are derived. The influence of co-doping on the spectroscopy of Yb3+ is investigated. As evidenced by the experimental results, the lattice constants, refractive indices, and transition cross-sections of Yb3+ in these co-doped layers can be approximated with good accuracy by weighted averages of data from the pure compounds. The obtained information is exploited to fabricate a twofold refractive-index-engineered sample consisting of a highly Yb3+-doped tapered channel waveguide embedded in a passive planar waveguide, and a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser is demonstrated.

  3. Numerical modeling of carrier gas flow in atomic layer deposition vacuum reactor: A comparative study of lattice Boltzmann models

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien; Li, Tao; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-15

    This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.

  4. Coherent Control of the Optical Absorption in a Plasmonic Lattice Coupled to a Luminescent Layer.

    PubMed

    Pirruccio, Giuseppe; Ramezani, Mohammad; Rodriguez, Said Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2016-03-11

    We experimentally demonstrate the coherent control, i.e., phase-dependent enhancement and suppression, of the optical absorption in an array of metallic nanoantennas covered by a thin luminescent layer. The coherent control is achieved by using two collinear, counterpropagating, and phase-controlled incident waves with wavelength matching the absorption spectrum of dye molecules coupled to the array. Symmetry arguments shed light on the relation between the relative phase of the incident waves and the excitation efficiency of the optical resonances of the system. This coherent control is associated with a phase-dependent distribution of the electromagnetic near fields in the structure which enables a significant reduction of the unwanted dissipation in the metallic structures. PMID:27015478

  5. Coherent Control of the Optical Absorption in a Plasmonic Lattice Coupled to a Luminescent Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirruccio, Giuseppe; Ramezani, Mohammad; Rodriguez, Said Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the coherent control, i.e., phase-dependent enhancement and suppression, of the optical absorption in an array of metallic nanoantennas covered by a thin luminescent layer. The coherent control is achieved by using two collinear, counterpropagating, and phase-controlled incident waves with wavelength matching the absorption spectrum of dye molecules coupled to the array. Symmetry arguments shed light on the relation between the relative phase of the incident waves and the excitation efficiency of the optical resonances of the system. This coherent control is associated with a phase-dependent distribution of the electromagnetic near fields in the structure which enables a significant reduction of the unwanted dissipation in the metallic structures.

  6. Clocking the anisotropic lattice dynamics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by four-dimensional ultrafast transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gaolong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Zhongwen; Tian, Huanfang; Yang, Huaixin; Li, Jianqi

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the four-dimensional ultrafast transmission electron microscope (4D-UTEM) with combined spatial and temporal resolutions have made it possible to directly visualize structural dynamics of materials at the atomic level. Herein, we report on our development on a 4D-UTEM which can be operated properly on either the photo-emission or the thermionic mode. We demonstrate its ability to obtain sequences of snapshots with high spatial and temporal resolutions in the study of lattice dynamics of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). This investigation provides an atomic level description of remarkable anisotropic lattice dynamics at the picosecond timescales. Moreover, our UTEM measurements clearly reveal that distinguishable lattice relaxations appear in intra-tubular sheets on an ultrafast timescale of a few picoseconds and after then an evident lattice expansion along the radial direction. These anisotropic behaviors in the MWCNTs are considered arising from the variety of chemical bonding, i.e. the weak van der Waals bonding between the tubular planes and the strong covalent sp2-hybridized bonds in the tubular sheets. PMID:25672762

  7. High-Performance Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composite Fiber from Layer-by-Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min Le; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Liang; Zhan, Hang; Qiang, Lei; Wang, Jian Nong

    2016-03-30

    So far, preparation of high-performance carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composites still faces big challenges mainly due to the limited control of CNT dispersion, fraction, and alignment in polymers. Here, a new "layer-by-layer deposition" method is put forward for preparing CNT/polymer composite fibers using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as an exemplary polymer. This is based on the continuous production of a hollow cylindrical CNT assembly from a high temperature reactor and its shrinking by a PVA-containing solution and deposition on a removable substrate wire. The in situ mixing of the two composite components at the molecular level allows CNTs to disperse and PVA to infiltrate into the fiber efficiently. As a result, remarkable effects of the CNT reinforcement on the PVA matrix are observed, including a strength improvement from ∼50 to 1255 MPa and electrical conductivity from ∼0 to 1948 S cm(-1). The new method offers good controllability of CNT dispersion and fraction in the polymer matrix, variability for making composite fibers using different polymers, and suitability for scaled up production. This study thus provides a new research direction for preparing CNT-reinforced composites and future performance maximization. PMID:26959406

  8. Power generation using carbon mesh cathodes with different diffusion layers in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yong; Zhang, Fang; Wei, Bin; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo; Logan, Bruce E.

    An inexpensive carbon material, carbon mesh, was examined to replace the more expensive carbon cloth usually used to make cathodes in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Three different diffusion layers were tested using carbon mesh: poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and Goretex cloth. Carbon mesh with a mixture of PDMS and carbon black as a diffusion layer produced a maximum power density of 1355 ± 62 mW m -2 (normalized to the projected cathode area), which was similar to that obtained with a carbon cloth cathode (1390 ± 72 mW m -2). Carbon mesh with a PTFE diffusion layer produced only a slightly lower (6.6%) maximum power density (1303 ± 48 mW m -2). The Coulombic efficiencies were a function of current density, with the highest value for the carbon mesh and PDMS (79%) larger than that for carbon cloth (63%). The cost of the carbon mesh cathode with PDMS/Carbon or PTFE (excluding catalyst and binder costs) is only 2.5% of the cost of the carbon cloth cathode. These results show that low cost carbon materials such as carbon mesh can be used as the cathode in an MFC without reducing the performance compared to more expensive carbon cloth.

  9. Atomic migration of carbon in hard turned layers of carburized bearing steel

    SciTech Connect

    Bedekar, Vikram; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei; Shivpuri, Rajiv; Scott Hyde, R.

    2016-01-01

    In grain finement and non-equilibrium there is carbon segregation within grain boundaries alters the mechanical performance of hard turning layers in carburized bearing steel. Moreover, an atom probe tomography (APT) study on the nanostructured hard turning layers reveals carbon migration to grain boundaries as a result of carbide decomposition during severe plastic deformation. In addition, samples exposed to different cutting speeds show that the carbon migration rate increases with the cutting speed. For these two effects lead to an ultrafine carbon network structure resulting in increased hardness and thermal stability in the severely deformed surface layer.

  10. Development of carbon free diffusion layer for activated carbon air cathode of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wulin; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-12-01

    The fabrication of activated carbon air cathodes for larger-scale microbial fuel cells requires a diffusion layer (DL) that is highly resistant to water leakage, oxygen permeable, and made using inexpensive materials. A hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane synthesized using a simple phase inversion process was examined as a low cost ($0.9/m(2)), carbon-free DL that prevented water leakage at high pressure heads compared to a polytetrafluoroethylene/carbon black DL ($11/m(2)). The power density produced with a PVDF (20%, w/v) DL membrane of 1400±7mW/m(2) was similar to that obtained using a wipe DL [cloth coated with poly(dimethylsiloxane)]. Water head tolerance reached 1.9m (∼19kPa) with no mesh supporter, and 2.1m (∼21kPa, maximum testing pressure) with a mesh supporter, compared to 0.2±0.05m for the wipe DL. The elimination of carbon black from the DL greatly simplified the fabrication procedure and further reduced overall cathode costs. PMID:26342345

  11. Highly stable perovskite solar cells with an all-carbon hole transport layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijiu; Endo, Masaru; Mouri, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Ohno, Yutaka; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Murata, Yasujiro; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2016-06-01

    Nano-carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide) have potential application for photovoltaics because of their excellent optical and electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate that a single-walled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer greatly improves the photovoltaic performance of organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cells. The carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer works as an efficient hole transport/electron blocking layer. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.3% was achieved in the organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cell due to the complementary properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. Furthermore, the great improvement of photovoltaic performance stability in the perovskite solar cells using carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide/polymethyl methacrylate was demonstrated in comparison with that using a typical organic hole transport layer of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene. PMID:27232674

  12. Antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice in the layered compounds Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Pr, Sm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanglin; Liu, Jinyu; Hu, Jin; Adams, Daniel; Spinu, Leonard; Mao, Zhiqiang

    Intermetallic compounds containing rare-earth/actinide elements with 4f/5f electrons have formed a special family of strongly correlated materials, i.e. heavy fermion systems. We have recently found a new layered rare earth intermetallic system showing moderate heavy fermion behavior: Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Sm, Pr). The Re =Ce and Sm members were previously synthesized, while their electronic properties have not been reported. We have recently grown single crystals of Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Sm, Pr) and characterized their electronic and magnetic properties. We find all these materials are antiferromagnetic, with TN = 2.5 K, 5 K, 3.4 K respectively for Re =Ce, Pr and Sm. Moreover, they also exhibit large values of electronic specific coefficient: γ ~ 101 mJ mol-Ce-1 K-2 for Re =Ce, 368 mJ mol-Pr-1 K-2 for Re =Pr, and 196.4 mJ mol-Sm-1 K-2 for Re =Sm, indicating enhanced Kondo effect and the presence of AFM Kondo lattice. Our findings suggest that Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Pr, Sm) could be interesting candidate materials for exploring novel exotic properties of correlated electrons through external parameter tuning such as chemical substitution and pressure.

  13. Highly stable perovskite solar cells with an all-carbon hole transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feijiu; Endo, Masaru; Mouri, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Ohno, Yutaka; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Murata, Yasujiro; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2016-06-01

    Nano-carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide) have potential application for photovoltaics because of their excellent optical and electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate that a single-walled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer greatly improves the photovoltaic performance of organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cells. The carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer works as an efficient hole transport/electron blocking layer. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.3% was achieved in the organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cell due to the complementary properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. Furthermore, the great improvement of photovoltaic performance stability in the perovskite solar cells using carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide/polymethyl methacrylate was demonstrated in comparison with that using a typical organic hole transport layer of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene.Nano-carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide) have potential application for photovoltaics because of their excellent optical and electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate that a single-walled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer greatly improves the photovoltaic performance of organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cells. The carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide buffer layer works as an efficient hole transport/electron blocking layer. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.3% was achieved in the organo-lead iodide perovskite solar cell due to the complementary properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. Furthermore, the great improvement of photovoltaic performance stability in the perovskite solar cells using carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide/polymethyl methacrylate was demonstrated in comparison with that using a typical organic hole transport layer of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  14. Assembling carbon quantum dots to a layered carbon for high-density supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanxiong; Wu, Shuilin; Hui, Liwei; Zhao, Yuan; Ye, Jianglin; Tan, Ziqi; Zeng, Wencong; Tao, Zhuchen; Yang, Lihua; Zhu, Yanwu

    2016-01-01

    It is found that carbon quantum dots (CQDs) self-assemble to a layer structure at ice crystals-water interface with freeze- drying. Such layers interconnect with each other, forming a free-standing CQD assembly, which has an interlayer distance of about 0.366 nm, due to the existence of curved carbon rings other than hexagons in the assembly. CQDs are fabricated by rupturing C60 by KOH activation with a production yield of ~15 wt.%. The CQDs obtained have an average height of 1.14 nm and an average lateral size of 7.48 nm, and are highly soluble in water. By packaging annealed CQD assembly to high density (1.23 g cm(-3)) electrodes in supercapacitors, a high volumetric capacitance of 157.4 F cm(-3) and a high areal capacitance of 0.66 F cm(-2) (normalized to the loading area of electrodes) are demonstrated in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte with a good rate capability. PMID:26754463

  15. Assembling carbon quantum dots to a layered carbon for high-density supercapacitor electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guanxiong; Wu, Shuilin; Hui, Liwei; Zhao, Yuan; Ye, Jianglin; Tan, Ziqi; Zeng, Wencong; Tao, Zhuchen; Yang, Lihua; Zhu, Yanwu

    2016-01-01

    It is found that carbon quantum dots (CQDs) self-assemble to a layer structure at ice crystals-water interface with freeze- drying. Such layers interconnect with each other, forming a free-standing CQD assembly, which has an interlayer distance of about 0.366 nm, due to the existence of curved carbon rings other than hexagons in the assembly. CQDs are fabricated by rupturing C60 by KOH activation with a production yield of ~15 wt.%. The CQDs obtained have an average height of 1.14 nm and an average lateral size of 7.48 nm, and are highly soluble in water. By packaging annealed CQD assembly to high density (1.23 g cm−3) electrodes in supercapacitors, a high volumetric capacitance of 157.4 F cm−3 and a high areal capacitance of 0.66 F cm−2 (normalized to the loading area of electrodes) are demonstrated in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte with a good rate capability. PMID:26754463

  16. Statistical mechanical lattice models of endohedral and exohedral xenon adsorption in carbon nanotubes and comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Lawrence J.; Manos, George; Rekabi, Mahdi

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption of xenon in carbon nanotubes has been investigated by Kuznetsova et al. [A. Kuznetsova, J.T. Yates Jr., J. Liu, R.E. Smalley, J. Chem. Phys. 112 (2000) 9590] and Simonyan et al. [V. Simonyan, J.K. Johnson, A Kuznetsova, J.T. Yates Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 114 (2001) 4180] where endohedral adsorption isotherms show a step-like structure. A matrix method is used for calculation of the statistical mechanics of a lattice model of xenon endohedral adsorption which reproduces the isotherm structure while exohedral adsorption is treated by mean-field theory.

  17. Investigation on the lattice site location of the excess arsenic atoms in GaAs layers grown by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Kin Man; Liliental-Weber, Z.

    1991-11-01

    We have measured the excess As atoms present in gaze layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low substrate temperatures using particle induced x-ray emission technique. The amount of excess As atoms in layers grown by MBE at 200{degrees}C were found to be {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}2}. Subsequent annealing of the layers under As overpressure at 600{degrees}C did not result in any substantial As loss. However, transmission electron microscopy revealed that As precipitates (2-5nm in diameter) were present in the annealed layers. The lattice location of the excess As atoms in the as grown layers was investigated by ion channeling methods. Angular scans were performed in the <110> axis of the crystal. Our results strongly suggest that a large fraction of these excess As atoms are located in an interstitial position close to an As row. These As intersitials'' are located at a site slightly displaced from the tetrahedral site in a diamond cubic lattice. No interstitial As signal is observed in the annealed layers.

  18. Investigation on the lattice site location of the excess arsenic atoms in GaAs layers grown by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Kin Man; Liliental-Weber, Z.

    1991-11-01

    We have measured the excess As atoms present in gaze layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low substrate temperatures using particle induced x-ray emission technique. The amount of excess As atoms in layers grown by MBE at 200{degrees}C were found to be {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}2}. Subsequent annealing of the layers under As overpressure at 600{degrees}C did not result in any substantial As loss. However, transmission electron microscopy revealed that As precipitates (2-5nm in diameter) were present in the annealed layers. The lattice location of the excess As atoms in the as grown layers was investigated by ion channeling methods. Angular scans were performed in the <110> axis of the crystal. Our results strongly suggest that a large fraction of these excess As atoms are located in an interstitial position close to an As row. These As ``intersitials`` are located at a site slightly displaced from the tetrahedral site in a diamond cubic lattice. No interstitial As signal is observed in the annealed layers.

  19. Design and application of carbon nanomaterials for photoactive and charge transport layers in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sunghwan; Jun, Gwang Hoon; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2016-04-01

    Commercialization of organic solar cell (OSC) has faltered due to their low power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to inorganic solar cell. Low electrical conductivity, low charge mobility, and short-range light absorption of most organic materials limit the PCE of OSCs. Carbon nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphenes, are of great interest for use in OSC applications due to their high electrical conductivity, mobility, and unique optical properties for enhancing the performance of OSCs. In this review, recent progress toward the integration of carbon nanomaterials into OSCs is described. The role of carbon nanomaterials and strategies for their integration into various layers of OSCs, including the photoactive layer and charge transport layer, are discussed. Based on these, we also discuss the prospects of carbon nanomaterials for specific OSC layers to maximize the PCE.

  20. Considerably improved photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-based solar cells using metal oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Hiraoka, Kazushi; Mouri, Shinichiro; Ohno, Yutaka; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-02-01

    Carbon nanotube-based solar cells have been extensively studied from the perspective of potential application. Here we demonstrated a significant improvement of the carbon nanotube solar cells by the use of metal oxide layers for efficient carrier transport. The metal oxides also serve as an antireflection layer and an efficient carrier dopant, leading to a reduction in the loss of the incident solar light and an increase in the photocurrent, respectively. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of both p-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/n-Si and n-SWNT/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using MoOx and ZnO layers is improved, resulting in very high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of 17.0 and 4.0%, respectively. These findings regarding the use of metal oxides as multifunctional layers suggest that metal oxide layers could improve the performance of various electronic devices based on carbon nanotubes.

