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1

High intensity metal ion beam production with ECR ion sources atthe Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large number of different experiments performed at the 88 Inch Cyclotron requires great variety and flexibility in the production of ion beams. This flexibility is provided by the two high performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the LBL ECR and the AECR-U, which can produce beams of ions as light as hydrogen and as heavy as uranium. With

D. Wutte; S. Abbott; M. A. Leitner; C. M. Lyneis

2001-01-01

2

High intensity metal ion beam production with ECR ion sources at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large number of different experiments performed at the 88 Inch Cyclotron requires great variety and flexibility in the production of ion beams. This flexibility is provided by the two high performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the LBL ECR and the AECR-U, which can produce beams of ions as light as hydrogen and as heavy as uranium. With

D. Wutte; S. Abbott; M. A. Leitner; C. M. Lyneis

2002-01-01

3

Vacuum system for the LBL advanced light source (ALS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1.5 to 1.9 GeV synchrotron light sources is being built at LBL. The vacuum system is designed to permit all synchrotron photons on the median plane to escape the electron channel and go into an antechamber through a 10 mm high slot. This slot offers effective RF isolation between the electron duct and the antechamber. All unused synchrotron photons within a few mrad of the median plane will be stopped by 96 nearly horizontal absorbers located in the antechamber. The gas, generated by the photons hitting the absorbers, will be directed down to reactive titanium surfaces. Twelve 10 meter long vessels constitute the vauum chambers for all the lattice magnets. Each chamber will be machined from two thick plates of 5083-H321 aluminum and welded at the perimeter. The nominal wall thickness of the vaccum chamber is 40 mm, which makes it possible to machine a flange into the chamber without the use of welding.

Kennedy, Kurt

1988-09-01

4

Characterization of the plasma-switch interaction in the LBL HIF ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new way to characterize the performance of the LBL HIF ion source has been found. In the LBL source, ions are drawn from an arc-generated plasma reservoir in which the electrons are confined by a negative-biased switch'' mesh. Stagnation of the plasma is prevented by absorption of the excess ion flow on this mesh. The ion beam is generated by an external negative voltage that provides Child-Langmuir extraction of the ions through the switch mesh. We elucidate the physics requirements of the source and deduce switch mesh parameters needed for successful operation. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Hewett, D.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Rutkowski, H.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-12-10

5

Characterization of the plasma-switch interaction in the LBL HIF ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new way to characterize the performance of the LBL HIF ion source has been found. In the LBL source, ions are drawn from an arc-generated plasma reservoir in which the electrons are confined by a negative-biased switch'' mesh. Stagnation of the plasma is prevented by absorption of the excess ion flow on this mesh. The ion beam is generated by an external negative voltage that provides Child-Langmuir extraction of the ions through the switch mesh. We elucidate the physics requirements of the source and deduce switch mesh parameters needed for successful operation. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Hewett, D.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Rutkowski, H.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-01-01

6

Ground motion measurements at the LBL Light Source site, the Bevatron and at SLAC  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technique for measuring ground motion at the site of the 1.0 to 2.0 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Facility which was known as the Advanced Light Source (in 1983 when the measurements were taken). The results of ground motion measurements at the Light Source site at Building 6 at LBL are presented. As comparison, ground motion measurements were made at the Byerly Tunnel, the Bevatron, Blackberry Canyon, and SLAC at the Spear Ring. Ground Motion at the Light Source site was measured in a band from 4 to 100 Hz. The measured noise is primarily local in origin and is not easily transported through LBL soils. The background ground motion is for the most part less than 0.1 microns. Localized truck traffic near Building 6 and the operation of the cranes in the building can result in local ground motions of a micron or more for short periods of time. The background motion at Building 6 is between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude higher than ground motion in a quiet seismic tunnel, which is representative of quiet sites worldwide. The magnitude of the ground motions at SLAC and the Bevatron are comparable to ground motions measured at the Building 6 Light Source site. However, the frequency signature of each site is very different.

Green, M.A.; Majer, E.I.; More, V.D.; O'Connell, D.R.; Shilling, R.C.

1986-12-01

7

The production of beams from solid materials at the LBL ECR source  

SciTech Connect

Two ovens are described for the feed of vapor from solid materials in the LBL ECR source. A low temperature oven, operating up to 700 /degree/ C, has been used for Li, Mg, P, K, Ca, Ti and Bi. A high temperature oven operating up to 2000/degree/C, has been used for Sc, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ag, La and Tb. At the 1 e..mu..A level the charge states from the oven beams are very close to those from gases. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Clark, D.J.; Lyneis, C.M.

1988-09-01

8

Some novel design features of the LBL metal vapor vacuum arc ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The family of MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) high current metal ion sources developed at LBL over the past several years has grown to include a number of different source versions with a wide range of some of the design and operational parameters. The MicroMEVVA source is a particularly compact version, about 2 cm diam and 10 cm long, while the MEVVA IV weighs some 30 kG. MEVVAs IV and V incorporate multiple cathode assemblies (16 and 18 separate cathodes, respectively), and the operating cathode can be switched rapidly and without downtime. The new MEVVA V embodiment is quite compact considering its broad beam (10 cm), high voltage (100 kV), and multiple cathode features. The large-area extractor grids used in MEVVA V were fabricated using a particularly simple technique, and they are clamped into position and can thus be changed simply and quickly. The electrical system used to drive the arc is particularly simple and incorporates several attractive features. In this article we review and describe a number of the mechanical and electrical design features that have been developed for these sources.

MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (US))

1990-01-01

9

Some novel design features of the LBL metal vapor vacuum arc ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The family of MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) high current metal ion sources developed at LBL over the past several years has grown to include a number of different source versions with a wide range of some of the design and operational parameters. The MicroMEVVA source is a particularly compact version, about 2 cm diameter and 10 cm long, while the MEVVA IV weighs some 30 kG. MEVVAs IV and V incorporate multiple cathode assemblies (16 and 18 separate cathodes, respectively), and the operating cathode can be switched rapidly and without down-time. The new MEVVA V embodiment is quite compact considering its broad beam (10 cm), high voltage (100 kV) and multiple cathode features. The large-area extractor grids used in the MEVVA V were fabricated using a particularly simple technique, and they are clamped into position and so can be changed simply and quickly. The electrical system used to drive the arc is particularly simple and incorporates several attractive features. In this paper we review and describe a number of the mechanical and electrical design features that have been developed for these sources. 9 refs., 5 figs.

MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.

1989-06-01

10

LBL EBIS Program  

SciTech Connect

It has been decided to increase the energy range of the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron by constructing an advanced ion source for installation on the existing axial injection system. The type of advanced ion source chosen is the Electron Beam Ion Source. The energy range will be increased to 40 MeV/nucleon for the lighter heavy ions and with development to over 20 MeV/nucleon at mass 100. Besides the 88-inch Cyclotron, present accelerators at LBL include the SuperHILAC, with beam energy up to 8.5 MeV/A, and the Bevalac, which will provide beams from 40 MeV/A to 2 GeV/A at all masses upon completion of the current Uranium Beams line item. Initial ion source design and design of the test bench are described.

Brown, I.; Feinberg, B.

1981-05-01

11

News from LBL  

SciTech Connect

We present a brief summary of recent news from LBL related to accelerator physics. This talk was given on October 29, 1993 at the 6th Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on the subject ``Synchro- Betraton Resonances,`` held in Funchal (Madeira, Portugal), October 24--30, 1993.

Furman, M.A.

1994-01-26

12

RFQ development at LBL  

SciTech Connect

The radio frequency quadrupole (FRQ) is a structure which can efficiently focus, bunch and accelerate low velocity ion beams. It has many features which make it particularly attractive for applications in the biomedical and nuclear sciences. There are two projects in progress at LBL where the incorporation of heavy ion RFQ technology offers substantial benefits: in the upgrade of the Bevatron local injector, and in the design of a dedicated heavy ion medical accelerator. In order to meet the requirements of these two important applications, a 200 MHz RFQ structure has been designed for ions with charge to mass ratios as low as 0.14, and a low rf power scale model has been built and tested. Construction of the high power model has begun. The status of this project is reviewed and a summary of technical specifications given.

Abbott, S.; Brodzik, D.; Gough, R.A.; Howard, D.; Lancaster, H.; MacGill, R.; Rovanpera, S.; Schneider, H.; Staples, J.; Yourd, R.

1982-11-01

13

Electron Injector Studies at LBL  

SciTech Connect

Two recent LBL design studies, (1) an rf gun with a laser driven photocathode, (2) and a conventional thermionic gun with three stages of bunching, are summarized and compared. The rf gun was designed as a possible injector to a 1 GeV test experiment consisting of a high gradient rf structure and a relativistic klystron. The rf gun cavity had (1/2 + 2) cells. Analytic calculations and computer simulations suggest that emittance growth was mainly caused by space-charge effects and the rf fringe field effects at the exit of the last cell. Emittance growth was found to be strongly dependent on the size and the length of the pulse. The conventional gun is being considered as an injector for the proposed Infra-Red-Free-Electron-Laser (IRFEL) facility. In order to reduce the space charge effects the final bunching is done in a tapered L-band tank where acceleration and bunching occur at the same time. Beam emittance of a conventional gun was measured at the ALS gun-test-stand and found to be satisfactory for the IRFEL application.

Kim, C.H.

1990-06-01

14

Multiple beam induction linac research at LBL  

SciTech Connect

We present results of progress on the LBL multiple beam induction linac experiment (MBE-4). This machine models the accelerator physics of the electric-focused portion of a driver for heavy ion inertial confinement fusion. Four beams of cesium ions are accelerated in common through twenty four induction gaps while being separately focused in individual electrostatic AG focusing channels. Early experiments have demonstrated current amplification in the linac, from 10 mA to 90 mA per beam. This is achieved both by acceleration (from 200 keV to 1 MeV) and by carefully controlled bunch compression. Recent experiments have concentrated on studies of beams extracted from an ion source which produces 5 mA cesium beams at emittances near 0.03 {pi} mm-mrad (normalized). Experiments and theory show a growth of emittance (by about a factor of 2) as these beams are accelerated through the linac. Results of recent measurements of the transverse emittance behavior of these strongly space-charge-dominated ion beams are reviewed and compared with theory. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Garvey, T.; Eylon, S.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Keefe, D.

1990-06-01

15

Production of exotic beams at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron by the ISOL method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Users of the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron are preparing a proposal to produce exotic, i.e., radioactive beams. The facility will consist of a high-current 30 MeV cyclotron to generate the radioactive nuclei, an ECR source that can be coupled to different pro...

1990-01-01

16

INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATING LBL FORMALDEHYDE SAMPLER  

SciTech Connect

The LBL formaldehyde sampler consists of two parts: 1) a pump box and 2) a small refrigerator housing sampling bubblers. The pump box contains two pumps, a timer, a flow controller, an electrical cord, and a ten-foot piece of tubing to connect the refrigerator to the pump box. The small refrigerator contains four columns of bubbler sampling trains attached to a metal plate. Two sampling trains each are plumbed in parallel to two sampling ports on the back of the refrigerator. The two sampling lines supplied are to be attached to these ports to allow two locations to be sampled at once (usually one indoor and one outdoor). The refrigerator also contains a rack for holding bubbler tubes. In the sampling process, air is drawn through a sampling line attached to the fitting at the back of the refrigerator and into a prlmary bubbler containing a trapping solution. This trapping solution can be distilled water or an aqueous solution of some compound that reacts with formaldehyde. From this bubbler the air goes through a second bubbler containing the same trapping solution as the first bubbler. (To maintain sample integrity, all parts that the air sample contacts are made of Teflon, polypropylene, and stainless steel.) The air then goes into the third bubbler, which contains no liquid. This bubbler contains a hypodermic needle that serves as a flow-control orifice. The hypodermic needle, in conjunction with the flow controller in the pump box, ensures a constant a flow rate. The refrigerator contains four columns of these sets of three bubblers. After samples have been collected, the bubbler bottoms are detached and the contents of the first and second bubblers in each column are poured together, capped, and labeled. The use of a refrigerated primary and secondary bubbler whose contents are combined at the end of a sampling period ensures 95% collection efficiency. After the bubbler tubes are capped and labeled, they are stored either in the rack supplied in the refrigerator or in one of the styrofoam shipping boxes with some frozen blue ice. LBL has found that formaldehyde samples collected in water degrade significantly in a matter of hours if they are not kept cool, whereas refrigerated samples remain stable for as long as a month. Directions are provided for unpacking the apparatus, setting up sampling trains, performing the sampling, procedures after sampling, and shipping samples.

Fanning, L.Z.; Allen, J.R.; Miksch, R.R.

1981-09-01

17

SSC Quadrupole Magnet Performance at LBL  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) contracted to design, construct, and test four short (1m) models and six full-size (5m) models of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) main-ring 5 meter focusing quadrupole magnet (211 Tesla/meter). The training performance of these magnets is summarized. Magnets were tested in a horizontal boiling helium (1 Atm) cryostat. The magnetic, strain-gage and training responses to two thermal cycles were measured. The quadrupole gradient, and relative multipole purity were determined from Fourier analysis of the rotating coil signals. Magnetic and strain-gage measurements were taken on-the-fly. The voltage-tap data was analyzed to determine quench-origin and propagation characteristics. Quench-training proceeded at 4.3K until a plateau was achieved or sub-cooling (2.5K) was used to accelerate the training process. The early short (1m) magnets were also trained at 1.8K (10kA) to help identify potential weak areas. The MIITs were calculated to compare various magnet protection methods. Except for modest training above the anticipated SSC operating point, the magnets performed very well and proved to be self-protecting. Some design flaws were identified and corrected. The last two 1 m models and all the 5m models have been reinstalled in cryostats at the SSC Laboratory, retested and used to achieve various milestones in their program.

Lietzke, A.F.; Barale, P.; Benjegerdes, r.; Caspi, S.; Cortella, J.; Dell'Orco, D.; Gilbert, W.; Green, M.I.; Mirk, K.; Peters, C.; Scalan, R.; Taylor, C.E.; Wandesforde, A.

1992-10-01

18

Linear collider research and development at SLAC, LBL and LLNL  

SciTech Connect

The study of electron-positron (e/sup +/e/sup /minus//) annihilation in storage ring colliders has been very fruitful. It is by now well understood that the optimized cost and size of e/sup +/e/sup /minus// storage rings scales as E(sub cm//sup 2/ due to the need to replace energy lost to synchrotron radiation in the ring bending magnets. Linear colliders, using the beams from linear accelerators, evade this scaling law. The study of e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collisions at TeV energy will require linear colliders. The luminosity requirements for a TeV linear collider are set by the physics. Advanced accelerator research and development at SLAC is focused toward a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) of 0.5--1 TeV in the center of mass, with a luminosity of 10/sup 33/--10/sup 34/. The goal is a design for two linacs of less than 3 km each, and requiring less than 100 MW of power each. With a 1 km final focus, the TLC could be fit on Stanford University land (although not entirely within the present SLAC site). The emphasis is on technologies feasible for a proposal to be framed in 1992. Linear collider development work is progressing on three fronts: delivering electrical energy to a beam, delivering a focused high quality beam, and system optimization. Sources of high peak microwave radio frequency (RF) power to drive the high gradient linacs are being developed in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Beam generation, beam dynamics and final focus work has been done at SLAC and in collaboration with KEK. Both the accelerator physics and the utilization of TeV linear colliders were topics at the 1988 Snowmass Summer Study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Mattison, T.S.

1988-10-01

19

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL  

SciTech Connect

In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

Not Available

1991-09-01

20

Revision of LBL-10705 Air Infiltration Measurement Techniques  

E-print Network

Revision of LBL-10705 Air Infiltration Measurement Techniques M. H. Sherman Energy Performance, California, 94720 Tracer gas techniques have become widely used to measure the ventilation rates in buildings and analytical approaches. These different techniques may result in different estimates of infiltration due

21

Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1990-04-01

22

LbL Films as Reservoirs for Bioactive Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This review presents recent progress in utilizing polymeric films made by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique (so-called multilayered\\u000a films) as reservoirs for hosting and releasing bioactive molecules. This relatively new technique is distinguished by its\\u000a high modularity and structural control at the nanometer level, giving polymeric surface films with tuneable physicochemical\\u000a properties. A significant increase in research activities regarding the bioapplications

D. Volodkin; A. Skirtach; H. Möhwald

23

Tuning the nanostructure of DODAB/nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine bilayers in LbL films.  

PubMed

Nanostructured films of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) and nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (NiTsPc) were layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled to achieve a synergistic effect considering the distinct properties of both materials. Prior to LbL growth, the effect of NiTsPc on the structure of DODAB vesicles in aqueous medium was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Therefore, DODAB/NiTsPc LbL films were prepared using NiTsPc at concentrations below and above the limit concentration of vesicle formation according to our DSC experiments. As a result, LbL films with distinct nanostructures were obtained, which were studied at micro and nanoscales by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy, respectively. A linear growth of the LbL films was observed by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. However, the bilayer thickness and the surface morphology of the LbL films were radically affected depending on NiTsPc concentration. The electrostatic interaction between DODAB and NiTsPc was identified via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy as the main driving force responsible for LbL growth. Because LbL films have been widely applied as transducers in sensing devices, DODAB/NiTsPc LbL films having distinct nanostructures were tested as proof-of-principle in preliminary sensing experiments toward dopamine detection using impedance spectroscopy (e-tongue system). The real capacitance vs. dopamine concentration curves were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and an equivalent electric circuit, revealing the role played by the LbL film nanostructure and the possibility of building calibration curves. PMID:23623117

Furini, L N; Feitosa, E; Alessio, P; Shimabukuro, M H; Riul, A; Constantino, C J L

2013-07-01

24

Use of Silicon Photomultiplier in LBL Cosmic Tay Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a summer internship program at Hartnell Community College our team successfully constructed two complementary cosmic ray experiments. The first employed NIM electronic modules the second constructed as per specifications of a circuit board designed by the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Telescope Project (http://cosmic.lbl.gov/). During the following summer at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we worked on optimizing the performance of a group of Berkeley Lab Detector and developed tools to measure its performance. The next phase was exploring whether Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) can be used to replace the phototube of the Berkeley Detector. Data will be presented from both summers including the dependence of the cosmic ray flux on the separation and polar angle of scintillator paddles, as well as the results from our SiPM tests. Finally, I will include prospects for curriculum development using the cosmic ray experiments.

Osornio, Leo

2012-10-01

25

Requirements and design of a high stable infrared free electron laser at LBL  

SciTech Connect

An infrared free electron laser (IRFEL) is being designed for the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL) at LBL. The FEL is based on a 50 MeV RF linac operating in synchronization to the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and will produce intense (100 {mu}J per micropulse), narrow bandwidth (narrower than 0.1%) radiation between 3 {mu} and 50 {mu}. In the design, we pay particular attention to the FEL stability issues and require that the fluctuations in electron beam energy and in timing be less than 0.05% and 0.1 ps, respectively. The FEL spectrum can then be stabilized to about 10{sup {minus}3}, or if grating is used, to 10{sup {minus}4}. We discuss various sources of fluctuations in the gun, the bunchers and the accelerator sections, as well as the feedback and feedforward schemes to reduce these fluctuations. The accelerator structure is chosen to be of the side coupled, standing wave type for easier control. The beam transport is made isochronous to avoid the coupling between the energy and the timing fluctuations. 9 refs., 2 figs.

Kim, K.J.; Berz, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Gough, R.; Kim, C.; Kung, A.H.; Xie, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Edighoffer, J. (Pulse Sciences, Inc., San Leandro, CA (USA)); Stein, W. (Industrial Radiation, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (USA))

1990-06-01

26

Design overview of a highly stable infrared free electron laser at LBL  

SciTech Connect

An infrared free electron laser (IRFEL) is being designed for the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL) at LBL. The FEL is based on a 50 MeV RF linac operating in synchronization to the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and will produce intense (100 {mu}J per micropulse), narrow bandwidth (narrower than 0.1%) radiation between 3 {mu} and 50 {mu}. In the design, we pay particular attention to the FEL stability issues and require that the fluctuations in electron beam energy and in timing be less then 0.05% and 0.1 ps respectively. The FEL spectrum can then be stabilized to about 10{sup {minus}3}, or if grating is used, to 10{sup {minus}4}. We discuss various sources of fluctuations in the gun, the bunchers and the accelerator sections, as well as the feedback and feedforward schemes to reduce these fluctuations. The accelerator structure is chosen to be of the side coupled, standing wave type for easier control. The beam transport is made isochronous to avoid the coupling between the energy and the timing fluctuations. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Kim, K.J.; Berz, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Gough, R.; Kim, C.; Kung, A.H.; Xie, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Edighoffer, J. (Pulse Sciences, Inc., San Leandro, CA (USA)); Stein, W. (Industrial Radiation, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (USA))

1990-11-01

27

LBL Magnetic-Measurements Data-Acquisition System  

SciTech Connect

The LBL Magnetic Measurements Engineering (MME) Group has developed a Real-Time Data Acquisition System (DAS) for magnetic measurements. The design objective was for a system that was versatile, portable, modular, expandable, quickly and easily reconfigurable both in hardware and software, and inexpensive. All objectives except the last were attained. An LSI 11/23 microcomputer is interfaced to a clock-calendar, printer, CRT control terminal, plotter with hard copy, floppy and hard disks, GPIB, and CAMAC buses. Off-the-shelf hardware and software have been used where possible. Operational capabilities include: (1) measurement of high permeability materials; (2) harmonic error analysis of (a) superconducting dipoles and (b) rare earth cobalt (REC) and conventional quadrupole magnets; and (3) 0.1% accuracy x-y mapping with Hall probes. Results are typically presented in both tabular and graphical form during measurements. Only minutes are required to switch from one measurement capability to another. Brief descriptions of the DAS capabilities, some of the special instrumentation developed to implement these capabilities, and planned developments are given below.

Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.H.

1983-03-01

28

75 FR 64691 - Information Collection; Land Between The Lakes (LBL) Communication Effectiveness Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...facility operated by the USDA Forest Service. Current and potential...co-op advertising and tourism promotions, as well as LBL's own Web site. The Forest Service is proposing a study...is affecting the regional tourism industry. To...

2010-10-20

29

Immobilization of cholesterol oxidase in LbL films and detection of cholesterol using ac measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preserved activity of immobilized biomolecules in layer-by-layer (LbL) films can be exploited in various applications, including biosensing. In this study, cholesterol oxidase (COX) layers were alternated with layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) in LbL films whose morphology was investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adsorption kinetics of COX layers comprised two regimes, a fast, first-order kinetics process followed

Marli L. Moraes; Nara C. de Souza; Caio O. Hayasaka; Marystela Ferreira; Ubirajara P. Rodrigues Filho; Antonio Riul Jr.; Valtencir Zucolotto; Osvaldo N. Oliveira Jr.

2009-01-01

30

pH-indicators doped polysaccharide LbL coatings for hazardous gases optical sensing.  

PubMed

Sensitive layer-by-layer (LbL) coatings for optical detection of gaseous NH(3) and HCl were prepared by self-assembly of oppositely charged polysaccharides (chitosan and ?-carrageenan) followed by doping LbLs with pH-sensitive dyes - bromothymol blue (BTB) and Congo red (CR). It has been shown that CR, being an amphoteric dye, diffuses into LbL films regardless of the charge of the outermost polyelectrolyte layer, and the dye loading increases linearly with the LbL film thickness, whereas BTB diffuses into LbL films only when the outermost layer is positively charged, and linearity between dye loading and film thickness holds only up to 8-12 double layers (DLs) deposited. Formation of dye-doped LbL coatings at the surface of K(+)/Na(+) ion-exchanged glass has allowed fabrication of composite optical waveguide (OWG) gas sensor for detection of ammonia and hydrochloric acid vapors. The response time of BTB-doped composite OWG for ammonia detection was below 1s, and the detection limit was below 1 ppm. CR-doped OWG sensors have shown high sensitivity to HCl vapor but slow relaxation time (up to several hours for 12 DL LbL films). PMID:23218366

Mironenko, A Yu; Sergeev, A A; Voznesenskiy, S S; Marinin, D V; Bratskaya, S Yu

2013-01-30

31

Composite Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly with inorganic nanoparticles and nanowires.  

PubMed

New assembly techniques are required for creating advanced materials with enough structural flexibility to be tuned for specific applications, and to be practical, the techniques must be implemented at relatively low cost. Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly is a simple, versatile, and significantly inexpensive approach by which nanocomponents of different groups can be combined to coat both macroscopically flat and non-planar (e.g., colloidal core-shell particles) surfaces. Compared with other available assembly methods, LBL assembly is simpler and more universal and allows more precise thickness control at the nanoscale. LBL can be used to combine a wide variety of species--including nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets, and nanowires (NWs)--with polymers, thus merging the properties of each type of material. This versatility has led to recent exceptional growth in the use of LBL-generated nanocomposites. This Account will focus on the materials and biological applications of introducing inorganic nanocrystals into polymer thin films. Combining inorganic NPs and NWs with organic polymers allows researchers to manipulate the unique properties in the nanomaterial. We describe the LBL assembly technique for introducing metallic NPs into polymers in order to generate a material with combined optomechanical properties. Similarly, LBL assembly of highly luminescent semiconductor NPs like HgTe or CdTe with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was used to create uniform optical-quality coatings made on optical fibers and tube interiors. In addition, LBL assembly with inorganic nanosheets or clay molecules is reported for fabricating films with strong mechanical and ion transport properties, and the technique can also be employed to prepare Au/TiO(2) core/sheath NWs. The LBL approach not only will be useful for assembly of inorganic nanocrystals with various polymers but can be further applied to introduce specific functions. We discuss how the expanded use of NWs and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in nanocomposite materials holds promise in the design of conductive films and new nanoscale devices (e.g., thin-film transistors). New photonic materials, sensors, and amplifiers can be constructed using multilayer films of NPs and can enable fabrication of hybrid devices. On the biological side, inorganic nanoshells were used as assembly tools with the goal of detecting neurotransmitters (specifically, dopamine) directly inside brain cells. In addition, the stability of different cell lines was tested for fabricating biocompatible films using LBL. NP LBL assembly was also used for homogeneous and competitive fluorescence quenching immunoassay studies for biotin and anti-biotin immunoglobulin molecules. Finally, introduction of biomolecules with inorganic NPs for creating biocompatible surfaces could also lead to new directions in the field of biomedical applications. PMID:19053241

Srivastava, Sudhanshu; Kotov, Nicholas A

2008-12-01

32

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

Not Available

1991-09-01

33

LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies  

SciTech Connect

As part of The Geysers research activities of DOE's Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, LBL, in close cooperation with industry, is performing fundamental and applied studies of vapor-dominated geothermal systems. These studies include the development of new methods for evaluating cold water injection, monitoring of the seismic activity in The Geysers associated with injection and production, interpretation of pressure and geochemical changes measured during well tests and long-term production and injection operations, and improvement of existing models of the geothermal system. A review is given of the latest results of DOE-sponsored LBL reservoir engineering and seismic studies relevant to The Geysers.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Majer, E.L.; Pruess, K.

1992-03-24

34

LBL research on The Geysers: Conceptual models, simulation and monitoring studies  

SciTech Connect

As part of The Geysers research activities of DOE`s Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, LBL, in close co-operation with industry, is performing fundamental and applied studies of vapor- dominated geothermal systems. These studies include the development of new methods for evaluating cold water injection, monitoring of the seismic activity in The Geysers associated with injection and production, interpretation of pressure and geochemical changes measured during well tests and long-term production and injection operations, and improvement of existing models of the geothermal system. A review is given of the latest results of DOE-sponsored LBL reservoir engineering and seismic studies relevant to The Geysers.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Majer, E.L.; Pruess, K.

1982-03-01

35

LBL research on The Geysers: Conceptual models, simulation and monitoring studies  

SciTech Connect

As part of The Geysers research activities of DOE's Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, LBL, in close co-operation with industry, is performing fundamental and applied studies of vapor- dominated geothermal systems. These studies include the development of new methods for evaluating cold water injection, monitoring of the seismic activity in The Geysers associated with injection and production, interpretation of pressure and geochemical changes measured during well tests and long-term production and injection operations, and improvement of existing models of the geothermal system. A review is given of the latest results of DOE-sponsored LBL reservoir engineering and seismic studies relevant to The Geysers.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Majer, E.L.; Pruess, K.

1992-03-01

36

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) -) Status  

E-print Network

SMITH 65C HBC -0 K0, K- 1770 HALSTEINSLID63 FBC -0 K- freon 3.5 GeV/c HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 1 Created FBC -0 K- freon 3.5 GeV/c HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 2 Created: 7/30/2010 16:46 #12;Citation: K. Nakamura

37

Development and implementation of a low-cost LBL navigation system for an AUV  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable navigation system is a key factor for the success of an operational mission with an AUV in a real scenario. We address the main issues involved in the implementation of a long baseline (LBL) navigation system for a REMUS AUV. This system replaces both the original hardware and software of the vehicle with a simpler, faster, less expensive

Anibal Matos; Nuno Cruz; A. Martins; F. Lobo Pereira

1999-01-01

38

Transparent Conductors from Carbon Nanotubes LBL-Assembled with Polymer Dopant with ?-? Electron Transfer  

PubMed Central

Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and other carbon-based coatings are being considered as replacements for indium tin oxide (ITO). The problems of transparent conductors (TCs) coatings from SWNT and similar materials include poor mechanical properties, high roughness, low temperature resilience, and fast loss of conductivity. The simultaneous realization of these desirable characteristics can be achieved using high structural control of layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition, which is demonstrated by the assembly of hydroethyl cellulose (HOCS) and sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK)-SWNTs. A new type of SWNT doping based on electron transfer from valence bands of nanotubes to unoccupied levels of SPEEK through ?-? interactions was identified for this system. It leads to a conductivity of 1.1×105 S/m at 66wt% loadings of SWNT. This is better than other polymer/SWNT composites and translates into surface conductivity of 920 ohms/sq and transmittance of 86.7% at 550nm. The prepared LBL films also revealed unusually high temperature resilience up to 500°C, and low roughness of 3.5 nm (ITO glass - 2.4 nm). Tensile modulus, ultimate strength, and toughness of such coatings are 13±2 GPa, 366±35 MPa and 8±3 kJ/m3, respectively, and exceed corresponding parameters of all similar TCs. The cumulative figure of merit, ?TC, which included the critical failure strain relevant for flexible electronics, was ?TC = 0.022 and should be compared to ?TC = 0.006 for commercial ITO. Further optimization is possible using stratified nanoscale coatings and improved doping from the macromolecular LBL components. PMID:21524068

Zhu, Jian; Shim, Bong Sup; Di Prima, Matthew; Kotov, Nicholas A.

2011-01-01

39

Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H{sup {minus}} Source; The H{sup +} ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research.

Meyer, F W; Kirkpatrick, M I [eds.

1991-01-01

40

From the. psi. to charmed mesons: Three years with the SLAC-LBL detector at SPEAR  

SciTech Connect

As I look back at the first three years or so at SPEAR, I consider this one of the most revolutionary or perhaps the most revolutionary, experiment in the 60 year history of particle physics. It certainly was the most exciting time, in a laboratory that is, that I have ever experienced. In my talk I will cover the period 1973--1976 which saw the discoveries of the {psi} and {psi}{prime} resonances the {chi} states and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the D{degree}, D{sup +}* charmed meson doublet as well as the D{degree}* and D{sup +}* doublet. I will also refer briefly to some more recent results. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or MARK I'' which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. In 1976 the MARK I was modified to include a Lead Glass Wall'' (LGW) for improved photon and electron detection. This involved a new physics group from LBL, who built the LGW, Lina Barbaro-Galtieri et al. as well as a continuing group from SLAC, Martin Perl and Gary Feldman et al. to provide continuity in the running of the MARK I and to continue the study of the anomalous e{mu}events which Martin found earlier and which eventually were identified as the signature of the {tau} lepton.

