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1

Improvements on the LBL AECR source  

SciTech Connect

Performance of the LBL AECR source was improved by simultaneously heating the plasma with microwaves of 10 and 14 GHz (two-frequency heating). Plasma stability was improved.and the ion charge state distribution shifted to higher charge state. Production of high charge state ions was increased a factor of 2 to 5 or higher for the very heavy ions such as bismuth and uranium, as compared to the case of single-frequency (14 GHz) heating. Fully stripped argon ions at intensity I {ge} 5 enA were directly identified by the AECR charge state analyzing system for the first time. High charge state ion beams of bismuth and uranium produced by the source were injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron. After acceleration to energies greater than 6 MeV/nucleon, the extracted beam intensities were 1{times}10{sup 6}pps or higher for Bi{sup 50+,51+} and {sup 238}U{sup 52+,53+}. Tests in the AECR source have also shown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating is an effective coating and a better method than the electron gun for providing cold electrons to the ECR plasma. The AECR source will be upgraded to raise its magnetic field strengths to obtain better plasma confinement and enhanced production of hi ah charge state heavy ions.

Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

1995-04-01

2

Integrating a Traveling Wave Tube into an AECR-U ion source  

SciTech Connect

An RF system of 500W - 10.75 to 12.75 GHz was designed and integrated into the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance - Upgrade (AECR-U) ion source of the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The AECR-U produces ion beams for the Cyclotron giving large flexibility of ion species and charge states. The broadband frequency of a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) allows modifying the volume that couples and heats the plasma. The TWT system design and integration with the AECR-U ion source and results from commissioning are presented.

Covo, Michel Kireeff; Benitez, Janilee Y.; Ratti, Alessandro; Vujic, Jasmina L.

2011-07-01

3

Operating experience with the LBL ECR source  

SciTech Connect

The overall performance of the LBL ECR source in providing beam for the 88-Inch Cyclotron has been excellent. However, during the past two years there have been some fluctuations in the peak performance, particularly for the highest charge states. Among the factors which influence the peak performance are coatings from solid feeds or gases such as SiH/sub 4/ or CO/sub 2/, changes in first stage output, and variation in outgassing rates on the wall. Modifications made to the source have also affected its performance. In the plasma chamber the screens between the sextupole bars were removed to lower its Q/sub 0/. When the 9.2 GHz klystron used to power the first stage failed, it was replaced by a 10.3 GHz klystron. Tests were also made using 6.4 GHz to drive both first and second stages. The source performance in these various configuration will be reviewed.

Lyneis, C.M.

1987-12-01

4

Characterization of the plasma-switch interaction in the LBL HIF ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new way to characterize the performance of the LBL HIF ion source has been found. In the LBL source, ions are drawn from an arc-generated plasma reservoir in which the electrons are confined by a negative-biased switch'' mesh. Stagnation of the plasma is prevented by absorption of the excess ion flow on this mesh. The ion beam is generated by an external negative voltage that provides Child-Langmuir extraction of the ions through the switch mesh. We elucidate the physics requirements of the source and deduce switch mesh parameters needed for successful operation. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Hewett, D.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Rutkowski, H.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-12-10

5

Characterization of the plasma-switch interaction in the LBL HIF ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new way to characterize the performance of the LBL HIF ion source has been found. In the LBL source, ions are drawn from an arc-generated plasma reservoir in which the electrons are confined by a negative-biased switch'' mesh. Stagnation of the plasma is prevented by absorption of the excess ion flow on this mesh. The ion beam is generated by an external negative voltage that provides Child-Langmuir extraction of the ions through the switch mesh. We elucidate the physics requirements of the source and deduce switch mesh parameters needed for successful operation. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Hewett, D.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Rutkowski, H.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-01-01

6

Report on the engineering test of the LBL 30 second neutral beam source for the MFTF-B project  

SciTech Connect

Positive ion based neutral beam development in the US has centered on the long pulse, Advanced Positive Ion Source (APIS). APIS eventually focused on development of 30 second sources for MFTF-B. The Engineering Test was part of competitive testing of the LBL and ORNL long pulse sources carried out for the MFTF-B Project. The test consisted of 500 beam shots with 80 kV, 30 second deuterium, and was carried out on the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF). This report summarizes the results of LBL testing, in which the LBL APIS demonstrated that it would meet the requirements for MFTF-B 30 second sources. In part as a result of this test, the LBL design was found to be suitable as the baseline for a Common Long Pulse Source design for MFTF-B, TFTR, and Doublet Upgrade.

Vella, M.C.; Pincosy, P.A.; Hauck, C.A.; Pyle, R.V.

1984-08-01

7

Scientific program of the Advanced Light Source at LBL  

SciTech Connect

Construction of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is nearing completion, with operation as a US Department of Energy national user facility scheduled to begin in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance, 1.5-GeV electron storage ring with 10 long straight sections available for insertion devices and, initially, 24 bend-magnet ports, the ALS will be a third-generation source of soft x-ray and ultraviolet (collectively, the XUV) synchrotron radiation. Experimental facilities (insertion devices, beamlines, and end stations) will be developed and operated by participating research teams working with the ALS staff. The ability to exploit the high spectral brightness of the ALS was the main criterion for PRT selection. In the XUV spectral regions served by the ALS, a major benefit of high brightness will be the ability to achieve spatial resolution in the neighborhood of 200 angstroms in x-ray microscopy and holography and in spatially resolved spectroscopy. Other beneficiaries of high brightness include very-high-resolution spectroscopy, spectroscopy of dilute species, diffraction from very small samples, and time-resolved spectroscopy and diffraction.

Robinson, A.L.; Schlachter, A.S.

1991-10-01

8

Radioactive Beams Using the AECR-U and the 88-Inch Cyclotron  

SciTech Connect

The high ionization efficiency of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source combined with the mass resolution of a cyclotron is ideal for the generation of some ISOL-type radioactive ion beams (RIBs). In two separate projects at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL - BEARS and the Recyclotron - we have developed techniques to efficiently ionize and accelerate beams of gaseous species of 11C (t1/2 = 20 min), 14,15O (t1/2 = 70 sec, 2 min) and 76,79Kr (t1/2 = 14,35 hours). Measurements of the ionization efficiency and hold-up times are discussed, along with issues of source contamination and poisoning encountered in running both RIBs and high-intensity stable beam experiments using the same ion source, the LBNL AECR-U. Methods used to tune clean RIBs through the Cyclotron with high efficiency are also discussed, including the use and limitations of analog beams.

McMahan, M.A.; Leitner, D.; Powell, J.; Silver, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2005-03-15

9

First experimental results from IBM/TENN/TULANE/LLNL/LBL undulator beamline at the advanced light source  

SciTech Connect

The IBM/TENN/TULANE/LLNL/LBL Beamline 8.0 at the advanced light source combining a 5.0 cm, 89 period undulator with a high-throughput, high-resolution spherical grating monochromator, provides a powerful excitation source over a spectral range of 70--1200 eV for surface physics and material science research. The beamline progress and the first experimental results obtained with a fluorescence end station on graphite and titanium oxides are presented here. The dispersive features in K emission spectra of graphite excited near threshold, and found a clear relationship between them and graphite band structure are observed. The monochromator is operated at a resolving power of roughly 2000, while the spectrometer has a resolving power of 400 for these fluorescence experiments.

Jia, J.J.; Callcott, T.A. (Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)); Yurkas, J.; Ellis, A.W.; Himpsel, F.J. (IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)); Samant, M.G.; Stoehr, J. (IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California 95120 (United States)); Ederer, D.L. (Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)); Carlisle, J.A.; Hudson, E.A.; Terminello, L.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)); Shuh, D.K.; Perera, R.C.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1995-02-01

10

LBL EBIS Program  

SciTech Connect

It has been decided to increase the energy range of the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron by constructing an advanced ion source for installation on the existing axial injection system. The type of advanced ion source chosen is the Electron Beam Ion Source. The energy range will be increased to 40 MeV/nucleon for the lighter heavy ions and with development to over 20 MeV/nucleon at mass 100. Besides the 88-inch Cyclotron, present accelerators at LBL include the SuperHILAC, with beam energy up to 8.5 MeV/A, and the Bevalac, which will provide beams from 40 MeV/A to 2 GeV/A at all masses upon completion of the current Uranium Beams line item. Initial ion source design and design of the test bench are described.

Brown, I.; Feinberg, B.

1981-05-01

11

News from LBL  

SciTech Connect

We present a brief summary of recent news from LBL related to accelerator physics. This talk was given on October 29, 1993 at the 6th Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on the subject ``Synchro- Betraton Resonances,`` held in Funchal (Madeira, Portugal), October 24--30, 1993.

Furman, M.A.

1994-01-26

12

Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (AECRS) with Orbital Complications in an Atrophic Rhinitis Patient: A Mere Co-incidence?  

PubMed Central

Recurrent Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (AECRS) in a setting of atrophic rhinitis are perplexing clinical situations. While either may act as the primary factor, repeated inflammation in a vessel-poor atrophied tissue is unusual. Progressive mucosal degeneration, vascularity and the effect of bacterial colonization are the factors suggested to play an important role for the pathobiogenesis of the co-existence of the two diseases. Through presentation of a case, a brief attempt has been made here to explore the temporal relationship between rhinosinusitis and atrophic rhinitis; in the process, other noteworthy features of the patient have also been highlighted. PMID:24551696

Dutta, Mainak; Ghatak, Soumya

2013-01-01

13

RFQ development at LBL  

SciTech Connect

LBL's interest in RFQ accelerators goes back to 1978. We have developed, constructed and operated a heavy ion machine that is the central part of an upgrade project in which our old proton injector linac is converted to a light ion injector system. We are now designing a second heavy ion RFQ linac which will be used at CERN for the injection of light ions into the PS complex. Other RFQ accelerators are under study for possible additional projects. LBL has pioneered new techniques, such as the vane mounting and adjusting mechanism, and the electrical shorting rings which stabilize the cavity field distribution. In conjunction with INS, Tokyo, a new design procedure has been derived, optimized for low current, heavy ion RFQ's which results in a short, efficient structure. LBL has had considerable operational experience with an Alvarez structure operated at high gradients for several years. As the operational characteristics of an RFQ improve dramatically with surface field, our experience with this operation and its implications for future RFQ linacs is discussed. 12 references.

Staples, J.

1984-01-01

14

HISS spectrometer at LBL  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System at LBL is designed to be a general purpose experimental work bench able to support a wide variety of experiments. Our philosophy is to provide instruments capable of investigating, with multi-particle sensitivity, a large portion of phase space. We have not chosen a particular region such as mid-rapidity or projectile frame but, instead, have made sure that the magnet and the instrumentation allow these choices as well as many others. The beam can be brought into the magnet at a variable position and the magnet can be rotated.

Greiner, D.

1980-11-01

15

RFQ development at LBL  

SciTech Connect

The radio frequency quadrupole (FRQ) is a structure which can efficiently focus, bunch and accelerate low velocity ion beams. It has many features which make it particularly attractive for applications in the biomedical and nuclear sciences. There are two projects in progress at LBL where the incorporation of heavy ion RFQ technology offers substantial benefits: in the upgrade of the Bevatron local injector, and in the design of a dedicated heavy ion medical accelerator. In order to meet the requirements of these two important applications, a 200 MHz RFQ structure has been designed for ions with charge to mass ratios as low as 0.14, and a low rf power scale model has been built and tested. Construction of the high power model has begun. The status of this project is reviewed and a summary of technical specifications given.

Abbott, S.; Brodzik, D.; Gough, R.A.; Howard, D.; Lancaster, H.; MacGill, R.; Rovanpera, S.; Schneider, H.; Staples, J.; Yourd, R.

1982-11-01

16

Calculation of collective effects and beam lifetimes for the LBL (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory) 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source  

SciTech Connect

In designing a third-generation high brightness synchrotron radiation source, attention must be paid to the various collective effects that can influence beam performance. We report on calculations, performed with the code ZAP, of the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime (from both Touschek and gas scattering) for our 1-2 GeV storage ring. In addition, we estimate the growth times for both longitudinal and transverse coupled bunch instabilities. Bunch lengths of about 20 ps should be obtainable and intrabeam scattering emittance growth is small. For a limiting undulator gap of 1 cm and residual gas pressure of 1n Torr, the beam lifetime is about 5 hours in the single-bunch mode; in the multibunch mode, lifetimes in excess of 6 hours are expected. These results indicate that all performance goals for the facility should be achievable.

Chattopadhyay, S.; Zisman, M.S.

1987-03-01

17

75 FR 64691 - Information Collection; Land Between The Lakes (LBL) Communication Effectiveness Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...The Lakes (LBL) Communication Effectiveness Study...assess the impact of communication avenues such as...LBL's own Social Science and Market Research Specialists. The...determine if LBL's communication efforts are in...

2010-10-20

18

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

Not Available

1991-07-01

19

TPX Sb3SN Conductor Testing at LBL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two wire lengths (one from Supercon and one from IGC) were delivered for testing at the LBL Short-Sample Test Facility. Several samples of each wire-type were wound onto forms and reacted according to the requested prescriptions. Leads and voltage-tap wires were carefully attached after reaction according to standard LBL short-sample test procedures. Testing of some of the samples has been

A. F. Lietzke; R. Scanlan

1995-01-01

20

PROCUREMENT HELP DESK 510-486-6400 ProcurementHelp@lbl.gov Procurement and Property Manager Rebecca Cornett 510-495-8186 BCornett@lbl.gov  

E-print Network

@lbl.gov Buyer - Construction and A/E subcontracts, Manages the GC Stable Sharon Ropes 510-486-6932 SARopes-495-8090 SWells@lbl.gov Services Team Manager Diane Hutchinson 510-486-6432 DAHutchinson@lbl.gov Buyer - Joint

Eisen, Michael

21

The LBL 55-meter spherical grating monochromator at SSRL (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory)  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 55-m spherical grating monochromator (SGM) beamline is located as a branch line of the 54-pole wiggler/undulator at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). It was designed and constructed by LBL's Center for X-Ray Optics and the engineering staff of LBL's Advanced Light Source with the cooperation and assistance of the research group of David Shirley at LBL and the staff of SSRL. The main goals of the project were to test the SGM concept and to develop a capability for designing and building a water-cooled mirror and grating capability in anticipation of the ALS. A water-cooled plane mirror deflects the beam horizontally, taking in general a small fraction of the flux from the 54-pole insertion device. This mirror is a brazed assembly of Glidcop (a proprietary alumina-dispersion-strengthened copper alloy) and OFHC copper. Its surface was finished in polished electroless nickel, then overcoated with gold as all optics in the beamline are overcoated. Next in the line is a fused silica toroid which focuses the SPEAR source vertically onto the entrance slit of the monochromator and horizontally onto the nominal position of the exit slit, in the manner of Rense and Violett. The magnification factors are 0.3x vertically and 0.7x horizontally. The monochromator is a Rowland-circle design; both slits move on large granite-based slides that maintain flatness of travel to {plus minus}2 {mu}m in peak-to-peak variation from straightness.

McKinney, W.R.; Howells, M.R.; Lauritzen, T.; Chin, J.; DiGennaro, R.; Fong, E.; Gath, W.; Guigli, J.; Hogrefe, H.; Meneghetti, J.; Plate, D.; Heimann, P.A.; Terminello, L.; Ji, Z.; Shirley, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Senf, S. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.)

1989-08-01

22

Linear collider research and development at SLAC, LBL and LLNL  

SciTech Connect

The study of electron-positron (e/sup +/e/sup /minus//) annihilation in storage ring colliders has been very fruitful. It is by now well understood that the optimized cost and size of e/sup +/e/sup /minus// storage rings scales as E(sub cm//sup 2/ due to the need to replace energy lost to synchrotron radiation in the ring bending magnets. Linear colliders, using the beams from linear accelerators, evade this scaling law. The study of e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collisions at TeV energy will require linear colliders. The luminosity requirements for a TeV linear collider are set by the physics. Advanced accelerator research and development at SLAC is focused toward a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) of 0.5--1 TeV in the center of mass, with a luminosity of 10/sup 33/--10/sup 34/. The goal is a design for two linacs of less than 3 km each, and requiring less than 100 MW of power each. With a 1 km final focus, the TLC could be fit on Stanford University land (although not entirely within the present SLAC site). The emphasis is on technologies feasible for a proposal to be framed in 1992. Linear collider development work is progressing on three fronts: delivering electrical energy to a beam, delivering a focused high quality beam, and system optimization. Sources of high peak microwave radio frequency (RF) power to drive the high gradient linacs are being developed in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Beam generation, beam dynamics and final focus work has been done at SLAC and in collaboration with KEK. Both the accelerator physics and the utilization of TeV linear colliders were topics at the 1988 Snowmass Summer Study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Mattison, T.S.

1988-10-01

23

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL  

SciTech Connect

In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

Not Available

1991-09-01

24

LBL Wideroe-based heavy ion injector project  

SciTech Connect

The LBL Wideroe-based high-intensity heavy-ion injector for the SuperHILAC will be operational by April 1981. It will provide several emA of low charge state ions up through uranium at high duty factor to the SuperHILAC. Several of the subsystems have already operated to specification and will be described.

Staples, J.W.; Lancaster, H.D.; Yourd, R.B.

1981-03-01

25

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL`s research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste.

Not Available

1993-10-01

26

TPX Sb3SN Conductor Testing at LBL  

SciTech Connect

Two wire lengths (one from Supercon and one from IGC) were delivered for testing at the LBL Short-Sample Test Facility. Several samples of each wire-type were wound onto forms and reacted according to the requested prescriptions. Leads and voltage-tap wires were carefully attached after reaction according to standard LBL short-sample test procedures. Testing of some of the samples has been completed. Liquid helium immersion (4.2K) data was gathered over a limited range of magnetic fields (5-10T). Additional gas-cooled data was collected over a range of temperatures (1.8-14 K). Testing was interrupted when the test-magnet's persistent-switch-heater failed. Good sample-to-sample and retest repeatability was observed for the 4.2K data when it was checked. Temperature measruements on the Supercon samples used CGR's and revealed a disappointing, non-repeatable (pressure-dependent) temperature offset for the gas-cooled measurements. They also observed a systematic dependence upon magnetic-field strength. Changing to a second CGR did not help. The IGC sample used a Cernox-type resistor which showed negligible magnetic and pressure dependencies. Testing is expected to resume when the magnet is repaired.

Lietzke, A.F.; Scanlan, R.

1995-07-01

27

Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

Not Available

1994-06-01

28

Case study data base companion report 3 to simulation of geothermal subsidence (LBL-10571)  

SciTech Connect

The data base developed for selection and evaluation of geothermal subsidence case studies is presented. Data from this data base were used in case studies of Wairakei, The Geysers, and Austin Bayou Prospect (Report LBL 10571).

Miller, I.; Dershowitz, W.; Jones, K.; Myer, L.; Roman, K.; Schauer, M.

1980-03-01

29

Volume H{sup {minus}} ion source development at LAMPF  

SciTech Connect

One method of increasing the intensity of the LAMPF proton Storage Ring is to use a brighter H{sup {minus}} ion source. To develop such a source, the performance of the small LBL dipole filter and the BNL toroidal filter volume H{sup {minus}} sources are being investigated. Results of testing a new high-duty-factor design of the BNL toroidal filter volume source are discussed. Results of experiments to reduce the electron to H{sup {minus}} ratio and modulate the beam intensity in the small LBL source are presented.

York, R.L.; Tupa, D.; Swenson, D.R.; Damjanovich, R.

1993-06-01

30

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

Not Available

1991-09-01

31

The effects of the interphase and strain gradients on the elasticity of layer by layer (LBL) polymer/clay nanocomposites  

E-print Network

A synergistic stiffening effect observed in the elastic mechanical properties of LBL assembled polymer/clay nanocomposites is studied via two continuum mechanics approaches. The nanostructure of the representative volume ...

Li, Yaning

32

Filmes crescidos pela técnica layer-by-layer (LbL) de nanopartículas inorgânicas e seus estudos fotoeletroquímicos.  

E-print Network

??Neste trabalho foram estudados filmes finos multicamadas baseados em nanopartículas inorgânicas e um polieletrolito inerte, depositados pela técnica layer-by-layer (LbL). O trabalho está dividido em… (more)

Ivo Bernardi de Freitas

2013-01-01

33

Investigating the Impact of Land between the Lakes (LBL) and Land Use/Land Cover Change on Precipitation Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large dams/reservoirs as open water surface and as a mechanism of triggering land use/land cover changes in their vicinity have impacted local climate and extreme precipitation patterns as study show. Urbanization, agricultural development, and forestation are some of the Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCC) that are result of development of large dams/reservoirs. Thus creating heterogeneities. It is believed that such heterogeneities bring about a boundary of different air masses that triggers convection due to differential heating as well as variation in soil moisture. One such heterogeneities is of the Land Between the Lakes (LBL). LBL is an inland peninsula formed by Lake Kentucky on Tennessee River and Lake Barkley on Cumberland River in Western Kentucky. The development of the two lakes brought about an area of 680 sq.km forest cover. The LBL renders unique land use/land cover heterogeneities with in a shorter distance providing open water for evaporation and forest for evapotranspiration. Reports as well as a preliminary investigation of nearby weather radar data showed storms dying out as it approaches the inland peninsula and gaining strength east of LBL. The storm exhibits a wave like strength, attenuating before LBL and gaining strength after. The purpose of this study mainly is to investigate the impact of LBL and in general LULCC on precipitation in the area. In this study the following specific scientific question will be addressed a. Has the development of LBL modified precipitation in the region? b. Which LULCC predominately affects storm formation? Summer radar reflectivity data from Paducah, KY station along with North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) geopotential height and wind direction data will be analyzed for identification of LBL effect precipitation and synoptic effect precipitation, respectively. A Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) will be setup to investigate what land use/land cover predominately modifies precipitation in the region.

Degu, A. M.; Hossain, F.

2012-12-01

34

Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H{sup {minus}} Source; The H{sup +} ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research.

Meyer, F W; Kirkpatrick, M I [eds.

1991-01-01

35

Effects of undulators on the ALS: The early work on the LBL (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory)  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe the early work carried out at LBL on the consequences of installing insertion devices (wigglers and undulators) on the beam dynamics of the ALS. This included analytical and tracking studies, and led to an insight to the reasons behind the predicted reduction in dynamic aperture. For completeness, a description of the unperturbed storage ring characteristics are also given. 3 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Jackson, A.

1988-05-01

36

Bimodal Tumor-Targeting from Microenvironment Responsive Hyaluronan Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Active targeting of nanoscale drug carriers can improve tumor-specific delivery; however, cellular heterogeneity both within and among tumor sites is a fundamental barrier to their success. Here, we describe a tumor microenvironment-responsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer drug carrier that actively targets tumors based on two independent mechanisms: pH-dependent cellular uptake at hypoxic tumor pH and hyaluronan-directed targeting of cell-surface CD44 receptor, a well-characterized biomarker for breast and ovarian cancer stem cells. Hypoxic pH-induced structural reorganization of hyaluronan-LbL nanoparticles was a direct result of the nature of the LbL electrostatic complex, and led to targeted cellular delivery in vitro and in vivo, with effective tumor penetration and uptake. The nanoscale drug carriers selectively bound CD44 and diminished cancer cell migration in vitro, while co-localizing with the CD44 receptor in vivo. Multimodal targeting of LbL nanoparticles is a powerful strategy for tumor-specific cancer diagnostics and therapy that can be accomplished using a single bilayer of polyamine and hyaluronan that, when assembled, produce a dynamic and responsive cell–particle interface. PMID:25100313

Dreaden, Erik C.; Morton, Stephen W.; Shopsowitz, Kevin E.; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Deng, Zhou J.; Cho, Nam-Joon; Hammond, Paula T.

2014-01-01

37

Survey and Alighment for the ALS Project at LBL Berkeley  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS), now under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a synchrotron radiation source of the third generation designed to produce extremely bright photon beams in the UV and soft X-ray regions. Its main accelerator components are a 1-1.9 GeV electron storage ring with 196.8 m circumference and 12 super-periods, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron with 75.0 m circumference and 4 super-periods, and a 50 MeV linac, as shown in Fig. 1. The storage ring has particularly tight positioning tolerances for lattice magnets and other components to assure the required operational characteristics. The general survey and alignment concept for the ALS is based on a network of fixed monuments installed in the building floor, to which all component positions are referred. Measurements include electronic distance measurements and separate sightings for horizontal and vertical directions, partially with automated electronic data capture. Most of the data processing is accomplished by running a customized version of PC-GEONET. It provides raw data storage, data reduction, and the calculation of adjusted coordinates, as well as an option for error analysis. PC-GEONET has also been used to establish an observation plan for the monuments and calculate their expected position accuracies, based on approximate coordinates. Additionally, for local survey tasks, the commercial software package ECDS is used. In this paper, the ALS survey and alignment strategy and techniques are presented and critically discussed. First experiences with the alignment of the linac and booster components are described.

Keller, R.; Lauritzen, T.; /LBL, Berkeley; Friedsam, H.; /SLAC

2005-08-12

38

Transparent conductors from carbon nanotubes LBL-assembled with polymer dopant with ?-? electron transfer.  

PubMed

Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and other carbon-based coatings are being considered as replacements for indium tin oxide (ITO). The problems of transparent conductors (TCs) coatings from SWNT and similar materials include poor mechanical properties, high roughness, low temperature resilience, and fast loss of conductivity. The simultaneous realization of these desirable characteristics can be achieved using high structural control of layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition, which is demonstrated by the assembly of hydroethyl cellulose (HOCS) and sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK)-SWNTs. A new type of SWNT doping based on electron transfer from valence bands of nanotubes to unoccupied levels of SPEEK through ?-? interactions was identified for this system. It leads to a conductivity of 1.1 × 10(5) S/m at 66 wt % loadings of SWNT. This is better than other polymer/SWNT composites and translates into surface conductivity of 920 ?/? and transmittance of 86.7% at 550 nm. The prepared LBL films also revealed unusually high temperature resilience up to 500 °C, and low roughness of 3.5 nm (ITO glass -2.4 nm). Tensile modulus, ultimate strength, and toughness of such coatings are 13 ± 2 GPa, 366 ± 35 MPa, and 8 ± 3 kJ/m(3), respectively, and exceed corresponding parameters of all similar TCs. The cumulative figure of merit, ?(TC), which included the critical failure strain relevant for flexible electronics, was ?(TC) = 0.022 and should be compared to ?(TC) = 0.006 for commercial ITO. Further optimization is possible using stratified nanoscale coatings and improved doping from the macromolecular LBL components. PMID:21524068

Zhu, Jian; Shim, Bong Sup; Di Prima, Matthew; Kotov, Nicholas A

2011-05-18

39

Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source  

SciTech Connect

At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide {sup c}ocktails{sup ,} a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-04-19

40

Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide "cocktails", a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

2013-04-01

41

Status of the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory and the BaBar detector  

SciTech Connect

The primary motivation of the Asymmetric B-Factory is the study of CP violation. The decay of B mesons and, in particular, the decay of neutral B mesons, offers the possibility of determining conclusively whether CP violation is part and parcel of the Standard Model with three generations of quarks and leptons. Alternatively, the authors may discover that CP violation lies outside the present framework. In this paper the authors briefly describe the physics reach of the SLAC/LBL/LLNL Asymmetric B-Factory, the progress on the machine design and construction, the progress on the detector design, and the schedule to complete both projects.

Oddone, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Physics Div.

1994-08-01

42

LBL/JSU/AGMUS science consortium annual report, FY 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

In 1983, a formal Memorandum of Understanding joined the Ana G. Mendez University System (AGMUS), Jackson State University (JSU), and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in a consortium designed to advance the science and technology programs of JSU and AGMUS. This is the first such collaboration between a Hispanic university system, a historically Black university, and a national laboratory. The goals of this alliance are basic and direct: to develop and effect a long-term, comprehensive program that will enable the campuses of AGMUS and JSU to provide a broad, high-quality offering in the natural and computer sciences, to increase the number of minority students entering these fields, and to contribute to scientific knowledge and the federal government`s science mission through research. This report documents the progress toward these goals and includes individual success stories. The LBL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium has developed plans for utilizing its program successes to help other institutions to adopt or adapt those elements of the model that have produced the greatest results. Within the five-year plan formulated in 1990 are eight major components, each with defining elements and goals. These elements have become the components of the Science Consortium`s current plan for expansion and propagation.

Not Available

1992-12-31

43

From the {psi} to charmed mesons: Three years with the SLAC-LBL detector at SPEAR  

SciTech Connect

As I look back at the first three years or so at SPEAR, I consider this one of the most revolutionary or perhaps the most revolutionary, experiment in the 60 year history of particle physics. It certainly was the most exciting time, in a laboratory that is, that I have ever experienced. In my talk I will cover the period 1973--1976 which saw the discoveries of the {psi} and {psi}{prime} resonances the {chi} states and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the D{degree}, D{sup +}* charmed meson doublet as well as the D{degree}* and D{sup +}* doublet. I will also refer briefly to some more recent results. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or ``MARK I`` which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. In 1976 the MARK I was modified to include a ``Lead Glass Wall`` (LGW) for improved photon and electron detection. This involved a new physics group from LBL, who built the LGW, Lina Barbaro-Galtieri et al. as well as a continuing group from SLAC, Martin Perl and Gary Feldman et al. to provide continuity in the running of the MARK I and to continue the study of the anomalous e{mu}events which Martin found earlier and which eventually were identified as the signature of the {tau} lepton.

Goldhaber, G.

1992-06-01

44

From the. psi. to charmed mesons: Three years with the SLAC-LBL detector at SPEAR  

SciTech Connect

As I look back at the first three years or so at SPEAR, I consider this one of the most revolutionary or perhaps the most revolutionary, experiment in the 60 year history of particle physics. It certainly was the most exciting time, in a laboratory that is, that I have ever experienced. In my talk I will cover the period 1973--1976 which saw the discoveries of the {psi} and {psi}{prime} resonances the {chi} states and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the D{degree}, D{sup +}* charmed meson doublet as well as the D{degree}* and D{sup +}* doublet. I will also refer briefly to some more recent results. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or MARK I'' which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. In 1976 the MARK I was modified to include a Lead Glass Wall'' (LGW) for improved photon and electron detection. This involved a new physics group from LBL, who built the LGW, Lina Barbaro-Galtieri et al. as well as a continuing group from SLAC, Martin Perl and Gary Feldman et al. to provide continuity in the running of the MARK I and to continue the study of the anomalous e{mu}events which Martin found earlier and which eventually were identified as the signature of the {tau} lepton.

Goldhaber, G.

1992-06-01

45

Direct-write maskless lithography of LBL nanocomposite films and its prospects for MEMS technologies.  