  1. Considerably improved photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-based solar cells using metal oxide layers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Hiraoka, Kazushi; Mouri, Shinichiro; Ohno, Yutaka; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-based solar cells have been extensively studied from the perspective of potential application. Here we demonstrated a significant improvement of the carbon nanotube solar cells by the use of metal oxide layers for efficient carrier transport. The metal oxides also serve as an antireflection layer and an efficient carrier dopant, leading to a reduction in the loss of the incident solar light and an increase in the photocurrent, respectively. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of both p-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/n-Si and n-SWNT/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using MoOx and ZnO layers is improved, resulting in very high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of 17.0 and 4.0%, respectively. These findings regarding the use of metal oxides as multifunctional layers suggest that metal oxide layers could improve the performance of various electronic devices based on carbon nanotubes. PMID:25692264

  2. Synthesis of Organized Layered Carbon by Self-Templating of Dithiooxamide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingsan; Zhu, Jixin; Yang, Xiaofei; Cao, Shaowen; Yu, Jiaguo; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus

    2016-08-01

    An unusual small molecule, dithiooxamide is used to produce nanostructured carbon via direct pyrolysis. The carbon shows a unique 2D-layer assembled structure and is in situ dual-heteroatom (N and S)-doped, meanwhile having relatively high surface area. These carbon materials can be further decorated with inorganic parts via a precomplexing approach. The functionalized carbon and the hybrid nanomaterials demonstrate remarkable performance for lithium-ion storage. PMID:27187106

  3. Method of evaluating the integrity of the outer carbon layer of triso-coated reactor fuel particles

    DOEpatents

    Caputo, Anthony J.; Costanzo, Dante A.; Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Layton, Frank L.; Stinton, David P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for determining defective final layers of carbon on triso-coated fuel particles and the like. Samples of the particles are subjected to a high temperature treatment with gaseous chlorine and thereafter radiographed. The chlorine penetrates through any defective carbon layer and reacts with the underlying silicon carbide resulting in the volatilization of the silicon as SiCl.sub.4 leaving carbon as a porous layer. This porous carbon layer is easily detected by the radiography.

  4. Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations of Multiphase Flows in Gas-Diffusion-Layer (GDL) of a PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjeea, Shiladitya; Cole, J Vernon; Jainb, Kunal; Gidwania, Ashok

    2008-11-01

    Improved power density and freeze-thaw durability in automotive applications of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) requires effective water management at the membrane. This is controlled by a porous hydrophobic gas-diffusion-layer (GDL) inserted between the membrane catalyst layer and the gas reactant channels. The GDL distributes the incoming gaseous reactants on the catalyst surface and removes excess water by capillary action. There is, however, limited understanding of the multiphase, multi-component transport of liquid water, vapor and gaseous reactants within these porous materials. This is due primarily to the challenges of in-situ diagnostics for such thin (200 -“ 300 {microns}), optically opaque (graphite) materials. Transport is typically analyzed by fitting Darcy's Law type expressions for permeability, in conjunction with capillary pressure relations based on formulations derived for media such as soils. Therefore, there is significant interest in developing predictive models for transport in GDLs and related porous media. Such models could be applied to analyze and optimize systems based on the interactions between cell design, materials, and operating conditions, and could also be applied to evaluating material design concepts. Recently, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has emerged as an effective tool in modeling multiphase flows in general, and flows through porous media in particular. This method is based on the solution of a discrete form of the well-known Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) for molecular distribution, tailored to recover the continuum Navier-Stokes flow. The kinetic theory basis of the method allows simple implementation of molecular forces responsible for liquid-gas phase separation and capillary effects. The solution advances by a streaming and collision type algorithm that makes it suitable to implement for domains with complex boundaries. We have developed both single and multiphase LB models and applied them to

  5. Suppression of tin precipitation in SiSn alloy layers by implanted carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Gaiduk, P. I.; Lundsgaard Hansen, J. Nylandsted Larsen, A.

    2014-06-09

    By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed the accumulation of carbon in the SiSn layers after high temperature carbon implantation and high temperature thermal treatment. Strain-enhanced separation of point defects and formation of dopant-defect complexes are suggested to be responsible for the effects. The possibility for carbon assisted segregation-free high temperature growth of heteroepitaxial SiSn/Si and GeSn/Si structures is argued.

  6. Advanced nanostructured carbon materials for electrical double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänes, A.; Kurig, H.; Thomberg, T.; Lust, E.

    2007-12-01

    Thermodynamical and electrochemical characteristics for the non-aqueous electrolyte mid nanostructured carbide-derived carbon (CDC), activated carbon cloth (ACC) or commercial activated nanoporous carbon RP-20 (from Kuraray Chemical Co.) interface have been established by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, BET, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The gas adsorption measurement data have been used for the obtaining the specific surface area, pore size distribution, nanopore volume and other characteristics, dependent on the nanostructured carbon used (nanopores are pores in the range of 2 nm and below — i.e. micropores according to IUPAC classification).

  7. Carbon nano-chain and carbon nano-fibers based gas diffusion layers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Arunachala M.; Munukutla, Lakshmi

    Gas diffusion layers (GDL) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell have been developed using a partially ordered graphitized nano-carbon chain (Pureblack ® carbon) and carbon nano-fibers. The GDL samples' characteristics such as, surface morphology, surface energy, bubble-point pressure and pore size distribution were characterized using electron microscope, inverse gas chromatograph, gas permeability and mercury porosimetry, respectively. Fuel cell performance of the GDLs was evaluated using single cell with hydrogen/air at ambient pressure, 70 °C and 100% RH. The GDLs with combination of vapor grown carbon nano-fibers with Pureblack carbon showed significant improvement in mechanical robustness as well as fuel cell performance. The micro-porous layer of the GDLs as seen under scanning electron microscope showed excellent surface morphology showing the reinforcement with nano-fibers and the surface homogeneity without any cracks.

  8. Optical properties of spray coated layers with carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenc, Zofia; Krzeminski, Jakub; Wroblewski, Grzegorz; Salbut, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes as well as graphene are allotropic forms of carbon. Graphene is a two dimensional (2D) form of atomic-scale, hexagonal lattice, while carbon nanotube is a cylindrical nanostructure composed of a rolled sheet of graphene lattice at specific and discrete angles. Both of discussed materials have a high potential for modern engineering, especially in organic and printed electronics. High transparency in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum and low electrical resistance are desirable features in various applications and may be fulfilled with studied carbon nanomaterials. They have chances to become an important technological improvement in customers electronic devices by applying them to electrodes production in flexible screens and light sources. Graphene end carbon nanotubes are conceptually similar. However, characteristic properties of these two substances are different. In the article authors present the results of the transmission in visible electromagnetic spectrum characteristics of different samples. This parameter and the resistance of electrodes are tested, analysed and compared. Characteristics of optical transmittance against resistance with the optimal point of that relationship are presented in paper. Moreover, dependency of graphene nanoplatelets agglomerates arrangement against type of nano-fillers is shown. Two groups of tested inks contain graphene nanoplatelets with different fillers diameters. The third group contains carbon nanotubes. Described parameters are important for production process and results of analysis can be used by technologists working with elastic electronics.

  9. TECHNICAL NOTE: Design and development of electromagnetic absorbers with carbon fiber composites and matching dielectric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neo, C. P.; Varadan, V. K.

    2001-10-01

    Radar absorbing materials are designed and developed with carbon fibers and suitable matching layers. Complex permittivities of carbon fiber composite are predicted on the basis that the modulus of permittivity obeys a logarithmic law of mixtures and the dielectric loss tangents are related through a linear law of mixtures. Linear regression analysis performed on the data points provides the constants which are used to predict the effective permittivities of carbon fiber composite at different frequencies. Using the free space measurement system, complex permittivities of the lossy dielectric at different frequencies are obtained. These complex permittivities are used to predict the reflectivity of a thin lossy dielectric layer on carbon fiber composite substrate. The predicted results agree quite well with the measured data. It is interesting to note that the thin lossy dielectric layer, about 0.03 mm thick, has helped to reduce the reflectivity of the 5.2 mm thick carbon fiber composite considerably.

  10. Detection of the first order phase transition in water with carbon nanotube layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Poklonski, Nikolay

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a new generation of the icing conditions sensors. These sensors are based on the detection of a molecular thin layer of absorbed water molecules, transforming into ice by detection of nonmonotonic variation of the resistance of the carbon nanotube sensor. Carbon nanotube layers could be utilized as an inexpensive and effective sensors of humidity and icing conditions, suitable for applications in aviation and different industries.

  11. Carbon-Nanotube Conductive Layers for Thin-Film Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Thin, transparent layers comprising mats of carbon nanotubes have been proposed for providing lateral (that is, inplane) electrical conductivities for collecting electric currents from the front surfaces of the emitter layers of thin-film solar photovoltaic cells. Traditionally, thin, semitransparent films of other electrically conductive materials (usually, indium tin oxide, zinc oxide, or cadmium sulfide) have been used for this purpose. As in the cases of the traditional semitransparent conductive films, the currents collected by the nanotube layers would, in turn, be further collected by front metal contact stripes. Depending on details of a specific solar-cell design, the layer of carbon nanotubes would be deposited in addition to, or instead of, a semitransparent layer of one of these traditional conductive materials (see figure). The proposal is expected to afford the following advantages: The electrical conductivity of the carbon- nanotube layer would exceed that of the corresponding semitransparent layer of traditional electrically conductive material. The greater electrical conductivity of the carbon-nanotube layer would make it possible to retain adequate lateral electrical conductivity while reducing the thickness of, or eliminating entirely, the traditional semitransparent conductive layer. As a consequence of thinning or elimination of the traditional semitransparent conductive layer, less light would be absorbed, so that more of the incident light would be available for photovoltaic conversion. The greater electrical conductivity of the carbon-nanotube layer would make it possible to increase the distance between front metal contact stripes, in addition to (or instead of) thinning or eliminating the layer of traditional semitransparent conductive material. Consequently, the fraction of solar-cell area shadowed by front metal contact stripes would be reduced again, making more of the incident light available for photovoltaic conversion. The electrical

  12. Atomic Layer Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes and their Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stano, Kelly Lynn

    Global issues related to energy and the environment have motivated development of advanced material solutions outside of traditional metals ceramics, and polymers. Taking inspiration from composites, where the combination of two or more materials often yields superior properties, the field of organic-inorganic hybrids has recently emerged. Carbon nanotube (CNT)-inorganic hybrids have drawn widespread and increasing interest in recent years due to their multifunctionality and potential impact across several technologically important application areas. Before the impacts of CNT-inorganic hybrids can be realized however, processing techniques must be developed for their scalable production. Optimization in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for synthesis of CNTs and vertically aligned CNT arrays has created production routes both high throughput and economically feasible. Additionally, control of CVD parameters has allowed for growth of CNT arrays that are able to be drawn into aligned sheets and further processed to form a variety of aligned 1, 2, and 3-dimensional bulk assemblies including ribbons, yarns, and foams. To date, there have only been a few studies on utilizing these bulk assemblies for the production of CNT-inorganic hybrids. Wet chemical methods traditionally used for fabricating CNT-inorganic hybrids are largely incompatible with CNT assemblies, since wetting and drying the delicate structures with solvents can destroy their structure. It is therefore necessary to investigate alternative processing strategies in order to advance the field of CNT-inorganic hybrids. In this dissertation, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is evaluated as a synthetic route for the production of large-scale CNT-metal oxide hybrids as well as pure metal oxide architectures utilizing CNT arrays, ribbons, and ultralow density foams as deposition templates. Nucleation and growth behavior of alumina was evaluated as a function of CNT surface chemistry. While highly graphitic

  13. Electrodeposition of catalytic and magnetic gold nanoparticles on dendrimer-carbon nanotube layer-by-layer films.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José R; Gabriel, Rayla C; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Silva, Anielle C A; Dantas, Noelio O; Gasparotto, Luiz H S

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic and catalytic gold nanoparticles were electrodeposited through potential pulse on dendrimer-carbon nanotube layer-by-layer (LbL) films. A plasmon absorption band at about 550 nm revealed the presence of nanoscale gold in the film. The location of the Au nanoparticles in the film was clearly observed by selecting the magnetic force microscopy mode. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the electrochemical synthesis of magnetic Au nanoparticles. In addition to the magnetic properties, the Au nanoparticles also exhibited high catalytic activity towards ethanol and glycerol oxidation in alkaline medium. PMID:23007196

  14. Influence of the temperature and duration of the annealing on the lattice structure and growth of the Mg-Al spinel layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hailiang; Zhang, Mingfu; Han, Jiecai; Ying, Guobing; Guo, Huaixin; Xu, Chenghai; Shen, Haitao; Song, Ningning

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, MgO film is successfully grown on polycrystalline and monocrystalline alumina substrates using sol-gel method, and polycrystalline and monocrystalline Mg-Al spinels are fabricated by solid state reaction, respectively. The influence of annealing temperature and time on the lattice structure and growth of the formed Mg-Al spinel layer has been investigated. It is indicated that the annealing temperature and time on the as-synthesized polycrystalline Mg-Al spinel has more significant influence than that of single crystal Mg-Al spinel. The thickness of the Mg-Al spinel layer increases with the annealing temperature, both for polycrystalline and for monocrystalline alumina substrates. And the significantly intercrystalline diffusion of Mg 2+ ions and Al 3+ ions results in a quicker growth velocity of the Mg-Al spinel layer than that of intracrystalline diffusion.

  15. Experiments on passive hypersonic boundary layer control using ultrasonically absorptive carbon-carbon material with random microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Alexander; Kuhn, Markus; Martinez Schramm, Jan; Hannemann, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    For the first time, the influence of ultrasonically absorptive carbon-carbon material on hypersonic laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition was investigated experimentally. A 7° half-angle blunted cone with a nose radius of 2.5 mm and a total length of 1,077 mm was tested at zero angle of attack in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Göttingen of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) at Mach 7.5. One-third of the metallic model surface in circumferential direction was replaced by DLR in-house manufactured ultrasonically absorptive carbon-carbon material with random microstructure for passive transition control. The remaining model surface consisted of polished steel and served as reference surface. The model was equipped with coaxial thermocouples to determine the transition location by means of surface heat flux distribution. Flush-mounted piezoelectric fast-response pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer associated with second-mode instabilities. The free-stream unit Reynolds number was varied over a range of Re m = 1.5 × 106 m-1 to Re m = 6.4 × 106 m-1 at a stagnation enthalpy of h 0 ≈ 3.2 MJ/kg and a wall temperature ratio of T w/ T 0 ≈ 0.1. The present study revealed a clear damping of the second-mode instabilities and a delay of boundary layer transition along the ultrasonically absorptive carbon-carbon insert.

  16. Effect of Alloying, Heat Treatment and Carbon Content on White Layer Formation in Machining of Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Sangil; Melkote, Shreyes N; Riester, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the effects of alloying, carbon content, and heat treatment on white layer formation in machining of steels. The investigation is carried out by machining steels that differ in alloying, heat treatment and carbon content, via orthogonal cutting tests performed with low cBN content tools. The depth of white layer and its hardness are measured for every case. Specifically, the thickness and hardness of white layer produced in cutting AISI 1045 and AISI 4340 annealed steels are compared to determine the effect of alloying on white layer formation. The effect of heat treatment on white layer formation and its hardness are investigated by machining annealed and hardened (53 HRC) AISI 4340 steels. The effect of carbon content on white layer formation is investigated by cutting hardened AISI 52100 and AISI 4340 steels of the same hardness (53 HRC). The results of the study show that alloying, heat treatment, and carbon content influence white layer formation and its hardness.

  17. Suppression of segregation of the phosphorus δ-doping layer in germanium by incorporation of carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Michihiro; Sawano, Kentarou; Uematsu, Masashi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2016-03-01

    The successful formation of abrupt phosphorus (P) δ-doping profiles in germanium (Ge) is reported. When the P δ-doping layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) directly on Ge wafers whose surfaces had residual carbon impurities, more than a half the phosphorus atoms were confined successfully within a few nm of the initial doping position even after the growth of Ge capping layers on the top. On the other hand, the same P layers grown on Ge buffer layers that had much less carbon showed significantly broadened P concentration profiles. Current-voltage characteristics of Au/Ti/Ge capping/P δ-doping/n-Ge structures having the abrupt P δ-doping layers with carbon assistance showed excellent ohmic behaviors when P doses were higher than 1 × 1014 cm-2 and the capping layer thickness was as thin as 5 nm. Therefore, the insertion of carbon around the P doping layer is a useful way of realizing ultrashallow junctions in Ge.

  18. Long wavelength emitting GaInN quantum wells on metamorphic GaInN buffer layers with enlarged in-plane lattice parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Däubler, J. Passow, T.; Aidam, R.; Köhler, K.; Kirste, L.; Kunzer, M.; Wagner, J.