Goldhaber, G.

1992-06-01

41

From the {psi} to charmed mesons: Three years with the SLAC-LBL detector at SPEAR  

SciTech Connect

As I look back at the first three years or so at SPEAR, I consider this one of the most revolutionary or perhaps the most revolutionary, experiment in the 60 year history of particle physics. It certainly was the most exciting time, in a laboratory that is, that I have ever experienced. In my talk I will cover the period 1973--1976 which saw the discoveries of the {psi} and {psi}{prime} resonances the {chi} states and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the D{degree}, D{sup +}* charmed meson doublet as well as the D{degree}* and D{sup +}* doublet. I will also refer briefly to some more recent results. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or ``MARK I`` which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. In 1976 the MARK I was modified to include a ``Lead Glass Wall`` (LGW) for improved photon and electron detection. This involved a new physics group from LBL, who built the LGW, Lina Barbaro-Galtieri et al. as well as a continuing group from SLAC, Martin Perl and Gary Feldman et al. to provide continuity in the running of the MARK I and to continue the study of the anomalous e{mu}events which Martin found earlier and which eventually were identified as the signature of the {tau} lepton.

Goldhaber, G.

1992-06-01

42

Europium phosphomolybdate and osmium metallopolymer multi-functional LbL films: redox and electrocatalytic properties.  

PubMed

Hybrid multilayer films composed by osmium metallopolymer [Os(bpy)2(PVP)10Cl]Cl (Os-poly) and europium phosphomolybdate, K??[Eu(III)(PMo??O??)?] (Eu(PMo11)2), were prepared using the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. The film build-up, monitored by electronic spectroscopy, showed a regular stepwise growth indicating a strong interaction between layers. The XPS measurements corroborated the successful fabrication of the hybrid films with the Os-poly/Eu(PMo11)2 composition. SEM images revealed a completely covered surface with a highly roughened texture. Electrochemical characterisation of films by cyclic voltammetry revealed three Mo-based reduction processes (Mo(VI)?Mo(V)) in the potential range between -0.4 and 0.1 V and one Os reduction process (Os(III)?Os(II)) at ?0.270 V. The cyclic voltammograms of two electroactive probes, [Fe(CN)?](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH?)?](3+/2+) on {Os-poly/Eu(PMo11)2}n modified electrodes revealed redox mediation between film and the probes. Furthermore, the {Os-poly/Eu(PMo11)2}n multilayer films also showed excellent Mo-based electrocatalytic activity towards reduction of nitrite and iodate, confirming the multi-functional properties of the hybrid europium phosphomolybdate - osmium metallopolymer LbL films. PMID:24559710

Fernandes, Diana M; Vos, Johannes G; Freire, Cristina

2014-04-15

43

LBL/JSU/AGMUS science consortium annual report, FY 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

In 1983, a formal Memorandum of Understanding joined the Ana G. Mendez University System (AGMUS), Jackson State University (JSU), and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in a consortium designed to advance the science and technology programs of JSU and AGMUS. This is the first such collaboration between a Hispanic university system, a historically Black university, and a national laboratory. The goals of this alliance are basic and direct: to develop and effect a long-term, comprehensive program that will enable the campuses of AGMUS and JSU to provide a broad, high-quality offering in the natural and computer sciences, to increase the number of minority students entering these fields, and to contribute to scientific knowledge and the federal government`s science mission through research. This report documents the progress toward these goals and includes individual success stories. The LBL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium has developed plans for utilizing its program successes to help other institutions to adopt or adapt those elements of the model that have produced the greatest results. Within the five-year plan formulated in 1990 are eight major components, each with defining elements and goals. These elements have become the components of the Science Consortium`s current plan for expansion and propagation.

Not Available

1992-12-31

44

Highly photoluminescent multilayer QD-glass films prepared by LbL self-assembly.  

PubMed

A novel and facile preparation method for layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled films incorporating quantum dots (QDs) and having intense photoluminescence (PL) from blue to red is presented. Functional sol-gel-derived glass layers prepared by the hydrolysis of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) or 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) have been used as a linkage between QD layers. Absorption, PL spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed for characterization, which revealed that the QDs in the prepared films had a nearly close-packed coverage and were not aggregated. The PL efficiencies of the QDs (CdTe or ZnSe, both are thioglycolic acid-stabilized) dispersed in the films were roughly half that of the initial colloidal solutions but reached 24% before a refractive index correction. The thickness of the red-emitting film with 10 CdTe QD layers was approximately 50 nm. The concentration of QDs in the film derived from the first absorption peak was approximately 0.01 M. Because the PL starts to show a red shift, the obtained concentration is practically the ultimate one in the glass matrix. The mercapto, amino, and carboxyl groups play important roles in LbL self-assembling processes. PMID:16142978

Yang, P; Li, C L; Murase, N

2005-09-13

45

Direct-Write Maskless Lithography of LBL Nanocomposite Films and its Prospects for MEMS Technologies  

PubMed Central

Application of nanocomposites in MEMS, flexible electronics, and biomedical devices is likely to demonstrate new performance standards and resolve a number of difficult technical problems enabled by the unique combinations of electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. This study explores the possibility of making microscale nanocomposite patterns using the fusion of two highly versatile techniques: direct-write maskless UV patterning and layer-by-layer assembly (LBL). Together they can be applied to production of a wide variety of nanostructured coatings with complex patterns. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and gold nanoparticle LBL nanocomposites assembled with chitosan (CH) were made into prototypical patterns such as concentric helices and bus-line-and-stimulation pads (BLASP) used in flexible antennas and neuroprosthetic devices. The spatial resolution of the technique was established with the standard line grids to be at least 1?m. Gold nanoparticle films revealed better accuracy and higher resolution in direct-write patterning than SWNT composites possibly due to the granular rather than fibrous nature of the composites. The conductivity of the patterned composites was 6.45×10?5 ?·m and 3.80×10?6 ?·m at 20°C for nanotube and nanoparticle composites, respectively; in both cases it exceeds electrical parameters of similar composites. Fundamental and technological prospects of nanocomposite MEMS devices in different areas including implantable biomedical, sensing, and optical devices are discussed. PMID:22740054

Bai, Yongxiao; Ho, Szushen; Kotov, Nicholas A.

2012-01-01

46

Metal ion reactive thin films using spray electrostatic LbL assembly.  

PubMed

By using the spray-layer-by-layer (Spray-LbL) technique, the number of metal counterions trapped within LbL coatings is significantly increased by kinetically freezing the film short of equilibrium, potentially limiting interchain penetration and forcing chains to remain extrinsically compensated to a much greater degree than observed in the traditional dipped LbL technique. The basis for the enhanced entrapment of metal ions such as Cu2+, Fe2+, and Ag+ is addressed, including the equilibrium driving force for extrinsic compensation by soft versus hard metal ions and the impact of Spray-LbL on the kinetics of polymer-ion complexation. These polymer-bound metal-ion coatings are also demonstrated to be effective treatments for air filtration, functionalizing existing filters with the ability to strongly bind toxic industrial compounds such as ammonia or cyanide gases, as well as chemical warfare agent simulants such as chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. On the basis of results reported here, future work could extend this method to include other toxic soft-base ligands such as carbon monoxide, benzene, or organophosphate nerve agents. PMID:18712910

Krogman, Kevin C; Lyon, Katharine F; Hammond, Paula T

2008-11-20

47

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (1820) 3/2-I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

SMITH 65C HBC -0 K0, K- 1770 HALSTEINSLID63 FBC -0 K- freon 3.5 GeV/c HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 1 Created FBC -0 K- freon 3.5 GeV/c HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 2 Created: 6/18/2012 15:07 #12;Citation: J. Beringer

48

Research News: Tissue Geometry Plays Crucial Role in Breast Cell Invasion http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/LSD-tissue-geometry.html Celeste Nelson (left) and Mina Bissell led a collaboration that created a  

E-print Network

Research News: Tissue Geometry Plays Crucial Role in Breast Cell Invasion http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/LSD Crucial Role in Breast Cell Invasion http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/LSD

Nelson, Celeste M.

49

Fluxes are subject to change. For latest go to http://bl831.als.lbl.gov/~jamesh/ACA2007/damage_rates.pdf Fluxes are subject to change. For latest go to http://bl831.als.lbl.gov/~jamesh/ACA2007/damage_rates.pdf  

E-print Network

Fluxes are subject to change. For latest go to http://bl831.als.lbl.gov/~jamesh/ACA2007/damage_rates.pdf Fluxes are subject to change. For latest go to http://bl831.als.lbl.gov/~jamesh/ACA2007/damage. For latest go to http://bl831.als.lbl.gov/~jamesh/ACA2007/damage_rates.pdf Fluxes are subject to change

50

Direct-write maskless lithography of LBL nanocomposite films and its prospects for MEMS technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of nanocomposites in MEMS, flexible electronics, and biomedical devices is likely to demonstrate new performance standards and resolve a number of difficult technical problems enabled by the unique combinations of electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. This study explores the possibility of making microscale nanocomposite patterns using the fusion of two highly versatile techniques: direct-write maskless UV patterning and layer-by-layer assembly (LBL). Together they can be applied to the production of a wide variety of nanostructured coatings with complex patterns. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and gold nanoparticle LBL nanocomposites assembled with chitosan (CH) were made into prototypical patterns such as concentric helices and bus-line-and-stimulation-pads (BLASPs) used in flexible antennas and neuroprosthetic devices. The spatial resolution of the technique was established with the standard line grids to be at least 1 ?m. Gold nanoparticle films revealed better accuracy and higher resolution in direct-write patterning than SWNT composites, possibly due to the granular rather than fibrous nature of the composites. The conductivity of the patterned composites was 6.45 × 10-5 ? m and 3.80 × 10-6 ? m at 20 °C for nanotube and nanoparticle composites, respectively; in both cases it exceeds electrical parameters of similar composites. Fundamental and technological prospects of nanocomposite MEMS devices in different areas including implantable biomedical, sensing, and optical devices are discussed.Application of nanocomposites in MEMS, flexible electronics, and biomedical devices is likely to demonstrate new performance standards and resolve a number of difficult technical problems enabled by the unique combinations of electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. This study explores the possibility of making microscale nanocomposite patterns using the fusion of two highly versatile techniques: direct-write maskless UV patterning and layer-by-layer assembly (LBL). Together they can be applied to the production of a wide variety of nanostructured coatings with complex patterns. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and gold nanoparticle LBL nanocomposites assembled with chitosan (CH) were made into prototypical patterns such as concentric helices and bus-line-and-stimulation-pads (BLASPs) used in flexible antennas and neuroprosthetic devices. The spatial resolution of the technique was established with the standard line grids to be at least 1 ?m. Gold nanoparticle films revealed better accuracy and higher resolution in direct-write patterning than SWNT composites, possibly due to the granular rather than fibrous nature of the composites. The conductivity of the patterned composites was 6.45 × 10-5 ? m and 3.80 × 10-6 ? m at 20 °C for nanotube and nanoparticle composites, respectively; in both cases it exceeds electrical parameters of similar composites. Fundamental and technological prospects of nanocomposite MEMS devices in different areas including implantable biomedical, sensing, and optical devices are discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30197k

Bai, Yongxiao; Ho, Szushen; Kotov, Nicholas A.

2012-07-01

51

AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS: 0 LBL-35700 AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS*  

E-print Network

: Infiltration, Ventilation, Air Leakage, Indoor Air Quality, Energy, Blower Door, Fan PressurizationAIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS: 0 LBL-35700 AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS* Max Sherman Darryl University of California Berkeley, California Blower Doors are used to measure the air tightness and air

52

Aceclofenac delivery by microencapsulation using LBL self-assembly for delayed release.  

PubMed

Colonic targeting has gained increasing interest over the past years, not just for the transport of drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also for its potential for transporting peptides and proteins, particularly low molecular weight peptide drugs. Without protection, such peptide drugs are usually digested within the gastric and small intestinal sections. In the present work Layer-By-Layer (LBL) self-assembly was utilized to make Aceclofenac single bilayer microcapsules produced by sequential adsorption of positively charged chitosan and negatively charged Pectin on the external surface of negatively charged Aceclofenac microcrystals. Taguchi approach was applied to determine the best concurrence of composition factors that is concentration of chitosan, pectin, centrifugation speed and incubation time. The microcapsules were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy and in-vitro release kinetics. Surface electric potential of Aceclofenac microcrystals was found to be negative with zeta potential -1.39 mV, in acetate buffer of pH 4. The primary and the secondary deposit layer of chitosan and pectin was found to have a positive and negative charge with zeta potential of +5.57 mV and -22.8 mV respectively. The sequential changing of surface zeta potential after each deposition is a satisfactory indication of the LBL self-assembly of the oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. The average size and encapsulation efficiency of the optimized single bilayer microcapsules (F5) was found to be 20µm and 63.83%, respectively. The ex-vivo percentage cumulative drug release of (F5) in Phosphate buffer pH 6.8 containing 2-4% w/v colonic fecal matter of male albino rat was found to be 98.40%. The optimized batch of microcapsules showed first order release kinetics (R(2)= 0.950) in presence of colonic fecal matter. PMID:21959811

Dharmendra, Kumar; Manisha, Pandey; Kymonil, Koshy Mamman; Awasthi, Saraf Shubhini

2011-10-01

53

Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide "cocktails", a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

2013-04-01

54

Effect of nano clay platelets and DNA on controlling the H-dimer of oxazine 4 perchlorate (OX4) in LbL film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxazine 4 perchlorate (OX4) forms dimer even in aqueous solution. In layer-by-layer (LbL) film of OX4, dimeric sites predominate over monomeric sites. This results in the quenching of fluorescence intensity. This communication reports a study of the control of H-dimer of OX4 in LbL film by incorporating nano clay platelets. Influence of deoxyribonucleic acid molecules in controlling the H-dimeric sites of Ox4 in the LbL film has also been studied. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic technique has been employed to study this effect. Atomic force microscopic image confirms the presence of nano clay platelets in the LbL film.

Bhattacharjee, J.; Hussain, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, D.

2014-09-01

55

Design of the 3rd generation ECR ion source  

SciTech Connect

Development of the 3rd Generation ECR ion source has progressed from a concept described in the last ECR Ion Source Workshop to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. The prototype consists of three solenoid coils and six race track coils with iron poles forming the sextupole. The design calls for mirror fields of 4 T at injection and 3 T at extraction and for a radial field strength at the wall of 2.4 T. The prototype magnet will be tested this spring in an existing vertical cryostat to determine its operating characteristics including maximum operating values, training characteristics and to study the interaction between the solenoid and sextupole coils. Design of the ECR plasma chamber includes aluminum walls to provide an enhanced source of cold electrons, up to three separate microwave feeds to allow simultaneous heating of the plasma electrons at 10, 14 and 18 GHz or at 6, 10 and 14 GHz. Water cooling of the plasma chamber walls and the injection and extraction plates is planned so that up to 10 kW of microwave power can be used without excessive heating of the chamber components. Experience with the AECR-U at LBNL shows that increasing the magnetic fields and using two frequency heating allows operation at lower neutral pressures and higher microwave power density. Both of these conditions are needed to produce very high charge states from elements with masses greater than xenon and the resulting higher energy, more intense heavy beams from the 88-Inch Cyclotron would provide new research opportunities.

Lyneis, C.M.; Xie, Z.Q.; Taylor, C.E.

1997-02-01

56

Formaldehyde as a Basis for Residential Ventilation Rates1 M.H. Sherman (MHSherman@lbl.gov) and A.T. Hodgson (ATHodgson@lbl.gov)  

E-print Network

, houses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening or objectionable exposures to indoor pollutants, while minimizing energy costs for conditioning incoming air. One ubiquitous pollutant in residences is formaldehyde. The sources of formaldehyde in new houses

57

Immobilization of lutetium bisphthalocyanine in nanostructured biomimetic sensors using the LbL technique for phenol detection.  

PubMed

This study describes the development of amperometric sensors based on poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and lutetium bisphthalocyanine (LuPc(2)) films assembled using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique. The films have been used as modified electrodes for catechol quantification. Electrochemical measurements have been employed to investigate the catalytic properties of the LuPc(2) immobilized in the LbL films. By chronoamperometry, the sensors present excellent sensitivity (20 nA ?M(-1)) in a wide linear range (R(2)=0.994) up to 900 ?M and limit of detection (s/n=3) of 37.5 × 10(-8)M for catechol. The sensors have good reproducibility and can be used at least for ten times. The work potential is +0.3 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE). In voltammetry measurements, the calibration curve shows a good linearity (R(2)=0.992) in the range of catechol up to 500 ?M with a sensitivity of 90 nA ?M(-1) and LD of 8 ?M. PMID:21704506

Fernandes, Edson Giuliani R; Brazaca, Lais C; Rodríguez-Mendez, Maria Luz; Saja, Jose Antonio de; Zucolotto, Valtencir

2011-08-15

58

Surface modification of PLLA nano-scaffolds with laminin multilayer by LbL assembly for enhancing neurite outgrowth.  

PubMed

In this study, PLLA nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning and their surfaces are modified by laminin/chitosan (LN/CS) polyelectrolyte multilayer. Surface C/N ratio determined by XPS analysis quantitatively indicates of discrete coating layers on the nanofibers. The amount of LN deposited sustainably increases with LbL assembly processing, approximately 60?ng?mm(-2) LN per cycle of LN/CS deposition. The LN-modified PLLA scaffolds significantly induce neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons and NSC compared to the pure PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds. Furthermore, higher amounts of LN adsorbed assist in promoting cell proliferation than PLLA as-spun nanofibers. Therefore, a facile and efficient method to modify nano-scaffolds for the construction of a biomimetic scaffold to promote highly efficient neurite outgrowth is presented. PMID:24038950

He, Liumin; Tang, Shuo; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Liao, Susan; Tian, Lingling; Zhang, Yuanming; Xue, Wei; Ramakrishna, Seeram

2013-11-01

59

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) b-baryon ADMIXTURE (b, b, b, b)  

E-print Network

superseded by BUSKULIC 95L. b-baryon ADMIXTURE DECAY MODESb-baryon ADMIXTURE DECAY MODESb-baryon ADMIXTURE://pdg.lbl.gov) b-baryon ADMIXTURE (b, b, b, b) b-baryon ADMIXTURE MEAN LIFEb-baryon ADMIXTURE MEAN LIFEb-baryon ADMIXTURE MEAN LIFEb-baryon ADMIXTURE MEAN LIFE Each measurement of the b-baryon mean life is an average

60

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) b-baryon ADMIXTURE (b, b, b, b)  

E-print Network

superseded by BUSKULIC 95L. b-baryon ADMIXTURE DECAY MODESb-baryon ADMIXTURE DECAY MODESb-baryon ADMIXTURE://pdg.lbl.gov) b-baryon ADMIXTURE (b, b, b, b) b-baryon ADMIXTURE MEAN LIFEb-baryon ADMIXTURE MEAN LIFEb-baryon ADMIXTURE MEAN LIFEb-baryon ADMIXTURE MEAN LIFE Each measurement of the b-baryon mean life is an average

61

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2 OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE graviton MASSgraviton MASSgraviton MASSgraviton MASS All+12 with a possible graviton mass as a parameter. The combined frequentist mass limit is at 90%CL. 3 DAMOUR 91 on the level of scalar contribution in the context of a family of tensor [spin 2]-biscalar theories. graviton

62

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2 graviton MASSgraviton MASSgraviton MASSgraviton MASS All of the following limits+12 with a possible graviton mass as a parameter. The combined frequentist mass limit is at 90%CL. 3 DAMOUR 91 on the level of scalar contribution in the context of a family of tensor [spin 2]-biscalar theories. graviton

63

Sponsored by the Human Resources Benefits Team / Benefits@lbl.gov / (510) 486-6403 UC Berkeley Art Museum/Pacific Film Archive  

E-print Network

Sponsored by the Human Resources Benefits Team / Benefits@lbl.gov / (510) 486-6403 UC Berkeley Art theater admission UC Berkeley Art Museum/Pacific Film Archive www.bampfa.berkeley.edu · Discounts at local books and merchandise in the Museum Store · Invitations for two to all major exhibition openings · BAM

64

One Cyclotron Road / Berkeley, California 94720 / phone 510-486-5111 / fax 510-486-6720 / email APAlivisatos@lbl.gov Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

E-print Network

APAlivisatos@lbl.gov Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Letter from the Director April 14, 2010 Dear Friends and Neighbors of Berkeley Lab: My name is Paul Alivisatos, and I am director of Lawrence Berkeley NationalOne Cyclotron Road / Berkeley, California 94720 / phone 510-486-5111 / fax 510-486-6720 / email

65

The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model o the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge Fault) and perhaps to the north by an unconfirmed fault (Yucca Wash Fault). The model consists of about 5,000 grid blocks (elements) with nearly 20,000 connections between them; the grid was designed to represent the most prevalent geological and hydro-geological features of the site including major faults, and layering and bedding of the hydro-geological units. Submodels are used to investigate specific hypotheses and their importance before incorporation into the three-dimensional site-scale model. The primary objectives of the three-dimensional site-scale model are to: (1) quantify moisture, gas and heat flows in the ambient conditions at Yucca Mountain, (2) help in guiding the site-characterization effort (primarily by USGS) in terms of additional data needs and to identify regions of the mountain where sufficient data have been collected, and (3) provide a reliable model of Yucca Mountain that is validated by repeated predictions of conditions in new boreboles and the ESF and has therefore the confidence of the public and scientific community. The computer code TOUGH2 developed by K. Pruess at LBL was used along with the three-dimensional site-scale model to generate these results. In this paper, we also describe the three-dimensional site-scale model emphasizing the numerical grid development, and then show some results in terms of moisture, gas and heat flow.

Bodvarsson, G.; Chen, G.; Haukwa, C.; Kwicklis, E.

1995-12-31

66

Influence of LbL surface modification on oxygen cross-over in self-assembled thin composite membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is concerned with the investigation of oxygen transport in layer-by-layer (LbL) self assembly of polystyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt (PSS) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) on Nafion membrane depending on the number of deposited bilayers, ion type within the multilayers and temperature. It is observed from SEM analysis that the polyelectrolyte layers growth on each side of Nafion membrane regularly. The oxygen permeability (P) of (PAH-PSS) 20 is 691 cm 3/(m 2 day bar) at 25 °C while P of pristine Nafion is 2329 cm 3/(m 2 day bar) at the same temperature. This significant reduction (70.3%) in gas permeability can be explained by the formation of LbL multilayers which both restrict the mobility of gas through the polymer matrix and adjust gas solubility properties in conjunction with ion-dipole interaction between the polar phase of Nafion and the secondary ammonium groups of PAH. (PAH/PSS) 20-Na + and (PAH/PSS) 20-H + exhibit 64.4% and 52.3% reduction in oxygen permittivity at 25 °C in comparison with the pristine Nafion ®117, respectively, while the proton conductivities of these membranes are 106.9 and 136.9 mS/cm. Promisingly, it is found that the membrane selectivity values ( ?) of all multilayered membranes in both H + and Na + form are much higher than that of perfluorosulfonated ionomer. The thickness of deposited bilayers dominates the diffusion and solubility properties of oxygen through the composite membrane while the major effect of surface hydrophilicity is not observed on oxygen permeability.

Y?lmaztürk, Serpil; Ercan, Nevra; Deligöz, Hüseyin

2012-01-01

67

An ion source upgrade for an axial injection based commercial cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TRIUMF H - volume-cusp ion source technology licensed by Dehnel Consulting Ltd ranges in output current from 1 to 15 mA with beam energies in the 22-30 keV range. For those Cyclone 30 cyclotrons installed with an early 1980's style Lawrence Berkeley Lab (LBL) volume-cusp ion source, an upgrade to a 5 mA TRIUMF H - volume-cusp ion source would pay dividends in terms of longer filament, filament post and ion source lens lifetime, as well as less eroded material build-up in the source. In addition, the 5 mA ion source would approximately double the beam current available to inject into the cyclotron while reducing the emittance by about a factor of four. The new system has the potential to significantly boost radioisotope production at Cyclone 30 facilities utilizing the older style LBL ion source.

Dehnel, M. P.; Stewart, T.; Roeder, M.; Le Du, K.

2005-12-01

68

Magnet power supplies for the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is building an Advanced Light Source (ALS) to produce synchrotron radiation. An electron linear accelerator, and a booster synchrotron are used to accelerate the electron beam to 1.5 GeV to fill the storage ring. This paper describes the power supplies used for the magnets in the booster and the storage ring and the interface requirements for computer control and monitoring the power supplies and magnet currents. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Jackson, L.T.; Lutz, I.C.

1989-03-01

69

SciDAC - The Scientific Data Management Center (http://sdmcenter.lbl.gov)  

SciTech Connect

In SciDAC SDM project, the main assignment to the Georgia Institute of Technology team (according to the proposed work) is to develop advanced information extraction and information integration technologies on top of the XWRAP technology originated from Georgia Tech [LPH01]. We have developed XWRAPComposer technology to enable the XWRAP code generator to generate Java information wrappers that are capable of extraction of data from multiple linked pages. These information wrappers are used as gateways or adaptors for scientific information mediators to access and fuse interesting data and answering complex queries over a large collection of heterogeneous scientific information sources. Our accomplishments over the SciDAC sponsored years (July 2001 to July 2004) can be summarized along two dimensions. Technically, we have produced a number of major software releases and published over 30 research papers in both international conferences and international journals. The planned software releases include 1. Five Java wrappers and five WDSL-enabled wrappers for SDM Pilot scenarios, which were released in early 2003, 2. The XWRAPComposer toolkit (command line version) which was first released in late 2003 and then released in Summer 2004, 3. Five Ptolemy wrapper actors which were released first in Summer 2003, and then released again in Fall 2005. 4. The decomposable XWRAPComposer actor in Ptolemy, which we have made it available as open source in end of 2004 and tested it in early 2005.

Ling Liu Calton Pu

2005-06-20

70

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons --H0  

E-print Network

TEVA p p H0 X, H0 W W () >114.1 95 4 ABDALLAH 04 DLPH Ecm 209 GeV >112.7 95 4 ABBIENDI 03B OPAL Ecm 209 GeV >114.4>114.4>114.4>114.4 95 4,5 HEISTER 03D LEP Ecm 209 GeV >111.5 95 4,6 HEISTER 02 ALEP Ecm 209 GeV >112.0 95 4 ACHARD 01C L3 Ecm 209 GeV HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 1 Created: 6/18/2012 15:10 #12

71

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Quark and Lepton Compositeness,  

E-print Network

Ecm= 192­208 GeV HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 1 Created: 6/18/2012 15:10 #12;Citation: J. Beringer et al data for averages, fits, limits, etc. · · · >4.5 >7.0 95 2 SCHAEL 07A ALEP Ecm= 189­209 GeV >5.3 >6.8 95 ABDALLAH 06C DLPH Ecm= 130­207 GeV >4.7 >6.1 95 3 ABBIENDI 04G OPAL Ecm= 130­207 GeV >4.4 >5.4 95

72

Operating experience with 80keV\\/80-A ion sources in use for Doublet III NBI experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present phase of the Doublet III neutral beam injection experimental program uses three beamlines, each beamline employing twin 80 kV\\/80 A, 10 cm x 40 cm, LBL-type, hydrogen ion sources. This is the first neutral beam heating experiment to use industrially fabricated sources with a two-stage accelerator system and to operate at such high energy per nucleon. In this

J. Kim; A. P. Colleraine; J. A. Fasolo; R. Hong; J. H. Kamperschroer; D. B. McColl; H. L. Palmer; R. L. Silagi; J. F. Tooker

1983-01-01

73

XUV synchrotron optical components for the Advanced Light Source: Summary of the requirements and the developmental program  

SciTech Connect

We give a brief summary of the requirements for water cooled optical components for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third generation synchrotron radiation source under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from a finished water cooled copper alloy mirror will be used to demonstrate the state of the art in optical metrology with the Takacs Long Trace Profiler (LTP II).

McKinney, W.; Irick, S.; Lunt, D.

1992-07-01

74

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2 OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE graviton MASSgraviton1913+16 and PSR B1534+12 with a possible graviton mass as a parameter. The combined frequentist mass theories. graviton REFERENCESgraviton REFERENCESgraviton REFERENCESgraviton REFERENCES GOLDHABER 10 RMP 82

75

Tuning nanostructure of graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte LbL assemblies by controlling pH of GO suspension to fabricate transparent and super gas barrier films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique of layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly was used to prepare transparent multilayered gas barrier films consisting of graphene oxide (GO)/branched poly(ethylenimine) (BPEI) on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. The effect of the GO suspension pH on the nanostructure and oxygen barrier properties of the GO/BPEI film was investigated. The oxygen barrier properties of the assemblies were shown to be highly dependent on the pH. It was demonstrated that the film assemblies prepared using a GO suspension with a pH of 3.5 exhibited very dense and ordered structures and delivered very low oxygen transmission rates (the lowest was <0.05 cm3 m-2 day-1). The assemblies were characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry to identify the film growth mechanism, and the result indicated a linear growth behavior. To analyze the nanostructure of the films, atomic force microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used.A technique of layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly was used to prepare transparent multilayered gas barrier films consisting of graphene oxide (GO)/branched poly(ethylenimine) (BPEI) on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. The effect of the GO suspension pH on the nanostructure and oxygen barrier properties of the GO/BPEI film was investigated. The oxygen barrier properties of the assemblies were shown to be highly dependent on the pH. It was demonstrated that the film assemblies prepared using a GO suspension with a pH of 3.5 exhibited very dense and ordered structures and delivered very low oxygen transmission rates (the lowest was <0.05 cm3 m-2 day-1). The assemblies were characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry to identify the film growth mechanism, and the result indicated a linear growth behavior. To analyze the nanostructure of the films, atomic force microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02845c

Chen, Jung-Tsai; Fu, Ywu-Jang; An, Quan-Fu; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Hung, Wei-Song; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, Juin-Yih

2013-09-01

76

Parameter studies of candidate lattices for the 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses the implications of various collective phenomena on the required performance of candidate lattices for the LBL 1 to 2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source. The performance issues considered include bunch length, emittance growth, and beam lifetime. In addition, the possible use of the 1 to 2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source as a high-gain FEL is explored briefly. Generally, the differences between lattices are minor. It appears that the most significant feature distinguishing the various alternatives will be the beam lifetime.

Zisman, M.S.