PubMed

Application of nanocomposites in MEMS, flexible electronics, and biomedical devices is likely to demonstrate new performance standards and resolve a number of difficult technical problems enabled by the unique combinations of electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. This study explores the possibility of making microscale nanocomposite patterns using the fusion of two highly versatile techniques: direct-write maskless UV patterning and layer-by-layer assembly (LBL). Together they can be applied to the production of a wide variety of nanostructured coatings with complex patterns. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and gold nanoparticle LBL nanocomposites assembled with chitosan (CH) were made into prototypical patterns such as concentric helices and bus-line-and-stimulation-pads (BLASPs) used in flexible antennas and neuroprosthetic devices. The spatial resolution of the technique was established with the standard line grids to be at least 1 ?m. Gold nanoparticle films revealed better accuracy and higher resolution in direct-write patterning than SWNT composites, possibly due to the granular rather than fibrous nature of the composites. The conductivity of the patterned composites was 6.45 × 10(-5)? m and 3.80 × 10(-6)? m at 20 °C for nanotube and nanoparticle composites, respectively; in both cases it exceeds electrical parameters of similar composites. Fundamental and technological prospects of nanocomposite MEMS devices in different areas including implantable biomedical, sensing, and optical devices are discussed. PMID:22740054

Bai, Yongxiao; Ho, Szushen; Kotov, Nicholas A

2012-08-01

46

Europium phosphomolybdate and osmium metallopolymer multi-functional LbL films: redox and electrocatalytic properties.  

PubMed

Hybrid multilayer films composed by osmium metallopolymer [Os(bpy)2(PVP)10Cl]Cl (Os-poly) and europium phosphomolybdate, K??[Eu(III)(PMo??O??)?] (Eu(PMo11)2), were prepared using the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. The film build-up, monitored by electronic spectroscopy, showed a regular stepwise growth indicating a strong interaction between layers. The XPS measurements corroborated the successful fabrication of the hybrid films with the Os-poly/Eu(PMo11)2 composition. SEM images revealed a completely covered surface with a highly roughened texture. Electrochemical characterisation of films by cyclic voltammetry revealed three Mo-based reduction processes (Mo(VI)?Mo(V)) in the potential range between -0.4 and 0.1 V and one Os reduction process (Os(III)?Os(II)) at ?0.270 V. The cyclic voltammograms of two electroactive probes, [Fe(CN)?](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH?)?](3+/2+) on {Os-poly/Eu(PMo11)2}n modified electrodes revealed redox mediation between film and the probes. Furthermore, the {Os-poly/Eu(PMo11)2}n multilayer films also showed excellent Mo-based electrocatalytic activity towards reduction of nitrite and iodate, confirming the multi-functional properties of the hybrid europium phosphomolybdate - osmium metallopolymer LbL films. PMID:24559710

Fernandes, Diana M; Vos, Johannes G; Freire, Cristina

2014-04-15

47

Highly photoluminescent multilayer QD-glass films prepared by LbL self-assembly.  

PubMed

A novel and facile preparation method for layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled films incorporating quantum dots (QDs) and having intense photoluminescence (PL) from blue to red is presented. Functional sol-gel-derived glass layers prepared by the hydrolysis of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) or 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) have been used as a linkage between QD layers. Absorption, PL spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed for characterization, which revealed that the QDs in the prepared films had a nearly close-packed coverage and were not aggregated. The PL efficiencies of the QDs (CdTe or ZnSe, both are thioglycolic acid-stabilized) dispersed in the films were roughly half that of the initial colloidal solutions but reached 24% before a refractive index correction. The thickness of the red-emitting film with 10 CdTe QD layers was approximately 50 nm. The concentration of QDs in the film derived from the first absorption peak was approximately 0.01 M. Because the PL starts to show a red shift, the obtained concentration is practically the ultimate one in the glass matrix. The mercapto, amino, and carboxyl groups play important roles in LbL self-assembling processes. PMID:16142978

Yang, P; Li, C L; Murase, N

2005-09-13

48

Direct-Write Maskless Lithography of LBL Nanocomposite Films and its Prospects for MEMS Technologies  

PubMed Central

Application of nanocomposites in MEMS, flexible electronics, and biomedical devices is likely to demonstrate new performance standards and resolve a number of difficult technical problems enabled by the unique combinations of electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. This study explores the possibility of making microscale nanocomposite patterns using the fusion of two highly versatile techniques: direct-write maskless UV patterning and layer-by-layer assembly (LBL). Together they can be applied to production of a wide variety of nanostructured coatings with complex patterns. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and gold nanoparticle LBL nanocomposites assembled with chitosan (CH) were made into prototypical patterns such as concentric helices and bus-line-and-stimulation pads (BLASP) used in flexible antennas and neuroprosthetic devices. The spatial resolution of the technique was established with the standard line grids to be at least 1?m. Gold nanoparticle films revealed better accuracy and higher resolution in direct-write patterning than SWNT composites possibly due to the granular rather than fibrous nature of the composites. The conductivity of the patterned composites was 6.45×10?5 ?·m and 3.80×10?6 ?·m at 20°C for nanotube and nanoparticle composites, respectively; in both cases it exceeds electrical parameters of similar composites. Fundamental and technological prospects of nanocomposite MEMS devices in different areas including implantable biomedical, sensing, and optical devices are discussed. PMID:22740054

Bai, Yongxiao; Ho, Szushen; Kotov, Nicholas A.

2012-01-01

49

THE USE OF BLOWER-DOOR DATA March 13, 1998 LBL #35173 THE USE OF BLOWER-DOOR DATA*  

E-print Network

THE USE OF BLOWER-DOOR DATA March 13, 1998 LBL #35173 THE USE OF BLOWER-DOOR DATA* Max Sherman University of California Berkeley, California The role of ventilation in the housing stock is to provide of blower- door data is critical. Blower doors can be used to answer the following ques- tions:. · What

50

LBL-31888/SLAC-PUB-5742/ESG-167/UC-414 Beam-Beam Diagnostics from Closed-Orbit Distortion  

E-print Network

LBL-31888/SLAC-PUB-5742/ESG-167/UC-414 Beam-Beam Diagnostics from Closed-Orbit Distortion M. Furman for asymmetric B fac- tories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assum- ing that the closed orbits of the two beams are sep- arated vertically at the interaction point by a lo- cal orbit bump that is nominally

Furman, Miguel

51

Design of the 3rd generation ECR ion source  

SciTech Connect

Development of the 3rd Generation ECR ion source has progressed from a concept described in the last ECR Ion Source Workshop to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. The prototype consists of three solenoid coils and six race track coils with iron poles forming the sextupole. The design calls for mirror fields of 4 T at injection and 3 T at extraction and for a radial field strength at the wall of 2.4 T. The prototype magnet will be tested this spring in an existing vertical cryostat to determine its operating characteristics including maximum operating values, training characteristics and to study the interaction between the solenoid and sextupole coils. Design of the ECR plasma chamber includes aluminum walls to provide an enhanced source of cold electrons, up to three separate microwave feeds to allow simultaneous heating of the plasma electrons at 10, 14 and 18 GHz or at 6, 10 and 14 GHz. Water cooling of the plasma chamber walls and the injection and extraction plates is planned so that up to 10 kW of microwave power can be used without excessive heating of the chamber components. Experience with the AECR-U at LBNL shows that increasing the magnetic fields and using two frequency heating allows operation at lower neutral pressures and higher microwave power density. Both of these conditions are needed to produce very high charge states from elements with masses greater than xenon and the resulting higher energy, more intense heavy beams from the 88-Inch Cyclotron would provide new research opportunities.

Lyneis, C.M.; Xie, Z.Q.; Taylor, C.E.

1997-02-01

52

RGO LBL modified biomimetic electrochemical sensor for detection of Sildenafil in herbal sexual health products.  

PubMed

In this work, a highly sensitive and selective biomimetic electrochemical sensor for Sildenafil in herbal sexual health products was prepared. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO), a novel highly conductive material was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) through layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly. The conductive molecularly imprinted films were constructed on the functional electrode surface using Sildenafil as template molecules, p-phenylenediamine (p-PD) as functional monomers. The obtained molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor (MIES) was successfully used to detect Sildenafil in herbal sexual health products. The limit of detection (LOD) was 6.2 nmol L?¹. The recoveries for the spiked Sildenafil contents were in the range of 92.34-97.71% with the RSD < 2.31%. The selective efficiencies for Sildenafil and other structurally related analogues only slightly varied from 0.93 to 1.09. PMID:23208100

Li, Yun; Wen, Tingting; Xue, Cheng; Han, Qing; Wang, Yang; Hong, Junli; Zhou, Xuemin; Jiang, Huijun

2013-04-15

53

Aceclofenac delivery by microencapsulation using LBL self-assembly for delayed release.  

PubMed

Colonic targeting has gained increasing interest over the past years, not just for the transport of drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also for its potential for transporting peptides and proteins, particularly low molecular weight peptide drugs. Without protection, such peptide drugs are usually digested within the gastric and small intestinal sections. In the present work Layer-By-Layer (LBL) self-assembly was utilized to make Aceclofenac single bilayer microcapsules produced by sequential adsorption of positively charged chitosan and negatively charged Pectin on the external surface of negatively charged Aceclofenac microcrystals. Taguchi approach was applied to determine the best concurrence of composition factors that is concentration of chitosan, pectin, centrifugation speed and incubation time. The microcapsules were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy and in-vitro release kinetics. Surface electric potential of Aceclofenac microcrystals was found to be negative with zeta potential -1.39 mV, in acetate buffer of pH 4. The primary and the secondary deposit layer of chitosan and pectin was found to have a positive and negative charge with zeta potential of +5.57 mV and -22.8 mV respectively. The sequential changing of surface zeta potential after each deposition is a satisfactory indication of the LBL self-assembly of the oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. The average size and encapsulation efficiency of the optimized single bilayer microcapsules (F5) was found to be 20µm and 63.83%, respectively. The ex-vivo percentage cumulative drug release of (F5) in Phosphate buffer pH 6.8 containing 2-4% w/v colonic fecal matter of male albino rat was found to be 98.40%. The optimized batch of microcapsules showed first order release kinetics (R(2)= 0.950) in presence of colonic fecal matter. PMID:21959811

Dharmendra, Kumar; Manisha, Pandey; Kymonil, Koshy Mamman; Awasthi, Saraf Shubhini

2011-10-01

54

Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics Division. Annual report, 1 January--31 December 1977. [LBL, 1977  

SciTech Connect

This annual report of the Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics Division describes the scientific research and other work carried out within the Division during 1977. The Division is concerned with work in experimental and theoretical physics, with computer science and applied mathematics, and with the operation of a computer center. The major physics research activity is in high-energy physics, although there is a relatively small program of medium-energy research. The High Energy Physics research program in the Physics Division is concerned with fundamental research which will enable man to comprehend the nature of the physical world. The major effort is now directed toward experiments with positron-electron colliding beam at PEP. The Medium Energy Physics program is concerned with research using mesons and nucleons to probe the properties of matter. This research is concerned with the study of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, and the interactions between nuclei and electromagnetic radiation and mesons. The Computer Science and Applied Mathematics Department engages in research in a variety of computer science and mathematics disciplines. Work in computer science and applied mathematics includes construction of data bases, computer graphics, computational physics and data analysis, mathematical modeling, and mathematical analysis of differential and integral equations resulting from physical problems. The Computer Center provides large-scale computational support to LBL's scientific programs. Descriptions of the various activities are quite short; references to published results are given. 24 figures. (RWR)

Lepore, J.V. (ed.)

1977-01-01

55

Synchrotron light source data book  

SciTech Connect

The ''Synchrotron Light Source Data Book'' is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-ray Data Booklet, edited by D. Vaughan (LBL PUB-490), address the 'use' of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in 'practical units' and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices.

Murphy, J.

1989-01-01

56

ARTEMIS-B: A room-temperature test electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University  

SciTech Connect

The current scheme for ion-beam injection into the coupled cyclotron accelerator at the NSCL involves the use of two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The first one is a 6.4 GHz fully superconducting that will be replaced within two years by SUSI, a third generation 18 GHz superconducting ECR ion source. The other source, ARTEMIS, is a room-temperature source based on the AECR-U design and built in collaboration with the University of Jyvaeskylae in 1999. Due to cyclotron operation constraint, very little time can be allowed to ion source development and optics studies of the cyclotron injection beam line. In this context, NSCL has decided to build ARTEMIS-B an exact replica of its room-temperature ECR ion source. The goal of this project is threefold. One is to improve the overall reliability of cyclotron operation through tests and studies of various ion source parameters that could benefit beam stability, tuning reproducibility, and of course overall extracted currents performance. Second is to implement and test modifications or upgrade made to the ion source: extraction geometry, new resistive or rf oven design, dual frequency use, liner, etc. Finally, this test source will be used to study various ion optics schemes such as electrostatic quadrupole doublet or triplet at the source extraction or the use of a correction sextupole and assess their effect on the ion beam through the use of an emittance scanner and imaging viewer that will be incorporated into ARTEMIS-B beam line. This article reviews the design and construction of ARTEMIS-B along with some initial commissioning results.

Machicoane, G.; Cole, D.; Ottarson, J.; Stetson, J.; Zavodszky, P. [NSCL Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2006-03-15

57

600 eV falcon-linac thomson x-ray source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of 3rd generation light sources such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL, and the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, have produced a revolution in x-ray probing of dense matter during the past decade. These machines use electron-synchrotrons in conjunction with undulator stages to produce 100 psec x-ray pulses with photon energies of several kiloelectronvolts (keV). The

J K Crane; G P LeSage; T Ditmire; R Cross; K Wharton; K Moffitt; T E Cowan; G Hays; V Tsai; G Anderson; R Shuttlesworth; P Springer

2000-01-01

58

An improved layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to generate biointerfaces for platelet adhesion studies: Dynamic LbL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) is a technique that generates engineered nano-scale films, coatings, and particles. These nanoscale films have recently been used in multiple biomedical applications. Concurrently, microfabrication methods and advances in microfluidics are being developed and combined to create \\

Juan Manuel Lopez

2010-01-01

59

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) DsJ(3040) I(JP) = 0(??)  

E-print Network

V) DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 239±35+46 -42 239±35+46 -42239±35+46 -42 239±35+46 -42 AUBERT 09AR BABR e+ e- D K PAPERSOTHER RELATED PAPERSOTHER RELATED PAPERS SUN 09 PR D80 074037 Z.-F. Sun, X. Lin HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page

60

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) DsJ(3040) I(JP) = 0(??)  

E-print Network

ID TECN COMMENT 239±35+46 -42 239±35+46 -42239±35+46 -42 239±35+46 -42 AUBERT 09AR BABR e+ e- D K X PAPERSOTHER RELATED PAPERSOTHER RELATED PAPERS SUN 09 PR D80 074037 Z.-F. Sun, X. Lin HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page

61

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons --H0  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons -- H0 and H± , Searches for A REVIEW GOES HERE ­ Check our WWW List of Reviews STANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITS These limits apply to the Higgs boson

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Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons --H0  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons -- H0 and H± , Searches for A REVIEW GOES HERE ­ Check our WWW List of Reviews CONTENTS:CONTENTS:CONTENTS:CONTENTS: Standard Model H0 (Higgs Boson) Mass Limits - H0 Direct Search Limits - H0 Indirect Mass Limits from Electroweak Analysis Mass Limits for Neutral Higgs Bosons in Supersymmetric Models - H0 1 (Higgs Boson) Mass

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Plasmodium falciparum synthetic LbL microparticle vaccine elicits protective neutralizing antibody and parasite-specific cellular immune responses  

PubMed Central

Epitopes of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic species of the malaria parasite, have been shown to elicit protective immunity in experimental animals and human volunteers. The mechanisms of immunity include parasite-neutralizing antibodies that can inhibit parasite motility in the skin at the site of infection and in the bloodstream during transit to the hepatocyte host cell and also block interaction with host cell receptors on hepatocytes. In addition, specific CD4+ and CD8+ cellular mechanisms target the intracellular hepatic forms, thus preventing release of erythrocytic stage parasites from the infected hepatocyte and the ensuing blood stage cycle responsible for clinical disease. An innovative method for producing particle vaccines, layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of polypeptide films on solid CaCO3 cores, was used to produce synthetic malaria vaccines containing a tri-epitope CS peptide T1BT* comprising the antibody epitope of the CS repeat region (B) and two T-cell epitopes, the highly conserved T1 epitope and the universal epitope T*. Mice immunized with microparticles loaded with T1BT* peptide developed parasite-neutralizing antibodies and malaria-specific T-cell responses including cytotoxic effector T-cells. Protection from liver stage infection following challenge with live sporozoites from infected mosquitoes correlated with neutralizing antibody levels. Although some immunized mice with low or undetectable neutralizing antibodies were also protected, depletion of T-cells prior to challenge resulted in the majority of mice remaining resistant to challenge. In addition, mice immunized with microparticles bearing only T-cell epitopes were not protected, demonstrating that cellular immunity alone was not sufficient for protective immunity. Although the microparticles without adjuvant were immunogenic and protective, a simple modification with the lipopeptide TLR2 agonist Pam3Cys increased the potency and efficacy of the LbL vaccine candidate. This study demonstrates the potential of LbL particles as promising malaria vaccine candidates using the T1BT* epitopes from the P. falciparum CS protein. PMID:23481177

Powell, Thomas J.; Tang, Jie; DeRome, Mary E.; Mitchell, Robert A.; Jacobs, Andrea; Deng, Yanhong; Palath, Naveen; Cardenas, Edwin; Boyd, James G.; Nardin, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

64

Influence of LbL surface modification on oxygen cross-over in self-assembled thin composite membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is concerned with the investigation of oxygen transport in layer-by-layer (LbL) self assembly of polystyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt (PSS) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) on Nafion membrane depending on the number of deposited bilayers, ion type within the multilayers and temperature. It is observed from SEM analysis that the polyelectrolyte layers growth on each side of Nafion membrane regularly. The oxygen permeability (P) of (PAH-PSS) 20 is 691 cm 3/(m 2 day bar) at 25 °C while P of pristine Nafion is 2329 cm 3/(m 2 day bar) at the same temperature. This significant reduction (70.3%) in gas permeability can be explained by the formation of LbL multilayers which both restrict the mobility of gas through the polymer matrix and adjust gas solubility properties in conjunction with ion-dipole interaction between the polar phase of Nafion and the secondary ammonium groups of PAH. (PAH/PSS) 20-Na + and (PAH/PSS) 20-H + exhibit 64.4% and 52.3% reduction in oxygen permittivity at 25 °C in comparison with the pristine Nafion ®117, respectively, while the proton conductivities of these membranes are 106.9 and 136.9 mS/cm. Promisingly, it is found that the membrane selectivity values ( ?) of all multilayered membranes in both H + and Na + form are much higher than that of perfluorosulfonated ionomer. The thickness of deposited bilayers dominates the diffusion and solubility properties of oxygen through the composite membrane while the major effect of surface hydrophilicity is not observed on oxygen permeability.

Y?lmaztürk, Serpil; Ercan, Nevra; Deligöz, Hüseyin

2012-01-01

65

XUV synchrotron optical components for the Advanced Light Source: Summary of the requirements and the developmental program  

SciTech Connect

We give a brief summary of the requirements for water cooled optical components for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third generation synchrotron radiation source under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from a finished water cooled copper alloy mirror will be used to demonstrate the state of the art in optical metrology with the Takacs Long Trace Profiler (LTP II).

McKinney, W.; Irick, S.; Lunt, D.

1992-07-01

66

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) LIGHT QUARKS (u, d, s)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) LIGHT QUARKS (u, d, s) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE u-QUARK MASSu-QUARK MASSu-QUARK MASSu-QUARK MASS The u-, d-, and s-quark masses are estimates of so-called "current-quark masses," in a mass- independent. Within the literature there are even suggestions that the u quark could be essentially massless. The s-quark

67

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) LIGHT QUARKS (u, d, s)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) LIGHT QUARKS (u, d, s) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE u-QUARK MASSu-QUARK MASSu-QUARK MASSu-QUARK MASS The u-, d-, and s-quark masses are estimates of so-called "current-quark masses," in a mass- independent. Within the literature there are even suggestions that the u quark could be essentially massless. The s-quark

68

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) N(2060) 5/2-I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) N(2060) 5/2- I(JP) = 1 2(5 2 -) Status: OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE Before our 2012 Review for this resonance. N(2060) BREIT-WIGNER MASSN(2060) BREIT-WIGNER MASSN(2060) BREIT-WIGNER MASSN(2060) BREIT-WIGNER MASS VALUE (MeV) DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 2060 OUR ESTIMATE 2060 OUR ESTIMATE 2060 OUR ESTIMATE 2060

69

Controlled release studies of antimalarial 1, 3, 5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines from biocompatible chitosan-heparin Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self assembled thin films.  

PubMed

Herein we report the in-vitro controlled release properties of 1, 3, 5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines through Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self assembled thin films fabricated from chitosan and heparin sodium salt as biocompatible polyelectrolytes. This study was carried out as a preliminary step towards the applicability of LbL technique in prophylactic drug delivery of antimalarial drugs. The growth of LbL self assembly was monitored by UV-Visible spectrophotometry and Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). The loading as well as in-vitro release studies (in phosphate buffer saline at pH 7.4) were carried out using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Three compounds having good antimalarial activity were tested and the release rate was found inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity of the drug. Pzln-4 has shown best release among all the three compounds (up to 780min) followed by Pzln-5 and Pzln-8. The release trend was that of a fast release up to first 2h followed by a steady release. Kinetic fitting of the data confirmed the process of drug release followed a pseudo second order kinetics (R(2)?0.99). A large value of rate constant (k) revealed a faster release. Pzln-4 has shown smallest value of k corresponding to slowest release among all the three compounds. PMID:25486324

Bhalerao, Uma M; Valiveti, Aditya Kapil; Acharya, Jyotiranjan; Halve, Anand K; Kaushik, Mahabir Parshad

2015-01-01

70

Preliminary development of the LBL/USGS three-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A 3-D model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed at LBL in cooperation with USGS. This site-scale model covers an area of about 34 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the north, east, and west. The relatively coarse-grid model includes about 300 horizontal grid-blocks and 17 layers. Contour maps and isopach maps are presented defining different types of infiltration zones, and the spatial distribution of Tiva Canyon, Paintbrush, and Topopah Spring hydrogeological units. Matrix flow is approximated using the van Genuchten model, and the equivalent continuum approximation is used to account for fracture flow in the welded units. One-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations are conducted using the TOUGH2 computer program. Steady-state simulations are performed with various uniform and nonuniform infiltration rates; results are interpreted in terms of effect of fault characteristics on moisture flow distribution, and on the location and formation of preferential pathways.

Wittwer, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France). Dept. Geothermie et Hydroenergie; Chen, G.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chornack, M.; Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Spengler, R. [US Geologic Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center

1995-06-01

71

SciDAC - The Scientific Data Management Center (http://sdmcenter.lbl.gov)  

SciTech Connect

In SciDAC SDM project, the main assignment to the Georgia Institute of Technology team (according to the proposed work) is to develop advanced information extraction and information integration technologies on top of the XWRAP technology originated from Georgia Tech [LPH01]. We have developed XWRAPComposer technology to enable the XWRAP code generator to generate Java information wrappers that are capable of extraction of data from multiple linked pages. These information wrappers are used as gateways or adaptors for scientific information mediators to access and fuse interesting data and answering complex queries over a large collection of heterogeneous scientific information sources. Our accomplishments over the SciDAC sponsored years (July 2001 to July 2004) can be summarized along two dimensions. Technically, we have produced a number of major software releases and published over 30 research papers in both international conferences and international journals. The planned software releases include 1. Five Java wrappers and five WDSL-enabled wrappers for SDM Pilot scenarios, which were released in early 2003, 2. The XWRAPComposer toolkit (command line version) which was first released in late 2003 and then released in Summer 2004, 3. Five Ptolemy wrapper actors which were released first in Summer 2003, and then released again in Fall 2005. 4. The decomposable XWRAPComposer actor in Ptolemy, which we have made it available as open source in end of 2004 and tested it in early 2005.

Ling Liu Calton Pu

2005-06-20

72

Preliminary development of the LBL/USGS three-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This site-scale model covers and area of about 34 km2 and is bounded by major faults to the north, east and west. The model geometry is defined (1) to represent the variations of hydrogeological units between the ground surface and the water table; (2) to be able to reproduce the effect of abrupt changes in hydrogeological parameters at the boundaries between hyrdogeological units; and (3) to include the influence of major faults. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on the locations of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Contour maps and isopatch maps are presented defining different types of infiltration zones, and the spatial distribution of Tiva Canyon, Paintbrush, and Topopah Spring hydrogeological units. The grid geometry consists of seventeen non-uniform layers which represent the lithological variations within the four main welded and non-welded hydrogeological units. Matrix flow is approximated using the van Genuchten model, and the equivalent continuum approximation is used to account for fracture flow in the welded units. The fault zones are explicitly modeled as porous medium using various assumptions regarding their permeabilities and characteristic curves. One-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations are conducted using the TOUGH2 computer program. Steady-state simulations are performed with various uniform and non-uniform infiltration rates. The results are interpreted in terms of the effect of fault characteristics on the moisture flow distribution, and on location and formation of preferential pathways.

1995-01-01

73

ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons  

SciTech Connect

In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

Lyneis, C.M.

1986-10-01

74

Advanced Light Source beam position monitor  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation facility nearing completion at LBL. As a third-generation machine, the ALS is designed to produce intense light from bend magnets, wigglers, and undulators (insertion devices). The facility will include a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron, beam transport lines, a 1--2 GeV storage ring, insertion devices, and photon beam lines. Currently, the beam injection systems are being commissioned, and the storage ring is being installed. Electron beam position monitors (BPM) are installed throughout the accelerator and constitute the major part of accelerator beam diagnostics. The design of the BPM instruments is complete, and 50 units have been constructed for use in the injector systems. We are currently fabricating 100 additional instruments for the storage ring. In this paper I discuss engineering fabrication, testing and performance of the beam pickup electrodes and the BPM electronics.

Hinkson, J.

1991-10-28

75

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons --H0  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons -- H0 and H± , Searches for A REVIEW GOES HERE ­ Check our WWW List of Reviews STANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITS

76

ZnO nanowire array-templated LbL self-assembled polyelectrolyte nanotube arrays and application for charged drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertically oriented and robust polyelectrolyte nanotube arrays with high density, large area and high uniformity were successfully grown on substrates by a ZnO nanowire array-templated layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly approach for the first time, and were further used to deliver charged drugs, showing that they not only possess pH-responsive loading property, but also significantly enhance the loading capacity and sustained release time. This work could be extended to fabricate polyelectrolyte nanotube arrays with different polyelectrolyte combinations, including weak polyelectrolyte/weak polyelectrolyte, weak polyelectrolyte/strong polyelectrolyte and strong polyelectrolyte/strong polyelectrolyte. With the great versatility to use various substrates and building blocks, the polyelectrolyte nanotube arrays may have great potential for broad applications such as biosensor arrays, bioreactor arrays and optoelectronics.

Yuan, Weiyong; Lu, Zhisong; Liu, Jinping; Wang, Huili; Li, Chang Ming

2013-02-01

77

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) LIGHT QUARKS (u, d, s)  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) LIGHT QUARKS (u, d, s) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE u-QUARK MASSu-QUARK MASSu-QUARK MASSu-QUARK MASS The u-, d-, and s-quark masses are estimates of so-called "current-quark quark could be essentially massless. The s-quark mass is estimated from SU(3) splittings in hadron

78

Tuning nanostructure of graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte LbL assemblies by controlling pH of GO suspension to fabricate transparent and super gas barrier films.  

PubMed

A technique of layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly was used to prepare transparent multilayered gas barrier films consisting of graphene oxide (GO)/branched poly(ethylenimine) (BPEI) on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. The effect of the GO suspension pH on the nanostructure and oxygen barrier properties of the GO/BPEI film was investigated. The oxygen barrier properties of the assemblies were shown to be highly dependent on the pH. It was demonstrated that the film assemblies prepared using a GO suspension with a pH of 3.5 exhibited very dense and ordered structures and delivered very low oxygen transmission rates (the lowest was <0.05 cm(3) m(-2) day(-1)). The assemblies were characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry to identify the film growth mechanism, and the result indicated a linear growth behavior. To analyze the nanostructure of the films, atomic force microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used. PMID:23900571

Chen, Jung-Tsai; Fu, Ywu-Jang; An, Quan-Fu; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Hung, Wei-Song; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, Juin-Yih

2013-10-01

79

An improved layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to generate biointerfaces for platelet adhesion studies: Dynamic LbL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) is a technique that generates engineered nano-scale films, coatings, and particles. These nanoscale films have recently been used in multiple biomedical applications. Concurrently, microfabrication methods and advances in microfluidics are being developed and combined to create "Lab-on-a-Chip" technologies. The potential to perform complex biological assays in vitro as a first-line screening technique before moving on to animal models has made the concept of lab on a chip a valuable research tool. Prior studies in the Biofluids Laboratory at Louisiana Tech have used layer-by-layer and in vitro biological assays to study thrombogenesis in a controlled, repeatable, engineered environment. The reliability of these previously established techniques was unsatisfactory for more complex cases such as chemical and shear stress interactions. The work presented in this dissertation was performed to test the principal assumptions behind the established laboratory methodologies, suggest improvements where needed, and test the impact of these improvements on accuracy and repeatability. The assumptions to be tested were: (1) The fluorescence microscopy (FM) images of acridine orange-tagged platelets accurately provide a measure of percent area of surface covered by platelets; (2) fibrinogen coatings can be accurately controlled, interact with platelets, and do not interfere with the ability to quantify platelet adhesion; and (3) the dependence of platelet adhesion on chemical agents, as measured with the modified methods, generally agrees with results obtained from our previous methods and with known responses of platelets that have been documented in the literature. The distribution of fibrinogen on the final LbL surface generated with the standard, static process (s-LbL) was imaged by tagging the fibrinogen with an anti-fibrinogen antibody bound to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). FITC FM images and acridine orange FM images were taken sequentially at selected surface locations to generate a composite overlap of presumed platelet adhesion as a function of fibrinogen distribution. The method was unable to distinguish the surface from the adhered cells. The surface inhomogeneity and porosity retained a large amount of acridine orange stain, even in the absence of platelets, and components in the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were found to fix acridine orange in a mode that fluoresced in the FITC imaging FM. Both of these problems obfuscated the platelet adhesion FM results when using s-LbL surfaces and acridine orange staining of platelets. A dynamic process (d-LbL) was developed in which a solution of the molecule to be layered was constantly washed over the surface, and was constantly mixed to maintain a more homogeneous distribution of solute relative to the surface during the layering process. The d-LbL surfaces were tested as described above, and found to reduce the size and number of regions of anomalous acridine orange pooling trapped by the surface, providing a greater consistency and reliability in identifying platelets. The improved surface was then used in a series of platelet adhesion experiments under static and dynamic flow conditions, and with and without the chemical additive L-arginine. The complex microcharmel system used in prior studies was replaced with a simpler system involving fewer nuisance variables for these tests. The tests were performed on both collagen and fibrinogen surfaces. Collagen has been used as a thrombogenic surface in multiple studies in the literature, but produces additional variables in thrombogenesis control that are avoided when fibrinogen is used. In these tests, fibrinogen was found to be as thrombogenic as collagen, and platelet coverage of both biointerfaces was reduced by L-arginine in a manner similar to previously reported work. The simpler system differed from the previous microchannel system in important factors: (1) It exposed the platelets to much lower shear stresses; (2) It introduced an oscillatory flow, which introduced a higher de

Lopez, Juan Manuel

80

Who goes there. A dialogue of questions and answers about benign hacking. [Securing access to computer from outside sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

On August 23, 1986, it was noticed that the accounting files for one of LBL's computing systems failed to balance. On August 24, we received word that an unauthorized person was attempting entry into a US Navy computer from LBL. Preliminary investigation indicated that LBL was the victim of a benign hacker, where ''benign'' is used in the medical sense.