    2014-09-15

    Metamorphic (i.e., linear composition graded) GaInN buffer layers with an increased in-plane lattice parameter, grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, were used as templates for metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) grown GaInN/GaInN quantum wells (QWs), emitting in the green to red spectral region. A composition pulling effect was observed allowing considerable higher growth temperatures for the QWs for a given In composition. The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the QWs was determined by temperature and excitation power density dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. An increase in IQE by a factor of two was found for green emitting QWs grown on metamorphic GaInN buffer compared to reference samples grown on standard GaN buffer layers. The ratio of room temperature to low temperature intensity PL of the red emitting QWs were found to be comparable to the PL efficiency of green emitting QWs, both grown on metamorphic GaInN buffers. The excitation density and well width dependence of the IQE indicate a reduction of the quantum confined Stark effect upon growth on GaInN buffer layers with increased in-plane lattice parameter.

  19. Investigation of the electrospun carbon web as the catalyst layer for vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guanjie; Fan, Xinzhuang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Chuanwei

    2014-12-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) carbon nonwoven web consisting of 100-200 nm ultrafine fibers has been developed by electrospinning and subsequent carbonization process at 1000 °C for different times. The surface morphology, composition, structure, and electrical conductivity of the electrospun carbon webs (ECWs) as well as their electrochemical properties toward vanadium redox couples have been characterized. With the increasing of carbonization time, the electrochemical reversibility of the vanadium redox couples on the ECW is enhanced greatly. As the carbonization time increases up to 120 min, the hydrogen evolution is facilitated while the reversibility is promoted a little bit further. The excellent performance of ECW may be attributed to the conversion of fibers carbon structure and improvement of electrical conductivity. Due to the good electrochemical activity and freestanding 3-dimensional structure, the ECW carbonized for 90 min is used as catalyst layer in vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) and enhances the cell performance.

  20. Towards Lego Snapping; Integration of Carbon Nanotubes and Few-Layer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, Mohsen; Boland, Mathias; Farrokhi, M. Javad; Strachan, Douglas

    Integration of semiconducting, conducting, and insulating nanomaterials into precisely aligned complicated systems is one of the main challenges to the ultimate size scaling of electronic devices, which is a key goal in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This integration could be made more effective through controlled alignment of the crystallographic lattices of the nanoscale components. Of the vast number of materials of atomically-thin materials, two of the sp2 bonded carbon structures, graphene and carbon nanotubes, are ideal candidates for this type of application since they are built from the same backbone carbon lattice. Here we report carbon nanotube and graphene hybrid nanostructures fabricated through their catalytic synthesis and etching. The growth formations we have investigated through various high-resolution microscopy techniques provide evidence of lego-snapped interfaces between nanotubes and graphene into device-relevant orientations. We will finish with a discussion of the various size and energy regimes relevant to these lego-snapped interfaces and their implications on developing these integrated formations.

  1. Carbon transport in the bottom boundary layer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, I.D.

    1998-11-01

    The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) has been to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean. The purpose of this research was to recover and process samples from two sediment traps deployed on the continental slope in conjunction with the OMP physical oceanography mooring program.

  2. The Effect of Carbon Layer Variations in Carbon/Porous Silicon Composite Rugate Filters for End-of-Service-Life Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gofus, John Stephen, III

    Carbon/porous silicon composite rugate filters, for use as end-of service-life indicators in gas mask filters, are more capable of increased sensitivity to volatile organic chemical vapors than porous silicon sensors alone. Compositional variations of the carbon layer within these composite materials have not been well studied. At low carbon content, the carbonized surface will not effectively mimic the active carbon used in gas mask filters. At high carbon content, there is increased noise and a broader, less intense rugate stop band, reducing the signal to noise level of the sensor response. The focus of this thesis is the optimization of the carbon layer in the carbon/porous silicon composite rugate filters. To accomplish this, porous silicon rugate filters were etched and then carbonized using varying concentrations of the poly(furfuryl alcohol) precursor. Variations in the carbon layer were then analyzed via spectral analysis, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. At concentrations greater than 50% furfuryl alcohol there is minimal difference observed in the carbon layer on the porous silicon surface. Samples were also shown to have a minimal increase in sensitivity at concentrations greater than 50% furfuryl alcohol, and an increased signal-to-noise with increased furfuryl alcohol concentration. It is shown that the optimal carbon layer for volatile organic vapor sensing is achieved by using a furfuryl alcohol concentration of 50% furfuryl alcohol (in ethanol) during carbon layer synthesis.

  3. Two-dimensional silicon-carbon hybrids with a honeycomb lattice: New family for two-dimensional photovoltaic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Ren, Jun; Fu, HuiXia; Ding, ZiJing; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2015-10-01

    We predict a series of new two-dimensional (2D) inorganic materials made of silicon and carbon elements (2D Si x C1- x ) based on density functional theory. Our calculations on optimized structure, phonon dispersion, and finite temperature molecular dynamics confirm the stability of 2D Si x C1- x sheets in a two-dimensional, graphene-like, honeycomb lattice. The electronic band gaps vary from zero to 2.5 eV as the ratio x changes in 2D Si x C1- x changes, suggesting a versatile electronic structure in these sheets. Interestingly, among these structures Si0.25C0.75 and Si0.75C0.25 with graphene-like superlattices are semimetals with zero band gap as their π and π* bands cross linearly at the Fermi level. Atomic structural searches based on particle-swarm optimization show that the ordered 2D Si x C1- x structures are energetically favorable. Optical absorption calculations demonstrate that the 2D silicon-carbon hybrid materials have strong photoabsorption in visible light region, which hold promising potential in photovoltaic applications. Such unique electronic and optical properties in 2D Si x C1- x have profound implications in nanoelectronic and photovoltaic device applications.

  4. Preferential formation of 13C- 18O bonds in carbonate minerals, estimated using first-principles lattice dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauble, Edwin A.; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Eiler, John M.

    2006-05-01

    Equilibrium constants for internal isotopic exchange reactions of the type: Ca12C18O16O2+Ca13C16O3↔Ca13C18O16O2+Ca12C16O3 for individual CO 32- groups in the carbonate minerals calcite (CaCO 3), aragonite (CaCO 3), dolomite (CaMg(CO 3) 2), magnesite (MgCO 3), witherite (BaCO 3), and nahcolite (NaHCO 3) are calculated using first-principles lattice dynamics. Calculations rely on density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) with norm-conserving planewave pseudopotentials to determine the vibrational frequencies of isotopically substituted crystals. Our results predict an ˜0.4‰ excess of 13C18O16O22- groups in all studied carbonate minerals at room-temperature equilibrium, relative to what would be expected in a stochastic mixture of carbonate isotopologues with the same bulk 13C/ 12C, 18O/ 16O, and 17O/ 16O ratios. The amount of excess 13C18O16O22- decreases with increasing temperature of equilibration, from 0.5‰ at 0 °C to <0.1‰ at 300 °C, suggesting that measurements of multiply substituted isotopologues of carbonate could be used to infer temperatures of ancient carbonate mineral precipitation and alteration events, even where the δ 18O of coexisting fluids is uncertain. The predicted temperature sensitivity of the equilibrium constant is ˜0.003‰/°C at 25 °C. Estimated equilibrium constants for the formation of 13C18O16O22- are remarkably uniform for the variety of minerals studied, suggesting that temperature calibrations will also be applicable to carbonate minerals not studied here without greatly compromising accuracy. A related equilibrium constant for the reaction: Ca12C18O16O2+Ca12C17O16O2↔Ca12C18O17O16O+Ca12C16O3 in calcite indicates formation of 0.1‰ excess 12C 18O 17O 16O 2- at 25 °C. In a conventional phosphoric acid reaction of carbonate to form CO 2 for mass-spectrometric analysis, molecules derived from 13C18O16O22- dominate (˜96%) the mass 47 signal, and 12C 18O 17O 16O 2- contributes most of the remainder (3%). This suggests

  5. Zero lattice mismatch and twin-free single crystalline ScN buffer layers for GaN growth on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupina, L.; Zoellner, M. H.; Niermann, T.; Dietrich, B.; Capellini, G.; Thapa, S. B.; Haeberlen, M.; Lehmann, M.; Storck, P.; Schroeder, T.

    2015-11-01

    We report the growth of thin ScN layers deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Sc2O3/Y2O3/Si(111) substrates. Using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we find that ScN films grown at 600 °C are single crystalline, twin-free with rock-salt crystal structure, and exhibit a direct optical band gap of 2.2 eV. A high degree of crystalline perfection and a very good lattice matching between ScN and GaN (misfit < 0.1%) makes the ScN/Sc2O3/Y2O3 buffer system a very promising template for the growth of high quality GaN layers on silicon.

  6. Zero lattice mismatch and twin-free single crystalline ScN buffer layers for GaN growth on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lupina, L.; Zoellner, M. H.; Dietrich, B.; Capellini, G.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M.; Thapa, S. B.; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P.; Schroeder, T.

    2015-11-16

    We report the growth of thin ScN layers deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) substrates. Using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we find that ScN films grown at 600 °C are single crystalline, twin-free with rock-salt crystal structure, and exhibit a direct optical band gap of 2.2 eV. A high degree of crystalline perfection and a very good lattice matching between ScN and GaN (misfit < 0.1%) makes the ScN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer system a very promising template for the growth of high quality GaN layers on silicon.

  7. Layer-by-layer assembled films of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Trigueiro, João Paulo Campos; Silva, Glaura Goulart; Pereira, Fabiano Vargas; Lavall, Rodrigo Lassarote

    2014-10-15

    Chitosan solutions and cellulose nanocrystal suspensions were used to produce highly stable aqueous dispersions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The different MWCNT dispersions, presenting positive and negative charges, were used to prepare multilayered hybrid thin films through electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly. The MWCNTs are well dispersed and homogeneously distributed on each layer of chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals of the films. The nanotubes are densely packed in each multilayer, forming a random network. The surface of the LBL film exhibited a uniform and relatively smooth surface with a mean roughness value of ∼5.8±0.4nm. Electrochemical characterization revealed a decrease in two orders of magnitude in the film resistance as the number of bilayers increased from 5 to 20, which is a consequence of an increase in the amount of conductive material (MWCNT). The thin films with up to 20 bilayers exhibited transmittance higher than 90% in the visible range. The results presented in this work demonstrate the viability of the LBL technique for the deposition of active materials using the biopolymer pair chitosan/cellulose nanocrystals. The obtained films can be employed for the design of transparent and biocompatible carbon nanostructured based electrodes. PMID:25086396

  8. Production of three-dimensional quantum dot lattice of Ge/Si core-shell quantum dots and Si/Ge layers in an alumina glass matrix.

    PubMed

    Buljan, M; Radić, N; Sancho-Paramon, J; Janicki, V; Grenzer, J; Bogdanović-Radović, I; Siketić, Z; Ivanda, M; Utrobičić, A; Hübner, R; Weidauer, R; Valeš, V; Endres, J; Car, T; Jerčinović, M; Roško, J; Bernstorff, S; Holy, V

    2015-02-13

    We report on the formation of Ge/Si quantum dots with core/shell structure that are arranged in a three-dimensional body centered tetragonal quantum dot lattice in an amorphous alumina matrix. The material is prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition of Al2O3/Ge/Si multilayer. The inversion of Ge and Si in the deposition sequence results in the formation of thin Si/Ge layers instead of the dots. Both materials show an atomically sharp interface between the Ge and Si parts of the dots and layers. They have an amorphous internal structure that can be crystallized by an annealing treatment. The light absorption properties of these complex materials are significantly different compared to films that form quantum dot lattices of the pure Ge, Si or a solid solution of GeSi. They show a strong narrow absorption peak that characterizes a type II confinement in accordance with theoretical predictions. The prepared materials are promising for application in quantum dot solar cells. PMID:25605224

  9. Microstructure and properties of pure iron/copper composite cladding layers on carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Long; Huang, Yong-xian; Lü, Shi-xiong; Huang, Ti-fang; Lü, Zong-liang

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, pure iron/copper composite metal cladding was deposited onto carbon steel by tungsten inert gas welding. The study focused on interfacial morphological, microstructural, and mechanical analyses of the composite cladding layers. Iron liquid-solid-phase zones were formed at copper/steel and iron interfaces because of the melting of the steel substrate and iron. Iron concentrated in the copper cladding layer was observed to exhibit belt, globule, and dendrite morphologies. The appearance of iron-rich globules indicated the occurrence of liquid phase separation (LPS) prior to solidification, and iron-rich dendrites crystallized without the occurrence of LPS. The maximum microhardness of the iron/steel interface was lower than that of the copper/steel interface because of the diffusion of elemental carbon. All samples fractured in the cladding layers. Because of a relatively lower strength of the copper layer, a short plateau region appeared when shear movement was from copper to iron.

  10. Chemical vapour deposition growth and Raman characterization of graphene layers and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y.-C.; Rafailov, P. M.; Vlaikova, E.; Marinova, V.; Lin, S. H.; Yu, P.; Yu, S.-C.; Chi, G. C.; Dimitrov, D.; Sveshtarov, P.; Mehandjiev, V.; Gospodinov, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Single-layer graphene films were grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on Cu foil. The CVD process was complemented by plasma enhancement to grow also vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes using Ni nanoparticles as catalyst. The obtained samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy analysis. Nature of defects in the samples and optimal growth conditions leading to achieve high quality of graphene and carbon nanotubes are discussed.

  11. Study of microstructure of surface layers of low-carbon steel after turning and ultrasonic finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevskaya, Zh. G.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Perevalova, O. B.; Klimenov, V. A.; Uvarkin, P. V.

    2013-01-01

    Profilometry and optical and transmission electron microscopy are used to examine the microstructure of surface layers of a low-carbon ferrite-pearlite steel subjected to turning and ultrasonic finishing. It is shown that turning peaks and valleys have different microstructures, which stipulates manifestation of technological hereditary when processing surfaces of machined parts. Ultrasonic finishing causes the severe plastic deformation of the surface layer, which favors the elimination of a technological heredity that is acquired during turning.

  12. Single-layer nano-carbon film, diamond film, and diamond/nano-carbon composite film field emission performance comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinye; Wang, Lijun

    2016-05-01

    A series of single-layer nano-carbon (SNC) films, diamond films, and diamond/nano-carbon (D/NC) composite films have been prepared on the highly doped silicon substrate by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission I-V measurements. The experimental results indicated that the field emission maximum current density of D/NC composite films is 11.8-17.8 times that of diamond films. And the field emission current density of D/NC composite films is 2.9-5 times that of SNC films at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm. At the same time, the D/NC composite film exhibits the advantage of improved reproducibility and long term stability (both of the nano-carbon film within the D/NC composite cathode and the SNC cathode were prepared under the same experimental conditions). And for the D/NC composite sample, a high current density of 10 mA/cm2 at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm was obtained. Diamond layer can effectively improve the field emission characteristics of nano-carbon film. The reason may be due to the diamond film acts as the electron acceleration layer.

  13. Crystallinity Modulation of Layered Carbon Nitride for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhai; Shen, Yanfei; Li, Ying; Liu, Songqin; Zhang, Yuanjian

    2016-08-22

    As an emerging metal-free semiconductor, covalently bonded carbon nitride (CN) has attracted much attention in photocatalysis. However, drawbacks such as a high recombination rate of excited electrons and holes hinder its potential applications. Tailoring the crystallinity of semiconductors is an important way to suppress unwanted charge recombination, but has rarely been applied to CN so far. Herein, a simple method to synthesize CN of high crystallinity by protonation of specific intermediate species during conventional polymerization is reported. Interestingly, the as-obtained CN exhibited improved photocatalytic activities of up to seven times those of the conventional bulk CN. This approach, with only a slight change to the conventional method, provides a facile way to effectively regulate the crystallinity of bulk CN to improve its photocatalytic activities and sheds light on large-scale industrial applications of CN with high efficiency for sustainable energy. PMID:27436164

  14. DNA biosensors based on layer-by-layer self-assembled multilayer films of carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yiyun; Dai, Zhao; Zhang, Jimei; Pang, Jiechun; Xu, Shichao; Zheng, Guo

    2009-07-01

    A novel DNA biosensor based on layer-by-layer self-assembled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and gold nano-particles (GNPs) was presented in this paper, in which the probe HS-ssDNA oligonucleotides, MWNTs and GNPs were all covalently immobilized by chemical Au-Sulphide bonding. Firstly, the super short MWNTs were prepared and modified with thio groups which could be self-assembled onto the surface of Au elcetrode by Au-sulphide bonding, then the GNPs were chemically adhered to the surfaces of MWNTs by forming Au-sulphide bonding again, at last the selfassamble of probe DNA oligonucleotides were also covalently immobilized via Au-sulphide bonding between thio groups at the ends of the DNA oligonucleotides and GNPs. Hybridization between the probe HS-ssDNA oligonucleotides and target DNA oligonucleotides was confirmed by the changes in the voltammetric peak of an anionic intercalator, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS) as a hybridization indicator. The cyclic voltammetric and differential pulse voltammetry responses demonstrated that the DNA biosensors based on Layer-by-layer self-assembled multilayer films of MWNTs and NGPs offer a higher hybridization efficiency and selectivity compared to those based on only random MWNTs or GNPs.