1986-01-13

77

An improved layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to generate biointerfaces for platelet adhesion studies: Dynamic LbL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) is a technique that generates engineered nano-scale films, coatings, and particles. These nanoscale films have recently been used in multiple biomedical applications. Concurrently, microfabrication methods and advances in microfluidics are being developed and combined to create "Lab-on-a-Chip" technologies. The potential to perform complex biological assays in vitro as a first-line screening technique before moving on to animal models has made the concept of lab on a chip a valuable research tool. Prior studies in the Biofluids Laboratory at Louisiana Tech have used layer-by-layer and in vitro biological assays to study thrombogenesis in a controlled, repeatable, engineered environment. The reliability of these previously established techniques was unsatisfactory for more complex cases such as chemical and shear stress interactions. The work presented in this dissertation was performed to test the principal assumptions behind the established laboratory methodologies, suggest improvements where needed, and test the impact of these improvements on accuracy and repeatability. The assumptions to be tested were: (1) The fluorescence microscopy (FM) images of acridine orange-tagged platelets accurately provide a measure of percent area of surface covered by platelets; (2) fibrinogen coatings can be accurately controlled, interact with platelets, and do not interfere with the ability to quantify platelet adhesion; and (3) the dependence of platelet adhesion on chemical agents, as measured with the modified methods, generally agrees with results obtained from our previous methods and with known responses of platelets that have been documented in the literature. The distribution of fibrinogen on the final LbL surface generated with the standard, static process (s-LbL) was imaged by tagging the fibrinogen with an anti-fibrinogen antibody bound to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). FITC FM images and acridine orange FM images were taken sequentially at selected surface locations to generate a composite overlap of presumed platelet adhesion as a function of fibrinogen distribution. The method was unable to distinguish the surface from the adhered cells. The surface inhomogeneity and porosity retained a large amount of acridine orange stain, even in the absence of platelets, and components in the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were found to fix acridine orange in a mode that fluoresced in the FITC imaging FM. Both of these problems obfuscated the platelet adhesion FM results when using s-LbL surfaces and acridine orange staining of platelets. A dynamic process (d-LbL) was developed in which a solution of the molecule to be layered was constantly washed over the surface, and was constantly mixed to maintain a more homogeneous distribution of solute relative to the surface during the layering process. The d-LbL surfaces were tested as described above, and found to reduce the size and number of regions of anomalous acridine orange pooling trapped by the surface, providing a greater consistency and reliability in identifying platelets. The improved surface was then used in a series of platelet adhesion experiments under static and dynamic flow conditions, and with and without the chemical additive L-arginine. The complex microcharmel system used in prior studies was replaced with a simpler system involving fewer nuisance variables for these tests. The tests were performed on both collagen and fibrinogen surfaces. Collagen has been used as a thrombogenic surface in multiple studies in the literature, but produces additional variables in thrombogenesis control that are avoided when fibrinogen is used. In these tests, fibrinogen was found to be as thrombogenic as collagen, and platelet coverage of both biointerfaces was reduced by L-arginine in a manner similar to previously reported work. The simpler system differed from the previous microchannel system in important factors: (1) It exposed the platelets to much lower shear stresses; (2) It introduced an oscillatory flow, which introduced a higher de

Lopez, Juan Manuel

78

Status of the MEVVA (Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc) high current metal ion source. [Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc  

SciTech Connect

The MEVVA (Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc) ion source that has been developed at LBL was reported on for the first time at the 1985 Particle Accelerator Conference (1). This source can produce hundreds of milliamperes of beam current of metal species from lithium up to uranium. In the period since then we have developed the source further, and this work is summarized here. We have now run the source with over 30 different beam species, and with an extraction voltage up to 110 kV. We have made and operated a miniature source, the MicroMEVVA. A multi-cathode version, in which one can switch rapidly between cathodes of different materials, has recently been constructed and tested. Applications of the source include: as a synchrotron ion source, as an ion source for heavy ion fusion, and for metallurgical ion implantation; we have done some preliminary work in these directions.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; MacGill, R.A.; Wright, R.T.

1987-03-01

79

ZAP and its application to the optimization of synchrotron light source parameters  

SciTech Connect

The design of electron storage rings for the production of synchrotron radiation has become increasingly sophisticated in recent years. To assist in the optimization of such storage rings, a new, user-friendly code to treat the relevant collective phenomena, called ZAP, has been written at LBL. The code is designed primarily to carry out parameter studies of electron storage rings, although options for protons or heavy ions are included where appropriate. In this paper, we first describe the contents of the code itself, and then illustrate, via selected examples, how the collective effects treated by ZAP manifest themselves in the new generation of synchrotron light sources.

Zisman, M.S.

1987-03-01

80

LBL EBIS test-strand  

SciTech Connect

An EBIS program was initiated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in late 1979. This first stage, construction of an EBIS research and development test-stand is described, along with results of the bare beam experiments.

Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.

1981-05-01

81

COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. rea source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon monox...

82

COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. Area source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon mon...

83

SOURCES SOUGHT  

Cancer.gov

Sources Sought Notice No.: SS-ETSB-91014-56 Project Title: Support for Research on Retroviral Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention This is a Small Business Sources Sought notice. This is NOT a solicitation for proposals, proposal abstracts,

84

Health Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes two health and medical reference databases on the EBSCOhost system from EBSCO publishing: Health Source: Consumer Edition and Health Source: Nursing\\/Academic Edition. The Consumer Edition is a diverse collection of consumer health information from magazines, reference books, and pamphlets. The Nursing\\/Academic Edition is an ideal source of scholarly journal articles on many medical specialties for nurses, allied

Patricia Mongelia

2004-01-01

85

Nonpoint sources  

SciTech Connect

Nonpoint source pollution remains the most pervasive water quality issue faced today. Unlike pollution from point sources, nonpoint source pollution is diffuse both in terms of its origin and the manner in which it enters ground and surface waters. It results from a great variety of human activities that take place over a wide geographic area perhaps many hundreds or even thousands of acres. And unlike pollutants from point sources--which enter the environment at well-defined locations and in relatively even, continuous discharges--pollutants from nonpoint sources usually find their way into surface and ground waters in sudden surges associated with rainfall, thunderstorms, or snowmelt. The author discusses some of the most significant sources of nonpoint source pollution.

Selzer, L. [Conservation Fund, Shepherdstown, WV (United States). Freshwater Inst.

1994-12-31

86

Ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

87

A figure of merit for blazar-like source identification in the gamma-ray energy band  

SciTech Connect

The microwave to gamma-ray slope {alpha}{mu}{gamma} can be used as a viable figure of merit for blazar-like source identification in gamma-rays. Taking into account the constraints from the observed extragalactic gamma-ray background, one can estimate the maximum duty cycle allowed for a selected sample of low energy peaked (LBL) blazars, in order to be detectable for the nominal sensitivity values of AGILE and GLAST gamma-ray experiments. This work is based on the results of a recently derived blazar radio LogN-LogS obtained by combining several multi-frequency surveys. We present our estimates of duty cycle constraints applied on a sample composed by 146 high latitude and 74 medium latitude LBL blazars from the new WMAP3 yr catalog. Our results can be used as an indicator to identify good gamma-ray blazar candidates: sources with high values of duty cycle can in principle be detectable also in a ''steady'' state by AGILE and GLAST without over-predicting the extragalactic background.

Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Pittori, Carlotta; Giommi, Paolo; Colafrancesco, Sergio [ASI Science Data Center, Via Galileo Galilei, 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy)

2007-07-12

88

Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although California uses more renewable resources than many other states, much of the state's electricity still comes from nonrenewable sources. Find out how using renewable energy sources to create electricity helps reduce fossil fuel consumption and how it has the potential to have the largest impact on climate change.

Kqed

2012-03-27

89

SOURCES SOUGHT  

Cancer.gov

Sources Sought Notice No.: SS-ETSB-01008-03 This is a Small Business Sources Sought notice. This is NOT a solicitation for proposals, proposal abstracts, or quotations. The purpose of this notice is to obtain information regarding: (1) the availability

90

Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video surveys the different current and potential sources of energy - both non-renewable and renewable. It provides some discussion of the pros and cons of the different sources and explains how they are used to produce energy that people can use.

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

91

Light Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

1993-01-01

92

Laser sources and techniques for spectroscopy and dynamics  

SciTech Connect

This program focuses on the development of novel laser and spectroscopic techniques in the IR, UV, and VUV regions for studying combustion related molecular dynamics at the microscopic level. Laser spectroscopic techniques have proven to be extremely powerful in the investigation of molecular processes which require very high sensitivity and selectivity. The authors approach is to use quantum electronic and non-linear optical techniques to extend the spectral coverage and to enhance the optical power of ultrahigh resolution laser sources so as to obtain and analyze photoionization, fluorescence, and photoelectron spectra of jet-cooled free radicals and of reaction products resulting from unimolecular and bimolecular dissociations. New spectroscopic techniques are developed with these sources for the detection of optically thin and often short-lived species. Recent activities center on regenerative amplification of high resolution solid-state lasers, development of tunable high power mid-IR lasers and short-pulse UV/VUV tunable lasers, and development of a multipurpose high-order suppressor crossed molecular beam apparatus for use with synchrotron radiation sources. This program also provides scientific and technical support within the Chemical Sciences Division to the development of LBL`s Combustion Dynamics Initiative.

Kung, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01

93

Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video provides an introduction to benefits and limitations of many sources of energy including fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. It also discusses hydrogen and hybrid cars.

Pbs, Wgbh -.; Domain, Teachers'

94

Food Sources  

Cancer.gov

Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

95

Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive website for students discusses both renewable and nonrenewable resources. It also discusses electricity and hyrdogen energy in depth. Furthermore, it provides a link to recent energy source statistics which can help students to identify the United States dependency on imports such as petroleum and natural gas.

2009-01-01

96

Power Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this short activity, students or groups are tasked to make concept sketches that track the source of electrical power as far back as they can conceive. The concept sketches reveal students' prior conceptions of the power grid and energy mix, and lead naturally into a lesson or discussion about energy resources and power production.

Semken, Steven; Collection, Serc -.

97

MUON SOURCES.  

SciTech Connect

A full high energy muon collider may take considerable time to realize. However, intermediate steps in its direction are possible and could help facilitate the process. Employing an intense muon source to carry out forefront low energy research, such as the search for muon-number non-conservation, represents one interesting possibility. For example, the MECO proposal at BNL aims for 2 x 10{sup {minus}17} sensitivity in their search for coherent muon-electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. To reach that goal requires the production, capture and stopping of muons at an unprecedented 10{sup 11} {mu}/sec. If successful, such an effort would significantly advance the state of muon technology. More ambitious ideas for utilizing high intensity muon sources are also being explored. Building a muon storage ring for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams is particularly exciting.We present an overview of muon sources and example of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Factory at BNL with various detector location possibilities.

PARSA,Z.

2001-02-16

98

THELUMINAPROJECT http://light.lbl.gov  

E-print Network

used to perform income-earning jobs in Kenya. Lumina Research Note #4, the first report in this series are also becoming more prevalent alternatives to disposable dry cell batteries. Flashlights using

Jacobson, Arne

99

Full MTMS DOC DESCRIPTION OF THE LBL  

E-print Network

has proven able to maintain control and provide data from which air flows can be calculated transfer due to pressure-driven air flow is one of the most important processes for determining both. Measurement of these air flows are critical to understanding the performance of buildings. Virtually all

100

CRISTINA CASTANHA _ ________________________ _________________ ccastanha@lbl.gov  

E-print Network

of California Davis. Fermentation Science, Honors, 1985. PEER REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS Castanha, C, S Trumbore, R of a California annual grassland. Journal of Vegetation Science, 20 (5): 860­870. Torn, MS, CW Swanston, C

Hazen, Terry

101

The LBL geothermal reservoir technology program  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the DOE/GD-funded Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is the development and testing of new and improved methods and tools needed by industry in its effort to delineate, characterize, evaluate, and exploit hydrothermal systems for geothermal energy. This paper summarizes the recent and ongoing field, laboratory, and theoretical research activities being conducted as part of the Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program. 28 refs., 4 figs.

Lippmann, M.J.

1991-03-01

102

Mark F. Adams mfadams@lbl.gov  

E-print Network

Scientist, 2013­ present Columbia University Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics Research Scientist, 2004­2013 Columbia University Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics Technical Mechanics, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 55, No. 1, p. 519-534, 2002

Adams, Mark

103

Radiation source  

DOEpatents

A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

104

Primary and Secondary Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to learn more about primary and secondary sources. 1. Explore the links below to learn about primary and secondary sources. When you have finished, you should be able to: Tell the difference between primary and secondary sources. Give at least three examples of primary sources and three examples of secondary sources. Explain why primary sources are important in research. Examples of Primary Sources Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources on the Same Topic Genres/Formats of Primary Sources 2. ...

Bates, Albion M.

2010-01-23

105

Locally decodable source coding  

E-print Network

Source coding is accomplished via the mapping of consecutive source symbols (blocks) into code blocks of fixed or variable length. The fundamental limits in source coding introduces a tradeoff between the rate of compression ...

Makhdoumi, Ali (Makhdoumi Kakhaki)

2013-01-01

106

The marine seismic source  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book are: Underlying physics and concepts; Source arrays and directivity; Interaction and wavefield determination; Practical aspects of wavefield stability; Source signature deconvolution; and Index.

Gregg, P.; Hatton, L.

1986-01-01

107

Distance Learning Funding Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide provides an annotated listing of funding sources for distance learning projects in the following categories: (1) corporate foundations (16 sources); (2) cable television programming sources (12 sources); (3) U.S. Department of Education funding, including Educational Development and Research Centers, Partnership Programs,…

Lucero, Jesus Ricardo; And Others

108

70 FR 43646 - National Source Tracking of Sealed Sources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...3150-AH48 National Source Tracking of Sealed Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...involving these sealed sources to the National Source Tracking System. These...of nationally tracked sources to the National Source Tracking System and...

2005-07-28

109

Radioactive Ion Sources  

E-print Network

This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequency-heated plasma-type ion sources.

Stora, T

2014-01-01

110

Querying Heterogeneous Information Sources Using Source Descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We witness a rapid increase in the number of structured information sources that are available online, especially on the World-Wide Web. These sources store interrelated data on topics such as product information, stock market information,entertainment, etc. We would like to use the data stored in these databases to answer complex queries that go beyond keyword searches. We describe the Information

Alon Y. Levy; Anand Rajaraman; Joann J. Ordille

1996-01-01

111

The Chandra Source Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents lsim30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1? uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of lsim1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a source is detected.

Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; (Helen He, Xiangqun; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

2010-07-01

112

Program improvement by source to source transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We treat a program as an object of manipulation, determine items of program constancy, and simplify the program based on the constancy. Some motivation for program manipulation is presented, along with two examples of “higher level optimization” written in an Algol-like language. A collection of program transformations and a model of the compilation process in terms of source-to-source transformations are

David B. Loveman

1976-01-01

113

Sealed Radioactive Sources  

MedlinePLUS

... replacement of sealed sources in devices with non-nuclear alternatives to reduce the number of sources in ... page Who else is working on this problem? Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) NRC is increasing regulatory control ...

114

Investigating Primary Source Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary source research requires students to acquire specialized research skills. This paper presents results from a user study testing the effectiveness of a Web guide designed to convey the concepts behind "primary source literacy". The study also evaluated students' strengths and weaknesses when conducting primary source research. (Contains 3…

Archer, Joanne; Hanlon, Ann M.; Levine, Jennie A.

2009-01-01

115

Compact microwave ion source  

SciTech Connect

A small microwave ion source has been fabricated from a quartz tube with one end enclosed by a two grid accelerator. The source is also enclosed by a cavity operated at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. Microwave power as high as 500 W can be coupled to the source plasma. The source has been operated with and without multicusp fields for different gases. In the case of hydrogen, ion current density of 200 mA/cm/sup -2/ with atomic ion species concentration as high as 80% has been extracted from the source.

Leung, K.N.; Walther, S.; Owren, H.W.

1985-05-01

116

Z-source inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an impedance-source (or impedance-fed) power converter (abbreviated as Z-source converter) and its control method for implementing DC-to-AC, AC-to-DC, AC-to-AC, and DC-to-DC power conversion. The Z-source converter employs a unique impedance network (or circuit) to couple the converter main circuit to the power source, thus providing unique features that cannot be obtained in the traditional voltage-source (or voltage-fed)

Fang Z. Peng

2002-01-01

117

Z-source inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an impedance-source (or impedance-fed) power converter (abbreviated as Z-source converter) and its control method for implementing DC-to-AC, AC-to-DC, AC-to-AC, and DC-to-DC power conversion. The Z-source converter employs a unique impedance network (or circuit) to couple the converter main circuit to the power source, thus providing unique features that cannot be obtained in the traditional voltage-source (or voltage-fed)

Fang Zheng Peng

2003-01-01

118

Ion sources for accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of different types of ion sources used for accelerator applications is given. Typical problems like the source life time, or the special need for technical solutions for specific elements will demonstrate the advantage of each type of ion source. In any case reliability is a main topic. Besides the plasma generation of the desired element, beam formation and beam transport to the accelerator are discussed. The influence of space charge on the beam transport can be of great importance if there is no space-charge compensation. Typical results achieved at GSI will be given for the following source types: Penning Ion Source (PIG), Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR), Cold or Hot Reflex Discharge Ion Source (CHORDIS), Multicusp Ion Source (MUCIS) and MEVVA.

Spädtke, P.; Bossler, J.; Emig, H.; Leible, K. D.; Mühle, C.; Schulte, H.; Tinschert, K.

1998-04-01

119

Pulsed spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Div.

1996-05-01

120

Dynamic radioactive particle source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

2012-06-26

121

Rf power sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.

Allen, M.A.

1988-05-01

122

Source and replica calculations  

SciTech Connect

The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem.

Whalen, P.P.

1994-02-01

123

Sources of atmospheric ammonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The information available on factors that influence emissions from the principal societal sources of ammonia to the atmosphere, namely combustion processes, volatilization of farm animal wastes, and volatilization of fertilizers, is reviewed. Emission factors are established for each major source of atmospheric ammonia. The factors are then multiplied by appropriate source characterization descriptors to obtain calculated fluxes of ammonia to the atmosphere on a state-by-state basis for the United States.

Harriss, R. C.; Michaels, J. T.

1982-01-01

124

Improved ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-05-04

125

600 eV falcon-linac thomson x-ray source  

SciTech Connect

The advent of 3rd generation light sources such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL, and the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, have produced a revolution in x-ray probing of dense matter during the past decade. These machines use electron-synchrotrons in conjunction with undulator stages to produce 100 psec x-ray pulses with photon energies of several kiloelectronvolts (keV). The applications for x-ray probing of matter are numerous and diverse with experiments in medicine and biology, semiconductors and materials science, and plasma and solid state physics. In spite of the success of the 3rd generation light sources there is strong motivation to push the capabilities of x-ray probing into new realms, requiring shorter pulses, higher brightness and harder x-rays. A 4th generation light source, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), is being considered at the Stanford Linear Accelerator [1]. The LCLS will produce multi-kilovolt x-rays of subpicosecond duration that are 10 orders of magnitude brighter than today's 3rd generation light sources.[1] Although the LCLS will provide unprecedented capability for performing time-resolved x-ray probing of ultrafast phenomena at solid densities, this machine will not be completed for many years. In the meantime there is a serious need for an ultrashort-pulse, high-brightness, hard x-ray source that is capable of probing deep into high-Z solid materials to measure dynamic effects that occur on picosecond time scales. Such an instrument would be ideal for probing the effects of shock propagation in solids using Bragg and Laue diffraction. These techniques can be used to look at phase transitions, melting and recrystallization, and the propagation of defects and dislocations well below the surface in solid materials. [2] These types of dynamic phenomena undermine the mechanical properties of metals and are of general interest in solid state physics, materials science, metallurgy, and have specific relevance to stockpile stewardship. Another x-ray diagnostic technique, extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, can be used to measure small-scale structural changes to understand the underlying atomic physics associated with the formation of defects. [2

Crane, J K; LeSage, G P; Ditmire, T; Cross, R; Wharton, K; Moffitt, K; Cowan, T E; Hays, G; Tsai, V; Anderson, G; Shuttlesworth, R; Springer, P

2000-12-15

126

High current ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper.

Brown, I.G.

1989-06-01

127

APPENDICE B Code source  

E-print Network

APPENDICE B Code source On trouvera ici le code source des packages ou domaines 'evoqu'es dans lePack ConvPack(le:List Expression):Public == Prive where E ==? Expression SE ==? SortedExpressions L ==? List LE ==? L E I ==? Integer PI ==? Polynomial I RFI ==? RationalFunction I NDMP ==? New

Ollivier, François

128

Using Primary Source Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

Mintz, Steven

2003-01-01

129

New Source Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature article outlines the concept and procedures followed in establishing performance standards for new emission sources and summarizes the standards that have been established to date. Five source catagories are enumerated: fossil fuel-fired steam generators, municipal incinerators, Portland cement plants, nitric acid plants, and sulfuric…

Jenkins, Richard E.; McCutchen, Gary D.

1972-01-01

130

Equivariant adaptive source separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source separation consists of recovering a set of independent signals when only mixtures with unknown coefficients are observed. This paper introduces a class of adaptive algorithms for source separation that implements an adaptive version of equivariant estimation and is henceforth called equivariant adaptive separation via independence (EASI). The EASI algorithms are based on the idea of serial updating. This specific

Jean-françois Cardoso; Beate Hvam Laheld

1996-01-01

131

Energy Sources and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with energy sources and development. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy sources and development related to the historical perspective, biological development, current aspects, and future expectations…

Crank, Ron

132

Classification of Ion Sources  

E-print Network

In this chapter, the anatomy of an ion source is briefly described, as well as a few features of particle motion in electric and magnetic fields, and of particle dynamics and plasmas. Using this information, different types of ion sources are described, highlighting their main mode of operation.

Scrivens, R

2013-01-01

133

Two Source Interference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource illustrates double slit interference patterns of 2D wave fronts. The waves from two point sources are shown propagating outward, with interference fringes shown on a surface. The wavelength of the waves can be changed, as can the source separation and relative phase.

Group, Kansas S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2004-03-10

134

Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose;

Winick

2003-01-01

135

Fugitive Dust: Nonpoint Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fugitive dust is a relatively new term for an old problem. Simply put, fugitive dust is a type of nonpoint source air pollution — small airborne particles that do not originate from a specific point such as a gravel quarry or grain mill. Fugitive dust originates in small quantities over large areas. Significant sources include unpaved roads, agricultural cropland and

John H. Ferguson; H. Willard Downs; Donald L. Pfost

136

Cairo source attribution study  

SciTech Connect

The greater Cairo area suffers from high ambient concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, including particulates (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), ozone (O{sub 3}), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). In order to develop and implement a strategy to reduce the health impact of air pollution in Cairo, USAID awarded to Chemonics International, Inc., the Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP). One component of the CAIP is to conduct source attribution studies. The purpose of these studies is to identify the relative contributions of various sources to ambient pollutant levels in the greater Cairo area. Of special interest to the CAIP is the contribution from mobile sources and lead processing industries to the observed ambient air quality levels. This paper describes the approach to attribute the observed levels of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} to sources in the greater Cairo area. Particular emphasis is placed on quantifying the contributions from lead sources in the area and developing a baseline against which changes in industrial and mobile source emissions attributable to CAIP programs can be evaluated. Also included are methods to apportion the sources of hydrocarbons in the region and additional analytical methods to reduce the uncertainty in the source attributions.

Gertler, A.W.; Lowenthal, D.H.; Howes, J.E. Jr.; Sagebiel, J.C.; Labib, M.; Abu-Allaban, M.; Samaha, N.

1999-07-01

137

Energy Sources and Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will help students to distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy, investigate a variety of renewable energy resources and compare the benefits and drawbacks of each. Students will use internet resources to investigate and compare alternative sources of energy. It is presumed that students have some basic prior understanding of the concept of energy.

138

Alternative energy sources III  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is based upon the 3rd Clean Energy Research Institute International Conference on Alternative Energy Sources. It provides coverage on the latest advances and developments in the scientific and technical search for energy sources with reduced health and environmental hazards. Topics covered in this book include solar energy; ocean thermal energy; wind energy; geothermal power; hydropower; nuclear breeders and

Veziroglu

1983-01-01

139

Alternative energy sources VII  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the economic aspects of renewable energy sources. Topics considered at the conference included socio-economic factors affecting energy source development, an economic evaluation of solar thermal energy systems, energy planning and management, alternative energy in developing countries, energy conservation, environmental policy, and energy education.

Veziroglu

1985-01-01

140

Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal aircraft skins scanned rapidly in vibration tests. Relatively simple combination of permanent magnets and electromagnet serves as noncontact vibration source for nondestructive testing of metal aircraft skins. In test, source excites vibrations, and vibration waveforms measured, then analyzed for changes in resonances signifying cracks and other flaws.

Namkung, Min; Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz A.

1994-01-01

141

Creating Open Source Conversation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

Sheehan, Kate

2009-01-01

142

Neutron sources and applications  

SciTech Connect

Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-01-01

143

On source radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power output from given sources is usually ascertained via an energy flux integral over the normal directions to a remote (far field) surface; an alternative procedure, which utilizes an integral that specifies the direct rate of working by the source on the resultant field, is described and illustrated for both point and continuous source distribution. A comparison between the respective procedures is made in the analysis of sound radiated from a periodic dipole source whose axis performs a periodic plane angular movement about a fixed direction. Thus, adopting a conventional approach, Sretenskii (1956) characterizes the rotating dipole in terms of an infinite number of stationary ones along a pari of orthogonal directions in the plane, and through the far field representation of the latter, arrives at a series development for the instantaneous radiated power, whereas the local manner of power calculation dispenses with the equivalent infinite aggregate of sources and yields a compact analytical result.

Levine, H.

1980-01-01

144

Trans-Z-source inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the impedance-source (Z-source) inverters concept to the transformer based Z-source (trans-Z-source) inverters. The original Z-source inverter (ZSI) employs an impedance network of two inductors and two capacitors connected in a special arrangement to interface the dc source and the inverter bridge. It has overcome the conceptual limitations of the traditional voltage-source inverter and the current-source inverter. In

Wei Qian; Fang Zheng Peng; Honnyong Cha

2010-01-01

145

Trans-Z-Source Inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the impedance-source (Z-source) inverters concept to the transformer-based Z-source (trans-Z-source) inverters. The original Z-source inverter (ZSI) employs an impedance network of two inductors and two capacitors connected in a special arrangement to interface the dc source and the inverter bridge. It has buck and boost function that cannot be achieved by traditional voltage-source inverters and current-source inverters.

Wei Qian; Fang Zheng Peng; Honnyong Cha

2011-01-01

146

Nuclear electric power sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

Singh, J. J.

1978-01-01

147

Vacuum Arc Ion Sources  

E-print Network

The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

Brown, I

2014-01-01

148

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOEpatents

An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

1996-01-01

149

Microfabricated diffusion source  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-07-15

150

Calcium source (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the heart and circulatory system, as well as the secretion of essential hormones. There are many ways to supplement calcium, including a growing number of fortified foods.

151

Alternative fuel information sources  

SciTech Connect

This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

Not Available

1994-06-01

152

A surface ionization source  

E-print Network

The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

Buzatu, Daniel J.

2012-06-07

153

Contacts & Information Sources  

Cancer.gov

PLCO Background Information about PLCO Sponsoring Organization Participants/Eligibility PLCO Extended Follow-Up Etiology and Early Marker Studies Cancer Data Access System PLCO Publications Contacts & Information Sources PLCO participants who

154

Computerized Energy Information Sources  

E-print Network

Many computerized files of energy- and energy conservation-related information are currently available through commercial and governmental sources such as Lockheed Information Systems, System Development Corporation, and DOE/RECON. Private...

Gordon, D.

1979-01-01

155

Open source hardware  

E-print Network

Open source software development models have created some of the most innovative tools and companies in the industry today modifying the way value is created and businesses developed. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze ...

Acosta, Roberto, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

156

METHANE: INDUSTRIAL SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter provides qualitative information on the magnitude of industrial sources of methane and, where possible, provides information to allow the reader to quantify methane emissions. One difficulty in quantifying methane emissions from industry is the inconsistent treatment ...

157

EXPLORING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students do research to determine the types of energy currently used in the U.S., study the economic effects of rising energy costs on average households, and come up with ideas for alternative energy sources.

Lisa Prososki (;)

2007-09-25

158

Tsunami Information Sources  

E-print Network

Rayleigh Waves for Estimating Source Mechanisms," In TsunamisRayleigh Wave Spectra for a Set of Tsunamigenic and Nontsunamigenic Earthquakes," In Tsunamis -and Tsunami of 27 March 1964. Part II. Analysis of Rayleigh

Wiegel, Robert L

2005-01-01

159

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

160

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

161

Sources of Assistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about materials on environmental scanning is offered. Suggestions about sources of data for scanning are provided, organized into six facets of the environment: demographic, economic, political, organizational, technological, and social-cultural. (MLW)

Ahumada, Martin M.; Hefferlin, JB Lon

1986-01-01

162

Diversification of energy sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

1975-01-01

163

Dual Sourcing Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourcing strategies that employ operational hedging can reduce the risk of operating in low-cost countries. This article examines\\u000a the sourcing strategy of toy-maker Mattel. Like the high technology industry, toys suffer from many supply chain ailments\\u000a including short product life, rapid product turnover, and seasonal demand. Coupled with long supply lines and potential political\\u000a and economic turmoil in Asia, toymakers

M. Eric Johnson

164

Field emission electron source  

DOEpatents

A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

165

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

166

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

1994-08-02

167

Hubble Source Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have created an initial catalog of objects observed by the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The catalog is based on observations taken on more than 6000 visits (telescope pointings) of ACS/WFC and more than 25000 visits of WFPC2. The catalog is obtained by cross matching by position in the sky all Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) Source Extractor source lists for these instruments. The source lists describe properties of source detections within a visit. The calculations are performed on a SQL Server database system. First we collect overlapping images into groups, e.g., Eta Car, and determine nearby (approximately matching) pairs of sources from different images within each group. We then apply a novel algorithm for improving the cross matching of pairs of sources by adjusting the astrometry of the images. Next, we combine pairwise matches into maximal sets of possible multi-source matches. We apply a greedy Bayesian method to split the maximal matches into more reliable matches. We test the accuracy of the matches by comparing the fluxes of the matched sources. The result is a set of information that ties together multiple observations of the same object. A byproduct of the catalog is greatly improved relative astrometry for many of the HST images. We also provide information on nondetections that can be used to determine dropouts. With the catalog, for the first time, one can carry out time domain, multi-wavelength studies across a large set of HST data. The catalog is publicly available. Much more can be done to expand the catalog capabilities.

Lubow, S.; Budavári, T.

2013-10-01

168

National Synchrotron Light Source  

ScienceCinema

A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

BNL

2009-09-01

169

Tunable marine seismic source  

SciTech Connect

The disclosed device is a marine seismic source which emits a constantly varying FM signal in the 10 to 100 H /SUB z/ range. The seismic source utilizes an adjustable length cantilever spring rotatably attached to stiff acoustic radiators, which create a signal in the water. Varying the length of the cantilever spring as a function of the frequency will permit the device to be continuously tuned for maximum power output.

Mifsud, J. F.

1985-12-10

170

Internet Medieval Source Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paul Halsall, sources editor for the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies, has recently created the Internet Medieval Source Book, a compendium of extracts and full text documents in Medieval History. Subjects covered include the end of the Classical World, Byzantium, Islam, formation and flowering of Latin Christendom, the Late Middle Ages, the Italian Renaissance, and the Early Reformation. Selected extracts are accompanied by short explanations, which help the reader to understand their context. The Source Book also contains links to a large number of medieval and religious sources, particularly strong with respect to Byzantine links. The purpose, scope and rationale behind the Source Book are explained clearly and concisely. The volume of texts and extracts, as well as the organization of the site, make this one of the premier Internet Medieval Studies sites. Note that all links of the Source Book and its links page are contained on two very large HTML pages, so users should be patient when navigating back and forth. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.html Medieval Links: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/medweb.html Online Reference Book to Medieval Studies: http://kuhttp.cc.ukans.edu/kansas/orb/mainpage.html

171

Light Sources 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Light Sources (LS:11) held in Fudan University, Shanghai, China in the period May 20th to 24th, 2007. In the 32 years since the first symposium was held in Loughborough, UK, the LS series has established itself as the major international event which brings together on a regular basis the world's leading scientists and engineers involved in the research and development of light source technologies. The participants come from the R&D laboratories of the worldÂ?s leading light source manufacturing companies and from research groups in universities, government laboratories and research institutes. The highly multi-disciplinary nature of the field results in a unique mix of physicists, chemists, chemical physicists, materials scientists and electrical, electronic and mechanical engineers attending the symposia. The more than 250 papers in these LS:11 proceedings provide an excellent overview of the current status of light source science and technology. The energy efficiency and light emission characteristics of existing technologies continue to be improved, solid state technologies are advancing rapidly and innovation flourishes generally. Audience Professional scientists and engineers involved in light source related R&D. Postgraduate-level students in the physical sciences, applied mathematics, materials science, and electrical and electronic engineering. The contents will also be of interest to anyone with a background in science and engineering wishing to gain an overview of current activity in this important global industry and research field.