1987-01-01

81

Wigglers at the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

Two 3.4 m long wigglers are being designed and constructed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS). A 19 period planar wiggler with 16.0 cm period length is designed to provide photons up to 12.4 keV for protein crystallography. This device features a hybrid permanent magnet structure with tapered poles and designed to achieve 2.0 T at a 1.4 cm magnetic gap. An elliptical wiggler is being designed to provide circularly polarized photons in the energy range of 50 eV to 10 keV for magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. This device features vertical and horizontal magnetic structures of 14 and 14 {1/2} periods respectively of 20 cm period length. The vertical magnetic structure is a 2.0 T hybrid permanent magnet configuration. The horizontal structure is an iron core electromagnetic design, shifted longitudinally {1/4} period with respect to the vertical magnetic structure. A maximum horizontal peak field of 0.1 T at an oscillating frequency up to 1 Hz will be achieved by excitation of the horizontal poles with a trapezoidal current waveform.

Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Humphries, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.] [and others

1995-04-01

82

Neutron dose equivalents at the Advanced Light Source: Calculation using the MORSE code vs estimated values  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) complex at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is surrounded by a mezzanine and auxiliary buildings. An important radiological problem is the neutron dose equivalent in nearby occupied areas and at the LBL site boundary. Both the direct and air-scattered (skyshine) components of the neutron dose equivalents are evaluated using the neutron transport code MORSE. The shielding was designed using an empirical method based on data scaled from a 1977 SLAC experiment and on a compilation of experimental and theoretical material relevant to shielding of electron accelerators. From the MORSE calculation, the total occupational dose equivalent rate in the center of the ALS mezzanine was found to be less than 1 mSv (100 mrem) per shift year (2000-hr), and the total environmental dose equivalent rate at the ALS boundary, 125 m from the storage-ring center, was found to be about 302 {mu}Sv (30 mrem) per year. A comparison of the dose equivalents shows that the calculated MORSE-code values agree well with those estimated by the empirical method. That is, dose equivalents obtained by the empirical methods are of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding MORSE values. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Sun, Rai-Ko S.

1991-02-01

83

SOURCES SOUGHT  

Cancer.gov

Sources Sought Notice No.: SS-ETSB-91014-56 Project Title: Support for Research on Retroviral Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention This is a Small Business Sources Sought notice. This is NOT a solicitation for proposals, proposal abstracts,

84

A figure of merit for blazar-like source identification in the gamma-ray energy band  

SciTech Connect

The microwave to gamma-ray slope {alpha}{mu}{gamma} can be used as a viable figure of merit for blazar-like source identification in gamma-rays. Taking into account the constraints from the observed extragalactic gamma-ray background, one can estimate the maximum duty cycle allowed for a selected sample of low energy peaked (LBL) blazars, in order to be detectable for the nominal sensitivity values of AGILE and GLAST gamma-ray experiments. This work is based on the results of a recently derived blazar radio LogN-LogS obtained by combining several multi-frequency surveys. We present our estimates of duty cycle constraints applied on a sample composed by 146 high latitude and 74 medium latitude LBL blazars from the new WMAP3 yr catalog. Our results can be used as an indicator to identify good gamma-ray blazar candidates: sources with high values of duty cycle can in principle be detectable also in a ''steady'' state by AGILE and GLAST without over-predicting the extragalactic background.

Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Pittori, Carlotta; Giommi, Paolo; Colafrancesco, Sergio [ASI Science Data Center, Via Galileo Galilei, 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy)

2007-07-12

85

Preliminary design report of a relativistic-Klystron two-beam-accelerator based power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass next linear collider  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported.

Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-02-22

86

Ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

87

Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although California uses more renewable resources than many other states, much of the state's electricity still comes from nonrenewable sources. Find out how using renewable energy sources to create electricity helps reduce fossil fuel consumption and how it has the potential to have the largest impact on climate change.

Kqed

2012-03-27

88

Light Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

1993-01-01

89

Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video provides an introduction to benefits and limitations of many sources of energy including fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. It also discusses hydrogen and hybrid cars.

WGBH - PBS

90

Radiographic source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of making a radiography source of a radioactive material is described. The method comprising the steps of: providing a plurality of radioactive pellets; providing an open capsule of a rigid metal having sufficient tensile strength to resist substantial deformation under pressure and selected from a group including elements of the periodic table displaced in density by an amount

G. W. Parsons; R. L. Kelly; J. M. Zlotnicki

1989-01-01

91

Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive website for students discusses both renewable and nonrenewable resources. It also discusses electricity and hyrdogen energy in depth. Furthermore, it provides a link to recent energy source statistics which can help students to identify the United States dependency on imports such as petroleum and natural gas.

2009-01-01

92

Superluminal sources.  

PubMed Central

Predictions for the apparent velocity statistics under simple beaming models are presented and compared to the observations. The potential applications for tests of unification models and for cosmology (source counts, measurements of the Hubble constant H0 and the deceleration parameter q0) are discussed. First results from a large homogeneous survey are presented. The data do not show compelling evidence for the existence of intrinsically different populations of galaxies, BL Lacertae objects, or quasars. Apparent velocities betaapp in the range 1-5 h-1, where h = H0/100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 megaparsec (Mpc) = 3.09 x 10(22) m], occur with roughly equal frequency; higher values, up to betaapp = 10 h-1, are rather more scarce than appeared to be the case from earlier work, which evidently concentrated on sources that are not representative of the general population. The betaapp distribution suggests that there might be a skewed distribution of Lorentz factors over the sample, with a peak at gammab approximately 2 h-1 and a tail up to at least gammab approximately 10 h-1. There appears to be a clearly rising upper envelope to the betaapp distribution when plotted as a function of observed 5-GHz luminosity; a combination of source counts and the apparent velocity statistics in a larger sample could provide much insight into the properties of radio jet sources. PMID:11607604

Vermeulen, R C

1995-01-01

93

MUON SOURCES.  

SciTech Connect

A full high energy muon collider may take considerable time to realize. However, intermediate steps in its direction are possible and could help facilitate the process. Employing an intense muon source to carry out forefront low energy research, such as the search for muon-number non-conservation, represents one interesting possibility. For example, the MECO proposal at BNL aims for 2 x 10{sup {minus}17} sensitivity in their search for coherent muon-electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. To reach that goal requires the production, capture and stopping of muons at an unprecedented 10{sup 11} {mu}/sec. If successful, such an effort would significantly advance the state of muon technology. More ambitious ideas for utilizing high intensity muon sources are also being explored. Building a muon storage ring for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams is particularly exciting.We present an overview of muon sources and example of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Factory at BNL with various detector location possibilities.

PARSA,Z.

2001-02-16

94

Radiation source  

DOEpatents

A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

95

Power Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students engage in this brief activity at the start of a module on fossil energy and power generation with no advance notice. They are first asked to form pairs or groups of three (in a large lecture hall, students usually work with adjacent classmates) and to take out a blank sheet of paper. The instructor asks the students to consider the lowly 110-V wall socket: it provides electrical power for their appliances-- but do they know, and can they show, where that power comes from? Without elaboration, they are asked to trace its source as far back as they can envision. If necessary, the instructor can give the basic procedure for concept sketching (after Johnson & Reynolds 2005): list what they know, depict their ideas in an organized sketch, and annotate all of the components with descriptive phrases or short sentences. The class is informed that the sketches will be collected for participation credit. Artistic quality is not required or expected, but students are encouraged to make their sketches as detailed as they can, perhaps for additional credit. Each group may designate one student to sketch, but all members must contribute their ideas. After about 10 minutes or a noticeable decrease in conversation volume, and if time and logistics permit, the instructor may ask some or all of the groups to present their sketches to the class for review and discussion. (To facilitate this, groups may instead be given transparencies and markers and use an overhead projector.) Each student is reminded to put her or his name on the sketch before it is submitted. After the activity is complete, the instructor may present his or her own version of this concept sketch (illustrating the present-day local or national energy mix; an example is attached here), or simply proceed into a lecture presentation or discussion on the topic of energy. Students may also be directed to research the electrical power grid or the national energy mix as a homework assignment.

Steven Semken

96

Primary and Secondary Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to learn more about primary and secondary sources. 1. Explore the links below to learn about primary and secondary sources. When you have finished, you should be able to: Tell the difference between primary and secondary sources. Give at least three examples of primary sources and three examples of secondary sources. Explain why primary sources are important in research. Examples of Primary Sources Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources on the Same Topic Genres/Formats of Primary Sources 2. ...

Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

2010-01-23

97

Source Water Protection  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here: Water Water Infrastructure Ground Water & Drinking Water Source Water Source Water Protection Source Water Protection The drinking water we receive from our local drinking water utilities ...

98

COLD NEUTRON SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental work on cold neutron source development is reviewed along ; with the theoretical explanations devised for the results obtained. Factors ; governing source design, the associated cryogenic and safety problems, large ; source design, and experiments by which source efficiency might be increased are ; also discussed. (D.C.W.);

F WEBB

1963-01-01

99

characteristics Jacobson (van@ee.lbl.gov)  

E-print Network

d / c i s / b i f data packet i ICMP `time exceeded' i d / c i s / b te f i-1 t (s) 7 #12; Raw measured data for one hop 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 time (ms) size model. 9 #12; Min­filtered data for the same hop 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

100

cxro.lbl.gov THE CENTER FOR  

E-print Network

in nanoscience fields, such as nanoscale magnetism, materials and envi- ronmental science, and energy-related research. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography creates tiny circuit patterns for the next generation of computer chips. Weoperatetheworld'shighestresolutionEUVlithog- raphy tool and EUV mask-imaging microscope

101

Appropriate Energy Technology Library bibliography. [LBL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory discovered the need for a library of books dealing with technologies on a smaller scale than that of customary laboratory projects. These books introduce researchers to the inventive and ecology-conscious thinking (in its various social and cultural milieus) that lies behind the drive for small-scale self-reliance. The introduction explains the philosophy behind the library, the browsing system

1979-01-01

102

THE CHANDRA SOURCE CATALOG  

SciTech Connect

The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents {approx}<30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1{sigma} uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of {approx}<1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a source is detected.

Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He Xiangqun; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Davis, John E.; Houck, John C. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hall, Diane M., E-mail: ievans@cfa.harvard.ed [Northrop Grumman, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2010-07-15

103

Sealed Radioactive Sources  

MedlinePLUS

... workers and the public and contamination of the environment. The Alternative Technologies Initiative supports the replacement of sealed sources in devices with non-nuclear alternatives to reduce the number of sources in ...

104

Aperture Ion Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aperture ion source was conceived to eliminate distortion in measurements of angular distributions of neutral atoms and molecules that require electron-impact ion sources. The approach simplifies the coupling between ion source and spectrometer while providing virtually distortion-free angular distributions and improved accuracy in the dimensions of the ionization region. Furthermore, it virtually eliminates the volume occupied by the ion source.

Herrero, Fred

2012-01-01

105

iSource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

iSource, the Web presence of the magazine iSource, is dedicated to supply chain solutions. The site features short daily news stories written by the iSource.com editorial staff along with several in-depth articles. Also included are video archived presentations from the iSource 100 Summit. While the Website serves mainly as a teaser for the print version of the magazine, it does cover important supply chain information.

106

Supercontinuum sources for metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supercontinuum (SC) sources are novel laser-based sources that generate a broad, white-light continuum in single-mode photonic crystal fibres. Currently, up to 6 W of optical power is available, spanning the spectral range from 460 nm to 2400 nm. Advances in these sources promise polarized radiant flux with expanded spectral coverage down to 380 nm. We evaluate the use of SC sources for fundamental optical metrological applications.

Woodward, John T.; Smith, Allan W.; Jenkins, Colleen A.; Lin, Chungsan; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.

2009-08-01

107

Available Data Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights new sources of socio-economic data from both governmental and non-governmental sources that can be used for planning and programming at the national, state, and local levels. Sources refer to the aged, health, persons of Spanish origin, minority doctorates, employment of minorities and women, and tax relief. (Author/AM)

Urban League Review, 1975

1975-01-01

108

Investigating Primary Source Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary source research requires students to acquire specialized research skills. This paper presents results from a user study testing the effectiveness of a Web guide designed to convey the concepts behind "primary source literacy". The study also evaluated students' strengths and weaknesses when conducting primary source research. (Contains 3…

Archer, Joanne; Hanlon, Ann M.; Levine, Jennie A.

2009-01-01

109

Extragalactic Radio Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses new problems arising from the growing observational data through radio telescope arrays, involving the origin of radio sources, apparent superluminal velocities, conversion of radio sources to relativistic particles, and the nature of compact opaque and extended transparent sources. New physics may be needed to answer these cosmological…

Kellerman, Kenneth I.

1973-01-01

110

Mechanical baseline design of the common long pulse source for the neutral beam systems of TFTR, Doublet III-D, and MFTF-B  

SciTech Connect

The Common Long Pulse Source (CLPS) is designed to meet the differing long pulse neutral beam requirements of TFTR, Doublet III-D, and MFTF-B. The mechanical baseline design to meet these requirements is described along with supporting engineering data collected during the testing of the prototype LBL 10 x 40 Long Pulse Accelerator (LPA) and the Long Pulse Plasma Source (LPS). The CLPS is a scaled up design of the LPA and LPS and can be configured for 120 keV, 70 A D/sub 2/ non-focused, and, 80 keV, 80 A H/sub 2/ or 50 A D/sub 2/ with a 10 m focal length. The two configurations use identical major components, such as accelerator grids, supporting structures, insulators and plasma sources. Ion beam optics are analytically modeled and the results are presented along with the electric field gradients and thermal calculations for various components. A low technology plasma source back plate electron dump design has been adopted. A full scale model of CLPS was constructed, and the baseline design has been transferred to industry. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Paterson, J.A.; Chan, C.F.; Fong, M.Y.; Koehler, G.W.; Sullivan, J.S.; Wells, R.P.; Yee, D.P.

1985-11-01

111

DC source assemblies  

DOEpatents

Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

2013-02-26

112

Neuromagnetic source reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

113

Who goes there. A dialogue of questions and answers about benign hacking. [Securing access to computer from outside sources  

SciTech Connect

On August 23, 1986, it was noticed that the accounting files for one of LBL's computing systems failed to balance. On August 24, we received word that an unauthorized person was attempting entry into a US Navy computer from LBL. Preliminary investigation indicated that LBL was the victim of a benign hacker, where ''benign'' is used in the medical sense. It was thought that the perpetrator was a graduate student from a neighboring university, and that it would provide a useful object lesson to other such folk if he were caught and admonished. LBL therefore embarked upon a journey of detection and containment instead of prevention. That journey continues today, having led first across the country, then across the Atlantic. In the course of the journey we have gathered a number of observations that should be of interest to anyone running a computer with any connection to the outside world.

Stevens, D.F.

1987-04-01

114

Dynamic radioactive particle source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

2012-06-26

115

Pulsed spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Div.

1996-05-01

116

Sources of atmospheric ammonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information available on factors that influence emissions from the principal societal sources of ammonia to the atmosphere, namely combustion processes, volatilization of farm animal wastes, and volatilization of fertilizers, is reviewed. Emission factors are established for each major source of atmospheric ammonia. The factors are then multiplied by appropriate source characterization descriptors to obtain calculated fluxes of ammonia to the atmosphere on a state-by-state basis for the United States.

Harriss, R. C.; Michaels, J. T.

1982-05-01

117

Lithium ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of ˜100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm2 was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 °C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40-50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6?s each, i.e., a duty factor of 3×10-7, at an operating temperature of 1250-1275 °C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10-15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of ?-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, Dave P.; Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.

2014-01-01

118

Improved ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-05-04

119

SOURCE WATER ASSESSMENT GUIDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Provides guidance to primacy agencies and public water systems (PWS) for implementation of assessments of hydrogeologic sensitivity and source water fecal contamination under the Ground Water Rule (GWR)....

120

New Source Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature article outlines the concept and procedures followed in establishing performance standards for new emission sources and summarizes the standards that have been established to date. Five source catagories are enumerated: fossil fuel-fired steam generators, municipal incinerators, Portland cement plants, nitric acid plants, and sulfuric…

Jenkins, Richard E.; McCutchen, Gary D.

1972-01-01

121

Open Source Vision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, colleges and universities are turning to open source as a way to meet their technology infrastructure and application needs. Open source has changed life for visionary CIOs and their campus communities nationwide. The author discusses what these technologists see as the benefits--and the considerations.

Villano, Matt

2006-01-01

122

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01

123

Two Source Interference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource illustrates double slit interference patterns of 2D wave fronts. The waves from two point sources are shown propagating outward, with interference fringes shown on a surface. The wavelength of the waves can be changed, as can the source separation and relative phase.

Group, Kansas S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2004-03-10

124

Equivariant adaptive source separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source separation consists of recovering a set of independent signals when only mixtures with unknown coefficients are observed. This paper introduces a class of adaptive algorithms for source separation that implements an adaptive version of equivariant estimation and is henceforth called equivariant adaptive separation via independence (EASI). The EASI algorithms are based on the idea of serial updating. This specific

Jean-françois Cardoso; Beate Hvam Laheld

1996-01-01

125

Sources of Instructional Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed patterns of instructional leadership sources. The instrument, Sources of Instructional Leadership (SOIL), was based on instructional leadership and effective schools literature. It dealt with the management of instructional resources, and related to one of six leadership functions: organizing, coordinating, developing,…

Selim, Philip D.

126

Fugitive Dust: Nonpoint Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fugitive dust is a relatively new term for an old problem. Simply put, fugitive dust is a type of nonpoint source air pollution — small airborne particles that do not originate from a specific point such as a gravel quarry or grain mill. Fugitive dust originates in small quantities over large areas. Significant sources include unpaved roads, agricultural cropland and

John H. Ferguson; H. Willard Downs; Donald L. Pfost

127

Creating Open Source Conversation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

Sheehan, Kate

2009-01-01

128

Energy Sources and Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will help students to distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy, investigate a variety of renewable energy resources and compare the benefits and drawbacks of each. Students will use internet resources to investigate and compare alternative sources of energy. It is presumed that students have some basic prior understanding of the concept of energy.

129

Tsunami Sources Icosahedron Globe  

E-print Network

Tsunami Sources Icosahedron Globe August 2012 Edition NOAA National Geophysical Data Center World to reduce to 8.5" x 11". This globe of Earth shows the locations of historical tsunami sources, extracted from NGDC'sGlobal Historical Tsunami Database (ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard). A tsunamiisaseriesof traveling

130

Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal aircraft skins scanned rapidly in vibration tests. Relatively simple combination of permanent magnets and electromagnet serves as noncontact vibration source for nondestructive testing of metal aircraft skins. In test, source excites vibrations, and vibration waveforms measured, then analyzed for changes in resonances signifying cracks and other flaws.

Namkung, Min; Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz A.

1994-01-01

131

Neutron sources and applications  

SciTech Connect

Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-01-01

132

Piezotube borehole seismic source  

DOEpatents

A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

2014-05-06

133

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.

Kaufman, H. R.

1976-01-01

134

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOEpatents

An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

1996-01-01

135

Public Geospatial Data Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been tremendous progress in the field of software for managing geographic information (GIS - Geographic Information System). Data processing capabilities expand with every new version of GIS applications. Similarly, the processing power of computers to process and manage geographic data. Once we have got such a powerful tool, the question arises: where to get the relevant data from? There are many sources of data (public, paid for), but after closer examination it turns out that they are mostly processed data from other sources. In this article I will present the primary source of data that can be used to suit one's needs. All of these data are publicly available

Nering, Konrad

2013-12-01

136

Nuclear electric power sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

Singh, J. J.

1978-01-01

137

Biographical Sources for Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the different types of published sources for biographical data from the history of astronomy - well known ones like encyclopaedias, biographical dictionaries, and obituaries, as well as less known ones like membership directories of societies, annual reports, and lists of solar-system nomenclature. Also online sources such as web pages and databases are considered. Existing bio-bibliographies are discussed and a new "Biographical Index of Astronomy" (BIA) is introduced. It lists biographical and bio-bibliographical sources for more than 16,000 persons.

Dick, Wolfgang R.

2006-12-01

138

Tunable terahertz radiation source  

DOEpatents

Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

2014-01-21

139

Microfabricated diffusion source  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-07-15

140

Workshop on detectors for third-generation synchrotron sources: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The aims of the workshop were (1) to acquaint APS users with current R and D being carried out on detectors, (2) to identify new detector systems possible during the next five years, (3) to identify new detectors theoretically possible in the future, (4) to stimulate interactions between user groups and detector developers, and (5) to obtain recommendations from expert panels on technical issues needing resolution. Development of detectors at ESRF, Spring-8, BNL, CERN and LBL are included.

NONE

1994-12-01

141

Topology, Holes and Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aharonov-Bohm effect is often called "topological." But it seems no more topological than magnetostatics, electrostatics or Newton-Poisson gravity (or just about any radiation, propagation from a source). I distinguish between two senses of "topological."

Afriat, Alexander

2013-03-01

142

Alternative fuel information sources  

SciTech Connect

This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

Not Available

1994-06-01

143

2003 Competitive Sourcing Report  

NSF Publications Database

2003 Competitive Sourcing Report Competitions to Date and Planned Competitions During FY 2003, NSF ... expected to continue through the end of FY 2005. The business analysis supports the recent addition ...

144

A surface ionization source  

E-print Network

The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

Buzatu, Daniel J.

2012-06-07

145

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

146

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

147

Permutation codes for sources.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Source encoding techniques based on permutation codes are investigated. For a broad class of distortion measures it is shown that optimum encoding of a source permutation code is easy to instrument even for very long block lengths. Also, the nonparametric nature of permutation encoding is well suited to situations involving unknown source statistics. For the squared-error distortion measure a procedure for generating good permutation codes of a given rate and block length is described. The performance of such codes for a memoryless Gaussian source is compared both with the rate-distortion function bound and with the performance of various quantization schemes. The comparison reveals that permutation codes are asymptotically ideal for small rates and perform as well as the best entropy-coded quantizers presently known for intermediate rates. They can be made to compare favorably at high rates, too, provided the coding delay associated with extremely long block lengths is tolerable.

Berger, T.; Jelinek, F.; Wolf, J. K.

1972-01-01

148

Calcium source (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

149

Open source hardware  

E-print Network

Open source software development models have created some of the most innovative tools and companies in the industry today modifying the way value is created and businesses developed. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze ...

Acosta, Roberto, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

150

Opportunities for high aspect ratio micro-electro-magnetic-mechanical systems (HAR-MEMMS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: Opportunities for HAR-MEMMS at LBL; Industrial Needs and Opportunities; Deep Etch X-ray Lithography; MEMS Activities at BSAC; DNA Amplification with Microfabricated Reaction Chamber; Electrochemistry Research at LBL; MEMS Activities at LLNL; Space Microsensors and Microinstruments; The Advanced Light Source; Institute for Micromaching; IBM MEMS Interests; and Technology Transfer Opportunities at LBL.

Hunter, S. [ed.

1993-10-01

151

National Synchrotron Light Source  

ScienceCinema

A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

BNL

2009-09-01

152

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

1994-08-02

153

Decaborane ion source demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project demonstrated concept and feasibility of a proprietary high current decaborane ion source suitable for ultra shallow doping. This was motivated by the attractive scaling of decaborane ions for space charge dominated extraction and transport. A highly modified Bernas source was mounted on an NV-10\\/80 implanter. Using standard extraction and beamline components, 2.3 mA of boron nucleon current was

M. C. Vella; R. Tysinger; M. Reilly; B. Brown

2000-01-01

154

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

155

Internet Medieval Source Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paul Halsall, sources editor for the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies, has recently created the Internet Medieval Source Book, a compendium of extracts and full text documents in Medieval History. Subjects covered include the end of the Classical World, Byzantium, Islam, formation and flowering of Latin Christendom, the Late Middle Ages, the Italian Renaissance, and the Early Reformation. Selected extracts are accompanied by short explanations, which help the reader to understand their context. The Source Book also contains links to a large number of medieval and religious sources, particularly strong with respect to Byzantine links. The purpose, scope and rationale behind the Source Book are explained clearly and concisely. The volume of texts and extracts, as well as the organization of the site, make this one of the premier Internet Medieval Studies sites. Note that all links of the Source Book and its links page are contained on two very large HTML pages, so users should be patient when navigating back and forth. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.html Medieval Links: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/medweb.html Online Reference Book to Medieval Studies: http://kuhttp.cc.ukans.edu/kansas/orb/mainpage.html

156

Source circuit design considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost of several circuit configurations for large (5MW) array fields were investigated to assess the relative costs of high and low voltage configurations. Three source circuit NOC voltages were evaluated: 400V (ungrounded), 800V (+ or 400V center grounded), and 2000V (+ or - 1000V center grounded). Four source circuit configurations were considered for each of the three NOC voltages. The configurations correspond to source circuit currents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 amperes, respectively. Conceptual layouts for 5MW building blocks for each of the above configurations were developed. The designs were optimized to minimize BOS electrical and structural costs. Only the BOS electrical costs were evaluated. The designs were broken down into the following elements for cost: (1) basic source circuit intermodule wiring, bypass diodes and associated hardware, source circuit to J-Box wiring, etc; (2) J-Box blocking diodes, varistors, heat sinks, and housing; (3) disconnects source circuit disconnects, fuses, and housing; (4) bus cabling J-Box to PCU interface wiring, and trenching; (5) interface bus bar, group disconnects, and fuses; and (6) fault detection shunts, signal wire, electronics, and alarm. It is concluded that high voltage low current circuits are not economical, at higher currents high and low voltage circuit costs approach each other, high voltage circuits are not likely to offer near term advantage, and development work/manufacturer stimulation is needed to develop low cost high voltage hardware.

Noel, G. T.

1983-01-01

157

Sound source separation and automatic speech recognition for moving sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses sound source separation and speech recognition for moving sound sources. Real-world applications such as robots should cope with both moving and stationary sound sources. However, most studies assume only stationary sound sources. We introduce three key techniques to cope with moving sources, that is, Adaptive Step-size control (AS), Optima Controlled Recursive Average (OCRA), and Separation Parameter Switching

Kazuhiro Nakadai; Hirofumi Nakajima; G. Ince; Y. Hasegawa

2010-01-01

158

Terahertz Schottky Multiplier Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the multiplier source technologies and the status/Performance of THz multiplier sources. An example of a THz application is imaging radar. The presentation reviews areas of requirements for THz sources: (1) Figures of merit, (i.e., Frequency Terahertz for high resolution Bandwidth of at least 15 GHz for high range resolution Efficiency (i.e., minimize power supply requirements) (2) Output power: (i.e., Milliwatts below 800 GHz, 10s of microwatts above 1 THz, 1-2 microwatts near 2 THz (3) Mechanical--stability, compact, low mass (4) Environmental -- radiation, vibration, thermal. Several sources for 0.3 - 2 THz are reviewed: FIR lasers, quantum cascade lasers (QCL), backward-wave oscillator (BWO), and Multiplier sources. The current state of the art (SoA) is shown as Substrateless Technology. It also shows where the SoA is for devices beyond 1 THz. The presentation concludes by reviewing the options for future development, and 2 technology roadmaps

Schlecht, Erich T.

2007-01-01

159

Modulated infrared radiant source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modulated, infrared radiant energy source was developed to calibrate an airborne nadir-viewing pressure modulated radiometer to be used to detect from Earth orbit trace gases in the troposphere. The technique used an 8 cm long, 0.005 cm diameter platinum-iridium wire as an isothermal, thin line radiant energy source maintained at 1200 K. A + or - 20 K signal, oscillating at controllable frequencies from dc to 20 Hz, was superimposed on it. This periodic variation of the line source energy was used to verify the pressure modulated radiometer's capability to distinguish between the signal variations caused by the Earth's background surface and the signal from the atmospheric gases of interest.

Stewart, W. F.; Edwards, S. F.; Vann, D. S.; Mccormick, R. F.

1981-01-01

160

Italian neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many research activities, instrumental analysis, studies of radiation damage, etc., require neutron sources. The main neutron sources present in Italy are described in three different sections: nuclear research reactors, accelerator driven, and metrology stations. The nuclear research reactors of LENA (University of Pavia) and ENEA Casaccia are described in terms of irradiation facilities available, neutron flux for each of them and the main activities carried out by each research centre. In the second section, the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG), the Frascati Beam-Test Facility (BTF) and their main features are reported. In the last section there is a detailed description of the institutional role and the main activities carried out in the field of neutron metrology by the National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (INMRI) with a brief description of neutron sources of which the institute is endowed.

Prata, M.; Alloni, D.; De Felice, P.; Palomba, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Pillon, M.; Quintieri, L.; Santagata, A.; Valente, P.

2014-11-01

161

Information sources in engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book was designed to serve as a guide to the wide range of sources of information used by engineers. The first part of this research tool describes the major primary and secondary sources for information (including online systems) that are relevant to all engineering disciplines. The second part provides the same information for each of the 19 specific engineering disciplines, with each chapter being written by an expert in the particular branch of engineering. This new edition of a work previously published under the title Use of Engineering Literature has been completely re-written with a new team of contributors. There is greater emphasis on disciplines basic to all engineering areas, e.g., fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and materials science. Recent developments covered include robotics, CAD/CAM systems, renewable energy sources, and the use of online systems for information retrieval.

Anthony, L.J.

1985-01-01

162

The Advanced Light Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A division of the Berkeley Laboratory, the Advanced Light Source (ALS) "is a national user facility that generates intense light for scientific and technological research." Students and educators can learn how ALS, with the use of one of the world's brightest sources of ultraviolet and soft X-ray beams and the world's first third generation synchrotron light source in its energy range, studies the properties of materials, trace metals, and the structures of atoms and molecules. The website features scientific highlights from the facility including its study of why alcohol and water don't mix. Scientists can find the technical specification of the storage ring, photon, and beamline parameters for the many microscopes at the facility. Visiting the User's Guide, qualified researchers can also find out how to become an ALS user.

163

Gravitational Wave Verification Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-compact binary systems containing white dwarfs dominate the gravitational wave foreground in the mHz frequency range. Many of these binaries are weak gravitational wave sources. However, there are nine systems where the gravitational wave strain is strong enough to make them verification sources for gravitational wave missions, e.g. the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA). Here we present a summary of the physical characteristics of these nine systems, including the observed rate of orbital decay. In addition, we present the recent discoveries from the ELM Survey, which identified two verification sources in the last 3 years. We also discuss the future prospects for increasing the sample of verification binaries.

Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Hermes, J. J.; Gianninas, A.

164

Dual source heat pump  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01

165

Astrophysics Source Code Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.

2013-10-01

166

INEEL Source Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, Gerald

2003-03-01

167

SNS: Spallation Neutron Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source currently being built by the United States Department of Energy. Users can find out about upcoming workshops, conferences, and other events dealing with the accelerator, which is scheduled to be completed in 2006. By downloading a series of materials, users can learn about SNS's benefits and mechanisms. Researchers can discover SNS's mission, instrumentation, moderators, and detectors. The website provides live video of the construction site. Visitors can also learn about employment opportunities.