  15. Carbon Surface Layers on a High-Rate LiFePO4

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrisch, Heike; Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2005-09-06

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to image particles of a high-rate LiFePO4 sample containing a small amount of in situ carbon. The particle morphology is highly irregular, with a wide size distribution. Nevertheless, coatings, varying from about 5-10 nm in thickness, could readily be detected on surfaces of particles as well as on edges of agglomerates. Elemental mapping using Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM) indicates that these very thin surface layers are composed of carbon. These observations have important implications for the design of high-rate LiFePO4 materials in which, ideally, a minimal amount of carbon coating is used.

  16. Fabrication of carbon layer coated FE-nanoparticles using an electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Bin; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Kang, Phil Hyun; Oh, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    A novel synthesis of carbon encapsulated Fe nanoparticles was developed in this study. Fe chloride (III) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were used as precursors. The crosslinking of PAN molecules and the nucleation of Fe nanoparticles were controlled by the electron beam irradiation dose. Stabilization and carbonization processes were carried out using a vacuum furnace at 275 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. Micro structures were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fe nanoparticles were formed with diameters of 100 nm, and the Fe nanoparticles were encapsulated by carbon layers. As the electron beam irradiation dose increased, it was observed that the particle sizes decreased.

  17. Bonding of copper surface in ambient air using propylene carbonate as passivation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yu, Min; Phillips, Oluwadamilola; Liu, Lisha; Jin, Yufeng

    2015-07-01

    Bonding of a copper surface in a nonvacuum environment has been studied for the purpose of reducing manufacturing costs. Cu-Cu bonding in ambient air is demonstrated by using propylene carbonate (PPC) as a passivation layer. The decomposition of the PPC passivation layer during bonding would protect the copper surface from oxidation by providing a shielding gas atmosphere between the copper surface and the air. Further, the PPC passivation layer would also overcome the degradation of copper surface during storage in the atmosphere.

  18. High-pressure layered structure of carbon disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghavi, S. Shahab; Crespo, Yanier; MartoÅák, Roman; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-06-01

    Solid CS2 is superficially similar to CO2, with the same C m c a molecular crystal structure at low pressures, which has suggested similar phases also at high pressures. We carried out an extensive first-principles evolutionary search in order to identify the zero-temperature lowest-enthalpy structures of CS2 for increasing pressure up to 200 GPa. Surprisingly, the molecular C m c a phase does not evolve into β -cristobalite as in CO2 but transforms instead into phases HP2 and HP1, both recently described in high-pressure SiS2. HP1 in particular, with a wide stability range, is a layered P 21/c structure characterized by pairs of edge-sharing tetrahedra and is theoretically more robust than all other CS2 phases discussed so far. Its predicted Raman spectrum and pair correlation function agree with experiment better than those of β -cristobalite, and further differences are predicted between their respective IR spectra. The band gap of HP1-CS2 is calculated to close under pressure, yielding an insulator-metal transition near 50 GPa, in agreement with experimental observations. However, the metallic density of states remains modest above this pressure, suggesting a different origin for the reported superconductivity.

  19. Chemical-thermal quantitative methodology for carbon speciation in damage layers on building surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ghedini, Nadia; Sabbioni, Cristina; Bonazza, Alessandra; Gobbi, Giancarlo

    2006-02-01

    The issue of environment protection, including the conservation of the monumental heritage worldwide, is related to atmospheric pollution, and its future therefore depends on air pollutant reduction. Carbonaceous particles emitted by combustion processes are the main factors responsible for the blackening of buildings. The identification and evaluation of the carbon species constituting the noncarbonate fraction of total carbon in damage layers, particularly in urban areas, are required in orderto investigate atmospheric deposition on building surfaces. Since noncarbonate carbon contains organic and elemental carbon originating from various human activities, its measurement and speciation are crucial to the protection and conservation of monuments and ancient masonry, playing an important role both in the proposal of mitigation strategies and in the definition of conservation treatments. The availability of a correct, accurate, and reproducible analytical method for a complete carbon balance is essential in studying the effects of atmospheric pollutants on the environment, including those affecting cultural heritage. A chemical-thermal methodology was set up, and its sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility were tested on appropriate standard samples of composition similar to the black crusts on stones and mortars. The results indicate thatthe technique satisfactorily distinguishes among carbon species, particularly those of anthropogenic origin, allowing a reliable evaluation of their quantities in damage layers. In view of the difficulties encountered in applying the thermo-optical methods adopted for the measurement of carbon filters, the proposed methodology contributes to filling the current gap in suitable and reliable analytical procedures in the field of cultural heritage protection. PMID:16509340

  20. Optimisation of a carbon doped buffer layer for AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamarra, Piero; Lacam, Cedric; Tordjman, Maurice; Splettstösser, Jörg; Schauwecker, Bernd; di Forte-Poisson, Marie-Antoinette

    2015-03-01

    This work reports on the optimisation of carbon doping GaN buffer layer (BL) for AlGaN/GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) structures, grown by low pressure metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (LP-MOVPE) on 3 in. SiC semi-insulating substrates. The incorporation of carbon impurities in GaN is studied as a function of the growth conditions, without using an external carbon source. We observed that the C incorporation can be effectively controlled over more than one order of magnitude by tuning the reactor pressure and the growth temperature, without degradation of the crystalline properties of the GaN layers. HEMT structures with a specific barrier design were grown with different carbon dopings in the GaN BL and processed into transistors to evaluate the impact of the BL doping on the device performances. A significant improvement of the HEMT drain leakage current and of the breakdown voltage was obtained by increasing the carbon incorporation in the GaN BL. The RF performances of the devices show a trade-off between leakage currents and trapping phenomena which are enhanced by the use of carbon doping, limiting the delivered output power. An output power as high as 6.5 W/mm with a Power Added Efficiency of 70% has been achieved at 2 GHz by the HEMT structures with the lowest carbon doping in the BL.

  1. Chemical-thermal quantitative methodology for carbon speciation in damage layers on building surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nadia Ghedini; Cristina Sabbioni; Alessandra Bonazza; Giancarlo Gobbi

    2006-02-01

    Carbonaceous particles emitted by combustion processes are the main factors responsible for the blackening of buildings. The identification and evaluation of the carbon species constituting the noncarbonate fraction of total carbon in damage layers, particularly in urban areas, are required in order to investigate atmospheric deposition on building surfaces. Since noncarbonate carbon contains organic and elemental carbon originating from various human activities, its measurement and speciation are crucial to the protection and conservation of monuments and ancient masonry, playing an important role both in the proposal of mitigation strategies and in the definition of conservation treatments. The availability of a correct, accurate, and reproducible analytical method for a complete carbon balance is essential in studying the effects of atmospheric pollutants on the environment, including those affecting cultural heritage. A chemical-thermal methodology was set up, and its sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility were tested on appropriate standard samples of composition similar to the black crusts on stones and mortars. The results indicate that the technique satisfactorily distinguishes among carbon species, particularly those of anthropogenic origin, allowing a reliable evaluation of their quantities in damage layers. In view of the difficulties encountered in applying the thermo-optical methods adopted for the measurement of carbon filters, the proposed methodology contributes to filling the current gap in suitable and reliable analytical procedures in the field of cultural heritage protection. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. EXAMINATION OF DISLOCATIONS IN LATTICE-MISMATCHED GaInAs/BUFFER LAYER/GaAs FOR III-V PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect

    Levander, A.; Geisz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Dislocations act as sites for nonradiative electron/hole pair recombination, which reduces the effi ciency of photovoltaics. Lattice-matched materials can be grown on top of one another without forming a high density of dislocations. However, when the growth of lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials is attempted, many dislocations result from the relaxation of strain in the crystal structure. In an attempt to reduce the number of dislocations that propagate into a solar device when using LMM materials, a compositionally step-graded buffer is placed between the two LMM materials. In order to confi ne the dislocations to the buffer layer and therefore increase material quality and device effi ciency, the growth temperature and thickness of the buffer layer were varied. A GaInP compositionally graded buffer and GaInAs p-n junction were grown on a GaAs substrate in a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. A multibeam optical stress sensor (MOSS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the strain in the epilayers. Electrical and optoelectronic properties were measured using a probe station and multimeter setup, solar simulator, and a quantum effi ciency instrument. It was determined that device functionality was highly dependent on the growth temperature of the graded buffer. As growth temperature increased, so did the dislocation density in the device despite an increase in the dislocation velocity, which should have increased the dislocation annihilation rate and the diffusion of dislocations to the edge of the crystal. The thickness of the graded buffer also affected device effi ciency with thinner samples performing poorly. The thinner graded buffer layers had high internal resistances from reduced carrier concentrations. In terms of effi ciency, the empirically derived recipe developed by the scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced the highest quality cells.

  3. Thermal properties of carbon nanowall layers measured by a pulsed photothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achour, A.; Belkerk, B. E.; Ait Aissa, K.; Vizireanu, S.; Gautron, E.; Carette, M.; Jouan, P.-Y.; Dinescu, G.; Brizoual, L. Le; Scudeller, Y.; Djouadi, M.-A.

    2013-02-01

    We report the thermal properties of carbon nanowall layers produced by expanding beam radio-frequency plasma. The thermal properties of carbon nanowalls, grown at 600 °C on aluminium nitride thin-film sputtered on fused silica, were measured with a pulsed photo-thermal technique. The apparent thermal conductivity of the carbon at room temperature was found to increase from 20 to 80 Wm-1 K-1 while the thickness varied from 700 to 4300 nm, respectively. The intrinsic thermal conductivity of the carbon nanowalls attained 300 Wm-1 K-1 while the boundary thermal resistance with the aluminium nitride was 3.6 × 10-8 Km2 W-1. These results identify carbon nanowalls as promising material for thermal management applications.

  4. Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunari, S.; Aoki, T.; Murakami, K.; Gomei, Y.; Terashima, S.; Takase, H.; Tanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Kakutani, Y.; Niibe, M.; Fukuda, Y.

    2007-03-01

    Organic gases cause carbon depositions on the multi-layer mirrors by Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) light irradiations in EUV lithography tool. The dependences on organic gas species, organic gas pressure and EUV light intensity in the carbon deposition were researched in order to understand this reaction. EUV light was irradiated on a (Si/Mo) multilayer mirror sample injecting organic gas like buthane, buthanol, methyl propionate, hexane, perfluoro octane, decane, decanol, methyl nonanoate, diethyl benzene, dimethyl phthalate and hexadecane. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed that organic gases with heavier molecule weight or higher boiling temperature caused faster carbon deposition rates. Carbon deposition rates increased linearly with organic gas pressures. Dependence on EUV light intensity was estimated from comparisons between an EUV light profile and carbon distributions on irradiated samples. Carbon deposition rates increased rapidly, but became saturated at higher EUV light intensities. Three chemical reactions, an adsorption, a desorption and a carbon deposition by EUV light irradiation, were taken into account to explain the behavior of the carbon deposition. Electron irradiation on a mirror sample revealed that photoelectrons emitting from the mirror surface played an important role in carbon deposition.

  5. From spent Mg/Al layered double hydroxide to porous carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Laipan, Minwang; Zhu, Runliang; Chen, Qingze; Zhu, Jianxi; Xi, Yunfei; Ayoko, Godwin A; He, Hongping

    2015-12-30

    Adsorption has been considered as an efficient method for the treatment of dye effluents, but proper disposal of the spent adsorbents is still a challenge. This work attempts to provide a facile method to reutilize the spent Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-LDH) after the adsorption of orange II (OII). Herein, the spent hybrid was carbonized under the protection of nitrogen, and then washed with acid to obtain porous carbon materials. Thermogravimetric analysis results suggested that the carbonization could be well achieved above 600°C, as mass loss of the spent hybrid gradually stabilized. Therefore, the carbonization process was carried out at 600, 800, and 1000°C, respectively. Scanning electron microscope showed that the obtained carbon materials possessed a crooked flaky morphology. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption results showed that the carbon materials had large BET surface area and pore volume, e.g., 1426 m(2)/g and 1.67 cm(3)/g for the sample carbonized at 800°C. Moreover, the pore structure and surface chemistry compositions were tunable, as they were sensitive to the temperature. Toluene adsorption results demonstrated that the carbon materials had high efficiency in toluene removal. This work provided a facile approach for synthesizing porous carbon materials using spent Mg/Al-LDH. PMID:26257095

  6. Validation of the numerical model of single-layer composites reinforced with carbon fiber and aramid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sava, Mihaela; Hadǎr, Anton; Pǎrǎuşanu, Ioan; Petrescu, Horia-Alexandru; Baciu, Florin; Marinel, Stǎnescu Marius

    2016-06-01

    In this work we studied the experimental validation of the model and finite element analysis for a single layer of composite materials reinforced with carbon (denoted as C), aramid (K) and carbon-aramid (C-K) fibers. In the literature there are not many details about the differences that arise between transversal and longitudinal characteristics of composite materials reinforced with fabric, compared to those with unidirectional fibers. In order to achieve carbon and aramid composites we used twill fabric and for carbon-aramid plain fabric, as shown in Figure 1. In order to observe the static behavior of the considered specimens, numerical simulations were carried out in addition to the experimental determination of the characteristics of these materials. Layered composites are obviously the most widespread formula for getting advanced composite structures. It allows a unique variety of material and structural combinations leading to optimal design in a wide range of applications [1,2]. To design and verify the material composites it is necessary to know the basic mechanical constants of the materials. Almost all the layered composites consider that the every layer is an orthotropic material, so there are nine independent constants of material corresponding to the three principal directions: Young modulus E1, E2 and E3, shear modulus G12, G23 and G13, and major poison ratios ν12, ν23, ν13. Experimental determinations were performed using traction tests and strain gauges. For each of the three above mentioned materials, five samples were manufactured.

  7. Surface growth for molten silicon infiltration into carbon millimeter-sized channels: Lattice-Boltzmann simulations, experiments and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergi, Danilo; Camarano, Antonio; Molina, José Miguel; Ortona, Alberto; Narciso, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The process of liquid silicon (Si) infiltration is investigated for channels with radii from 0.25[mm] to 0.75[mm] drilled in compact carbon (C) preforms. The advantage of this setup is that the study of the phenomenon results can be simplified. For comparison purposes, attempts are made in order to work out a framework for evaluating the accuracy of simulations. The approach relies on dimensionless numbers involving the properties of the surface reaction. It turns out that complex hydrodynamic behavior derived from second Newton law can be made consistent with Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations. The experiments give clear evidence that the growth of silicon carbide (SiC) proceeds in two different stages and basic mechanisms are highlighted. LB simulations prove to be an effective tool for the description of the growing phase. Namely, essential experimental constraints can be implemented. As a result, the existing models are useful to gain more insight on the process of reactive infiltration into porous media in the first stage of penetration, i.e. up to pore closure because of surface growth. A way allowing one to implement the resistance from chemical reaction in Darcy law is also proposed.

  8. Modeling the diffusion effects through the iron carbonate layer in the carbon dioxide corrosion of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rajappa, S.; Zhang, R.; Gopal, M.