Liu, M. Q.; Devonshire, R.

2007-04-01

172

Dual source heat pump  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01

173

Information sources in engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book was designed to serve as a guide to the wide range of sources of information used by engineers. The first part of this research tool describes the major primary and secondary sources for information (including online systems) that are relevant to all engineering disciplines. The second part provides the same information for each of the 19 specific engineering disciplines, with each chapter being written by an expert in the particular branch of engineering. This new edition of a work previously published under the title Use of Engineering Literature has been completely re-written with a new team of contributors. There is greater emphasis on disciplines basic to all engineering areas, e.g., fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and materials science. Recent developments covered include robotics, CAD/CAM systems, renewable energy sources, and the use of online systems for information retrieval.

Anthony, L.J.

1985-01-01

174

NIRCam optical calibration sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is one of the four science instruments installed into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on JWST intended to conduct scientific observations over a five-year mission lifetime. NIRCam's requirements include operation at 37 kelvins to produce high resolution images in two wave bands encompassing the range from 0.6 microns to 5 microns. In addition NIRCam is used as a metrology instrument during the JWST observatory commissioning on orbit, during the initial and subsequent precision alignments of the observatory's multiple-segment 6.3 meter primary mirror. JWST is scheduled for launch and deployment in 2012. This paper is an overview of the NIRCam instrument's Optical Calibration Sources (Flat Field and Point Source). It will discuss the source requirements and will explain the optical and electronic technology developed to fulfill their mission requirements.

Somerstein, Stephen F.; Truong, Glen D.

2005-08-01

175

Metal-plasma source  

SciTech Connect

A metal-plasma source is described in which plasma fluxes are generated by semi-self-maintained vacuum discharge in vapors of the working material, which is evaporated from a water-cooled crucible-anode. A cell with crossed magnetic and electric fields is used for additional ionization of the plasma fluxes, which increases the degree of their ionization to 40-65%. The source is especially effective for metallization of dielectric substrates. The use of an additional-ionization cell increased by a factor of 5-8 the adhesion strength of Ni films to polykor substrates. The rate of Ni-film deposition was 0.1-1.0 nm/sec. The plasma source has been used to produce films of Cu, Cr, Ni, Ti, Mo, C, and W with thicknesses of 0.1-2.0 ..mu..m.

Vladimirov, A.I.; Goryuk, S.V.; Saenko, V.A.

1987-10-01

176

INEEL Source Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, Gerald

2003-03-01

177

Intense fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

2010-04-01

178

SNS: Spallation Neutron Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source currently being built by the United States Department of Energy. Users can find out about upcoming workshops, conferences, and other events dealing with the accelerator, which is scheduled to be completed in 2006. By downloading a series of materials, users can learn about SNS's benefits and mechanisms. Researchers can discover SNS's mission, instrumentation, moderators, and detectors. The website provides live video of the construction site. Visitors can also learn about employment opportunities.

179

Source Code Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the DevX Source Code Library and the newer Sourcebank, users can download source code, algorithms, and sample applications. The Library is culled from DevX services and magazines, and resources are grouped into browseable and searchable categories. The Sourcebank collects code and related tools from sites around the Web and also is searchable and browseable. Users can limit their browsing by type of resource as well (Perl code, Java code, research papers, etc.). Perhaps needless to say, file formats are too numerous to name here.

1969-12-31

180

Ultrashort pulsed neutron source.  

PubMed

We report on a novel compact laser-driven neutron source with an unprecedented short pulse duration (<50??ps) and high peak flux (>10^{18}??n/cm^{2}/s), an order of magnitude higher than any existing source. In our experiments, high-energy electron jets are generated from thin (<3???m) plastic targets irradiated by a petawatt laser. These intense electron beams are employed to generate neutrons from a metal converter. Our method opens venues for enhancing neutron radiography contrast and for creating astrophysical conditions of heavy element synthesis in the laboratory. PMID:25396373

Pomerantz, I; McCary, E; Meadows, A R; Arefiev, A; Bernstein, A C; Chester, C; Cortez, J; Donovan, M E; Dyer, G; Gaul, E W; Hamilton, D; Kuk, D; Lestrade, A C; Wang, C; Ditmire, T; Hegelich, B M

2014-10-31

181

River Sources and Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students learn about the differences in precipitation levels and elevation in the regions of the Nile and its source rivers (the White Nile and the Blue Nile) and will be able to explain the importance of the source rivers to civilization in Egypt. They use the MapMachine, an online atlas, and create elevation zones and precipitation maps of Africa. As they create each map, they compare it with their outline maps to answer some questions that will allow them to compare the physical characteristics of different regions and to understand the significance of one region to an adjoining area.

182

Nanoplasmonics enhanced terahertz sources.  

PubMed

Arrayed hexagonal metal nanostructures are used to maximize the local current density while providing effective thermal management at the nanoscale, thereby allowing for increased emission from photoconductive terahertz (THz) sources. The THz emission field amplitude was increased by 60% above that of a commercial THz photoconductive antenna, even though the hexagonal nanostructured device had 75% of the bias voltage. The arrayed hexagonal outperforms our previously investigated strip array nanoplasmonic structure by providing stronger localization of the current density near the metal surface with an operating bandwidth of 2.6 THz. This approach is promising to achieve efficient THz sources. PMID:25402040

Jooshesh, Afshin; Smith, Levi; Masnadi-Shirazi, Mostafa; Bahrami-Yekta, Vahid; Tiedje, Thomas; Darcie, Thomas E; Gordon, Reuven

2014-11-17

183

OLED area illumination source  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

Foust, Donald Franklin (Scotia, NY); Duggal, Anil Raj (Niskayuna, NY); Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Nealon, William Francis (Gloversville, NY); Bortscheller, Jacob Charles (Clifton Park, NY)

2008-03-25

184

Alternative Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to the most common alternative energy sources that they may encounter in electronic work including fuel cells, solar power, and ultracapacitors. The module includes course materials covering each of these alternative energy sources along with three "Knowledge Probes" which provide an opportunity for students to master the objectives of the module. By clicking on "Learning Resources" at the top of the page, users will also find supplemental learning activities and additional resources for practice and research. The module also includes a glossary of terms and a notebook function.

2008-09-09

185

Ultrashort Pulsed Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel compact laser-driven neutron source with an unprecedented short pulse duration (<50 ps ) and high peak flux (>1018 n /cm2/s ), an order of magnitude higher than any existing source. In our experiments, high-energy electron jets are generated from thin (<3 ? m ) plastic targets irradiated by a petawatt laser. These intense electron beams are employed to generate neutrons from a metal converter. Our method opens venues for enhancing neutron radiography contrast and for creating astrophysical conditions of heavy element synthesis in the laboratory.

Pomerantz, I.; McCary, E.; Meadows, A. R.; Arefiev, A.; Bernstein, A. C.; Chester, C.; Cortez, J.; Donovan, M. E.; Dyer, G.; Gaul, E. W.; Hamilton, D.; Kuk, D.; Lestrade, A. C.; Wang, C.; Ditmire, T.; Hegelich, B. M.

2014-10-01

186

Download Mozilla Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Netscape offers its browser source code at its Mozilla.org (discussed in the Feburary 27, 1998 Scout Report) site. The compressed code is available for Macintosh, Unix, and Windows operating systems, and is between 8.8 and 11.9 Mb. Netscape strongly points out that this is source code, not executable programs, that it is of use to developers only, and that it "will be unstable." More information about the code, as well as selected build instructions, can be obtained at the site.

1998-01-01

187

Modular voltage source converter  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Voltage source converter based on a chain-link cell topology including one or more phases, each of the phases having one or more series-connected chain-link cell modules connected to each other. The output voltage of the voltage source converter is controlled by control signals applied to the series-connected chain-link cell modules. In case of failure of a chain-link cell module, that module is controlled, by the control signals, such that zero output voltage is provided at its output voltage AC terminal.

2013-08-06

188

ATLAS OF SOURCE EMISSION PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

An atlas of various source emission particles characterized by electron optical techniques has been compiled for use by air pollution investigators. The particles studied were emitted by mobile, stationary, and natural sources. Sources included automobiles, manufacturing operatio...

189

Chemical power sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The working principles of chemical power sources are considered along with cell types, aspects of cell performance, the electrochemical aspects of cell operation, the porous systems used for real electrodes, questions of design and technology, operational problems, and applications of cells. Various cell systems are discussed, taking into account manganese-zinc cells with salt solution electrolyte, lead acid storage cells, nickel-cadmium

V. S. Bagotskii; A. M. Skundin

1980-01-01

190

Miniature Radioisotope Power Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed miniature power source generates electricity for years from heat developed in small radioisotope unit without addition of fuel or dependence on sunlight. Called powerstick, is relatively inexpensive, lightweight, and rugged. Supplies power to small vehicles or scientific instruments in remote locations on Earth or in outer space. Envisioned uses include Mars miniature rovers and monitoring equipment for toxic or nuclear storage sites.

Chmielewski, Artur B.

1995-01-01

191

LabSOURCE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LabSOURCE is a periodic newsletter produced by the University of California. It provides news and information on UC's management of three DOE laboratories -- Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory -- and news highlights from the laboratories themselves.

192

Open-Source Colorimeter  

PubMed Central

The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

2013-01-01

193

Custom uniform source system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose and scope of this final report is to provide information on the Custom Uniform Source System (CSTM-USS-4000). The report includes documentation and summaries of the results for the work performed under the contract. The Annex contain laboratory test findings, photographs, and drawings of the sphere system.

Balcom, John L.

1994-01-01

194

Wavelength swept ASE source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel wavelength swept light source for Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Arbitrary sweep rates up to 2x170kHz are achieved by phase-shifted control of two optical bandpass-filters to compensate light propagation effects.

Eigenwillig, Christoph M.; Biedermann, Benjamin R.; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert

2009-07-01

195

Funding Source Agricultural  

E-print Network

Funding Source General Research Agricultural Experiment Station Instruction Public Service $ 19,500 $ 0 $ 3,280,132 $ 3,627,804$ 22,290$ 1,447,871DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION $ 3,471,064 $ 0 $ 8 FOR THE ARTS $ 10,983 $ 0 $ 25,983 $ 2,000$ 0$ 0NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES $ 0 $ 0 $ 2,000 $ 760

Arnold, Jonathan

196

Selective ion source  

DOEpatents

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

Leung, K.N.

1996-05-14

197

Selective ion source  

DOEpatents

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01

198

MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal contamination of waters used for recreation, drinking water, and aquaculture is an environmental problem and poses significant human health risks. The problem is often difficult to correct because the source of the contamination cannot be determined with certainty. Run-of...

199

Source Book on Alaska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bases for the development of this resource book were notes and a course outline used in teaching Alaska History at the junior high school level. It can be used as a checklist, a guide to organizing lesson plans, selecting classroom and testing materials, and as a source of concepts and information for any grade level. Most of the material is…

Peratrovich, Robert J., Jr., Comp.

200

Requirements for Ion Sources  

E-print Network

Ion sources produce beams for a large variety of different physical experiments, industrial processes and medical applications. In order to characterize the beam delivered by them, a list of requirements is necessary. In this chapter the list of principal requirements is specified and definitions for them are given.

Scrivens, R

2013-01-01

201

Sources of tritium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors.

J. E. Phillips; C. E. Easterly

1980-01-01

202

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

203

Broadband seismic energy source  

SciTech Connect

A vibratory seismic energy source capable of generating significant energy over a broad frequency band is described. The vibrating baseplate and associated structure are designed to have minimum weight while still retaining sufficient structural integrity to permit the use of high actuator forces. This, coupled with a large reaction mass results in the generation of significant energy levels in the earth at high frequencies.

Bedenbender, J.W.; Weber, R.M.

1981-03-03

204

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2 was approximately equal to the ion arrival rate at a partial pressure of about .00002 Torr. There were also ion source and ion pressure gauge maintenance problems as a result of the use of CF4. Large scale (4 sq cm) texturing of Si was accomplished using both Cu and stainless steel seed. The most effective seeding method for this texturing was to surround the sample with large inclined planes. Designing, fabricating, and testing a 200 sq cm rectangular beam ion source was emphasized. The design current density was 6 mA/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions, although power supply limitations permitted operation to only 2 mA/sq cm. The use of multiple rectangular beam ion sources for continuous processing of wider areas than would be possible with a single source was also studied. In all cases investigated, the most uniform coverage was obtained with 0 to 2 cm beam overlay. The maximum departure from uniform processing at optimum beam overlap was found to be +15%.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1979-01-01

205

BNL Sources Development Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The NSLS has a long-standing interest in providing the best possible synchrotron radiation sources for its user community, and hence, has recently established the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) to pursue research into fourth generation synchrotron radiation sources. A major element of the program includes development of a high peak power FEL meant to operate in the vacuum ultraviolet. The objective of the program is to develop the source, and experimental technology together to provide the greatest impact on UV science. The accelerator under construction for the SDL consists of a high brightness RF photocathode electron gun followed by a 230 MeV short pulse linac incorporating a magnetic chicane for pulse compression. The gun drive laser is a wide bandwidth Ti: Sapphire regenerative amplifier capable of pulse shaping which will be used to study non- linear emittance compensation. Using the compressor, 1 nC bunches with a length as small as 50 {mu}m sigma (2 kA peak current) are available for experiments. In this paper we briefly describe the facility and detail our plans for utilizing the 10 m long NISUS wiggler to carry out single pass FEL experiments. These include a 1 {mu}m SASE demonstration, a seeded beam demonstration at 300 nm, and a High Gain Harmonic Generation experiment at 200 mn. The application of chirped pulse amplification to this type of FEL will also be discussed.

Ben-Zvi, I.; Graves, W.; Heese, R.; Johnson, E.D.; Krinsky, S.; Yu, L.H.

1997-01-01

206

Data Sources Management Context  

E-print Network

-GN-WP1%20final_.pdf "Annual Report ­ Part 1: Information on Fisheries, Research, and Statistics143 #12;Data Sources Management Context Excess Harvesting Capacity in U.S. Fisheries, A Report to Congress. 2008 [accessed 16 April 2009]. National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), National

207

Data Sources Management Context  

E-print Network

, and Western Pacific regions: "Recreational Fishery Statistics Queries." Obtained 20 July 2010 Office#12;Data Sources Management Context Excess Harvesting Capacity in U.S. Fisheries, A Report to Congress. April 28, 2008. National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration

208

Evaluating Open Source Portals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for…

Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

2008-01-01

209

Opportunities for high aspect ratio micro-electro-magnetic-mechanical systems (HAR-MEMMS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: Opportunities for HAR-MEMMS at LBL; Industrial Needs and Opportunities; Deep Etch X-ray Lithography; MEMS Activities at BSAC; DNA Amplification with Microfabricated Reaction Chamber; Electrochemistry Research at LBL; MEMS Activities at LLNL; Space Microsensors and Microinstruments; The Advanced Light Source; Institute for Micromaching; IBM MEMS Interests; and Technology Transfer Opportunities at LBL.

Hunter, S. [ed.

1993-10-01

210

Extended HXR Sources - Albedo Patches or Coronal Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extended HXR sources in the presence of compact footpoints have been reported based on visibility amplitudes from different detectors. Attempts have been made to determine the location and extent of these sources through direct imaging. Results of this work will be described for simulated sources and for specific flares at different solar longitudes, with a discussion of the possible nature of the extended sources as either albedo patches or coronal sources or a combination of the two.

Dennis, Brian R.

2011-01-01

211

Alternative energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

Todd, R. W.

1982-04-01

212

Ultraviolet laser excitation source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new intense ultraviolet light source has been developed from an array of hypocycloidal pinch (HCP) devices. The basic unit of the array is constructed with three disk electrodes and is capable of producing dense plasmas at temperatures up to 10,000,000 K. Very high input power levels to the array are possible without significantly shortening its useful life, in strong contrast with conventional xenon flashlamps. The new light source, when operated with Ar and Xe gas mixtures at high pressures (approximately 5 x 10 to the 4th Pa), produced a light output of over 100 MW in the near-UV spectral range and successfully pumped an iodine photodissociation laser at 1.315 microns. A xenon recombination laser at 2.027 microns was also pumped in the HCP array.

Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.; Hohl, F.

1980-01-01

213

Ultraviolet laser excitation source.  

PubMed

A new intense ultraviolet light source has been developed from an array of hypocycloidal pinch (HCP) devices. The basic unit of the array is constructed with three disk electrodes and is capable of producing dense plasmas at temperatures up to 10,000,000 K. Very high input power levels to the array are possible without significantly shortening its useful life, in strong contrast with conventional xenon flashlamps. The new light source, when operated with Ar and Xe gas mixtures at high pressures (~5 x 10(4) Pa), produced a light output of over 100 MW in the near-UV spectral range and successfully pumped an iodine photodissociation laser at 1.315 microm. A xenon recombination laser at 2.027 microm was also pumped in the HCP array. PMID:20234618

Lee, J H; McFarland, D R; Hohl, F

1980-10-01

214

Evaluated teletherapy source library  

DOEpatents

The Evaluated Teletherapy Source Library (ETSL) is a system of hardware and software that provides for maintenance of a library of useful phase space descriptions (PSDs) of teletherapy sources used in radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The PSDs are designed to be used by PEREGRINE, the all-particle Monte Carlo dose calculation system. ETSL also stores other relevant information such as monitor unit factors (MUFs) for use with the PSDs, results of PEREGRINE calculations using the PSDs, clinical calibration measurements, and geometry descriptions sufficient for calculational purposes. Not all of this information is directly needed by PEREGRINE. It also is capable of acting as a repository for the Monte Carlo simulation history files from which the generic PSDs are derived.

Cox, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schach Von Wittenau, Alexis E. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

215

Voltage controlled current source  

DOEpatents

A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

Casne, Gregory M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

216

Mars Spark Source Prototype  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Spark Source Prototype (MSSP) hardware has been developed as part of a proof of concept system for the detection of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic in Martian dusts and soils. A spark discharge produces plasma from a soil sample and detectors measure the optical emission from metals in the plasma that will allow their identification and quantification. Trace metal measurements are vital for the assessment of the potential toxicity of the Martian environment for human exploration. The current method of X-ray fluorescence can yield concentrations only of major species. Other instruments are incompatible with the volume, weight, and power constraints for a Mars mission. The instrument will be developed primarily for use in the Martian environment, but would be adaptable for terrestrial use in environmental monitoring. This paper describes the Mars Spark Source Prototype hardware, the results of the characterization tests, and future plans for hardware development.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Lindamood, Glenn R.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanderWal, Randall L.

1999-01-01

217

Mars Spark Source Prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Spark Source Prototype (MSSP) hardware has been developed as part of a proof of concept system for the detection of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic in Martian dusts and soils. A spark discharge produces plasma from a soil sample and detectors measure the optical emission from metals in the plasma that will allow their identification and quantification. Trace metal measurements are vital for the assessment of the potential toxicity of the Martian environment for human exploration. The current method of X-ray fluorescence can yield concentrations only of major species. Other instruments are incompatible with the volume, weight, and power constraints for a Mars mission. The instrument will be developed primarily for use in the Martian environment, but would be adaptable for terrestrial use in environmental monitoring. This paper describes the Mars Spark Source Prototype hardware, the results of the characterization tests, and future plans for hardware development.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Lindamood, Glenn R.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanderWal, Randall L.

1999-10-01

218

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOEpatents

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

219

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOEpatents

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26

220

Filtered cathodic arc source  

DOEpatents

A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

1994-01-18

221

Marine petroleum source rocks  

SciTech Connect

Marine petroleum source rocks are of interest not only to petroleum geologists and geochemists but also to sedimentologists, stratigraphers and many oceanographers. This book is a collection of papers which were presented at a meeting held at the Royal Society, London, which was organized by the Petroleum Geochemistry and Marine Studies Groups of the Geological Society of London, with support from the Petroleum Exploration Society of Great Britain and various oil companies. The aim of the meeting was to bring together acknowledged experts and active workers from all the various disciplines that study marine petroleum source rocks and organic-rich marine sediments. General principles, depositional environments, especially important geographical areas and critical periods of the geological record were considered.

Brooks, J.; Fleet, A.

1986-01-01

222

THz Sources for Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terahertz is the primary frequency for line and continuum radiation from cool (5-100K) gas (atoms and molecules) and dust. This viewgraph presentation reviews the reasons for the interest in Terahertz Space Applications; the Terahertz Space Missions: in the past, present and planned for the future, Terahertz source requirements and examples of some JPL instruments; and a case study for a flight deliverable: THz Local Oscillators for ESA s Herschel Space Telescope

Siegel, Peter H.; Ward, John; Maiwald, Frank; Mehdi, Imran

2007-01-01

223

The Advanced Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th} {approx} 9{center dot}10{sup 19} m{sup -2}{center dot}s{sup -1}) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Hayter, J.B.

1989-01-01

224

Broadband waveguided light sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, broadband fiber interferometers have become very popular as basic instruments used in optical low-coherence reflectometry for diagnostics of fiber and integrated optics devices or in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging applications in the biomedical field. The longitudinal resolution of such instruments is inversely proportional to the optical bandwidth of the light source. Broadband luminescence from transition-metal-ion

M. Pollnau

2003-01-01

225

Sources of tritium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of both natural and man-made tritium sources is presented. Tritium production and release rates are discussed for light-water reactors (LWRs), heavy-water reactors (HWRs), high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten-salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for the tritium production facility near Aiken, S.C., fuel-reprocessing plants, explosives, and fusion reactors. A

J. E. Phillips; C. E. Easterly

1981-01-01

226

Advanced betavoltaic power sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betavoltaic batteries currently being manufactured utilize silicon junction devices coupled to Pm-147 beta sources. This technology can be characterized by a power density of approximately 1000 microwatts\\/cu cm, assuming no shielding. In order to achieve acceptable dose-rates, shielding must be added so that the power density is typically reduced to 50 microwatts\\/cu cm. Greater than 5 microwatts\\/cu cm is provided

L. C. Olsen

1974-01-01

227

Spark point light source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanically-improved spark gap, in an open groove along a glass or quartz rod, is described in this paper. The output is about 0.5 cps with a flash duration of less than a microsecond. The effective source size is limited by a 1.6-mm diam. hole in an aperture plate. Ease of assembly and replacement of faulty components is the important

Harold E. Edgerton; Vernon E. MacRoberts

1981-01-01

228

Coded source neutron imaging  

SciTech Connect

Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

2011-01-01

229

Optical source transformations.  

PubMed

Transformation optics is a recently appreciated methodology for the design of complex media that control the propagation of electromagnetic and other types of waves. The transformation optical technique involves the use of coordinate transformations applied to some region of space, providing a conceptual means to redirect the flow of waves. Successfully designed devices to date have made use of transformations acting on passive space only; however, the technique can also be applied when source distributions (e.g., current and charge) are included within the space being transformed. In this paper we present examples of source transformations that illustrate the potential of these expanded transformation optical methods. In particular, using finite-element full-wave simulations, we confirm the restoration of dipole radiation patterns from both a distorted 'pin-wheel' antenna and a bent dipole partially occluded by a cylindrical scatterer. We propose the technique of source transformations as a powerful approach for antenna design, especially in relation to conformal antennas. PMID:19104551

Kundtz, N; Roberts, D A; Allen, J; Cummer, S; Smith, D R

2008-12-22

230

Seismic source parameters  

SciTech Connect

The use of information contained on seismograms to infer the properties of an explosion source presents an interesting challenge because the seismic waves recorded on the seismograms represent only small indirect, effects of the explosion. The essential physics of the problem includes the process by which these elastic waves are generated by the explosion and also the process involved in propagating the seismic waves from the source region to the sites where the seismic data are collected. Interpretation of the seismic data in terms of source properties requires that the effects of these generation and propagation processes be taken into account. The propagation process involves linear mechanics and a variety of standard seismological methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem. The generation process presents a more difficult problem, as it involves non-linear mechanics, but semi-empirical methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem which appear to yield reasonable results. These basic properties of the seismic method are illustrated with some of the results from the NPE.

Johnson, L.R.

1994-06-01

231

Improved negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, J.E.

1984-05-01

232

A useful infrared source.  

PubMed

Reliable Inconel-sheathed cartridge heaters rated at hundreds or thousands of watts have been in use for many years. Miniature heaters have been manufactured, having axial leads, which when treated with an emissive coating meet or exceed Globar emissivities in the ir. Free-air temperatures approximating 800 degrees C have been obtained for power inputs of 10 W, while temperatures as high as 1150 degrees C are possible for short lifetimes, e.g., 10 h, at power dissipations of 24 W or more. Sources can be designed to operate from d or ac power with higher voltages and lower currents depending upon physical size limitations, resulting in simplified power supply problems. Although voltages from 12 V to 230 V are practical for larger units, the sources described below operated at 1060 degrees C from a nominal 1.07 A at 18.7 V d for apower consumption of 20 W variable continuously about this value. The small dimensions of these sources compare favorably to those of a 0.5-W electronic resistor. The present units are cylindrical, 1 cm long x 4 mm diam. The construction of smaller units is possible bt difficult under present state-of-the-art limitations. PMID:20057526

Carlon, H R

1966-08-01

233

CCPPolicyBriefing Open Source  

E-print Network

CCPPolicyBriefing June 2008 Open Source Licensing in Mixed Markets W: www.ccp.uea.ac.uk T: +44 (0)1603 593715 A: UEA, Norwich, NR4 7TJ Open Source Licensing in Mixed Markets, or "Why Open Source Software Does · The market outcome is affected by: (i) whether the open source developer is a precursor or a follower

Feigon, Brooke

234

The IRAS faint source survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal features of the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a new product resulting from the extended IRAS mission, are reviewed. The FSS has achieved an increase in sensitivity of about a factor of 2.5 relative to the IRAS Point Source Catalog by coadding the data before extracting sources. The FSS was produced by point-source filtering the individual detector data

Mehrdad Moshir

1991-01-01

235

THE LUMINA PROJECT http://light.lbl.gov  

E-print Network

of Elsam Electronics, Francis Ngugi, and Paul Mwaniki for their insights, assistance, and support. We and George Scharffenberger have been key supporters of this work. Evan Mills and Arne Jacobson, especially when quantitative measures are sought. Improved and more energy efficient illumination systems

Jacobson, Arne

236

Louis-Benoit Desroches! (ldesroches@lbl.gov)!  

E-print Network

Water Heaters (Residential)(COMPLETED) Direct Heating Equipment (COMPLETED) Pool Heaters (COMPLETED) Small Electric Motors (COMPLETED) Refrigerators (pending) Ten Final Rules in 2011 Microwave Ovens! Effective Dates of "National Standards" Effective Dates of "State Standards"=" =" Gas Furnace -25%" Central

Kammen, Daniel M.

237

CAITLIN E. HICKS PRIES cehpries@lbl.gov  

E-print Network

by Margaret Torn (January 2013-Present) EDUCATION Ph.D. (2012) Biology, University of Florida Dissertation carbon balance, $9,995 2010 National Science Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant, Carbon, soil and permafrost on carbon balance in Alas

Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

238

CRISTINA CASTANHA ccastanha@lbl.gov CURRENT POSITIONS  

E-print Network

. Energy Management and Design, 1992. B.S. University of California Davis. Fermentation Science, Honors of a California annual grassland. Journal of Vegetation Science, 20(5): 860­870. Torn MS, CW Swanston, C Castanha

Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

239

The AUV positioning using ranges from one transponder LBL  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) positioning method using the range data from one transponder of a long base line acoustic positioning system and the yaw and relative velocity information from an on board autonomous navigation system is described in the paper. The localization algorithm is based on the least squares root method. The algorithm allows one to calculate the AUV

A. P. Scherbatyuk

1995-01-01

240

THE LUMINA PROJECT http://light.lbl.gov  

E-print Network

in a timely fashion between the issuance of more formal and lengthy reports. Our results should performance metrics, and to facilitate the development of industry standards and product rating protocols. Our

Jacobson, Arne

241

Vctor Vilarrasa's CV e-mail: vvilarrasa@lbl.gov  

E-print Network

(UPC), Spain. - Title: Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Injection in Deep Saline. Probabilistic Assessment of Groundwater-Related Risks at Subsurface Excavation Sites. Engineering Geology, 125 for Characterizing the Hydraulic Effectiveness of an Annular Low- Permeability Barrier. Engineering Geology, 120, 68

Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

242

Ramakrishnan, http://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/floyd/ecn.html  

E-print Network

field of the TCP header. ffl Host A sets the ECN­Echo bit in the TCP header of the SYN packet. The IP with both the ECT bit and the CE (Congestion Experienced) bits set in the IP header, the TCP host setsThe detailed proposal for ECN and TCP: K. K. Ramakrishnan, Sally Floyd L.A. IETF, March 30, 1998

Floyd, Sally

243

Integrated Power Source Grant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional spacecraft power systems incorporate a solar array energy source, an energy storage element (battery), and battery charge control and bus voltage regulation electronics to provide continuous electrical power for spacecraft systems and instruments. Dedicated power conditioning components provide limited fault isolation between systems and instruments, while a centralized power-switching unit provides spacecraft load control. Battery undervoltage conditions are detected by the spacecraft processor, which removes fault conditions and non-critical loads before permanent battery damage can occur. Cost effective operation of a micro-sat constellation requires a fault tolerant spacecraft architecture that minimizes on-orbit operational costs by permitting autonomous reconfiguration in response to unexpected fault conditions. A new micro-sat power system architecture that enhances spacecraft fault tolerance and improves power system survivability by continuously managing the battery charge and discharge processes on a cell-by-cell basis has been developed. This architecture is based on the Integrated Power Source (US patent 5644207), which integrates dual junction solar cells, Lithium Ion battery cells, and processor based charge control electronics into a structural panel that can be deployed or used to form a portion of the outer shell of a micro-spacecraft. The first generation Integrated Power Source is configured as a one inch thick panel in which prismatic Lithium Ion battery cells are arranged in a 3x7 matrix (26VDC) and a 3x1 matrix (3.7VDC) to provide the required output voltages and load currents. A multi-layer structure holds the battery cells, as well as the thermal insulators that are necessary to protect the Lithium Ion battery cells from the extreme temperatures of the solar cell layer. Independent thermal radiators, located on the back of the panel, are dedicated to the solar cell array, the electronics, and the battery cell array. In deployed panel applications, these radiators maintain the battery cells in an appropriate operational temperature range.

2001-01-01

244

Sources of tritium  

SciTech Connect

A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water.

Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

1980-12-01

245

The European Spallation Source  

SciTech Connect

In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

2011-04-20

246

Battery power source  

SciTech Connect

A low voltage DC power-supply is described for an electronic circuit load which comprises: at least one battery; means for regulating the voltage delivered from the battery to the load; and means for charging the battery from AC line power source comprising: means for controlling the charging voltage applied to the battery in function of the net current flowing in and out of the battery; switchable means for rectifying the AC line power; means for detecting the full-cycle zero-axis crossing time of the AC line power; and means for switching the means for rectifying at the zero-axis crossing time.

Ball, N.E.

1986-12-16

247

Spark point light source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanically-improved spark gap, in an open groove along a glass or quartz rod, is described in this paper. The output is about 0.5 cps with a flash duration of less than a microsecond. The effective source size is limited by a 1.6-mm diam. hole in an aperture plate. Ease of assembly and replacement of faulty components is the important improvement over earlier spark gaps. Mach apparently was the first to study bullets and shock waves in air with illumination from an open spark gap. A bibliography of the history of spark discharges can be found in books by Edgerton and Frungel.

Edgerton, Harold E.; MacRoberts, Vernon E.