168

Nanoplasmonics enhanced terahertz sources.  

PubMed

Arrayed hexagonal metal nanostructures are used to maximize the local current density while providing effective thermal management at the nanoscale, thereby allowing for increased emission from photoconductive terahertz (THz) sources. The THz emission field amplitude was increased by 60% above that of a commercial THz photoconductive antenna, even though the hexagonal nanostructured device had 75% of the bias voltage. The arrayed hexagonal outperforms our previously investigated strip array nanoplasmonic structure by providing stronger localization of the current density near the metal surface with an operating bandwidth of 2.6 THz. This approach is promising to achieve efficient THz sources. PMID:25402040

Jooshesh, Afshin; Smith, Levi; Masnadi-Shirazi, Mostafa; Bahrami-Yekta, Vahid; Tiedje, Thomas; Darcie, Thomas E; Gordon, Reuven

2014-11-17

169

Milliwatt generator heat source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All LANL hardware requirements were met during the reporting period as scheduled. Lot 12 of T-111 alloy sheet and Lot 8 of yttrium platelets were procured to meet future WR production needs. The GEND IP schedule requirements for 49 fueled MC2893 heat sources were met. Pressure burst surveillance activities continued to be conducted in accordance with SNLA document BB328965. Final results of evaluations of two pressure-burst capsules were normal, suggesting that the corresponding heat sources should be in good condition. The hardware production period ended with an overall hardware process yield of 98.4%.

Mershad, E. A.

1984-03-01

170

OLED area illumination source  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

Foust, Donald Franklin (Scotia, NY); Duggal, Anil Raj (Niskayuna, NY); Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Nealon, William Francis (Gloversville, NY); Bortscheller, Jacob Charles (Clifton Park, NY)

2008-03-25

171

Download Mozilla Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Netscape offers its browser source code at its Mozilla.org (discussed in the Feburary 27, 1998 Scout Report) site. The compressed code is available for Macintosh, Unix, and Windows operating systems, and is between 8.8 and 11.9 Mb. Netscape strongly points out that this is source code, not executable programs, that it is of use to developers only, and that it "will be unstable." More information about the code, as well as selected build instructions, can be obtained at the site.

1998-01-01

172

Trends in source gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

1989-01-01

173

Sources of Model Error  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial from Texas A&M University describes the common sources of weather forecasting computer model error, ways to identify model error, and how to correct a forecast for some simple types of error. Model sensitivity to parameterization and topography are covered.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-01-01

174

MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal contamination of waters used for recreation, drinking water, and aquaculture is an environmental problem and poses significant human health risks. The problem is often difficult to correct because the source of the contamination cannot be determined with certainty. Run-of...

175

Oceanography Information Sources 70.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet lists oceanography information sources in the first section under industries, laboratories and departments of oceanography, and other organizations which can provide free information and materials describing programs and activities. Publications listed in the second section include these educational materials: bibliographies, career…

Vetter, Richard C.

176

Selective ion source  

DOEpatents

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01

177

Selective ion source  

DOEpatents

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

Leung, K.N.

1996-05-14

178

Does Source Reduction Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that quantification is essential to establish the cost-effectiveness of source reduction (SR). Presents case studies of monitoring methods for seven different kinds of SR efforts: (1) packaging changes, (2) SR businesses, (3) waste exchanges, (4) individual nonresidential efforts, (5) variable garbage rates, (6) yard waste reduction, and…

Allaway, David

1992-01-01

179

Contacts & Information Sources  

Cancer.gov

PLCO participants who wish to update their information may contact: PLCO CDCC Manager: Samantha Lewis Email: samanthalewis@westat.com Phone: (888) 886-0750 Fax: (888) 251-1690 Contacts and Information Sources PLCO Project Officer Kelly Yu, PhD Early Detection

180

Appendix D: Data Sources  

E-print Network

Appendix D: Data Sources D Environment Agency Hazardous Waste: Interpretation of the definition and classification of hazardous waste (2nd edition v2.1) D1 #12;Environment Agency Hazardous Waste: Interpretation of the definition and classification of hazardous waste (2nd edition v2.1)D2 #12;Environment Agency Hazardous Waste

Siddharthan, Advaith

181

Thermovoltaic power source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermophotovoltaic power source comprises a Cassegrain solar collector and concentrator, a thermal vessel including a containment vessel holding thermal storage material therein, the containment vessel having the shape of an annulus closed at one end and disposed with its open end in registry with an aperture in the thermal vessel, with a selective band radiating layer coating the internal

Severns

1982-01-01

182

Alternative energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and

R. W. Todd

1982-01-01

183

Fiber supercontinuum sources (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review supercontinuum generation in optical fibers for particular cases where the nonlinear spectral broadening is induced by pump radiation from fiber-format sources. Based on numerical simulations, our paper is intended to provide experimental design guidelines tailored ytterbium and erbium-based pumps around 1060 and 1550 nm, respectively. In particular, at 1060 nm, we consider conditions under which the generated spectra

Goëry Genty; Stéphane Coen; John M. Dudley

2007-01-01

184

NSLS source development laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has initiated an ambitious project to develop fourth generation radiation sources. To achieve this goal, the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) builds on the experience gained at the NSLS, and at the highly successful BNL Accelerator Test Facility. The SDL accelerator system will consist of a high brightness short pulse linac, a station for coherent synchrotron and transition radiation experiments, a short bunch storage ring, and an ultra-violet free electron laser utilizing the NISUS wiggler. The electrons will be provided by a laser photocathode gun feeding a 210 MeV S-band electron linac, with magnetic bunch compression at 80 MeV. Electron bunches as short as 100 {mu}m with 1 nC charge will be used for pump-probe experiments utilizing coherent transition radiation. Beam will also be injected into a compact storage ring which will be a source of millimeter wave coherent synchrotron radiation. The linac will also serve as the driver for an FEL designed to allow the study of various aspects of single pass amplifiers. The first FEL configuration will be as a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) FEL at 900 nm. Seeded beam and sub-harmonic seeded beam operations will push the output wavelength below 200 nm. Chirped pulse amplification (CPA) operation will also be possible, and a planned energy upgrade (by powering a fifth linac section) to 310 MeV will extend the wavelength range of the FEL to below 100 nm.

Ben-Zvi, I.; Blum, E.; Johnson, E.D. [and others

1995-09-01

185

Source Book on Alaska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bases for the development of this resource book were notes and a course outline used in teaching Alaska History at the junior high school level. It can be used as a checklist, a guide to organizing lesson plans, selecting classroom and testing materials, and as a source of concepts and information for any grade level. Most of the material is…

Peratrovich, Robert J., Jr., Comp.

186

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2 was approximately equal to the ion arrival rate at a partial pressure of about .00002 Torr. There were also ion source and ion pressure gauge maintenance problems as a result of the use of CF4. Large scale (4 sq cm) texturing of Si was accomplished using both Cu and stainless steel seed. The most effective seeding method for this texturing was to surround the sample with large inclined planes. Designing, fabricating, and testing a 200 sq cm rectangular beam ion source was emphasized. The design current density was 6 mA/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions, although power supply limitations permitted operation to only 2 mA/sq cm. The use of multiple rectangular beam ion sources for continuous processing of wider areas than would be possible with a single source was also studied. In all cases investigated, the most uniform coverage was obtained with 0 to 2 cm beam overlay. The maximum departure from uniform processing at optimum beam overlap was found to be +15%.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1979-01-01

187

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

188

Craft Information Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief history of the craft movement and the American Craft Council. Information available from the American Craft Information Center is described, including bibliographic sources, reference tools, periodicals and indices, exhibition catalogs, craft registry and database, clipping file, education, business, funding, and appraising…

Hujsak, Mary Dodge

1994-01-01

189

Sources on Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography of sources of print, audio, and video materials on safety provides addresses and phone numbers of publishers. Categories include general information, agricultural education, business education, health occupations, home economics, trade and industrial, technical education, and technology education. (SK)

Vocational Education Journal, 1990

1990-01-01

190

Additional Sources of Information  

Cancer.gov

Additional Sources of Information Developing Medical Imaging Drug and Biological Products Part 1: Conducting Safety Assessments [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Part 2: Clinical Indications [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Content

191

Poetry: Sources for Criticism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the criticism of poetry. The guide enables the reader to find sources of criticism on poetry, including critical articles and essays about single poems, or writings on the work of a single author. The guide's sections…

Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

192

Source Cellphone Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we focus on blind source cell-phone identification problem. The main idea is that proprietary interpolation algorithm (involved due to the structure of color filter array [CFA]) leaves footprints in the form of correlations across adjacent bit planes of images. For this purpose, we explore a set of binary similarity measures, image quality measures and higher order wavelet

Oya Çeliktutan; I. Avcibas; B. Sankur; N. P. Ayerden; C. Capar

2006-01-01

193

Cobalt source calibration  

SciTech Connect

The data obtained from these tests determine the dose rate of the two cobalt sources in SRTC. Building 774-A houses one of these sources while the other resides in room C-067 of Building 773-A. The data from this experiment shows the following: (1) The dose rate of the No.2 cobalt source in Building 774-A measured 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 17, 1999). The dose rate of the Shepherd Model 109 Gamma cobalt source in Building 773-A measured 9.27 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 25, 1999). These rates come from placing the graduated cylinder containing the dosimeter solution in the center of the irradiation chamber. (2) Two calibration tests in the 774-A source placed the graduated cylinder with the dosimeter solution approximately 1.5 inches off center in the axial direction. This movement of the sample reduced the measured dose rate 0.92% from 1.083 x 10{sup 5} rad/h to 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h. and (3) A similar test in the cobalt source in 773-A placed the graduated cylinder approximately 2.0 inches off center in the axial direction. This change in position reduced the measured dose rate by 10.34% from 1.036 x 10{sup 6} to 9.27 x 10{sup 5}. This testing used chemical dosimetry to measure the dose rate of a radioactive source. In this method, one determines the dose by the chemical change that takes place in the dosimeter. For this calibration experiment, the author used a Fricke (ferrous ammonium sulfate) dosimeter. This solution works well for dose rates to 10{sup 7} rad/h. During irradiation of the Fricke dosimeter solution the Fe{sup 2+} ions ionize to Fe{sup 3+}. When this occurs, the solution acquires a slightly darker tint (not visible to the human eye). To determine the magnitude of the change in Fe ions, one places the solution in an UV-VIS Spectrophotometer. The UV-VIS Spectrophotometer measures the absorbency of the solution. Dividing the absorbency by the total time (in minutes) of exposure yields the dose rate.

Rizvi, H.M.

1999-12-03

194

JOINT SOURCE/CHANNEL CODING FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES TRANSMISSION  

E-print Network

1 JOINT SOURCE/CHANNEL CODING FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES TRANSMISSION Zhenyu Wu, Ali Bilgin and Michael W Abstract In [1], a practical joint source/channel coding algorithm was proposed for the transmission total bit rate. In this paper, it is demonstrated that by joint coding multiple sources

Bilgin, Ali

195

Source Monitoring in Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Source monitoring is the process of making judgments about the origin of memories. There are three categories of source monitoring: reality monitoring (discrimination between self- versus other-generated sources), external monitoring (discrimination between several external sources), and internal monitoring (discrimination between two types of…

El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

2012-01-01

196

Mars Spark Source Prototype  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Spark Source Prototype (MSSP) hardware has been developed as part of a proof of concept system for the detection of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic in Martian dusts and soils. A spark discharge produces plasma from a soil sample and detectors measure the optical emission from metals in the plasma that will allow their identification and quantification. Trace metal measurements are vital for the assessment of the potential toxicity of the Martian environment for human exploration. The current method of X-ray fluorescence can yield concentrations only of major species. Other instruments are incompatible with the volume, weight, and power constraints for a Mars mission. The instrument will be developed primarily for use in the Martian environment, but would be adaptable for terrestrial use in environmental monitoring. This paper describes the Mars Spark Source Prototype hardware, the results of the characterization tests, and future plans for hardware development.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Lindamood, Glenn R.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanderWal, Randall L.

1999-01-01

197

Filtered cathodic arc source  

DOEpatents

A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA); Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

198

Voltage controlled current source  

DOEpatents

A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

Casne, Gregory M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

199

Evaluated teletherapy source library  

DOEpatents

The Evaluated Teletherapy Source Library (ETSL) is a system of hardware and software that provides for maintenance of a library of useful phase space descriptions (PSDs) of teletherapy sources used in radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The PSDs are designed to be used by PEREGRINE, the all-particle Monte Carlo dose calculation system. ETSL also stores other relevant information such as monitor unit factors (MUFs) for use with the PSDs, results of PEREGRINE calculations using the PSDs, clinical calibration measurements, and geometry descriptions sufficient for calculational purposes. Not all of this information is directly needed by PEREGRINE. It also is capable of acting as a repository for the Monte Carlo simulation history files from which the generic PSDs are derived.

Cox, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schach Von Wittenau, Alexis E. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

200

Calibrated vapor generator source  

SciTech Connect

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26

201

The European Spallation Source  

SciTech Connect

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.

2011-03-01

202

Spallation-neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

Of particular interest for neutron-physics studies are spallation-neutron sources (SNSs) using intense proton beams with energies in the GeV range. Some SNSs already provide average fluxes of thermal and cold neutrons comparable with those of high-flux reactors. Most SNSs are pulsed with high peak fluxes that can be used with the powerful time-of-flight (TOF) method. Also, SNSs could be developed to much higher performance.

Michaudon, A.

1997-09-01

203

THz Sources for Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terahertz is the primary frequency for line and continuum radiation from cool (5-100K) gas (atoms and molecules) and dust. This viewgraph presentation reviews the reasons for the interest in Terahertz Space Applications; the Terahertz Space Missions: in the past, present and planned for the future, Terahertz source requirements and examples of some JPL instruments; and a case study for a flight deliverable: THz Local Oscillators for ESA s Herschel Space Telescope

Siegel, Peter H.; Ward, John; Maiwald, Frank; Mehdi, Imran

2007-01-01

204

High current ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

1990-01-01

205

Acoustic source localization.  

PubMed

In this article different techniques for localizing acoustic sources are described and the advantages/disadvantages of these techniques are discussed. Some source localization techniques are restricted to isotropic structures while other methods can be applied to anisotropic structures as well. Some techniques require precise knowledge of the direction dependent velocity profiles in the anisotropic body while other techniques do not require that knowledge. Some methods require accurate values of the time of arrival of the acoustic waves at the receivers while other techniques can function without that information. Published papers introducing various techniques emphasize the advantages of the introduced techniques while ignoring and often not mentioning the limitations and weaknesses of the new techniques. What is lacking in the literature is a comprehensive review and comparison of the available techniques; this article attempts to do that. After reviewing various techniques the paper concludes which source localization technique should be most effective for what type of structure and what the current research needs are. PMID:23870388

Kundu, Tribikram

2014-01-01

206

Open-Source GIS  

SciTech Connect

The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Burk, Thomas E [University of Minnesota; Lime, Steve [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

2012-01-01

207

Overdistribution in source memory.  

PubMed

Semantic false memories are confounded with a second type of error, overdistribution, in which items are attributed to contradictory episodic states. Overdistribution errors have proved to be more common than false memories when the 2 are disentangled. We investigated whether overdistribution is prevalent in another classic false memory paradigm: source monitoring. It is. Conventional false memory responses (source misattributions) were predominantly overdistribution errors, but unlike semantic false memory, overdistribution also accounted for more than half of true memory responses (correct source attributions). Experimental control of overdistribution was achieved via a series of manipulations that affected either recollection of contextual details or item memory (concreteness, frequency, list order, number of presentation contexts, and individual differences in verbatim memory). A theoretical model was used to analyze the data (conjoint process dissociation) that predicts that (a) overdistribution is directly proportional to item memory but inversely proportional to recollection and (b) item memory is not a necessary precondition for recollection of contextual details. The results were consistent with both predictions. PMID:21942494

Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E; Nakamura, K

2012-03-01

208

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

209

Intersunspot Microwave Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied a number of solar active regions using two-dimensional spatially resolved microwave observations. Data from the Nobeyama Radioheliograph and the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope together with observations by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) have allowed us to identify long-lived intersunspot sources (ISSs) in most of the investigated active regions. Their centers are often located above the line-of-sight magnetic field inversion line that separates the leading and following polarities of a full active region (first type of ISS) or above the inversion line that separates magnetic polarities inside of a complex of sunspots (second type of ISS). ISSs of the first type are extended and, in general, they are sources of bremsstrahlung emission. ISSs of the second type are compact and are, most likely, sources of gyroresonance or gyrosynchrotron emission. We propose a qualitative model involving three types of magnetic connectivity to explain how long-lasting ISSs may be generated.

Bakunina, I. A.; Melnikov, V. F.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Abramov-Maximov, V. E.

2015-01-01

210

BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION  

SciTech Connect

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

2007-08-26

211

The Combustive Sound Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes a unique type of low frequency underwater sound source, the Combustive Sound Source (CSS). The fundamental operating principle of CSS is the following: Electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen gas, which is a combustible mixture. The gas mixture is captured in a combustion chamber and ignited with a spark. The ensuing combustion produces expanding gases which in turn produce high intensity, low frequency acoustic pulses. The thesis begins by discussing the background of the project and initial feasibility work. It continues by briefly discussing electrolysis and gas production. Fundamental combustion theory is discussed, along with two experiments that relate the acoustic output of CSS to theory. Additional experiments were conducted in order to compare the first bubble period in the CSS pressure signature with the predictions of the Rayleigh-Willis equation. The dependence of the radiated acoustic waveform on the volume and depth of the bubble was investigated. The first bubble period of the CSS pressure signature agrees with Rayleigh-Willis theory in trend, but not in absolute value. Empirical equations are presented which predict the first bubble period for three different situations, a depth of nine meters for various stoichiometric volumes, a stoichiometric volume of 0.5 STP liters for various depths, and a stoichiometric volume of 500 cubic centimeters for various depths. High speed filming of the CSS bubble is presented. The high speed films confirm that CSS produces a bubble of high temperature combustion products. The bubble oscillates and generates acoustic output. The motion of the bubble is shown to be related to the acoustic output in the classic manner, with pressure peaks associated with minimum bubble volumes. Finally, several other factors that affect the acoustic output of CSS are discussed. These include the shape of the CSS combustion chamber, the ignition source, the oxidizer, the presence of high pressure bubble collapses, and the presence of high frequency components.

Wilson, Preston S.

1994-04-01

212

Microlensing of disk sources  

E-print Network

We analyse the effects on the predictions for the microlensing searches toward the Galactic bulge coming from the fact that not all the stars monitored belong to the bulge itself, but that a non--negligible fraction of them actually are in the Galactic disk. The different distribution and motions of these disk stars make their associated microlensing rates and event duration distributions to be quite different from those of the bulge stars. We discuss the uncertainties in these predictions associated to the modeling of the Galactic components and the main implications resulting from the inclusion of this second source population.

S. Mollerach; E. Roulet

1995-10-11

213

Neutrinos from Auger Sources  

E-print Network

The Pierre Auger observatory has presented evidence that the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energies in excess of 6x10^7 TeV may be correlated with nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN). In this context we revisit a suggestion based on gamma ray observations that nearby Fanaroff-Riley I galaxies such as Cen A and M87 are the sources of the local cosmic rays. We compute the accompanying neutrino flux and find a flux within reach of second-generation kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes.

Francis Halzen; Aongus O'Murchadha

2008-02-28

214

World Development Sources (WDS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Development Sources is the "digital repository" of World Bank documents. It houses a searchable database of development-related reports produced since 1988 by the World Bank. These include Staff Appraisal Reports (SARs), World Bank President's Reports and Memoranda, Economic and Sector Work, Evaluation Reports and Studies, and Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Montreal Protocol Project documents. It also contains working papers and publications produced by the World Bank since 1993. All of these papers can be viewed online using the TMS Sequoia plug-in (available at the site for Windows and Macintosh).

1997-01-01

215

Compact ion accelerator source  

DOEpatents

An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

2014-04-29

216

Advanced Photon Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Synchrotrons are used to study the atomic structure of materials. The second largest synchrotron is the Advanced Photon Source, located at the Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The homepage provides information on the synchrotron and current research being conducted at the laboratory. This site covers one of the top ten scientific breakthroughs of 1997, compiled in the December 19, 1997 issue of Science. The top scientific breakthrough of 1997 was the cloning of a sheep, resulting in a lamb named Dolly. The nine runners up were: the Pathfinder mission to Mars, synchrotrons, biological clock genes, gamma ray bursts, Neandertal DNA, nanotubes, Europa's ocean, whole genome sequencing, and neurons.

1998-01-01

217

BirdSource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Associated with the Audubon Society and the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, BirdSource is a Web site that allows Web users to participate in bird conservation and data gathering. By participating in bird identification and counts, citizens can help ornithologists determine species distribution and ranges. In addition to maps showing results from several public bird surveys, the site contains a great deal on identifying birds, conservation articles, and information for attracting birds to your feeder. This is a well rounded and attractive site for the bird enthusiast that offers data gathering opportunities throughout the year.

218

Sources of tritium  

SciTech Connect

A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water.

Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

1980-12-01

219

Groklaw: Understanding Open Source Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mark Webbink, Red Hat's general counsel, wrote this article for attorneys wanting to know the basic issues regarding free and open source software. Aside from listing best practices for law offices, he provides a general overview of various open source licenses, explains US copyright law, defines derivative works, and touches on the indemnification issue and the difference between open source and shared source. Webbink also highlights some of the common myths and misconceptions about the General Public License (GPL) and open source and provides links to other sites with more information on open source software. Readers' comments and responses to the article are also posted in a threaded discussion format.

220

Modeling Magnetospheric Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have used global magnetohydrodynamic, simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and magnetosphere together with single particle trajectory calculations to investigate the sources of plasma entering the magnetosphere. In all of our calculations solar wind plasma primarily enters the magnetosphere when the field line on which it is convecting reconnects. When the interplanetary magnetic field has a northward component the reconnection is in the polar cusp region. In the simulations plasma in the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) can be on either open or closed field lines. Open field lines occur when the high latitude reconnection occurs in only one cusp. In the MHD calculations the ionosphere does not contribute significantly to the LLBL for northward IMF. The particle trajectory calculations show that ions preferentially enter in the cusp region where they can be accelerated by non-adiabatic motion across the high latitude electric field. For southward IMF in the MHD simulations the plasma in the middle and inner magnetosphere comes from the inner (ionospheric) boundary of the simulation. Solar wind plasma on open field lines is confined to high latitudes and exits the tailward boundary of the simulation without reaching the plasma sheet. The LLBL is populated by both ionospheric and solar wind plasma. When the particle trajectories are included solar wind ions can enter the middle magnetosphere. We have used both the MHD simulations and the particle calculations to estimate source rates for the magnetosphere which are consistent with those inferred from observations.

Walker, Raymond J.; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Ogino, Tatsuki; Peroomian, Vahe; Richard, Robert L.

2001-01-01

221

DreiserWebSource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed and maintained by the Annenberg Rare Book and Manuscript Library Collection at the University of Pennsylvania, the DreiserWebSource website brings together a host of written ephemera, original essays, and electronic texts related to the life and writings of Theodore Dreiser, the prominent American author. While the site doesn't have a formal search engine, the material is divided into four primary sections: Correspondence & Texts, Scholarly Essays, Reference Sources, and Still and Moving images. The Correspondence & Texts section is a delight unto itself, as it contains a host of digitized correspondence between Dreiser and colleagues over several decades and a special section dedicated to his ground-breaking novel, Sister Carrie. Along with several editions of the complete novel there are several essays about the novel's composition and historical context, along with a virtual exhibition curated by Nancy M. Shawcross from the Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Penn. The site also includes a rare 3-minute silent film of Dreiser from 1938 at Mt. Kisco, New York, taken by Robert Elias.

222

Nuclear sources in galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the local Universe most massive black holes at the centers of galaxies are not luminous quasars. Is this because (1) they are starved of gas, (2) they accrete without emitting radiation, (3) they refuse to eat, ejecting the incoming material, or (4) they are storing up matter in an accretion disk to feast later?With Chandra ACIS we have imaged a pilot sample of 6 nearby (D 30 Mpc) elliptical galaxies chosen to be especially quiescent based on the careful optical spectroscopy of Ho, measured black hole masses (Mbh > 10(7)Msol), and with existing X-ray upper limits (Lx 10(40)erg/s) implying far sub-Eddington accretion. In these galaxies we can measure, or limit, the diffuse hot interstellar medium, and so constrain the Bondi accretion rate.Faint X-ray emission is detected at or around the nucleus in each galaxy. The morphology of these weak X-ray sources is complex. The X-ray colors of the sources can be determined, and a moderate quality spectrum for one was obtained. We discuss these results against the possible explanations of black hole quiescence.On the other hand, a few percent of all galaxies shows evidence for nuclear activity and a brief review of the high energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei is given.

Elvis, M.

223

Bepcii Positron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BEPCII- an upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) is a factory type of e+e- collider. The fundamental requirements for its injector 1inac are the beam energy of 1.89GeV for on-energy injection and a 40mA positron beam current at the linac end with a low beam emittance of 1.6?m and a low energy spread of ±0.5% so as to guarantee a higher injection rate (?50mA/min) to the storage ring. Since the positron flux is proportional to the primary electron beam power on the target, we will increase the electron gun current from 4A to 10A by using a new electmn gun system and increase the primary electron energy from 120MeV to 240MeV. The positron souree itself is an extremely important system for producing more positrons, including a positron converter target chamber, a 12kA flux modulator, the 7-m focusing module with DC power supplies and the support. The new positron production linac from the electron gun to the positron source has been installed into the tunnel. In what follows, we will emphasize the positron source design, manufacture and tests.

Pei, Guoxi; Sun, Yaolin; Liu, Jintong; Chi, Yunlong; Liu, Yuncheng; Liu, Nianzong

2013-10-01

224

Lesson 2: Energy Sources Overview  

E-print Network

· There are three sources of external energy: ­ solar energy: radiant energy fromLesson 2: Energy Sources #12;Overview · Most geologic disasters involve the release of large amounts of energy either quickly or slowly. To understand

Chen, Po

225

AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION (AGNPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model addresses concerns related to the potential impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on surface and groundwater quality (Young et al., 1989). It was designed to quantit...

226

Open Source Physics Eclipse Workspace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Open Source Physics Eclipse Workspace contains the source code for the OSP core library, the OSP User's Guide by Wolfgang Christian, and An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods by Harvey Gould, Jan Tobochnik and Wolfgang Christian.

Christian, Wolfgang; Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan

2008-05-16

227

HYDROCARBON POLLUTANTS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of hydrocarbon pollutants from stationary sources. Early in the study, readily available information was assembled on stationary sources of hydrocarbon emissions and effluents. Information was also obtained on process descriptions, operating pa...

228

Variability of VHE ?-ray sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study changes in the ?-ray intensity at very high energies observed from selected active galactic nuclei. Publicly available data collected by Cherenkov telescopes were examined by means of a simple method utilizing solely the number of source and background events. Our results point to some degree of time variability in signal observed from the investigated sources. Several measurements were found to be excessive or deficient in the number of source events when compared to the source intensity deduced from other observations.

Stefanik, Stanislav; Nosek, Dalibor

2014-11-01

229

ACCELERATOR BASED CONTINUOUS NEUTRON SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the last decade, most neutron experiments have been performed at steady-state, reactor-based sources. Recently, however, pulsed spallation sources have been shown to be very useful in a wide range of neutron studies. A major review of neutron sources in the US was conducted by a committee chaired by Nobel laureate Prof. W. Kohn: ''Neutron Sources for America's Future-BESAC Panel

S. M. SHAPIRO; A. G. RUGGIERO; H. LUDEWIG

2003-01-01

230

Infrared source test  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

Ott, L.

1994-11-15

231

Advanced Photon Source.  

E-print Network

enclosure on the nanoprobe beamline. Thank you for taking the time to read our annual report that aims to provide an overview of new capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and examples of fascinating scientific research. We are very proud of the accomplishments described here, which are the fruit of dedicated work by our users and our employees. The (fiscal) year 2005 was a very successful one for the APS. The number of users grew to a record of more than 3,200, up 16 % from the previous year. The number of peerreviewed papers published by our users broke the level of 1,000 for the first time. And in this tenth anniversary year since the first light at the APS, we had our largest user meeting ever, with more than 600 participants. The machine reached its highest-ever availability and reliability, at better than 98 % delivered beam, and a mean time between failures of more than 100

J. Murray; G Ibson

232

Arsenic pollution sources.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by many (bio)geochemical processes: oxidation of arsenic-bearing sulfides, desorption from oxides and hydroxides, reductive dissolution, evaporative concentration, leaching from sulfides by carbonate, and microbial mobilization. Arsenic enrichment also takes place in geothermally active areas; surface waters are more susceptible than groundwater to contamination in the vicinity of such geothermal systems, and evidence suggests that increased use of geothermal power may elevate risks of arsenic exposure in affected areas. Past and current mining activities continue to provide sources of environmental contamination by arsenic. Because gold- and arsenic-bearing minerals coexist, there is a hazard of mobilizing arsenic during gold mining activities. The Ashanti region of central Ghana currently faces this as a real risk. Historical arsenic contamination exists in Cornwall, UK; an example of a recent arsenic pollution event is that of Ron Phibun town in southern Thailand, where arsenic-related human health effects have been reported. Other important sources of arsenic exposure include coal burning in Slovakia, Turkey, and the Guizhou Province of China; use of arsenic as pesticides in Australia, New Zealand, and the US; and consumption of contaminated foodstuffs (China) and exposure to wood preserving arsenicals (Europe and North America). PMID:18982996

Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

2008-01-01

233

Thulium-170 heat source  

DOEpatents

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01

234

Multiple source heat pump  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01

235

Large area plasma source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An all permanent magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance, large diameter (e.g., 40 cm) plasma source suitable for ion/plasma processing or electric propulsion, is capable of producing uniform ion current densities at its exit plane at very low power (e.g., below 200 W), and is electrodeless to avoid sputtering or contamination issues. Microwave input power is efficiently coupled with an ionizing gas without using a dielectric microwave window and without developing a throat plasma by providing a ferromagnetic cylindrical chamber wall with a conical end narrowing to an axial entrance hole for microwaves supplied on-axis from an open-ended waveguide. Permanent magnet rings are attached inside the wall with alternating polarities against the wall. An entrance magnet ring surrounding the entrance hole has a ferromagnetic pole piece that extends into the chamber from the entrance hole to a continuing second face that extends radially across an inner pole of the entrance magnet ring.

Foster, John (Inventor); Patterson, Michael (Inventor)

2008-01-01

236

Source memory in the rat  

PubMed Central

Summary Source memory is a representation of the origin (source) of information. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic, allowing us to differentiate one event from another [1, 2]. Here we asked if rats remember the source of encoded information. Rats foraged for distinctive flavors of food that replenished (or failed to replenish) at its recently encountered location according to a source-information rule. To predict replenishment, rats needed to remember where they had encountered a preferred food type (chocolate) with self-generated (walking along a runway encountering chocolate) or experimenter-generated (placement of the rat at the chocolate site by an experimenter) cues. Three lines of evidence implicate the presence of source memory. First, rats selectively adjusted revisits to the chocolate location based on source information, under conditions in which familiarity of events could not produce successful performance. Second, source memory was dissociated from location memory by different decay rates. Third, temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with lidocaine selectively eliminated source memory, suggesting that source memory is dependent upon an intact hippocampus. Development of an animal model of source memory may be valuable to probe the biological underpinnings of memory disorders marked by impairments in source memory. PMID:23394830

Crystal, Jonathon D.; Alford, Wesley T.; Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.

2013-01-01

237

International Spallation Ultracold Neutron Source  

E-print Network

and UCN Source Proton beam from TRIUMF cyclotron iSUN Implementation at TRIUMF Meson Hall concept UCN outInternational Spallation Ultracold Neutron Source We propose to construct the world's highest extraction, improved guide technology, etc. Item Cost Funding Source UCN cryostat system $4M Japanese

Martin, Jeff

238

Harmonic sources and filtering approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents 22 configurations of power filters for the harmonic compensation of nonlinear loads. Some of these configurations are novel and result from the newly discovered characteristics of nonlinear loads and circuitry duality, while the others are well known and used in practice. Nonlinear loads can be characterized into two types of harmonic sources: current-source nonlinear loads and voltage-source

F. Z. Peng

2001-01-01

239

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCE DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper, directed to individuals interested in indoor air pollution, is an introduction to, and directions for the use of, the indoor air pollution source data-base (also known as the indoor air source emissions database). The database is a computerized system containing source...

240

Chandra Source Catalog: User Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CSCview data mining interface is available for browsing the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) and downloading tables of quality-assured source properties and data products. Once the desired source properties and search criteria are entered into the CSCview query form, the resulting source matches are returned in a table along with the values of the requested source properties for each source. (The catalog can be searched on any source property, not just position.) At this point, the table of search results may be saved to a text file, and the available data products for each source may be downloaded. CSCview save files are output in RDB-like and VOTable format. The available CSC data products include event files, spectra, lightcurves, and images, all of which are processed with the CIAO software. CSC data may also be accessed non-interactively with Unix command-line tools such as cURL and Wget, using ADQL 2.0 query syntax. In fact, CSCview features a separate ADQL query form for those who wish to specify this type of query within the GUI. Several interfaces are available for learning if a source is included in the catalog (in addition to CSCview): 1) the CSC interface to Sky in Google Earth shows the footprint of each Chandra observation on the sky, along with the CSC footprint for comparison (CSC source properties are also accessible when a source within a Chandra field-of-view is clicked); 2) the CSC Limiting Sensitivity online tool indicates if a source at an input celestial location was too faint for detection; 3) an IVOA Simple Cone Search interface locates all CSC sources within a specified radius of an R.A. and Dec.; and 4) the CSC-SDSS cross-match service returns the list of sources common to the CSC and SDSS, either all such sources or a subset based on search criteria.

Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, I. N.; Harbo, P. N.; Rots, A. H.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Zografou, P.; Anderson, C. S.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Primini, F. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Winkelman, S. L.

2010-02-01

241

MODELING WEB SOURCES AS RELATIONSMODELING WEB SOURCES AS RELATIONSMODELING WEB SOURCES AS RELATIONS Simone Santini  

E-print Network

Simone Santini Abstract This paper presents a model of relational access to functional data sources that, Universidad Aut´onoma de Madrid 1 #12;Santini--Modeling web sources as relations 2 The most widely known

Santini, Simone

242

Modeling source-source and source-filter acoustic interaction in birdsong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple model for birdsong production in Oscine songbirds that allows us to study the acoustic interaction between their two sound sources, as well as the acoustic coupling between sources and vocal tract. This model allows us to study complex phenomena in which the traditionally assumed source-filter separation hypothesis does not hold. We make testable hypotheses about the source of complexity in the song of some birds.

Laje, Rodrigo; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

2005-09-01

243

Ion source development at GSI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different ion sources are used at GSI to match the requirements for specific tasks at the accelerator. At the standard injector a Penning ionization gauge ion source is used (design ion U10+, m/q<24, 1 emA). Further development of this source is mainly aiming at an increase of the extractable currents and an increase of the lifetime of the source. The new injector produces the beam by means of an electron cyclotron resonance source (Caprice-type). Here the design ion is U28+, m/q<8.5, 5 e?A. Clearly, the oven technology is our main development goal. In addition we are trying to improve the extraction flexibility by a moveable accel-decel system. For our high current project ion sources are required which are capable to deliver a beam of several mA even for heavy ions. Design ion here is U4+, m/q<65, 15 emA. For that application two different types of ion source are used: the multicusp ion sources "cold or hot reflex discharge ion source" and "multicusp ion source" for gaseous ions and the MEVVA source for metal beams.

Spädtke, P.; Bossler, J.; Emig, H.; Leible, K. D.; Mühle, C.; Reich, H.; Schulte, H.; Tinschert, K.

1998-02-01

244

Ion Source Choices -- An H- Source for the High Intensity Neutrino Source  

SciTech Connect

The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) program at Fermilab (formerly the Proton Driver) aims to develop a multi-mission linear accelerator (LINAC) capable of accelerate H- ions to 8 GeV. This paper touches on the ion source requirements for the HINS and discusses long pulse length testing of three ion sources which appear to have the capability of meeting these requirements.

Moehs, Douglas P. [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60563 (United States); Welton, Robert F.; Stockli, Martin P. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peters, Jens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Alessi, James [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, 11973 (United States)

2007-08-10

245

Migration Information Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently introduced by the Migration Policy Institute, the Migration Information Source Web site offers visitors a fantastic opportunity to stay on top of trends and changes in global migration. Looking at migration from many levels and on many planes, the site considers migrations on both national and international fronts. With a dropdown menu of the countries for which data is available (currently western European countries, Australia, and the US), the database is fully searchable, with more options on the way. Perhaps most interesting to those directly working in statistical, sociological, or ethnographic analyses of migration, the resource is broadly accessible and offers compelling glimpses of migrant populations, their reasons for moving, and their rates of assimilation into host countries. For those unfamiliar with field-specific terms employed in the site's reports, there is a detailed glossary of common terms and phrases. Closer to home, the Migration Information site presents an elaborate array of reports and studies on US-Mexico relations, with an emphasis on the ever-broadening trend toward northward migration in the Americas.

2002-01-01

246

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction with the texturing models to provide an important input to that model. The establishment of a general procedure that will allow the treatment of manay different sputtering configurations is outlined. Calculation of cross sections for energetic binary collisions was extened to Ar, Kr.. and Xe with total cross sections for viscosity and diffusion calculated for the interaction energy range from leV to 1000eV. Physical sputtering and reactive ion etching experiments provided experimental data on the operating limits of a broad beam ion source using CF4 as a working gas to produce reactive species in a sputtering beam. Magnetic clustering effects are observed when Al is seeded with Fe and sputtered with Ar(?) ions. Silicon was textured at a micron scale by using a substrate temperature of 600 C.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1978-01-01

247

The supercontinuum laser source  

SciTech Connect

Contents: Theory of Self-Phase Modulation and Spectral Broadening. - Supercontinuum Generation in Condensed Matter. - Ultrashort Pulse Propagation in Nonlinear Dispersive Fibers. - Cross-Phase Modulations: A New Technique for Controlling the Spectral Temporal, and Spatial Properties of Ultrashort Pulses. - Simple Models of Self-Phase and Induced-Phase Modulation. - Self-Steepening of Optical Pulses. - Self-Focusing and Continuum Generation in Gases. - Utilization of UV and IR Supercontinua in Gas-Phase Subpicosecond Kinetic Spectroscopy. - Applicatons of Supercontinuum: Present and Future. - Pulse Compression in Single-Mode Fibers. Nonlinear optics is one of the most important fields of science and engineering, covering the generation, transmission, control of the whole spectrum of laser pulses in solids, liquids, gases, and fibers. In turn, one of the most important ultrafast nonlinear optical processes in the supercontinuum generation - the production of intense ultrafast broadband white light'' pulses. This book is intended to fill the need for both scientists and graduate students for a single source book containing the most necessary and relevant material on supercontinuum technology. It reviews the basic principles, surveys research results, and presents the current thinking of experts in the supercontinuum field.

Alfano, R.R. (City College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (US))

1989-01-01

248

[Sources of law].  

PubMed

In it first article, the Civil Code establishes that the sources of Spanish law are law, custom, and the general principles of law as well as the circumstances in which each one of them is applied. The Spanish Constitution (SC) is the Law of Laws. It gathers the fundamental rights of the person who should respect the guidelines of the lower ranking. The Law is the guideline having the maximum category below the SC, its elaboration corresponds to the General Courts although the executive power may legislate in certain circumstances (by delegation of the legislative power or by emergency). Executive power elaborates Regulations that are technical developments of the laws. The regulations of the Regional Communities have the rank of law in their geographic setting and for the material in which it has competence. The validly agreed upon international treaties form a part of the Spanish set of rules after being published in the Official State Bulletin. The Spanish legal system is hierarchical, the rules coming from community law are within the peak of the pyramidal structure, with preference on the constitution, followed by laws and rules. PMID:15719282

Gutierrez Luna, M

2004-12-01

249

Source Inversion Validation: Quantifying Uncertainties in Earthquake Source Inversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake source inversions image the spatio-temporal rupture evolution on one or more fault planes using seismic and\\/or geodetic data. Source inversion methods thus represent an important research tool in seismology to unravel the complexity of earthquake ruptures. Subsequently, source-inversion results are used to study earthquake mechanics, to develop spontaneous dynamic rupture models, to build models for generating rupture realizations for

P. M. Mai; M. T. Page; D. Schorlemmer

2010-01-01

250

Portable source identification device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation"s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. As the deployment of radiation detection systems proceeds, there is a need to adapt the baseline radiation portal monitor (RPM) system technology to operations at these diverse ports of entry. When screening produces an alarm in the primary inspection RPM, the alarming vehicle is removed from the flow of commerce and the alarm is typically confirmed in a secondary inspection RPM. The portable source identification device (PSID) is a radiation sensor panel (RSP), based on thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detector and gamma spectroscopic analysis hardware and software, mounted on a scissor lift on a small truck. The lift supports a box containing a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sodium iodide detector that provides real-time isotopic identification, including neutron detectors to interdict Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and radiation dispersion devices (RDD). The scissor lift will lower the detectors to within a foot off the ground and raise them to approximately 24 feet (7.3 m) in the air, allowing a wide vertical scanning range.

Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Gervais, Kevin L.

2005-05-01

251

Sources of Terrestrial Volatiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheres are found enveloping those planets and satellites best able to hold them. The obvious conclusion is that volatile escape must have played nearly as great a role as volatile supply. A consequence of this view is that volatile supplies were probably much greater than the atmospheres that remain. The likeliest candidates are sources associated with the main events of planetary accretion itself such as volatile-rich planetesimals, or direct gravitational capture of nebular gases. Late asteroidal or cometary volatile-rich veneers are attractive, but they present quantitative difficulties. Comets in particular are inadequate, because the associated mass of stray comets that would have been scattered to the Oort Cloud or beyond is excessive. This difficulty applies to Uranus-Neptune planetesimals as well as to a putative massive early Kuiper Belt. Another potential problem with comets is that the D/H ratio in the three comets for which this has been measured is about twice that of Earth's oceans. Objects falling from a much augmented ancient asteroid belt remain a viable option, but timing is an issue: Can the depopulation of the asteroid belt be delayed long enough that it makes sense to talk of asteroids as a late veneer? Early accretion of asteroids as objects scattered into the maw of infant Earth makes more sense. Another appealing candidate population of volatile-rich objects for the inner solar system would be scattered planetesimals associated with the accretion of Jupiter, for two reasons: (1) Before there was Jupiter, there was no object in the solar system capable of expelling comets efficiently, and (2) the cross section of the inner solar system to stray objects was Greater when there were m many planetesimals.

Zahnle, K. J.; Dones, L.

1998-01-01

252

Portable Source Identification Device  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation’s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. As the deployment of radiation detection systems proceeds, there is a need to adapt the baseline radiation portal monitor (RPM) system technology to operations at these diverse ports of entry. When screening produces an alarm in the primary inspection RPM, the alarming vehicle is removed from the flow of commerce and the alarm is typically confirmed in a secondary inspection RPM. The portable source identification device (PSID) is a radiation sensor panel (RSP), based on thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detector and gamma spectroscopic analysis hardware and software, mounted on a scissor lift on a small truck. The lift supports a box containing a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sodium iodide detector that provides real-time isotopic identification, including neutron detectors to interdict Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and radiation dispersion devices (RDD). The scissor lift will lower the detectors to within a foot off the ground and raise them to approximately 24 feet in the air, allowing a wide vertical scanning range.

Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Gervais, Kevin L.

2005-08-01

253

Constricted glow discharge plasma source  

DOEpatents

A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Dickinson, Michael (San Leandro, CA); Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Winnetka, IL)

2000-01-01

254

What are cirrus point sources?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most cirrus point sources are associated with interstellar gas. A subset of these was isolated, together with other sources showing large band 4 to 3 flux density ratios, that are not associated with interstellar gas. Most of the point sources are associated with diffuse cirrus emissions. The sources appear to be distributed randomly on the sky, with the exception of six clusters, one of which is not associated with any known object. Six sources out of seventeen that were observed for redshifted H I at Arecibo were found to be associated with relatively nondescript external galaxies. Most of the sources do not appear on the Palomar Sky Survey. Deep optical observations of eight fields revealed some fairly distant galaxies, one object with a very peculiar optical spectrum, and several blank fields.

Heiles, Carl; Mccarthy, Patrick J.; Reach, William; Strauss, Michael A.

1987-01-01

255

Source-circuit design overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

Ross, R. G., Jr.

1983-01-01

256

Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses the following about the Advanced Neutron Source: Project Management; Research and Development; Fuel Development; Corrosion Loop Tests and Analyses; Thermal-Hydraulic Loop Tests; Reactor Control and Shutdown Concepts; Critical and Subcritical Experiments; Material Data, Structural Tests, and Analysis; Cold-Source Development; Beam Tube, Guide, and Instrument Development; Hot-Source Development; Neutron Transport and Shielding; I & C Research and Development; Design; and Safety.

Campbell, J. H.

1992-01-01

257

OSNT: Open Source Network Tester  

E-print Network

-source framework extensible with new features to support new applications, while permitting validation and review of the implementation. Index Terms—Open Source, Programmable Hardware, High Speed, NetFPGA, Monitoring, Traffic-generation, Open Source, Packet... of micro-engines, each used to support one or more protocols at network and transport-layers such as Ethernet, TCP or UDP and application-protocols such as BGP. Each micro-engine either generates synthetic or replays captured traffic for one or more...

Antichi, Gianni; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Geng, Yilong; Zilberman, Noa; Covington, Adam; Bruyere, Marc; McKeown, Nick; Feamster, Nick; Felderman, Bob; Blott, Michaela; Moore, Andrew W.; Owezarski, Philippe

2014-01-01

258

Ion sources for radioactive beams  

SciTech Connect

The ion sources reviewed here, most of them developed for isotope separation on-line (ISOL), are classified according to their ionizing mechanism, utilizing electrons, heat, light, and penetration of matter. Emphasis is put on the beam-optical characteristics, ion current density, energy spread, and emittance on the ISOL-essentials {open_quotes}efficient, fast, and selective,{close_quotes} both for the ion source and the complete target/ion source-system.

Kirchner, R. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany)

1994-05-01

259

Curium-248 standard neutron source  

PubMed

A new standard neutron source based on curium-248 has been developed, prepared, and certified. The curium-248 isotope is more long-lived than californium-252. The active core of this source is a pellet made of an alloy of platinum with curium. The measured full neutron yield for this source is 2.30 x 10(4) s(-1) with 4% error at 0.95 confidence. PMID:11003529

Radchenko; Ryabinin; Andreytchuk; Gavrilov; Karelin

2000-10-01

260

High speed helicopter noise sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-of-the art of helicopter rotor impulsive noise is reviewed. A triangulation technique for locating impulsive noise sources is developed using once-per-rev index signals as time references. A computer program (INSL) was written implementing this technique. Applying triangulation to the full-scale UH-1 noise data of NASA/Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel, three different noise sources are found on the rotor disk. The primary sources of thickness noise are in the second quadrant and on the advancing side of rotor disk. Two aerodynamic sources due to blade/vortex interaction are found in the first quadrant.

Lee, A.

1977-01-01

261

ACCELERATOR BASED CONTINUOUS NEUTRON SOURCE.  

SciTech Connect

Until the last decade, most neutron experiments have been performed at steady-state, reactor-based sources. Recently, however, pulsed spallation sources have been shown to be very useful in a wide range of neutron studies. A major review of neutron sources in the US was conducted by a committee chaired by Nobel laureate Prof. W. Kohn: ''Neutron Sources for America's Future-BESAC Panel on Neutron Sources 1/93''. This distinguished panel concluded that steady state and pulsed sources are complementary and that the nation has need for both to maintain a balanced neutron research program. The report recommended that both a new reactor and a spallation source be built. This complementarity is recognized worldwide. The conclusion of this report is that a new continuous neutron source is needed for the second decade of the 20 year plan to replace aging US research reactors and close the US neutron gap. it is based on spallation production of neutrons using a high power continuous superconducting linac to generate protons impinging on a heavy metal target. There do not appear to be any major technical challenges to the building of such a facility since a continuous spallation source has been operating in Switzerland for several years.

SHAPIRO,S.M.; RUGGIERO,A.G.; LUDEWIG,H.

2003-03-25

262

The status of the spallation neutron source ion source  

SciTech Connect

The ion source for the spallation neutron source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver 45 mA of H2 to the SNS accelerator with a pulse length of 1 ms and repetition rate of 60 Hz. A total of three ion sources have been fabricated and commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and subsequently delivered to the SNS at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ion sources are currently being rotated between operation on the SNS accelerator, where they are involved in ongoing efforts to commission the SNS LINAC, and the hot spare stand (HSS), where high-current tests are in progress. Commissioning work involves operating the source in a low duty-factor mode (pulse width {approx}200 ms and repetition rate {approx}5 Hz) for extended periods of time while the high-current tests involve source operation at full duty-factor of 6 percent (1 ms/60 Hz). This report discusses routine performance of the source employed in the commissioning role as well as the initial results o f high-current tests performed on the HSS.

Welton, R.F.; Stockli, M.P.; Murray, S.N.; Keller, R.

2003-09-11

263

Virtual Real Source: Source signature estimation using seismic interferometry  

E-print Network

-field wave from these sources after correcting for geometrical spreading. The recorded signal, however, might, estimation of the source sig- nature using wave-theoretical methods requires the recording of the wavefield extracts all the airgun signatures with the main pulse and the bubble oscillation. INTRODUCTION Seismic

Snieder, Roel

264

Multi-source solar simulator using single light source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods, techniques and apparatus are described for adjusting the spectral irradiance characteristics of a light source. The invention is applicable to any light source and has many areas of utility. One example is for simulating solar light for use in testing efficiency of photovoltaic cells. Solar light at any point in the world can be simulated. Also, light having any

K. A. Emery; C. R. Osterwald

1989-01-01

265

SOURCE PARTITIONING USING STABLE ISOTOPES: COPING WITH TOO MANY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in environmental studies. One application is to use isotopic ratios to quantitatively determine the proportional contribution of several sources to a mixture, such as the proportion of various pollution sources in a waste st...

266

Open Source in accessibility analyses Open Source in accessibility analyses  

E-print Network

Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Ger- many. stefan.neumeier@ti.bund.de Abstract- port" assessing the usability of open source GIS/- data in rural studies. Here we analysed the acces accessibility analysis. This analysis builds upon an open source approach using PostgreSQL/PostGIS as well

Köbben, Barend

267

Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources  

PubMed Central

Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely available for download (right click with the mouse) at links http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-Peps-WEB.xlsx (web version) and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-sialogenins.zip (stand alone version). PMID:22778902

Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

2012-01-01

268

Ion source choices - an h- source for the high intensity neutrino source  

SciTech Connect

The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) program at Fermilab (formerly the Proton Driver) aims to develop a multi-mission linear accelerator (LINAC) capable of accelerate H{sup -} ions to 8 GeV. This paper touches on the ion source requirements for the HINS and discusses long pulse length testing of three ion sources which appear to have the capability of meeting these requirements.

Moehs, Douglas P.; /Fermilab; Welton, Robert F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Stockli, Martin P.; Peters, Jens; /DESY; Alessi, James; /Brookhaven

2006-08-01

269

Building the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

This timelapse video shows the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source (APS) rising from an empty field at Argonne National Laboratory to become the source of the Western Hemisphere's brightest x-rays for research. The video was compiled from still photographs taken from 1990-1996.

None

2010-01-01

270

Automatic Source Code Plagiarism Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plagiarism is one form of academic dishonesty, which is often done by students in programming classes. In a large class, detecting plagiarism manually is both difficult and time-consuming, especially due to the numerous modifications of the source code to conceal the cheating.We designed and developed Deimos, a prototype of a source code plagiarism detector, which can be extended to handle

Cynthia Kustanto; Inggriani Liem

2009-01-01

271

Theory of extragalactic radio sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerful extragalactic radio sources comprise two extended regions containing magnetic field and synchrotron-emitting relativistic electrons, each linked by a jet to a central compact radio source located in the nucleus of the associated galaxy. These jets are collimated streams of plasma that emerge from the nucleus in opposite directions, along which flow mass, momentum, energy, and magnetic flux. Methods of

Mitchell Begelman; Roger Blandford; Martin Rees

1984-01-01

272

Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

Kari, I.B. (Pakistan Petroleum Limited, Sindh (Pakistan))

1993-02-01

273

Online Sources for Competitor Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competitor information gathering is a key aspect of business planning. Information can be collected from either published or unpublished sources. Unpublished information will often be verified based on material from published sources. Published information is more likely to be factual and includes financial, stockmarket, press, market and…

Weiss, Arthur

274

Ultra-wideband source research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave sources and antennas are of interest for a variety of applications such as transient radar, mine detection and unexploded ordnance (UXO) location and identification. Much of the current research is being performed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Kirtland AFB, NM, USA. The approach to high power source development has included high pressure gas switching,

William D. Prather; Carl E. Baum; Jane M. Lehr; J. P. O'Loughlin; S. Tyo; J. S. H. Schoenberg; R. J. Torres; T. C. Tran; D. W. Scholfield; J. W. Burger; J. Gaudet

1999-01-01

275

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter identifies and describes major industrial sources of methane (CH4) emissions. or each source type examined, it identifies CH4 release points and discusses in detail the factors affecting emissions. t also summarizes and discusses available global and country-specific ...

276

Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive website from professor James A. Svoboda of Clarkson University describes current controlled current source (CCCS). The interactive applet depicts a circuit that contains a Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS). The gain of the CCCS can be changed using the scroll bar.

Svoboda, James A.

2011-08-29

277

MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING GUIDE DOCUMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A significant percentage of surface waters I the U.S. do not meet the designated use criteria as determined by high densities of fecal indicator bacteria as set forth by the Clean Water Act. Both point and non-point sources contribute to water pollution. In contrast to point sources such as sewage...

278

SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK  

EPA Science Inventory

This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

279

Radioactive Sources in Chemical Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive sources including all radioactive materials exceeding exemption levels have to be registered in national databases according to international standards based on the recommendations ICRP 60 and a proper licensing should take place as described for example in the 96\\/29\\/EURATOM. In spite of that, unregistered sources could be found, usually due to the fact that the owner is not aware

Helena Jan

280

Regional source rock mapping using a source potential rating index  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed to combine sediment thickness, organic carbon content, and thermal-maturity data from potential source rock units into a single mapable parameter that can be used to indicate areas of potential hydrocarbon generation. This parameter is computed by multiplying the average percent organic carbon by the effective source rock thickness of a formation. This yields a richness factor that is then multiplied by maturity scaling factors to give source potential ratings for oil and/or gas generation. The rating values can be combined with kerogen type data, if available, to refine these assessments of generating potential. The rating index can also be used with burial history curves and thermal-maturation modeling to look at source potential during geologic time. An example is given of the rating index mapping applied to the Bakken Formation in the Williston basin. The source potential rating index provides objective, semiquantitative measures by which the source potential of a single formation can be compared within an area, or by which the source potential of two or more formations can be compared in the same or different basins. In conjunction with structural analysis of a basin, the resulting maps can help the explorer explain known hydrocarbon accumulations, trace migration pathways, and point toward new areas for exploration.

Dembicki, H.; Pirkle, F.L.

1985-04-01

281

Slotted antenna waveguide plasma source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high density plasma generated by microwave injection using a windowless electrodeless rectangular slotted antenna waveguide plasma source has been demonstrated. Plasma probe measurements indicate that the source could be applicable for low power ion thruster applications, ion implantation, and related applications. This slotted antenna plasma source invention operates on the principle of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). It employs no window and it is completely electrodeless and therefore its operation lifetime is long, being limited only by either the microwave generator itself or charged particle extraction grids if used. The high density plasma source can also be used to extract an electron beam that can be used as a plasma cathode neutralizer for ion source beam neutralization applications.

Foster, John (Inventor)

2007-01-01

282

Sources of Stem Cells for Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic Donor matching for allogeneic transplant Sources of stem cells for transplant There are 3 possible sources of ... cord blood transplants are being actively studied. Which stem cell source is best? All 3 sources of stem ...

283

Source and Propagation Characteristics of Explosive and Other Seismic Sources  

SciTech Connect

Understanding of the source and propagation characteristics of seismic events of different types including earthquakes, explosions and mining-induced events is essential for successful discrimination of nuclear explosions. We are compiling a data set of mining related seismic events in east Eurasia. Natural earthquake data in the same region are also collected for comparison study between mining related events and earthquakes. The ground-truth data set will provide a unique and valuable resource for monitoring research. We will utilize the data set to investigate the source and propagation characteristics of seismic sources of different types including mine blasts, tremors, collapses and earthquakes. We will use various seismological techniques including spectral analysis, and waveform modeling to conduct the investigation. The research will improve our understanding of the S-wave excitation and propagation characteristics of chemical explosions and other source types.

Ni, X; Chan, W; Wagner, R; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M

2005-07-14

284

International Data on Radiological Sources  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT The mission of radiological dispersal device (RDD) nuclear forensics is to identify the provenance of nuclear and radiological materials used in RDDs and to aid law enforcement in tracking nuclear materials and routes. The application of databases to radiological forensics is to match RDD source material to a source model in the database, provide guidance regarding a possible second device, and aid the FBI by providing a short list of manufacturers and distributors, and ultimately to the last legal owner of the source. The Argonne/Idaho National Laboratory RDD attribution database is a powerful technical tool in radiological forensics. The database (1267 unique vendors) includes all sealed sources and a device registered in the U.S., is complemented by data from the IAEA Catalogue, and is supported by rigorous in-lab characterization of selected sealed sources regarding physical form, radiochemical composition, and age-dating profiles. Close working relationships with global partners in the commercial sealed sources industry provide invaluable technical information and expertise in the development of signature profiles. These profiles are critical to the down-selection of potential candidates in either pre- or post- event RDD attribution. The down-selection process includes a match between an interdicted (or detonated) source and a model in the database linked to one or more manufacturers and distributors.

Martha Finck; Margaret Goldberg

2010-07-01

285

Source rock potential in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))

1991-03-01

286

Ejs Two Source Interference Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Two Source Interference model displays the interference pattern on a screen due to two point sources. The simulation allows an arbitrarily superposition of the two sources and shows both the current intensity and running average of the intensity on the screen. The separation, phase difference, amplitude, wave number, and phase velocity of each point source can be changed via text boxes. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Two Source Interference model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_waves_interference.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for wave optics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2008-08-19

287

Interference with Synchronous Sources Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Interference with Synchronous Sources model displays the interference pattern on a screen due to between one and twenty point sources. The simulation allows an arbitrarily superposition of the sources and shows both the current intensity and running average of the intensity on the screen. The number of sources, their separation, wavelength, and phase velocity can be changed via text boxes. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Interference with Synchronous Sources model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_waves_synchronous.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for wave optics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2008-08-19

288

Diversity employment and recruitment sources  

SciTech Connect

Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

Not Available

1994-08-01

289

Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources  

SciTech Connect

This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R&D program is included in an appendix.

Weiren Chou

2003-02-06

290

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

1983-11-10

291

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MAJOR BARIUM CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental effects the source severity,...

292

An Open Source Simulation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the current state of the art of open source real time programming practices. This document includes what technologies are available, how easy is it to obtain, configure, and use them, and some performance measures done on the different systems. A matrix of vendors and their products is included as part of this investigation, but this is not an exhaustive list, and represents only a snapshot of time in a field that is changing rapidly. Specifically, there are three approaches investigated: 1. Completely open source on generic hardware, downloaded from the net. 2. Open source packaged by a vender and provided as free evaluation copy. 3. Proprietary hardware with pre-loaded proprietary source available software provided by the vender as for our evaluation.

Slack, Thomas

2005-01-01

293

Funding Sources for Women's Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Winter 1997 issue of Feminist Collections, produced by the University of Wisconsin System's Women's Studies Librarian's Office, includes a column by Elizabeth Breed on Internet sites on grants, scholarships, and other funding sources for women's studies.

294

Current Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive website from professor James A. Svoboda of Clarkson University describes a circuit that contains a Current Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS). The gain of the CCVS can be changed using the scrollbar.

Svoboda, James A.

2012-12-17

295

Carotenoids, chemistry, sources and physiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter for the Enclyclopedia of Human Nutrition (3rd edition) summarizes the structure, chemical and physiological mechanisms, dietary sources, and metabolism of carotenoids. Carotenoids are a family of phytonutrients which have antioxidant properties under most physiological conditions. Num...

296

An atmospheric pressure plasma source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric pressure plasma source operated by radio frequency power has been developed. This source produces a unique discharge that is volumetric and homogeneous at atmospheric pressure with a gas temperature below 300 °C. It also produces a large quantity of oxygen atoms, ~5×1015 cm-3, which has important value for materials applications. A theoretical model shows electron densities of 0.2-2×1011

Jaeyoung Park; I. Henins; H. W. Herrmann; G. S. Selwyn; J. Y. Jeong; R. F. Hicks; D. Shim; C. S. Chang

2000-01-01

297

Special Issue on Light Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers in this Special Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics originate from the 11th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Light Sources (LS:11) held at Fudan University, Shanghai, China, during 20–24 May 2007. Abstracts of all papers were published in the conference book Light Sources 2007 (Sheffield: FAST-LS) edited by Muqing Liu and R Devonshire.

D O Wharmby

2008-01-01

298

Astrometry of southern radio sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogs. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarcsecond radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way.

White, Graeme L.; Jauncey, David L.; Harvey, Bruce R.; Savage, Ann; Gulkis, Samuel; Preston, Robert A.

1991-01-01

299

H- radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Source.  

PubMed

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent ?38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ?90%. H(-) beam pulses (?1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, ?60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of ?0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of ?99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of ?75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance?installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to ?100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence. PMID:22380234

Welton, R F; Dudnikov, V G; Gawne, K R; Han, B X; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Roseberry, R T; Santana, M; Stockli, M P; Turvey, M W

2012-02-01

300

H- radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent {approx}38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of {approx}90%. H{sup -} beam pulses ({approx}1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, {approx}60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of {approx}0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of {approx}99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of {approx}75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance/installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to {approx}100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence.

Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Roseberry, Ron T [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL

2012-01-01

301

Automated Classification of ROSAT Sources Using Heterogeneous Multiwavelength Source Catalogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an on-line system for automated classification of X-ray sources, ClassX, and present preliminary results of classification of the three major catalogs of ROSAT sources, RASS BSC, RASS FSC, and WGACAT, into six class categories: stars, white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, galaxies, AGNs, and clusters of galaxies. ClassX is based on a machine learning technology. It represents a system of classifiers, each classifier consisting of a considerable number of oblique decision trees. These trees are built as the classifier is 'trained' to recognize various classes of objects using a training sample of sources of known object types. Each source is characterized by a preselected set of parameters, or attributes; the same set is then used as the classifier conducts classification of sources of unknown identity. The ClassX pipeline features an automatic search for X-ray source counterparts among heterogeneous data sets in on-line data archives using Virtual Observatory protocols; it retrieves from those archives all the attributes required by the selected classifier and inputs them to the classifier. The user input to ClassX is typically a file with target coordinates, optionally complemented with target IDs. The output contains the class name, attributes, and class probabilities for all classified targets. We discuss ways to characterize and assess the classifier quality and performance and present the respective validation procedures. Based on both internal and external validation, we conclude that the ClassX classifiers yield reasonable and reliable classifications for ROSAT sources and have the potential to broaden class representation significantly for rare object types.

McGlynn, Thomas; Suchkov, A. A.; Winter, E. L.; Hanisch, R. J.; White, R. L.; Ochsenbein, F.; Derriere, S.; Voges, W.; Corcoran, M. F.

2004-01-01

302

High power Josephson effect sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress is reported toward the development of high power linear array Josephson effect sources for the submillimeter wave. A series biased array, fabricated at IBM, was successfully tested and demonstrated fully coherent operation with a power of over 1 microns W into 50 omega near 300 GHz. A single chip source detector was designed, fabricated (at Stony Brook) and tested. On-chip source-mixing between two small array sources operating near 300 GHz was accomplished with the IF, near 10 GHz, being coupled out of the cryostat for direct linewidth measurement. The measured linewidth agreed with theory. This chip also demonstrated a new array design in which groups of multiple, closely spaced junctions were placed at wavelength intervals. This permitted much higher density and consequently higher power per unit area from the arrays. This new design was incorporated into a 500 junction source, also fabricated at IBM, which delivered nearly 5O microns W to a load of over 50 omega near 400 GHz. The PARTS process used by IBM for this fabrication has now been set up at Stony Brook permitting on-site fabrication o even higher power sources.

Lukens, James

1994-09-01

303

Spectroradiometric calibration of blackbody sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An IR camera responds to infrared radiant energy over a waveband determined by the camera optics and detector. Most cameras operate in either the 3 to 5 micrometers or 8 to 12 micrometers wavebands as they represent good atmospheric windows. Temperature measurement using these cameras is performed within the camera, which will correct for target emissivity and background temperatures. The algorithm that does this makes a key assumption: the target is a graybody source (constant emissivity over the waveband of the IR camera). To effect this calculation, modern infrared (IR) cameras are calibrated using blackbody sources. The calibration data set is stored in the camera firmware as a lookup table. To be accurate, blackbody sources must be graybodies with emissivities very close to one. The fact that there are no perfect blackbodies can be overcome as long as the emissivity is constant with wavelength. Spectroradiometric calibration of blackbody sources is the best way to ensure the radiant energy emanating from the source follows Planck's law over the waveband of the IR camera being calibrated (another way of saying graybody). At FLIR Systems, Inc. we used a CI Systems SR-5000 spectroradiometer to spectrally characterize 20 blackbody sources of various manufacturer and type.

Madding, Robert P.

2001-03-01

304

Example: LBL Forensics i dont think this looks good  

E-print Network

Measurement Conference 2005 #12;Enhancing Telescope Imagery NGC6543: Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (http://chandra.harvard.edu) #12;Enhancing Telescope Imagery NGC6543: Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (http blocks. · Flaw had been announced the previous day. · Written by a Pro. #12;Witty Telescope Data · UCSD

Paxson, Vern

305

Louis-Benoit Desroches! (ldesroches@lbl.gov)!  

E-print Network

Pumps Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines Commercial Clothes Washers Five Final Rules in 2010 Savings = 9% of 2025 residential energy use · Carbon Reductions in 2025 = 132 million metric tons CO2/year

Kammen, Daniel M.

306

THE LUMINA PROJECT http://light.lbl.gov  

E-print Network

in which 14 of the 23 businesses purchased and used low cost LED lamps over a number of months. See Figure-enterprises that we studied had a strong interest in rechargeable LED lamps for both business and home lighting on a Shoestring Budget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Businesses in Kenya Kristen Radecsky*, Peter

Jacobson, Arne

307

LBL-27170 (2011) Site Environmental Report for 2010  

E-print Network

thereof or The Regents of the University of California. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Cover photo by John Turner of the Material Sciences

308

LBL-27170 (2010) Site Environmental Report for 2009  

E-print Network

thereof or The Regents of the University of California. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Cover photo by John Turner of the Material Sciences

309

Progress report on LBL's numerical modeling studies on Cerro Prieto  

SciTech Connect

An exploitation model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system is needed to assess the energy capacity of the field, estimate its productive lifetime and develop an optimal reservoir management plan. The model must consider the natural state (i.e., pre-exploitation) conditions of the system and be able to predict changes in the reservoir thermodynamic conditions (and fluid chemistry) in response to fluid production (and injection). This paper discusses the results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the natural state conditions of the Cerro Prieto field and compares computed and observed pressure and temperature/enthalpy changes for the 1973--1987 production period. 16 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

Halfman-Dooley, S.E.; Lippman, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1989-04-01

310

Optimizing proton therapy at the LBL medical accelerator. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This Grant has marked the beginning of a multi-year study process expected to lead to design and construction of at least one, possibly several hospital-based proton therapy facilities in the United States.

Alonso, J.

1992-03-01

311

Optimizing proton therapy at the LBL medical accelerator  

SciTech Connect

This Grant has marked the beginning of a multi-year study process expected to lead to design and construction of at least one, possibly several hospital-based proton therapy facilities in the United States.

Alonso, J.

1992-03-01

312

3-D Source & NWL Update Paul Wilson  

E-print Network

9/26/2006 3-D Source & NWL Update Paul Wilson #12;9/26/2006 Update on ARIES-CS 3-D Source and NWL 2 Fundamental Source Density Note: based on Data from J. Lyon (ORNL) #12;9/26/2006 Update on ARIES-CS 3-D Source on ARIES-CS 3-D Source and NWL 4 Peak source probability lower at 60o Toroidal Angle (=0o) Peak source

313

rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H-ion source  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering 38 mA H beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride AlN plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Fuja, Raymond E [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Hardek, Thomas W [ORNL; Lee, Sung-Woo [ORNL; McCarthy, Mike [ORNL; Piller, Chip [ORNL; Shin, Ki [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

2010-01-01

314

MODELING WEB SOURCES AS RELATIONSMODELING WEB SOURCES AS RELATIONSMODELING WEB SOURCES AS RELATIONS Simone Santini  

E-print Network

Simone Santini Abstract This paper presents a model of relational access to functional data sources that unfeasible. Escuela Polit´ecnica Superior, Universidad Aut´onoma de Madrid 1 #12;Santini--Modeling web

Santini, Simone

315

Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources  

DOEpatents

A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01

316

Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources  

DOEpatents

A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

1997-06-24

317

Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources  

DOEpatents

A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

2002-01-01

318

Distributed Source Coding for Satellite Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by mobile satellite communications systems, we consider a source coding system which consists of multiple sources, multiple encoders, and multiple decoders. Each encoder has access to a certain subset of the sources, each decoder has access to certain subset of the encoders, and each decoder reconstructs a certain subset of the sources almost perfectly. The connectivity between the sources

Raymond W. Yeung; Zhen Zhang

1999-01-01

319

Miniature field deployable terahertz source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in terahertz sources include compacted electron beam systems, optical mixing techniques, and multiplication of microwave frequencies. Although significant advances in THz science have been achieved, efforts continue to obtain source technologies that are more mobile and suitable for field deployment. Strategies in source development have approached generation from either end of the THz spectrum, from up-conversion of high-frequency microwave to down-conversion of optical frequencies. In this paper, we present the design of a THz source which employs an up-conversion method in an assembly that integrates power supply, electronics, and radiative component into a man-portable unit for situations in which a lab system is not feasible. This unit will ultimately evolve into a ruggedized package suitable for use in extreme conditions, e.g. temporary security check points or emergency response teams, in conditions where THz diagnostics are needed with minimal planning or logistical support. In order to meet design goals of reduced size and complexity, the inner workings of the unit ideally would be condensed into a monolithic active element, with ancillary systems, e.g. user interface and power, coupled to the element. To attain these goals, the fundamental component of our design is a THz source and lens array that may be fabricated with either printed circuit board or wafer substrate. To reduce the volume occupied by the source array, the design employs a metamaterial composed of a periodic lattice of resonant elements. Each resonant element is an LC oscillator, or tank circuit, with inductance, capacitance, and center frequency determined by dimensioning and material parameters. The source array and supporting electronics are designed so that the radiative elements are driven in-phase to yield THz radiation with a high degree of partial coherence. Simulation indicates that the spectral width of operation may be controlled by detuning of critical dimensions. We discuss simulation results and frequency response for a single element and the source array, and the component density necessary to achieve target output intensities. After obtaining the primary objective of a designing a compact fieldable THz source, the secondary goal is developing a fabrication recipe which draws upon existing methods in PCB/integrated circuit manufacturing to obtain a device that may be produced at volume with high yield.

Mayes, Mark G.

2006-05-01

320

Research on fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

2012-06-19

321

Peculiar galaxies and radio sources.  

PubMed

Pairs of radio sources which are separated by from 2 degrees to 6 degrees on the sky have been investigated. In a number of cases peculiar galaxies have been found approximately midway along a line joining the two radio sources. The central peculiar galaxies belong mainly to a certain class in the recently compiled Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. Among the radio sources so far associated with the peculiar galaxies are at least five known quasars. These quasars are indicated to be not at cosmological distances (that is, red shifts not caused by expansion of the universe) because the central peculiar galaxies are only at distances of 10 to 100 megaparsecs. The absolute magnitudes of these quasars are indicated to be in the range of brightness of normal galaxies and downward. Some of the radio sources which have been found to be associated with peculiar galaxies are galaxies themselves. It is therefore implied that ejection of material took place within or near the parent peculiar galaxies with speeds between 10(2) and 10(4) kilometers per second. After traveling for times of the order of 10(7) to 10(9) years, the luminous matter (galaxies) and radio sources (plasma) have reached their observed separations from the central peculiar galaxy. The large red shifts measured for the quasars would seem to be either (i) gravitational, (ii) collapse velocities of clouds of material falling toward the center of these compact galaxies, or (iii) some as yet unknown cause. PMID:17800993

Arp, H

1966-03-11

322

Research on fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P.

2012-06-01

323

Miniature x-ray source  

DOEpatents

A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

2000-01-01

324

Materials for spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The Workshop on Materials for Spallation Neutron Sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, February 6 to 10, 1995, gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss areas in which work is needed, successful designs and use of materials, and opportunities for further studies. During the first day of the workshop, speakers presented overviews of current spallation neutron sources. During the next 3 days, seven panels allowed speakers to present information on a variety of topics ranging from experimental and theoretical considerations on radiation damage to materials safety issues. An attempt was made to identify specific problems that require attention within the context of spallation neutron sources. This proceedings is a collection of summaries from the overview sessions and the panel presentations.

Sommer, W.F.; Daemen, L.L. [comps.

1996-03-01

325

Miniature x-ray source  

DOEpatents

A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

2002-01-01

326

A review of terahertz sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bibliometric data set the scene by illustrating the growth of terahertz work and the present interest in terahertz science and technology. After locating terahertz sources within the broader context of terahertz systems, an overview is given of the range of available sources, emphasizing recent developments. The focus then narrows to terahertz sources that rely on surface phenomena. Three are highlighted. Optical rectification, usually thought of as a bulk process, may in addition exhibit a surface contribution, which, in some cases, predominates. Transient surface currents, for convenience often separated into drift and diffusion currents, are well understood according to Monte Carlo modelling. Finally, terahertz surface emission by mechanical means—in the absence of photoexcitation—is described.

Lewis, R. A.

2014-09-01

327

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PRIORITIZATION OF STATIONARY WATER POLLUTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives priority lists to aid in selecting specific sources of water effluents for detailed assessment. It describes the general water prioritization model, explains its implementation, and gives a detailed example of its use. It describes hazard factors that were develo...

328

Open Source Data Sources Academy of Management PDW  

E-print Network

of academic researchers Collective spidering of Sourceforge, Rubyforge, Freshmeat and ObjectWeb ScriptsD Candidate Syracuse University School of Information Studies Supported by The Syracuse FLOSS project://floss.syr.edu/presentations/FlossDataTutAoM2006/ #12;13 August 2006Open Source Data Tutorial, James Howison, Academy PDW What's available? Project

Crowston, Kevin

329

GOVERNMENT INCOME SOURCE(S) Student Name Study Period  

E-print Network

May 2013 GOVERNMENT INCOME SOURCE Faculty/Year It is important to claim government benefits accurately in order to ensure your funding government agency about receiving benefits and OSAP or Part­Time Loan assistance at the same time. Therefore

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

330

LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei advanced light source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual of Hefei Advanced Light Source, which is an advanced VUV and Soft X-ray source, was developed at NSRL of USTC. According to the synchrotron radiation user requirements and the trends of SR source development, some accelerator-based schemes were considered and compared; furthermore storage ring with ultra low emittance was adopted as the baseline scheme of HALS. To achieve ultra low emittance, some focusing structures were studied and optimized in the lattice design. Compromising of emittance, on-momentum and off-momentum dynamic aperture and ring scale, five bend acromat (FBA) was employed. In the preliminary design of HALS, the emittance was reduced to sub nm · rad, thus the radiation up to water window has full lateral coherence. The brilliance of undulator radiation covering several eVs to keVs range is higher than that of HLS by several orders. The HALS should be one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation light sources in the world.

Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

2009-06-01

331

SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA  

SciTech Connect

The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning (David) Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

2005-09-30

332

Review: Semiconductor Quantum Light Sources  

E-print Network

Lasers and LEDs display a statistical distribution in the number of photons emitted in a given time interval. New applications exploiting the quantum properties of light require sources for which either individual photons, or pairs, are generated in a regulated stream. Here we review recent research on single-photon sources based on the emission of a single semiconductor quantum dot. In just a few years remarkable progress has been made in generating indistinguishable single-photons and entangled photon pairs using such structures. It suggests it may be possible to realise compact, robust, LED-like semiconductor devices for quantum light generation.

Andrew J Shields

2007-04-03

333

Tikal obsidian: sources and typology  

SciTech Connect

The obsidian industry of Classic period Tikal, Guatemala, is discussed with regard to geological source determinations and behavioral typology. The potential of these two approaches for cultural reconstruction is greatly extended when they can supplement each other. Recent source determinations of obsidian artifacts from Tikal indicate (1) a behavioral link between locally-produced prismatic blades of Highland Guatemalan stone and ceremonial incised obsidians and eccentrics, and (2) a Central Mexican origin for a seemingly large portion of Tikal's obsidian projectile points and knives. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

Moholy-Nagy, H.; Asaro, F.; Stross, F.H.

1984-01-01

334

Online bibliographic sources in hydrology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traditional commercial bibliographic databases and indexes provide some access to hydrology materials produced by the government; however, these sources do not provide comprehensive coverage of relevant hydrologic publications. This paper discusses bibliographic information available from the federal government and state geological surveys, water resources agencies, and depositories. In addition to information in these databases, the paper describes the scope, styles of citing, subject terminology, and the ways these information sources are currently being searched, formally and informally, by hydrologists. Information available from the federal and state agencies and from the state depositories might be missed by limiting searches to commercially distributed databases. ?? 2001 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.].

Wild, E.C.; Michael, Havener W.

2001-01-01

335

The JavaScript Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The JavaScript Source contains hundreds of scripts which can be copied and used free of charge. Scripts are divided into categories such as Background Effects, Buttons, Cookies, and Forms. Included with each script is the description, file size, and contributor information. The JavaScript Source also provides several services beyond the collection. If you'd rather receive code in email, they will send it to you. A discussion forum is available. A free biweekly newsletter informs its subscribers of newly added scripts.

336

46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310...49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

2013-10-01

337

46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310...49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

2012-10-01

338

46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310...49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

2011-10-01

339

46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310...49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

2010-10-01

340

A global sourcing strategy for durable tooling  

E-print Network

Competitive pressures in manufacturing industries have led to an increased utilization of strategic sourcing initiatives: among them is low cost sourcing. While low cost sourcing has been used extensively for direct ...

Vasovski, Steven

2006-01-01

341

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2010-07-01

342

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2014-07-01

343

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2013-07-01

344

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2011-07-01

345

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2011-07-01

346

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2012-07-01

347

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2012-07-01

348

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2014-07-01

349

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2013-07-01

350

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2010-07-01

351

Mercury Effects, Sources and Control Measures  

E-print Network

Mercury Effects, Sources and Control Measures Prepared by Alan B. Jones, Brooks Rand, Ltd., Seattle ................................................................................................................................1 MERCURY SOURCES....................................................................................................................................................................................8 Mercury dumping from naval vessels

352

Finding radiant-energy sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antenna is scanned in orthogonal directions to pinpoint interfering sources. Satellite system locates ground-based microwave transmitter to accuracy of about 100 miles. When data on misalinement of satellite antenna boresight are used to correct antenna pointing, accuracy is improved to better than 70 miles.

Schaffer, G. J.

1978-01-01

353

Voltage Controlled Current Source (VCCS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Clarkson University, this websited contains an applet which demonstrates a circuit that contains a voltage controlled current source (VCCS). The gain of the VCCS can be changed using the scrollbar. This simple resource is a nice representation for a technical education classroom.

Dorf, Richard C.

354

Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Clarkson University, this applet demonstrates a circuit that contains a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS). The gain may be modified using the scroll bar. Even though brief, this resource can be used in a variety of different technical education classrooms.

Dorf, Richard C.

355

National Synchrotron Light Source II  

ScienceCinema

The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

Steve Dierker

2010-01-08

356

Saturnian kilometric radiation: Source locations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surce locations of both polariation components of the saturn kilometer wavelength radiation were deduced using Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 planetary radio astronomy data and assumptions about radiation beam geometry. Radio source footprints were compared with the surface locations of saturns ultraviolet aurorae, its polar cap boundary, and its polar cusp.

Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

1981-01-01

357

THE OPEN SOURCING OF EPANET  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal was made at the 2009 EWRI Congress in Kansas City, MO to establish an Open Source Project (OSP) for the widely used EPANET pipe network analysis program. This would be an ongoing collaborative effort among a group of geographically dispersed advisors and developers, wo...

358

Reasoning about Discrete Event Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the modelling of workflows, plans, and other event-generating processes as discrete event sources and reason about the possibility of having event sequences ending in undesirable states. In previous re- search, the problem is shown to be NP-Complete even if the number of events to occur is fixed in advance. In this paper, we consider possible events sequences of

Shieu-hong Lin

2006-01-01

359

Information Powered by Primary Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Library of Congress's American Memory Historical Collections, primary sources, available at http://memory.loc.gov. Describes the American Memory Fellowship Program, a year-long professional development opportunity with two purposes: to have teachers, librarians and others create original teaching materials that draw upon American…

Veccia, Susan

2000-01-01

360

MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING GUIDE DOCUMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Approximately 13% of surface waters in the United States do not meet designated use criteria as determined by high densities of fecal indicator bacteria. Although some of the contamination is attributed to point sources such as confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) and wastew...

361

Primary Sources and Inquiry Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses inquiry learning and primary sources. Inquiry learning puts students in the active role of investigators. Questioning, authentic and active learning, and interactivity are a few of the characteristics of inquiry learning that put the teacher and library media specialist in the role of coaches while students…

Pappas, Marjorie L.

2006-01-01

362

MIT inverse Compton source concept  

E-print Network

A compact X-ray source based on inverse Compton scattering of a high-power laser on a high-brightness linac beam is described. The facility can operate in two modes: at high (MHz) repetition rate with flux and brilliance ...

Graves, William S.

363

IDENTIFYING SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution from ambient sources continues to adversely impact human health in the United States. A fundamental goal for EPA is to implement air quality standards and regulations that reduce health risks associated with exposures to criteria pollutants and air toxics. However...

364

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the assessment of air emissions from the manufacture of carbon black, currently manufactured in the U.S. by two major processes: thermal and oil furnace. Sources of atmospheric emissions within oil furnace plants (about 90% of the 30 U.S. carbon black plants...

365

Advanced Light Source Teacher Packet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is a repository for a workshop that was held by The Advanced Light Source for local teachers in 1996. Hands-on classroom activities on electricity, magnets, and polarized light created for that workshop, and several other fact sheets about the ALS, are provided.

2008-09-20

366

Fast neutron source reactor, YAYOI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the fast neutron source reactor, YAYOI of the University of Tokyo are described. The results of major researches are summarized. Those are the studies of fast neutron shielding and neutron transport, development of standard neutron field, advanced neutron detection, measurement of decay heat, development of epithermal neutron columns for boron neutron capture therapy, on-line tritium recovery from

Y. Oka; S. Koshizuka; I. Saito; K. Okamura; N. Aizawa; N. Sasuga; T. Sukegawa; T. Terakado; Y. Mabuchi; T. Nakagawa; S. An

1998-01-01

367

Characterization of generic light sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this note is to describe the degenerate critical point behavior of illumination functions as function of light direction and to use this description to characterize the set of light source directions whose image intensities have no degenerate critical points. A relationship, the accidental axis theorem, between certain degeneracies and the intrinsic geometry of the scene is established.

Krueger, Warren M.

1997-10-01

368

5, 1305313073, 2005 Sources and  

E-print Network

are mostly water insoluble while salts found in fine particles are soluble. Concentrations of nitrates Africa and marine aerosols are consid- ered major sources of the determined inorganic ions. Considering the formation of high levels of secondary pollutants (Lelieveld et al., 2002) and other reactive species

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

History Sources on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides descriptions of key online history resources useful to teachers, librarians, and other education professionals. Highlights include: primary sources on the Internet; archives; Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs); the American Historical Association (AHA) Web site; state and federal government resources; business history…

Fink, Kenneth D.

370

Information Sources on Rural Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

1992-01-01

371

Guam and Micronesia Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article lists reference sources for studying Guam and Micronesia. The entries are arranged alphabetically by main entry within each section in the categories of: (1) bibliographical works; (2) travel and guide books; (3) handbooks and surveys; (4) dictionaries; (5) yearbooks; (6) periodical and newspaper publications; and (7) audiovisual…

Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.; Goniwiecha, Mark C.

1993-01-01

372

Dependence clusters in source code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dependence cluster is a set of program statements, all of which are mutually inter-dependent. This paper reports a large scale empirical study of dependence clusters in C program source code. The study reveals that large dependence clusters are surprisingly commonplace. Most of the 45 programs studied have clusters of dependence that consume more than 10% of the whole program.

Mark Harman; David Binkley; Keith Gallagher; Nicolas Gold; Jens Krinke

2009-01-01

373

National Synchrotron Light Source II  

SciTech Connect

The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

Steve Dierker

2008-03-12

374

SOURCES OF COPPER AIR EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to update estimates of atmospheric emissions of copper and copper compounds in the U.S. Source categories evaluated included: metallic minerals, primary copper smelters, iron and steel making, combustion, municipal incineration, secondary coppe...

375

Deep space travel energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration of the planets beyond Mars and their surroundings is already planned. Astronomy researchers are citing important information that can be obtained with instrumented spacecraft that fly beyond the planets of our solar system. Spacecraft flying these missions need power for performing their functions and communicating with Earth stations. Sunlight in these zones is so weak that alternative energy sources

H. Oman

2003-01-01

376

Validating new source performance standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience has shown that before a stationary source test method can be successfully collaboratively tested, it must be described in sufficient detail to ensure that each collaborator uses exactly the same sampling and analysis procedures. Further, it must give repeatable results when one laboratory analyzes the same sample several times. This repeatability can be assured only through intensive method evaluation,

Midgett

1977-01-01

377

Sources of Consumer Education Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists publications issued by the federal government, universities, and commercial sources on consumer education with ordering information and prices. Subjects include foods, water conservation, money management, and auto defects, as well as general consumerism. Some of the materials contain lesson ideas and teaching activities. (MF)

Illinois Teacher of Home Economics, 1978

1978-01-01

378

Ukraine experimental neutron source facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an experimental neutron source facility. The facility has been developed for producing medical isotopes, training young nuclear professionals, supporting the Ukraine nuclear industry, providing capability for performing reactor physics, material research, and basic science experiments. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA is collaborating with KIPT on

Y. Gohar; I. Bolshinsky; I. Nekludov; I. Karnaukhov

2008-01-01

379

Alternative energy sources for agriculture  

SciTech Connect

The following energy systems are discussed as alternative sources of energy for agriculture and potential demonstration projects in vocational agriculture programs: solar water heating, solar greenhouse heating, solar crop drying, gasification of wood or crop residues, and methane generation from livestock wastes. 13 references.

Baird, D.

1981-05-01

380

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: ASPHALT HOT MIX  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the asphalt hot mix industry. A representative asphalt hot mix plant was defined, based on the results of an industrial survey, to assess the severity of emissions from this industry. Source severity was defined as the ratio of th...

381

SOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The options for pollution abatement in WWF can be implemented at the source by land management and pollution prevention techniques, in the collection system, offline by storage, or in a treatment plant. An integrated system that combines prevention, control, and treatment has of...

382

Alternative Sources of Student Financing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Financial barriers to college attendance that affect women, minorities, low-income, and other nontraditional students are identified, along with alternative sources of student financial aid. Research has suggested that financially-independent students are most vulnerable to fluctuations in aid, and tend to have low incomes, be minority members or…

Cross, Dolores E.

383

Ground as a heat source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ground represents a suitable heat source for heat pump installations if acceptable quantities of ground material can provide the heat required for the heating of a dwelling house. It is assumed that there will not be an excessive decrease in the evaporator temperature, because such a decrease would lead to an intolerable decrease in heat pump efficiency. The operational

J. Neiss; E. R. F. Winter

1977-01-01

384

Sources of Information about Magazines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was prepared by the Magazine Publishers Association as a guide to some of the available sources of information about consumer magazines. Some of the data provided by the services listed in this booklet are based on circulation audits, actual measurements of advertising space, or factual statements of procedure and mechanical details.…

Magazine Publishers Association, Inc., New York, NY.

385

Impurity Source Studies in TCS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The original TCS experiment has demonstrated the robust ability to form and sustain FRCs in steady-state using Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF). RMF parameters set the plasma density, but the temperature was severely limited by radiation, which was determined to be the dominant source of power loss for these plasmas. The total radiated power was strongly correlated with the Oxygen line radiation. This suggests Oxygen is the dominant radiating species. Determining the source of the impurities is an important question that must be answered for the TCS upgrade. Indications are that the primary sources of Oxygen are the stainless steel end cones. A Ti gettering system was installed, however, removal of Oxygen was accompanied by an increase in neutral Hydrogen, which also severely limited performance. These findings factored heavily into the design of the vacuum system and cleaning techniques for the TCS upgrade. The DIVIMP impurity code was modified to run on FRC geometries and showed that core impurity contamination is strongly dependent on electron density and radial transport. Thus, impurity source control is more crucial in TCS than high-density theta pinch formed FRCs.

Grossnickle, J. A.

2005-10-01

386

Known and unknown SCUBA sources  

E-print Network

Summary and discussion of some projects to use SCUBA to target sources selected at other wavebands, as well as to find new sub-mm galaxies in `blank fields': FIRBACK galaxies; Lyman break galaxies and `the Blob'; HDF flanking fields and the Groth Strip; survey of lensing cluster fields.

Douglas Scott; Colin Borys; Mark Halpern; Anna Sajina; Scott Chapman; Greg Fahlman

2000-10-17

387

Blind source separation of underdetermined mixtures of event-related sources  

E-print Network

Blind source separation of underdetermined mixtures of event-related sources Mohammad Niknazara for underdetermined mixtures (i.e., more sources than sensors) of event-related sources that include quasi-periodic sources (e.g., electrocardiogram (ECG)), sources with synchronized trials (e.g., event-related poten

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

Ion source antenna development for the Spallation Neutron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operational lifetime of a radio-frequency (rf) ion source is generally governed by the length of time the insulating structure protecting the antenna survives during exposure to the plasma. Coating the antenna with a thin layer of insulating material is a common means of extending the life of such antennas. When low-power\\/low-duty factor rf excitation is employed, antenna lifetimes of

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; Y. Kang; M. Janney; R. Keller; R. W. Thomae; T. Schenkel; S. Shukla

2002-01-01

389

Uncertainty in source partitioning using stable isotopes.  

PubMed

Stable isotope analyses are often used to quantify the contribution of multiple sources to a mixture, such as proportions of food sources in an animal's diet, or C3 and C4 plant inputs to soil organic carbon. Linear mixing models can be used to partition two sources with a single isotopic signature (e.g., ?(13)C) or three sources with a second isotopic signature (e.g., ?(15)N). Although variability of source and mixture signatures is often reported, confidence interval calculations for source proportions typically use only the mixture variability. We provide examples showing that omission of source variability can lead to underestimation of the variability of source proportion estimates. For both two- and three-source mixing models, we present formulas for calculating variances, standard errors (SE), and confidence intervals for source proportion estimates that account for the observed variability in the isotopic signatures for the sources as well as the mixture. We then performed sensitivity analyses to assess the relative importance of: (1) the isotopic signature difference between the sources, (2) isotopic signature standard deviations (SD) in the source and mixture populations, (3) sample size, (4) analytical SD, and (5) the evenness of the source proportions, for determining the variability (SE) of source proportion estimates. The proportion SEs varied inversely with the signature difference between sources, so doubling the source difference from 2‰ to 4‰ reduced the SEs by half. Source and mixture signature SDs had a substantial linear effect on source proportion SEs. However, the population variability of the sources and the mixture are fixed and the sampling error component can be changed only by increasing sample size. Source proportion SEs varied inversely with the square root of sample size, so an increase from 1 to 4 samples per population cut the SE in half. Analytical SD had little effect over the range examined since it was generally substantially smaller than the population SDs. Proportion SEs were minimized when sources were evenly divided, but increased only slightly as the proportions varied. The variance formulas provided will enable quantification of the precision of source proportion estimates. Graphs are provided to allow rapid assessment of possible combinations of source differences and source and mixture population SDs that will allow source proportion estimates with desired precision. In addition, an Excel spreadsheet to perform the calculations for the source proportions and their variances, SEs, and 95% confidence intervals for the two-source and three-source mixing models can be accessed at http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models.htm. PMID:24577646

Phillips, D L; Gregg, J W

2001-04-01

390

S and Ku band frequency source development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the two part S- and Ku-band source development program are described. The S- and Ku-band sources were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. A high performance S- and Ku-band microwave signal source using state-of-the-art oscillator and microwave source technology was developed.

1980-01-01

391

5, 52235252, 2005 Size-resolved source  

E-print Network

, residual oil-fired boiler, municipal incineration, non- ferrous metal source, ferrous metal source and Physics Discussions Size-resolved source apportionment of ambient particles by positive matrix then analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) technique in order to identify possible sources

Boyer, Edmond

392

Current Status of Radio Source Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing astronomical data centres and databases show a notable lack in published information on sources of radio emission. We review the history and present status of radio-source catalogue archiving and on-line retrieval of radio source data. Large efforts were spent by the first author in collecting and restoring electronic versions of new and old source catalogues. Since 1994 a group

H. Andernach; S. A. Trushkin

1998-01-01

393

Performance measurement in blind audio source separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the evaluation of blind audio source separation (BASS) algorithms. Depending on the exact application, different distortions can be allowed between an estimated source and the wanted true source. We consider four dif- ferent sets of such allowed distortions, from time-invariant gains to time-varying filters. In each case, we decompose the estimated source into a true

Emmanuel Vincent; Rémi Gribonval; Cédric Févotte

2006-01-01

394

Higher Social Intelligence Can Impair Source Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Source monitoring is made difficult when the similarity between candidate sources increases. The current work examines how individual differences in social intelligence and perspective-taking abilities serve to increase source similarity and thus negatively impact source memory. Strangers first engaged in a cooperative storytelling task. On each…

Barber, Sarah J.; Franklin, Nancy; Naka, Makiko; Yoshimura, Hiroki

2010-01-01

395

X-ray lithography source  

DOEpatents

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

1991-12-31

396

Low Coherence Optic Source Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of characterization of the coherence length of an optic source using interferometric techniques and digital signal processing. Optic sources are not ideal because of random behavior in the emission process and spectral dispersion. Optical coherence is the ability of light to generate interference, either temporal or spatial. In time domain, coherence is expressed by the autocorrelation function. In case of monochromatic laser, it has larger coherence length, in the order of tenths to hundredth of meters, rather than a superluminiscent diode (SLD), which is shorter, in the orders of millimeters. This work presents a method for measuring coherence length using an automated Michelson interferometer and a SLD with central wavelength ?0 = 1302.4 nm and acquisition system.by means of a soundcard in a personal computer.

Flores-Domínguez, C. E.; Ochoa-Valiente, R.; García-Trujillo, L. A.

2015-01-01

397

Greenhouse Gases: The Overlooked Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast, which took place during the Kyoto Conference on global warming, discusses well-known and more obscure sources of greenhouse gases. Solutions to reduce carbon emissions are discussed, including creating fuel with less carbon in it (biomass fuels); reducing driving by increasing the cost of fuel; and improving vehicle fuel economy. The broadcast then introduces the topic of methane as a greenhouse gas; although less is emitted, it is about fifty times more effective than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. Cattle are a major source of methane; some ideas are introduced for monitoring and reducing their emissions. There is also discussion of whether global warming could be a result of natural variability as opposed to the result of a human-caused greenhouse effect. The broadcast is 49 minutes and 39 seconds in length.

398

Uranus as a radio source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex nature of the Uranus radio emissions, both magnetospheric and atmospheric, is reviewed, with emphasis on the identification of distinct components and the determination of their source locations. Seven radii components were discovered in addition to the RF signature of lightning in the planet's atmosphere. Six of the seven magnetospheric components are freely propagating emissions; one component, the nonthermal continuum, is trapped in the density cavity between the magnetopause and the dense inner magnetosphere. The radio components are divided into two types according to their emission signature: bursty emission and smooth emission. The inferred source location for the dominant nightside emission is above the nightside magnetic pole, largely overlapping the UV auroral region and the magnetic polar cap. The N-burst component appears to be associated with solar-wind enhancements at Uranus, consistent with the idea that the solar wind was triggering magnetospheric substormlike activity during the encounter.

Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Zarka, P.; Lecacheux, A.; Leblanc, Y.; Aubier, M.; Ortega-Molina, A.

1991-01-01

399

Increased security through open source  

E-print Network

In this paper we discuss the impact of open source on both the security and transparency of a software system. We focus on the more technical aspects of this issue, combining and extending arguments developed over the years. We stress that our discussion of the problem only applies to software for general purpose computing systems. For embedded systems, where the software usually cannot easily be patched or upgraded, different considerations may apply.

Jaap-Henk Hoepman; Bart Jacobs

2008-01-25

400

Alternative energy sources. Part A  

SciTech Connect

Proceedings of the 'Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences' held in February 1980, are presented. Papers discuss enhanced oil recovery, tar sands technology,synthetic fuels from coal, production of synthetic fuels from biomass, ethanol from biomass, prospects for photovoltic conversion of solar energy, and the wind energy programme in the USA. One paper has been abstracted separately.

Manassah, J.T. (ed.)

1981-01-01

401

New neutron sources for radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

All existing neutron sources suffer from disadvantages which would not be tolerated in modern megavoltage X-ray equipment. Experimental work with 30-60 MeV protons on beryllium and other elements has shown how these difficulties can to a large extent be overcome. Angular distributions and kerma rates as a function of proton energy are presented for various targets. Thin targets are found

D. K. Bewley

1984-01-01

402

Tracing the source of campylobacteriosis.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in the developed world. It is thought to infect 2-3 million people a year in the US alone, at a cost to the economy in excess of US $4 billion. C. jejuni is a widespread zoonotic pathogen that is carried by animals farmed for meat and poultry. A connection with contaminated food is recognized, but C. jejuni is also commonly found in wild animals and water sources. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that genotypes pathogenic to humans bear greatest resemblance to non-livestock isolates. Moreover, seasonal variation in campylobacteriosis bears the hallmarks of water-borne disease, and certain outbreaks have been attributed to contamination of drinking water. As a result, the relative importance of these reservoirs to human disease is controversial. We use multilocus sequence typing to genotype 1,231 cases of C. jejuni isolated from patients in Lancashire, England. By modeling the DNA sequence evolution and zoonotic transmission of C. jejuni between host species and the environment, we assign human cases probabilistically to source populations. Our novel population genetics approach reveals that the vast majority (97%) of sporadic disease can be attributed to animals farmed for meat and poultry. Chicken and cattle are the principal sources of C. jejuni pathogenic to humans, whereas wild animal and environmental sources are responsible for just 3% of disease. Our results imply that the primary transmission route is through the food chain, and suggest that incidence could be dramatically reduced by enhanced on-farm biosecurity or preventing food-borne transmission. PMID:18818764

Wilson, Daniel J; Gabriel, Edith; Leatherbarrow, Andrew J H; Cheesbrough, John; Gee, Steven; Bolton, Eric; Fox, Andrew; Fearnhead, Paul; Hart, C Anthony; Diggle, Peter J

2008-01-01

403

Error Sources in Asteroid Astrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asteroid astrometry, like any other scientific measurement process, is subject to both random and systematic errors, not all of which are under the observer's control. To design an astrometric observing program or to improve an existing one requires knowledge of the various sources of error, how different errors affect one's results, and how various errors may be minimized by careful observation or data reduction techniques.

Owen, William M., Jr.

2000-01-01

404

Tracing the Source of Campylobacteriosis  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in the developed world. It is thought to infect 2–3 million people a year in the US alone, at a cost to the economy in excess of US $4 billion. C. jejuni is a widespread zoonotic pathogen that is carried by animals farmed for meat and poultry. A connection with contaminated food is recognized, but C. jejuni is also commonly found in wild animals and water sources. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that genotypes pathogenic to humans bear greatest resemblance to non-livestock isolates. Moreover, seasonal variation in campylobacteriosis bears the hallmarks of water-borne disease, and certain outbreaks have been attributed to contamination of drinking water. As a result, the relative importance of these reservoirs to human disease is controversial. We use multilocus sequence typing to genotype 1,231 cases of C. jejuni isolated from patients in Lancashire, England. By modeling the DNA sequence evolution and zoonotic transmission of C. jejuni between host species and the environment, we assign human cases probabilistically to source populations. Our novel population genetics approach reveals that the vast majority (97%) of sporadic disease can be attributed to animals farmed for meat and poultry. Chicken and cattle are the principal sources of C. jejuni pathogenic to humans, whereas wild animal and environmental sources are responsible for just 3% of disease. Our results imply that the primary transmission route is through the food chain, and suggest that incidence could be dramatically reduced by enhanced on-farm biosecurity or preventing food-borne transmission. PMID:18818764

Wilson, Daniel J.; Gabriel, Edith; Leatherbarrow, Andrew J. H.; Cheesbrough, John; Gee, Steven; Bolton, Eric; Fox, Andrew; Fearnhead, Paul; Diggle, Peter J.

2008-01-01

405

Carbon Dioxide - Sources and Sinks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, students use a chemical indicator (bromothymol blue) to detect the presence of carbon dioxide in animal and plant respiration and in the burning of fossil fuels and its absence in the products of plant photosynthesis. After completing the five parts of this activity, students compare the colors of the chemical indicator in each part and interpret the results in terms of the qualitative importance of carbon sinks and sources.

Universe, Windows T.

406

Syndrome source coding and its universal generalization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of using error-correcting codes to obtain data compression, called syndrome-source-coding, is described in which the source sequence is treated as an error pattern whose syndrome forms the compressed data. It is shown that syndrome-source-coding can achieve arbitrarily small distortion with the number of compressed digits per source digit arbitrarily close to the entropy of a binary memoryless source. A universal generalization of syndrome-source-coding is formulated which provides robustly-effective, distortionless, coding of source ensembles.

Ancheta, T. C., Jr.

1975-01-01

407

Characterization of ISOLDE ion source and ion source chemistry  

E-print Network

This report presents results of measurements made with the ISOLDE OFF-LINE mass separator [1]. The first part shows measurements of the ionization characteristics of noble gases in a VADIS ion source. The goal of the measurements was to determine the dependency of the extractable current of first and second noble gases ions with the electron energy. In the second part, investigation on in-target chemistry are presented. Here, the effect of injected sulfur hexafluoride ($SF_6$) on the release of oxygen from aluminium oxide ($Al_2 O_3$) was studied.

Barbeau, Marion

2014-01-01

408

Compact x-ray source and panel  

DOEpatents

A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

2008-02-12

409

The HYPE Open Source Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model is a dynamic, semi-distributed, process-based, integrated catchment model. It uses well-known hydrological and nutrient transport concepts and can be applied for both small and large scale assessments of water resources and status. In the model, the landscape is divided into classes according to soil type, vegetation and altitude. The soil representation is stratified and can be divided in up to three layers. Water and substances are routed through the same flow paths and storages (snow, soil, groundwater, streams, rivers, lakes) considering turn-over and transformation on the way towards the sea. HYPE has been successfully used in many hydrological applications at SMHI. For Europe, we currently have three different models; The S-HYPE model for Sweden; The BALT-HYPE model for the Baltic Sea; and the E-HYPE model for the whole Europe. These models simulate hydrological conditions and nutrients for their respective areas and are used for characterization, forecasts, and scenario analyses. Model data can be downloaded from hypeweb.smhi.se. In addition, we provide models for the Arctic region, the Arab (Middle East and Northern Africa) region, India, the Niger River basin, the La Plata Basin. This demonstrates the applicability of the HYPE model for large scale modeling in different regions of the world. An important goal with our work is to make our data and tools available as open data and services. For this aim we created the HYPE Open Source Community (OSC) that makes the source code of HYPE available for anyone interested in further development of HYPE. The HYPE OSC (hype.sourceforge.net) is an open source initiative under the Lesser GNU Public License taken by SMHI to strengthen international collaboration in hydrological modeling and hydrological data production. The hypothesis is that more brains and more testing will result in better models and better code. The code is transparent and can be changed and learnt from. New versions of the main code are delivered frequently. HYPE OSC is open to everyone interested in hydrology, hydrological modeling and code development - e.g. scientists, authorities, and consultancies. By joining the HYPE OSC you get access a state-of-the-art operational hydrological model. The HYPE source code is designed to efficiently handle large scale modeling for forecast, hindcast and climate applications. The code is under constant development to improve the hydrological processes, efficiency and readability. In the beginning of 2013 we released a version with new and better modularization based on hydrological processes. This will make the code easier to understand and further develop for a new user. An important challenge in this process is to produce code that is easy for anyone to understand and work with, but still maintain the properties that make the code efficient enough for large scale applications. Input from the HYPE Open Source Community is an important source for future improvements of the HYPE model. Therefore, by joining the community you become an active part of the development, get access to the latest features and can influence future versions of the model.

Strömbäck, L.; Pers, C.; Isberg, K.; Nyström, K.; Arheimer, B.

2013-12-01

410

Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA)

2012-06-05

411

Radiometry of flashing LED sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory based technique has been devised for measuring the illumination characteristics of flashing light emitting diode (LED) sources. The difference between the photopic measurement of a continuous source and a flashing source is that some analytic method must be incorporated into the measurement to account for the response of the eye. Ohno et al have devised an analytic expression for the impulse response of the eye, which closely matches existing forms used for finding effective intensity1. These other forms are the Blondel-Rey equation, the Form Factor method, and the Allard method.4,5,6 Ohno's research suggests a modified Allard method, but offers no procedure for actually making the measurement. In this research, the modified Allard1 method approach has been updated using standard laboratory equipment such as a silicon detector in conjunction with a digital multi-meter and Labview® software to make this measurement. Labview® allows exact computation of the modified Allard method. However, an approximation scheme for the conversion from radiometric units to photopic units must be adopted. The LED spectral form is approximately a Gaussian line shape with full width at half maximum of about 15 to 30nm. The Gaussian curve makes converting from radiometric to photopic units difficult. To simplify, the technique presented here estimates the spectral form of the LEDs to be a Dirac delta function situated at the peak wavelength. This allows the conversion from watts to lumens to be a simple application of the luminous efficiency curve.2 For LEDs with a full width half maximum of 20nm, this scheme is found to be accurate to +/- 5%.

Gregory, Don A.; Medley, Stephanie; Roberts, Adam

2008-08-01

412

Negative-ion source applications.  

PubMed

In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombardment-type heavy negative-ion source and rf-plasma sputter type. In the case where a negative ion is irradiated on a material surface, surface charging seldom takes place because incoming negative charge of the negative ion is well balanced with outgoing negative charge of the released secondary electron. In the negative-ion implantation into an insulator or insulated conductive material, high precision implantation processing with charge-up free properties can be achieved. Negative-ion implantation technique, therefore, can be applied to the following novel material processing systems: the surface modification of micrometer-sized powders, the nanoparticle formation in an insulator for the quantum devices, and the nerve cell growth manipulation by precise control of the biocompatibility of polymer surface. When a negative ion with low kinetic energy approaches the solid surface, the kinetic energy causes the interatomic bonding (kinetic bonding), and formation of a metastable material is promoted. Carbon films with high constituent of sp(3) bonding, therefore, can be formed by carbon negative-ion beam deposition. PMID:18315249

Ishikawa, J

2008-02-01

413

High intensity polarized electron sources  

SciTech Connect

The status of the polarized electron source development program at SLAC will be reviewed. Emission currents of 60 A, corresponding to a space charge limited current density of 180 A/cm/sup 2/, have been obtained from GaAs photocathodes. Electron beam polarization 20% greater than that obtainable from GaAs cathodes has been observed from multilayer GaAs-GaAlAs structures. Work in progress to produce high beam polarization from II-IV-V/sub 2/ chalcopyrite photocathodes will also be described.

Sinclair, C.K.

1980-10-01

414

Nanolocalised source of femtosecond radiation  

SciTech Connect

Possible spatial localisation of femtosecond laser radiation to the size on the order of 50 nm is studied. An approach to femtosecond laser radiation localisation in the nanometre scale is based on the use of nonlinear processes in metal nanostructures. It is shown that the extremely high third-order optical susceptibility of metal nanostructures and strong plasmon resonances give a possibility to realise an efficient nanolocalised source of radiation at the third harmonic frequency and a wideband femtosecond radiation based on metal photoluminescence. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Konstantinova, T V; Melentiev, P N; Afanasiev, A E; Kuzin, A A; Starikov, P A; Baturin, A S; Tausenev, Anton V; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Balykin, Viktor I

2013-04-30

415

Isothermal cavity, blackbody radiation source.  

PubMed

A prototype blackbody radiation source has been developed which incorporates a double cone cavity of extremely uniform surface temperature. This uniformity of surface temperature is the result of a unique method of supplying heat to the cavity. The principle of operation is based on heat pipe techniques which transfer heat by change of phase and mass transfer. The cavity is heated by serving as the condenser section of the heat pipe which is inherently a nearly isothermal device. Optical tests show that the isothermal cavity has a lambertian distribution over an inclusive angle of better than 60 degrees while operating between 419 degrees C and 760 degrees C. PMID:20094191

Bliss, F E; Davis, S; Stein, B

1970-09-01

416

Equivalent source magnetic dipoles revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equivalent point source inversion in the rectangular coordinate system has been widely used to reduce satellite magnetic data collected at different altitudes to a common elevation over small areas. This method is based on the expression of the magnetic anomaly caused by a magnetic dipole. Such an expression derived in a spherical coordinate system by von Frese et al. [1981] is found erroneous. We point out the errors in von Frese et al.'s [1981] formulas and present the correct expression for the magnetic field of a magnetic dipole in a spherical coordinate system.

Dyment, J.; Arkani-Hamed, J.

417

The Source of Energy Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about the Sun's influence on plant growth, learners will create a plant box and observe that a plant will grow towards the Sun, its primary source of energy. By periodically collecting data on the growth of the plant, they can come to their own conclusions about why the plant grew towards the sunlight. One to two weeks are needed to grow plants for this lesson; also, time is needed to construct the plant box. Potting soil and bean seeds are needed for this activity.

2012-08-03

418

Cold moderators for spallation sources  

SciTech Connect

Moderators using liquid and solid methane and liquid hydrogen are currently in use at major spallation neutron sources. Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) is planning the use of liquid methane as part of a major update program planned in about three years time. This report presents a general overview of some of these devices and outlines the general engineering design of the proposed LANSCE moderator, including some suggested solutions to the radiation damage problems of methane. Also included is a brief overview of a possible combined H/sub 2//Ch/sub 4/ moderator for high intensity proton beams. 15 figs.

Lucas, A.T.; Robinson, H.

1988-01-01

419

Pulsar Searches of EGRET Sources  

E-print Network

The majority of Galactic high-energy gamma-ray sources continue to elude identification. Currently, we have a handful of firm pulsar identifications, one of which is radio quiet, and a few marginal detections, including one millisecond pulsar. Recently, both blind searches of EGRET error boxes and targeted searches of X-ray counterpart candidates have had some success in finding new pulsars. I review these results, and discuss our current program of searching mid-Galactic latitude EGRET error boxes using the Parkes multi-beam system.

Mallory S. E. Roberts

2002-12-03

420

Gamma source for active interrogation  

DOEpatents

A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Barletta, William A.

2012-10-02

421

Relating to monitoring ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

422

The RHIC polarized source upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.

2010-09-27

423

CHINA SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE DESIGN.  

SciTech Connect

The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is an accelerator-based high-power project currently in preparation under the direction of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The complex is based on an H- linear accelerator, a rapid cycling proton synchrotron accelerating the beam to 1.6 GeV, a solid tungsten target station, and five initial instruments for spallation neutron applications. The facility will operate at 25 Hz repetition rate with a phase-I beam power of about 120 kW. The major challenge is to build a robust and reliable user's facility with upgrade potential at a fractional of ''world standard'' cost.

WEI,J.

2007-01-29

424

Nonstationary noise propagation with sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a number of topics relevant to noise propagation in dispersive media. We formulate the problem of pulse propagation with a source term in phase space and show that a four dimensional Wigner distribution is required. The four dimensional Wigner distribution is that of space and time and also wavenumber and frequency. The four dimensional Wigner spectrum is equivalent to the space-time autocorrelation function. We also apply the quantum path method to improve the phase space approximation previously obtained. In addition we discuss motion in a Snell's law medium.

Ben-Benjamin, J. S.; Cohen, L.

2014-06-01

425

Liquid metal ion source and alloy  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Santandrea, Robert P. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR)

1988-10-04

426

Repatriation of US sources from Brazil  

SciTech Connect

IAEA's interest in excess and unwanted sealed sources extends back to when radium sources were a problem throughout the world. Sta11ing in 1994, world wide IAEA member states inventoried and consolidated radium (Ra)-226 sources. IAEA then trained Regional Teams in the conditioning of Ra-226 sealed sources for long term storage, which resulted in the Regional Teams conditioning about 14,000 radium sources. These sources remained in their respective IAEA member state locations. Regional teams were seen as a way to encourage member state (local) management of a world wide problem, as well as a more cost effective solution.

Tompkins, Andrew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

427

Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

2014-01-01

428

Fission neutron source in Rome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fission neutron source is operating in Rome at the ENEA Casaccia Research Center since 1971, consisting of a low power fast reactor named RSV-Tapiro. it is employed for a variety of experiments, including dosimetry, material testing, radiation protection and biology. In particular, application to experimental radiobiology includes studies of the biological action of neutrons in the whole-body irradiated animal, or in specialized systems in vivo or in vitro. For his purpose a vertical irradiation facility was originally constructed. Recently, a new horizontal irradiation facility has been designed to allow the exposure of larger samples or larger sample batches at one time. Dosimetry at the sample irradiation positions is routinely carried out by the conventional method of using two ion chambers. This physical dosimetry has recently been compared with the results of biological dosimetry based on the detection of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro. A characterization of the radiation quality in the two configurations has been carried out by tissue equivalent proportional counter microdosimetry measurements. Information about the main characteristics of the reactor and the two irradiation facilities is provided and relevant results of the various measurements are summarized. Radiobiological results obtained using this neutron source are also briefly outlined.

Coppola, Mario; Di Majo, V.; Ingrao, G.; Rebessi, S.; Testa, A.

1997-02-01

429

Option for spallation neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spallation reactions are a very important option for efficient neutron sources appropriate for fusion materials testing. An “option of this option” is the EURAC concept, which makes use of short-term accelerator technology in the cheapest way and is proved to provide the needed neutron flux to verify fast experiments on fusion materials performance. Its flexible conception allows an optimum combination of very high fluxes of about 1016 n/cm2/s, with decreasing fluxes along the testing zones in enough volume to perform the correct irradiations. With this assumption, the rate effect can be perfectly analyzed together with the end-of-life conditions assumed in the structural material of the future fusion environments. The possible negative effects of the high-energy neutrons in the Spallation spectrum have been taken into account, concluding their non-significance in the desired damage parameters. The EURAC concept can also be considered in light of other purposes like incineration processes, ? production, and, with the appropriate booster, high-flux cold neutron source.

Perlado, J. M.; Piera, M.; Sanz, J.

1989-12-01

430

Anisotropic universe with anisotropic sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the state space of a Bianchi-I universe with anisotropic sources. Here we consider an extended state space which includes null geodesics in this background. The evolution equations for all the state observables are derived. Dynamical systems approach is used to study the evolution of these equations. The asymptotic stable fixed points for all the evolution equations are found. We also check our analytic results with numerical analysis of these dynamical equations. The evolution of the state observables are studied both in cosmic time and using a dimensionless time variable. Then we repeat the same analysis with a more realistic scenario, adding the isotropic (dust like dark) matter and a cosmological constant (dark energy) to our anisotropic sources, to study their co-evolution. The universe now approaches a de Sitter space asymptotically dominated by the cosmological constant. The cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps due to shear are also generated in this scenario, assuming that the universe contains anisotropic matter along with the usual (dark) matter and vacuum (dark) energy since decoupling. We find that they contribute dominantly to the CMB quadrupole. We also constrain the current level of anisotropy and also search for any cosmic preferred axis present in the data. We use the Union 2 Supernovae data to this extent. An anisotropy axis close to the mirror symmetry axis seen in the cosmic microwave background data from Planck probe is found.

Aluri, Pavan K.; Panda, Sukanta; Sharma, Manabendra; Thakur, Snigdha

2013-12-01

431

Source mechanism of volcanic tremor  

SciTech Connect

Low-frequency (<10 Hz) volcanic earthquakes originate at a wide range of depths and occur before, during, and after magmatic eruptions. The characteristics of these earthquakes suggest that they are not typical tectonic events. Physically analogous processes occur in hydraulic fracturing of rock formations, low-frequency icequakes in temperate glaciers, and autoresonance in hydroelectric power stations. We propose that unsteady fluid flow in volcanic conduits is the common source mechanism of low-frequency volcanic earthquakes (tremor). The fluid dynamic source mechanism explains low-frequency earthquakes of arbitrary duration, magnitude, and depth of origin, as unsteady flow is independent of physical properties of the fluid and conduit. Fluid transients occur in both low-viscosity gases and high-viscosity liquids. A fluid transient analysis can be formulated as generally as is warranted by knowledge of the composition and physical properties of the fluid, material properties, geometry and roughness of the conduit, and boundary conditions. To demonstrate the analytical potential of the fluid dynamic theory, we consider a single-phase fluid, a melt of Mount Hood andesite at 1250/sup 0/C, in which significant pressure and velocity variations occur only in the longitudinal direction. Further simplification of the conservation of mass and momentum equations presents an eigenvalue problem that is solved to determine the natural frequencies and associated damping of flow and pressure oscillations.

Ferrick, M.G.; Qamar, A.; St. Lawrence, W.F.

1982-10-10

432

High-brightness multilaser source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a high-brightness multi-laser source developed at Polaroid for such applications as coupling light to fibers, pumping fiber lasers, pumping solid state lasers, material processing, and medical procedures. The power and brightness are obtained by imaging the nearfields of up to eight separate multi-mode lasers side by side on a multi-faceted mirror that makes the beams parallel. The lasers are microlensed to equalize the divergences in the two principal meridians. Each laser is aligned in a field- replaceable illuminator module whose output beam, focused at infinity, is bore-sighted in a mechanical cylinder. The illuminators are arranged roughly radially and the nearfields are reimaged on the mirror, which is produced by diamond machining. The array of nearfields is linearly polarized. A customizable afocal relay forms a telecentric image of the juxtaposed nearfields, as required by the application. The lasers can be of differing powers and wavelengths, and they can be independently switched. Light from other sources can be combined. The output can be utilized in free space or it can be coupled into a fiber for transport or a fiber laser for pumping. A linearly polarized free space output can be obtained, which allows two units to be polarization combined to double the power and brightness.

Goodman, Douglas S.; Gordon, Wayne L.; Jollay, Richard A.; Roblee, Jeffrey W.; Gavrilovic, Paul; Kuksenkov, Dmitri V.; Goyal, Anish K.; Zu, Qinxin

1999-04-01

433

Fluid jet electric discharge source  

SciTech Connect

A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

2006-04-25

434

Supersoft X-ray sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 100 supersoft X-ray sources (SSS) are reported in ˜20 external galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and our Galaxy. The effective temperatures of the brighter SSS are ˜20-100 eV. SSS with luminosities below ?3 × 10 38 erg s -1 are consistent with accreting white dwarfs (WDs) with steady nuclear burning or post-novae. Optical identifications exist for SSS in our Galaxy and the MCs (including orbital period determinations) and for SSS in M31 (with novae and symbiotic stars, SySs). High resolution X-ray spectra of the brightest SSS in our Galaxy and the MCs reveal the existence of spectral features due to high gravity WDs. Timing studies in X-rays (combined with the optical) of the stable nuclear burning phase in steady nuclear burning sources and in post-novae allow to constrain the mass accretion rate onto and the mass of the nuclear burning WD. The nature of a few SSS with luminosities ?10 39 erg s -1 remains unclear.

Kahabka, Peter

2006-01-01

435

Chromium plating pollution source reduction by plasma source ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

There is growing concern over the environmental toxicity and workers` health issues due to the chemical baths and rinse water used in the hard chromium plating process. In this regard the significant hardening response of chromium to nitrogen ion implantation can be environmentally beneficial from the standpoint of decreasing the thickness and the frequency of application of chromium plating. In this paper the results of a study of nitrogen ion implantation of chrome plated test flats using the non-line-of-sight Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) process, are discussed. Surface characterization was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The surface properties were evaluated using a microhardness tester, a pin-on-disk wear tester, and a corrosion measurement system. Industrial field testing of nitrogen PSII treated chromium plated parts showed an improvement by a factor of two compared to the unimplanted case.

Chen, A.; Sridharan, K.; Dodd, R.A.; Conrad, J.R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Qiu, X.; Hamdi, A.H.; Elmoursi, A.A.; Malaczynski, G.W. [General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (United States); Horne, W.G. [Empire Hard Chrome, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

436

Light Sources and Lighting Circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by means of using filler gas with a higher atomic weight. Regarding fluorescent lamps, studies and developments for longer operating life and improvement in the lumen maintenance factor for the straight-type and circular-type fluorescent lamps were actively pursued. Regarding self-ballasted fluorescent lamps, the main stream of development was aimed at reducing lamp size and increasing energy conservation, and the development of new products that took advantage of these features proceeded. In regard to LED light sources, basic research and product development, including new application development, were vigorously implemented. In basic research, studies were reported, not only on efficacy improvements through optimization of the LED chips, phosphor layers, and packaging technology, but also on photometry, colorimetry, and visual psychology. In the field of application, applications were studied for general lighting sources and also for a wide range of fields, such as automotive headlights and visible light communication. Also, many academic conferences and exhibitions were held domestically and overseas, and the high level of interest suggests high expectations for this next-generation light source. Regarding HID lamps, there was much activity in research and development and in the commercialization of the ceramic metal halide lamp product, and products were commercialized with features such as higher efficiency (130 lm/W) and higher color rendering properties (R9 ? 90). In the high-pressure sodium lamps, there were many study reports concerning plant growth and insect pest control using its low insect-attracting characteristics. With high-pressure mercury lamps, there were many reports on reducing lamp size and increasing intensity for use as a light source for projectors.

Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

437

SourceRank: relevance and trust assessment for deep web sources based on inter-source agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of deep web source selection and argue that existing source selection methods are inadequate as they are based on local similarity assessment. Specically, they fail to account for the fact that sources can vary in trustworthiness and individual results can vary in importance. In response, we formulate a global measure to calculate relevance and trustworthiness of

Raju Balakrishnan; Subbarao Kambhampati

2010-01-01

438

SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement  

E-print Network

SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement. Existing methods have two deficiencies for applying to the open col- lections like the deep web. First query in the deep web, the agreements between theses an- swer sets are likely to be helpful in assessing

Kambhampati, Subbarao

439

SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement  

E-print Network

SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement Tempe AZ USA 85287 rajub@asu.edu, rao@asu.edu ABSTRACT One immediate challenge in searching the deep web-similarity-based relevance assess- ment. When applied to the deep web these methods have two deficiencies. First

Kambhampati, Subbarao

440

40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source surveillance. (a)-(b)...

2010-07-01

441

Problems with packaged sources in foreign countries  

SciTech Connect

The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP), which is administered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), removes excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential threat to national security, public health, and safety. In total, GTRI/OSRP has been able to recover more than 25,000 excess and unwanted sealed sources from over 825 sites. In addition to transuranic sources, the GTRI/OSRP mission now includes recovery of beta/gamma emitting sources, which are of concern to both the U.S. government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper provides a synopsis of cooperative efforts in foreign countries to remove excess and unwanted sealed sources by discussing three topical areas: (1) The Regional Partnership with the International Atomic Energy Agency; (2) Challenges in repatriating sealed sources; and (3) Options for repatriating sealed sources.

Abeyta, Cristy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matzke, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zarling, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tompkin, J. Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

442

Teaching Immigration through Primary Source Material.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a collection of source materials that cover various aspects of immigration. The list includes twenty-three different types of information. Examples of sources are: (1) newspapers; (2) pictorials; (3) documents; (4) articles; (5) letters; and (6) cartoons. (BSR)

Mantrone, Bruce

1987-01-01

443

Iterative algorithms for lossy source coding  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the problems of lossy source coding and information embedding. For lossy source coding, we analyze low density parity check (LDPC) codes and low density generator matrix (LDGM) codes for quantization ...

Chandar, Venkat (Venkat Bala)

2006-01-01

444

Radio source evolution on galactic scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is mounting evidence that mechanical radio source feedback is important in galaxy evolution and in order to quantify this feedback, detailed models of radio source evolution are required. We present an extension to current analytic models that encompasses young radio sources with physical sizes on sub-kiloparsec scales. This work builds on an existing young source dynamical model to include radiative losses in a flat environment, and as such, is the best physically motivated compact symmetric object model to date. Results predict that young radio sources experience significant radiative loss on length-scales and spectral scales consistent with observed compact steep spectrum sources. We include full expressions for the transition to self-similar expansion and present this complete model of radio source evolution from first cocoon formation to end of source lifetime around 108 years within the context of a simplified King profile external atmosphere.

Maciel, T.; Alexander, P.

2014-08-01

445

Reconstruction in tomography with diffracting sources  

E-print Network

;rating sources. We ?rst develop time-domain methods to time-reverse a transient scalar wave using only the ?eld measured on an arbitrary closed surface enclosing the initial sources. Under certain conditions, a time-reversed ?eld can...

Xu, Yuan

2005-02-17

446

TERM RECOGNITION USING COMBINED KNOWLEDGE SOURCES  

E-print Network

TERM RECOGNITION USING COMBINED KNOWLEDGE SOURCES A thesis submitted to the Manchester Metropolitan Declaration 16 Acknowledgements 17 1 Introduction 18 1.1 Term Recognition Using Combined Knowledge Sources Terminology 22 2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2 Terms

Maynard, Diana

447

Acoustic Source Localization Using the Acoustic ENSBox  

E-print Network

Acoustic Source Localization Using the Acoustic ENSBox Andreas M. Ali Kung Yao Electrical of new deployable acoustic sensor platforms presents opportunities to develop automated tools for bio-acoustic Keywords Bioacoustics, distributed signal processing, acoustic source localization, wireless sensor

Grether, Gregory

448

Radio Source Evolution on Galactic Scales  

E-print Network

There is mounting evidence that mechanical radio source feedback is important in galaxy evolution and in order to quantify this feedback, detailed models of radio source evolution are required. We present an extension to current analytic models that encompasses young radio sources with physical sizes on sub-kiloparsec scales. This work builds on an existing young source dynamical model to include radiative losses in a flat environment, and as such, is the best physically-motivated Compact Symmetric Object model to date. Results predict that young radio sources experience significant radiative loss on length scales and spectral scales consistent with observed Compact Steep-Spectrum sources. We include full expressions for the transition to self-similar expansion and present this complete model of radio source evolution from first cocoon formation to end of source lifetime around 10^8 years within the context of a simplified King profile external atmosphere.

Maciel, Tamela

2014-01-01

449

The source of interplanetary dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interplanetary dust particles can provide a wealth of information about the history and environment of the solar system. Unfortunately, it has not yet been clear whether their parent objects were primarily asteroidal or cometary. This situation seriously limits the applicability of the information gained form dust studies. I present here five experiments intended to reveal the source of interplanetary dust. First, I examine the IRAS asteroidal dust bands to find the fraction of the zodiacal dust contributed by single asteroid sources. The bands studied here contain approximately 1% of the zodiacal emission, insufficient to assign parent objects to most of the material. Gravitational focussing effects may boost the dust band contribution in terrestrial IDP collections to as high as 15%. The second and third experiments address micrometeoroid collisions, which appear to forbid delivery of particles larger than about 10-5 g from the asteroid belt to the Earth, in turn implying a cometary or near-Earth source for large dust motes. I test the assumed meteoroid of realistic porous materials. The result is that the previous collisional model is essentially correct. The verified break in the slope of the meteoroid mass distribution is consistent with collisional removal of greater than 10-5 g particles on a timescale similar to their Poynting-Robertson orbit decay lifetimes, if most originate in the asteroid belt. The fourth and fifth experiments turn to atmospheric entry heating effects as velocity diagnostic to separate fast cometary particles from slower asteroidal ones. I develop a new, physically realistic numerical simulation of particle entry. This model provides general results on particle origins, but is most useful when coupled with accurate measurements (based on the release of solar wind implant helium) of the peak entry temperatures of individual particles. It is found that most particles enter at low speeds. The few high-temperature particles imply a cometary fraction near 20%. Taking these results together, and considering previous work such as the meteoroid velocity distribution, I find an asteroid:comet dust ratio of approximately 4:1.

Love, Stanley Glen

1993-01-01

450

The DCU laser ion source.  

PubMed

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I approximately 10(8)-10(11) W cm(-2)) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm(-2)) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration approximately 35 ns, lambda=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In "basic operating mode," laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I approximately 600 microA for Cu(+) to Cu(3+) ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu(2+)). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a "continuous einzel array" were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at "high pressure." In "enhanced operating mode," peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu(2+)) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu(4+)-Cu(6+)) increased considerably in this mode of operation. PMID:20441334

Yeates, P; Costello, J T; Kennedy, E T

2010-04-01

451

The DCU laser ion source  

SciTech Connect

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I{approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} W cm{sup -2}) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm{sup -2}) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration {approx}35 ns, {lambda}=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In ''basic operating mode,'' laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I{approx}600 {mu}A for Cu{sup +} to Cu{sup 3+} ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu{sup 2+}). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a ''continuous einzel array'' were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at ''high pressure.'' In ''enhanced operating mode,'' peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu{sup 2+}) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu{sup 4+}-Cu{sup 6+}) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

Yeates, P. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin (Ireland); Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin (Ireland); School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University (DCU), Glasnevin (Ireland)

2010-04-15

452

The DCU laser ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I ˜108-1011 W cm-2) and fluences (F =0.1-3.9 kJ cm-2) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration ˜35 ns, ? =694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In "basic operating mode," laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I ˜600 ?A for Cu+ to Cu3+ ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu2+). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L =48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a "continuous einzel array" were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at "high pressure." In "enhanced operating mode," peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu2+) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu4+-Cu6+) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

Yeates, P.; Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T.

2010-04-01

453

Holography and the inverse source problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse source problem for monochromatic sources Re(p(r, w)e-iwt) to the scalar-wave equation is investi- gated. It is shown that a unique solution to the inverse source problem can be obtained by imposing the constraint that the solution minimize the source energy E = Sd 3r p (r, W) 2. For certain recording geometries the time deriv- ative of the

R. P. Porter; A. J. Devaney

1982-01-01

454

Uncertainty in source partitioning using stable isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope analyses are often used to quan- tify the contribution of multiple sources to a mixture, such as proportions of food sources in an animal's diet, or C3 and C4 plant inputs to soil organic carbon. Linear mixing models can be used to partition two sources with a single isotopic signature (e.g., ?13C) or three sources with a second

Donald L. Phillips; Jillian W. Gregg

2001-01-01

455

International workshop on cold neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5 to 8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people

G. J. Russell; C. D. West

1991-01-01

456

Antiproton source beam position system  

SciTech Connect

The TeV I Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system is designed to provide a useful diagnostic tool during the commissioning and operational phases of the antiproton source. Simply stated the design goal is to provide single turn position information for intensities of > 1x10/sup 9/ particles, and multi-turn (clocked orbit) information for beam intensities of > 1x10/sup 7/ particles, both with sub-millimeter resolution. It is anticipated that the system will be used during commissioning for establishing the first turn through the Debuncher and Accumulator, for aligning injection orbits, for providing information necessary to correct closed orbits, and for measuring various machine parameters (e.g. tunes, dispersion, aperture, chromaticity). During normal antiproton operation the system will be used to monitor the beam position throughout the accumulation process.

Bagwell, T.; Holmes, S.; McCarthy, J.; Webber, R.

1984-05-01

457

Solid state polarized electron sources  

SciTech Connect

Alloys of Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As grown by molecular beam-epitaxy are shown to allow room temperature operation and generate polarized electrons by optical pumping at convenient wavelengths with polarization values in the range P = 45% +/- 1%. The performance of multilayers of GaAs-Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As as photoemitters is also briefly described. Surface passivation of Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As epitaxial layers is shown to be an efficient way for protecting the cathodes during exposure to atmosphere and allowing subsequent regeneration of the source parameters after ultra high vacuum annealing. 15 references, 4 figures.

Campagna, M.; Alvarado, S.F.; Ciccacci, F.

1983-01-01

458

Ion source with corner cathode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ion source may include first, second, and third electrodes. The first electrode may be a repeller having a V-shaped groove. The second electrode may be an electron emitter filament disposed adjacent the base of the V-shaped groove. The third electrode may be an anode that defines an enclosed volume with an aperture formed therein adjacent the electron emitter filament. A potential of the first electrode may be less than a potential of the second electrode, and the potential of the second electrode may be less than a potential of the third electrode. A fourth electrode that is disposed between the electron emitter filament and the anode may be used to produce a more collimated electron beam.

Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor); Roman, Patrick A. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

459

Digital Circuits Open Source Textbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This open source book on WikiBooks will serve as an introduction to Digital Circuits. This book relies heavily on the concepts of Discrete Math, but will not require any previous knowledge of the subject because all necessary math concepts will be developed in the text. This book does assume a knowledge of basic electrical principles such as current, voltage, and resistance, so the reader may want to brush up on their Circuit Theory. The strength of digital technology in any context is fast, easy duplication with no loss of fidelity. In many media, this serves mainly to streamline distribution. While that aspect cannot be completely overlooked, some artistic endeavors, such as animation, are centered on a process of repeated duplication with systematic changes, so that digital tools often become a central part of the creative process.

2011-01-17

460

Repetitively pulsed plasma illumination sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic environment created by turbulence in aircraft flight tests demands that illumination sources for high speed photography of munitions drops be extremely rugged. A repetitive pulsed surface discharge system has been developed to provide wide angle illumination in a bomb bay for photography at 250 - 500 Hertz. The lamp has a simple construction suitable for adverse environments and produces 100 mJ of visible light per pulse. The discharge parameters were selected to minimize the size and complexity of the power supply. The system is also capable of operating at high repetition rates; preliminary tests demonstrated 1000 pulses at 1 kHz, 200 pulses at 1.5 kHz, and 13 pulses at 2 kHz. A simple power supply capable of providing several amperes at 450 V is being completed; it will be used to extend the run times and to explore extensions to higher repetition rate.

Root, Robert G.; Falkos, Paul

1997-12-01

461

Polyphenols, dietary sources and bioavailability.  

PubMed

Fruit and beverages such as tea and red wine represent the main sources of polyphenols. Despite their wide distribution, the healthy effects of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention of nutritionists only in the last years. The main factor responsible for the delayed research on polyphenols is the variety and the complexity of their chemical structure. Emerging findings suggest a large number of potential mechanisms of action of polyphenols in preventing disease, which may be independent of their conventional antioxidant activities. To establish evidence for the effects of polyphenol consumption on human health and to better identify which polyphenols provide the greatest effectiveness in disease prevention, it is first of all essential to determine the nature and the distribution of these compounds in our diet, and secondly to better know their bioavailability. PMID:18209268

D'Archivio, Massimo; Filesi, Carmela; Di Benedetto, Roberta; Gargiulo, Raffaella; Giovannini, Claudio; Masella, Roberta

2007-01-01

462

Solenoid and monocusp ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

Brainard, John Paul (Albuquerque, NM); Burns, Erskine John Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Draper, Charles Hadley (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

463

Resonance microwave volume plasma source  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design of a microwave gas-discharge plasma source is described. The possibility is considered of creating conditions under which microwave energy in the plasma resonance region would be efficiently converted into the energy of thermal and accelerated (fast) electrons. Results are presented from interferometric and probe measurements of the plasma density in a coaxial microwave plasmatron, as well as the data from probe measurements of the plasma potential and electron temperature. The dynamics of plasma radiation was recorded using a streak camera and a collimated photomultiplier. The experimental results indicate that, at relatively low pressures of the working gas, the nonlinear interaction between the microwave field and the inhomogeneous plasma in the resonance region of the plasmatron substantially affects the parameters of the ionized gas in the reactor volume.

Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Malykh, N. I.; Misakyan, M. A.; Taktakishvili, M. I.; Temchin, S. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation); Lee, Young Dong [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-15

464

Microalgae as Sources of Carotenoids  

PubMed Central

Marine microalgae constitute a natural source of a variety of drugs for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic applications—which encompass carotenoids, among others. A growing body of experimental evidence has confirmed that these compounds can play important roles in prevention (and even treatment) of human diseases and health conditions, e.g., cancer, cardiovascular problems, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy, cataracts and some neurological disorders. The underlying features that may account for such favorable biological activities are their intrinsic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumoral features. In this invited review, the most important issues regarding synthesis of carotenoids by microalgae are described and discussed—from both physiological and processing points of view. Current gaps of knowledge, as well as technological opportunities in the near future relating to this growing field of interest, are also put forward in a critical manner. PMID:21731554

Guedes, Ana Catarina; Amaro, Helena M.; Malcata, Francisco Xavier

2011-01-01

465

The RHIC polarized source upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RHIC polarized H- ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam intensity will allow reduction of the longitudinal transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron-proton (ion) Collider eRHIC. The basic limitations on the high-intensity H- ion beam production in charge-exchange collisions of the neutral atomic hydrogen beam in the Na-vapor jet ionizer cell were experimentally studied.

Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Podolyako, F.; Sorokin, I.; Vizgalov, I.; Klenov, V.; Zubets, V.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

2014-01-01

466

A Kosher Source of Ham Nathan Friess  

E-print Network

A Kosher Source of Ham Nathan Friess Lyryx Learning, Inc. 210 - 1422 Kensington Road NW Calgary content-based anti-spam systems requires a plentiful source of both spam and ham. We examine the viability of Usenet postings as a ham source. While Usenet postings have been used before for this purpose, we refine

Aycock, John

467

Compact reactor\\/ORC power source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor\\/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite

K. L. Meier; W. L. Kirchner; G. J. Willcutt

1986-01-01

468

Hybridization of energy sources in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present status of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, none of the available energy sources can solely fulfill all the demands of EVs to enable them to compete with gasoline powered vehicles. In this paper, an energy management system, adopting the so-called hybridization of energy sources, is proposed to coordinate multiple energy sources for EVs. Hence, the unique advantages of

K. T. Chau; Y. S. Wong

2001-01-01

469

Source Region Identification Using Kernel Smoothing  

EPA Science Inventory

As described in this paper, Nonparametric Wind Regression is a source-to-receptor source apportionment model that can be used to identify and quantify the impact of possible source regions of pollutants as defined by wind direction sectors. It is described in detail with an exam...

470

Directional measurements for sources of fission neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although penetrating neutron and gamma-ray emissions arguably provide the most effective signals for locating sources of nuclear radiation, their relatively low fluxes make searching for radioactive materials a tedious process. Even assuming lightly shielded sources and detectors with large areas and high efficiencies, estimated counting times can exceed several minutes for source separations greater than ten meters. Because determining the

R. C. Byrd; G. F. Auchampaugh; W. C. Feldman

1993-01-01

471

21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and Drugs...STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be...

2011-04-01

472

21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and Drugs...STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be...

2012-04-01

473

21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and Drugs...STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be...

2013-04-01

474

21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and Drugs...STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be...

2014-04-01

475

Backup power sources for DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

This standard establishes fundamental requirements and guidance for backup power sources at DOE facilities. Purpose is to document good engineering practices for installation, testing, and maintenance of these backup power sources, which also covers emergency power sources. Examples are those which supply power to nuclear safety systems, radiation monitors and alarms, fire protection systems, security systems, and emergency lighting.

Not Available

1994-09-01

476

21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and Drugs...STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be...

2010-04-01

477

Adaptive Classifiers for Multi-Source OCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

When patterns occur in large groups generated by a single source (style consistent test data), the statistics of the test data differ from those of the training data which consists of patterns from all sources. We present a Gaussian model for continuously distributed sources under which we develop adaptive classifiers that specialize to the statistics of style- consistent test data.

Sriharsha Veeramachaneni; George Nagy

478

SEDIMENT SOURCE TRACKING IN THE GEORGIA PIEDMONT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results on the source of suspended sediment in a southern Piedmont stream are presented. Nuclear fallout radionuclide 137 Cs and three other natural tracers were used to estimate the relative contribution of bank and upland sediment sources. Tracer concentrations were determined in potential sediment sources and suspended sediment samples collected from the stream and analyzed in a mixing model.

Rajith Mukundan; David E. Radcliffe; Jerry C. Ritchie

2009-01-01

479

Global Viewing of Heterogeneous Data Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of defining global views of heterogeneous data sources to support querying and cooperation activities is becoming more and more important due to the availability of multiple data sources within complex organizations and in global information systems. Global views are defined to provide a unified representation of the information in the different sources by analyzing conceptual schemas associated with

Silvana Castano; Valeria De Antonellis; Sabrina De Capitani Di Vimercati

2001-01-01

480

UNCERTAINTY IN SOURCE PARTITIONING USING STABLE ISOTOPES  

EPA Science Inventory

Stable isotope analyses are often used to quantify the contribution of multiple sources to a mixture, such as proportions of food sources in an animal's diet, C3 vs. C4 plant inputs to soil organic carbon, etc. Linear mixing models can be used to partition two sources with a sin...

481

Exergy analysis of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil crises in the past years made more obvious the dependency of economies on fossil fuels. As a consequence, the need for new energy sources became more urgent. Renewable energy sources could provide a solution to the problem, as they are inexhaustible and have less adverse impacts on the environment than fossil fuels. Yet, renewable energy sources technology has not

Christopher Koroneos; Thomas Spachos; Nikolaos Moussiopoulos

2003-01-01

482

The Critical Evaluation of Bibliographic Web Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid increase in information freely and easily accessible on the web to those who have access to a computer and the internet, there seems to be a corresponding decrease in critical evaluation of the sources of this information. All sources are taken to be sources of information and seem to be uncritically considered to contain reliable,…

Gough, Jim

2008-01-01

483

A Guide to Reference Sources on Copyright.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encyclopedias, subject encyclopedias, dictionaries, indexes, almanacs, directories, handbooks, bibliographies, government documents, and monographs with copyright information are included in this guide to reference sources. It is intended as an introduction to some reference sources on copyright and does not claim to contain all the sources

Hammond, Theresa M.

484

Sources of nitrate to ground water  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a multitude of sources of nitrate to ground waters. Nitrogen undergoes a complex series of biochemical, chemical, and physical reactions in soils and waters, and thus the source of nitrate in ground waters is often difficult or impossible to ascertain with any degree of certainty. However, highly contaminated ground waters often have local sources that can be controlled.

Dennis Keeney; Robert A. Olson

1986-01-01

485

Current source design for electrical impedance tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions regarding the feasibility of using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to detect breast cancer may be answered by building a sufficiently precise multiple frequency EIT instrument. Current sources are desirable for this application, yet no current source designs have been reported that have the required precision at the multiple frequencies needed. We have designed an EIT current source using an

Alexander S Ross; G J Saulnier; J C Newell; D Isaacson

2003-01-01

486

SEMINAR PUBLICATION: NONPOINT SOURCE WATERSHED WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

On January 29-31, 1991 the U.S. EPA's Center for Environmental Research Information ind Nonpoint Source Control Branch sponsored tile Nonpoint Source Watershed Workshop. he workshop addressed the management of nonpoint source water pollution problems on a watershed basis. sing a ...

487

EPA - NEW ENGLAND SOLE SOURCE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of drinking water for a given aquifer service area; that is, an aquifer which is needed to supply 50% or more of the ...

488

Development of Californium-252 Miniature Source Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this CRADA between ORNL and lsotron, Inc. is to develop miniature californium-252 sources configured for remote handling that can be used in neutron brachytherapy for treatment of cancer. Brachytherapy places the · radioactive source at or near the site of the tumor, using a catheter. The CRADA ran from late 1999 through November 2005. The heart of a Cf-252 source is the radioactive core wire, which is sealed inside a metallic source capsule. Previous Cf-252 medical sources were based on a cermet wire with californium oxide dispersed in palladium, typically >1-mm diameter and <0.1% Cf-252 by weight. Previously, the standard medical source in the U.S. was the Applicator Tube (AT) source. 23-mm long, 2.8-mm diameter, with ~30 {micro}g of Cf-252, and which required manual loading into patients by medical staff. The goal of this work was to develop capabilities and technology to fabricate higher-intensity Cf-252 sources attached to a positioning cable, with overall diameter approaching that of exist ing photon (iridium-192) brachytherapy sources (i.e., ~1.1 mm). This work was successful in developing and demonstrating new technologies and procedures for the fabrication of miniaturized Cf-252 sources. CRADA-designed equipment reduced the wire diameters significantly (patent pending). Short wire segments were cut and successfully welded inside capsules meeting the miniaturization goals. A batch of seven prototype sources was prepared that met fabrication specifications. Although their neutron emissions were not maximized, they were still several times more intense than the previous AT sources. Very robust source-to-cable attachment methods were demonstrated (patent issued). A shipping canister was designed and built to contain the completed source assembly. lsotron designed and built a computer-controlled remote afterloader system to deliver the new sources for treatments.

Notspecified, N. A.

2007-06-26

489

Ion source based on the cathodic arc  

DOEpatents

A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

490

Infrared source cross-index, first edition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Infrared Source Cross-Index is a listing of correlated infrared source names (and positions) for astronomical objects observed at 1-1000 microns. The source names have been obtained from the database of the first edition of the Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO: NASA RP 1118), covering observations published through l982. Additional identifications were located by correlating these names with identifications contained in other machine-readable astronomical catalogs in the NASA National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). There are some 80,000 different source names in the Cross-Index, corresponding to over 27,000 unique infrared sources.

Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.; Gezari, Daniel Y.

1987-01-01

491

Semantic visualization of oncology knowledge sources.  

PubMed Central

Visualization of knowledge sources can have a substantial impact on the use of such sources at the point of care. This is because barriers to use at the point of care include hours required to master the electronic interfaces to those sources, and minutes required to master the electronic interfaces to those sources, and minutes required to accomplish any one retrieval. For a system to be used regularly at the point of care, therefore, it must be intuitive and fast. This paper presents a three dimensional interface to oncology knowledge sources that aims to meet this challenge. PMID:8563371

Cole, W. G.; Sherertz, D. D.; Tuttle, M. S.; Hsu, G. T.; Fagan, L. M.; Carlson, R. W.

1995-01-01

492

Inverse source problems for eddy current equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the inverse source problem for the eddy current approximation of Maxwell equations. As for the full system of Maxwell equations, we show that a volume current source cannot be uniquely identified by knowledge of the tangential components of the electromagnetic fields on the boundary, and we characterize the space of non-radiating sources. On the other hand, we prove that the inverse source problem has a unique solution if the source is supported on the boundary of a subdomain or if it is the sum of a finite number of dipoles. We address the applicability of this result for the localization of brain activity from electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography measurements.

Alonso Rodríguez, Ana; Camaño, Jessika; Valli, Alberto

2012-01-01

493

XID II: Statistical Cross-Association of ROSAT Bright Source Catalog X-ray Sources with 2MASS Point Source Catalog Near-Infrared Sources  

E-print Network

The 18806 ROSAT All Sky Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC) X-ray sources are quantitatively cross-associated with near-infrared (NIR) sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS/PSC). An association catalog is presented, listing the most likely counterpart for each RASS/BSC source, the probability Pid that the NIR source and X-ray source are uniquely associated, and the probability Pnoid that none of the 2MASS/PSC sources are associated with the X-ray source. The catalog includes 3853 high quality (Pid>0.98) X-ray--NIR matches, 2280 medium quality (0.98>Pid>0.9) matches, and 4153 low quality (0.9>Pid>0.5) matches. Of the high quality matches, 1418 are associations that are not listed in the SIMBAD database, and for which no high quality match with a USNO-A2 optical source was presented for the RASS/BSC source in previous work. The present work offers a significant number of new associations with RASS/BSC objects that will require optical/NIR spectroscopy for classification. For...

Haakonsen, Christian Bernt; 10.1088/0067-0049/184/1/138

2009-01-01

494

Measuring Source Code Similarity Using Reference Vectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure similarity between program source codes. Different to others, our method doues not compare two source codes directly but compares two reference vectors, where a reference vector is calculated from one source code and a set of reference source codes. This means that our method requires no original source code when considering an application open to public such as a search engine for the program source code on the internet. We have built a simple search system and have evaluated with Java source codes made in the university course of basic programming. Results show that the system can achieve quite high average precision rate in very short time which means the proposed method can measure correct similarity very fast.

Ohno, Asako; Murao, Hajime

495

Flow noise source-resonator coupling  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the coupling mechanism between flow noise sources and acoustic resonators. Analytical solutions are developed for the classical cases of monopole and dipole types of flow noise sources. The effectiveness of the coupling between the acoustic resonator and the noise source is shown to be dependent on the type of noise source as well as its location on the acoustic pressure mode shape. For a monopole source, the maximum coupling occurs when the noise source is most intense near an acoustic pressure antinode (i.e., location of maximum acoustic pressure). A numerical study with the impedance method demonstrates this effect. A dipole source couples most effectively when located near an acoustic pressure node.

Pollack, M.L. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-11-01

496

The Sources of Intergalactic Metals  

E-print Network

We study the clustering properties of metals in the intergalactic medium (IGM) as traced by 619 CIV, 81 SiIV, N >= 10^12 cm^-2 and 316 MgII, and 82 FeII N >= 10^11.5 cm^-2 absorption components in 19 high signal-to-noise (60-100 per pixel), high resolution (R = 45000) quasar spectra. Over the redshift range probed (1.5-3.0), CIV and SiIV trace each other closely and their line-of-sight correlation functions exhibit a steep decline at large separations and a flatter profile below ~ 150 km s^-1, with a large overall bias. These features do not depend on column depth. Carrying out a detailed SPH simulation (2 X 320^3, 57 Mpc^3 comoving), we show that this behavior can not be reproduced by models in which the IGM metallicity is constant or a local function of density. However, the CIV correlation function is consistent with a model in which metals are confined within bubbles with a typical radius Rs = 2 comoving Mpc about sources of mass >= Ms = 10^12 solar masses at z=3. Our lower redshift (0.5-2) measurements of the MgII and FeII correlation functions also uncover a steep decline at large separations and a flatter profile at small separations, but the clustering is even higher, and the turn-over is shifted to ~ 75 km s^-1. Again these features do not change with column depth. We describe an analytical bubble model for these species, which come from regions that are too compact to be simulated numerically, deriving best-fit values of R_s ~ 2.4 Mpc and M_s ~ 10^12 solar masses. Equally good fits to all four species are found in a similarly biased high-redshift enrichment model in which metals are placed within 2.4 comoving Mpc of 3 x 10^9 solar mass sources at z = 7.5.

E. Scannapieco; C. Pichon; B. Aracil; P. Petitjean; R. J. Thacker; D. Pogosyan; J. Bergeron; H. M. P. Couchman

2005-02-28

497

Source-space ICA for EEG source separation, localization, and time-course reconstruction.  

PubMed

We propose source-space independent component analysis (ICA) for separation, tomography, and time-course reconstruction of EEG and MEG source signals. Source-space ICA is based on the application of singular value decomposition and ICA on the neuroelectrical signals from all brain voxels obtained post minimum-variance beamforming of sensor-space EEG or MEG. We describe the theoretical background and equations, then evaluate the performance of this technique in several different situations, including weak sources, bilateral correlated sources, multiple sources, and cluster sources. In this approach, tomographic maps of sources are obtained by back-projection of the ICA mixing coefficients into the source-space (3-D brain template). The advantages of source-space ICA over the popular alternative approaches of sensor-space ICA together with dipole fitting and power mapping via minimum-variance beamforming are demonstrated. Simulated EEG data were produced by forward head modeling to project the simulated sources onto scalp sensors, then superimposed on real EEG background. To illustrate the application of source-space ICA to real EEG source reconstruction, we show the localization and time-course reconstruction of visual evoked potentials. Source-space ICA is superior to the minimum-variance beamforming in the reconstruction of multiple weak and strong sources, as ICA allows weak sources to be identified and reconstructed in the presence of stronger sources. Source-space ICA is also superior to sensor-space ICA on accuracy of localization of sources, as source-space ICA applies ICA to the time-courses of voxels reconstructed from minimum-variance beamforming on a 3D scanning grid and these time-courses are optimally unmixed via the beamformer. Each component identified by source-space ICA has its own tomographic map which shows the extent to which each voxel has contributed to that component. PMID:25108125

Jonmohamadi, Yaqub; Poudel, Govinda; Innes, Carrie; Jones, Richard

2014-11-01

498

EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT SOURCE AND  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT APPROVAL EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT: Evaluation of Natural Source Vitamin E, RRR--Tocopheryl Acetate, as an Alternative Micronutrient Source

499

Obsidian sources and patterns of source utilization in Kenya and northern Tanzania: some initial findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study of Kenyan and northern Tanzanian obsidian sources and artifacts has been undertaken to characterize sources and artifacts in order to examine prehistoric patterns of source utilization and to investigate the long distance movement of obsidian in the region. A survey for source localities has revealed 54 localities to date. XRF analyses for 12 elements have been undertaken

Harry V. Merrick; Francis H. Brown

1984-01-01

500

Mars Spark Source Prototype Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Spark Source Prototype (MSSP) hardware was developed as part of a proof of concept system for the detection of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic in Martian dusts and soils. A spark discharge produces plasma from a soil sample, and detectors measure the optical emission from metals in the plasma to identify and quantify them. Trace metal measurements are vital in assessing whether or not the Martian environment will be toxic to human explorers. The current method of x-ray fluorescence can yield concentrations of major species only. Other instruments are incompatible with the volume, weight, and power constraints for a Mars mission. The new instrument will be developed primarily for use in the Martian environment, but it would be adaptable for terrestrial use in environmental monitoring. The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field initiated the development of the MSSP as part of Glenn's Director's Discretionary Fund project for the Spark Analysis Detection of Trace Metal Species in Martian Dusts and Soils. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a compact, sensitive optical instrument for the detection of trace hazardous metals in Martian dusts and soils.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Lindamood, Glenn R.; VanderWal, Randall L.; Weiland, Karen J.

2000-01-01