    1998-12-31

    A mechanistic model was developed for predicting carbon dioxide corrosion rates of carbon steel pipes in multiphase flow conditions. The model incorporates the chemistry, thermodynamics of carbon dioxide dissolution, multiphase mass transfer, electrochemical kinetics on the metal surface and the presence of a corrosion product film. The predicted corrosion rates show good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Rapid exchange between atmospheric CO2 and carbonate anion intercalated within magnesium rich layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Pathik; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Deguchi, Kenzo; Ohki, Shinobu; Tansho, Masataka; Shimizu, Tadashi; Eisaku, Nii; Sasai, Ryo; Labuta, Jan; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Iyi, Nobuo

    2014-10-22

    The carbon cycle, by which carbon atoms circulate between atmosphere, oceans, lithosphere, and the biosphere of Earth, is a current hot research topic. The carbon cycle occurring in the lithosphere (e.g., sedimentary carbonates) is based on weathering and metamorphic events so that its processes are considered to occur on the geological time scale (i.e., over millions of years). In contrast, we have recently reported that carbonate anions intercalated within a hydrotalcite (Mg0.75Al0.25(OH)2(CO3)0.125·yH2O), a class of a layered double hydroxide (LDH), are dynamically exchanging on time scale of hours with atmospheric CO2 under ambient conditions. (Ishihara et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18040-18043). The use of (13)C-labeling enabled monitoring by infrared spectroscopy of the dynamic exchange between the initially intercalated (13)C-labeled carbonate anions and carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2. In this article, we report the significant influence of Mg/Al ratio of LDH on the carbonate anion exchange dynamics. Of three LDHs of various Mg/Al ratios of 2, 3, or 4, magnesium-rich LDH (i.e., Mg/Al ratio = 4) underwent extremely rapid exchange of carbonate anions, and most of the initially intercalated carbonate anions were replaced with carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2 within 30 min. Detailed investigations by using infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR revealed that magnesium rich LDH has chemical and structural features that promote the exchange of carbonate anions. Our results indicate that the unique interactions between LDH and CO2 can be optimized simply by varying the chemical composition of LDH, implying that LDH is a promising material for CO2 storage and/or separation. PMID:25275963

  10. Magnetic and electrode properties, structure and phase relations of the layered triangular-lattice tellurate Li{sub 4}NiTeO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Zvereva, Elena A.; Nalbandyan, Vladimir B.; Evstigneeva, Maria A.; Koo, Hyun-Joo; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Ushakov, Arseni V.; Medvedev, Boris S.; Medvedeva, Larisa I.; Gridina, Nelly A.; Yalovega, Galina E.; Churikov, Alexei V.; Vasiliev, Alexander N.; Büchner, Bernd

    2015-05-15

    We examined the magnetic properties of layered oxide Li{sub 4}NiTeO{sub 6} by magnetic susceptibility, magnetization and ESR measurements and density functional calculations, and characterized phase relations, crystal structure and electrochemical properties of Li{sub 4}NiTeO{sub 6}. The magnetization and ESR data indicate the absence of a long-range magnetic order down to 1.8 K, and the magnetic susceptibility data the presence of dominant antiferromagnetic interactions. These observations are well accounted for by density functional calculations, which show that the spin exchanges of the LiNiTeO{sub 6} layers in Li{sub 4}NiTeO{sub 6} are strongly spin frustrated. The electrochemical charging of Li{sub 4}NiTeO{sub 6} takes place at constant potential of ca. 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} indicating two-phase process as confirmed by X-rays. The starting phase is only partially recovered on discharge due to side reactions. - Graphical abstract: No long-range magnetic order due to frustration in 2D triangular lattice antiferromagnet Li{sub 4}NiTeO{sub 6}. - Highlights: • Li{sub 4}NiTeO{sub 6} is 2D triangular lattice magnet with no long-range order down to 1.8 K. • Intralayer exchange interactions are antiferromagnetic and strongly spin frustrated. • The electrochemical Li extraction proceeds in a two-phase mode at 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. • The electrochemical charge–discharge is only partially reversible. • Li{sub 2}O–NiO{sub y}–TeO{sub x} phase relations are reported; Li{sub 4}NiTeO{sub 6} is essentially stoichiometric.

  11. Crystallographic growth and alignment of carbon nanotubes on few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Aram; Hunley, Patrick D.; Nasseri, Mohsen; Boland, Mathias J.; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Hudak, Bethany M.; Guiton, Beth S.; Strachan, Douglas R.

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid carbon nanotube and graphene structures are emerging as an exciting material system built from a common sp2 carbon backbone. Such hybrid systems have promise for use in improving the performance of energy storage and high-speed electronic applications. Towards the attainment of such hybrid materials, the catalytic growth and crystallographic alignment of these integrated structures are investigated along with the atomic-scale features of their interfaces. The catalytic activity of nanoparticles to form carbon nanotubes on the surface of few-layer graphene is tuned through precise feedstock application. Through careful materials synthesis, the interfaces of these hybrid carbon nanotube - graphene systems are investigated through ultra-high resolution electron microscopy.

  12. Electric double-layer capacitors based on highly graphitized nanoporous carbons derived from ZIF-67.

    PubMed

    Torad, Nagy L; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Li, Yunqi; Hamoudi, Hicham; Imura, Masataka; Sakka, Yoshio; Hu, Chi-Chang; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-06-23

    Nanoporous carbons (NPCs) have large specific surface areas, good electrical and thermal conductivity, and both chemical and mechanical stability, which facilitate their use in energy storage device applications. In the present study, highly graphitized NPCs are synthesized by one-step direct carbonization of cobalt-containing zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67). After chemical etching, the deposited Co content can be completely removed to prepare pure NPCs with high specific surface area, large pore volume, and intrinsic electrical conductivity (high content of sp(2) -bonded carbons). A detailed electrochemical study is performed using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. Our NPC is very promising for efficient electrodes for high-performance supercapacitor applications. A maximum specific capacitance of 238 F g(-1) is observed at a scan rate of 20 mV s(-1) . This value is very high compared to previous works on carbon-based electric double layer capacitors. PMID:24788922

  13. Layer-by-layer electrodeposition of redox polymers and enzymes on screen-printed carbon electrodes for the preparation of reagentless biosensors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiang; Yang, Xiurong

    2004-01-01

    Layer-by-layer electrodeposition of redox polymer/enzyme composition films on screen-printed carbon electrodes for fabrication of reagentless enzyme biosensors has been proposed and the resulting films were found to be very stable and rigid. PMID:14737317

  14. Manganese oxide nanowires wrapped with nitrogen doped carbon layers for high performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Mei, Yuan; Zhang, Lin-Qun; Wang, Jian-Hai; Liu, An-Ran; Zhang, Yuan-Jian; Liu, Song-Qin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, manganese oxide nanowires wrapped by nitrogen-doped carbon layers (MnO(x)@NCs) were prepared by carbonization of poly(o-phenylenediamine) layer coated onto MnO2 nanowires for high performance supercapacitors. The component and structure of the MnO(x)@NCs were controlled through carbonization procedure under different temperatures. Results demonstrated that this composite combined the high conductivity and high specific surface area of nitrogen-doped carbon layers with the high pseudo-capacitance of manganese oxide nanowires. The as-prepared MnO(x)@NCs exhibited superior capacitive properties in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution, such as high conductivity (4.167×10(-3) S cm(-1)), high specific capacitance (269 F g(-1) at 10 mV s(-1)) and long cycle life (134 F g(-1) after 1200 cycles at a scan rate of 50 mV s(-1)). It is reckoned that the present novel hybrid nanowires can serve as a promising electrode material for supercapacitors and other electrochemical devices. PMID:26070189

  15. Effect of diffuse layer and pore shapes in mesoporous carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Qiao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    In the spirit of the theoretical evolution from the Helmholtz model to the Gouy Chapman Stern model for electric double-layer capacitors, we explored the effect of a diffuse layer on the capacitance of mesoporous carbon supercapacitors by solving the Poisson Boltzmann (PB) equation in mesopores of diameters from 2 to 20 nm. To evaluate the effect of pore shape, both slit and cylindrical pores were considered. We found that the diffuse layer does not affect the capacitance significantly. For slit pores, the area-normalized capacitance is nearly independent of pore size, which is not experimentally observed for template carbons. In comparison, for cylindrical pores, PB simulations produce a trend of slightly increasing area-normalized capacitance with pore size, similar to that depicted by the electric double-cylinder capacitor model proposed earlier. These results indicate that it is appropriate to approximate the pore shape of mesoporous carbons as being cylindrical and the electric double-cylinder capacitor model should be used for mesoporous carbons as a replacement of the traditional Helmholtz model.

  16. Layered graphitic carbon host formation during liquid-free solid state growth of metal pyrophosphates.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Carlos; Valenzuela, María Luisa; Lavayen, Vladimir; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2012-06-01

    We report a successful ligand- and liquid-free solid state route to form metal pyrophosphates within a layered graphitic carbon matrix through a single step approach involving pyrolysis of previously synthesized organometallic derivatives of a cyclotriphosphazene. In this case, we show how single crystal Mn(2)P(2)O(7) can be formed on either the micro- or the nanoscale in the complete absence of solvents or solutions by an efficient combustion process using rationally designed macromolecular trimer precursors, and present evidence and a mechanism for layered graphite host formation. Using in situ Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high resolution electron microscopy, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure examination, we monitor the formation process of a layered, graphitic carbon in the matrix. The identification of thermally and electrically conductive graphitic carbon host formation is important for the further development of this general ligand-free synthetic approach for inorganic nanocrystal growth in the solid state, and can be extended to form a range of transition metals pyrophosphates. For important energy storage applications, the method gives the ability to form oxide and (pyro)phosphates within a conductive, intercalation possible, graphitic carbon as host-guest composites directly on substrates for high rate Li-ion battery and emerging alternative positive electrode materials. PMID:22587306

  17. Characterization of transfer layers on steel surfaces sliding against diamondlike carbon in dry nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.; Bindal, C.; Pagan, J.; Wilbur, P.

    1995-03-01

    Transfer layers on sliding steel surfaces play important roles in tribological performance of diamondlike carbon films. This study investigated the nature of transfer layers formed on M50 balls during sliding against diamondlike carbon (DLC) films (1.5 {mu}m thick) prepared by ion-beam deposition. Long-duration sliding tests were performed with steel balls sliding against the DLC coatings in dry nitrogen at room temperature and zero humidity. Test results indicated that the friction coefficients of test pairs were initially 0.12 but decreased steadily with sliding distance to 0.02-0.03 and remained constant throughout the tests, which lasted for more than 250,000 sliding cycles (30 km). This low-friction regime appeared to coincide with the formation of a carbon-rich transfer layer on the sliding surfaces of M50 balls. Micro-laser-Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy were used to elucidate the structure and chemistry of these transfer layers and to reveal their possible role in the wear and friction behavior of DLC-coated surfaces.

  18. Amperometric Choline Biosensor Fabricated through Electrostatic Assembly of Bienzyme/Polyelectrolyte Hybrid Layers on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-03-01

    We report a flow injection amperometric choline biosensors based on the electrostatic assembly of an enzyme of choline oxidase (ChO) and a bi-enzyme of ChO and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. These choline biosensors were fabricated by immobilization of enzymes on the negatively charged MWCNT surface through alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallydiimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and an enzyme layer. Using this layer-by-layer assembling approach, bioactive nanocomposite film of a PDDA/ChO/PDDA/HRP/PDDA/CNT (ChO/HRP/CNT) and a PDDA/ChO/PDDA/ CNT (ChO/ CNT) were fabricated on GC surface, respectively. Owning to the electrocatalytic effect of carbon nanotubes, the measurement of faradic responses resulting from enzymatic reactions has been realized at low potential with acceptable sensitivity. It is found the ChO/HRP/CNT biosensor is more sensitive than the ChO/CNT one. Experimental parameters affecting the sensitivity of biosensors, e.g. applied potential, flow rate, etc. were optimized and potential interference was examined. The response time for this choline biosensor is fast (less than a few seconds). The linear range of detection for the choline biosensor is from 5 x 10-5 to 5 x 10-3 M and the detection limit is determined to be about 1.0 x 10-5 M.

  19. Accurate Estimation of the Fine Layering Effect on the Wave Propagation in the Carbonate Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaala, F.; Ali, M. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The attenuation caused to the seismic wave during its propagation can be mainly divided into two parts, the scattering and the intrinsic attenuation. The scattering is an elastic redistribution of the energy due to the medium heterogeneities. However the intrinsic attenuation is an inelastic phenomenon, mainly due to the fluid-grain friction during the wave passage. The intrinsic attenuation is directly related to the physical characteristics of the medium, so this parameter is very can be used for media characterization and fluid detection, which is beneficial for the oil and gas industry. The intrinsic attenuation is estimated by subtracting the scattering from the total attenuation, therefore the accuracy of the intrinsic attenuation is directly dependent on the accuracy of the total attenuation and the scattering. The total attenuation can be estimated from the recorded waves, by using in-situ methods as the spectral ratio and frequency shift methods. The scattering is estimated by assuming the heterogeneities as a succession of stacked layers, each layer is characterized by a single density and velocity. The accuracy of the scattering is strongly dependent on the layer thicknesses, especially in the case of the media composed of carbonate rocks, such media are known for their strong heterogeneity. Previous studies gave some assumptions for the choice of the layer thickness, but they showed some limitations especially in the case of carbonate rocks. In this study we established a relationship between the layer thicknesses and the frequency of the propagation, after certain mathematical development of the Generalized O'Doherty-Anstey formula. We validated this relationship through some synthetic tests and real data provided from a VSP carried out over an onshore oilfield in the emirate of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates, primarily composed of carbonate rocks. The results showed the utility of our relationship for an accurate estimation of the scattering

  20. Structure and properties of titanium surface layers after electron beam alloying with powder mixtures containing carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenivtseva, O. G.; Bataev, I. A.; Golkovskii, M. G.; Bataev, A. A.; Samoilenko, V. V.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    The structure and tribological properties of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) samples after non-vacuum electron beam surface alloying with carbon were studied. Two types of powders were used to introduce carbon in surface layer of cp-Ti: titanium carbide (TiC) and mixture of pure titanium and graphite ("Ti + C"). Single layer and multilayer coatings were studied. Application of electron beam for alloying provided cladding rate of 4.5 m2/h. The thickness of the clad coatings was 1.6-2.0 mm. The main phases received after "Ti + C" powder cladding were α-titanium, TiC, and retained graphite. In the samples obtained by cladding of TiC, graphite was not observed. A factor determining the microhardness and tribological properties of the cladded layer was the volume fraction of TiC. Maximum coating microhardness of 8 GPa was obtained by cladding of single layer of TiC powder or two layers of the "Ti + C" mixture. Two types of tests were carried out to evaluate the wear resistance of the samples. In friction tests against loose abrasive particles, the wear rate of the best samples was 9.3 times lower than that of cp-Ti. In wear tests using fixed abrasive particles, the relative wear resistance of the best samples was 2.3 times higher than that of cp-Ti.

  1. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanocoils coated with highly controlled magnetic materials by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guizhen; Gao, Zhe; Tang, Shiwei; Chen, Chaoqiu; Duan, Feifei; Zhao, Shichao; Lin, Shiwei; Feng, Yuhong; Zhou, Lei; Qin, Yong

    2012-12-21

    In this work, atomic layer deposition is applied to coat carbon nanocoils with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) or Ni. The coatings have a uniform and highly controlled thickness. The coated nanocoils with coaxial multilayer nanostructures exhibit remarkably improved microwave absorption properties compared to the pristine carbon nanocoils. The enhanced absorption ability arises from the efficient complementarity between complex permittivity and permeability, chiral morphology, and multilayer structure of the products. This method can be extended to exploit other composite materials benefiting from its convenient control of the impedance matching and combination of dielectric-magnetic multiple loss mechanisms for microwave absorption applications. PMID:23171130

  2. Mass Conservation in Modeling Moisture Diffusion in Multi-Layer Carbon Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark A.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2009-01-01

    Moisture diffusion in multi-layer carbon composite structures is difficult to model using finite difference methods due to the discontinuity in concentrations between adjacent layers of differing materials. Applying a mass conserving approach at these boundaries proved to be effective at accurately predicting moisture uptake for a sample exposed to a fixed temperature and relative humidity. Details of the model developed are presented and compared with actual moisture uptake data gathered over 130 days from a graphite epoxy composite sandwich coupon with a Rohacell foam core.

  3. Enzyme and Mediator-coadsorbed Carbon Felt Electrode for Electrochemical Detection of Glucose Covered with Polymer Layers Based on Layer-by-Layer Technique.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Soichi; Hirata, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Glucose dehydrogenase (GlDH) and ferrocene were coadsorbed on a carbon felt (CF) sheet (5 × 10 mm, 2 mm thickness), which was used to construct an electrode for the electrochemical detection of glucose. A potential of +0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl was applied on the base CF, and the current was measured. After the addition of glucose, the current increased and reached a steady state within 50 s. The current response was proportional to the glucose concentration up to 20 μM, with a lower detection limit of 1 μM. The surface of the CF electrode was covered by layers of polystyrene sulfonate and poly-L-lysine using layer-by-layer technique. Again the current response was proportional to glucose concentration up to 20 μM, with a lower detection limit of 2 μM. The oxidation current owing to electrochemical interferents such as L-ascorbate and acetaminophen was 1/8 times of the current observed on the unprotected electrode. In addition, the protection imparted stability to the electrode. Our work demonstrates that a GlDH/ferrocene CF electrode, protected with polystyrene sulfonate and poly-L-lysine, could be used for the electrochemical detection of glucose. PMID:26165293

  4. Carbon nanotubes supported cerium dioxide and platinum nanohybrids: Layer-by-layer synthesis and enhanced electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Xinyuan; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Mengdi; Gu, Jialei; Wu, Ping; Sun, Dongmei; Tang, Yawen

    2015-08-01

    We successfully synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) supported cerium dioxide and platinum (Pt/CeO2/CNTs) nanohybrids via layer-by-layer assembly. The composition, morphology and structure of the as-prepared Pt/CeO2/CNTs nanohybrids are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). By comparison of the electrocatalytic properties of the Pt/CeO2/CNTs with the Pt/CNTs, we systematically investigate the promotion effect of CeO2 on the Pt/CeO2/CNTs catalysts towards methanol oxidation. It is found that the introduction of CeO2 not only enhances the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the Pt/CeO2/CNTs catalyst for methanol oxidation but also minimizes the CO poisoning, probably accounting for the good oxygen carrying capacity of CeO2 and its high stability in acidic solution.