1981-04-01

248

World Development Sources (WDS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Development Sources is the "digital repository" of World Bank documents. It houses a searchable database of development-related reports produced since 1988 by the World Bank. These include Staff Appraisal Reports (SARs), World Bank President's Reports and Memoranda, Economic and Sector Work, Evaluation Reports and Studies, and Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Montreal Protocol Project documents. It also contains working papers and publications produced by the World Bank since 1993. All of these papers can be viewed online using the TMS Sequoia plug-in (available at the site for Windows and Macintosh).

1997-01-01

249

DreiserWebSource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed and maintained by the Annenberg Rare Book and Manuscript Library Collection at the University of Pennsylvania, the DreiserWebSource website brings together a host of written ephemera, original essays, and electronic texts related to the life and writings of Theodore Dreiser, the prominent American author. While the site doesn't have a formal search engine, the material is divided into four primary sections: Correspondence & Texts, Scholarly Essays, Reference Sources, and Still and Moving images. The Correspondence & Texts section is a delight unto itself, as it contains a host of digitized correspondence between Dreiser and colleagues over several decades and a special section dedicated to his ground-breaking novel, Sister Carrie. Along with several editions of the complete novel there are several essays about the novel's composition and historical context, along with a virtual exhibition curated by Nancy M. Shawcross from the Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Penn. The site also includes a rare 3-minute silent film of Dreiser from 1938 at Mt. Kisco, New York, taken by Robert Elias.

250

Open source vs. closed source software: towards measuring security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing availability and deployment of open source software in personal and commercial environments makes open source software highly appealing for hackers, and others who are interested in exploiting software vulnerabilities. This deployment has resulted in a debate \\

Guido Schryen; Rouven Kadura

2009-01-01

251

Musical source separation using time-frequency source priors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the source separation problem for stereo musical mixtures using prior information about the sources (instrument names and localization). After a brief review of existing methods, we design a family of probabilistic mixture generative models combining modified positive independent subspace analysis (ISA), localization models, and segmental models (SM). We express source separation as a Bayesian estimation problem

Emmanuel Vincent

2006-01-01

252

Source separation based on binaural cues and source model constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system for separating multiple sources from a two-channel recording based on interaural cues and known char- acteristics of the source signals. We combine a probabilist ic model of the observed interaural level and phase differences with a prior model of the source statistics and derive an EM al- gorithm for finding the maximum likelihood parameters of the

Ron J. Weiss; Michael I. Mandel; Daniel P. W. Ellis

2008-01-01

253

Multiple source heat pump  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01

254

Moving Image Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you enjoy films, you will probably be delighted to learn about the Moving Image Source website. Created by the people at the Museum of the Moving Image, the site contains interviews and articles with film critics, filmmakers, and other commentators. The site contains four primary areas: "Articles", "Calendar", "Dialogues", and "Research Guide." The "Articles" area contains guided tours through Jean-Luc Godard's "Film Socialisme", the virtual visions of Marco Brambilla, and the many faces of Catherine Deneuve. The archives of these articles date back to 2008, and visitors can also search this collection by author. The "Dialogues" area contains audio files of conversations with film figures like Michael Caine, Amy Ryan, Terry Gilliam, and David O. Russell. The site is rounded out by the "Research Guide" area, which includes helpful links to sites that deal with film criticism, scoring, history, and technology.

255

Real Climate: Data Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for quick, trustworthy information on climate change? Look no further. This winner of the Scientific American Science and Technology Web Award delivers up-to-date, empirically solid articles, commentaries, and data sources about the global climate situation. To begin, click the Start Here link, and peruse articles divided by level of expertise. âÂÂFor complete beginners,â for instance, lists links to the National Center for Atmospheric Research and NASA, among others. âÂÂFor those with some knowledgeâ includes links to 20 more advanced articles on climate change, while âÂÂInformed but in need of more detailâ showcases actual reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

2004-12-01

256

Infrared source test  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

Ott, L.

1994-11-15

257

Tubular shear wave source  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vibratory source for imparting seismic shear wave energy into an earth medium, underlying a relatively softer earth surface medium. It comprises: rigid, hollow tube means of elongate, tubular shape having an axis and first and second ends with the first end inserted through the surface medium into firm energy-coupling engagement with the earth medium; a housing means rigidly secured in axially balanced relationship on the second end of the tube means; shaft means rotatably supported in the housing means in axial alignment with the tube means adjacent the type means second end; motor means rigidly secured to the housing means and providing rotational drive to the shaft means; and an eccentric weight rotor secured on the shaft means and generating an orbital force for transmission along the length of the tube means to be the first end thereby to couple seismic wave energy of predetermined frequency and duration into the earth medium.

Cole, J.H.

1989-09-19

258

Migration Information Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a publication of the Migration Policy Institute, the Migration Information Source "provides fresh thought, authoritative data from numerous global organizations and governments, and global analysis of international migration and refugee trends." Their well-organized homepage offers policy briefs, "Spotlight" features (including a recent one on Indian immigrants in the United States), and information about their ongoing projects. Policy makers and scholars will love the "Immigration Data Hub" area. Here they can get valuable data on state responses to immigrations, the top global destinations for Irish immigrants, as well as historical immigration data. Visitors can also use the "US in Focus" area to find out about specific immigration trends throughout the country, with a special focus on policy issues affecting states and urban areas. The site is rounded out by an RSS feed, a press room of recent news releases, and a glossary of terms.

259

Arsenic pollution sources.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by many (bio)geochemical processes: oxidation of arsenic-bearing sulfides, desorption from oxides and hydroxides, reductive dissolution, evaporative concentration, leaching from sulfides by carbonate, and microbial mobilization. Arsenic enrichment also takes place in geothermally active areas; surface waters are more susceptible than groundwater to contamination in the vicinity of such geothermal systems, and evidence suggests that increased use of geothermal power may elevate risks of arsenic exposure in affected areas. Past and current mining activities continue to provide sources of environmental contamination by arsenic. Because gold- and arsenic-bearing minerals coexist, there is a hazard of mobilizing arsenic during gold mining activities. The Ashanti region of central Ghana currently faces this as a real risk. Historical arsenic contamination exists in Cornwall, UK; an example of a recent arsenic pollution event is that of Ron Phibun town in southern Thailand, where arsenic-related human health effects have been reported. Other important sources of arsenic exposure include coal burning in Slovakia, Turkey, and the Guizhou Province of China; use of arsenic as pesticides in Australia, New Zealand, and the US; and consumption of contaminated foodstuffs (China) and exposure to wood preserving arsenicals (Europe and North America). PMID:18982996

Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

2008-01-01

260

AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION (AGNPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model addresses concerns related to the potential impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on surface and groundwater quality (Young et al., 1989). It was designed to quantit...

261

Source memory in the rat.  

PubMed

Source memory is a representation of the origin (source) of information. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic, allowing us to differentiate one event from another. Here, we asked whether rats remember the source of encoded information. Rats foraged for distinctive flavors of food that replenished (or failed to replenish) at its recently encountered location according to a source-information rule. To predict replenishment, rats needed to remember where they had encountered a preferred food type (chocolate) with self-generated (walking along a runway encountering chocolate) or experimenter-generated (placement of the rat at the chocolate site by an experimenter) cues. Three lines of evidence implicate the presence of source memory. First, rats selectively adjusted revisits to the chocolate location based on source information, under conditions in which familiarity of events could not produce successful performance. Second, source memory was dissociated from location memory by different decay rates. Third, temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with lidocaine selectively eliminated source memory, suggesting that source memory is dependent upon an intact hippocampus. Development of an animal model of source memory may be valuable to probe the biological underpinnings of memory disorders marked by impairments in source memory. PMID:23394830

Crystal, Jonathon D; Alford, Wesley T; Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G

2013-03-01

262

Source memory in the rat  

PubMed Central

Summary Source memory is a representation of the origin (source) of information. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic, allowing us to differentiate one event from another [1, 2]. Here we asked if rats remember the source of encoded information. Rats foraged for distinctive flavors of food that replenished (or failed to replenish) at its recently encountered location according to a source-information rule. To predict replenishment, rats needed to remember where they had encountered a preferred food type (chocolate) with self-generated (walking along a runway encountering chocolate) or experimenter-generated (placement of the rat at the chocolate site by an experimenter) cues. Three lines of evidence implicate the presence of source memory. First, rats selectively adjusted revisits to the chocolate location based on source information, under conditions in which familiarity of events could not produce successful performance. Second, source memory was dissociated from location memory by different decay rates. Third, temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with lidocaine selectively eliminated source memory, suggesting that source memory is dependent upon an intact hippocampus. Development of an animal model of source memory may be valuable to probe the biological underpinnings of memory disorders marked by impairments in source memory. PMID:23394830

Crystal, Jonathon D.; Alford, Wesley T.; Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.

2013-01-01

263

Conceptualizing Sources in Online News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies key conceptions of communication "sources" in the literature. Proposes a typology of sources that applies to traditional media and new online media. Evaluates this typology: confirms distinctions made in the typology, finding that attribution of identical content to four different types of online sources by undergraduate students was…

Sundar, S. Shyam; Nass, Clifford

2001-01-01

264

Radiation sources working group summary  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, components technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigation, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations.

Fazio, M.V.

1998-12-31

265

Migration Information Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently introduced by the Migration Policy Institute, the Migration Information Source Web site offers visitors a fantastic opportunity to stay on top of trends and changes in global migration. Looking at migration from many levels and on many planes, the site considers migrations on both national and international fronts. With a dropdown menu of the countries for which data is available (currently western European countries, Australia, and the US), the database is fully searchable, with more options on the way. Perhaps most interesting to those directly working in statistical, sociological, or ethnographic analyses of migration, the resource is broadly accessible and offers compelling glimpses of migrant populations, their reasons for moving, and their rates of assimilation into host countries. For those unfamiliar with field-specific terms employed in the site's reports, there is a detailed glossary of common terms and phrases. Closer to home, the Migration Information site presents an elaborate array of reports and studies on US-Mexico relations, with an emphasis on the ever-broadening trend toward northward migration in the Americas.

2002-01-01

266

The heliospheric energy source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar wind and the heliosphere exist as a consequence of the heat input to the corona, particularly the coronal holes. The necessary energy input to coronal holes has been estimated to be 10 to the 6th erg/sq cm sec, requiring Alfven waves with rms fluid velocities of 100 km/sec. Observational upper limits on coronal fluid velocities are of the order of 25 km/sec, which may not apply to the transparent coronal hole. Alternatively it has been suggested that coronal holes may be heated by agitation from neighboring active regions, suggesting that the vigor of a coronal hole depends upon its location. The Ulysses Mission will provide a direct comparison of the strength of the high speed wind from coronal holes at low latitude and coronal holes at high latitude, from which the nature of the presently unknown energy sources of the coronal holes and the resulting structure of the heliosphere may be better judged. The question is fundamental to the dynamics of the windspheres of all stars.

Parker, E. N.

1986-01-01

267

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction with the texturing models to provide an important input to that model. The establishment of a general procedure that will allow the treatment of manay different sputtering configurations is outlined. Calculation of cross sections for energetic binary collisions was extened to Ar, Kr.. and Xe with total cross sections for viscosity and diffusion calculated for the interaction energy range from leV to 1000eV. Physical sputtering and reactive ion etching experiments provided experimental data on the operating limits of a broad beam ion source using CF4 as a working gas to produce reactive species in a sputtering beam. Magnetic clustering effects are observed when Al is seeded with Fe and sputtered with Ar(?) ions. Silicon was textured at a micron scale by using a substrate temperature of 600 C.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1978-01-01

268

High current ion source  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an ion source utilizing a vacuum enclosure. It comprises: a cathode; an anode, the anode spaced apart from the cathode, within a first region in the vacuum enclosure; means for producing an electrical arc between the cathode and anode sufficient to vaporize and ionize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma in the first region and to permit travel of the plasma to a second region in the vacuum enclosure, the second region defined to permit physical expansion of the plasma transversely relative to a line between the first and second region, the second region of the vacuum enclosure including a first portion adjacent the first region and a second portion located further outwardly from the first region than the first portion of the second region, the second portion of the second region having a larger transverse dimension than the first portion of second region; means for producing a magnetic field in the second region which flattened the density profile of the plasma in the second region, the magnetic field producing means for including at least one magnetic member extending along the periphery of the second region, the magnetic member being electrically linked to the anode; and means for extracting ions from the expanded plasma in a third region.

Brown, I.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Galvin, J.E.

1990-08-28

269

Reull Vallis Source Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

2002-01-01

270

IDV sources as ICRF sources: viability and benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio sources that exhibit rapid variability in their light curves as a result of radio wave propagation through turbulent electron density fluctuations in the interstellar medium are often among the most compact sources in the sky. In particular the most variable weak sources might be the most point-like and thus some of the best candidates for densification of the ICRF and consequent improvement in its accuracy. Further the advent of the MkV VLBI system will make use of weaker sources easier. We will discuss the viability of this idea review existing lists of potential candidates and state the benefits that might flow from this approach.

Ojha, Roopesh; Fey, Alan L.; Jauncey, David L.; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Lovell, James E.; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna

2005-01-01

271

Linewidth of swept laser source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we study the factors affecting the linewidth of a swept laser source. A ring fiber laser source based on EDFA and a Fabry-Perort resonator is used for this purpose. With this setup a swept source with a linewidth of better than 0.1 nm is obtained over a tuning range of about 47 nm limited by the spectral gain of the EDFA amplifier used. The factors affecting the source linewidth are then examined by modeling the EFDA amplifier and the swept source and then compared to the practical measured results of an EDFA swept laser source. The measurements and simulations both show that the swept laser linewidth is about 10 times narrower than the Fabry-Perot filter 3dB linewidth.

Omran, Haitham; Sakhawy, Sami; Shalaby, Mohamed; Khalil, Diaa

2012-01-01

272

Constricted glow discharge plasma source  

DOEpatents

A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Dickinson, Michael (San Leandro, CA); Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Winnetka, IL)

2000-01-01

273

The SIAM Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

A short history of the SIAM Photon Source in Thailand is described. The facility is based on the 1 GeV storage ring obtained from the SORTEC consortium in Japan. After a redesign to include insertion straight sections it produced the first light in December 2001 and the first beam line became operational in early 2002. Special difficulties appear when a synchrotron light facility is obtained by donation, which have mostly to do with the absence of human resource development that elsewhere is commonly accomplished during design and construction. Additional problems arise by the distance of a developing country like Thailand from the origin of technical parts of the donation. A donation does not provide time to generate local capabilities or include in the technical design locally obtainable parts. This makes future developments, repairs and maintenance more time consuming, difficult and expensive than it should be. In other cases, parts of components are proprietary or obsolete or both which requires redesign and engineering at a time when the replacement part should be available to prevent stoppage of operation.The build-up of a user community is very difficult, especially when the radiation spectrum is confined to the VUV regime. Most of scientific interest these days is focused on the x-ray regime. Due to its low beam energy, the SIAM storage ring did not produce useful x-ray intensities and we are therefore in the midst of an upgrade to produce harder radiation. The first step has been achieved with a 20% increase of energy to 1.2 GeV. This step shifts the critical photon energy of bending magnet radiation from 800 eV to 1.4 keV providing useful radiation up to 7 keV. A XAS-beam line has been completed in 2005 and experimentation is very active by now. The next step is to install a 6.4 T wavelength shifter by the end of 2006 resulting in a critical photon energy of 6.15 keV. Further upgrades are planed for the comming years.

Pairsuwan, Weerapong [National Synchrotron Research Center (NSRC), 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

2007-01-19

274

Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources  

PubMed Central

Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely available for download (right click with the mouse) at links http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-Peps-WEB.xlsx (web version) and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-sialogenins.zip (stand alone version). PMID:22778902

Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

2012-01-01

275

Embedded EZ-Source Inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Z-source inverters are recent topological options proposed for buck-boost energy conversion with a number of possible voltage- and current-type circuitries already reported in the literature. Comparing them, a common feature noted is their inclusion of an LC impedance network, placed between the dc input source and inverter bridge. This impedance network allows the output end of a voltage-type Z-source inverter

Poh Chiang Loh; Feng Gao; Frede Blaabjerg

2010-01-01

276

AKARI infrared bright source catalogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bright source catalogues based on the new mid- and far-infrared all-sky survey by the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI were released into the public domain in March 2010. The mid-infrared catalogue contains more than 870 thousand sources observed at 9 and 18 mum, and the far-infrared catalogue provides information of about 427 thousand sources at 65, 90, 140, and 160 mum.

S. Oyabu; I. Yamamura; C. Alfageme; P. Barthel; A. Cassatella; M. Cohen; N. Cox; E. Figueredo; H. Fujiwara; N. Ikeda; D. Ishihara; W.-S. Jeong; H. Kataza; Do Kester; H. M. Lee; S. Makiuti; T. G. Mueller; T. Nakagawa; S. Takita; S. H. Oh; S. Oliver; C. Pearson; N. Rahman; M. Rowan-Robinson; A. Salama; R. Savage; S. Serjeant; G. J. White; C. Yamauchi

2010-01-01

277

Lithography light source fault detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High productivity is a key requirement for today's advanced lithography exposure tools. Achieving targets for wafers per day output requires consistently high throughput and availability. One of the keys to high availability is minimizing unscheduled downtime of the litho cell, including the scanner, track and light source. From the earliest eximer laser light sources, Cymer has collected extensive performance data during operation of the source, and this data has been used to identify the root causes of downtime and failures on the system. Recently, new techniques have been developed for more extensive analysis of this data to characterize the onset of typical end-of-life behavior of components within the light source and allow greater predictive capability for identifying both the type of upcoming service that will be required and when it will be required. The new techniques described in this paper are based on two core elements of Cymer's light source data management architecture. The first is enhanced performance logging features added to newer-generation light source software that captures detailed performance data; and the second is Cymer OnLine (COL) which facilitates collection and transmission of light source data. Extensive analysis of the performance data collected using this architecture has demonstrated that many light source issues exhibit recognizable patterns in their symptoms. These patterns are amenable to automated identification using a Cymer-developed model-based fault detection system, thereby alleviating the need for detailed manual review of all light source performance information. Automated recognition of these patterns also augments our ability to predict the performance trending of light sources. Such automated analysis provides several efficiency improvements for light source troubleshooting by providing more content-rich standardized summaries of light source performance, along with reduced time-to-identification for previously classified faults. Automation provides the ability to generate metrics based on a single light source, or multiple light sources. However, perhaps the most significant advantage is that these recognized patterns are often correlated to known root cause, where known corrective actions can be implemented, and this can therefore minimize the time that the light source needs to be offline for maintenance. In this paper, we will show examples of how this new tool and methodology, through an increased level of automation in analysis, is able to reduce fault identification time, reduce time for root cause determination for previously experienced issues, and enhance our light source performance predictability.

Graham, Matthew; Pantel, Erica; Nelissen, Patrick; Moen, Jeffrey; Tincu, Eduard; Dunstan, Wayne; Brown, Daniel

2010-04-01

278

What Is Nonpoint Source Pollution?  

MedlinePLUS

... and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters. Nonpoint source pollution can include: Excess fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides from ...

279

High speed helicopter noise sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-of-the art of helicopter rotor impulsive noise is reviewed. A triangulation technique for locating impulsive noise sources is developed using once-per-rev index signals as time references. A computer program (INSL) was written implementing this technique. Applying triangulation to the full-scale UH-1 noise data of NASA/Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel, three different noise sources are found on the rotor disk. The primary sources of thickness noise are in the second quadrant and on the advancing side of rotor disk. Two aerodynamic sources due to blade/vortex interaction are found in the first quadrant.

Lee, A.

1977-01-01

280

AKARI infrared bright source catalogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bright source catalogues based on the new mid- and far-infrared all-sky survey by the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI were released into the public domain in March 2010. The mid-infrared catalogue contains more than 870 thousand sources observed at 9 and 18 ?m, and the far-infrared catalogue provides information of about 427 thousand sources at 65, 90, 140, and 160 ?m. The AKARI catalogues will take over the IRAS catalogues and will become one of the most important catalogues in astronomy. We present the characteristics of the AKARI infrared source catalogues as well as current activity for the future versions.

Oyabu, S.; Yamamura, I.; Alfageme, C.; Barthel, P.; Cassatella, A.; Cohen, M.; Cox, N.; Figueredo, E.; Fujiwara, H.; Ikeda, N.; Ishihara, D.; Jeong, W.-S.; Kataza, H.; Kester, Do; Lee, H. M.; Makiuti, S.; Mueller, T. G.; Nakagawa, T.; Takita, S.; Oh, S. H.; Oliver, S.; Pearson, C.; Rahman, N.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Salama, A.; Savage, R.; Serjeant, S.; White, G. J.; Yamauchi, C.

2010-07-01

281

ACCELERATOR BASED CONTINUOUS NEUTRON SOURCE.  

SciTech Connect

Until the last decade, most neutron experiments have been performed at steady-state, reactor-based sources. Recently, however, pulsed spallation sources have been shown to be very useful in a wide range of neutron studies. A major review of neutron sources in the US was conducted by a committee chaired by Nobel laureate Prof. W. Kohn: ''Neutron Sources for America's Future-BESAC Panel on Neutron Sources 1/93''. This distinguished panel concluded that steady state and pulsed sources are complementary and that the nation has need for both to maintain a balanced neutron research program. The report recommended that both a new reactor and a spallation source be built. This complementarity is recognized worldwide. The conclusion of this report is that a new continuous neutron source is needed for the second decade of the 20 year plan to replace aging US research reactors and close the US neutron gap. it is based on spallation production of neutrons using a high power continuous superconducting linac to generate protons impinging on a heavy metal target. There do not appear to be any major technical challenges to the building of such a facility since a continuous spallation source has been operating in Switzerland for several years.

SHAPIRO,S.M.; RUGGIERO,A.G.; LUDEWIG,H.

2003-03-25

282

Source Monitoring Task Source Monitoring is a cognitive process by  

E-print Network

, R. (2008). I remember when I learned that : gender differences in the use of episodic memory. Ceci about the source of a memory or belief. · Three-year-olds have greater difficulty in accurately The Ways in Which We Know: Gender Differences in Source Monitoring Tasks Among Young Children Darci Jenkins

New Hampshire, University of

283

Source waters Several factors influence the selection of source  

E-print Network

A s populations increase and sources of high- quality fresh drinking water decrease, many communities have considered using desalina- tion processes to provide fresh water when other sources and treatment procedures of water are produced: · Treated fresh water that has low concentra- tions of salts and minerals

284

Sourcing homelessness: How journalists use sources to frame homelessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a content and qualitative analysis of quotations from sources in Canadian newspaper items on homelessness. Experts dominate as sources on homelessness. Homeless people are not completely deprived of a voice, but are limited to the devalued voice of experience. Quotes from homeless people themselves promote a narrative of homelessness that marginalizes the people who experience it and

Barbara Schneider

2012-01-01

285

On non-radiating sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the analysis by P.E. Doak on the radiating (active) and non-radiating (reactive) parts of a source distribution and their effect on the identification of sources, this paper discusses the possible structure of non-radiating sources, i.e., of sources which produce a null field outside the source region. It is shown that these sources can be of three types, two of them only with arbitrary time dependence. In this case, the non-radiating sources are forcibly formed by the difference of two source distributions which generate, outside the region limited by the sources in question, the same field. In the type discussed by Doak, one source distribution encircles the other and cancelation is attained as a global effect. In the other, emphasized by Ffowcs Williams, the two source distributions are superimposed and cancelation is produced locally. The latter type of non-radiating source is discussed in detail, it being shown that, while they do not represent physical sources, they provide valuable information on non-radiating effects. The third type refers to single frequency sources and involves a particular match of wavelength, geometry and source strength distribution so that the acoustic energy gets trapped inside the source region. Of these three types of non-radiating sources, only the first one—that focused by Doak—can influence the identification of the active part of a source distribution from measurements made outside the source region. Evanescent waves, associated with a purely reactive field, are also discussed. It is pointed out that evanescent waves obtained in the decomposition of the field of a vibrating body of finite extent, although useful for representing certain aspects of the field, do not exist physically. Aspects affecting the identification of sources are also briefly tackled. Can the sources be taken as essentially omnidirectional or directional features of the individual sources are important? (should the sources be represented by e.g., dipoles or quadrupoles?) If discrete sources are considered, how should the source region be decomposed? And how do each source (or source element) relate to the others (i.e., how does phase vary across a non-compact source region)? Sometimes this last issue is fully considered in algorithms, but not always. Of course, it is simpler to consider independent point monopole sources, but this is not necessarily the best option—notably in aeroacoustics, where another issue is also to be considered: Which is the Green's function relating source and field? Again, it is simpler to consider the Green's function for waves in homogeneous medium at rest, i.e., that of Eq. (1), but if the sources are, e.g., in a moving medium, this choice may lead to incorrect results.Independently on the choices made, a solution (i.e., a source distribution) will be found. In general, algorithms will provide equivalent sources where one is looking for them, and of the prescribed type. These sources constitute a solution to a given problem considering the (explicitly or implicitly) specified constraints, but not necessarily the solution to the actual physical problem: this depends on how appropriate are the constraints considered (and also on the algorithm limitations). Examples of algorithms focusing on different aspects are given, e.g., in [9,10,27-35].Also, as noted in Section 2, the existence of eventual boundaries should be incorporated into the problem; otherwise, reflection or absorption will also be treated as additional equivalent sources, which is not a problem only in the case one is expecting this to happen. A simple way to check if a field governed by the d'Alembert equation is active or reactive without computing the intensity or the local impedance is to check the gradients of the field amplitude and phase (which can be done in the frequency domain or in the time domain): a non-zero phase gradient implies in an active part while a non-zero gradient of the absolute value implies in the existence of a reactive part.

Musafir, Ricardo E.

2013-08-01

286

EUV source development at Energetiq  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As industry advances towards the insertion of EUVL technology, researchers and manufacturers armed with alpha EUV light sources invent an expanding array of potential applications utilizing these sources. This in turn drives development of the light sources to fulfill the large field of specific needs in resist exposure, mirror testing, wafer inspection, etc., which call for a greater variety of source parameters, including output power, source size, and stability. The EQ-10 is a commercially available, medium-power (10 W/2?, 13.5nm +/-1%, Xenon) electrodeless Z-pinch light source. Significant field experience and customer feedback has been accumulated from sources already in operation in multiple locations. In response, a development program is under way to re-engineer and optimize the EQ-10 for a variety of applications. Data will be presented on the effect of varying source geometry, frequency, and input power on pinch performance. We have observed a sustained integrated output power of over 15 Watts. The plasma size can be varied to suit customer applications. A related program on beamline design and optimization is also underway, focused on debris mitigation while also maintaining the efficiency of EUV power delivery. Initial results from this program will be summarized.

Blackborow, Paul A.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Horne, Stephen F.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Gustafson, Deborah S.

2008-03-01

287

Ultracold Neutron Sources and Experiments  

E-print Network

Ultracold Neutron Sources and Experiments Jeff Martin The University of Winnipeg FPUA11 OkayamaLangevin, Grenoble, France, www.ill.fr Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, www.sns.gov Reactor) in cold (20 K) D2 O. Cold neutrons then "downscatter" to near zero energy (4 mK) in superfluid helium

Martin, Jeff

288

NITROGEN POLLUTION: FROM THE SOURCES  

E-print Network

NITROGEN POLLUTION: FROM THE SOURCES TO THE SEA A Science LinksTM Publication of the Hubbard Brook Research Foundation #12;PAGE 1 NITROGEN POLLUTION: FROM THE SOURCES TO THE SEA A Science Links Chen Photo/Illustration credits: Cover illustration: David Baird Sewage treatment plant, pages 1 and 21

Lowe, Winsor H.

289

Source materials for nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminar XLIV. The subject of source materials for nuclear power is approached from the economic point of view; the military aspects of fissionable materials are not considered. Emphasis is on uranium with reference to abundance, principal ores, reported occurrences, production rates, geologic processes, prewar size of mining activities, reserves, problem of estimating reserves, nuclear power compared with coal, low-grade sources

1947-01-01

290

A Compact Source Projection Lamp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 250 W mercury vapour compact source lamp is a small, concentrated light source with a high intrinsic brilliancy. It provides radiation high in actinic value and low in heat content; it has a long life, and the arc, which is totally enclosed, operates steadily without attention. The lamp may be used in place of small carbon arcs and tungsten

H K Bourne

1945-01-01

291

Vacuum Technology for Ion Sources  

E-print Network

The basic notions of vacuum technology for ion sources are presented, with emphasis on pressure profile calculation and choice of pumping technique. A Monte Carlo code (Molflow+) for the evaluation of conductances and the vacuum-electrical analogy for the calculation of time-dependent pressure variations are introduced. The specific case of the Linac4 H- source is reviewed.

Chiggiato, P

2013-01-01

292

Building the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

This timelapse video shows the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source (APS) rising from an empty field at Argonne National Laboratory to become the source of the Western Hemisphere's brightest x-rays for research. The video was compiled from still photographs taken from 1990-1996.

None

2010-01-01

293

Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive website from professor James A. Svoboda of Clarkson University describes current controlled current source (CCCS). The interactive applet depicts a circuit that contains a Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS). The gain of the CCCS can be changed using the scroll bar.

Svoboda, James A.

2011-08-29

294

Biomass as alternative energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for biomass utilization as a source of fuel, petrochemicals and petroleum-sparing substances is reviewed. The choices for cultivating biomass, utilizing it directly as an energy source, and converting it to fuels are considered against the background of the principal metabolic pathways. Engineering options for the production of biomass derived fuels include the direct use of photosynthetic materials, the

Keenan

1982-01-01

295

News Sources and Media Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the relationship between news sources and media firms. Although empirically important, this channel for supply-driven media bias has not previously been analyzed in economics literature. We model the relationship as an informal contract based on trust and punishment, where a news source decides if and how much information to provide to a media firm. Strategic

Armando J. Garcia-Pires; Hans Jarle Kind; Lars Sørgard

2012-01-01

296

(significance maps) (distributed source coding;  

E-print Network

-- SPIHT Wyner-Ziv (significance maps) 1 (distributed source coding; DSC) 1970 Slepian Wolf (noiseless coding of correlated information sources)[1] DSC (sensor networks) DSC ),( YXH ),( YXH )()( YHXH + DSC XY (joint decoding) ),( YXH DSC Slepian-Wolf Wyner-Ziv Wyner

Yang, Shih-Hsuan

297

SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK  

EPA Science Inventory

This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

298

Sealed source peer review plan  

SciTech Connect

Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR {section} 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements for the subject peer review.

Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leonard, Lee [RETIRED; Burns, Ron [CONTRACTOR

2009-01-01

299

Sources of Stem Cells for Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Donor matching for allogeneic transplant Sources of stem cells for transplant There are 3 possible sources of ... blood transplants are being actively studied. Which stem cell source is best? All 3 sources of stem ...

300

Unidentified gamma-ray sources: new source classes with GLAST  

E-print Network

New source classes are expected to appear in the GLAST/LAT Catalog. Here, the problems faced for their identification are summarized, and some key features of the most likely new populations of the $\\gamma$-ray sky are mentioned.

Diego F. Torres

2007-03-20

301

International Data on Radiological Sources  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT The mission of radiological dispersal device (RDD) nuclear forensics is to identify the provenance of nuclear and radiological materials used in RDDs and to aid law enforcement in tracking nuclear materials and routes. The application of databases to radiological forensics is to match RDD source material to a source model in the database, provide guidance regarding a possible second device, and aid the FBI by providing a short list of manufacturers and distributors, and ultimately to the last legal owner of the source. The Argonne/Idaho National Laboratory RDD attribution database is a powerful technical tool in radiological forensics. The database (1267 unique vendors) includes all sealed sources and a device registered in the U.S., is complemented by data from the IAEA Catalogue, and is supported by rigorous in-lab characterization of selected sealed sources regarding physical form, radiochemical composition, and age-dating profiles. Close working relationships with global partners in the commercial sealed sources industry provide invaluable technical information and expertise in the development of signature profiles. These profiles are critical to the down-selection of potential candidates in either pre- or post- event RDD attribution. The down-selection process includes a match between an interdicted (or detonated) source and a model in the database linked to one or more manufacturers and distributors.