  5. Layer-by-layer carbon nanotube bio-templates for in situ monitoring of the metabolic activity of nitrifying bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Kenneth J.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Ho, Genevieve; Lynch, Jerome P.; Love, Nancy G.

    2009-03-01

    Despite the wide variety of effective disinfection and wastewater treatment techniques for removing organic and inorganic wastes, pollutants such as nitrogen remain in wastewater effluents. If left untreated, these nitrogenous wastes can adversely impact the environment by promoting the overgrowth of aquatic plants, depleting dissolved oxygen, and causing eutrophication. Although nitrification/denitrification processes are employed during advanced wastewater treatment, effective and efficient operation of these facilities require information of the pH, dissolved oxygen content, among many other parameters, of the wastewater effluent. In this preliminary study, a biocompatible CNT-based nanocomposite is proposed and validated for monitoring the biological metabolic activity of nitrifying bacteria in wastewater effluent environments (i.e., to monitor the nitrification process). Using carbon nanotubes and a pH-sensitive conductive polymer (i.e., poly(aniline) emeraldine base), a layer-by-layer fabrication technique is employed to fabricate a novel thin film pH sensor that changes its electrical properties in response to variations in ambient pH environments. Laboratory studies are conducted to evaluate the proposed nanocomposite's biocompatibility with wastewater effluent environments and its pH sensing performance.

  6. Reagentless biosensor based on layer-by-layer assembly of functional multiwall carbon nanotubes and enzyme-mediator biocomposite*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xing-hua; Xi, Feng-na; Zhang, Yi-ming; Lin, Xian-fu

    2011-01-01

    A simple and controllable layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly method was proposed for the construction of reagentless biosensors based on electrostatic interaction between functional multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and enzyme-mediator biocomposites. The carboxylated MWNTs were wrapped with polycations poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and the resulting PAH-MWNTs were well dispersed and positively charged. As a water-soluble dye methylene blue (MB) could mix well with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to form a biocompatible and negatively-charged HRP-MB biocomposite. A (PAH-MWNTs/HRP-MB)n bionanomultilayer was then prepared by electrostatic LBL assembly of PAH-MWNTs and HRP-MB on a polyelectrolyte precursor film-modified Au electrode. Due to the excellent biocompatibility of HRP-MB biocomposite and the uniform LBL assembly, the immobilized HRP could retain its natural bioactivity and MB could efficiently shuttle electrons between HRP and the electrode. The incorporation of MWNTs in the bionanomultilayer enhanced the surface coverage concentration of the electroactive enzyme and increased the catalytic current response of the electrode. The proposed biosensor displayed a fast response (2 s) to hydrogen peroxide with a low detection limit of 2.0×10−7 mol/L (S/N=3). This work provided a versatile platform in the further development of reagentless biosensors. PMID:21634040

  7. Layer-by-layer assembly of multifunctional porous N-doped carbon nanotube hybrid architectures for flexible conductors and beyond.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Songfang; Gao, Yongju; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Guoping; Zhi, Chunyi; Deng, Libo; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Coassemble diverse functional nanomaterials with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form three-dimensional (3D) porous CNTs hybrid architectures (CHAs) are potentially desirable for applications in energy storage, flexible conductors, and catalysis, because of diverse functionalities and synergistic effects in the CHAs. Herein, we report a scalable strategy to incorporate various functional nanomaterials with N-doped CNTs (N-CNTs) into such 3D porous CHAs on the polyurethane (PU) sponge skeletons via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. To investigate their properties and applications, the specific CHAs based on N-CNTs and Ag nanoparticles (NPs), denoted as PU-(N-CNTs/Ag NPs)n, are developed. The unique binary structure enables these specific CHAs conductors to possess reliable mechanical and electrical performance under various elastic deformations as well as excellent hydrophilicity. Moreover, they are employed as strain-gauge sensor and heterogeneous catalyst, respectively. The sensor could detect continuous signal, static signal, and pulse signal with superior sustainability and reversibility, indicating an important branch of electromechanical devices. Furthermore, the synergistic effects among N-CNTs, Ag NPs, and porous structure endow the CHAs with excellent performance in catalysis. We have a great expectation that LbL assembly can afford a universal route for incorporating diverse functional materials into one structure. PMID:25749434

  8. Two perspectives on the coupled carbon, water and energy exchange in the planetary boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combe, M.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Jacobs, C. M. J.; Peters, W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere is key to modelling boundary-layer meteorology and cloud formation, as well as carbon cycling and crop yield. In this study we explore these interactions in the exchange of water, heat and CO2 in a cropland-atmosphere system at the diurnal and local scale. To that end, we couple an atmospheric mixed-layer model (MXL) to two land-surface schemes developed from two different perspectives: while one land-surface scheme (A-gs) simulates vegetation from an atmospheric point of view, the other (GECROS) simulates vegetation from a carbon-storage point of view. We calculate surface fluxes of heat, moisture and carbon, as well as the resulting atmospheric state and boundary-layer dynamics, over a maize field in the Netherlands, on a day for which we have a rich set of observations available. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding the role of upper-atmosphere conditions like subsidence in comparison to the role of surface forcings like soil moisture. We show that the atmospheric-oriented model (MXL-A-gs) outperforms the carbon storage-oriented model (MXL-GECROS) on this diurnal scale. We find this performance is partly due to the difference of scales at which the models were made to run. Most importantly, this performance strongly depends on the sensitivity of the modelled stomatal conductance to water stress, which is implemented differently in each model. This sensitivity also influences the magnitude of the surface fluxes of CO2, water and heat (surface control) and subsequently impacts the boundary-layer growth and entrainment fluxes (upper atmosphere control), which alter the atmospheric state. These findings suggest that observed CO2 mole fractions in the boundary layer can reflect strong influences of both the surface and upper-atmosphere conditions, and the interpretation of CO2 mole fraction variations depends on the assumed land-surface coupling. We illustrate this with a sensitivity

  9. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki; Kalita, Golap

    2014-09-29

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  10. Atomic layer deposition on suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes via gas-phase noncovalent functionalization.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Damon B; Gordon, Roy G

    2006-04-01

    Alternating exposures of nitrogen dioxide gas and trimethylaluminum vapor are shown to functionalize the surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotubes with a self-limited monolayer. Functionalized nanotube surfaces are susceptible to atomic layer deposition of continuous, radially isotropic material. This allows for the creation of coaxial nanotube structures of multiple materials with precisely controlled diameters. Functionalization involves only weak physical bonding, avoiding covalent modification, which should preserve the unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the nanotubes. PMID:16608267

  11. Investigation of electrical and impact properties of carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites with carbon nanotube buckypaper layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Christopher Brandon

    Carbon fiber reinforced composite materials have become commonplace in many industries including aerospace, automotive, and sporting goods. Previous research has determined a coupling relationship between the mechanical and electrical properties of these materials where the application of electrical current has been shown to improve their mechanical strengths. The next generations of these composites have started to be produced with the addition of nanocarbon buckypaper layers which provide even greater strength and electrical conductivity potentials. The focus of this current research was to characterize these new composites and compare their electro-mechanical coupling capabilities to those composites which do not contain any nonocarbons.

  12. Low-cost photoelectrocatalyst based on a nanoporous oxide layer of low-carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangaraju, Raghu R.; Raja, K. S.; Panday, A.; Misra, M.

    2010-11-01

    Low-carbon steel is a commonly used structural material in a wide variety of applications. An anodic oxide layer of this inexpensive alloy has been noted to have interesting photoelectrochemical behaviour similar to that of α-Fe2O3 prepared using other expensive starting materials. An ordered nanoporous oxide layer has been grown on to the low-carbon steel surface by a simple electrochemical anodization process in different electrolytes such as ethylene glycol containing 0.05M NH4F and 3-10 vol% water and 0.5M phosphoric acid solution containing 0.05M NH4F. After anodization, the nanoporous anodic oxide layer has been transformed to α-Fe2O3 by a low-temperature annealing process. Photoelectrochemical characterization of the anodic iron oxide materials has been carried out in 1M KOH electrolyte under a solar simulated illumination using Air Mass (AM) 1.5. The ordered nanoporous oxide layer prepared in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte showed a photocurrent density of about 85 µA cm-2 at 0.4 VAg/AgCl. Whereas the anodic iron oxide prepared by anodization of the low-carbon steel in 0.5M H3PO4 + 0.05M NaF solution showed a photocurrent density of 800 µA cm-2 at 0.4 VAg/AgCl. The improved photoactivity of the phosphate-modified oxide layer could be attributed to the high charge carrier concentration, low charge transfer resistance and better ability to expend holes in the oxygen evolution reaction.

  13. Assessment of carbon layer growth induced by resists outgassing in multi e-beams lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marusic, JC; Pourteau, ML; Cêtre, S.; Pain, L.; Mebiene-Engohang, AP; David, S.; Labau, S.; Boussey, J.

    2014-10-01

    The development of multiple e-beam lithography equipment is seen as an alternative for next generation lithography. However, similarly to EUV lithography, this technology faces important challenges in controlling the contamination of the optics due to deposition of carbon layer induced by the outgassed chemical species from resist under electron bombardment. An experimental setup was designed and built at LETI to study the outgassed species and observe the carbon layer. In this setup, resist coated wafers 100 mm size are exposed under a 5 kV e-beam gun. During exposure, byproducts from outgassed species are monitored with a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). The identification of outgassed chemical species is done with an ex-situ TD-GC-MS analysis (ThermoDesorption-Gaz Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). In a second part of this investigation, we observed the contamination carbon layer growth induced by the outgassing. Thereby, we fabricated a device which consists of a silicon membrane with micro-machined apertures. During e-beam exposure, this device simulates the multiple parallel beams of the optic system of a maskless lithography tool. The deposited contamination layer on device is then observed and thickness measured under SEM. In this paper, we present the results of outgassing and contamination on 3 chemically amplified resists showing that contamination is not directly dependent of the overall outgassing rate but on first order of the outgassing from Photo Acid Generator (PAG). It also reports on the performance in reducing outgassing and contamination of applying a top-coat layer on top of the resist and shows that reduction is more important for contamination than for outgassing.

  14. Topological defects in electric double layers of ionic liquids at carbon interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Jennifer M.; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Feng, Guang; Cummings, Peter T.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Balke, Nina

    2015-06-07

    The structure and properties of the electrical double layer in ionic liquids is of interest in a wide range of areas including energy storage, catalysis, lubrication, and many more. Theories describing the electrical double layer for ionic liquids have been proposed, however a full molecular level description of the double layer is lacking. To date, studies have been predominantly focused on ion distributions normal to the surface, however the 3D nature of the electrical double layer in ionic liquids requires a full picture of the double layer structure not only normal to the surface, but also in plane. Here we utilize 3D force mapping to probe the in plane structure of an ionic liquid at a graphite interface and report the direct observation of the structure and properties of topological defects. The observation of ion layering at structural defects such as step-edges, reinforced by molecular dynamics simulations, defines the spatial resolution of the method. Observation of defects allows for the establishment of the universality of ionic liquid behavior vs. separation from the carbon surface and to map internal defect structure. In conclusion, these studies offer a universal pathway for probing the internal structure of topological defects in soft condensed matter on the nanometer level in three dimensions.

  15. Topological defects in electric double layers of ionic liquids at carbon interfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Black, Jennifer M.; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Feng, Guang; Cummings, Peter T.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Balke, Nina

    2015-06-07

    The structure and properties of the electrical double layer in ionic liquids is of interest in a wide range of areas including energy storage, catalysis, lubrication, and many more. Theories describing the electrical double layer for ionic liquids have been proposed, however a full molecular level description of the double layer is lacking. To date, studies have been predominantly focused on ion distributions normal to the surface, however the 3D nature of the electrical double layer in ionic liquids requires a full picture of the double layer structure not only normal to the surface, but also in plane. Here wemore » utilize 3D force mapping to probe the in plane structure of an ionic liquid at a graphite interface and report the direct observation of the structure and properties of topological defects. The observation of ion layering at structural defects such as step-edges, reinforced by molecular dynamics simulations, defines the spatial resolution of the method. Observation of defects allows for the establishment of the universality of ionic liquid behavior vs. separation from the carbon surface and to map internal defect structure. In conclusion, these studies offer a universal pathway for probing the internal structure of topological defects in soft condensed matter on the nanometer level in three dimensions.« less

  16. The effect of the carbon nanotube buffer layer on the performance of a Li metal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-05-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode for the next-generation energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity and lowest negative electrochemical potential. But the growth of Li dendrites limits the application of the Li metal battery. In this work, a type of modified Li metal battery with a carbon nanotube (CNT) buffer layer inserted between the separator and the Li metal electrode was reported. The electrochemical results show that the modified batteries have a much better rate capability and cycling performance than the conventional Li metal batteries. The mechanism study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the modified battery has a smaller charge transfer resistance and larger Li ion diffusion coefficient during the deposition process on the Li electrode than the conventional Li metal batteries. Symmetric battery tests show that the interfacial behavior of the Li metal electrode with the buffer layer is more stable than the naked Li metal electrode. The morphological characterization of the CNT buffer layer and Li metal lamina reveals that the CNT buffer layer has restrained the growth of Li dendrites. The CNT buffer layer has great potential to solve the safety problem of the Li metal battery.Lithium (Li) metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode for the next-generation energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity and lowest negative electrochemical potential. But the growth of Li dendrites limits the application of the Li metal battery. In this work, a type of modified Li metal battery with a carbon nanotube (CNT) buffer layer inserted between the separator and the Li metal electrode was reported. The electrochemical results show that the modified batteries have a much better rate capability and cycling performance than the conventional Li metal batteries. The mechanism study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the modified battery has a

  17. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of niobium pentoxide deposited on layered carbide-derived carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanfang (John); Maloney, Ryan; Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Beidaghi, Majid; Dyatkin, Boris; Perre, Emilie; Long, Donghui; Qiao, Wenming; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report on the hydrothermal synthesis of niobium pentoxide on carbide-derived carbon (Nb2O5/CDC) with a layered structure. The presence of phenylphosphonic acid guides the deposition during preparation, leading to the formation of amorphous Nb2O5 particles which are 4-10 nm in diameter and homogeneously distributed on the CDC framework. Electrochemical testing of the Nb2O5/CDC electrode indicated that the highest capacitance and Coulombic efficiency occurred using an electrolyte comprised of 1 M lithium perchlorate in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate. Subsequent heat treatment of Nb2O5/CDC in CO2 environment led to crystallization of the Nb2O5, allowing reversible Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation. For sweep rates corresponding to charging and discharging in under 3 min, a volumetric charge of 180 C cm-3 and Coulombic efficiency of 99.2% were attained.

  18. Synthesis of carbon nano-structures using organic-molecule intercalated taeniolite layered silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezumi, Takaaki; Wada, Noboru

    2015-03-01

    By calcinating organic-molecule intercalated taeniolite layered silicates, carbon nano-structures were made between the 2:1 layered silicate sheets. Raman scattering, XRD, TGA and SEM were used to characterize the samples. Large taeniolite crystals (NaLiMg2Si4O10F) were first prepared by melting appropriate chemicals at high temperatures using a platinum crucible. Then, the taeniolite crystals made were cation-exchanged with Li+, K+, NH4+,Ca2+ + and Mg2+ in salt solution. Finally, various organic molecules such as ethylene glycol, pyridine and so on were intercalated into the taeniolite crystals, and calcinated under a N2 atmosphere at about 1000K. The resulting crystals are usually gray or black. X-ray (00l) diffraction patterns suggested that the carbon structures may be monolayer thick (i.e., graphene-like). Raman scattering spectra which exhibited a sharp G-band peak with a high G-band/D-band ratio indicated that the carbon structures were relatively well crystallized. Cation and organic-molecule dependence on the carbon structures will be discussed. In addition, evidence for stage-2 taeniolite will be presented.

  19. Microbial respiration per unit microbial biomass depends on litter layer carbon-to-nitrogen ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, M.

    2015-02-01

    Soil microbial respiration is a central process in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In this study, I tested the effect of the carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio of soil litter layers on microbial respiration in absolute terms and per unit microbial biomass C. For this purpose, a global data set on microbial respiration per unit microbial biomass C - termed the metabolic quotient (qCO2) - was compiled from literature data. It was found that qCO2 in the soil litter layers was positively correlated with the litter C:N ratio and was negatively correlated with the litter nitrogen (N) concentration. The positive relation between qCO2 and the litter C:N ratio resulted from an increase in respiration with the C:N ratio in combination with no significant effect of the litter C:N ratio on the soil microbial biomass C concentration. The results suggest that soil microorganisms respire more C both in absolute terms and per unit microbial biomass C when decomposing N-poor substrate. The reasons for the observed relationship between qCO2 and the litter layer C:N ratio could be microbial N mining, overflow respiration or the inhibition of oxidative enzymes at high N concentrations. In conclusion, the results show that qCO2 increases with the litter layer C:N ratio. Thus, the findings indicate that atmospheric N deposition, leading to decreased litter C:N ratios, might decrease microbial respiration in soils.