Martha Finck; Margaret Goldberg

2010-07-01

302

Diversity employment and recruitment sources  

SciTech Connect

Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

Not Available

1994-08-01

303

Ejs Two Source Interference Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Two Source Interference model displays the interference pattern on a screen due to two point sources. The simulation allows an arbitrarily superposition of the two sources and shows both the current intensity and running average of the intensity on the screen. The separation, phase difference, amplitude, wave number, and phase velocity of each point source can be changed via text boxes. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Two Source Interference model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_waves_interference.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for wave optics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2008-08-19

304

Interference with Synchronous Sources Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Interference with Synchronous Sources model displays the interference pattern on a screen due to between one and twenty point sources. The simulation allows an arbitrarily superposition of the sources and shows both the current intensity and running average of the intensity on the screen. The number of sources, their separation, wavelength, and phase velocity can be changed via text boxes. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Interference with Synchronous Sources model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_waves_synchronous.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for wave optics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2008-08-19

305

Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources  

SciTech Connect

This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R&D program is included in an appendix.

Weiren Chou

2003-02-06

306

Source spectra of seismic hum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of seismic hum from 2 to 20 mHz, also known as Earth's background free oscillations, has been established. Recent observations by broad-band seismometers show simultaneous excitation of Love waves (fundamental toroidal modes) and Rayleigh waves (fundamental spheroidal modes). The excitation amplitudes above 10 mHz can be explained by random shear traction sources on Earth's surface. With estimated source distributions, the most likely excitation mechanism is a linear coupling between ocean infragravity waves and seismic surface waves through seafloor topography. Observed Love and Rayleigh wave amplitudes below 5 mHz suggest that surface pressure sources could also contribute to their excitations, although the amplitudes have large uncertainties due to the high noise levels of the horizontal components. To quantify the observation, we develop a new method for estimation of the source spectra of random tractions on Earth's surface by modelling cross-spectra between pairs of stations. The method is to calculate synthetic cross-spectra for spatially isotropic and homogeneous excitations by random shear traction and pressure sources, and invert them with the observed cross-spectra to obtain the source spectra. We applied this method to the IRIS, ORFEUS, and F-net records from 618 stations with three components of broad-band seismometers for 2004-2011. The results show the dominance of shear traction above 5 mHz, which is consistent with past studies. Below 5 mHz, however, the spectral amplitudes of the pressure sources are comparable to those of shear traction. Observed acoustic resonance between the atmosphere and the solid Earth at 3.7 and 4.4 mHz suggests that atmospheric disturbances are responsible for the surface pressure sources, although non-linear ocean wave processes are also candidates for the pressure sources. Excitation mechanisms of seismic hum should be considered as a superposition of the processes of the solid Earth, atmosphere and ocean as a coupled system.

Nishida, Kiwamu

2014-10-01

307

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

1983-11-10

308

Oceanic sources of continental precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

this special section, the authors have tried to address some of the many unanswered questions related to the transport of moisture from oceanic sources to the continents, including among others that of whether or not the moisture source regions have remained stationary over time, how the many changes in the intensity and position of the sources have affected the distribution of continental precipitation, and also the question of the role of the main modes of climate variability in the variability of the moisture regions.

Gimeno, Luis

2014-05-01

309

Progress Report: Automated Source Migration  

E-print Network

Progress Report: Automated Source Migration From OODCE to CORBA Student: Daniel Jensen Advisor: Dr..........................................................................5 1.3 STRATEGIES FOR MIGRATING TO CORBA......................................................................................6 1.3.3 Other Strategies for Migrating to CORBA

Fatoohi, Rod

310

DDS sources for precice measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

DDS sources were developed in NIM for impedance measurements. Stable and accurate phase difference can be obtained easily by this technique. It has been used for mutual inductance measurements and an uncertainty of 1×10-7 has been obtained.

Y. Fu; Z. Li; Z. Zhang; J. Sun; L. Chen

2010-01-01

311

Information sources in energy technology  

SciTech Connect

This book lists the major national and international information sources in the field of energy technology. Includes organizations, journals, indexing and abstracting services, conference papers, standards, online databases, dictionaries, directories, handbooks, and encyclopedias.

Anthony, L.J.

1988-01-01

312

Modeling Cloud Formation: Source Code  

E-print Network

We have posted the source code for our cloud model for public use as a tool for the intercomparison of planetary radiation transport models attempting to incorporate the physics of cloud condensation.

C. S. Cooper; J. I. Lunine; J. A. Milsom

2004-12-10

313

Quantum fields as gravitational sources  

E-print Network

The practice of setting quantum fields as sources for classical general relativity is examined. Several conceptual problems are identified which invalidate apparently innocuous equations. Alternative ways to links classical general relativity with quantum theory using Bohm's theory are proposed.

Mark J Hadley

2008-08-13

314

Source Category Survey: Perlite Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background information is presented on the perlite industry for the purpose of determining the need for a new source performance standard (NSPS). The industry is surveyed and categorized by plant, process, and other factors. Information is presented on pr...

1980-01-01

315

Environmental sources of fecal bacteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This chapter provides a review of the research on environmental occurrences of faecal indicator bacteria in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic habitats under different geographic and climatic conditions, and discusses how these external sources may affect surface water quality.

Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Ishii, Satoshi

2011-01-01

316

Funding Sources for Women's Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Winter 1997 issue of Feminist Collections, produced by the University of Wisconsin System's Women's Studies Librarian's Office, includes a column by Elizabeth Breed on Internet sites on grants, scholarships, and other funding sources for women's studies.

317

Neutron spallation sources in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a brief general and historical discussion, the main design features of spallation sources are described. At the present time, Europe not only has the world-leading pulsed neutron spallation source, the SNS-ISIS at RAL, UK, but it is on the point of commissioning a world-leading continuous cyclotron-driven source, the SINQ at PSI, Switzerland. Looking to the future, yet more powerful pulsed sources are actively under study and the difficult problem of high-power target design (>250 kW) is leading to a new technology for liquid targets. The accelerator designs, although basically classical, require custom-built solutions that are often at the limit of presentday accelerator technology.

Bryant, P. J.

1996-11-01

318

Neutron spallation sources in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a brief general and historical discussion, the main design features of spallation sources are described. At the present time, Europe not only has the world-leading pulsed neutron spallation source, the SNS-ISIS at RAL, UK, but it is on the point of commissioning a world-leading continuous cyclotron-driven source, the SINQ at PSI, Switzerland. Looking to the future, yet more powerful pulsed sources are actively under study and the difficult problem of high-power target design (>250 kW) is leading to a new technology for liquid targets. The accelerator designs, although basically classical, require custom-built solutions that are often at the limit of present day accelerator technology.

Bryant, P. J.

1996-11-01

319

An Open Source Simulation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the current state of the art of open source real time programming practices. This document includes what technologies are available, how easy is it to obtain, configure, and use them, and some performance measures done on the different systems. A matrix of vendors and their products is included as part of this investigation, but this is not an exhaustive list, and represents only a snapshot of time in a field that is changing rapidly. Specifically, there are three approaches investigated: 1. Completely open source on generic hardware, downloaded from the net. 2. Open source packaged by a vender and provided as free evaluation copy. 3. Proprietary hardware with pre-loaded proprietary source available software provided by the vender as for our evaluation.

Slack, Thomas

2005-01-01

320

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MAJOR BARIUM CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental effects the source severity,...

321

IN SITU ENHANCED SOURCE REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This html report describes and compares the performance of in situ technologies designed to accelerate the removal of organic contaminants from unconsolidated soils and aquifers. The research was conducted through the Enhanced Source Removal (ESR) Program within the Subsurface Pr...

322

Current Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive website from professor James A. Svoboda of Clarkson University describes a circuit that contains a Current Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS). The gain of the CCVS can be changed using the scrollbar.

Svoboda, James A.

2012-12-17

323

Electrolyte salts for power sources  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

Doddapaneni, Narayan (10516 Royal Birkdale, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Ingersoll, David (5824 Mimosa Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

1995-01-01

324

Cataclysmic Variables as Synchrotron Sources?  

SciTech Connect

Evidence is mounting that cataclysmic variables are weak sources of synchrotron emission. If true, it demonstrates that accretion powered interacting binaries produce such emission whether their primaries are white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes.

Harrison, Thomas E. [Astronomy Department, New Mexico State University, Box 30001/MSC4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

2008-05-23

325

Generalizations of permutation source codes  

E-print Network

Permutation source codes are a class of structured vector quantizers with a computationally- simple encoding procedure. In this thesis, we provide two extensions that preserve the computational simplicity but yield improved ...

Nguyen, Ha Quy

2009-01-01

326

H- radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Source.  

PubMed

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent ?38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ?90%. H(-) beam pulses (?1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, ?60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of ?0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of ?99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of ?75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance?installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to ?100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence. PMID:22380234

Welton, R F; Dudnikov, V G; Gawne, K R; Han, B X; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Roseberry, R T; Santana, M; Stockli, M P; Turvey, M W

2012-02-01

327

Automated Classification of ROSAT Sources Using Heterogeneous Multiwavelength Source Catalogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an on-line system for automated classification of X-ray sources, ClassX, and present preliminary results of classification of the three major catalogs of ROSAT sources, RASS BSC, RASS FSC, and WGACAT, into six class categories: stars, white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, galaxies, AGNs, and clusters of galaxies. ClassX is based on a machine learning technology. It represents a system of classifiers, each classifier consisting of a considerable number of oblique decision trees. These trees are built as the classifier is 'trained' to recognize various classes of objects using a training sample of sources of known object types. Each source is characterized by a preselected set of parameters, or attributes; the same set is then used as the classifier conducts classification of sources of unknown identity. The ClassX pipeline features an automatic search for X-ray source counterparts among heterogeneous data sets in on-line data archives using Virtual Observatory protocols; it retrieves from those archives all the attributes required by the selected classifier and inputs them to the classifier. The user input to ClassX is typically a file with target coordinates, optionally complemented with target IDs. The output contains the class name, attributes, and class probabilities for all classified targets. We discuss ways to characterize and assess the classifier quality and performance and present the respective validation procedures. Based on both internal and external validation, we conclude that the ClassX classifiers yield reasonable and reliable classifications for ROSAT sources and have the potential to broaden class representation significantly for rare object types.

McGlynn, Thomas; Suchkov, A. A.; Winter, E. L.; Hanisch, R. J.; White, R. L.; Ochsenbein, F.; Derriere, S.; Voges, W.; Corcoran, M. F.

2004-01-01

328

Radiation source for helium magnetometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation source (12) for optical magnetometers (10) which use helium isotopes as the resonance element (30) includes an electronically pumped semiconductor laser (12) which produces a single narrow line of radiation which is frequency stabilized to the center frequency of the helium resonance line to be optically pumped. The frequency stabilization is accomplished using electronic feedback (34, 40, 42, 44) to control a current sources (20) thus eliminating the need for mechanical frequency tuning.

Slocum, Robert E. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

329

Farewell to direct source incompatibilism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional theorists about free will and moral responsibility endorse the principle of alternative possibilities (PAP): an\\u000a agent is morally responsible for an action that she performs only if she can do or could have done otherwise. According to\\u000a source theorists, PAP is false and an agent is morally responsible for her action only if she is the source of that

Joseph Keim Campbell

2006-01-01

330

Adaptive choice of information sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a number of learning approaches by which agents can adapt to select information sources that satisfy performance\\u000a requirements. Performance can be interpreted both in terms of the quality of information provided by the sources, as well\\u000a as the response time to process information requests. We first present a couple of approaches by which self-motivated agents\\u000a can learn to

Sandip Sen

331

rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H- ion source.  

PubMed

The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering approximately 38 mA H(-) beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. PMID:20192394

Kang, Y W; Fuja, R; Goulding, R H; Hardek, T; Lee, S-W; McCarthy, M P; Piller, M C; Shin, K; Stockli, M P; Welton, R F

2010-02-01

332

Point-source approach of source-mask optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As optical lithography feature size shrinks further, Resolution Enhancement Technologies (RETs) are pushed more aggressively and often have to be considered simultaneously. In this work, we explored a point-source approach for source-mask optimization (SMO) for use with complex low K1 mask patterns. The method consists of three steps: 1). optimizing the source by computing the image log slope (ILS) at multi-critical mask locations. 2). Using the optimized source to correct the mask for the edge placement error (EPE) utilizing standard OPC software. 3). Repeat 1) and 2) until the merit function reaches a certain condition. The image simulations were carried out by a physical model based lithography simulation where the resist process effect and the rigorous topography mask model are included. The process windows and the 3D resist profiles are simulated and used for lithography verifications. The motivation of the study is to explore the capacity of physical model based lithography process simulation software for SMO. We aim to find a simple approach for the determination of the best source shape for complex mask patterns. The simulation results demonstrate that the current commonly-used off-axis illumination shapes can be further optimized by considering multiple locations of a complex mask patterns.

Gao, Weimin; Sethi, Satyendra; Domnenko, Vitaliy; Hoppe, Wolfgang; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Lucas, Kevin

2010-05-01

333

3-D Source & NWL Update Paul Wilson  

E-print Network

9/26/2006 3-D Source & NWL Update Paul Wilson #12;9/26/2006 Update on ARIES-CS 3-D Source and NWL 2 Fundamental Source Density Note: based on Data from J. Lyon (ORNL) #12;9/26/2006 Update on ARIES-CS 3-D Source on ARIES-CS 3-D Source and NWL 4 Peak source probability lower at 60o Toroidal Angle (=0o) Peak source

334

Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources  

DOEpatents

A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

1997-06-24

335

SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement  

E-print Network

stumbling block is that there are no explicit hyper-link based endorsements among deep web sources. WeSourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement Tempe AZ USA 85287 rajub@asu.edu, rao@asu.edu ABSTRACT We consider the problem of deep web source

Kambhampati, Subbarao

336

Ukraine experimental neutron source facility.  

SciTech Connect

Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an experimental neutron source facility. The facility has been developed for producing medical isotopes, training young nuclear professionals, supporting the Ukraine nuclear industry, providing capability for performing reactor physics, material research, and basic science experiments. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA is collaborating with KIPT on developing this facility. A driven subcritical assembly utilizing the KIPT electron accelerator with a target assembly is used to generate the neutron source. The target assembly utilizes tungsten or uranium for neutron production through photonuclear reactions with 100-KW of electron beam power. The neutron source intensity, spectrum, and spatial distribution have been studied to maximize the neutron yield and satisfy different engineering requirements. The subcritical assembly is designed to obtain the highest possible neutron flux intensity with a subcriticality of 0.98. Low enrichment uranium is used for the fuel material because it enhances the neutron source performance. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. Horizontal neutron channels are incorporated for performing basic research including cold neutron source. This paper describes the conceptual design and summarizes some of the related analyses.

Gohar, Y.; Bolshinsky, I.; Nekludov, I.; Karnaukhov, I. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (INL); (Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology)

2008-01-01

337

Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation  

SciTech Connect

When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

2011-01-01

338

Research on fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P.

2012-06-01

339

Research on fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

2012-06-19

340

Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Aerosols using  

E-print Network

aerosols Receptor based models Require source fingerprints Require a basic knowledge of sources Do" of the pollutants to identify and quantify source contributions Forensic analysis Two major approach Factor Analysis to sources Requires large data sets Chemical Mass Balance Determine the source "fingerprints" that can re

Einat, Aharonov

341

Examining Tennessee's collateral source rule.  

PubMed

The common law collateral source rule was established to prevent the defendant from benefiting from their wrongful actions. Despite a trend in the United States to limit the effects of the collateral source rule, the rule remains in force in courts of the State of Tennessee. However, to assist with the malpractice crisis, the legislature prohibited this rule by statute in regards to the Medical Malpractice Act. Although this statutory prohibition of the collateral source rule worked to lessen verdicts in malpractice cases after passage, the availability of consortium damages resulting from Jordan v. Baptist Three Rivers Hospital in 1999 has worked to drive verdicts substantially higher. Regardless the Medical Malpractice Act has been held as constitutional and has been clarified through several recent Tennessee court decisions. PMID:19024250

Regan, Judith; Hadley, Edward; Regan, William M

2008-11-01

342

Miniature x-ray source  

DOEpatents

A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

2002-01-01

343

Compact portable electric power sources  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

1997-02-01

344

A review of terahertz sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bibliometric data set the scene by illustrating the growth of terahertz work and the present interest in terahertz science and technology. After locating terahertz sources within the broader context of terahertz systems, an overview is given of the range of available sources, emphasizing recent developments. The focus then narrows to terahertz sources that rely on surface phenomena. Three are highlighted. Optical rectification, usually thought of as a bulk process, may in addition exhibit a surface contribution, which, in some cases, predominates. Transient surface currents, for convenience often separated into drift and diffusion currents, are well understood according to Monte Carlo modelling. Finally, terahertz surface emission by mechanical means—in the absence of photoexcitation—is described.

Lewis, R. A.

2014-09-01

345

Materials for spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The Workshop on Materials for Spallation Neutron Sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, February 6 to 10, 1995, gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss areas in which work is needed, successful designs and use of materials, and opportunities for further studies. During the first day of the workshop, speakers presented overviews of current spallation neutron sources. During the next 3 days, seven panels allowed speakers to present information on a variety of topics ranging from experimental and theoretical considerations on radiation damage to materials safety issues. An attempt was made to identify specific problems that require attention within the context of spallation neutron sources. This proceedings is a collection of summaries from the overview sessions and the panel presentations.

Sommer, W.F.; Daemen, L.L. [comps.

1996-03-01

346

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PRIORITIZATION OF STATIONARY WATER POLLUTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives priority lists to aid in selecting specific sources of water effluents for detailed assessment. It describes the general water prioritization model, explains its implementation, and gives a detailed example of its use. It describes hazard factors that were develo...

347

Sources as Interpretation: Sources in the Study of Education History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue introduces a new feature to appear regularly in "History of Education". A compelling aspect of education history and one that is drawing new writers and readers in the field is the increasing diversity of sources on which education historians draw. New forms of admissible evidence challenge us to adopt different approaches to…

Cunningham, Peter

2004-01-01

348

SOURCE OF MICROBUNCHING AT BNL NSLS SOURCE DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report experimental studies of the origins of electron beam microbunching instability at BNL Source Development Laboratory (SDL). We eliminated laser-induced microbunching by utilizing an ultra-short photocathode laser. The measurements of the resulting electron beam led us to conclude that, at SDL, microbunching arising from shot noise is not amplified to any significant level. Our results demonstrated that the only

S. Seletskiy; Y. Hidaka; J. B. Murphy; B. Podobedov; H. Qian; Y. Shen; J. Wang; X. Yang

2011-01-01

349

SPUTTER PROBES AND VAPOR SOURCES FOR ECR ION SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sputter probes are a promising method for injecting con- trolled quantities of metallic elements inside ECRIS, pro- vided that the sputter rate can be controlled, so that high charge states and low sample consumption rate will be attained. Moreover pressure at the probe and inside the source should be different. With a sputter probe distance of 25 mm from ECRIS

M. Cavenago; A. Galata; M. Sattin; T. Kulevoy; S. Petrenko

350

SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA  

SciTech Connect

The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning (David) Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

2005-09-30

351

Source counting in MEG neuroimaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a multi-channel, functional imaging technique. It measures the magnetic field produced by the primary electric currents inside the brain via a sensor array composed of a large number of superconducting quantum interference devices. The measurements are then used to estimate the locations, strengths, and orientations of these electric currents. This magnetic source imaging technique encompasses a great variety of signal processing and modeling techniques which include Inverse problem, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC), Beamforming (BF), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method. A key problem with Inverse problem, MUSIC and ICA methods is that the number of sources must be detected a priori. Although BF method scans the source space on a point-to-point basis, the selection of peaks as sources, however, is finally made by subjective thresholding. In practice expert data analysts often select results based on physiological plausibility. This paper presents an eigenstructure approach for the source number detection in MEG neuroimaging. By sorting eigenvalues of the estimated covariance matrix of the acquired MEG data, the measured data space is partitioned into the signal and noise subspaces. The partition is implemented by utilizing information theoretic criteria. The order of the signal subspace gives an estimate of the number of sources. The approach does not refer to any model or hypothesis, hence, is an entirely data-led operation. It possesses clear physical interpretation and efficient computation procedure. The theoretical derivation of this method and the results obtained by using the real MEG data are included to demonstrates their agreement and the promise of the proposed approach.

Lei, Tianhu; Dell, John; Magee, Ralphy; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

2009-02-01

352

Sources of information and assistance  

SciTech Connect

The best sources of information on energy activities, including conservation and education, are the officials of the state and federal energy departments and offices, the editors of the trade and professional journals in the various branches of the energy field, and the directors of the organizations working on energy issues. A selected list of information sources includes the title and address rather than individual names in order to remain current. The directory begins with state energy offices, followed by DOE and other officials, and an alphabetical listing of schools, organizations, and institutions. The directory is the final chapter of New Approaches to Energy Conservation, a sourcebook published by New Directions for Higher Education.

Tickton, S.G.

1981-01-01

353

Energy source for comet outbursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a mechanism explaining the internal source of energy of comet outbursts. A mechanism is proposed which automatically provides a source of particulate matter which creates a huge surface area which contains a substantial percentage of amorphous ice, so that the phase transition of the amorphous ice to a cubic structure provides a release of energy which may be responsible for the outbursts observed in many comets. In addition, the volume into which the transition can propagate is estimated for a spherical comet with a radius of 5 km.

Patashnick, H.; Schuerman, D. W.; Rupprecht, G.

1974-01-01

354

Cesium-137 source strength verification.  

PubMed

Over the years, the protocol for Cesium-137 source calibration has undergone a number of revisions based on updated data. The 3M Corporation issued product alerts and a revision of the calibration protocol in the early 1980s. We verified the activity of clinically used cesium tubes and found the difference with the activity stated by 3M in the range of 6-13%, which exceeds the recommended by 3M adjustment of 5% for all sources issued before 1979. Therefore, the verification and adjustment of activity should be recommended for each affected tube individually. PMID:10751717

Yankelevich, R; Wojcicka, J B; Maier, V; Anderko, C

2000-01-01

355

Review: Semiconductor Quantum Light Sources  

E-print Network

Lasers and LEDs display a statistical distribution in the number of photons emitted in a given time interval. New applications exploiting the quantum properties of light require sources for which either individual photons, or pairs, are generated in a regulated stream. Here we review recent research on single-photon sources based on the emission of a single semiconductor quantum dot. In just a few years remarkable progress has been made in generating indistinguishable single-photons and entangled photon pairs using such structures. It suggests it may be possible to realise compact, robust, LED-like semiconductor devices for quantum light generation.

Andrew J Shields

2007-04-03

356

Survey of cadmium emission sources  

SciTech Connect

This document presents technical data used to support decision making on the need for listing cadmium under Section 108(a)(1), Section 112(b)(1)(A), or Section 111(b)(1)(A) as required by Section 122 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977. Data are presented describing potential sources of cadmium emissions, control techniques used for cadmium emission control, estimated controlled and uncontrolled cadmium emissions, estimated ambient air quality, and compliance status. The results of special dispersion modeling are presented for incineration, interaction of smelters, and for interaction of sources in the New York City - New Jersey area.

Not Available

1981-09-01

357

AKM in Open Source Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous chapters in this book have dealt with Architecture Knowledge Management in traditional Closed Source Software (CSS) projects. This chapterwill attempt to examine the ways that knowledge is shared among participants in Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS 1) projects and how architectural knowledge is managed w.r.t. CSS. FLOSS projects are organized and developed in a fundamentally different way than CSS projects. FLOSS projects simply do not develop code as CSS projects do. As a consequence, their knowledge management mechanisms are also based on different concepts and tools.

Stamelos, Ioannis; Kakarontzas, George

358

Sensor/source electrometer circuit  

SciTech Connect

A multiple decade electrometer circuit is claimed which can measure low input currents or act as a current source and is comprised of a microprocessor controlled digital to analog converters to derive individual decades. A plurality of decades are created by multiple D-A voltage sources which generate electrometer currents through scaled resistors. After a first series of decades of current are successively produced, the converters are 10 cycled to generate current through new resistors scaled to produce another series decades of current. In this manner, the electrometer circuit generates or senses a plurality of decades of current without significant scale change.

Hughes, W.J.

1991-12-31

359

The SLAC polarized electron source  

SciTech Connect

The SLAC polarized electron source employs a photocathode DC high voltage gun with a loadlock and a YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system for colliding beam experiments or a flash lamp pumped Ti:sapphire laser for fixed target experiments. It uses a thin, strained GaAs(100) photocathode, and is capable of producing a pulsed beam with a polarization of {ge}80% and a peak current exceeding 10 A. Its operating efficiency has reached 99%. The physics and technology of producing high polarization electron beams from a GaAs photocathode will be reviewed. The prospects of realizing a polarized electron source for future linear colliders will also be discussed.

Tang, H.; Alley, R.; Frisch, J. [and others

1995-06-01

360

The JavaScript Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The JavaScript Source contains hundreds of scripts which can be copied and used free of charge. Scripts are divided into categories such as Background Effects, Buttons, Cookies, and Forms. Included with each script is the description, file size, and contributor information. The JavaScript Source also provides several services beyond the collection. If you'd rather receive code in email, they will send it to you. A discussion forum is available. A free biweekly newsletter informs its subscribers of newly added scripts.

361

Online bibliographic sources in hydrology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traditional commercial bibliographic databases and indexes provide some access to hydrology materials produced by the government; however, these sources do not provide comprehensive coverage of relevant hydrologic publications. This paper discusses bibliographic information available from the federal government and state geological surveys, water resources agencies, and depositories. In addition to information in these databases, the paper describes the scope, styles of citing, subject terminology, and the ways these information sources are currently being searched, formally and informally, by hydrologists. Information available from the federal and state agencies and from the state depositories might be missed by limiting searches to commercially distributed databases. ?? 2001 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.].

Wild, E.C.; Michael, Havener W.

2001-01-01

362

48 CFR 13.102 - Source list.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Source list. 13.102 Section 13...PROCEDURES Procedures 13.102 Source list. (a) Contracting officers...www.acquisition.gov as their primary sources of vendor information....

2012-10-01

363

48 CFR 13.102 - Source list.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Source list. 13.102 Section 13...PROCEDURES Procedures 13.102 Source list. (a) Contracting officers...www.acquisition.gov as their primary sources of vendor information....

2013-10-01

364

Integrating Primary Source Documents into the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the introduction of primary sources to students, discusses analyzing a primary source document, and provides two example primary accounts. Offers ideas for accessing primary source documents and includes a bibliography for further reading. (CMK)

Logan, Linda

1999-01-01

365

Source selection of agricultural journalists in Texas  

E-print Network

Journalists rely on sources in their daily routines, and the sources they choose affect news content over time. Agricultural journalists are no exception. Eleven agricultural journalists in Texas were studied to determine what types of sources...

Banks, Penelope Jean

2012-06-07

366

Evaluation of an Automotive Navigation Database Source  

E-print Network

two HTP data sources that Enterprise X could utilize. “Source A” is available for royalty fees. In addition, Probe Vehicle Data (GPS location at time intervals that are variable, typically between 1 and 60 seconds) is available from “Source B...

Doughty, John

2013-12-20

367

46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310...49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

2010-10-01

368

MODELING, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE  

E-print Network

MODELING, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By MUHAMMAD HAIDER KHAN AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved..................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Overview of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.............................................. 1 1

369

A global sourcing strategy for durable tooling  

E-print Network

Competitive pressures in manufacturing industries have led to an increased utilization of strategic sourcing initiatives: among them is low cost sourcing. While low cost sourcing has been used extensively for direct ...

Vasovski, Steven

2006-01-01

370

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500...construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be separated from combustible...

2013-07-01

371

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500...construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be separated from combustible...

2013-07-01

372

Primary Sources and Inquiry Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses inquiry learning and primary sources. Inquiry learning puts students in the active role of investigators. Questioning, authentic and active learning, and interactivity are a few of the characteristics of inquiry learning that put the teacher and library media specialist in the role of coaches while students…

Pappas, Marjorie L.

2006-01-01

373

SOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The options for pollution abatement in WWF can be implemented at the source by land management and pollution prevention techniques, in the collection system, offline by storage, or in a treatment plant. An integrated system that combines prevention, control, and treatment has of...

374

Focused X-ray source  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

1990-08-21

375

Finding radiant-energy sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antenna is scanned in orthogonal directions to pinpoint interfering sources. Satellite system locates ground-based microwave transmitter to accuracy of about 100 miles. When data on misalinement of satellite antenna boresight are used to correct antenna pointing, accuracy is improved to better than 70 miles.

Schaffer, G. J.

1978-01-01

376

Climate Change Major information sources  

E-print Network

Wh #12;3 What is the evidence, causes and consequences of changes in Earth's climate since the pre about the environmental, social, and economic consequences of climate changes since the pre1 Climate Change Major information sources: Climate Change : IPCC Synthesis Reports at http

377

6, 61256181, 2006 Sources and  

E-print Network

Foy1 , W. Lei2 , M. Zavala2 , R. Volkamer3 , J. Samuelsson4 , J. Mellqvist4 , B. Galle4 , A.-P. Mart plant and the Popocat´epetl volcano. Results suggest that the models are able to identify correctly large point sources and that both the power plant and the volcano impact the MCMA. Modelled

Boyer, Edmond

378

Deep space travel energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration of the planets beyond Mars and their surroundings is already planned. Astronomy researchers are citing important information that can be obtained with instrumented spacecraft that fly beyond the planets of our solar system. Spacecraft flying these missions need power for performing their functions and communicating with Earth stations. Sunlight in these zones is so weak that alternative energy sources

H. Oman

2003-01-01

379

THE OPEN SOURCING OF EPANET  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal was made at the 2009 EWRI Congress in Kansas City, MO to establish an Open Source Project (OSP) for the widely used EPANET pipe network analysis program. This would be an ongoing collaborative effort among a group of geographically dispersed advisors and developers, wo...

380

Primary Sources Enliven Civil War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

Robelen, Erik W.

2011-01-01

381

History Sources on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides descriptions of key online history resources useful to teachers, librarians, and other education professionals. Highlights include: primary sources on the Internet; archives; Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs); the American Historical Association (AHA) Web site; state and federal government resources; business history…

Fink, Kenneth D.

382

Tracking Radioactive Sources in Commerce  

E-print Network

Area Network­mobile phone, ethernet and/or satellite � security--encryption, short broadcast bursts of specific packages © Missing sealed radioactive sources pose a significant environmental and health risk of radioactive consumer products � Use in terrorist activities Effective package tracking system can prevent loss

383

Source Code Exploration with Google  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new approach to source code exploration, which is the result of integrating the Google Desktop Search (GDS) engine into the Eclipse development environment. The resulting search engine, named Google Eclipse Search (GES), provides improved searching in Eclipse software projects. The paper advocates for a component-based approach that allows us to develop strong tools, which support various

Denys Poshyvanyk; Maksym Petrenko; Andrian Marcus; Xinrong Xie; Dapeng Liu

2006-01-01

384

Chesapeake bay nonpoint source programs  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the current programs to ameliorate nonpoint sources of pollution to the Chesapeake Bay that have been developed by the four jurisdictions in cooperation with other agencies, the achievements to date in terms of pollutant removal, and recommendations for future directions of the Bay Program over the next several years.

Not Available

1988-01-01

385

Source Effects Julie Studnicka and  

E-print Network

Dairy Diet Phosphorus Source Effects on Runoff Losses Julie Studnicka and Larry Bundy Dept. of Soil runoff following land application of manure generated by feeding dairy cows three separate dietary P levels. #12;Three Feed P Variables 0.35% P basic diet (National Research Council Feed Recommendations

Balser, Teri C.

386

Focused X-ray source  

DOEpatents

An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary I. (Sunnyvale, CA); Maccagno, Pierre (Stanford, CA)

1990-01-01

387

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the assessment of air emissions from the manufacture of carbon black, currently manufactured in the U.S. by two major processes: thermal and oil furnace. Sources of atmospheric emissions within oil furnace plants (about 90% of the 30 U.S. carbon black plants...

388

SOURCES OF COPPER AIR EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to update estimates of atmospheric emissions of copper and copper compounds in the U.S. Source categories evaluated included: metallic minerals, primary copper smelters, iron and steel making, combustion, municipal incineration, secondary coppe...

389

SPORE Award: Open Source Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science essay describing the work of the Open Source Physics Project published in conjunction with the AAAS awarding the OSP Project a Science Prize for Online Resources in Education (SPORE) for its development of online tools that bring interactive computer-based modeling to students at many levels.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre; Barbato, Lyle

2011-12-09

390

Fusion of open source information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open source information on the Internet can contribute significantly to such assessments as competitive intelligence, business trends, or evolving social attitudes. Unfortunately, this information is mostly unstructured text, and varies widely in accuracy, focus, and level of impartiality. Estimates on factors important to planning and decision-making, such as likely responses of competitors to a corporation's market actions, can be inferred

David F. Noble

2005-01-01

391

Guide to Sources: Advertising. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to introduce the student to some of the major sources of advertising information available in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. A brief description and exploration of the card catalog, Library of Congress Subject Headings, Library of Congress Classification System, and the Dewey Decimal System are included. In…

White, Lucinda M.

392

Sources of Consumer Education Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists publications issued by the federal government, universities, and commercial sources on consumer education with ordering information and prices. Subjects include foods, water conservation, money management, and auto defects, as well as general consumerism. Some of the materials contain lesson ideas and teaching activities. (MF)

Illinois Teacher of Home Economics, 1978

1978-01-01

393

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: ASPHALT HOT MIX  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the asphalt hot mix industry. A representative asphalt hot mix plant was defined, based on the results of an industrial survey, to assess the severity of emissions from this industry. Source severity was defined as the ratio of th...

394

Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Clarkson University, this applet demonstrates a circuit that contains a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS). The gain may be modified using the scroll bar. Even though brief, this resource can be used in a variety of different technical education classrooms.

Dorf, Richard C.; Svoboda, James A.

2008-11-27

395

Voltage Controlled Current Source (VCCS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Clarkson University, this websited contains an applet which demonstrates a circuit that contains a voltage controlled current source (VCCS). The gain of the VCCS can be changed using the scrollbar. This simple resource is a nice representation for a technical education classroom.

Dorf, Richard C.; Svoboda, James A.

2008-11-27

396

Six Regularities of Source Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent work, researchers have shown that source-recognition memory can be incorporated in an extended signal detection model that covers both it and item-recognition memory (A. Hilford, M. Glanzer, K. Kim, & L. T. DeCarlo, 2002). In 5 experiments, using learning variables that have an established effect on item recognition, the authors tested…

Glanzer, Murray; Hilford, Andy; Kim, Kisok

2004-01-01

397

Consistent Answers Integrated Data Sources  

E-print Network

Consistent Answers from Integrated Data Sources Leopoldo Bertossi Carleton University School (University at Bu#11;alo) Alvaro Cortes (Catholic University of Chile) Claudio Gutierrez (University of Chile(Title; Year ; Director ; Genre), Review (Title; Review ), American(Director ) Query posed to G: \\Comedies

Bertossi, Leopoldo

398

Image Makers: Reporters or Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore how news sources are used by media to create a social image of women during key suffrage events of 1858, 1920, and 1970, the front page stories of the "New York Times" were reviewed for 1 week prior to and 1 week following each of these events: May 14, 1858, the Eighth National Women's Rights Convention in New York City; August 27,…

Petruzzello, Marion C.

399

Lexical Source-Code Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an alternative to syntactic matching on a program's abstract syntax tree, we explore the use of lexical matching on a program's source-code. Lexical techniques have been shown to be effective for the approximation of an abstract syntax tree, thus permitting tools that use regular expres- sions to effectively specify rewrite targets. In this paper, the features needed to support

Anthony Cox; Tony Abou-Assaleh; Wei Ai; Vlado Keselj

400

Alternative energy sources. Part B  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text has been assembled from the proceedings of the Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) that was held in Kuwait in February 1980. The focus of this symposium was to review and assess those technologies that presently complement and will most likely substitute in the future

Manassah

1981-01-01

401

Alternative energy sources. Part A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceedings of the 'Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences' held in February 1980, are presented. Papers discuss enhanced oil recovery, tar sands technology,synthetic fuels from coal, production of synthetic fuels from biomass, ethanol from biomass, prospects for photovoltic conversion of solar energy, and the wind energy programme in

Manassah

1981-01-01

402

Strategies for alternative energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies for alternative energy sources are developed out of an understanding of the historical evolution and possible future options for energy consumption. Work is presented that attempts to develop a fundamental and intuitive understanding of energy substitution and utilization patterns for a complex energy economy. A simple market penetration model is used to characterize the historical evolution and to assess

G. C. Ferrell

1978-01-01

403

Non-conventional energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference on renewable energy sources. Topics considered at the conference included the estimate of global and diffuse radiation, thin films in photothermal solar energy conversion, solar collectors, prospects for photovoltaic products in the developing countries, passive energy systems in buildings, hydrogen fuels, geothermal energy, wind energy, tidal energy, and wave energy in

G. Furlan; H. Rodriguez; G. Violini

1982-01-01

404

Soft Source Decoding With Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by recent results in joint source-channel coding and decoding, we consider the problem of decoding of vari- able-length codes using soft channel values. We present results of decoding of selected codes using the maximum a posteriori (MAP) decoder and the sequential decoder, and show the performance gains over decoding using hard decisions alone. The objective behind this work is

Maja Bystrom; Susanna Kaiser; Arkady Kopansky

1999-01-01

405

. Soft source decoding with applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by previous results in joint source-channel coding and decoding, we consider the problem of decoding of variable-length codes using soft channel values. We present results of decoding of selected codes using the maximum a posteriori (MAP) decoder and the sequential decoder, and show the performance gains over decoding using hard decisions alone. The objective behind this work is to

Maja Bystrom; Susanna Kaiser; Arkady Kopansky

2001-01-01

406

Sources of interplanetary dust: Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asteroid belt is examined as a potential source of interplanetary dust. Using results from the Pioneer-10 experiments the relative contribution of asteroidal and cometary particles to the Zodiacal cloud is estimated using methods developed in earlier studies of meteoroidal collisions (collisional model). It is found that the contribution of asteroidal particles to dust in the asteroidal belt is small

J. S. Dohnanyi

407

Source Memory for Unidentified Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to determine whether participants have source memory for test stimuli that they cannot identify. Using a paradigm developed to investigate the phenomenon of "recognition without identification" (Peynircioglu, 1990), we found that even when participants could not identify a previously studied item, they nonetheless…

Kurilla, Brian P.; Westerman, Deanne L.

2010-01-01

408

Ethyl fuel from nonpetroleum sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that ethanol-ester mixtures - Ethyl Fuel - can be prepared from nonpetroleum sources such as coal, oil shale, etc. Production consists of the following steps: gasification of basic feedstock, synthesis of methanol and carbonylation of methanol to Ethyl Fuel. Depending on the final composition, preparation from methanol can be carried out with 92 + % selectivity.

H. Beuther; T. P. Kobylinski; G. M. Singerman; W. R. Pretzer

1980-01-01

409

[Pollution and alternative energy sources].  

PubMed

In order to reach higher standards of living, man has always been interested in searching new energy sources. Natural energy from sun, wind and water has been overcame by more sophisticated resources such as coal, vapour, hydroelectricity, natural gas, petroleum, and, at least, nuclear energy. However all these resources present unwanted effects, namely various hazards to man and environment. On this matter society is quering the risk-benefit balance of some energy choices and optimum performance with new safety means to limit dangerousness are being pursued and developed. It is necessary to evaluate carefully every aspect of safety without under-estimating or over-evaluating problems. For each energy source a "real price" has to be paired, even more in the future, since more energy will be required to guarantee the necessary technological progress linked to a better quality of life. In the present review all risks related to different energy sources are described and discussed aiming at defining: 1) specific risks for different sources 2) benefit from their utilization 3) means of defence guaranteeing security for man and environment. Italy is strictly dependent for energy production, which comes for 80% from abroad. An appropriate balance is required considering economical and social factors and real availability of energy. This balance needs therefore to be clearly evaluated hoping in a better future for an alternative energy, less dangerous and more clear, such as that from nuclear fusion. PMID:2483087

Melino, C

1989-01-01

410

Known and unknown SCUBA sources  

E-print Network

Summary and discussion of some projects to use SCUBA to target sources selected at other wavebands, as well as to find new sub-mm galaxies in `blank fields': FIRBACK galaxies; Lyman break galaxies and `the Blob'; HDF flanking fields and the Groth Strip; survey of lensing cluster fields.

Douglas Scott; Colin Borys; Mark Halpern; Anna Sajina; Scott Chapman; Greg Fahlman

2000-10-17

411

10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...licensee need not perform a leak test on the following sources: (1) Sources containing only byproduct material with a half-life of less than 30 days; (2) Sources containing only byproduct material as a gas; (3) Sources containing...

2012-01-01

412

10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...licensee need not perform a leak test on the following sources: (1) Sources containing only byproduct material with a half-life of less than 30 days; (2) Sources containing only byproduct material as a gas; (3) Sources containing...

2010-01-01

413

10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...licensee need not perform a leak test on the following sources: (1) Sources containing only byproduct material with a half-life of less than 30 days; (2) Sources containing only byproduct material as a gas; (3) Sources containing...

2013-01-01

414

10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...licensee need not perform a leak test on the following sources: (1) Sources containing only byproduct material with a half-life of less than 30 days; (2) Sources containing only byproduct material as a gas; (3) Sources containing...

2011-01-01

415

62 FR 48348 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Hospital/Medical...action promulgates new source performance standards...infectious waste. Sources are required to achieve...concentrations can cause toxic effects...

1997-09-15

416

The Advanced Neutron Source liquid deuterium cold source  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source will employ two cold sources to moderate neutrons to low energy (<10 meV). The cold neutrons produced are then passed through beam guides to various experiment stations. Each cold source moderator is a sphere of 410-mm internal diameter. The moderator material is liquid deuterium flowing at a rate of 1 kg/s and maintained at subcooled temperatures at all points of the circuit, to prevent boiling. Nuclear beat deposited within the liquid deuterium and its containment structure totals more than 30 kW. All of this heat is removed by the liquid deuterium, which raises its temperature by 5 K. The liquid prime mover is a cryogenic circulator that is situated in the return leg of the flow loop. This arrangement minimizes the heat added to the liquid between the heat exchanger and the moderator vessel, allowing the moderator to be operated at the minimum practical temperature. This report describes the latest thinking at the time of project termination. It also includes the status of various systems at that time and outlines anticipated directions in which the design would have progressed. In this regard, some detail differences between this report and official design documents reflect ideas that were not approved at the time of closure but are considered noteworthy.

Lucas, A.T.

1995-08-01

417

60 FR 10654 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...waste incineration cause the release of...largest known source of dioxin emissions...emissions from all sources is one of the...of sources that cause, or contribute...emissions (i.e., sources whose construction...requires these sources to control emissions...elements for the source category...

1995-02-27

418

The Brightest Extragalactic Radio Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The astrophysics of extragalactic radio sources intersects with many of Riccardo Giacconi's central interests -- X-ray observations of the hot intergalactic gas in galaxies and clusters of galaxies, studies of active galaxies with the Hubble Space telescope, the cosmological evolution of active galaxies, and so on. A brief history of the contribution of studies of extragalactic radio sources to astrophysical cosmology is presented. New HST and infrared observations of a complete sample of 3CR radio galaxies are described. These are shown to be among the most massive galaxies at redshifts z > 1 and provide important clues to the formation of these massive galaxies and the nature of active galactic nuclei. The evolutionary history of these objects with cosmic epoch can now be related to the star-formation history of galaxies as a whole, thanks to observations with the Hubble Space Telescope.

Longair, Malcolm S.

2000-09-01

419

PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the fraction that arrives at another continent [2]. At the deposition end of the chain, it is still unclear how the limited minerals in the dust such as iron are released for uptake by organisms either on land or in the ocean. Not all dust deposited into oceans results in a phytoplankton bloom. The process requires a chemical pathway that mobilizes a fraction of the iron into soluble form. Meskhidze et al [3] show that phytoplankton blooms following dust transport from the Gobi desert in Asia into the Pacific ocean result in a phytoplankton bloom only if the dust is accompanied by high initial SO2-to-dust ratios, suggesting that sulfuric acid coatings on the dust particle mobilize the embedded iron in the dust for phytoplankton uptake. Quantifying transport, deposition and nutrient availability are the latter ends of a puzzle that must begin by identifying and quantifying dust emission at the sources. The emission process is complex at the microscale requiring the right conditions for saltation and bombardment, which makes identification and inclusion of sources in global transport models very difficult. The result is that estimates of annual global dust emissions range from 1000 to 3000 Tg per year [4]. Even as global estimates of dust emissions are uncertain, localizing the sources brings even greater uncertainty. It has been recognized for several years that dust sources are not uniformly distributed over the arid regions of the Earth, but are regulated to topographic lows associated with dried lake deposits [5]. Using aerosol information from satellites, a comprehensive map of the world's source regions shows sources localized to specific areas of the Earth's arid regions [6]. Still these maps suggest broad emission sources covering several degrees of latitude and longitude. In the paper by Koren and co-authors [7] appearing in this issue, one particular dust source, the Bodélé depression in Chad, is analyzed in detail. They find that the specific topography of the depression combined with the prevailing wind direction in the winter provides perfect condition

Remer, Lorraine A.

2006-11-01

420

An ion source research facility  

SciTech Connect

As an ion source developer, D-Pace frequently faces the issue of needing access to a research facility to be able to test equipment or to develop our existing technology further. The closest facility to perform such tasks is hundreds of kilometers away, at TRIUMF, and it is not always feasible to make use of it on a timely basis. With a growing demand and a desire to enhance our products, the idea to create an ion source research facility in our region evolved. In this paper, we will discuss the approach that was chosen to reach our goal, the status of the project, the principle layout of the facility, and the different ways this facility could be utilized.

Roeder, M.; Dehnel, M.; Jackle, P.; Stewart, T.; Theroux, J. [D-Pace, Inc., P.O. Box 201, Nelson, British Columbia V1L 5P9 (Canada)

2008-02-15

421

An ion source research facility.  

PubMed

As an ion source developer, D-Pace frequently faces the issue of needing access to a research facility to be able to test equipment or to develop our existing technology further. The closest facility to perform such tasks is hundreds of kilometers away, at TRIUMF, and it is not always feasible to make use of it on a timely basis. With a growing demand and a desire to enhance our products, the idea to create an ion source research facility in our region evolved. In this paper, we will discuss the approach that was chosen to reach our goal, the status of the project, the principle layout of the facility, and the different ways this facility could be utilized. PMID:18315134

Roeder, M; Dehnel, M; Jackle, P; Stewart, T; Theroux, J

2008-02-01

422

Greenhouse Gases: The Overlooked Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast, which took place during the Kyoto Conference on global warming, discusses well-known and more obscure sources of greenhouse gases. Solutions to reduce carbon emissions are discussed, including creating fuel with less carbon in it (biomass fuels); reducing driving by increasing the cost of fuel; and improving vehicle fuel economy. The broadcast then introduces the topic of methane as a greenhouse gas; although less is emitted, it is about fifty times more effective than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. Cattle are a major source of methane; some ideas are introduced for monitoring and reducing their emissions. There is also discussion of whether global warming could be a result of natural variability as opposed to the result of a human-caused greenhouse effect. The broadcast is 49 minutes and 39 seconds in length.

423

Indiana University: Chemical Information Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fantastic Indiana University website helps individuals "find and learn how to use chemical information resources on the Internet and elsewhere." Users can find two types of resource guides. The first, SIRCh (Selected Internet Resources for Chemistry) offers numerous links to educational websites where users can find answers to many of their chemistry questions. The second, CCIIM (Clearinghouse for Chemical Information Instructional Materials), is a collection of items created by chemistry and science librarians, chemists, and publishers to help visitors learn how to use chemical information sources. Users can find links to four databases providing information on publications, references, acronyms, and crystallography. The website offers archives of the University's Chemical Information Sources Discussion List and materials on chemical information classes taught at Indiana University.

2007-05-05

424

Energy sources for intravenous nutrition  

PubMed Central

Controversy exists concerning the appropriate use of carbohydrate solutions and fat emulsions as energy sources in intravenous nutritional regimens. Current evidence suggests that glucose is the carbohydrate energy source of choice and that when infused with appropriate quantities of protein it provides cheap and effective nutritional support in the majority of patients and clinical circumstances. During glucose infusion, blood glucose and acid-base balance should be closely monitored and, when indicated, exogenous insulin should be added to the regimen to combat hyperglycaemia and improve protein anabolism. Fat emulsions, although expensive, may justifiably be used in patients with moderate or severe stress to provide up to 50% of non-protein energy, especially in circumstances where attempts to satisfy energy requirements exclusively with glucose would impose an additional metabolic stress. PMID:3109093

Rowlands, B J

1987-01-01

425

Assessment of emerging energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a broad review and analysis of the commercialization potential for eight emerging sources of energy are summarized. Tight gas sands, heavy oil, methane from geopressured aquifers, oil shale, enhanced oil recovery, advanced coal mining technologies, and underground coal gasification are discussed. Each source of energy or technology was evaluated with respect to six factors affecting commercialization: size and characteristics of resource; technical and economic performance; relevant energy market growth rates; logistical considerations; development lead times; and regulatory and institutional factors. The evaluation was based on a review of existing literature, extensive interviews with industry expert, and an overall assessment of the degree to which these factors would constrain commercial development. In addition, estimates were made of supply potential from each emerging energy.

1981-09-01

426

Increased security through open source  

E-print Network

In this paper we discuss the impact of open source on both the security and transparency of a software system. We focus on the more technical aspects of this issue, combining and extending arguments developed over the years. We stress that our discussion of the problem only applies to software for general purpose computing systems. For embedded systems, where the software usually cannot easily be patched or upgraded, different considerations may apply.

Jaap-Henk Hoepman; Bart Jacobs

2008-01-25

427

Extended-Boost Source Inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Z-source inverter has gained popularity as a single-stage buck-boost inverter topology among many researchers. However, its boosting capability could be limited, and therefore, it may not be suitable for some applications requiring very high boost demand of cascading other dc-dc boost converters. This could lose the efficiency and demand more sensing for controlling the added new stages. This paper

C. J. Gajanayake; Fang Lin Luo; Hoay Beng Gooi; Ping Lam So; Lip Kian Siow

2010-01-01

428

Cesium137 source strength verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, the protocol for Cesium-137 source calibration has undergone a number of revisions based on updated data. The 3M Corporation issued product alerts and a revision of the calibration protocol in the early 1980s. We verified the activity of clinically used cesium tubes and found the difference with the activity stated by 3M in the range of 6–13%,

R. Yankelevich; J. B. Wojcicka; V. Maier; C. Anderko

2000-01-01

429

Waste pyrolysis - Alternative fuel source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four means for producing alternative fuel sources via waste pyrolysis are considered. In the first, low-Btu gas is produced by waste pyrolysis in a refractory-lined rotary kiln. The second is based on solid waste passing through a gasifier, and then through stages of drying, pyrolysis, and combustion. This also yields a low-Btu gas. The third method produces a medium-Btu gas

L. M. Pruce

1978-01-01

430

Alternative sources of natural rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is one of the most important polymers naturally produced by plants because it is a strategic raw material\\u000a used in more than 40,000 products, including more than 400 medical devices. The sole commercial source, at present, is natural\\u000a rubber harvested from the Brazilian rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. Primarily due to its molecular structure and high molecular weight (>1

H. Mooibroek; K. Cornish

2000-01-01

431

How generation affects source memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation effects (better memory for self-produced items than for provided items) typically occur in item memory. Jurica\\u000a and Shimamura (1999) reported anegative generation effect in source memory, but their procedure did not test participants on the items they had generated. In Experiment\\u000a 1, participants answered questions and read statements made by a face on a computer screen. The target word

Kindiya D. Geghman; Kristi S. Multhaup

2004-01-01

432

Error Sources in Asteroid Astrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asteroid astrometry, like any other scientific measurement process, is subject to both random and systematic errors, not all of which are under the observer's control. To design an astrometric observing program or to improve an existing one requires knowledge of the various sources of error, how different errors affect one's results, and how various errors may be minimized by careful observation or data reduction techniques.

Owen, William M., Jr.

2000-01-01

433

ILC Electron Source Injector Simuations  

SciTech Connect

As part of the global project aimed at proposing an efficient design for the ILC (International Linear Collider), we simulated possible setups for the electron source injector, which will provide insight into how the electron injector for the ILC should be designed in order to efficiently accelerate the electron beams through the bunching system. This study uses three types of software: E-Gun to simulate electron beam emission, Superfish to calculate solenoidal magnetic fields, and GPT (General Particle Tracer) to trace charged particles after emission through magnetic fields and subharmonic bunchers. We performed simulations of the electron source injector using various electron gun bias voltages (140kV - 200kV), emitted beam lengths (500ps - 1ns) and radii (7mm - 10mm), and electromagnetic field strengths of the first subharmonic buncher (5 - 20 MV/m). The results of the simulations show that for the current setup of the ILC, a modest electron gun bias voltage ({approx}140kV) is sufficient to achieve the required bunching of the beam in the injector. Extensive simulations of parameters also involving the second subharmonic buncher should be performed in order to gain more insight into possible efficient designs for the ILC electron source injector.

Lakshmanan, Manu; /Cornell U., LNS /SLAC

2007-08-29

434

Dislocation sources in ordered intermetallics  

SciTech Connect

An overview on the current understanding of dislocation sources and multiplication mechanisms is made for ordered intermetallic alloys of the L1{sub 2}, B2, and D0{sub 19} structures. In L1{sub 2} alloys, a large disparity of edge/screw segments in their relative mobility reduces the efficiency of a Frank-Read Type multiplication mechanism. In Fe-40%Al of the B2 structure, a variety of dislocation sources are available for <111> slip, including ones resulting from condensation of thermal vacancies. In NiAl with the relatively high APB energy, <100> dislocations may result from the dislocation decomposition reactions, the prismatic punching out from inclusion particles, and/or steps and coated layers of the surface. Internal interfaces often provide sites for dislocation multiplication, e.g., grain boundaries, sub-boundaries in Ni{sub 3}Ga, NiAl and Ti{sub 3}Al, and antiphase domain boundaries in Ti{sub 3}Al. As for the crack tip as a dislocation source, extended SISFs trailed by super-Shockley partials emanating form the cracks in Ni{sub 3}Al and Co{sub 3}Ti are discussed in view of a possible toughening mechanism.

Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Appel, F.; Wagner, R. [GKSS-Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. for Materials Research; Mecking, H. [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany)

1996-09-01

435

Pulsed neutron sources and condensed matter research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical development of neutron sources for research is outlined, with emphasis on the dependence of future progress on the successful exploitation of the new breed of pulsed sources. The principles and instrumentation of scattering experiments at pulsed sources using the time-of-flight method are described in detail. Examples of novel scientific results, recently obtained at the ISIS source, are presented

W. G. Williams; S. W. Lovesey

1989-01-01

436

RouterMulticast .Source sends a flooding  

E-print Network

#12;Router RouterMulticast . . . Source Router Router . . .Source sends a flooding in periodic time One router is receiving multicast data service flooding Router Router Router Router Router RouterSource flooding flooding RouterRouter Router RouterSource flooding flooding flooding flooding prune Router

Jang, Ju-Wook

437

S and Ku band frequency source development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the two part S- and Ku-band source development program are described. The S- and Ku-band sources were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. A high performance S- and Ku-band microwave signal source using state-of-the-art oscillator and microwave source technology was developed.

1980-01-01

438

Opening the Source Repository with Anonymous CVS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anonymous CVS is an advanced source file distribu- tion mechanism we created to allow open source soft- ware projects to distribute source code and information about code to Internet users. Built on top of the Con- current Versions System (CVS) revision control system, Anonymous CVS safely allows anonymous read-only access to a CVS source repository. Prior to the intro- duction

Charles D. Cranor; Theo De Raadt

1999-01-01

439

AGN neutrino source candidates (Achterberg+, 2006)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a search for sources of TeV neutrinos can be improved by grouping potential sources together into generic classes in a procedure that is known as source stacking. In this paper, we define catalogs of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and use them to perform a source stacking analysis. The grouping of AGN into classes is done in two

A. Achterberg; M. Ackermann; J. Adams; J. Ahrens; D. W. Atlee; J. N. Bahcall; X. Bair; B. Baret; M. Bartelt; S. W. Barwick; R. Bay; K. Beattie; T. Becka; J. K. Becker; K.-H. Becker; P. Berghaus; D. Berley; E. Bernardini; D. Bertrand; D. Z. Besson; E. Blaufuss; D. J. Boersma; C. Bohm; S. Boeser; O. Botner; A. Bouchta; J. Braun; C. Burgess; T. Burgess; T. Castermans; D. Chirkin; J. Clem; B. Collin; J. Conrad; J. Cooley; D. F. Cowen; M. V. D'Agostino; A. Davour; C. T. Day; C. de Clercq; P. Desiati; T. De Young; J. Dreyer; M. R. Duvoort; W. R. Edwards; R. Ehrlich; R. W. Ellsworth; P. A. Evenson; A. R. Fazely; T. Feser; K. Filimonov; T. K. Gaisser; J. Gallagher; R. Ganugapati; H. Geenen; L. Gerhardt; A. Goldschmidt; J. A. Goodman; M. G. Greene; S. Grullon; A. Gross; R. M. Gunasingha; A. Hallgren; F. Halzen; K. Han; K. Hanson; D. Hardtke; R. Hardtke; T. Harenberg; J. E. Hart; T. Hauschildt; D. Hays; J. Heise; K. Helbing; M. Hellwig; P. Herquet; G. C. Hill; J. Hodges; K. D. Hoffman; K. Hoshina; D. Hubert; B. Hughey; P. O. Hulth; K. Hultqvist; S. Hundertmark; A. Ishihara; J. Jacobsen; G. S. Japaridze; A. Jones; J. M. Joseph; K.-H. Kampert; A. Karle; H. Kawai; J. L. Kelley; M. Kestel; N. Kitamura; S. R. Klein; S. Klepser; G. Kohnen; H. Kolanoski; L. Koepke; M. Krasberg; K. Kuehn; H. Landsman; R. Lang; H. Leich; M. Leuthold; I. Liubarsky; J. Lundbert; J. Madsen; K. Mase; H. S. Matis; T. McCauley; C. P. McParland; A. Meli; T. Messarius; P. Meszaros; R. H. Minor; P. Miocinovic; H. Miyamoto; A. Mokhtarani; T. Montaruli; A. Morey; R. Morse; S. M. Movit; K. Munich; R. Nahnhauer; J. W. Nam; P. Niessen; D. R. Nygren; H. Oegelman; Ph. Olbrechts; A. Olivas; S. Patton; C. Pena-Garay; C. Perez de los Heros; D. Pieloth; A. C. Pohl; R. Porrata; J. Pretz; P. B. Price; G. T. Przybylski; K. Rawlins; S. Razzaque; F. Refflinghaus; E. Resconi; W. Rhode; M. Ribordy; S. Richter; A. Rizzo; S. Robbins; C. Rott; D. Rutledge; H.-G. Sander; S. Schlenstedt; D. Schneider; D. Seckel; S. H. Seo; S. Seunarine; A. Silvestri; A. J. Smith; M. Solarz; C. Song; J. E. Sopher; G. M. Spiczak; C. Spiering; M. Stamatikos; T. Stanev; P. Steffen; D. Steele; T. Stezelberger; R. G. Stokstad; M. C. Stoufer; S. Stoyanov; K.-H. Sulanke; G. W. Sullivan; T. J. Sumner; I. Taboada; O. Tarasova; A. Tepe; L. Thollander; S. Tilav; P. A. Toale; D. Turcan; T. J. Van Eijndhoven; J. Vandenbroucke; B. Voigt; W. Wagner; C. Walck; H. Waldmann; M. Walter; Y.-R. Wang; C. Wendt; C. H. Wiesbusch; G. Wikstroem; D. R. Williams; R. Wischnewski; H. Wissing; K. Woschnagg; X. W. Xu; G. Yodh; S. Yoshida; J. D. Zornoza; P. L. Biermann

2007-01-01

440

Alternative energy sources for the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents forecasts concerning alternative energy sources in the United Kingdom. These are alternative sources of heat - solar and geothermal energy, and alternative sources of electricity - wind, tides, and waves. A tentative judgment of the potential contribution of alternative sources to UK energy supplies in the year 2000 is presented.

J. K. Dawson

1976-01-01

441

Syndrome source coding and its universal generalization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of using error-correcting codes to obtain data compression, called syndrome-source-coding, is described in which the source sequence is treated as an error pattern whose syndrome forms the compressed data. It is shown that syndrome-source-coding can achieve arbitrarily small distortion with the number of compressed digits per source digit arbitrarily close to the entropy of a binary memoryless source. A universal generalization of syndrome-source-coding is formulated which provides robustly-effective, distortionless, coding of source ensembles.

Ancheta, T. C., Jr.

1975-01-01

442

Polarized Sources, Targets and Polarimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remarks on the history of workshops on "spin tools" / E. Steffens -- Polarized proton beams in RHIC / A. Zelenski -- The COSY/Julich polarized H[symbol] and D[symbol] ion source / O. Felden -- The new source of polarized ions for the JINR accelerator complex / V. V. Fimushkin -- Resonance effects in nuclear dichroism - an inexpensive source of tensor-polarized deuterons / H. Seyfarth -- Polarized electrons and positrons at the MESA accelerator / K. Aulenbacher -- Status report of the Darmstadt polarized electron injector / Y. Poltoratska -- The Mott polarimeter at MAMI / V. Tioukine -- Proton polarimetry at the relativistic heavy ion collider / Y. Makdisi -- Polarisation and polarimetry at HERA / B. Sobloher -- Polarisation measurement at the ILC with a Compton polarimeter / C. Bartels -- Time evolution of ground motion-dependent depolarisation at linear colliders / A. Hartin -- Electron beam polarimetry at low energies and its applications / R. Barday -- Polarized solid targets: recent progress and future prospects / C. D. Keith -- HD gas distillation and analysis for HD frozen spin targets / A. D'Angelo -- Electron spin resonance study of hydrogen and alkyl free radicals trapped in solid hydrogen aimed for dynamic nuclear polarization of solid HD / T. Kumada -- Change of ultrafast nuclear-spin polarization upon photoionization by a short laser pulse / T. Nakajima -- Radiation damage and recovery in polarized [symbol]NH[symbol] ammonia targets at Jefferson lab / J. D. Maxwell.Polarized solid proton target in low magnetic field and at high temperature / T. Uesaka -- Pulse structure dependence of the proton spin polarization rate / T. Kawahara -- Proton NMR in the large COMPASS [symbol]NH[symbol] target / J. Koivuniemi -- DNP with TEMPO and trityl radicals in deuterated polystyrene / L. Wang -- The CLIC electron and positron polarized sources / L. Rinolfi -- Status of high intensity polarized electron gun at MIT-Bates / E. Tsentalovich -- Target section for spin filtering studies at COSY and CERN/AD / C. Barschel -- First experiments with the polarized internal gas target at ANKE/COSY / M. Mikirtychyants -- Extra physics with an ABS and a Lamb-shift polarimeter / R. Engels -- Systematic studies for the development of high-intensity ABS / L. Barion -- Upgrade of the 50 keV GaAs source of polarized electrons at ELSA / D. Heiliger -- Lifetime measurements of DBR and nonDBR photocathodes at high laser intensities / E. Riehn -- Polarized electron source based on FZD SRF gun / R. Xiang -- Major advances in SEOP of [symbol]He targets / P. Dolph -- A study of polarized metastable [symbol]He beam production / Yu. A. Plis -- Polarized [symbol]He targets for real and virtual photons / J. Krimmer -- Spin-filtering studies at COSY and AD / F. Rathmann -- Experimental setup for spin-filtering studies at COSY and AD / A. Nass -- Polarizing a stored proton beam by spin-flip? - A reanalysis / D. Oellers -- Tracking studies of spin coherence in COSY in view of EDM polarization measurements / A. U. Luccio -- Summary of the XIII international workshop on polarized sources, targets and polarimetry / F. Rathmann.