  20. Multi-layer stretchable pressure sensors using ionic liquids and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatani, Morteza; Vatani, Mohamad; Choi, J. W.

    2016-02-01

    A stretchable and pressure sensitive polymer capable of detecting strains was developed through the incorporation of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as an ionic liquid (IL) into a stretchable photopolymer. The developed IL/polymer composite showed both a field effect characteristic and piezoresistivity by embedding the composite between two layers of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable electrodes. A multi-layer pressure sensitive taxel was formed using a hybrid manufacturing process, where two electrode layers were fabricated by screen printing and the IL/polymer composite was formed by casting using a mold. A composite material for the electrodes was developed through the dispersion of CNTs into a highly stretchable photo/thermal crosslinkable prepolymer. The fabricated sensor was evaluated with different forces ranging from 0 to 140 g. The experiment results showed that the developed stretchable sensor had good repeatability and reliability in detecting applied pressures.

  1. Does the vertical profile of ethane contain more insight into mixing layer height than carbon monoxide?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Pusede, Sally; Diskin, Glenn; DiGangi, Joshua; Sachse, Glenn; Crawford, James

    2015-04-01

    To improve the interpretation of satellite data measurements near the surface, the DISCOVER-AQ project embarked on a four year campaign to produce an integrated dataset of airborne and surface based measurements at various locations in North America. One of the key metrics when pursuing the the goal of measuring the surface air quality from space is the mixing layer height. The measurement phase in 2014 included the novel 1-Hz Aerodyne Research, Inc. fast Ethane Spectrometer to distinguish the methane emissions from thermogenic (oil&gas) and biogenic sources in the Denver-Julesberg basin. A second potential use of ethane as a determinant of mixing layer height is revealed in the analysis of 213 vertical profiles collected at 7 points during 21 flights. The findings are evaluated relative to other in-situ metrics, such as carbon monoxide and remote sensing attributions of mixing layer height.

  2. Electrostatic Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembled Graphene/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Multilayers as Efficient 'All Carbon' Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanju; Heintzman, Eli; Price, Carson

    2016-05-01

    In this work, covalently bonded graphene/carbon nanotube (Gr/CNT) conjoined materials are fabricated as engineered three-dimensional hybrid multilayer supercapacitors for high-performance integrated electrochemical energy storage. Stable aqueous dispersion of polymer-modified graphene sheets are prepared in the presence of cationic poly(ethyleneimine), PEI (PEI-Gr) for sequential or electrostatic layer-by-layer (E-LBL) self-assembly with negatively charged acid-oxidized or functionalized multi-walled CNT (fMWCNT), forming (PEI-Gr/fMWCNT)n architecture as "all carbon" super-capacitor, where n = 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 15. These films possess an interconnected network of mesoporous nanocarbon structure with well-defined interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. They exhibit nearly rectangular cyclic voltammograms at an exceedingly high scan rate of 1 V/s with an average specific capacitance of -450 F g(-1) and specific energy density of 75.5 Wh kg(-1) based on electrode weight, measured at a current density of 0.3 A g(-1), comparable to that of Ni metal hydride battery and charged/discharged within a few seconds or a minute. This is attributed to the maximized synergistic effect of the highest specific surface areas by preventing re-aggregation of PEI-Gr or PEI-rGO via fMWCNT as spacers. We also determined relative contributions of the interfacial capacitance (C(dl)) and charge transfer (R(ct)) properties of the hybrids and investigated interfacial properties by SECM technique. PMID:27483821

  3. Enhancement of dopamine sensing by layer-by-layer assembly of PVI-dmeOs and Nafion on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hui-Fang; Cui, Yu-Han; Sun, Yu-Long; Zhang, Kuan; Zhang, Wei-De

    2010-05-01

    In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were modified to further improve their performance in electrochemical sensing of dopamine (DA) levels. After a redox polymer, poly(vinylimidazole) complexed with Os(4, 4'-dimethyl- 2, 2-bipyridine)2Cl (termed PVI-dmeOs) was electrodeposited on multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs), Nafion and PVI-dmeOs films were successfully layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled on the hydrophilic surface of the as-prepared PVI-dmeOs/CNTs nanocomposites through electrostatic interactions. The LBL assembly was proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemistry and UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. LBL assembly of Nafion/PVI-dmeOs films on CNTs significantly enhanced their linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) response sensitivity to DA, with a maximum enhancement for three Nafion/PVI-dmeOs film-modified MWCNTs. The LSV peak current density of (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs)3/CNT electrodes in response to 10 and 50 µM DA solutions was about 7.3 and 3.9 times those for bare CNTs. At the (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs)3/CNT electrodes, the limit of detection (LOD) (signal-to-noise ratio: 3) was 0.05 µM DA, the linear range was 0.1-10 µM DA (with a linear regression coefficient of 0.97) and the DA-sensing sensitivity was 8.15 µA cm - 2 µM - 1. The newly fabricated (Nafion/PV I-dmeOs)3/CNT electrodes may be developed as an ideal biosensor for direct and in situ measurement of DA levels.

  4. An electrochemical double layer capacitor using an activated carbon electrode with gel electrolyte binder

    SciTech Connect

    Osaka, Tetsuya, Liu, X.; Nojima, Masashi; Momma, Toshiyuki

    1999-05-01

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) was prepared with an activated carbon powder electrode with poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) based gel electrolyte. Ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) were used as plasticizer and tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF{sub 4}) was used as the supporting electrolyte. An optimized gel electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/PC/EC/TEABF{sub 4} - 23/31/35/11 mass ratio exhibited high ionic conductivity of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm, high electrode capacitance, and good mechanical strength. An electrode consisting of activated carbon (AC) with the gel electrolyte as the binder (AC/PVdF-HFP based gel, 7/3 mass ratio) showed a higher specific capacitance and a lower ion diffusion resistance within the electrode than a carbon electrode, prepared with PVdF-HFP binder without plasticizer. This suggests that an electrode mixed with the gel electrolyte has a lower ion diffusion resistance inside the electrode. The highest specific capacitance of 123 F/g was achieved with an electrode containing AC with a specific surface area of 2500 m{sup 2}/g. A coin-type EDLC cell with optimized components showed excellent cycleability exceeding 10{sup 4} cycles with ca. 100% coulombic efficiency achieved when charging and discharging was repeated between 1.0 and 2.5 V at 1.66 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  5. Distinct temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition in forest organic layer and mineral soil

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Wei; Jiang, Ping; Wang, Hui; Bai, Edith

    2014-01-01

    The roles of substrate availability and quality in determining temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil carbon (C) decomposition are still unclear, which limits our ability to predict how soil C storage and cycling would respond to climate change. Here we determined Q10 in surface organic layer and subsurface mineral soil along an elevation gradient in a temperate forest ecosystem. Q10 was calculated by comparing the times required to respire a given amount of soil C at 15 and 25°C in a 350-day incubation. Results indicated that Q10 of the organic layer was 0.22–0.71 (absolute difference) higher than Q10 of the mineral soil. Q10 in both the organic layer (2.5–3.4) and the mineral soil (2.1–2.8) increased with decreasing substrate quality during the incubation. This enhancement of Q10 over incubation time in both layers suggested that Q10 of more labile C was lower than that of more recalcitrant C, consistent with the Arrhenius kinetics. No clear trend of Q10 was found along the elevation gradient. Because the soil organic C pool of the organic layer in temperate forests is large, its higher temperature sensitivity highlights its importance in C cycling under global warming. PMID:25270905

  6. The effect of the carbon nanotube buffer layer on the performance of a Li metal battery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-06-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode for the next-generation energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity and lowest negative electrochemical potential. But the growth of Li dendrites limits the application of the Li metal battery. In this work, a type of modified Li metal battery with a carbon nanotube (CNT) buffer layer inserted between the separator and the Li metal electrode was reported. The electrochemical results show that the modified batteries have a much better rate capability and cycling performance than the conventional Li metal batteries. The mechanism study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the modified battery has a smaller charge transfer resistance and larger Li ion diffusion coefficient during the deposition process on the Li electrode than the conventional Li metal batteries. Symmetric battery tests show that the interfacial behavior of the Li metal electrode with the buffer layer is more stable than the naked Li metal electrode. The morphological characterization of the CNT buffer layer and Li metal lamina reveals that the CNT buffer layer has restrained the growth of Li dendrites. The CNT buffer layer has great potential to solve the safety problem of the Li metal battery. PMID:27181758

  7. Double layer oxidation resistant coating for carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. H.; Du, Y. G.; Xiao, J. Y.; Zhang, W. J.; Zhang, L. C.

    2009-01-01

    Double layer coatings, with celsian-Y 2SiO 5 as inner layer and Y 2Si 2O 7 as outer layer, were prepared by microwave sintering on the surface of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite. Both celsian, Y 2SiO 5 and Y 2Si 2O 7 were synthesized by in situ method using BAS glass, Y 2O 3 and SiO 2 as staring materials. The sintering temperature was 1500 °C, and little damage was induced to the composite. The composition and micrograph of the fired coating were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The oxidation and thermal shock resistance of samples with doubled-layered coating were characterized at 1400 °C in air. After 150 min oxidation and thermal cycling between 1400 °C and room temperature for 15 times, the weight loss of double layer-coated sample was 1.22% and there were no cracks in the coating.

  8. Recent developments in the layer-by-layer assembly of polyaniline and carbon nanomaterials for energy storage and sensing applications. From synthetic aspects to structural and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Marmisollé, Waldemar A; Azzaroni, Omar

    2016-05-21

    The construction of hybrid polymer-inorganic nanoarchitectures for electrochemical purposes based on the layer-by-layer assembly of conducting polymers and carbon nanomaterials has become increasingly popular over the last decade. This explosion of interest is primarily related to the increasing mastery in the design of supramolecular constructs using simple wet chemical approaches. Concomitantly, this continuous research activity paved the way to the rapid development of nanocomposites or "nanoblends" readily integrable into energy storage and sensing devices. In this sense, the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique has allowed us to access three-dimensional (3D) multicomponent carbon-based network nanoarchitectures displaying addressable electrical, electrochemical and transport properties in which conducting polymers, such as polyaniline, and carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes or nanographene, play unique roles without disrupting their inherent functions - complementary entities coexisting in harmony. Over the last few years the level of functional sophistication reached by LbL-assembled carbon-based 3D network nanoarchitectures, and the level of knowledge related to how to design, fabricate and optimize the properties of these 3D nanoconstructs have advanced enormously. This feature article presents and discusses not only the recent advances but also the emerging challenges in complex hybrid nanoarchitectures that result from the layer-by-layer assembly of polyaniline, a quintessential conducting polymer, and diverse carbon nanomaterials. This is a rapidly developing research area, and this work attempts to provide an overview of the diverse 3D network nanoarchitectures prepared up to now. The importance of materials processing and LbL integration is explored within each section and while the overall emphasis is on energy storage and sensing applications, the most widely-used synthetic strategies and characterization methods for "nanoblend

  9. Recent developments in the layer-by-layer assembly of polyaniline and carbon nanomaterials for energy storage and sensing applications. From synthetic aspects to structural and functional characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmisollé, Waldemar A.; Azzaroni, Omar

    2016-05-01

    The construction of hybrid polymer-inorganic nanoarchitectures for electrochemical purposes based on the layer-by-layer assembly of conducting polymers and carbon nanomaterials has become increasingly popular over the last decade. This explosion of interest is primarily related to the increasing mastery in the design of supramolecular constructs using simple wet chemical approaches. Concomitantly, this continuous research activity paved the way to the rapid development of nanocomposites or ``nanoblends'' readily integrable into energy storage and sensing devices. In this sense, the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique has allowed us to access three-dimensional (3D) multicomponent carbon-based network nanoarchitectures displaying addressable electrical, electrochemical and transport properties in which conducting polymers, such as polyaniline, and carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes or nanographene, play unique roles without disrupting their inherent functions - complementary entities coexisting in harmony. Over the last few years the level of functional sophistication reached by LbL-assembled carbon-based 3D network nanoarchitectures, and the level of knowledge related to how to design, fabricate and optimize the properties of these 3D nanoconstructs have advanced enormously. This feature article presents and discusses not only the recent advances but also the emerging challenges in complex hybrid nanoarchitectures that result from the layer-by-layer assembly of polyaniline, a quintessential conducting polymer, and diverse carbon nanomaterials. This is a rapidly developing research area, and this work attempts to provide an overview of the diverse 3D network nanoarchitectures prepared up to now. The importance of materials processing and LbL integration is explored within each section and while the overall emphasis is on energy storage and sensing applications, the most widely-used synthetic strategies and characterization methods for ``nanoblend

  10. Layer-By-Layer Assembled Hybrid Film of Carbon Nanotubes/Iron Oxide Nanocrystals for Reagentless Electrochemical Detection of H2O2

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yuqing; Wang, Hua; Shao, Yuyan; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-04-01

    A new approach to construct a reagentless H2O2 electrochemical sensor is described. Iron oxide magnetic nanocystals (IOMNs), as peroxidase mimetics, were employed to assemble a multilayer structure layer by layer. Polythionin was electrodeposited onto the glassy carbon electrode surface to introduce amino groups. Carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, amino functionalized IOMNs, and thionin monomers were anchored onto a polythionin-functionalized GC surface in order by carbodiimide or glutaraldehyde chemistry. The resulting multilayer construction with three layers of IOMNs and thionin mediator exhibits excellent electrochemical response to the reduction of H2O2, whereas such a modified electrode with one layer construction only yields a slight response to H2O2 of the same concentration. The tethered MWCNs enlarge the amount of immobilized IOMNs and effectively shuttle electrons between the electrode and the thionin.

  11. Temperature Oscillation Modulated Self-Assembly of Periodic Concentric Layered Magnesium Carbonate Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shihong; Wang, Zheng Jim; Chang, Ting-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Intriguing patterns of periodic, concentric, layered, mineral microstructure are present in nature and organisms, yet they have elusive geneses. We hypothesize temperature oscillation can be an independent factor that causes the self-assembly of such patterns in mineral phases synthesized in solution. Static experiments verify that rhythmic concentric multi-layered magnesium carbonate microhemispheres can be synthesized from bicarbonate solution by temperature oscillation, without use of a chemical template, additive or gel-diffusion system. Appropriate reactant concentration and initial pH value can restrain the competitive growth of other mineral generations. Polarized light microscopy images indicate the microhemispheres are crystalline and the crystallinity increases with incubation time. The thickness of a single mineral layer of microhemisphere in microscale is precisely controlled by the waveform parameters of the temperature oscillation, while the layer number, which can reach tens to about one hundred, is constrained by the temperature oscillation period number. FT-IR spectra show that these microhemispheres synthesized under different conditions can be identified as the basic form of magnesium carbonate, hydromagnesite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2⋅4H2O). SEM images exhibit the characteristic microscopic texture of the alternating dark and light rings of these microhemispheres. TEM images and ED patterns suggest the nanoflakes of microhemispheres are present in polycrystalline form with some degree of oriented assembly. The temperature oscillation modulated self-assembly may offer a new mechanism to understand the formation of layered microstructure of minerals in solution, and provide a non-invasive and programmable means to synthesize hierarchically ordered materials. PMID:24520410

  12. Temperature oscillation modulated self-assembly of periodic concentric layered magnesium carbonate microparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Shihong; Wang, Zheng Jim; Chang, Ting-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Intriguing patterns of periodic, concentric, layered, mineral microstructure are present in nature and organisms, yet they have elusive geneses. We hypothesize temperature oscillation can be an independent factor that causes the self-assembly of such patterns in mineral phases synthesized in solution. Static experiments verify that rhythmic concentric multi-layered magnesium carbonate microhemispheres can be synthesized from bicarbonate solution by temperature oscillation, without use of a chemical template, additive or gel-diffusion system. Appropriate reactant concentration and initial pH value can restrain the competitive growth of other mineral generations. Polarized light microscopy images indicate the microhemispheres are crystalline and the crystallinity increases with incubation time. The thickness of a single mineral layer of microhemisphere in microscale is precisely controlled by the waveform parameters of the temperature oscillation, while the layer number, which can reach tens to about one hundred, is constrained by the temperature oscillation period number. FT-IR spectra show that these microhemispheres synthesized under different conditions can be identified as the basic form of magnesium carbonate, hydromagnesite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 ⋅ 4H2O). SEM images exhibit the characteristic microscopic texture of the alternating dark and light rings of these microhemispheres. TEM images and ED patterns suggest the nanoflakes of microhemispheres are present in polycrystalline form with some degree of oriented assembly. The temperature oscillation modulated self-assembly may offer a new mechanism to understand the formation of layered microstructure of minerals in solution, and provide a non-invasive and programmable means to synthesize hierarchically ordered materials. PMID:24520410

  13. Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Nilsson, D.; Danielsson, Ö.; Pedersen, H.; Janzén, E.; Forsberg, U.; Bergsten, J.; Rorsman, N.

    2015-12-28

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source.

  14. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of the TCNQ(0/)(-) couple on a glassy carbon electrode. Layer-by-layer nucleation and growth.

    PubMed

    Gómez, L; Rodríguez-Amaro, R

    2006-08-15

    On the basis of the electrochemical results obtained for thin films of 7,7,8,8- tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) on a glassy carbon electrode, the reduction and oxidation of the [TCNQ](0/)(-) couple in KCl aqueous media occurs via a mechanism involving layer-by-layer nucleation and growth. In situ recorded UV-visible spectroelectrochemical data allow two different crystal structures for the oxidized form of TCNQ to be discriminated. PMID:16893249

  15. Formation of Diffusion Layers by Anode Plasma Electrolytic Nitrocarburizing of Low-Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmanov, S. A.; Kusmanova, Yu. V.; Naumov, A. R.; Belkin, P. N.

    2015-08-01

    The structure of the low-carbon steel after plasma electrolytic nitrocarburizing in the electrolyte containing acetonitrile was investigated. The cross-sectional microstructure, composition, and phase constituents of a modified layer under different processing conditions were characterized. It is shown that the electrolyte that contained ammonium chloride and acetonitrile provides the saturation of steel with nitrogen and carbon and the formation of the Fe4N and FeN0.05 nitrides, Fe4C carbide and other phases. The nitrogen diffusion decreases the austenitization temperature and results in the formation of martensite after the sample cooling in the electrolyte. The formation of a carbon and nitrogen source in a vapor-gas envelope (VGE) is investigated. The proposed mechanism includes evaporation of acetonitrile in the VGE, its adsorption on an anode with the following thermal decomposition, and also the acetonitrile reduction to amine with subsequent hydrolysis to ethanol that is determined with the use of chromatographic method. The aqueous solution that contained 10 wt.% NH4Cl and 10 wt.% CH3CN allows one to obtain the nitrocarburized layer with the thickness of 0.22 mm and microhardness up to 740 HV during 10 min at 850 °C. This treatment regime leads to the decrease in the surface roughness of steel R a from 1.01 μm to 0.17 μm.

  16. Shielding the chemical reactivity using graphene layers for controlling the surface properties of carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Sedykh, A E; Gordeev, E G; Pentsak, E O; Ananikov, V P

    2016-02-14

    Graphene can efficiently shield chemical interactions and gradually decrease the binding to reactive defect areas. In the present study, we have used the observed graphene shielding effect to control the reactivity patterns on the carbon surface. The experimental findings show that a surface coating with a tiny carbon layer of 1-2 nm thickness is sufficient to shield the defect-mediated reactivity and create a surface with uniform binding ability. The shielding effect was directly observed using a combination of microscopy techniques and evaluated with computational modeling. The theoretical calculations indicate that a few graphene layers can drastically reduce the binding energy of the metal centers to the surface defects by 40-50 kcal mol(-1). The construction of large carbon areas with controlled surface reactivity is extremely difficult, which is a key limitation in many practical applications. Indeed, the developed approach provides a flexible and simple tool to change the reactivity patterns on large surface areas within a few minutes. PMID:26796642

  17. Stable carbon isotope ratios of toluene in the boundary layer and the lower free troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintel, J.; Hösen, E.; Koppmann, R.; Krebsbach, M.

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios in VOC are a powerful tool to identify sources or to track both dynamical and chemical processes. During the field campaign ZEPTER-2 in autumn 2008 whole air samples were collected on board a Zeppelin NT airship in the planetary boundary layer and the lower free troposphere over south-west Germany. These samples were analysed with respect to VOC mixing ratios and stable carbon isotope ratios using a gas chromatograph combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometer. In this study we present the results for toluene, one of the major anthropogenic pollutants. In the boundary layer we observed rather fresh emissions mixing into the background and derived a toluene source isotope ratio of δ13C = -28.2 ± 0.5 ‰. Using the concept of the effective kinetic isotope effect, we were able to separate the effects of dilution processes and photochemical degradation in the free troposphere. We estimated the photochemical age of toluene in the atmosphere in two different ways (using isotope ratios and mixing ratios, respectively). The results differ strongly in the planetary boundary layer, probably due to mixing processes, but are compatible with each other in the free troposphere.

  18. Thin crystalline 3C-SiC layer growth through carbonization of differently oriented Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severino, A.; D'Arrigo, G.; Bongiorno, C.; Scalese, S.; La Via, F.; Foti, G.

    2007-07-01

    The growth of thin cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) buffer layers in an horizontal hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor, through the carbonization of differently oriented Si surfaces, is presented. A qualitative and quantitative study has been performed on statistical parameters related to voids due to the buffer layer growth on the different substrate orientations emphasizing shape, size, and density as a function of the substrate orientation. Variation in the void parameters can be attributed to the atomic packing density related to the substrate orientations, which were (100) Si, (111) Si, and (110) Si in this study. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were performed to analyze the surface and the crystalline quality of the 3C-SiC films grown and, eventually, an empirical model for the carbonization of Si surfaces formulated. Large platens characterize the 3C-SiC films with shapes related to the orientations of the substrate. These platens derive from the two-dimensional growth of different SiC islands which enlarge during the process due to the continuous reaction between Si and C atoms. The interior part of platens was characterized by the presence of a pure crystalline material with the presence of small tilts affecting some grains in the 3C-SiC layer in order to relief the stress generated with the substrate.

  19. Influence of depositional setting and sedimentary fabric on mechanical layer evolution in carbonate aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Wall B.R.

    2006-01-01

    Carbonate aquifers in fold-thrust belt settings often have low-matrix porosity and permeability, and thus groundwater flow pathways depend on high porosity and permeability fracture and fault zones. Methods from sedimentology and structural geology are combined to understand the evolution of fracture controlled flow pathways and determine their spatial distribution. Through this process bed-parallel pressure-solution surfaces (PS1) are identified as a fracture type which influences fragmentation in peritidal and basinal carbonate, and upon shearing provides a major flow pathway in fold - thrust belt carbonate aquifers. Through stratigraphic analysis and fracture mapping, depositional setting is determined to play a critical role in PS1 localization and spacing where peritidal strata have closer spaced and less laterally continuous PS1 than basinal strata. In the peritidal platform facies, units with planar lamination have bed-parallel pressure-solution seams along mudstone laminae. In contrast, burrowed units of peritidal strata have solution seams with irregular and anastamosing geometries. Laminated units with closely spaced bed-parallel solution seams are more fragmented than bioturbated units with anastamosing solution seams. In the deeper-water depositional environment, pelagic settling and turbidity currents are the dominant sedimentation processes, resulting in laterally continuous deposits relative to the peritidal platform environment. To quantify the fracture patterns in the basinal environment, mechanical layer thickness values were measured from regions of low to high bed dip. The results define a trend in which mechanical layer thickness decreases as layer dip increases. A conceptual model is presented that emphasizes the link between sedimentary and structural fabric for the peritidal and basinal environments, where solution seams localize in mud-rich intervals, and the resulting pressure-solution surface geometry is influenced by sedimentary geometry

  20. The development of chloride ion selective polypyrrole thin film on a layer-by-layer carbon nanotube working electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Lynch, Jerome

    2011-04-01

    A chloride ion selective thin film sensor is proposed for measuring chloride ion concentration, which is an environmental parameter correlated to corrosion. In this work, electrochemical polymerization of Polypyrrole (PPy) doped with chloride ions was achieved on the top of a carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film as a working electrode in an electrochemical cell. The underlying CNT layer conjugated with doped PPy thin film can form a multifunctional "selfsensing" material platform for chloride ion detection in a concrete environment. The paper presents the first type of work using CNT and PPy as hybrid materials for chloride ion sensing. Electrochemical polymerization of PPy results in oxidation that yields an average of one positive charge distributed over four pyrrole units. This positive charge is compensated by negatively-charged chloride ions in the supporting electrolyte. In effect, the chloride ion-doped PPy has become molecularly imprinted with chloride ions thereby providing it with some degree of perm-selectivity for chloride ions. The detection limit of the fabricated chloride ion-doped PPy thin film can reach 10-8 M and selectivity coefficients are comparable to those in the literature. The reported work aims to lay a strong foundation for detecting chloride ion concentrations in the concrete environment.

  1. Conductive surface modification of LiFePO4 with nitrogen doped carbon layers for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sukeun; Liao, Chen; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Bridges, Craig A; Unocic, Raymond R; Nanda, Jagjit; Dai, Sheng; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2012-01-01

    The LiFePO4 rod surface modified with nitrogen doped carbon layer has been prepared using hydrothermal processing followed by post-annealing in the presence of an ionic liquid. The coated LiFePO4 rod exhibits good capacity retention and high rate capability as the nitrogen doped carbon improves conductivity and prevents aggregation of the rod during cycling.

  2. Ultracold Quantum Gases in Hexagonal Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    Hexagonal structures occur in a vast variety of systems, ranging from honeycombs of bees in life sciences to carbon nanotubes in material sciences. The latter, in particular its unfolded two-dimensional layer -- Graphene -- has rapidly grown to one of the most discussed topics in condensed-matter physics. Not only does it show proximity to various carbon-based materials but also exceptional properties owing to its unusual energy spectrum. In quantum optics, ultracold quantum gases confined in periodic light fields have shown to be very general and versatile instruments to mimic solid state systems. However, so far nearly all experiments were performed in cubic lattice geometries only. Here we report on the first experimental realization of ultracold quantum gases in a state-dependent, two-dimensional, Graphene-like optical lattice with hexagonal symmetry. The lattice is realized via a spin-dependent optical lattice structure with alternating σ^+ and σ^- -sites and thus constitutes a so called `magnetic'-lattice with `antiferromagnetic'-structure. Atoms with different spin orientation can be loaded to specific lattice sites or -- depending on the parameters -- to the whole lattice. As a consequence e.g. superpositions of a superfluid spin component with a different spin component in the Mott-insulating phase can be realized as well as spin-dependent transport properties, disorder etc. After preparing an antiferromagnetically ordered state we e.g. measure sustainable changes of the transport properties of the atoms. This manifests in a significant reduction of the tunneling as compared to a single-component system. We attribute this observation to a partial tunneling blockade for one spin component induced by population in another spin component localized at alternating lattice sites. Within a Gutzwiller-Ansatz we calculate the phase diagrams for the mixed spin-states and find very good agreement with our experimental results. Moreover, by state-resolved recording

  3. Ultra-Thin Optically Transparent Carbon Electrodes Produced from Layers of Adsorbed Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Alharthi, Sarah A.; Benavidez, Tomas E.; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a simple, versatile, and inexpensive procedure to prepare optically transparent carbon electrodes, using proteins as precursors. Upon adsorption, the protein-coated substrates were pyrolyzed under reductive conditions (5% H2) to form ultra-thin, conductive electrodes. Because proteins spontaneously adsorb to interfaces forming uniform layers, the proposed method does not require a precise control of the preparation conditions, specialized instrumentation, or expensive precursors. The resulting electrodes were characterized by a combination of electrochemical, optical, and spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-concept, the optically-transparent electrodes were also used as substrate for the development of an electrochemical glucose biosensor. The proposed films represent a convenient alternative to more sophisticated, and less available, carbon-based nanomaterials. Furthermore, these films could be formed on a variety of substrates, without classical limitations of size or shape. PMID:23421732

  4. Nanobubbles stability and multiwall carbon nanotubes straightening on few-layer graphene surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Harthi, S. H.; Al-Barwani, M.; Elzain, M.; Al-Naamani, N.; Hysen, T.

    2011-08-01

    The formation of nanobubbles, straightening, and orientation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are investigated by preparing thin films employing dip casting of colloidal solutions on few-layer graphene (FLG) surfaces. In contrast to what is known, it is observed that nanobubbles are formed on an ultrathin dewetted layer of 0.5 nm thickness and exhibit unusual stability at ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Further, nanobubble rings are observed at atmospheric pressure. The results provide direct experimental evidence of the interaction between MWCNTs and nanobubbles at air-liquid-solid triple contact line and at lower step edge of the FLG, which together lead to the alignment of MWCNTs. Due to the balance between the surface tension forces and the strain forces arising from tube bending, MWCNTs attained straight rod-like shape. This enabled us to evaluate the elastic modulus of the MWCNT as E = 0.9 TPa.

  5. Ordered carbon nanotube growth on graphene and few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunley, D. Patrick; Johnson, Stephen; Stieha, Joseph; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Meacham, Aaron; Strachan, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes are grown on graphene and few-layer graphene films through chemical vapor deposition. The nanotube growth is found to depend on the thickness of the few-layer graphene films. The thinnest films show significant alignment of the nanotubes with the crystallographic axes of the graphene. This alignment is compared to the orientation of the crystallographic etch tracks, permitting the orientation of the nanotubes to be determined. Related nanotube/graphene structures will also be presented and discussed. Supported in part by NSF Award No. DMR-0805136, the Kentucky NSF EPSCoR program, the University of Kentucky Center for Advanced Materials, and the University of Kentucky Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering.

  6. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Nuri; Chawla, Vipin; Edwards, Eve; Wood, Vanessa; Park, Hyung Gyu; Utke, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays. PMID:24778944

  7. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Nuri; Chawla, Vipin; Edwards, Eve; Wood, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays. PMID:24778944

  8. Cross-plane heat transfer through single-layer carbon structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaichen; Nedea, Silvia V; Rindt, Camilo C M; Smeulders, David M J

    2016-02-21

    Graphene-based nano-structures have been recently proposed to function as additives to improve the conductivity of thermally sluggish phase change materials (PCMs). Based on the existing research studies, the improvement is dependent not only on the matrix material, but also on the geometry of the carbon structure. To gain more insight into the nano-scale thermal transport problem, we launched the current pilot research using water as the matrix material, to represent the hydroxyl-group-rich sugar alcohols as PCMs. We have found that the heat conduction across a graphene layer to water is much faster than the heat conduction to the graphene layer itself. Also, the high graphene-water thermal contact resistance fails to acknowledge the fast thermal kinetics of the low frequency phonons. In the investigation of the geometry effect, the cross-plane heat transfer coefficient is found to decrease with decreasing CNT diameter except CNT(9,9). PMID:26818392

  9. Effect of longitudinal heat conduction on the catalytic ignition of carbon monoxide in a boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviño, C.; Méndez, F.; Prince, J. C.; Higuera, F. J.

    2000-06-01

    The catalytic ignition of dry carbon monoxide and air in a boundary layer flow over a palladium plate is studied in this paper. The heterogeneous reaction mechanism is modelled with the dissociative adsorption of the molecular oxygen and the non-dissociative adsorption of CO, together with a surface reaction of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type and the desorption reaction of the adsorbed product, CO2(s). The critical condition for catalytic ignition, represented by the ignition Damköhler number, has been deduced using high activation energy asymptotics of the desorption kinetics of the most efficiently adsorbed reactant, CO(s). Longitudinal heat conduction along the plate has been considered and its influence on the ignition temperature has been evaluated. This influence is rather weak, indicating that the flat plate boundary layer flow configuration is a robust device to determine the critical conditions for catalytic ignition.

  10. Aerosol black carbon characteristics over Central India: Temporal variation and its dependence on mixed layer height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompalli, Sobhan Kumar; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Manoj, M. R.; Kumar, N. V. P. Kiran; Shaeb, K. Hareef Baba; Joshi, Ashok Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In a first of its kind study over the Indian region, concurrent and extensive measurements of black carbon (BC) concentration and atmospheric boundary layer parameters are used to quantify the role of atmospheric boundary layer in producing temporal changes in BC. During this study, 18 months (2011-12) data of continuous measurements of BC aerosols, made over a semi-urban location, Nagpur, in Central India are used along with concurrent measurements of vertical profiles of atmospheric thermodynamics, made using weekly ascents of GPS aided Radiosonde for a period of 1 year. From the balloon data, mixed layer heights and ventilation coefficients are estimated, and the monthly and seasonal changes in BC mass concentration are examined in the light of the boundary layer changes. Seasonally, the BC mass concentration was highest (~ 4573 ± 1293 ng m- 3) in winter (December-February), and lowest (~ 1588 ± 897 ng m- 3) in monsoon (June-September), while remained moderate (~ 3137 ± 1446 ng m- 3) in pre-monsoon (March-May), and post-monsoon (~ 3634 ± 813 ng m- 3) (October-November) seasons. During the dry seasons, when the rainfall is scanty or insignificantly small, the seasonal variations in BC concentrations have a strong inverse relationship with mixed layer height and ventilation coefficient. However, the lowest BC concentrations do not occur during the season when the mixed layer height (MLH) is highest or the ventilation coefficient is the highest; rather it occurs when the rainfall is strong (during summer monsoon season) and airmass changes to primarily of marine origin.