Ciullo, Guiseppe; Contalbrigo, Marco; Lenisa, P.

2011-01-01

443

World wide UCN sources Possibility at TRIUMF  

E-print Network

al. (1999) #12;UCN density in source $ = " (coh(Ein%E) NHe +n "s dE0 Ec +n : cold neutron flux protonWorld wide UCN sources and Possibility at TRIUMF TRIUMF Aug. 1, 2007 Y. Masuda (KEK) #12;Neutron Cold source 60M reactor 50 UCN/cm3 at Ec=335neV #12;New generation UCN sources New UCN sources use

Martin, Jeff

444

New type T-Source inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents different topologies of voltage inverters with alternative input LC networks. The basic topology is known in the literature as a Z-source inverter (ZSI). Alternative passive networks were named by the authors as T-sources. T-source inverter has fewer reactive components in comparison to conventional Z-source inverter. The most significant advantage of the T-source inverter (TSI) is its use

Ryszard Strzelecki; Marek Adamowicz; Natalia Strzelecka; Wieslaw Bury

2009-01-01

445

Z-source networks for power conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the impedance-source (Z-source) converter\\/inverter into a broader concept and presents several new impedance-source networks (Z-source networks or Z-networks) for power conversion purpose. The previously presented Z-source network (circuit) consists of two inductors and two capacitors connected in a special arrangement to form a two-port impedance network that can be open-circuited and short-circuited on either end. Based on

Fang Z. Peng

2008-01-01

446

Compact x-ray source and panel  

DOEpatents

A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

2008-02-12

447

Multigamma-ray calibration sources  

SciTech Connect

We have calibrated a self-consistent set of multigamma-ray standards using the automated multi-spectrometry ..gamma..-ray counting facility at LLNL's Nuclear Chemistry Division. Pure sources of long-lived activity were produced by mass separation and/or chemical purification. The sources were counted individually and in combination on several different calibrated spectrometer systems. These systems utilize various detectors ranging from small (x-ray) detectors to large volume high-purity Ge detectors. This has allowed the use of the most ideal individual detector-efficiency characteristics for the determination of the relative ..gamma..-ray intensities. Precise energy measurements, reported earlier (Meyer, 1976) have been performed by an independent method. Both the energy and ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities determined compare well with independently established values such as the recent ICRM intercomparison of /sup 152/Eu. We discuss our investigations aimed at resolving the shape of the efficiency response function up to 10 MeV for large volume Ge(Li) and high-purity Ge detectors. Recent results on the ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities per decay for /sup 149/Gd and /sup 168/Tm multigamma-ray sources are discussed. For /sup 168/Tm, we deduce a 0.01% ..beta../sup -/ branch to the 87.73-keV level in /sup 168/Yb rather than the previous value which was a factor of 200 greater. In addition, we describe current cooperative efforts aimed at establishing a consistent set of data for short-lived fission products. Included are recent measurements on the bromine fission products with ..gamma.. rays up to 7 MeV.

Meyer, R.A.; Massey, T.N.

1983-05-01

448

Advanced Light Source control system  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source designed to provide ports for 60 beamlines. It uses a 50 MeV electron linac and 1.5 GeV, 1 Hz, booster synchrotron for injection into a 1--2 GeV storage ring. Interesting control problems are created because of the need for dynamic closed beam orbit control to eliminate interaction between the ring tuning requirements and to minimize orbit shifts due to ground vibrations. The extremely signal sensitive nature of the experiments requires special attention to the sources of electrical noise. These requirements have led to a control system design which emphasizes connectivity at the accelerator equipment end and a large I/O bandwidth for closed loop system response. Not overlooked are user friendliness, operator response time, modeling, and expert system provisions. Portable consoles are used for local operation of machine equipment. Our solution is a massively parallel system with >120 Mbits/sec I/O bandwidth and >1500 Mips computing power. At the equipment level connections are made using over 600 powerful Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC-s) mounted in 3U size Eurocard slots using fiber-optic cables between rack locations. In the control room, personal computers control and display all machine variables at a 10 Hz rate including the scope signals which are collected though the control system. Commercially available software and industry standards are used extensively. Particular attention is paid to reliability, maintainability and upgradeability. 10 refs., 11 figs.

Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.

1989-03-01

449

Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements  

E-print Network

The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL; ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This presentation covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

Hanisch, Robert J; Berriman, G Bruce; DuPrie, Kimberly; Mink, Jessica; Nemiroff, Robert J; Schmidt, Judy; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark; Teuben, Peter J; Wallin, John

2014-01-01

450

Relating to monitoring ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

451

The RHIC polarized source upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.

2010-09-27

452

Pulsar Searches of EGRET Sources  

E-print Network

The majority of Galactic high-energy gamma-ray sources continue to elude identification. Currently, we have a handful of firm pulsar identifications, one of which is radio quiet, and a few marginal detections, including one millisecond pulsar. Recently, both blind searches of EGRET error boxes and targeted searches of X-ray counterpart candidates have had some success in finding new pulsars. I review these results, and discuss our current program of searching mid-Galactic latitude EGRET error boxes using the Parkes multi-beam system.

Mallory S. E. Roberts

2002-12-03

453

Equivalent source magnetic dipoles revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equivalent point source inversion in the rectangular coordinate system has been widely used to reduce satellite magnetic data collected at different altitudes to a common elevation over small areas. This method is based on the expression of the magnetic anomaly caused by a magnetic dipole. Such an expression derived in a spherical coordinate system by von Frese et al. [1981] is found erroneous. We point out the errors in von Frese et al.'s [1981] formulas and present the correct expression for the magnetic field of a magnetic dipole in a spherical coordinate system.

Dyment, J.; Arkani-Hamed, J.

454

Gamma source for active interrogation  

DOEpatents

A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Barletta, William A.

2012-10-02

455

SOURCE OF MICROBUNCHING AT BNL NSLS SOURCE DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

We report experimental studies of the origins of electron beam microbunching instability at BNL Source Development Laboratory (SDL). We eliminated laser-induced microbunching by utilizing an ultra-short photocathode laser. The measurements of the resulting electron beam led us to conclude that, at SDL, microbunching arising from shot noise is not amplified to any significant level. Our results demonstrated that the only source of microbunching instability at SDL is the longitudinal modulation of the photocathode laser pulse. Our work shows that assuring a longitudinally smoothed photocathode laser pulse allows mitigating microbunching instability at a typical FEL injector with a moderate microbunching gain. In this paper we investigated the source of microbunching instability at the SDL. To distinguish microbunching induced by shot noise from that arising from the longitudinal modulation of the photocathode laser, we studied the beam created by a very short laser pulse, thus eliminating the possibility of laser-induced microbunching. While the measured energy spectra of compressed beam did reveal severe longitudinal fragmentation, an analysis of the beam dynamics proved this to be due to self-fields acting on a beam with an initially smooth longitudinal profile, and not due to microbunching instability. Such fragmentation only was possible with the very short bunch chosen for these studies, and is absent in routine SDL operations. Our experiment shows that in the absence of the initial laser-induced beam modulation, microbunching instability at the SDL is not observed, and must be well below the levels that would limit the FEL performance. This result agrees with assumption of previous SDL studies that (when present under different machine conditions) microbunching instability at the SDL was laser-induced. Microbunching instability gain at the SDL is moderate. This is mainly because the SDL utilizes a single stage bunch compressor as well as due to the small compression ratio. Since the design of the SDL injector is typical of the majority of FEL injectors, our experiment proves that one possible way to control microbunching instability in such machines (that by design have a moderate microbunching gain) is to maintain a sufficiently smooth longitudinal profile of the photo-cathode laser. We note that the general principles for designing a machine with a moderate microbunching instability gain are presented in [12]. In conclusion, our experiment demonstrates that microbunching instability can be eliminated from a typical FEL injector with single stage bunch compressor (and operating without a laser heater) as long as the photocathode laser is longitudinally smooth. For machines with multi-stage bunch compressors, our results offer an important benchmark to establish a minimal laser heater power for instability-free operation.

Seletskiy, S.; Hidaka, Y.; Murphy, J.B.; Podobedov, B.; Qian, H.; Shen, Y.; Wang, J.; Yang, X.

2011-03-28

456

Simulating Sources of Superstorm Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We evaluated the contributions to magnetospheric pressure (ring current) of the solar wind, polar wind, auroral wind, and plasmaspheric wind, with the surprising result that the main phase pressure is dominated by plasmaspheric protons. We used global simulation fields from the LFM single fluid ideal MHD model. We embedded the Comprehensive Ring Current Model within it, driven by the LFM transpolar potential, and supplied with plasmas at its boundary including solar wind protons, polar wind protons, auroral wind O+, and plasmaspheric protons. We included auroral outflows and acceleration driven by the LFM ionospheric boundary condition, including parallel ion acceleration driven by upward currents. Our plasmasphere model runs within the CRCM and is driven by it. Ionospheric sources were treated using our Global Ion Kinetics code based on full equations of motion. This treatment neglects inertial loading and pressure exerted by the ionospheric plasmas, and will be superceded by multifluid simulations that include those effects. However, these simulations provide new insights into the respective role of ionospheric sources in storm-time magnetospheric dynamics.

Fok, Mei-Ching

2008-01-01

457

Pulsating aurora: Source region & morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsating aurora, a common phenomenon in the polar night sky, offers a unique opportunity to study the precipitating particle populations responsible for this subtle yet fascinating display of lights. The conjecture that the source of these electrons originates near the equator, made decades ago, has now been confirmed using in-situ measurements. In this thesis, we present these results that compare the frequencies of equatorial electron flux pulsations and pulsating aurora luminosity fluctuations at the ionospheric footprint. We use simultaneous satellite-based data from GOES 13 and ground-based data from the THEMIS allsky imager array to show that there is a direct correlation between luminosity fluctuations near the ground and particle pulsations in equatorial space; the source region of the pulsating aurora. Pulsating aurora almost exclusively occurs embedded within a region of diffuse aurora. By studying the two particle populations, one can contribute to the theory behind auroral pulsations. The interplay between the two auroral types, and the systems that control them, are not yet well known. We analyze ground optical observations of pulsating aurora events to attempt to characterize the relationship between the two types of auroral precipitation. Pulsating aurora is a significant component of energy transfer within the framework of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Further study of the morphology, total energy deposition, and the pulsation mechanism of pulsating aurora is key to a better understanding of our earth-sun system.

Jaynes, Allison

458

Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

2014-01-01

459

Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging  

PubMed Central

Surgery to correct severe heart arrhythmias usually requires detailed maps of the cardiac activation wave prior to ablation. The pinpoint electrical mapping procedure is laborious and limited by its spatial resolution (5–10 mm). We propose ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), a direct 3-D imaging technique that potentially facilitates existing mapping procedures with superior spatial resolution. The technique is based on a pressure-induced change in resistivity known as the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, which is spatially confined to the ultrasound focus. AE-modulated voltage recordings are used to map and reconstruct current densities. In this preliminary study, we tested UCSDI under controlled conditions and compared it with conventional electrical mapping techniques. A 2-D dipole field was produced by a pair of electrodes in a bath of 0.9% NaCl solution. Boundary electrodes detected the AE signal while a 7.5-MHz focused ultrasound transducer was scanned across the bath. UCSDI located the current source and sink to within 1 mm of their actual positions. A future UCSDI system potentially provides real-time 3-D images of the cardiac activation wave coregistered with anatomical ultrasound and would greatly facilitate corrective procedures for heart abnormalities. PMID:18595802

Witte, Russell S.; Huang, Sheng-Wen; O'Donnell, Matthew

2008-01-01

460

Fluid jet electric discharge source  

DOEpatents

A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

2006-04-25

461

Future directions in electron sources.  

SciTech Connect

The emittance-compensated rf photoinjector is in the process of evolving from an experiment in and of itself, to a laboratory instrument, to a workhorse component of large user facilities such as next-generation light sources. In recent years the performance achieved by the standard ?-mode design has approached the levels predicted by theory and simulation. The basic design has been scaled from X-band down to less than 1 GHz in terms of operating frequency, and superconducting designs are presently undergoing initial testing at various locations. The requirements for linac-based light sources will require at least one order of magnitude improvement in beam quality; other applications, such as electron microscopes or high-energy electron lithography, require still greater improvements. The migration towards fully superconducting accelerators provides some additional design challenges. This paper briefly presents requirements for some future applications, and presents four new approaches to extending injector performance: the diamondemitter photocathode, the planar focusing cathode, the magnetic-mode emittance compensation technique, and the field-emission-gated cathode.

Lewellen, J. W.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

2005-01-01

462

Gravitational Wave Sources: An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With full-sensitivity operation of the first generation of gravitational wave detectors now just around the corner, and with the LISA space-based detector entering its final design stage, I review the wide variety of predicted sources from the perspective of what further theoretical work may be needed to assist in their detection. Some sources, such as binary black holes, require good theoretical models from which search templates for matched filtering of the data streams can be computed. Others, such as searches for un-modelled bursts, require clever robust search algorithms not tied to detailed waveform models. Still others, such as searches for continuous waves from pulsars, are compute-bound and need improved efficient computer algorithms. The sensitivity of initial ground-based detectors will depend in part on how good we are at searching the data. In the longer term, the amount of information we can extract from the LISA data stream will depend in part on how good we are at removing strong signals so that we can recover the weaker ones as well.

Schutz, Bernard F.

2003-10-01

463

Light Sources and Lighting Circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by means of using filler gas with a higher atomic weight. Regarding fluorescent lamps, studies and developments for longer operating life and improvement in the lumen maintenance factor for the straight-type and circular-type fluorescent lamps were actively pursued. Regarding self-ballasted fluorescent lamps, the main stream of development was aimed at reducing lamp size and increasing energy conservation, and the development of new products that took advantage of these features proceeded. In regard to LED light sources, basic research and product development, including new application development, were vigorously implemented. In basic research, studies were reported, not only on efficacy improvements through optimization of the LED chips, phosphor layers, and packaging technology, but also on photometry, colorimetry, and visual psychology. In the field of application, applications were studied for general lighting sources and also for a wide range of fields, such as automotive headlights and visible light communication. Also, many academic conferences and exhibitions were held domestically and overseas, and the high level of interest suggests high expectations for this next-generation light source. Regarding HID lamps, there was much activity in research and development and in the commercialization of the ceramic metal halide lamp product, and products were commercialized with features such as higher efficiency (130 lm/W) and higher color rendering properties (R9 ? 90). In the high-pressure sodium lamps, there were many study reports concerning plant growth and insect pest control using its low insect-attracting characteristics. With high-pressure mercury lamps, there were many reports on reducing lamp size and increasing intensity for use as a light source for projectors.

Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

464

Repatriation of US sources from Brazil  

SciTech Connect

IAEA's interest in excess and unwanted sealed sources extends back to when radium sources were a problem throughout the world. Sta11ing in 1994, world wide IAEA member states inventoried and consolidated radium (Ra)-226 sources. IAEA then trained Regional Teams in the conditioning of Ra-226 sealed sources for long term storage, which resulted in the Regional Teams conditioning about 14,000 radium sources. These sources remained in their respective IAEA member state locations. Regional teams were seen as a way to encourage member state (local) management of a world wide problem, as well as a more cost effective solution.

Tompkins, Andrew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

465

The m=1 helicity source spheromak experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper extensive measurements of magnetic equilibrium and source parameters in the m=1 helicity source spheromak experiment are described (previously called the kinked z-pinch source [Comments Plasma Phys. Control Fusion 9, 161 (1985)]). In the cylindrical entrance region connecting the stabilized z-pinch helicity source to the spheromak flux conserver, the observed equilibrium configuration is the helical azimuthal m=1 state with no net axial flux. In the flux conserver, the equilibrium is a spheromak (m=0) state with an m=1 distortion. The magnetic equilibria observed are compared to theory. The performance of the source relative to coaxial helicity sources is also examined.

Fernández, J. C.; Wright, B. L.; Marklin, G. J.; Platts, D. A.; Jarboe, T. R.

1989-06-01

466

Thulium heat sources for space power applications  

SciTech Connect

Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

Alderman, C.J.

1992-05-01

467

SourceRank: relevance and trust assessment for deep web sources based on inter-source agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of deep web source selection and argue that existing source selection methods are inadequate as they are based on local similarity assessment. Specically, they fail to account for the fact that sources can vary in trustworthiness and individual results can vary in importance. In response, we formulate a global measure to calculate relevance and trustworthiness of

Raju Balakrishnan; Subbarao Kambhampati

2010-01-01

468

SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement  

E-print Network

SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement Tempe AZ USA 85287 rajub@asu.edu, rao@asu.edu ABSTRACT One immediate challenge in searching the deep web-similarity-based relevance assess- ment. When applied to the deep web these methods have two deficiencies. First

Kambhampati, Subbarao

469

SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement  

E-print Network

SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement. Existing methods have two deficiencies for applying to the open col- lections like the deep web. First query in the deep web, the agreements between theses an- swer sets are likely to be helpful in assessing

Kambhampati, Subbarao

470

The DCU laser ion source.  

PubMed

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I approximately 10(8)-10(11) W cm(-2)) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm(-2)) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration approximately 35 ns, lambda=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In "basic operating mode," laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I approximately 600 microA for Cu(+) to Cu(3+) ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu(2+)). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a "continuous einzel array" were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at "high pressure." In "enhanced operating mode," peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu(2+)) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu(4+)-Cu(6+)) increased considerably in this mode of operation. PMID:20441334

Yeates, P; Costello, J T; Kennedy, E T

2010-04-01

471

Sources of human urinary epinephrine.  

PubMed

The kidney is a likely source for some urinary epinephrine (E) since adrenalectomized animals and humans continue to excrete urinary E and the human kidney contains E synthesizing enzymes. We studied subjects during an intravenous infusion of 3H-E to determine the fraction of urinary E derived from the kidney. Eight normal subjects (CON) and 5 older, heavier hypertensives (OHH) ate a light breakfast along with ascorbic acid supplementation and had intravenous and arterial lines placed. They received an infusion of 3H-E and had an oral water load. During the final hour of 3H-E infusion, urine and arterial blood samples were collected for 3H-E and E levels. After the 3H-E infusion was abruptly discontinued, arterial blood samples were collected to measure 3H-E kinetics. The total body clearance of 3H-E was about 2,500 ml/min from plasma and clearance of 3H-E to urine was about 170 ml/min. CON had plasma E levels of 43 +/- 4 pg/ml. Their predicted rate of clearance of E from plasma to urine of 7,471 +/- 865 pg/min was less than (P = 0.018) the actual urinary E excretion of 15,037 +/- 2,625 pg/min. Thus, 43 +/- 9% of urinary E in CON was apparently derived from renal sources and not filtered from blood. Among OHH 85 +/- 4% of urinary E was derived from the kidney, significantly (P < 0.01) different from CON. The OHH also produced much more urinary E than predicted from plasma 3H-E clearance into urine (P = 0.03). A major fraction of urinary E is not filtered from the blood stream but is apparently derived from kidney. A small fraction of urinary E may be derived from E stored in nerve endings along with norepinephrine, but this probably represents less than 2% of urinary E. Renal cleavage of E sulfate into E may be another potential source of urinary E. Some, and perhaps most, urinary E not filtered from the bloodstream is derived from renal N-methylation of norepinephrine as the human kidney has two enzymes capable of converting norepinephrine to E. In conclusion, a major portion of urinary E is derived from the kidney and not filtered from the bloodstream. This is an important factor in the interpretation of urine E levels. Renal E could alter renal blood flow, electrolyte reabsorption, and renin release prior to excretion into urine. PMID:8995750

Ziegler, M G; Aung, M; Kennedy, B

1997-01-01

472

Source Mineralogy for Hawaiian Tholeiites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hawaiian tholeiites commonly have been thought to be the melting product of garnet lherzolite. However, Sobolev, et al. (2005, Nature, 434, 590) proposed a pyroxenite source. This idea is based on their claim that melting of garnet lherzolite at P > 3 GPa would yield magmas with low SiO2 (< 47%), a feature that is not characteristic of Hawaiian tholeiites. Phase relations for the CaO-MgO-Al2O3- SiO2 (CMAS) system show that melt at the lherzolite solidus with the lowest SiO2 at any pressure occurs just at the solidus transition from spinel lherzolite to garnet lherzolite (3 GPa), and that solidus melts become progressively richer in SiO2 as pressure either decreases (spinel lherzolite field) or increases (garnet lherzolite field) from 3 GPa. Absolute values of melt compositions in CMAS do not precisely reproduce natural compositions, but the trends hold. As pressure increases from 3 to 6 GPa (the high-pressure limit of the experimental data), model basalt liquid compositions at the garnet lherzolite solidus increase significantly in both MgO (22.1 to 30.8 wt. %) and SiO2 (47.3 to 51.6 wt. %). This is consistent with the characteristically high SiO2 of Hawaiian tholeiites and strongly supports a source with a garnet lherzolite mineralogy, olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + garnet. This result holds for a wide range of lherzolitic to pyroxenitic bulk source compositions, as long as the bulk compositional variations are not so extreme that one or more of these minerals is lost. Phase relations in the CMAS tetrahedron at 3 GPa (Milholland and Presnall, 1998, J. Petrol., 39, 3-27) show that an eclogitic mineralogy produces melts that are enriched in SiO2 and low in MgO - very different from the least-fractionated Kilauea glasses. Glass compositions at the least- fractionated end of the olivine-controlled trend for the Puna Ridge at Kilauea (Clague, D. A., et al., 1995, J. Petrol., 36, 299-346) plot very close to the experimental determination of the initial melt composition for a CMAS model garnet lherzolite mineralogy at ˜ 4-5 GPa. This shows that some Hawaiian melts are extracted from a depth of ˜150 km with almost no crystallization during passage to the surface.

Presnall, D. C.

2009-05-01

473

Dosimetric Characteristics for Brachytherapy Sources  

SciTech Connect

Brachytherapy sources are characterized by the dosimetric parameters in a protocol such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43. The air-kerma strength is measured and traceable to a primary standard. Then the parameters such as dose-rate constant, radial dose function, and anisotropy function are measured and related back to the primary standard. This is normally accomplished with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Since radial dose function and anisotropy function are relative parameters, some of the dosimetric corrections are negligible. For the dose-rate constant, parameters such as the energy dependence compared with a calibration beam such as {sup 60}Co need to be accounted for. A description of the primary standard measurements and TLD measurements will be discussed.

DeWerd, Larry A.; Davis, Stephen D. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

2011-05-05

474

Gravitational energy sources in Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravitational sources of the intrinsic luminosity of Jupiter are examined in the context of current hydrogen-helium models. When no gravitational separation of matter occurs, the amount of heat which can be released over the remaining lifetime of the planet is necessarily limited by the size of its existing reservoir of thermal energy. This conclusion rests only on the assumption that its interior is relatively cold and degenerate. If gravitational unmixing occurs, the size of the thermal reservoir does not necessarily limit the heat output. If core formation occurs, for example, then the size of the core formed will be a limiting factor. The energy released with the formation of a helium core is computed for Jupiter. A core growth rate, averaged over several billion years, of 20 trillionths of Jupiter's mass per year is required if gravitational separation is to play a significant role in the thermal evolution.

Flasar, F. M.

1973-01-01

475

Resonance microwave volume plasma source  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design of a microwave gas-discharge plasma source is described. The possibility is considered of creating conditions under which microwave energy in the plasma resonance region would be efficiently converted into the energy of thermal and accelerated (fast) electrons. Results are presented from interferometric and probe measurements of the plasma density in a coaxial microwave plasmatron, as well as the data from probe measurements of the plasma potential and electron temperature. The dynamics of plasma radiation was recorded using a streak camera and a collimated photomultiplier. The experimental results indicate that, at relatively low pressures of the working gas, the nonlinear interaction between the microwave field and the inhomogeneous plasma in the resonance region of the plasmatron substantially affects the parameters of the ionized gas in the reactor volume.

Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Malykh, N. I.; Misakyan, M. A.; Taktakishvili, M. I.; Temchin, S. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation); Lee, Young Dong [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-15

476

Carbon nanotubes as electron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a unique form of carbon filament/fiber in which the graphene walls roll up to form tubes. They can exhibit either metallic-like or semiconductor-like properties. With the graphene walls parallel to the filament axis, nanotubes (single wall metallic-type or multi-wall) exhibit high electrical conductivity at room temperature. This high electrical conductivity allied to their remarkable thermal stability has made CNTs one of the most intensely studied material systems for field emission (FE) applications. In this paper we will describe the growth of multiwall CNTs and their application in a range of field emission based systems including their use in SEM sources, emitters for use in microwave amplifiers and as emitters in field emission based displays (FEDs).

Milne, W. I.; Teo, K. B. K.; Mann, M.; Bu, I. Y. Y.; Amaratunga, G. A. J.; de Jonge, N.; Allioux, M.; Oostveen, J. T.; Legagneux, P.; Minoux, E.; Gangloff, L.; Hudanski, L.; Schnell, J.-P.; Dieumegard, L. D.; Peauger, F.; Wells, T.; El-Gomati, M.

2006-05-01

477

General Purpose Heat Source Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) project seeks to combine the development of an electrically heated, single GPHS module simulator with the evaluation of potential nuclear surface power systems. The simulator is designed to match the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which normally generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of the subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Current GPHS activities are centered on developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights which closely match those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. Designs are being pursued which will allow operation up to 1100 C.

Emrich, William J., Jr.

2008-01-01

478

General Purpose Heat Source Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulator project is designed to replicate through the use of electrical heaters, the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of spacecraft subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Previous GPHS activities are centered around developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights that closely matched those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. These efforts were successful, although their maximum temperature capabilities were limited to around 850 C. New designs are being pursued which also replicate the sizes and weights of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks but will allow operation up to 1100 C.

Emrich, Bill

2008-01-01

479

Solenoid and monocusp ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

Brainard, John Paul (Albuquerque, NM); Burns, Erskine John Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Draper, Charles Hadley (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

480

Solenoid and monocusp ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures. 6 figs.

Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

1997-10-07

481

62 FR 45124 - Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources and Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 60 Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources and Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Large Municipal Waste Combustion Units...2016-AD04 Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources and Standards of Performance for New...

1997-08-25

482

Problems with packaged sources in foreign countries  

SciTech Connect

The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP), which is administered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), removes excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential threat to national security, public health, and safety. In total, GTRI/OSRP has been able to recover more than 25,000 excess and unwanted sealed sources from over 825 sites. In addition to transuranic sources, the GTRI/OSRP mission now includes recovery of beta/gamma emitting sources, which are of concern to both the U.S. government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper provides a synopsis of cooperative efforts in foreign countries to remove excess and unwanted sealed sources by discussing three topical areas: (1) The Regional Partnership with the International Atomic Energy Agency; (2) Challenges in repatriating sealed sources; and (3) Options for repatriating sealed sources.

Abeyta, Cristy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matzke, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zarling, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tompkin, J. Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

483

Teaching Immigration through Primary Source Material.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a collection of source materials that cover various aspects of immigration. The list includes twenty-three different types of information. Examples of sources are: (1) newspapers; (2) pictorials; (3) documents; (4) articles; (5) letters; and (6) cartoons. (BSR)

Mantrone, Bruce

1987-01-01

484

High power millimeter wave source development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High power millimeter wave sources for fusion program; ECH source development program strategy; and 1 MW, 140 GHz gyrotron experiment design philosophy are briefly outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

George, T. V.

1989-01-01

485

SOURCE ASSESSMENT SAMPLING SYSTEM: DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report chronologically describes the design and development of the Source Assessment Sampling System (SASS). The SASS train is the principal sampling element for ducted sources when performing EPA's Level 1 environmental assessment studies. As such, it samples process streams...

486

Business Case Study of Open Source Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper was prepared as part of The MITRE Corporation's FY00 Mission-Oriented Investigation and Experimentation (MOIE) research project 'Open Source Software in Military Systems.' The paper analyzes the business case of open source software. It is inte...

C. A. Kenwood

2001-01-01

487

PHOTON SCIENCES DIRECTORATE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE  

E-print Network

PHOTON SCIENCES DIRECTORATE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE G. B. STEPHENSON ASSOCIATE LABORATORY DIRECTOR DIRECTOR, ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE (VACANT) D. M. MILLS G. SRAJER Deputy Assoc. Lab. Dir. Deputy Assoc. Lab

Kemner, Ken

488

Iterative algorithms for lossy source coding  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the problems of lossy source coding and information embedding. For lossy source coding, we analyze low density parity check (LDPC) codes and low density generator matrix (LDGM) codes for quantization ...

Chandar, Venkat (Venkat Bala)

2006-01-01

489

Total cost model for making sourcing decisions  

E-print Network

This thesis develops a total cost model based on the work done during a six month internship with ABB. In order to help ABB better focus on low cost country sourcing, a total cost model was developed for sourcing decisions. ...

Morita, Mark, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

490

Alternative heat sources for heat pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar assisted, water source, and ground source heat pumps are described as alternatives to air to air heat pumps for use in a broader range of climates. Publications for further information on these systems are listed.

1984-09-01

491

New developments with H-sources.  

SciTech Connect

Existing spallation neutron source upgrades, planned spallation neutron sources, and high-energy accelerators for particle physics place demanding requirements on the Hsources. These requirements ask for increased beam currents and duty factor (df) while generally maintaining state-of-the art H' source emittance. A variety of H sources are being developed to address these challenges. These include volume sources with and without the addition of cesium for enhanced He production, increased df cesiated H' Penning and magnetron sources, and cesiated surface converter H- sources. Research on surface films of tantalum metal for enhanced volume H- production is also being studied. Innovative plasma production techniques to address the longer df requirement without sacrificing H- source reliability and liktime will be reviewed. The physical bases, the goals, and perceived challenges will be discussed.

Sherman, Joseph D.; Rouleau, G. (Gary)

2002-01-01

492

Renewable Sources of Energy and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed are the status of conventional sources of energy, prospects for the development of alternative sources of energy, and the consequences of that development on countries that are in the process of industrialization. (BT)

Diatta, Christian Sina

1979-01-01

493

Improved magnetron cold-cathode ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cold cathode ionization source generates smaller amounts of spurious gases and has a higher sensitivity than commonly used hot-filament ion sources. Photon and X-ray background noise are reduced below detectable levels.

Roehrig, J.; Torney, F.

1970-01-01

494

Acoustic Source Localization Using the Acoustic ENSBox  

E-print Network

Acoustic Source Localization Using the Acoustic ENSBox Andreas M. Ali Kung Yao Electrical of new deployable acoustic sensor platforms presents opportunities to develop automated tools for bio-acoustic Keywords Bioacoustics, distributed signal processing, acoustic source localization, wireless sensor

Grether, Gregory

495

46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

2011-10-01

496

46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

2010-10-01

497

46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

2013-10-01

498

46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELA