Sample records for lbl aecr source

  1. Recent developments on ECR sources at LBL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Q. Xie; C. M. Lyneis

    1993-01-01

    After a number of refinements, the stability and ease of tuning of the LBL AECR ion source are greatly improved. Several nuclear science experiments have now used cyclotron ion beams injected by the AECR ion source and have taken advantage of its good short and long term-stability and high performance. Refinements include installation of a dc filament power supply for

  2. Performance of the upgraded LBNL AECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1997-02-01

    The LBNL AECR ion source has been upgraded in July 1996 by increasing its magnetic fields to improve its plasma confinement and thereby enhance the source performance. After a few months of tailoring the magnetic field configuration to match the two-frequency plasma heating (14 and 10 GHz), the upgraded AECR ion source (AECR-U) with its higher magnetic fields and higher magnetic mirror ratios has demonstrated significantly enhanced performance. For heavy ions at intensity of about 1 e{mu}A, the charge state was shifted from 42+ to 48+ for uranium and from 41+ to 46+ for bismuth. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I {ge} 60 enA) also has been achieved. Hydrogen-like krypton ions at intensity of about 10{sup 5} pps were extracted from the source and confirmed by measuring its characteristic x-ray with a SiLi crystal detector. High charge state heavy ion beams of xenon-136 and uranium-238 produced with the AECR-U ion source were accelerated by the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Despite poor transmission for the highly charged heavy ions due to vacuum losses in the cyclotron, 11 MeV/nucleon {sup 136}Xe{sup 41+} at 1 x 10{sup 7} pps, 13 MeV/nucleon {sup 136}Xe{sup 46+} at a few hundred pps, and 7 MeV/nucleon {sup 238}U{sup 55+} at 3 x 10{sup 4} pps and 8 MeV/nucleon {sup 238}U{sup 60+} at a few pps were confirmed with a crystal energy detector after extraction from the cyclotron. The total energy of 1.935 GeV of the extracted {sup 238}U{sup 60+} ions is the highest energy ever produced by the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Detailed optimization of the AECR Upgrade will be presented in this paper.

  3. Recent developments on ECR sources at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1993-05-05

    After a number of refinements, the stability and ease of tuning of the LBL AECR ion source are greatly improved. Several nuclear science experiments have now used cyclotron ion beams injected by the AECR ion source and have taken advantage of its good short and long term-stability and high performance. Refinements include installation of a dc filament power supply for the electron gun, improved gas flow control.and temperature stabilization of parts of the microwave transmission network. Measurements of the mean plasma potential and plasma potential difference were made on the AECR and the LBL ECR sources. The absolute. mean potentials of plasmas of oxygen, argon, and argon mixed with oxygen in the AECR have been determined. These plasma potentials are positive with respect to the plasma wall and are on the order of a few tens of volts for microwave power up to 600 W and normal operating gas flow. Electrons injected by an electron gun into the AECR plasma reduce the plasma potentials. Beam energy spreads of oxygen, argon and argon mixed with oxygen have also been measured. Measurement of the plasma potential difference between the first and the second stage of the LBL ECR ion source shows that the plasma potential in the first stage is higher than the second stage. Such plasma potential differences range from about 10 to 200 volts depending on the microwave power and density of neutral atoms. With these potential differences, typically of 10 to 40 V at the LBL ECR running conditions, most of the 1+ ions produced by the first stage are probably not be confined by the second state plasma. Thus it appears that the main function of a microwave-driven first stage is to provide electrons to the second stage plasma, as is done with an electron gun in the AECR source.

  4. Operating experience with the LBL ECR source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.

    1987-12-01

    The overall performance of the LBL ECR source in providing beam for the 88-Inch Cyclotron has been excellent. However, during the past two years there have been some fluctuations in the peak performance, particularly for the highest charge states. Among the factors which influence the peak performance are coatings from solid feeds or gases such as SiH/sub 4/ or CO/sub 2/, changes in first stage output, and variation in outgassing rates on the wall. Modifications made to the source have also affected its performance. In the plasma chamber the screens between the sextupole bars were removed to lower its Q/sub 0/. When the 9.2 GHz klystron used to power the first stage failed, it was replaced by a 10.3 GHz klystron. Tests were also made using 6.4 GHz to drive both first and second stages. The source performance in these various configuration will be reviewed.

  5. EMITTANCE MEASUREMENTS AT THE LBNL ECR AND AECR-U ION SOURCE USING A PEPPERPOT EMITTANCE SCANNER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Strohmeier; J. Y. Benitez; D. Leitner; D. Winklehner; D. S. Todd; C. M. Lyneis; M. Bantel

    Two Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources are currently available to inject beams into the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). Ion beam emittances for various ion species of both sources were measured using a recently commissioned pepper-pot emittance scanner(1) and are discussed in this paper. Pepper-pot scanners(1,2,3) are capable of extracting the full four-dimensional transverse phase space

  6. High intensity metal ion beam production with ECR ion sources atthe Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Wutte; S. Abbott; M. A. Leitner; C. M. Lyneis

    2001-01-01

    The large number of different experiments performed at the 88 Inch Cyclotron requires great variety and flexibility in the production of ion beams. This flexibility is provided by the two high performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the LBL ECR and the AECR-U, which can produce beams of ions as light as hydrogen and as heavy as uranium. With

  7. High intensity metal ion beam production with ECR ion sources at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Wutte; S. Abbott; M. A. Leitner; C. M. Lyneis

    2002-01-01

    The large number of different experiments performed at the 88 Inch Cyclotron requires great variety and flexibility in the production of ion beams. This flexibility is provided by the two high performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the LBL ECR and the AECR-U, which can produce beams of ions as light as hydrogen and as heavy as uranium. With

  8. Report on the engineering test of the LBL 30 second neutral beam source for the MFTF-B project

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, M.C.; Pincosy, P.A.; Hauck, C.A.; Pyle, R.V.

    1984-08-01

    Positive ion based neutral beam development in the US has centered on the long pulse, Advanced Positive Ion Source (APIS). APIS eventually focused on development of 30 second sources for MFTF-B. The Engineering Test was part of competitive testing of the LBL and ORNL long pulse sources carried out for the MFTF-B Project. The test consisted of 500 beam shots with 80 kV, 30 second deuterium, and was carried out on the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF). This report summarizes the results of LBL testing, in which the LBL APIS demonstrated that it would meet the requirements for MFTF-B 30 second sources. In part as a result of this test, the LBL design was found to be suitable as the baseline for a Common Long Pulse Source design for MFTF-B, TFTR, and Doublet Upgrade.

  9. The magnet lattice of the LBL 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, A.

    1987-03-01

    This paper describes the magnet chosen for the LBL 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source. The structure has a circumference of 196.8 m, with 12 dispersion free straight sections that can accommodate insertion devices up to 5 m long. The achromatic arcs that connect these straight sections feature combined function (gradient) bending magnets. Utilization of three such magnets in the so-called three-bend-achromat (TBA) arrangement, has several beneficial effects: (1) it reduces the amplitude of the vertical beta-function in the bending magnets, thereby minimizing the required aperture; (2) it changes the damping partition number in such a way as to reduce the natural emittance; and (3) it produces separation of the beta-functions such that relatively low sextupole strengths are sufficient for chromatic correction. The result is a structure with very low emittance (4 nm-rad at 1.5 GeV) that is correctable with only two families of sextupoles while maintaining excellent chromatic properties and acceptable dynamic aperture. In this paper we describe the details of the storage ring and discuss the characteristic features of the lattice.

  10. Beam Dynamics Activities and Plans at LBL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    On-going beam dynamics studies at LBL are performed in connection with the 1-2 GeV Advanced Light Source (ALS), the SSC, Collider Physics (Novel Power Sources) and Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR). Exploratory activities include generic research on (a) high-brightness, low-emittance storage rings and linacs for the TeV-scale future linear colliders, b{bar b} facilities, etc., (b) beam dynamics and optics

  11. RFQ development at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, J.

    1984-01-01

    LBL's interest in RFQ accelerators goes back to 1978. We have developed, constructed and operated a heavy ion machine that is the central part of an upgrade project in which our old proton injector linac is converted to a light ion injector system. We are now designing a second heavy ion RFQ linac which will be used at CERN for the injection of light ions into the PS complex. Other RFQ accelerators are under study for possible additional projects. LBL has pioneered new techniques, such as the vane mounting and adjusting mechanism, and the electrical shorting rings which stabilize the cavity field distribution. In conjunction with INS, Tokyo, a new design procedure has been derived, optimized for low current, heavy ion RFQ's which results in a short, efficient structure. LBL has had considerable operational experience with an Alvarez structure operated at high gradients for several years. As the operational characteristics of an RFQ improve dramatically with surface field, our experience with this operation and its implications for future RFQ linacs is discussed. 12 references.

  12. RFQ development at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, S.; Brodzik, D.; Gough, R.A.; Howard, D.; Lancaster, H.; MacGill, R.; Rovanpera, S.; Schneider, H.; Staples, J.; Yourd, R.

    1982-11-01

    The radio frequency quadrupole (FRQ) is a structure which can efficiently focus, bunch and accelerate low velocity ion beams. It has many features which make it particularly attractive for applications in the biomedical and nuclear sciences. There are two projects in progress at LBL where the incorporation of heavy ion RFQ technology offers substantial benefits: in the upgrade of the Bevatron local injector, and in the design of a dedicated heavy ion medical accelerator. In order to meet the requirements of these two important applications, a 200 MHz RFQ structure has been designed for ions with charge to mass ratios as low as 0.14, and a low rf power scale model has been built and tested. Construction of the high power model has begun. The status of this project is reviewed and a summary of technical specifications given.

  13. Design parameters, goals, and status of the new ATLAS ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, R. C.; Harkewicz, R.; Billquist, P. J.; Lyneis, C. M.; Xie, Z. Q.

    1996-03-01

    A new 14 GHz ECR ion source for the ATLAS facility is under construction. The new source is an evolution of the 14 GHz AECR Lawrence Berkeley source. The new source will feature an all-aluminum hexapole main chamber and enhanced peak radial and solenoid magnetic fields compared to the existing AECR. Most of the other design features of the existing source are maintained in this design. The new source will be mounted on a new 300 kV high-voltage platform in order to match the velocity requirements of the existing PII injector linac. Achieving the very precise goal of a few electrical microamps of 238U+33 from this source will allow the ATLAS facility to provide Coulomb-barrier energies of uranium without the use of an additional stripper foil and will significantly enhance the capabilities of ATLAS for the heaviest of beams. The project status and more details of the source system design are discussed.

  14. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source) Booster Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs.

  15. Calculation of collective effects and beam lifetimes for the LBL (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory) 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Zisman, M.S.

    1987-03-01

    In designing a third-generation high brightness synchrotron radiation source, attention must be paid to the various collective effects that can influence beam performance. We report on calculations, performed with the code ZAP, of the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime (from both Touschek and gas scattering) for our 1-2 GeV storage ring. In addition, we estimate the growth times for both longitudinal and transverse coupled bunch instabilities. Bunch lengths of about 20 ps should be obtainable and intrabeam scattering emittance growth is small. For a limiting undulator gap of 1 cm and residual gas pressure of 1n Torr, the beam lifetime is about 5 hours in the single-bunch mode; in the multibunch mode, lifetimes in excess of 6 hours are expected. These results indicate that all performance goals for the facility should be achievable.

  16. Electron Injector Studies at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.H.

    1990-06-01

    Two recent LBL design studies, (1) an rf gun with a laser driven photocathode, (2) and a conventional thermionic gun with three stages of bunching, are summarized and compared. The rf gun was designed as a possible injector to a 1 GeV test experiment consisting of a high gradient rf structure and a relativistic klystron. The rf gun cavity had (1/2 + 2) cells. Analytic calculations and computer simulations suggest that emittance growth was mainly caused by space-charge effects and the rf fringe field effects at the exit of the last cell. Emittance growth was found to be strongly dependent on the size and the length of the pulse. The conventional gun is being considered as an injector for the proposed Infra-Red-Free-Electron-Laser (IRFEL) facility. In order to reduce the space charge effects the final bunching is done in a tapered L-band tank where acceleration and bunching occur at the same time. Beam emittance of a conventional gun was measured at the ALS gun-test-stand and found to be satisfactory for the IRFEL application.

  17. Status of LBL/LLNL FEL (free electron laser) research for two beam accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.

    1989-03-01

    We review the status of free electron laser (FEL) research being conducted at LBL and LLNL as part of a broader program of research on two beam accelerators (TBAs). Induction accelerator-driven FELs for use as power sources for high-gradient accelerators are discussed, along with preliminary cost estimates for this type of power source. Finally, a promising new version of an FEL/TBA is described. 25 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Design of the extraction system and beamline of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Matthaeus A.; Wutte, Daniela C.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2001-05-07

    A new, very high magnetic field superconducting ECR ion source, VENUS, is under construction at the LBNL 88-Inch Cyclotron [1,2]. The paper describes the VENUS extraction system and discusses the ion beam formation in the strong axial magnetic field (3 T) of the ECR ion source. Emittance values as expected from theory, which assumes a uniform plasma density across the plasma outlet hole, are compared with actual measurements from the AECR-U ion source. Results indicate that highly charged heavier ions are concentrated on the source axis. They are extracted from an ''effective'' plasma outlet hole, whose smaller radius must be included in ion optics simulations.

  19. characteristics Jacobson (van@ee.lbl.gov)

    E-print Network

    .243.128.11) 2.355 ms 1.649 ms 1.503 ms 3 lbl­lc1­1.es.net (198.128.16.11) 2.628 ms 2.501 ms 1.897 ms 4 gac.ampr.org (129.46.90.35) 196.909 ms 176.182 ms 188.959 ms 4 #12; How does traceroute work? IP packets contain

  20. Divisional Human Resources Contacts Accelerator & Fusion Research: Sylvia Garcia x2828; SGarcia@lbl.gov

    E-print Network

    Knowles, David William

    Divisional Human Resources Contacts Accelerator & Fusion Research: Sylvia Garcia x2828; SGarcia@lbl.gov ALS: Katie Fuller x2233; KMFuller@lbl.gov CFO, Human Resources, Operations, Directorate: Liz Folau x2498; EFFolau@lbl.gov Chemical Sciences: Dionell Peoples x7509; DBPeoples@lbl.gov Computing Sciences

  1. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

  2. INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATING LBL FORMALDEHYDE SAMPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, L.Z.; Allen, J.R.; Miksch, R.R.

    1981-09-01

    The LBL formaldehyde sampler consists of two parts: 1) a pump box and 2) a small refrigerator housing sampling bubblers. The pump box contains two pumps, a timer, a flow controller, an electrical cord, and a ten-foot piece of tubing to connect the refrigerator to the pump box. The small refrigerator contains four columns of bubbler sampling trains attached to a metal plate. Two sampling trains each are plumbed in parallel to two sampling ports on the back of the refrigerator. The two sampling lines supplied are to be attached to these ports to allow two locations to be sampled at once (usually one indoor and one outdoor). The refrigerator also contains a rack for holding bubbler tubes. In the sampling process, air is drawn through a sampling line attached to the fitting at the back of the refrigerator and into a prlmary bubbler containing a trapping solution. This trapping solution can be distilled water or an aqueous solution of some compound that reacts with formaldehyde. From this bubbler the air goes through a second bubbler containing the same trapping solution as the first bubbler. (To maintain sample integrity, all parts that the air sample contacts are made of Teflon, polypropylene, and stainless steel.) The air then goes into the third bubbler, which contains no liquid. This bubbler contains a hypodermic needle that serves as a flow-control orifice. The hypodermic needle, in conjunction with the flow controller in the pump box, ensures a constant a flow rate. The refrigerator contains four columns of these sets of three bubblers. After samples have been collected, the bubbler bottoms are detached and the contents of the first and second bubblers in each column are poured together, capped, and labeled. The use of a refrigerated primary and secondary bubbler whose contents are combined at the end of a sampling period ensures 95% collection efficiency. After the bubbler tubes are capped and labeled, they are stored either in the rack supplied in the refrigerator or in one of the styrofoam shipping boxes with some frozen blue ice. LBL has found that formaldehyde samples collected in water degrade significantly in a matter of hours if they are not kept cool, whereas refrigerated samples remain stable for as long as a month. Directions are provided for unpacking the apparatus, setting up sampling trains, performing the sampling, procedures after sampling, and shipping samples.

  3. The LBL 55-meter spherical grating monochromator at SSRL (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Howells, M.R.; Lauritzen, T.; Chin, J.; DiGennaro, R.; Fong, E.; Gath, W.; Guigli, J.; Hogrefe, H.; Meneghetti, J.; Plate, D.; Heimann, P.A.; Terminello, L.; Ji, Z.; Shirley, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Senf, S. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.)

    1989-08-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 55-m spherical grating monochromator (SGM) beamline is located as a branch line of the 54-pole wiggler/undulator at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). It was designed and constructed by LBL's Center for X-Ray Optics and the engineering staff of LBL's Advanced Light Source with the cooperation and assistance of the research group of David Shirley at LBL and the staff of SSRL. The main goals of the project were to test the SGM concept and to develop a capability for designing and building a water-cooled mirror and grating capability in anticipation of the ALS. A water-cooled plane mirror deflects the beam horizontally, taking in general a small fraction of the flux from the 54-pole insertion device. This mirror is a brazed assembly of Glidcop (a proprietary alumina-dispersion-strengthened copper alloy) and OFHC copper. Its surface was finished in polished electroless nickel, then overcoated with gold as all optics in the beamline are overcoated. Next in the line is a fused silica toroid which focuses the SPEAR source vertically onto the entrance slit of the monochromator and horizontally onto the nominal position of the exit slit, in the manner of Rense and Violett. The magnification factors are 0.3x vertically and 0.7x horizontally. The monochromator is a Rowland-circle design; both slits move on large granite-based slides that maintain flatness of travel to {plus minus}2 {mu}m in peak-to-peak variation from straightness.

  4. 75 FR 64691 - Information Collection; Land Between The Lakes (LBL) Communication Effectiveness Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...Greg Barnes, Land Between The Lakes, 270-924-2089. Individuals...INFORMATION: Title: Land Between The Lakes (LBL) Communication Effectiveness...Abstract: Land Between The Lakes (hereafter referred to as LBL...LBL will utilize a voluntary survey provided to individuals...

  5. SSC Quadrupole Magnet Performance at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, A.F.; Barale, P.; Benjegerdes, r.; Caspi, S.; Cortella, J.; Dell'Orco, D.; Gilbert, W.; Green, M.I.; Mirk, K.; Peters, C.; Scalan, R.; Taylor, C.E.; Wandesforde, A.

    1992-10-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) contracted to design, construct, and test four short (1m) models and six full-size (5m) models of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) main-ring 5 meter focusing quadrupole magnet (211 Tesla/meter). The training performance of these magnets is summarized. Magnets were tested in a horizontal boiling helium (1 Atm) cryostat. The magnetic, strain-gage and training responses to two thermal cycles were measured. The quadrupole gradient, and relative multipole purity were determined from Fourier analysis of the rotating coil signals. Magnetic and strain-gage measurements were taken on-the-fly. The voltage-tap data was analyzed to determine quench-origin and propagation characteristics. Quench-training proceeded at 4.3K until a plateau was achieved or sub-cooling (2.5K) was used to accelerate the training process. The early short (1m) magnets were also trained at 1.8K (10kA) to help identify potential weak areas. The MIITs were calculated to compare various magnet protection methods. Except for modest training above the anticipated SSC operating point, the magnets performed very well and proved to be self-protecting. Some design flaws were identified and corrected. The last two 1 m models and all the 5m models have been reinstalled in cryostats at the SSC Laboratory, retested and used to achieve various milestones in their program.

  6. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  7. Revision of LBL-10705 Air Infiltration Measurement Techniques

    E-print Network

    __________________ This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Building ings. energy requirements and indoor air quality both of which are topics of concern to societyRevision of LBL-10705 Air Infiltration Measurement Techniques M. H. Sherman Energy Performance

  8. LBL Wideroe-based heavy ion injector project

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, J.W.; Lancaster, H.D.; Yourd, R.B.

    1981-03-01

    The LBL Wideroe-based high-intensity heavy-ion injector for the SuperHILAC will be operational by April 1981. It will provide several emA of low charge state ions up through uranium at high duty factor to the SuperHILAC. Several of the subsystems have already operated to specification and will be described.

  9. Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Plasma production for the 50 MeV plasma lens experiment at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, W.; van der Geer, B.; de Loos, M.; Conde, M.; Govil, R.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    1994-06-01

    The Center for Beam Physics at LBL has constructed a Beam Test Facility (BTF) housing a 50 MeV electron beam transport line, which uses the linac injector from the Advanced Light Source, and a terawatt Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} laser system. The linac operates at 50 MeV and generates 15 ps long electron bunches containing a charge of up to 2 nC. The measured unnormalized beam emittance is 0.33 mm-mrad. These parameters allow for a comprehensive study of focusing of relativistic electron beams with plasma columns, in both the overdense and underdense regime (adiabatic and tapered lenses). A study of adiabatic and/or tapered lenses requires careful control of plasma density and scale lengths of the plasma. We present experimental results on the production of plasmas through resonant two-photon ionization, with parameters relevant to an upcoming plasma lens experiment.

  11. Transverse distribution of beam current oscillations of a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Toivanen, V.; Komppula, J.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.

    2014-02-01

    The temporal stability of oxygen ion beams has been studied with the 14 GHz A-ECR at JYFL (University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics). A sector Faraday cup was employed to measure the distribution of the beam current oscillations across the beam profile. The spatial and temporal characteristics of two different oscillation "modes" often observed with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS are discussed. It was observed that the low frequency oscillations below 200 Hz are distributed almost uniformly. In the high frequency oscillation "mode," with frequencies >300 Hz at the core of the beam, carrying most of the current, oscillates with smaller amplitude than the peripheral parts of the beam. The results help to explain differences observed between the two oscillation modes in terms of the transport efficiency through the JYFL K-130 cyclotron. The dependence of the oscillation pattern on ion source parameters is a strong indication that the mechanisms driving the fluctuations are plasma effects.

  12. Transverse distribution of beam current oscillations of a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, O; Toivanen, V; Komppula, J; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H

    2014-02-01

    The temporal stability of oxygen ion beams has been studied with the 14 GHz A-ECR at JYFL (University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics). A sector Faraday cup was employed to measure the distribution of the beam current oscillations across the beam profile. The spatial and temporal characteristics of two different oscillation "modes" often observed with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS are discussed. It was observed that the low frequency oscillations below 200 Hz are distributed almost uniformly. In the high frequency oscillation "mode," with frequencies >300 Hz at the core of the beam, carrying most of the current, oscillates with smaller amplitude than the peripheral parts of the beam. The results help to explain differences observed between the two oscillation modes in terms of the transport efficiency through the JYFL K-130 cyclotron. The dependence of the oscillation pattern on ion source parameters is a strong indication that the mechanisms driving the fluctuations are plasma effects. PMID:24593488

  13. TPX Sb3SN Conductor Testing at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, A.F.; Scanlan, R.

    1995-07-01

    Two wire lengths (one from Supercon and one from IGC) were delivered for testing at the LBL Short-Sample Test Facility. Several samples of each wire-type were wound onto forms and reacted according to the requested prescriptions. Leads and voltage-tap wires were carefully attached after reaction according to standard LBL short-sample test procedures. Testing of some of the samples has been completed. Liquid helium immersion (4.2K) data was gathered over a limited range of magnetic fields (5-10T). Additional gas-cooled data was collected over a range of temperatures (1.8-14 K). Testing was interrupted when the test-magnet's persistent-switch-heater failed. Good sample-to-sample and retest repeatability was observed for the 4.2K data when it was checked. Temperature measruements on the Supercon samples used CGR's and revealed a disappointing, non-repeatable (pressure-dependent) temperature offset for the gas-cooled measurements. They also observed a systematic dependence upon magnetic-field strength. Changing to a second CGR did not help. The IGC sample used a Cernox-type resistor which showed negligible magnetic and pressure dependencies. Testing is expected to resume when the magnet is repaired.

  14. Design overview of a highly stable infrared free electron laser at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Berz, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Gough, R.; Kim, C.; Kung, A.H.; Xie, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Edighoffer, J. (Pulse Sciences, Inc., San Leandro, CA (USA)); Stein, W. (Industrial Radiation, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (USA))

    1990-11-01

    An infrared free electron laser (IRFEL) is being designed for the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL) at LBL. The FEL is based on a 50 MeV RF linac operating in synchronization to the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and will produce intense (100 {mu}J per micropulse), narrow bandwidth (narrower than 0.1%) radiation between 3 {mu} and 50 {mu}. In the design, we pay particular attention to the FEL stability issues and require that the fluctuations in electron beam energy and in timing be less then 0.05% and 0.1 ps respectively. The FEL spectrum can then be stabilized to about 10{sup {minus}3}, or if grating is used, to 10{sup {minus}4}. We discuss various sources of fluctuations in the gun, the bunchers and the accelerator sections, as well as the feedback and feedforward schemes to reduce these fluctuations. The accelerator structure is chosen to be of the side coupled, standing wave type for easier control. The beam transport is made isochronous to avoid the coupling between the energy and the timing fluctuations. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Requirements and design of a high stable infrared free electron laser at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Berz, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Gough, R.; Kim, C.; Kung, A.H.; Xie, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Edighoffer, J. (Pulse Sciences, Inc., San Leandro, CA (USA)); Stein, W. (Industrial Radiation, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (USA))

    1990-06-01

    An infrared free electron laser (IRFEL) is being designed for the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL) at LBL. The FEL is based on a 50 MeV RF linac operating in synchronization to the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and will produce intense (100 {mu}J per micropulse), narrow bandwidth (narrower than 0.1%) radiation between 3 {mu} and 50 {mu}. In the design, we pay particular attention to the FEL stability issues and require that the fluctuations in electron beam energy and in timing be less than 0.05% and 0.1 ps, respectively. The FEL spectrum can then be stabilized to about 10{sup {minus}3}, or if grating is used, to 10{sup {minus}4}. We discuss various sources of fluctuations in the gun, the bunchers and the accelerator sections, as well as the feedback and feedforward schemes to reduce these fluctuations. The accelerator structure is chosen to be of the side coupled, standing wave type for easier control. The beam transport is made isochronous to avoid the coupling between the energy and the timing fluctuations. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Spray-assisted layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly of anisotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Souvik; Suarez Martinez, Pilar; Kavarthapu, Avanti; Lutkenhaus, Jodie

    2015-03-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has gained tremendous interest as it allows one to incorporate a large variety of molecules with nano-scale precision and very good reproducibility. In addition to charged polymers, the technique has become extremely popular to fabricate tailor-made thin films containing anisotropic nanomaterials (e.g., graphene oxide sheets). The challenge is that a standard protocol to fabricate ``all-polyelectrolyte'' LbL films may not necessarily give rise to satisfactory film growth when applied to LbL assembly where one of the adsorbing components is an anisotropic nanomaterial. Therefore, in this contribution, we combine polymers and anisotropic nanomaterials via dip- and spray-assisted LbL assembly and investigate the effect of charge density, exfoliation, concentration etc. of the components on the growth behavior and the film quality. The end result is a conformal, pin-hole free coating on model substrates (glass, silicon, metal) over a large area.

  17. Report on the 1984 LBL workshop on detectors for relativistic nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1984-11-01

    Highlights of the Workshop on Detectors for Relativistic Nuclear Collisions, held March 26-30, 1984, at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are reviewed. (Complete proceedings are available as report LBL-18225.) (WHK)

  18. Case study data base companion report 3 to simulation of geothermal subsidence (LBL-10571)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, I.; Dershowitz, W.; Jones, K.; Myer, L.; Roman, K.; Schauer, M.

    1980-03-01

    The data base developed for selection and evaluation of geothermal subsidence case studies is presented. Data from this data base were used in case studies of Wairakei, The Geysers, and Austin Bayou Prospect (Report LBL 10571).

  19. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  20. LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Majer, E.L.; Pruess, K.

    1992-03-24

    As part of The Geysers research activities of DOE's Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, LBL, in close cooperation with industry, is performing fundamental and applied studies of vapor-dominated geothermal systems. These studies include the development of new methods for evaluating cold water injection, monitoring of the seismic activity in The Geysers associated with injection and production, interpretation of pressure and geochemical changes measured during well tests and long-term production and injection operations, and improvement of existing models of the geothermal system. A review is given of the latest results of DOE-sponsored LBL reservoir engineering and seismic studies relevant to The Geysers.

  1. LBL research on The Geysers: Conceptual models, simulation and monitoring studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Majer, E.L.; Pruess, K.

    1992-03-01

    As part of The Geysers research activities of DOE's Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, LBL, in close co-operation with industry, is performing fundamental and applied studies of vapor- dominated geothermal systems. These studies include the development of new methods for evaluating cold water injection, monitoring of the seismic activity in The Geysers associated with injection and production, interpretation of pressure and geochemical changes measured during well tests and long-term production and injection operations, and improvement of existing models of the geothermal system. A review is given of the latest results of DOE-sponsored LBL reservoir engineering and seismic studies relevant to The Geysers.

  2. LBL research on The Geysers: Conceptual models, simulation and monitoring studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Majer, E.L.; Pruess, K.

    1982-03-01

    As part of The Geysers research activities of DOE`s Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, LBL, in close co-operation with industry, is performing fundamental and applied studies of vapor- dominated geothermal systems. These studies include the development of new methods for evaluating cold water injection, monitoring of the seismic activity in The Geysers associated with injection and production, interpretation of pressure and geochemical changes measured during well tests and long-term production and injection operations, and improvement of existing models of the geothermal system. A review is given of the latest results of DOE-sponsored LBL reservoir engineering and seismic studies relevant to The Geysers.

  3. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  4. Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F W; Kirkpatrick, M I [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H{sup {minus}} Source; The H{sup +} ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research.

  5. Beam-beam studies for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    We present a summary of beam-beam dynamics studies that have been carried out to date for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B Factory. Most of the material presented here is contained in the proposal's Conceptual Design Report, although post-CDR studies are also presented. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Biopathways Graph Data Manager (BGDM) http:// hpcrd.lbl.gov/staff/olken/graphdm/graphdm.htm

    E-print Network

    Biopathways Graph Data Manager (BGDM) http:// hpcrd.lbl.gov/staff/olken/graphdm/graphdm.htm BioCyc database collection http://www.biocyc.org/ Textpresso for C. elegans http://www.textpresso.org/ Patent Lens http://www.biocyc.org/ bioveloLanguage.html BioCyc Pathway Tools http://bioinformatics.ai.sri. com

  7. The effects of the interphase and strain gradients on the elasticity of layer by layer (LBL) polymer/clay nanocomposites

    E-print Network

    Li, Yaning

    A synergistic stiffening effect observed in the elastic mechanical properties of LBL assembled polymer/clay nanocomposites is studied via two continuum mechanics approaches. The nanostructure of the representative volume ...

  8. Discovery of very high-energy gamma-ray emission from the LBL object BL Lacertae

    E-print Network

    MAGIC Collaboration; M. Hayashida; K. Berger; E. Lindfors; V. Vitale; R. Wagner; E. Lorenz

    2007-09-14

    The low-frequency peaked BL Lac (LBL) object BL Lacertae was observed with the MAGIC telescope from 2005 August to December (22.2 hr), and from 2006 July to September (26.0 hr). A very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray signal was discovered with a 5.1 sigma excess in the 2005 data. Above 200 GeV, an integral flux of (0.6+-0.2)x10e-11 m-2 s-1 was measured, corresponding to approximately 3% of the Crab flux. The differential spectrum between 150 and 900 GeV is rather steep, with a photon index of -3.6+-0.5. The light curve shows no significant variability during the observations in 2005. For the first time a clear detection of VHE gamma-ray emission from an LBL object was obtained. The 2006 data show no significant excess. This drop in flux follows the observed trend in optical activity

  9. The Architecture and Biological Performance of Drug-Loaded LbL Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Stephen; Poon, Zhiyong; Hammond, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Layer-by-Layer (LbL) nanoparticles are an emerging class of therapeutic carriers that afford precise control over key design parameters that facilitate improved drug and carrier pharmacokinetics, and enhanced molecular-targeting capabilities. This paper advances the development of these systems by establishing them as drug carriers, with the means to control drug release in a systemic environment and retard particle clearance from circulation, promoting improved biodistribution of the drug-containing system. Using dual-fluorescent tracking in vivo, this work establishes a robust means of screening libraries of LbL systems generated, affording simultaneous resolution over persistence and biodistribution of both the drug and carrier following systemic administration of a single particle formulation. Employing a PLGA drug-containing core as a substrate for LbL deposition, a range of coated systems were fabricated to investigate the abilities of these films to stabilize drug for delivery as well as to improve the pharmacokinetics of both the drug and carrier. Significant reductions in liver accumulation were observed for different formulations of the layered architectures within the first 30 minutes of systemic circulation. LbL architectures diminished liver localization of the surrogate drug, cardiogreen, by 10–25% ID/g relative to native PLGA nanoparticles and modulated carrier accumulation in the liver >50% ID/g. Further, enhanced persistence of the drug was observed with the coated systems, significantly increasing the drug half-life from 2–3 minutes for free drug and 1.87h for the uncoated core to 4.17h and 4.54h for the coated systems. These systems provide an exciting, modular platform that improves the pharmacokinetic properties of the therapeutic, reduces bolus release of drug from nanoparticles, and enhances the safety and circulation half-life of the drug in vivo, proving them to be highly clinically-relevant and a promising approach for future development of molecularly-targeted and combination therapeutics. PMID:23618629

  10. Studies at LBL's Bevalac will help resolve uncertainties about radiation risks to astronauts

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, J.

    1991-01-01

    Plans to operate the LBL's Bevalac facility for space research are discussed. The proposed program includes the use of cell cultures and animal models to assess the biological consequences of exposures to different particles that are components of the space radiation environment. Research will also be conducted on measures to counter radiation. Experiments will be carried out to examine how various materials that could be used in a spacecraft wall would alter the cascade of particles that would ultimately reach an astronaut.

  11. Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide {sup c}ocktails{sup ,} a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

  12. CAITLIN E. HICKS PRIES cehpries@lbl.gov

    E-print Network

    Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    of Florida Thesis: Sediment organic carbon pools and sources in a recently constructed mangrove and seagrass.1111/gcb.12058. Hicks Pries C.E., E.A.G. Schuur, and K. G. Crummer. 2012. Holocene Carbon Stocks and Carbon

  13. Research News: Tissue Geometry Plays Crucial Role in Breast Cell Invasion http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/LSD-tissue-geometry.html Celeste Nelson (left) and Mina Bissell led a collaboration that created a

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Celeste M.

    Research News: Tissue Geometry Plays Crucial Role in Breast Cell Invasion http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/LSD Crucial Role in Breast Cell Invasion http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/LSD

  14. Development of a high intensity 48Ca ion beam for the heavy element program

    SciTech Connect

    Wutte, Daniela; Leitner, Mattheus; Lyneis, Claude

    2002-02-02

    A high intensity {sup 48}Ca ion beam has been developed at the 88 Inch Cyclotron for the synthesis of {sup 283}112 using the reaction {sup 238}U({sup 48}Ca, 3n). An ion beam intensity of {approx} 700 pnA was delivered on target, resulting in a total dose of 2 x 10{sup 18} ions over a six day period. Since {sup 48}Ca is a very expensive and rare isotope minimal consumption is essential. Therefore a new oven [1] and special tantalum liner [2] have been developed for the AECR-U ion source during the last year to improve the metal ion beam efficiency. Both the LBL ECR and the AECR-U ion sources are built with radial access. Six radial slots between the sextupole magnet bars provide additional pumping and easy access to the plasma chamber for ovens and feedthroughs. Two types of radial ovens have been used at LBNL in the past, operating at temperatures up to 2100 C.

  15. The LBL advanced light source (ALS) transverse coupled-bunch feedback system---Recent commissioning results

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, W.; Byrd, J.; Corlett, J. [Center for Beam Physics, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1995-05-05

    The ALS transverse coupled-bunch feedback system is described along with some recent commissioning results. Results presented include transfer function measurements, demonstrations of multi-bunch damping, and demonstrations of simultaneous transverse and longitudinal systems operation. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  16. Fluxes are subject to change. For latest go to http://bl831.als.lbl.gov/~jamesh/ACA2007/damage_rates.pdf Fluxes are subject to change. For latest go to http://bl831.als.lbl.gov/~jamesh/ACA2007/damage_rates.pdf

    E-print Network

    Fluxes are subject to change. For latest go to http://bl831.als.lbl.gov/~jamesh/ACA2007/damage_rates.pdf Fluxes are subject to change. For latest go to http://bl831.als.lbl.gov/~jamesh/ACA2007/damage. For latest go to http://bl831.als.lbl.gov/~jamesh/ACA2007/damage_rates.pdf Fluxes are subject to change

  17. Scintillator characterization using the LBL pulsed X-ray facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Moses; S. E. Derenzo; M. J. Weber; S. C. Blankespoor; M. H. Ho; A. C. West

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a bench-top pulsed X-ray system for measuring scintillation properties of compounds in crystalline or powdered form. The source is a light-excited X-ray tube that produces 40 X-ray photons (mean energy 18.5 keV) per steradian in each 100 pps fwhm pulse. The repetition rate is adjustable from 0 to 107 pulses per second. The fluorescent emanations from the

  18. Volume H/sup -/ ion production experiments at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1983-11-01

    H/sup -/ ions formed by volume processes have been extracted from a multicusp ion source. It is shown that a permanent magnet filter together with a small positive bias voltage on the plasma grid can produce a very significant reduction in electron drain as well as a sizable increase in H/sup -/ ions available for extraction. A further reduction in electron current is achieved by installing a pair of small magnets at the extraction aperture. An H/sup -/ ion current density of 38 mA/cm/sup 2/ was obtained with a discharge current of approximately 350 A. Different techniques to increase the H/sup -/ ion yield have also been investigated.

  19. Scintillator characterization using the LBL Pulsed X-ray Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Weber, M.J.; Blankespoor, S.C.; Ho, M.H.; West, A.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-10-01

    The authors have developed a bench-top pulsed x-ray system for measuring scintillation properties of compounds in crystal or powdered form. The source is a light-excited x-ray tube that produces 40 x-ray photons (mean energy 18.5 keV) per steradian in each 100 ps fwhm pulse. The repetition rate is adjustable from 0 to 10{sup 7} pulses per second. The fluorescent emanations from the x-ray excited samples are detected with either a sapphire-windowed microchannel plate photomultiplier tube (spectral range 150--650 nm, transit time jitter 40 ps fwhm) or a quartz windowed GaAs(Cs) photomultiplier tube (spectral range 160--930 nm, transit time jitter 4 ns fwhm). Decay time spectra are acquired using a TDC Havina 40 ps fwhm resolution over a 84 ms dynamic range. A computer controlled monochromator can be inserted into the optical path to measure the emission spectrum or wavelength resolved decay time spectrum. A computer controlled sample changer allows up to 64 samples to be measured without intervention.

  20. Direct-write maskless lithography of LBL nanocomposite films and its prospects for MEMS technologies.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yongxiao; Ho, Szushen; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2012-08-01

    Application of nanocomposites in MEMS, flexible electronics, and biomedical devices is likely to demonstrate new performance standards and resolve a number of difficult technical problems enabled by the unique combinations of electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. This study explores the possibility of making microscale nanocomposite patterns using the fusion of two highly versatile techniques: direct-write maskless UV patterning and layer-by-layer assembly (LBL). Together they can be applied to the production of a wide variety of nanostructured coatings with complex patterns. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and gold nanoparticle LBL nanocomposites assembled with chitosan (CH) were made into prototypical patterns such as concentric helices and bus-line-and-stimulation-pads (BLASPs) used in flexible antennas and neuroprosthetic devices. The spatial resolution of the technique was established with the standard line grids to be at least 1 ?m. Gold nanoparticle films revealed better accuracy and higher resolution in direct-write patterning than SWNT composites, possibly due to the granular rather than fibrous nature of the composites. The conductivity of the patterned composites was 6.45 × 10(-5)? m and 3.80 × 10(-6)? m at 20 °C for nanotube and nanoparticle composites, respectively; in both cases it exceeds electrical parameters of similar composites. Fundamental and technological prospects of nanocomposite MEMS devices in different areas including implantable biomedical, sensing, and optical devices are discussed. PMID:22740054

  1. From the {psi} to charmed mesons: Three years with the SLAC-LBL detector at SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, G.

    1992-06-01

    As I look back at the first three years or so at SPEAR, I consider this one of the most revolutionary or perhaps the most revolutionary, experiment in the 60 year history of particle physics. It certainly was the most exciting time, in a laboratory that is, that I have ever experienced. In my talk I will cover the period 1973--1976 which saw the discoveries of the {psi} and {psi}{prime} resonances the {chi} states and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the D{degree}, D{sup +}* charmed meson doublet as well as the D{degree}* and D{sup +}* doublet. I will also refer briefly to some more recent results. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or ``MARK I`` which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. In 1976 the MARK I was modified to include a ``Lead Glass Wall`` (LGW) for improved photon and electron detection. This involved a new physics group from LBL, who built the LGW, Lina Barbaro-Galtieri et al. as well as a continuing group from SLAC, Martin Perl and Gary Feldman et al. to provide continuity in the running of the MARK I and to continue the study of the anomalous e{mu}events which Martin found earlier and which eventually were identified as the signature of the {tau} lepton.

  2. LBL/JSU/AGMUS science consortium annual report, FY 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In 1983, a formal Memorandum of Understanding joined the Ana G. Mendez University System (AGMUS), Jackson State University (JSU), and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in a consortium designed to advance the science and technology programs of JSU and AGMUS. This is the first such collaboration between a Hispanic university system, a historically Black university, and a national laboratory. The goals of this alliance are basic and direct: to develop and effect a long-term, comprehensive program that will enable the campuses of AGMUS and JSU to provide a broad, high-quality offering in the natural and computer sciences, to increase the number of minority students entering these fields, and to contribute to scientific knowledge and the federal government`s science mission through research. This report documents the progress toward these goals and includes individual success stories. The LBL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium has developed plans for utilizing its program successes to help other institutions to adopt or adapt those elements of the model that have produced the greatest results. Within the five-year plan formulated in 1990 are eight major components, each with defining elements and goals. These elements have become the components of the Science Consortium`s current plan for expansion and propagation.

  3. LBL RUNAROUND RESULTS 2.95 km (1.84 mi) September 16, 1988 Envelope Time Name Group Group

    E-print Network

    :45.7 Brian Moyer 40-49 not LBL 24 11:47.5 Guy Perkins Phillips -39 21 102 13:46.3 Tony Leadon 30-39 22 103 13:46.8 Pam Coxson 30-39F 2 104 13:49.2 Mark Phillips 30-39 23 105 13:49.4 Frank Chuang Andrew Renema, II

  4. Aceclofenac delivery by microencapsulation using LBL self-assembly for delayed release.

    PubMed

    Dharmendra, Kumar; Manisha, Pandey; Kymonil, Koshy Mamman; Awasthi, Saraf Shubhini

    2011-10-01

    Colonic targeting has gained increasing interest over the past years, not just for the transport of drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also for its potential for transporting peptides and proteins, particularly low molecular weight peptide drugs. Without protection, such peptide drugs are usually digested within the gastric and small intestinal sections. In the present work Layer-By-Layer (LBL) self-assembly was utilized to make Aceclofenac single bilayer microcapsules produced by sequential adsorption of positively charged chitosan and negatively charged Pectin on the external surface of negatively charged Aceclofenac microcrystals. Taguchi approach was applied to determine the best concurrence of composition factors that is concentration of chitosan, pectin, centrifugation speed and incubation time. The microcapsules were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy and in-vitro release kinetics. Surface electric potential of Aceclofenac microcrystals was found to be negative with zeta potential -1.39 mV, in acetate buffer of pH 4. The primary and the secondary deposit layer of chitosan and pectin was found to have a positive and negative charge with zeta potential of +5.57 mV and -22.8 mV respectively. The sequential changing of surface zeta potential after each deposition is a satisfactory indication of the LBL self-assembly of the oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. The average size and encapsulation efficiency of the optimized single bilayer microcapsules (F5) was found to be 20µm and 63.83%, respectively. The ex-vivo percentage cumulative drug release of (F5) in Phosphate buffer pH 6.8 containing 2-4% w/v colonic fecal matter of male albino rat was found to be 98.40%. The optimized batch of microcapsules showed first order release kinetics (R(2)= 0.950) in presence of colonic fecal matter. PMID:21959811

  5. Advances in metal ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1988-05-01

    Beams of metallic ion species can be produced by the ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source and by the MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) ion source. Although the ECR source is fundamentally a gaseous ion source, metal ion beams can be produced by introducing metallic feed material into the plasma discharge using a number of techniques. The ion charge states can be very high, which is a significant advantage to most applications. The MEVVA ion source, on the other hand, is specifically a metal ion source. It has produced metallic ion beams from virtually all the solid metallic elements at a current of typically hundreds of milliamperes; the ions produced are in general multiply ionized, but not as highly stripped as those generated in the ECR source. Although the MEVVA source at present operates in a pulsed mode with a low duty cycle (less than or equal to 1%), work is in progress to increase the duty cycle significantly. In this paper the operation and performance of the LBL ECR and MEVVA ion sources, with respect to metal ion generation, are described.

  6. XUV synchrotron optical components for the Advanced Light Source: Summary of the requirements and the developmental program

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.; Irick, S.; Lunt, D.

    1992-07-01

    We give a brief summary of the requirements for water cooled optical components for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third generation synchrotron radiation source under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from a finished water cooled copper alloy mirror will be used to demonstrate the state of the art in optical metrology with the Takacs Long Trace Profiler (LTP II).

  7. Prototype testing for the US common long pulse neutral beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, M.C.; Anderson, O.A.; Berkner, K.H.; Chan, C.F.; Cooper, W.S.; Lietzke, A.F.; Owren, H.M.; Paterson, J.A.; Pincosy, P.A.; Pyle, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US positive ion neutral beam program has developed a single design, the Common Long Pulse Source (CLPS), which will provide multi-second beam heating for TFTR, MFTF-B and GA's Big D. Following competitive prototype testing, the LBL design was selected for industrialization because it could both meet the performance requirements of all three users, and fit within all space constraints. The LBL accelerator design is based on a slot type of aperture, with water cooled molybdenum grid tubes. The plasma generator is a magnetic bucket arc chamber, with multiple tungsten wire filaments. Beam test results are presented for the 10 x 40 cm prototype source with 80 kV and 120 kV gaps. The initial test results from the first 12 x 48 cm CLPS industrial plasma generator, made by RCA, are also presented.

  8. Femtosecond X-ray generation through 90{sup o} Thomson scattering: Status of the LBL experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, W.; Schoenlein, R.; Chin, A.; Glover, E.; Conde, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Kim, K.J.; Shank, C.V.

    1994-11-01

    Scattering of femotosecond laser pulses off a low energy relativistic electron beam at 90{sup o} offers the possibility to generate ultrashort X-ray pulses. Experiments are under preparation in the Beam Test Facility of the Center for Beam Physics at LBL to demonstrate the generation and detection of such pulses. The experiments involve a relativistic electron beam (tunable from 25-50 MeV) with a bunch length of 10 ps containing 1-2 nC, and an ultra short pulse (50-200 fs), high peak power (>2 TW) 0.8 {mu}m Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} laser system. The electron beam, focused down to about a 50 {mu}m waist size intersects the focused laser beam at 90{sup o}. The laser field acts as an electromagnetic undulator with strength K (quiver velocity of an electron normalized to the speed of light) for the relativistic electron beam, generating radiation up-shifted by 2{gamma}{sup 2}/(1+K{sup 2}/2) and a pulse length given by the overlapped interaction length in time of the laser beam and the electron beam. Here {gamma} is the usual Lorentz factor. Wavelength tuning will be accomplished in the experiment by generating wiggler strengths on the order of one as well as by electron beam energy tuning. For a 50 MeV electron beam and a laser beam focused to an intensity on the order of 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, the authors expect 10{sup 5} photons at 0.4 {angstrom} (10% bandwidth) in a cone angle of 6 mrad in a 170 fs pulse.

  9. Transverse coupled-bunch feedback in the Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Barry; J. Byrd; J. Corlett; Glen R Lambertson; C. C. Lo

    1994-01-01

    In order to effectively control a large number of transverse coupled-bunch modes in the LBL Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring, a broad-band, bunch-by-bunch feedback system has been designed (l), and is beginning to undergo testing and commissioning. This paper addresses the major electronic components of the feedback system. In particular, the components described include: broad-band microwave position detection receivers,

  10. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons --H0

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons -- H0 and H± , Searches for A REVIEW GOES HERE ­ Check our WWW List of Reviews STANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITS These limits apply to the Higgs boson

  11. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons --H0

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons -- H0 and H± , Searches for A REVIEW GOES HERE ­ Check our WWW List of Reviews CONTENTS:CONTENTS:CONTENTS:CONTENTS: Standard Model H0 (Higgs Boson) Mass Limits - H0 Direct Search Limits - H0 Indirect Mass Limits from Electroweak Analysis Mass Limits for Neutral Higgs Bosons in Supersymmetric Models - H0 1 (Higgs Boson) Mass

  12. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Neutrino Mixing

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    .944±0.016±0.040 1 ABE 12 DCHZ Chooz reactors 0.920±0.009±0.014 2 AHN 12 RENO Yonggwang reactors 0.940±0.011±0.004 3 APOLLONIO 99 CHOZ Chooz reactors 1 km HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 1 Created: 6/18/2012 15:10 #12;Citation: J

  13. Biao Zhu, Curriculum Vitae, updated 01/10/2013 Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Email: biaozhu@lbl.gov

    E-print Network

    Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    Berkeley National Laboratory Email: biaozhu@lbl.gov 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 84-171, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA and Xitianmu APPOINTMENTS 12/2012 ­ present Postdoctoral Fellow, Margaret Torn Lab, Lawrence Berkeley NationalBiao Zhu, Curriculum Vitae, updated 01/10/2013 - 1 - BIAO ZHU Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence

  14. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Number of Neutrino Types

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    CMB, large scale structure, Lyman- alpha forest, and SN1a data. The slight preference for N > 3 comes://pdg.lbl.gov) Number of Neutrino Types The neutrinos referred to in this section are those of the Standard SU(2)×U(1- CollidersNumber from e+ e- Colliders Number of Light TypesNumber of Light TypesNumber of Light Types

  15. A 6.3 T Bend Magnet for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.E.; Caspi, S.

    1995-06-07

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a 1.5 to 1.9 GeV high-brightness electron storage ring operating at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) that provides synchrotron radiation for a large variety of users. It Is proposed to replace three of the thirty six 1.5T, one meter long bend magnets with very sbort high-field superconductlng (SC) dipoles. These magnets would provide bend-magnet synchrotron radiation to six bcamlines with a critical energy of at least 6 keV that is much better suited for protein crystallography and other small-sample x-ray diffraction and adsorption studies, than is currently available at the ALS. The magnet design is described, including coil, yoke, magnetic field analysis, and cyrostat. A prototype magnet is under construction at LBL.

  16. Plasmodium falciparum synthetic LbL microparticle vaccine elicits protective neutralizing antibody and parasite-specific cellular immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Thomas J.; Tang, Jie; DeRome, Mary E.; Mitchell, Robert A.; Jacobs, Andrea; Deng, Yanhong; Palath, Naveen; Cardenas, Edwin; Boyd, James G.; Nardin, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Epitopes of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic species of the malaria parasite, have been shown to elicit protective immunity in experimental animals and human volunteers. The mechanisms of immunity include parasite-neutralizing antibodies that can inhibit parasite motility in the skin at the site of infection and in the bloodstream during transit to the hepatocyte host cell and also block interaction with host cell receptors on hepatocytes. In addition, specific CD4+ and CD8+ cellular mechanisms target the intracellular hepatic forms, thus preventing release of erythrocytic stage parasites from the infected hepatocyte and the ensuing blood stage cycle responsible for clinical disease. An innovative method for producing particle vaccines, layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of polypeptide films on solid CaCO3 cores, was used to produce synthetic malaria vaccines containing a tri-epitope CS peptide T1BT* comprising the antibody epitope of the CS repeat region (B) and two T-cell epitopes, the highly conserved T1 epitope and the universal epitope T*. Mice immunized with microparticles loaded with T1BT* peptide developed parasite-neutralizing antibodies and malaria-specific T-cell responses including cytotoxic effector T-cells. Protection from liver stage infection following challenge with live sporozoites from infected mosquitoes correlated with neutralizing antibody levels. Although some immunized mice with low or undetectable neutralizing antibodies were also protected, depletion of T-cells prior to challenge resulted in the majority of mice remaining resistant to challenge. In addition, mice immunized with microparticles bearing only T-cell epitopes were not protected, demonstrating that cellular immunity alone was not sufficient for protective immunity. Although the microparticles without adjuvant were immunogenic and protective, a simple modification with the lipopeptide TLR2 agonist Pam3Cys increased the potency and efficacy of the LbL vaccine candidate. This study demonstrates the potential of LbL particles as promising malaria vaccine candidates using the T1BT* epitopes from the P. falciparum CS protein. PMID:23481177

  17. Survey and alignment of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R.

    1991-05-01

    The general survey and alignment concept for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL Berkeley [1] is based on a network of fixed monuments to which all component positions are referred. Observations include electronic distance measurements and direction sightings with electronic data capture; data are processed by a customized version of the computer code PC-GEONET [2] which provides raw data reduction, calculation of adjusted coordinates, and error analysis. Additionally, for local survey tasks the commercial software package ECDCS [3] is used. In this paper, the ALS survey and alignment strategy and techniques are presented and critically discussed; first experiences with alignment of the linac and booster components are described.

  18. Surface modification of PLLA nano-scaffolds with laminin multilayer by LbL assembly for enhancing neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    He, Liumin; Tang, Shuo; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Liao, Susan; Tian, Lingling; Zhang, Yuanming; Xue, Wei; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-11-01

    In this study, PLLA nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning and their surfaces are modified by laminin/chitosan (LN/CS) polyelectrolyte multilayer. Surface C/N ratio determined by XPS analysis quantitatively indicates of discrete coating layers on the nanofibers. The amount of LN deposited sustainably increases with LbL assembly processing, approximately 60?ng?mm(-2) LN per cycle of LN/CS deposition. The LN-modified PLLA scaffolds significantly induce neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons and NSC compared to the pure PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds. Furthermore, higher amounts of LN adsorbed assist in promoting cell proliferation than PLLA as-spun nanofibers. Therefore, a facile and efficient method to modify nano-scaffolds for the construction of a biomimetic scaffold to promote highly efficient neurite outgrowth is presented. PMID:24038950

  19. The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.; Chen, G.; Haukwa, C.; Kwicklis, E.

    1995-12-31

    The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model o the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge Fault) and perhaps to the north by an unconfirmed fault (Yucca Wash Fault). The model consists of about 5,000 grid blocks (elements) with nearly 20,000 connections between them; the grid was designed to represent the most prevalent geological and hydro-geological features of the site including major faults, and layering and bedding of the hydro-geological units. Submodels are used to investigate specific hypotheses and their importance before incorporation into the three-dimensional site-scale model. The primary objectives of the three-dimensional site-scale model are to: (1) quantify moisture, gas and heat flows in the ambient conditions at Yucca Mountain, (2) help in guiding the site-characterization effort (primarily by USGS) in terms of additional data needs and to identify regions of the mountain where sufficient data have been collected, and (3) provide a reliable model of Yucca Mountain that is validated by repeated predictions of conditions in new boreboles and the ESF and has therefore the confidence of the public and scientific community. The computer code TOUGH2 developed by K. Pruess at LBL was used along with the three-dimensional site-scale model to generate these results. In this paper, we also describe the three-dimensional site-scale model emphasizing the numerical grid development, and then show some results in terms of moisture, gas and heat flow.

  20. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) sJ(2860) I(JP) = 0(??)

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) D sJ(2860)± I(JP) = 0(??) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE Observed by AUBERT,BE 06E and AUBERT 09AR +5 -22862 ±2 +5 -2 2862 ±2 +5 -2 3122 1 AUBERT 09AR BABR e+ e- D() K X · · · We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. · · · 2856.6±1.5±5.0 2 AUBERT,BE 06E BABR e+ e- D K X 1

  1. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) sJ(2860) I(JP) = 0(??)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) D sJ(2860)± I(JP) = 0(??) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE Observed by AUBERT,BE 06E and AUBERT 09AR +5 -22862 ±2 +5 -2 2862 ±2 +5 -2 3122 1 AUBERT 09AR BABR e+ e- D() K X · · · We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. · · · 2856.6±1.5±5.0 2 AUBERT,BE 06E BABR e+ e- D K X 1

  2. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (1650) IG (JPC ) = 0-(1 --)

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    · · · We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. · · · 1667± 13± 6 AUBERT 07AU BABR 10.6 e+ e- + - 1645± 8 13 AUBERT 06D BABR 10.6 e+ e- 1660± 10± 2 AUBERT,B 04N BABR 10.6 e+ e Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 222± 25± 20 AUBERT 07AU BABR 10.6 e+ e

  3. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (1650) IG (JPC ) = 0-(1 --)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    · · · We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. · · · 1667± 13± 6 AUBERT 07AU BABR 10.6 e+ e- + - 1645± 8 13 AUBERT 06D BABR 10.6 e+ e- 1660± 10± 2 AUBERT,B 04N BABR 10.6 e+ e Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 222± 25± 20 AUBERT 07AU BABR 10.6 e+ e

  4. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) c(3055) I(JP) = ?(??) Status

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    TECN COMMENT 3054.2±1.2±0.53054.2±1.2±0.53054.2±1.2±0.53054.2±1.2±0.5 218 ± 95 AUBERT 08J BABR e+ e±11 218 ± 95 AUBERT 08J BABR e+ e- 10.58 GeV c (3055) REFERENCESc (3055) REFERENCESc (3055) REFERENCESc (3055) REFERENCES AUBERT 08J PR D77 012002 B. Aubert et al. (BABAR Collab.) HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 1

  5. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    .S. Finn, P.J. Sutton TAYLOR 93 NAT 355 132 J.N. Taylor et al. (PRIN, ARCBO, BURE+) J DAMOUR 91 APJ 366 501 T. Damour, J.H. Taylor (BURE, MEUD, PRIN) GOLDHABER 74 PR D9 1119 A.S. Goldhaber, M.M. Nieto (LANL://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2 OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE graviton MASSgraviton MASSgraviton MASSgraviton MASS All

  6. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2150) IG (JPC ) = 1+(1 --)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) (2150) IG (JPC ) = 1+(1 - -) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE This entry was previously called T1(2190). See- PRODUCEDe+ e- PRODUCEDe+ e- PRODUCED VALUE (MeV) DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 2149±17 OUR AVERAGE2149±17 OUR. · · · 1990±80 AUBERT 07AU BABR 10.6 e+ e- + - pp pp pp pp VALUE (MeV) DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT

  7. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2150) IG (JPC ) = 1+(1 --)

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) (2150) IG (JPC ) = 1+(1 - -) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE This entry was previously called T1(2190). See- PRODUCEDe+ e- PRODUCEDe+ e- PRODUCED VALUE (MeV) DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 2149±17 OUR AVERAGE2149±17 OUR. · · · 1990±80 AUBERT 07AU BABR 10.6 e+ e- + - pp pp pp pp VALUE (MeV) DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT

  8. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Number of Neutrino Types

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    structure, Lyman- alpha forest, and SN1a data. The slight preference for N > 3 comes mostly from the Lyman://pdg.lbl.gov) Number of Neutrino Types The neutrinos referred to in this section are those of the Standard SU(2)×U(1- CollidersNumber from e+ e- Colliders Number of Light TypesNumber of Light TypesNumber of Light Types

  9. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.

    1986-10-01

    In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

  10. Controlled release studies of antimalarial 1, 3, 5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines from biocompatible chitosan-heparin Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self assembled thin films.

    PubMed

    Bhalerao, Uma M; Valiveti, Aditya Kapil; Acharya, Jyotiranjan; Halve, Anand K; Kaushik, Mahabir Parshad

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report the in-vitro controlled release properties of 1, 3, 5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines through Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self assembled thin films fabricated from chitosan and heparin sodium salt as biocompatible polyelectrolytes. This study was carried out as a preliminary step towards the applicability of LbL technique in prophylactic drug delivery of antimalarial drugs. The growth of LbL self assembly was monitored by UV-Visible spectrophotometry and Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). The loading as well as in-vitro release studies (in phosphate buffer saline at pH 7.4) were carried out using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Three compounds having good antimalarial activity were tested and the release rate was found inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity of the drug. Pzln-4 has shown best release among all the three compounds (up to 780 min) followed by Pzln-5 and Pzln-8. The release trend was that of a fast release up to first 2 h followed by a steady release. Kinetic fitting of the data confirmed the process of drug release followed a pseudo second order kinetics (R(2)?0.99). A large value of rate constant (k) revealed a faster release. Pzln-4 has shown smallest value of k corresponding to slowest release among all the three compounds. PMID:25486324

  11. Advanced Light Source beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1991-10-28

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation facility nearing completion at LBL. As a third-generation machine, the ALS is designed to produce intense light from bend magnets, wigglers, and undulators (insertion devices). The facility will include a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron, beam transport lines, a 1--2 GeV storage ring, insertion devices, and photon beam lines. Currently, the beam injection systems are being commissioned, and the storage ring is being installed. Electron beam position monitors (BPM) are installed throughout the accelerator and constitute the major part of accelerator beam diagnostics. The design of the BPM instruments is complete, and 50 units have been constructed for use in the injector systems. We are currently fabricating 100 additional instruments for the storage ring. In this paper I discuss engineering fabrication, testing and performance of the beam pickup electrodes and the BPM electronics.

  12. Heavy ion development at the LBL (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory) 88-inch cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1989-05-01

    The 88-Inch Cyclotron produces a wide range of ions for basic and applied research. The 6.4 GHz ECR source has completely replaced the PIG source, giving higher charge states and higher cyclotron energies. The ECR source has produced ions of 34 elements, of which 28 have been accelerated in the cyclotron, using gases, and low and high temperature ovens. A higher frequency 14.5 GHz advanced ECR is now under construction. It will further increase the charge states and energies available. A conceptual design has been done for a superconducting ECR driven by a gyrotron at 28 GHz. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Preliminary development of the LBL/USGS three-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France). Dept. Geothermie et Hydroenergie; Chen, G.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chornack, M.; Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Spengler, R. [US Geologic Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center

    1995-06-01

    A 3-D model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed at LBL in cooperation with USGS. This site-scale model covers an area of about 34 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the north, east, and west. The relatively coarse-grid model includes about 300 horizontal grid-blocks and 17 layers. Contour maps and isopach maps are presented defining different types of infiltration zones, and the spatial distribution of Tiva Canyon, Paintbrush, and Topopah Spring hydrogeological units. Matrix flow is approximated using the van Genuchten model, and the equivalent continuum approximation is used to account for fracture flow in the welded units. One-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations are conducted using the TOUGH2 computer program. Steady-state simulations are performed with various uniform and nonuniform infiltration rates; results are interpreted in terms of effect of fault characteristics on moisture flow distribution, and on the location and formation of preferential pathways.

  14. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) s0(2317) I(JP) = 0(0+)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) D s0(2317)± I(JP) = 0(0+) J, P need confirmation. AUBERT 06P does not observe neutral and doubly.6±0.2±1.4 3180 AUBERT 06P BABR 10.6 e+ e- D+ s 0 X 2317.3±0.4±0.8 1022 1 AUBERT 04E BABR 10.6 e+ e- · · · We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. · · · 2317.2±1.3 88 2 AUBERT,B 04S BABR B D

  15. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) c(3055) I(JP) = ?(??) Status

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    TECN COMMENT 3054.2±1.2±0.53054.2±1.2±0.53054.2±1.2±0.53054.2±1.2±0.5 218 ± 95 AUBERT 08J BABR e+ e±6±1117±6±1117±6±1117±6±11 218 ± 95 AUBERT 08J BABR e+ e- 10.58 GeV c (3055) REFERENCESc (3055) REFERENCESc (3055) REFERENCESc (3055) REFERENCES AUBERT 08J PR D77 012002 B. Aubert et al. (BABAR Collab.) HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 1

  16. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) c(3123) I(JP) = ?(??) Status

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    COMMENT 3122.9±1.3±0.33122.9±1.3±0.33122.9±1.3±0.33122.9±1.3±0.3 101 ± 35 AUBERT 08J BABR e+ e- 10.58 Ge±3.4±1.74.4±3.4±1.7 101 ± 35 AUBERT 08J BABR e+ e- 10.58 GeV c (3123) REFERENCESc (3123) REFERENCESc (3123) REFERENCESc (3123) REFERENCES AUBERT 08J PR D77 012002 B. Aubert et al. (BABAR Collab.) HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 1

  17. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) c(3123) I(JP) = ?(??) Status

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    COMMENT 3122.9±1.3±0.33122.9±1.3±0.33122.9±1.3±0.33122.9±1.3±0.3 101 ± 35 AUBERT 08J BABR e+ e- 10.58 Ge±3.4±1.74.4±3.4±1.7 101 ± 35 AUBERT 08J BABR e+ e- 10.58 GeV c (3123) REFERENCESc (3123) REFERENCESc (3123) REFERENCESc (3123) REFERENCES AUBERT 08J PR D77 012002 B. Aubert et al. (BABAR Collab.) HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 1

  18. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) X(3945) IG (JPC ) = 0+(??+)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    ± 3 ± 2 49 ± 15 1 UEHARA 10 BELL 10.6 e+ e- e+ e- J/ 3914.6+ 3.8 - 3.4 ± 2.0 2 AUBERT 08W BABR B J- e+ e- J/ 34+12 - 8 ± 5 4 AUBERT 08W BABR B J/K 87±22±26 58 ± 11 4 CHOI 05 BELL B J/K 3 May be c2) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) WEIGHTED AVERAGE 28+12-10 (Error scaled by 1.5) CHOI 05 BELL 3.0 AUBERT 08W

  19. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) f2(2150) IG (JPC ) = 0+(2 + +)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) f2(2150) IG (JPC ) = 0+(2 + +) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE This entry was previously called T0. f2(2150) MASSf2(2150) MASSf2(2150) MASSf2(2150) MASS f2(2150) MASS, COMBINED MODES (MeV)f2(2150) MASS, COMBINED MODES (MeV)f2(2150) MASS, COMBINED MODES (MeV)f2(2150) MASS, COMBINED MODES (MeV) VALUE (MeV) EVTS

  20. SciDAC - The Scientific Data Management Center (http://sdmcenter.lbl.gov)

    SciTech Connect

    Ling Liu Calton Pu

    2005-06-20

    In SciDAC SDM project, the main assignment to the Georgia Institute of Technology team (according to the proposed work) is to develop advanced information extraction and information integration technologies on top of the XWRAP technology originated from Georgia Tech [LPH01]. We have developed XWRAPComposer technology to enable the XWRAP code generator to generate Java information wrappers that are capable of extraction of data from multiple linked pages. These information wrappers are used as gateways or adaptors for scientific information mediators to access and fuse interesting data and answering complex queries over a large collection of heterogeneous scientific information sources. Our accomplishments over the SciDAC sponsored years (July 2001 to July 2004) can be summarized along two dimensions. Technically, we have produced a number of major software releases and published over 30 research papers in both international conferences and international journals. The planned software releases include 1. Five Java wrappers and five WDSL-enabled wrappers for SDM Pilot scenarios, which were released in early 2003, 2. The XWRAPComposer toolkit (command line version) which was first released in late 2003 and then released in Summer 2004, 3. Five Ptolemy wrapper actors which were released first in Summer 2003, and then released again in Fall 2005. 4. The decomposable XWRAPComposer actor in Ptolemy, which we have made it available as open source in end of 2004 and tested it in early 2005.

  1. Heparin-mimicking multilayer coating on polymeric membrane via LbL assembly of cyclodextrin-based supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Liu, Xinyue; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Shi, Wenbin; Nie, Chuanxiong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-12-10

    In this study, multifunctional and heparin-mimicking star-shaped supramolecules-deposited 3D porous multilayer films with improved biocompatibility were fabricated via a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method on polymeric membrane substrates. Star-shaped heparin-mimicking polyanions (including poly(styrenesulfonate-co-sodium acrylate; Star-PSS-AANa) and poly(styrenesulfonate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate; Star-PSS-EGMA)) and polycations (poly(methyl chloride-quaternized 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate; Star-PMeDMA) were first synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) based cores. Then assembly of 3D porous multilayers onto polymeric membrane surfaces was carried out by alternating deposition of the polyanions and polycations via electrostatic interaction. The surface morphology and composition, water contact angle, blood activation, and thrombotic potential as well as cell viability for the coated heparin-mimicking films were systematically investigated. The results of surface ATR-FTIR spectra and XPS spectra verified successful deposition of the star-shaped supramolecules onto the biomedical membrane surfaces; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations revealed that the modified substrate had 3D porous surface morphology, which might have a great biological influence on the biointerface. Furthermore, systematic in vitro investigation of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, human platelet factor 4 (PF4, indicates platelet activation), activate partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, indicates blood coagulant)), and blood-related complement activation (C3a and C5a, indicates inflammation potential) confirmed that the heparin-mimicking multilayer coated membranes exhibited ultralow blood component activations and excellent hemocompatibility. Meanwhile, after surface coating, endothelial cell viability was also promoted, which indicated that the heparin-mimicking multilayer coating might extend the application fields of polymeric membranes in biomedical fields. PMID:25375347

  2. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons --H0

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Higgs Bosons -- H0 and H± , Searches for A REVIEW GOES HERE ­ Check our WWW List of Reviews STANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITSSTANDARD MODEL H0 (Higgs Boson) MASS LIMITS

  3. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Number of Neutrino Types

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    from recent CMB, large scale structure, Lyman- alpha forest, and SN1a data. The slight preference for N for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Number of Neutrino Types The neutrinos referred TypesNumber of Light TypesNumber of Light TypesNumber of Light Types VALUE DOCUMENT ID TECN 2.9840±0

  4. Modeling in control of the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, J.; Forest, E.; Nishimura, H.; Schachinger, L.

    1991-05-01

    A software system for control of accelerator physics parameters of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is being designed and implemented at LBL. Some of the parameters we wish to control are tunes, chromaticities, and closed orbit distortions as well as linear lattice distortions and, possibly, amplitude- and momentum-dependent tune shifts. In all our applications, the goal is to allow the user to adjust physics parameters of the machine, instead of turning knobs that control magnets directly. This control will take place via a highly graphical user interface, with both a model appropriate to the application and any correction algorithm running alongside as separate processes. Many of these applications will run on a Unix workstation, separate from the controls system, but communicating with the hardware database via Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs).

  5. Neutron dose equivalents at the Advanced Light Source: Calculation using the MORSE code vs estimated values

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Rai-Ko S.

    1991-02-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) complex at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is surrounded by a mezzanine and auxiliary buildings. An important radiological problem is the neutron dose equivalent in nearby occupied areas and at the LBL site boundary. Both the direct and air-scattered (skyshine) components of the neutron dose equivalents are evaluated using the neutron transport code MORSE. The shielding was designed using an empirical method based on data scaled from a 1977 SLAC experiment and on a compilation of experimental and theoretical material relevant to shielding of electron accelerators. From the MORSE calculation, the total occupational dose equivalent rate in the center of the ALS mezzanine was found to be less than 1 mSv (100 mrem) per shift year (2000-hr), and the total environmental dose equivalent rate at the ALS boundary, 125 m from the storage-ring center, was found to be about 302 {mu}Sv (30 mrem) per year. A comparison of the dose equivalents shows that the calculated MORSE-code values agree well with those estimated by the empirical method. That is, dose equivalents obtained by the empirical methods are of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding MORSE values. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. rea source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon monox...

  7. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. Area source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon mon...

  8. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) f2(1640) IG (JPC ) = 0+(2 + +)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    . Adamo et al. (OBELIX Collab.) ALDE 90 PL B241 600 D.M. Alde et al. (SERP, BELG, LANL, LAPP+) ALDE 89B PL B216 451 D.M. Alde et al. (SERP, BELG, LANL, LAPP+) IGJPC HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 2 Created: 6Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update

  9. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K(1460) I(JP) = 1

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. · · · 34 DAUM 81C CNTR 63 K- p K- 2p K 0(1430) 3 K 0 data for averages, fits, limits, etc. · · · 117 DAUM 81C CNTR 63 K- p K- 2p HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 1Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update

  10. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    ) FINN 02 PR D65 044022 L.S. Finn, P.J. Sutton TAYLOR 93 NAT 355 132 J.N. Taylor et al. (PRIN, ARCBO, BURE+) J DAMOUR 91 APJ 366 501 T. Damour, J.H. Taylor (BURE, MEUD, PRIN) GOLDHABER 74 PR D9 1119 A for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2 OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE graviton MASSgraviton

  11. Preliminary design report of a relativistic-Klystron two-beam-accelerator based power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass next linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-22

    A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported.

  12. Laser sources and techniques for spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program focuses on the development of novel laser and spectroscopic techniques in the IR, UV, and VUV regions for studying combustion related molecular dynamics at the microscopic level. Laser spectroscopic techniques have proven to be extremely powerful in the investigation of molecular processes which require very high sensitivity and selectivity. The authors approach is to use quantum electronic and non-linear optical techniques to extend the spectral coverage and to enhance the optical power of ultrahigh resolution laser sources so as to obtain and analyze photoionization, fluorescence, and photoelectron spectra of jet-cooled free radicals and of reaction products resulting from unimolecular and bimolecular dissociations. New spectroscopic techniques are developed with these sources for the detection of optically thin and often short-lived species. Recent activities center on regenerative amplification of high resolution solid-state lasers, development of tunable high power mid-IR lasers and short-pulse UV/VUV tunable lasers, and development of a multipurpose high-order suppressor crossed molecular beam apparatus for use with synchrotron radiation sources. This program also provides scientific and technical support within the Chemical Sciences Division to the development of LBL`s Combustion Dynamics Initiative.

  13. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  14. Energy Sources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KQED

    2012-03-27

    Although California uses more renewable resources than many other states, much of the state's electricity still comes from nonrenewable sources. Find out how using renewable energy sources to create electricity helps reduce fossil fuel consumption and how it has the potential to have the largest impact on climate change.

  15. Energy Sources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    This short video surveys the different current and potential sources of energy - both non-renewable and renewable. It provides some discussion of the pros and cons of the different sources and explains how they are used to produce energy that people can use.

  16. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) s0(2317) I(JP) = 0(0+)

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) D s0(2317)± I(JP) = 0(0+) J, P need confirmation. AUBERT 06P does not observe neutral and doubly.6±0.2±1.4 3180 AUBERT 06P BABR 10.6 e+ e- D+ s 0 X 2317.3±0.4±0.8 1022 1 AUBERT 04E BABR 10.6 e+ e- · · · We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. · · · 2317.2±1.3 88 2 AUBERT,B 04S BABR B D

  17. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2170) IG (JPC ) = 0-(1 --)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2170) IG (JPC ) = 0-(1 - -) Observed by AUBERT,BE 06D(980) 2125±22±10 483 AUBERT 08S BABR 10.6 e+ e- 2175±10±15 201 1 AUBERT,BE 06D BABR 10.6 e+ e- K+ K BELL 10.6 e+ e- K+ K- + - 2192±14 116 ± 95 3 AUBERT 07AK BABR 10.6 e+ e- K+ K- + - 2169±20 149 ± 36

  18. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) s0(2317) I(JP) = 0(0+)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) D s0(2317)± I(JP) = 0(0+) J, P need confirmation. AUBERT 06P factor of 1.4. 2319.6±0.2±1.4 3180 AUBERT 06P BABR 10.6 e+ e- D+ s 0 X 2317.3±0.4±0.8 1022 1 AUBERT 04E.2±1.3 88 2 AUBERT,B 04S BABR B D () s0 (2317)+ D() 2317.2±0.5±0.9 761 3 MIKAMI 04 BELL 10.6 e+ e- 2316

  19. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Ds1(2536) I(JP) = 0(1+)

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) Ds1(2536)± I(JP) = 0(1+) J, P need confirmation. Seen in D(2010)+ K0, D(2007)0 K+, and D+ s + -. Not seen in D+ K0 or D0 K+. JP = 1+ assignment strongly favored. Ds1(2536)± MASSDs1(2536)± MASSDs1(2536)± MASSDs1(2536)± MASS The fit includes D±, D0, D± s , D±, D0, D± s , D1(2420)0, D 2 (2460)0, and Ds1

  20. An improved layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to generate biointerfaces for platelet adhesion studies: Dynamic LbL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Juan Manuel

    Layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) is a technique that generates engineered nano-scale films, coatings, and particles. These nanoscale films have recently been used in multiple biomedical applications. Concurrently, microfabrication methods and advances in microfluidics are being developed and combined to create "Lab-on-a-Chip" technologies. The potential to perform complex biological assays in vitro as a first-line screening technique before moving on to animal models has made the concept of lab on a chip a valuable research tool. Prior studies in the Biofluids Laboratory at Louisiana Tech have used layer-by-layer and in vitro biological assays to study thrombogenesis in a controlled, repeatable, engineered environment. The reliability of these previously established techniques was unsatisfactory for more complex cases such as chemical and shear stress interactions. The work presented in this dissertation was performed to test the principal assumptions behind the established laboratory methodologies, suggest improvements where needed, and test the impact of these improvements on accuracy and repeatability. The assumptions to be tested were: (1) The fluorescence microscopy (FM) images of acridine orange-tagged platelets accurately provide a measure of percent area of surface covered by platelets; (2) fibrinogen coatings can be accurately controlled, interact with platelets, and do not interfere with the ability to quantify platelet adhesion; and (3) the dependence of platelet adhesion on chemical agents, as measured with the modified methods, generally agrees with results obtained from our previous methods and with known responses of platelets that have been documented in the literature. The distribution of fibrinogen on the final LbL surface generated with the standard, static process (s-LbL) was imaged by tagging the fibrinogen with an anti-fibrinogen antibody bound to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). FITC FM images and acridine orange FM images were taken sequentially at selected surface locations to generate a composite overlap of presumed platelet adhesion as a function of fibrinogen distribution. The method was unable to distinguish the surface from the adhered cells. The surface inhomogeneity and porosity retained a large amount of acridine orange stain, even in the absence of platelets, and components in the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were found to fix acridine orange in a mode that fluoresced in the FITC imaging FM. Both of these problems obfuscated the platelet adhesion FM results when using s-LbL surfaces and acridine orange staining of platelets. A dynamic process (d-LbL) was developed in which a solution of the molecule to be layered was constantly washed over the surface, and was constantly mixed to maintain a more homogeneous distribution of solute relative to the surface during the layering process. The d-LbL surfaces were tested as described above, and found to reduce the size and number of regions of anomalous acridine orange pooling trapped by the surface, providing a greater consistency and reliability in identifying platelets. The improved surface was then used in a series of platelet adhesion experiments under static and dynamic flow conditions, and with and without the chemical additive L-arginine. The complex microcharmel system used in prior studies was replaced with a simpler system involving fewer nuisance variables for these tests. The tests were performed on both collagen and fibrinogen surfaces. Collagen has been used as a thrombogenic surface in multiple studies in the literature, but produces additional variables in thrombogenesis control that are avoided when fibrinogen is used. In these tests, fibrinogen was found to be as thrombogenic as collagen, and platelet coverage of both biointerfaces was reduced by L-arginine in a manner similar to previously reported work. The simpler system differed from the previous microchannel system in important factors: (1) It exposed the platelets to much lower shear stresses; (2) It introduced an oscillatory flow, which introduced a higher de

  1. Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  2. Sustainable Sources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sustainable Sources is a web site that provides information for green builders and other individuals interested in green building. Their site includes a directory of green building professionals, information on greenbuilt homes that are on the market, pertinent events, books and articles, online discussions, and links to other sites. You can also access the Sustainable Building Source book which contains a wealth of information on all aspects of green building through this web site.

  3. New conditioning procedure derived from operating experience with the Common Long-Pulse Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, B.G.; Madruga, M.; Hong, R.M.; Phillips, J.C.

    1993-10-01

    The DIII-D neutral beam system utilizes an 80 kV version of the Common Long-Pulse Ion Source designed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL) and originally built by RCA. Eight of these ion sources are mounted on four beamlines to provide a total of 20 MW of injected deuterium neutral power to the DIII-D tokamak. To support the DIII-D one-shift operation, neutral beams must be readied in a relatively short period of time each day, typically one hour. During non-operating periods conditioning time for the ion sources is limited, due to the costs of associated support services and the need to perform corrective and preventive maintenance. The experience gained over a six year period has resulted in finely tuned procedures for the conditioning and operation of these ion sources. Recently, an ion source was conditioned which had been accidentally filled with water for several days, resulting in surface corrosion and deconditioning of the grids and surfaces. The method of successful recovery along with data, experience and procedures derived this event and normal operations will be detailed and discussed.

  4. Energy Sources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    This interactive website for students discusses both renewable and nonrenewable resources. It also discusses electricity and hyrdogen energy in depth. Furthermore, it provides a link to recent energy source statistics which can help students to identify the United States dependency on imports such as petroleum and natural gas.

  5. Food Sources

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

  6. Power Source

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven Semken

    In this short activity, students or groups are tasked to make concept sketches that track the source of electrical power as far back as they can conceive. The concept sketches reveal students' prior conceptions of the power grid and energy mix, and lead naturally into a lesson or discussion about energy resources and power production.

  7. MUON SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-02-16

    A full high energy muon collider may take considerable time to realize. However, intermediate steps in its direction are possible and could help facilitate the process. Employing an intense muon source to carry out forefront low energy research, such as the search for muon-number non-conservation, represents one interesting possibility. For example, the MECO proposal at BNL aims for 2 x 10{sup {minus}17} sensitivity in their search for coherent muon-electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. To reach that goal requires the production, capture and stopping of muons at an unprecedented 10{sup 11} {mu}/sec. If successful, such an effort would significantly advance the state of muon technology. More ambitious ideas for utilizing high intensity muon sources are also being explored. Building a muon storage ring for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams is particularly exciting.We present an overview of muon sources and example of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Factory at BNL with various detector location possibilities.

  8. Source Water Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Drinking Water Source Water Source Water Protection Source Water Protection The drinking water we receive from our ... communities, resource managers and the public. My Source Water Basic Information Frequent Questions Source Water Pocket Guide ( ...

  9. Advanced Light Source: Users` Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The ALS Users` Handbook is designed to help you prepare for your visit to the ALS, to assist you in getting your experiments underway, and to act as a resource to the facilities and services available at the ALS and LBL. We hope it encompasses ``what you need to know`` to make your stay at the ALS productive and enjoyable. The handbook contains six sections. Sections 1 and 2 explain how to become a user of the ALS and contain important information users need to know before arriving at the ALS. All ALS users are encouraged to read this part of the handbook well in advance of their planned visit to the ALS. Sections 3 and 4 describe general information about organizational structure and access to the ALS, and describe the facilities and describe the facilities and services offered at the ALS an LBL. Section 5 lists some fun things to see and do in the Berkeley area including museums, parks, and sports facilities. Section 6 contains reference information.

  10. Radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

  11. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL Sealed Source

    E-print Network

    Homes, Christopher C.

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY Sealed Source Contamination Incident October 13, 2011 #12;2 Cesium Contamination was from a Cs-137 (265 micro-curie) "sealed source" used to test area radiation monitors. · Source;Cs137 Source #12;4 Cs-137 Sealed Source and Lead Pig Sealed Source and Lead Container #12;5 RCT 1

  12. Maximum Likelihood Source Separation for Discrete Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel Belouchrani; Jean-françois Cardoso

    1994-01-01

    . This communication deals with the source separation problem which consists in the separation of a noisy mixtureof independent sources without a priori knowledge of the mixture coefficients. In this paper, we consider the maximumlikelihood (ML) approach for discrete source signals with known probability distributions. An important feature of the MLapproach in Gaussian noise is that the covariance matrix of

  13. Distance Learning Funding Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Jesus Ricardo; And Others

    This resource guide provides an annotated listing of funding sources for distance learning projects in the following categories: (1) corporate foundations (16 sources); (2) cable television programming sources (12 sources); (3) U.S. Department of Education funding, including Educational Development and Research Centers, Partnership Programs,…

  14. Californium252 neutron sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yevgeni A. Karelin; Yan N. Gordeev; Valentin I. Karasev; Vyacheslav M. Radchenko; Yevgeni V. Schimbarev; Rostislav A. Kuznetsov

    1997-01-01

    The technologies of neutron sources production developed by RIAR are reviewed. To produce 252Cf-containing core, different techniques are used depending on the source type. They are: impregnation of foam-alundum billets, glass beads and cermet production (point sources), electroplating on the platinum cathode (linear sources).Neutron sources produced by RIAR are one- or two-capsule design. Capsules are made of stainless steel and

  15. Brain protein deciphered at Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-01-01

    This computer-generated model of a rat glutamate receptor is the first complete portrait of this important link in the nervous system. At the top of the Y-shaped protein, a pair of molecules splay outward like diverging prongs. The bottom section, which is embedded in a neuronal membrane, houses the ion channel. The resolution of this image is 3.6 angstroms per pixel, or just under four ten-billionths of a meter per image unit. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/01/21/glutamate-receptor/

  16. Who goes there. A dialogue of questions and answers about benign hacking. [Securing access to computer from outside sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    On August 23, 1986, it was noticed that the accounting files for one of LBL's computing systems failed to balance. On August 24, we received word that an unauthorized person was attempting entry into a US Navy computer from LBL. Preliminary investigation indicated that LBL was the victim of a benign hacker, where ''benign'' is used in the medical sense. It was thought that the perpetrator was a graduate student from a neighboring university, and that it would provide a useful object lesson to other such folk if he were caught and admonished. LBL therefore embarked upon a journey of detection and containment instead of prevention. That journey continues today, having led first across the country, then across the Atlantic. In the course of the journey we have gathered a number of observations that should be of interest to anyone running a computer with any connection to the outside world.

  17. Extragalactic Radio Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, Kenneth I.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses new problems arising from the growing observational data through radio telescope arrays, involving the origin of radio sources, apparent superluminal velocities, conversion of radio sources to relativistic particles, and the nature of compact opaque and extended transparent sources. New physics may be needed to answer these cosmological…

  18. Blind Audio Source Separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Vincent; Maria G. Jafari; Samer A. Abdallah; Mark D. Plumbley; Mike E. Davies

    Most audio signals are mixtures of several audio sources which are active simultaneously. For example, live debates are mixtures of several speakers, music CDs are mixtures of musical instruments and singers, and movie soundtracks are mixtures of speech, music and natural sounds. Blind Audio Source Separation (BASS) is the problem of recovering each source signal from a given mixture signal.

  19. Z-source inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Zheng Peng

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an impedance-source (or impedance-fed) power converter (abbreviated as Z-source converter) and its control method for implementing DC-to-AC, AC-to-DC, AC-to-AC, and DC-to-DC power conversion. The Z-source converter employs a unique impedance network (or circuit) to couple the converter main circuit to the power source, thus providing unique features that cannot be obtained in the traditional voltage-source (or voltage-fed)

  20. Z-source inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Z. Peng

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an impedance-source (or impedance-fed) power converter (abbreviated as Z-source converter) and its control method for implementing DC-to-AC, AC-to-DC, AC-to-AC, and DC-to-DC power conversion. The Z-source converter employs a unique impedance network (or circuit) to couple the converter main circuit to the power source, thus providing unique features that cannot be obtained in the traditional voltage-source (or voltage-fed)

  1. Aeroacoustic sources in phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Michael

    2010-11-01

    An analysis of the flow through a time-varying duct constriction is used to identify the primary aeroacoustic source mechanisms in human vocalization. The acoustic fields on either side of the constriction are matched using equations describing the flow through the constriction. The form of the resulting sound fields indicates that the primary source of sound is the unsteady aerodynamic drag due to separated flow, and that secondary sources arise from changes in glottis volume and the movement of the separation point. The source strengths are shown to depend on the incident sound field, calling into question the "source-filter" theory of voice production. A control volume analysis supports these results.

  2. Opportunities for high aspect ratio micro-electro-magnetic-mechanical systems (HAR-MEMMS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S. [ed.

    1993-10-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: Opportunities for HAR-MEMMS at LBL; Industrial Needs and Opportunities; Deep Etch X-ray Lithography; MEMS Activities at BSAC; DNA Amplification with Microfabricated Reaction Chamber; Electrochemistry Research at LBL; MEMS Activities at LLNL; Space Microsensors and Microinstruments; The Advanced Light Source; Institute for Micromaching; IBM MEMS Interests; and Technology Transfer Opportunities at LBL.

  3. Physically Based Rendering Light Sources

    E-print Network

    Kazhdan, Michael

    Lights · Area Lights #12;Light Sources Point Light: Omni-directional (uniform) point source. ­ Intensity (I) ­ Position (p) Light p q #12;Light Sources Point Light: Omni-directional (uniform) point source sources is: Light p q 2 4)( S IdR #12;Light Sources Spotlight: Point light source with direction

  4. Swift detection of all previously undetected blazars in a micro-wave flux-limited sample of WMAP foreground sources

    E-print Network

    P. Giommi; M. Capalbi; E. Cavazzuti; S. Colafrancesco; A. Cucchiara; A. Falcone; J. Kennea; R. Nesci; M. Perri; G. Tagliaferri; A. Tramacere; G. Tosti; A. J. Blustin; G. Branduardi-Raymont; D. N. Burrows; G. Chincarini; A. J. Dean; N. Gehrels; H. Krimm; F. Marshall; A. M. Parsons; B. Zhang

    2007-03-07

    Almost the totality of the bright foreground sources in the WMAP CMB maps are blazars, a class of sources that show usually also X-ray emission. However, 23 objects in a flux-limited sample of 140 blazars of the WMAP catalog (first year) were never reported before as X-ray sources. We present here the results of 41 Swift observations which led to the detection of all these 23 blazars in the 0.3-10 keV band. We conclude that all micro-wave selected blazars are X-ray emitters and that the distribution of the micro-wave to X-ray spectral slope $\\alpha_{mu x}$ of LBL blazars is very narrow, confirming that the X-ray flux of most blazars is a very good estimator of their micro-wave emission. The X-ray spectral shape of all the objects that were observed long enough to allow spectral analysis is flat and consistent with inverse Compton emission within the commonly accepted view where the radiation from blazars is emitted in a Sychrotron-Inverse-Compton scenario. We predict that all blazars and most radio galaxies above the sensitivity limit of the WMAP and of the Planck CMB missions are X-ray sources detectable by the present generation of X-ray satellites. An hypothetical all-sky soft X-ray survey with sensitivity of approximately $10^{-15}$ erg/s would be crucial to locate and remove over 100,000 blazars from CMB temperature and polarization maps and therefore accurately clean the primordial CMB signal from the largest population of extragalactic foreground contaminants.

  5. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  6. Rf power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Workshop on detectors for third-generation synchrotron sources: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The aims of the workshop were (1) to acquaint APS users with current R and D being carried out on detectors, (2) to identify new detector systems possible during the next five years, (3) to identify new detectors theoretically possible in the future, (4) to stimulate interactions between user groups and detector developers, and (5) to obtain recommendations from expert panels on technical issues needing resolution. Development of detectors at ESRF, Spring-8, BNL, CERN and LBL are included.

  8. Open Source AI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Hibbard

    2008-01-01

    Machines significantly more intelligent than humans will require changes in our legal and economic systems in order to preserve something of our human values. An open source design for artificial intelligence (AI) will help this process by discouraging corruption, by enabling many minds to search for errors, and by encouraging political cooperation. The author's experience developing open source software provides

  9. Open Source CRM Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaderják Gyula; Simon András

    The object of this study is a comprehensive review of the open source customer relationship management (CRM) systems. The open source softwares have become one of the most important trends in the software industry recently. Similarly, the CRM systems are applied more increasingly in several fields of economy. The CRM is not merely a subsequent software technology and application in

  10. Energy Sources and Use

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson will help students to distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy, investigate a variety of renewable energy resources and compare the benefits and drawbacks of each. Students will use internet resources to investigate and compare alternative sources of energy. It is presumed that students have some basic prior understanding of the concept of energy.

  11. Tsunami Sources Icosahedron Globe

    E-print Network

    Tsunami Sources Icosahedron Globe August 2012 Edition NOAA National Geophysical Data Center World to reduce to 8.5" x 11". This globe of Earth shows the locations of historical tsunami sources, extracted from NGDC'sGlobal Historical Tsunami Database (ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard). A tsunamiisaseriesof traveling

  12. Optimal Passive Source Localization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Neering; Marc Bordier; N. Maizi

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the estimation of an object's position, this paper proposes a procedure for placing acoustical sensors in 3D space, using passive source localization. A standard performance measure in estimation theory is the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), which describes the lower bound of the variance of unbiased estimators. In the case of passive source localization, this bound depends

  13. Using Primary Source Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

  14. Open Source Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges and universities are turning to open source as a way to meet their technology infrastructure and application needs. Open source has changed life for visionary CIOs and their campus communities nationwide. The author discusses what these technologists see as the benefits--and the considerations.

  15. Neutron sources and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  16. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  17. Trans-Z-source inverters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Qian; Fang Zheng Peng; Honnyong Cha

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the impedance-source (Z-source) inverters concept to the transformer based Z-source (trans-Z-source) inverters. The original Z-source inverter (ZSI) employs an impedance network of two inductors and two capacitors connected in a special arrangement to interface the dc source and the inverter bridge. It has overcome the conceptual limitations of the traditional voltage-source inverter and the current-source inverter. In

  18. Estimation of neutron dose equivalent at the mezzanine of the Advanced Light Source and the laboratory boundary using the ORNL program MORSE.

    PubMed

    Sun, R K

    1990-12-01

    To investigate the radiation effect of neutrons near the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) with respect to the neutron dose equivalents in nearby occupied areas and at the site boundary, the neutron transport code MORSE, from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was used. These dose equivalents result from both skyshine neutrons transported by air scattering and direct neutrons penetrating the shielding. The ALS neutron sources are a 50-MeV linear accelerator and its transfer line, a 1.5-GeV booster, a beam extraction line, and a 1.9-GeV storage ring. The most conservative total occupational-dose-equivalent rate in the center of the ALS mezzanine, 39 m from the ALS center, was found to be 1.14 X 10(-3) Sv y-1 per 2000-h "occupational" year, and the total environmental-dose-equivalent rate at the ALS boundary, 125 m from the ALS center, was found to be 3.02 X 10(-4) Sv y-1 per 8760-h calendar year. More realistic dose-equivalent rates, using the nominal (expected) storage-ring current, were calculated to be 1.0 X 10(-4) Sv y-1 and 2.65 X 10(-5) Sv y-1 occupational year and calendar year, respectively, which are much lower than the DOE reporting levels. PMID:2228611

  19. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  20. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    E-print Network

    Brown, I

    2013-01-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  1. Operational Check Source Recalibration.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robert B

    2015-08-01

    A formal protocol whereby a segregated source is used for later quality control trending and recalibration of operational sources is described. The method is of potential use for any quality radioactive assay program where multiple sources may be in use such that long term loss in activity is possible and not readily detected and corrected using common statistical assessment criteria. The method relies upon a rigorous initial characterization effort that can later be credited to minimize error propagation during recalibration to monitor the overall uncertainty budget. A simple example attachment for use in written procedures is also provided. PMID:26102324

  2. Nuclear electric power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  3. A surface ionization source 

    E-print Network

    Buzatu, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  5. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  6. Diffuse Source Transmissibility Upscaling

    E-print Network

    Nunna, Krishna Chaitanya

    2014-10-03

    applicable. Historically, our upscaling algorithms have relied upon steady state concepts of flow, which are no longer applicable to unconventional reservoirs. In the current study, a novel diffuse source transmissibility upscaling approach is described...

  7. Open source hardware

    E-print Network

    Acosta, Roberto, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Open source software development models have created some of the most innovative tools and companies in the industry today modifying the way value is created and businesses developed. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze ...

  8. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

  9. Source Inspection Scheduling Calendar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brayden

    2011-01-01

    Quality is an essential component for creating flight hardware travelling through space since the hardware is extremely expensive and cannot be reworked or repaired once launched. An important step in this process is ensuring the quality of hardware procured from Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) suppliers. An important element of determining supplier quality is source inspection. Source inspections are performed at suppliers' facilities by JPL employeesto ensure that hardware characteristics are acceptable before being covered up and/or delivered to JPL.

  10. Field emission electron source

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  11. Virtual Real Source: Source signature estimation using seismic interferometry

    E-print Network

    Snieder, Roel

    Virtual Real Source: Source signature estimation using seismic interferometry Jyoti Behura1 available. We introduce a method, called the Virtual Real Source, of extracting the source signature based on the theory of seismic interferom- etry, also known as the virtual source method. This method is independent

  12. Source circuit design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The cost of several circuit configurations for large (5MW) array fields were investigated to assess the relative costs of high and low voltage configurations. Three source circuit NOC voltages were evaluated: 400V (ungrounded), 800V (+ or 400V center grounded), and 2000V (+ or - 1000V center grounded). Four source circuit configurations were considered for each of the three NOC voltages. The configurations correspond to source circuit currents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 amperes, respectively. Conceptual layouts for 5MW building blocks for each of the above configurations were developed. The designs were optimized to minimize BOS electrical and structural costs. Only the BOS electrical costs were evaluated. The designs were broken down into the following elements for cost: (1) basic source circuit intermodule wiring, bypass diodes and associated hardware, source circuit to J-Box wiring, etc; (2) J-Box blocking diodes, varistors, heat sinks, and housing; (3) disconnects source circuit disconnects, fuses, and housing; (4) bus cabling J-Box to PCU interface wiring, and trenching; (5) interface bus bar, group disconnects, and fuses; and (6) fault detection shunts, signal wire, electronics, and alarm. It is concluded that high voltage low current circuits are not economical, at higher currents high and low voltage circuit costs approach each other, high voltage circuits are not likely to offer near term advantage, and development work/manufacturer stimulation is needed to develop low cost high voltage hardware.

  13. Source circuit design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, G. T.

    1983-11-01

    The cost of several circuit configurations for large (5MW) array fields were investigated to assess the relative costs of high and low voltage configurations. Three source circuit NOC voltages were evaluated: 400V (ungrounded), 800V (+ or 400V center grounded), and 2000V (+ or - 1000V center grounded). Four source circuit configurations were considered for each of the three NOC voltages. The configurations correspond to source circuit currents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 amperes, respectively. Conceptual layouts for 5MW building blocks for each of the above configurations were developed. The designs were optimized to minimize BOS electrical and structural costs. Only the BOS electrical costs were evaluated. The designs were broken down into the following elements for cost: (1) basic source circuit intermodule wiring, bypass diodes and associated hardware, source circuit to J-Box wiring, etc; (2) J-Box blocking diodes, varistors, heat sinks, and housing; (3) disconnects source circuit disconnects, fuses, and housing; (4) bus cabling J-Box to PCU interface wiring, and trenching; (5) interface bus bar, group disconnects, and fuses; and (6) fault detection shunts, signal wire, electronics, and alarm. It is concluded that high voltage low current circuits are not economical, at higher currents high and low voltage circuit costs approach each other, high voltage circuits are not likely to offer near term advantage, and development work/manufacturer stimulation is needed to develop low cost high voltage hardware.

  14. Heavy ion fusion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.; Westenskow, G.

    2003-02-01

    In Heavy-Fusion and in other applications, there is a need for high brightness sources with both high current and low emittance. The traditional design with a single monolithic source, while very successful, has significant constraints on it when going to higher currents. With the Child-Langmuir current-density limit, geometric aberration limits, and voltage breakdown limits, the area of the source becomes a high power of the current, A {approx} I{sup 8/3}. We are examining a multi-beamlet source, avoiding the constraints by having many beamlets each with low current and small area. The beamlets are created and initially accelerated separately and then merged to form a single beam. This design offers a number of potential advantages over a monolithic source, such as a smaller transverse footprint, more control over the shaping and aiming of the beam, and more flexibility in the choice of ion sources. A potential drawback, however, is the emittance that results from the merging of the beamlets. We have designed injectors using simulation that have acceptably low emittance and are beginning to examine them experimentally.

  15. Radio source evolution

    E-print Network

    Perucho, Manel

    2015-01-01

    Baldwin (1982) wrote that "the distribution of sources in the radio luminosity, P, overall physical size, D, diagram" could be considered as "the radio astronomer's H-R diagram". However, unlike the case of stars, not only the intrinsic properties of the jets, but also those of the host galaxy and the intergalactic medium are relevant to explain the evolutionary tracks of radio radio sources. In this contribution I review the current status of our understanding of the evolution of radio sources from a theoretical and numerical perspective, using the P-D diagram as a framework. An excess of compact (linear size < 10 kpc) sources could be explained by low-power jets being decelerated within the host galaxy, as shown by recent numerical simulations. These decelerated jets could also explain the population of the radio sources that have been recently classified as FR0. I will discuss the possible tracks that radio sources may follow within this diagram, and some of the physical processes that can explain the d...

  16. Internet Medieval Source Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Halsall, sources editor for the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies, has recently created the Internet Medieval Source Book, a compendium of extracts and full text documents in Medieval History. Subjects covered include the end of the Classical World, Byzantium, Islam, formation and flowering of Latin Christendom, the Late Middle Ages, the Italian Renaissance, and the Early Reformation. Selected extracts are accompanied by short explanations, which help the reader to understand their context. The Source Book also contains links to a large number of medieval and religious sources, particularly strong with respect to Byzantine links. The purpose, scope and rationale behind the Source Book are explained clearly and concisely. The volume of texts and extracts, as well as the organization of the site, make this one of the premier Internet Medieval Studies sites. Note that all links of the Source Book and its links page are contained on two very large HTML pages, so users should be patient when navigating back and forth. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.html Medieval Links: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/medweb.html Online Reference Book to Medieval Studies: http://kuhttp.cc.ukans.edu/kansas/orb/mainpage.html

  17. Microlensing of Large Sources

    E-print Network

    Eric Agol

    2003-03-20

    We prove a gravitational lensing theorem: the magnification of a source of uniform brightness by a foreground spherical lens is mu =1+pi(2R_E^2-R_L^2)/A, where A is the area of the source and R_E and R_L are the Einstein radius and size of the lens projected into the source plane; this provides an accurate approximation to the exact magnification for R_L^2,R_E^2 << A. Remarkably, this result is independent of the shape of the source or position of the lens (except near the edges). We show that this formula can be generalized to include limb-darkening of a circular source by simply inserting the surface-brightness at the position of the foreground object (divided by the average surface-brightness of the star). We also show that similar formulae apply for a point-mass lens contained in a shear field and mass sheet, and for an ensemble of point masses as long as the Einstein radii are much smaller than the source size. This theorem may be used to compute transit or microlensing lightcurves for which the foreground star or planet has a size and Einstein radius much smaller than the background star.

  18. Microlensing of Large Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agol, Eric

    2003-09-01

    We prove an approximate gravitational lensing theorem: the magnification of a source of uniform brightness by a foreground spherical lens is ?=1+?(2R2E-R2L)/A, where A is the area of the source and RE and RL are the Einstein radius and size of the lens projected into the source plane; this provides an accurate approximation to the exact magnification for R2L, R2E<source or position of the lens (except near the edges). We show that this formula can be generalized to include limb darkening of a circular source by simply inserting the surface brightness at the position of the foreground object (divided by the average surface brightness of the star). We also show that similar formulae apply for a point-mass lens contained in a shear field and mass sheet and for an ensemble of point masses, as long as the Einstein radii are much smaller than the source size. This theorem can be used to compute transit or microlensing light curves for which the foreground star or planet has a size and Einstein radius much smaller than the background star.

  19. CRISTINA CASTANHA _ ________________________ _________________ ccastanha@lbl.gov

    E-print Network

    Hazen, Terry

    . Sensitivity of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedling physiology to elevation, warming, and water availability, and survival in Pinus flexilis seedlings from forest to alpine. Ecological Society of America, Annual Meeting

  20. The LBL geothermal reservoir technology program

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1991-03-01

    The main objective of the DOE/GD-funded Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is the development and testing of new and improved methods and tools needed by industry in its effort to delineate, characterize, evaluate, and exploit hydrothermal systems for geothermal energy. This paper summarizes the recent and ongoing field, laboratory, and theoretical research activities being conducted as part of the Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Operating instructions for LBL radon measurement facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, J.G.

    1980-06-01

    This manual is intended for users of the radon-measuring facilities of the Radon Project of the Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The manual comprises three parts. Part 1 sets out the steps involved in collecting, transferring, and counting radon. Part 2 describes the calibration of the transfer system and of the Lucas cells in the counting system. Part 3 outlines the maintenance procedures for the facility.

  2. The Sources of Radio News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, D. Charles

    To examine the production of programing material in a radio newsroom, a study was undertaken of the sources presented to the newsroom, of sources within the sources, of sources actively sought by the news staff, of degrees of processing of news items, and of the sources comprising the news output. Information in each of these areas was collected…

  3. Terahertz Schottky Multiplier Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlecht, Erich T.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the multiplier source technologies and the status/Performance of THz multiplier sources. An example of a THz application is imaging radar. The presentation reviews areas of requirements for THz sources: (1) Figures of merit, (i.e., Frequency Terahertz for high resolution Bandwidth of at least 15 GHz for high range resolution Efficiency (i.e., minimize power supply requirements) (2) Output power: (i.e., Milliwatts below 800 GHz, 10s of microwatts above 1 THz, 1-2 microwatts near 2 THz (3) Mechanical--stability, compact, low mass (4) Environmental -- radiation, vibration, thermal. Several sources for 0.3 - 2 THz are reviewed: FIR lasers, quantum cascade lasers (QCL), backward-wave oscillator (BWO), and Multiplier sources. The current state of the art (SoA) is shown as Substrateless Technology. It also shows where the SoA is for devices beyond 1 THz. The presentation concludes by reviewing the options for future development, and 2 technology roadmaps

  4. ATLAS OF SOURCE EMISSION PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An atlas of various source emission particles characterized by electron optical techniques has been compiled for use by air pollution investigators. The particles studied were emitted by mobile, stationary, and natural sources. Sources included automobiles, manufacturing operatio...

  5. SOLE SOURCE AQUIFER BOUNDARY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 7 polygons representing 6 individual sole source aquifer boundaries and one streamflow source area in California, Arizona, and Nevada. Various efforts were combined to create the final product, which represents the Federal Register boundary description. Sole source aqu...

  6. The Advanced Light Source

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A division of the Berkeley Laboratory, the Advanced Light Source (ALS) "is a national user facility that generates intense light for scientific and technological research." Students and educators can learn how ALS, with the use of one of the world's brightest sources of ultraviolet and soft X-ray beams and the world's first third generation synchrotron light source in its energy range, studies the properties of materials, trace metals, and the structures of atoms and molecules. The website features scientific highlights from the facility including its study of why alcohol and water don't mix. Scientists can find the technical specification of the storage ring, photon, and beamline parameters for the many microscopes at the facility. Visiting the User's Guide, qualified researchers can also find out how to become an ALS user.

  7. Nutrition information sources.

    PubMed

    Farrell, L

    1972-10-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  8. MEMS Incandescent Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret; King, Kevin; Kim, Lynn; Hansler, Richard; Jones, Eric; George, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A MEMS-based, low-power, incandescent light source is being developed. This light source is fabricated using three bonded chips. The bottom chip consists of a reflector on Silicon, the middle chip contains a Tungsten filament bonded to silicon and the top layer is a transparent window. A 25-micrometer-thick spiral filament is fabricated in Tungsten using lithography and wet-etching. A proof-of-concept device has been fabricated and tested in a vacuum chamber. Results indicate that the filament is electrically heated to approximately 2650 K. The power required to drive the proof-of-concept spiral filament to incandescence is 1.25 W. The emitted optical power is expected to be approximately 1.0 W with the spectral peak at 1.1 microns. The micromachining techniques used to fabricate this light source can be applied to other MEMS devices.

  9. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  10. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

  11. Intense fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kuteev, B. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  12. Ultrashort pulsed neutron source.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, I; McCary, E; Meadows, A R; Arefiev, A; Bernstein, A C; Chester, C; Cortez, J; Donovan, M E; Dyer, G; Gaul, E W; Hamilton, D; Kuk, D; Lestrade, A C; Wang, C; Ditmire, T; Hegelich, B M

    2014-10-31

    We report on a novel compact laser-driven neutron source with an unprecedented short pulse duration (<50??ps) and high peak flux (>10(18)??n/cm(2)/s), an order of magnitude higher than any existing source. In our experiments, high-energy electron jets are generated from thin (<3???m) plastic targets irradiated by a petawatt laser. These intense electron beams are employed to generate neutrons from a metal converter. Our method opens venues for enhancing neutron radiography contrast and for creating astrophysical conditions of heavy element synthesis in the laboratory. PMID:25396373

  13. Ultrashort Pulsed Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomerantz, I.; McCary, E.; Meadows, A. R.; Arefiev, A.; Bernstein, A. C.; Chester, C.; Cortez, J.; Donovan, M. E.; Dyer, G.; Gaul, E. W.; Hamilton, D.; Kuk, D.; Lestrade, A. C.; Wang, C.; Ditmire, T.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2014-10-01

    We report on a novel compact laser-driven neutron source with an unprecedented short pulse duration (<50 ps ) and high peak flux (>1018 n /cm2/s ), an order of magnitude higher than any existing source. In our experiments, high-energy electron jets are generated from thin (<3 ? m ) plastic targets irradiated by a petawatt laser. These intense electron beams are employed to generate neutrons from a metal converter. Our method opens venues for enhancing neutron radiography contrast and for creating astrophysical conditions of heavy element synthesis in the laboratory.

  14. Download Mozilla Source

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Netscape offers its browser source code at its Mozilla.org (discussed in the Feburary 27, 1998 Scout Report) site. The compressed code is available for Macintosh, Unix, and Windows operating systems, and is between 8.8 and 11.9 Mb. Netscape strongly points out that this is source code, not executable programs, that it is of use to developers only, and that it "will be unstable." More information about the code, as well as selected build instructions, can be obtained at the site.

  15. SNS: Spallation Neutron Source

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source currently being built by the United States Department of Energy. Users can find out about upcoming workshops, conferences, and other events dealing with the accelerator, which is scheduled to be completed in 2006. By downloading a series of materials, users can learn about SNS's benefits and mechanisms. Researchers can discover SNS's mission, instrumentation, moderators, and detectors. The website provides live video of the construction site. Visitors can also learn about employment opportunities.

  16. Radially uniform electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D.; Bame, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    A thermionic electron source capable of producing uniform count rates in a number of channel electron multipliers simultaneously was required for conditioning multipliers for an extended space mission. It was found that a straight tungsten filament in the center of a cylindrically symmetric geometry surrounded by an array of multipliers emits a radially asymmetric distribution of electrons that changes with time. A source was developed which successfully produces a time-independent radially uniform distribution of electrons by moving the filament out of the direct line of sight and replacing it with a centrally located electron 'cloud.'

  17. River Sources and Stories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students learn about the differences in precipitation levels and elevation in the regions of the Nile and its source rivers (the White Nile and the Blue Nile) and will be able to explain the importance of the source rivers to civilization in Egypt. They use the MapMachine, an online atlas, and create elevation zones and precipitation maps of Africa. As they create each map, they compare it with their outline maps to answer some questions that will allow them to compare the physical characteristics of different regions and to understand the significance of one region to an adjoining area.

  18. Custom uniform source system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcom, John L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this final report is to provide information on the Custom Uniform Source System (CSTM-USS-4000). The report includes documentation and summaries of the results for the work performed under the contract. The Annex contain laboratory test findings, photographs, and drawings of the sphere system.

  19. Does Source Reduction Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaway, David

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that quantification is essential to establish the cost-effectiveness of source reduction (SR). Presents case studies of monitoring methods for seven different kinds of SR efforts: (1) packaging changes, (2) SR businesses, (3) waste exchanges, (4) individual nonresidential efforts, (5) variable garbage rates, (6) yard waste reduction, and…

  20. Custom uniform source system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcom, John L.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose and scope of this final report is to provide information on the Custom Uniform Source System (CSTM-USS-4000). The report includes documentation and summaries of the results for the work performed under the contract. The Annex contain laboratory test findings, photographs, and drawings of the sphere system.

  1. THz Local Oscillator Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imran Mehdi; Erich Schlecht; Goutam Chattopadhyay; Peter H. Siegel

    2002-01-01

    Most operational Submillimeter-wave radio telescopes, both space borne and ground based, employ local oscillator sources based on Gunn diodes followed by whisker contacted Schottky multipliers. Enough progress, however, has been made on a number of fronts to conclude that next generation of radio telescopes that become operational in the new Millennium will have a different local oscillator (LO) generation architecture.

  2. Radiation sources and process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Honious; E. F. Janzow; H. A. Malson; S. E. Moyer

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radiation sources comprising a substrate having an electrically-conductive non-radioactive metal surface, a layer of a metal radioactive isotope of the scandium group, which in addition to scandium, yttrium, lanthanum and actinium, includes all the lanthanide and actinide series of elements, with the actinide series usually being preferred because of the nature of the radioactive isotopes therein,

  3. Oceanography Information Sources 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Richard C.

    This booklet lists oceanography information sources in the first section under industries, laboratories and departments of oceanography, and other organizations which can provide free information and materials describing programs and activities. Publications listed in the second section include these educational materials: bibliographies, career…

  4. Open source life project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Cerny; Diane Figueredo; Chris Keating; Joey Lindsey; Flo McGarrell; Daniel Romano

    2003-01-01

    The experimental new media group - Nomads & Homesteaders explore biotechnology, artificial life systems and simulation through, the Open Source Life (OSL) project.OSL participants create artificially intelligent plants, designed to adapt to life in a changing environment. Once created, the virtual plant's survival is the responsibility of its \\

  5. World nonrenewable energy sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    The latest estimates are given for proven world reserves of nonrenewable energy sources, which includes coal, natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude and shale oil, bitumens, and uranium oxide. The data represents a reconciliation of figures obtained by recognized agencies. Tables summarize both proved and currently recoverable estimates and projections of remaining recoverable reserves. These two categories are then broken

  6. LabSOURCE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    LabSOURCE is a periodic newsletter produced by the University of California. It provides news and information on UC's management of three DOE laboratories -- Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory -- and news highlights from the laboratories themselves.

  7. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2 was approximately equal to the ion arrival rate at a partial pressure of about .00002 Torr. There were also ion source and ion pressure gauge maintenance problems as a result of the use of CF4. Large scale (4 sq cm) texturing of Si was accomplished using both Cu and stainless steel seed. The most effective seeding method for this texturing was to surround the sample with large inclined planes. Designing, fabricating, and testing a 200 sq cm rectangular beam ion source was emphasized. The design current density was 6 mA/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions, although power supply limitations permitted operation to only 2 mA/sq cm. The use of multiple rectangular beam ion sources for continuous processing of wider areas than would be possible with a single source was also studied. In all cases investigated, the most uniform coverage was obtained with 0 to 2 cm beam overlay. The maximum departure from uniform processing at optimum beam overlap was found to be +15%.

  8. Uniform high irradiance source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, A. R.; Fortini, A.; Buchele, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    New 50 Kw xenon short arc lamp mounted within elliptical collector provides irradiance levels up to 4.4 x 10 to the 7th power watts/sq m with non-uniformity ratio of 3.30. Energy mixer or light pipe between lamp source and target improves non-uniformity to required ratio.

  9. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  10. Sources of Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Douglas

    This module is one of a set of seven prepared in conjunction with the Title I "Project to Train Volunteer Leaders to Conduct Consumer Education Courses." It is designed to be a basic text for use in making a one-hour presentation on sources of consumer assistance. Topics include consumers' alternatives for self-help, functions of the Virginia…

  11. Evaluating Open Source Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for…

  12. Free open source software

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site offers open source software for the fields of civil and environmental engineering. Their mission statement is "to provide an online web directory for civil & environmental engineering." Nicely organized, the site is a valuable asset for anyone interested in this subject area.

  13. Open Source in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Jhunjhunwala, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    Educational institutions have rushed to put their academic resources and services online, beginning the global community onto a common platform and awakening the interest of investors. Despite continuing technical challenges, online education shows great promise. Open source software offers one approach to addressing the technical problems in…

  14. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

  15. Open-Source Colorimeter

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

  16. Additional Sources of Information

    Cancer.gov

    Additional Sources of Information Developing Medical Imaging Drug and Biological Products Part 1: Conducting Safety Assessments [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Part 2: Clinical Indications [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Content

  17. MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination of waters used for recreation, drinking water, and aquaculture is an environmental problem and poses significant human health risks. The problem is often difficult to correct because the source of the contamination cannot be determined with certainty. Run-of...

  18. Open Source Data Sources Academy of Management PDW

    E-print Network

    Crowston, Kevin

    Open Source Data Sources Academy of Management PDW 13 August 2006, Atlanta James Howison Ph of the National Science Foundation.) #12;13 August 2006Open Source Data Tutorial, James Howison, Academy PDW://floss.syr.edu/presentations/FlossDataTutAoM2006/ #12;13 August 2006Open Source Data Tutorial, James Howison, Academy PDW What's available? Project

  19. Geometric source separation: merging convolutive source separation with geometric beamforming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucas C. Parra; Christopher V. Alvino

    2002-01-01

    Convolutive blind source separation and adaptive beamforming have a similar goal—extracting a source of interest (or multiple sources) while reducing undesired interferences. A benefit of source separation is that it overcomes the conventional cross-talk or leakage problem of adaptive beamforming. Beam- forming on the other hand exploits geometric information which is often readily available but not utilized in blind algorithms.

  20. JOINT SOURCE/CHANNEL CODING FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES TRANSMISSION

    E-print Network

    Bilgin, Ali

    1 JOINT SOURCE/CHANNEL CODING FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES TRANSMISSION Zhenyu Wu, Ali Bilgin and Michael W Abstract In [1], a practical joint source/channel coding algorithm was proposed for the transmission total bit rate. In this paper, it is demonstrated that by joint coding multiple sources

  1. Online Sources of Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagers, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Presents an approach to using online sources of information for competitor intelligence (i.e., monitoring industry and tracking activities of competitors); identifies principal sources; and suggests some ways of making use of online databases. Types and sources of information and sources and database charts are appended. Eight references are…

  2. Single Channel Audio Source Separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. WOO; S. S. DLAY

    2008-01-01

    Blind source separation is an advanced statistical tool that has found widespread use in many signal processing applications. However, the crux topic based on one channel audio source separation has not fully developed to enable its way to laboratory implementation. The main idea approach to single channel blind source separation is based on exploiting the inherent time structure of sources

  3. THz Local Oscillator Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Siegel, Peter H.

    Most operational Submillimeter-wave radio telescopes, both space borne and ground based, employ local oscillator sources based on Gunn diodes followed by whisker contacted Schottky multipliers. Enough progress, however, has been made on a number of fronts to conclude that next generation of radio telescopes that become operational in the new Millennium will have a different local oscillator (LO) generation architecture. MMIC power amplifiers with impressive gain in the Ka- to-W band have enabled the use of microwave synthesizers which can then be actively multiplied to provide a frequency agile power source beyond 100 GHz. This medium power millimeter source can then be amplified to enable efficient pumping of follow-on balanced multiplier stages. Input power to the multipliers can be further enhanced by power combining to achieve close to half a Watt at W-band. An 800 GHz three-stage multiplier chain, implemented this way has demonstrated a peak output power of 1 mW. A second advance in LO generation lies in the Schottky diode varactor technology. Planar Schottky diode multipliers have now been demonstrated up to 1500 GHz and it can be assumed that most of the future multiplier chains will be based on these robust devices rather than the whisker contacted diode of the past. The ability to produce planar GaAs diode chips deep into the THz range, with submicron dimensions, has opened up a wide range of circuit design space which can be taken advantage of to improve efficiency, bandwidth, and power handling capability of the multipliers. A third breakthrough has been the demonstration of photonic based LO sources utilizing GaAs photomixers. These sources, though not yet implemented in robust space borne missions, offer a number of advantages over their electronic counterparts, including extremely broad tuning, fiber coupled components, and solid-state implementation. Another development, which holds some promise, is the use of micro-machining technology to implement fundamental THz oscillators based on vacuum tube principles, such as the nanoklystrons. This talk will present an overview of the current technologies that are available for implementing local oscillator sources for heterodyne receivers. Progress to date on specific components will be discussed in some detail. Outstanding issues and concerns regarding practical implementation of these new technologies will also be discussed.

  4. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  5. Calibrated vapor generator source

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  6. Understanding Slat Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Medhi R.

    2003-01-01

    Model-scale aeroacoustic tests of large civil transports point to the leading-edge slat as a dominant high-lift noise source in the low- to mid-frequencies during aircraft approach and landing. Using generic multi-element high-lift models, complementary experimental and numerical tests were carefully planned and executed at NASA in order to isolate slat noise sources and the underlying noise generation mechanisms. In this paper, a brief overview of the supporting computational effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center, is provided. Both tonal and broadband aspects of slat noise are discussed. Recent gains in predicting a slat s far-field acoustic noise, current shortcomings of numerical simulations, and other remaining open issues, are presented. Finally, an example of the ever-expanding role of computational simulations in noise reduction studies also is given.

  7. BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

  8. World nonrenewable energy source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    In this report, up-to-date estimates are presented for world proven reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the non-renewable energy sources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, syncrude from oil shale and tar sands, and uranium oxide. Life indexes are also presented for the world fossil fuels for several annual growth rates. Data are

  9. Thulium-170 heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; Van Sant, J.H.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes an isotopic heat source. It comprises; at least one isotopic fuel stack, comprising alternating layers of: thulium oxide; and a low atomic weight diluent for thulium oxide; a heat block defining holes into which the fuel stacks can be placed; at least one heat pipe for heat removal, with the heat pipe being positioned in the heat block in thermal connection with the fuel stack; and a structural container surrounding the heat block.

  10. THz Sources for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Ward, John; Maiwald, Frank; Mehdi, Imran

    2007-01-01

    Terahertz is the primary frequency for line and continuum radiation from cool (5-100K) gas (atoms and molecules) and dust. This viewgraph presentation reviews the reasons for the interest in Terahertz Space Applications; the Terahertz Space Missions: in the past, present and planned for the future, Terahertz source requirements and examples of some JPL instruments; and a case study for a flight deliverable: THz Local Oscillators for ESA s Herschel Space Telescope

  11. High current ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  12. Open Source Development Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "A collection of Internet technology and software sites," provides daily IT news in nine subjects, including AppleWatch, HardwareWatch, Internet-Watch, JavaWatch, and MicrosoftWatch, among others. Sources include InfoWorld, Computer News Daily, Interactive Week, Wired, Techwire, and ZDNNews, among others. The key to this site is the way it repackages and organizes already existing news, allowing the user to follow all aspects of IT news from one place.

  13. Advanced betavoltaic power sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Olsen

    1974-01-01

    Betavoltaic batteries currently being manufactured utilize silicon junction devices coupled to Pm-147 beta sources. This technology can be characterized by a power density of approximately 1000 microwatts\\/cu cm, assuming no shielding. In order to achieve acceptable dose-rates, shielding must be added so that the power density is typically reduced to 50 microwatts\\/cu cm. Greater than 5 microwatts\\/cu cm is provided

  14. Focused pulsed neutron source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Friedman; A. Drobot; N. C. Wyeth

    1995-01-01

    A non-reactor neutron source is disclosed that allows for a pulse intense current of ions to generate neutrons that are epithermal neutrons and provide low-energy neutron energy particularly suited for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatment. The present invention provides for a neutron fluence on a tumor which can be more than 10¹² neutrons\\/cm² and is generated into a time

  15. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  16. Nonambipolar electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Longmier, B.; Baalrud, S.; Hershkowitz, N. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    A radio frequency (rf) plasma-based electron source that does not rely on electron emission at a cathode surface has been constructed. All of the random electron flux incident on an exit aperture is extracted through an electron sheath resulting in total nonambipolar flow within the device when the ratio of the ion loss area to the electron loss area is approximately equal to the square root of the ratio of the ion mass to the electron mass, and the ion sheath potential drop at the chamber walls is much larger than T{sub e}/e. The nonambipolar electron source (NES) has an axisymmetric magnetic field of 100 G at the extraction aperture that results in a uniform plasma potential across the aperture, allowing the extraction of all the incident electron flux without the use of grids. A prototype NES has produced 15 A of continuous electron current, using 15 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) Ar, 1200 W rf power at 13.56 MHz, and 6 times gas utilization. Alternatively 8 A of electron current can be produced, using 3 SCCM Ar at 1200 W rf and 20 times gas utilization. NES could replace hollow cathode electron sources in a wide variety of applications.

  17. Effects of acoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenster, James A.; Jones, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acoustics on the laminar flow on the side of a nacelle. A flight test was designed to meet this goal and a brief review of the purpose is given. A nacelle with a significant length of laminar flow was mounted on the wing of NASA OV-1. Two noise sources are also mounted on the wing: one in the center body of the nacelle; the second in a wing mounted pod outboard of the nacelle. These two noise sources allow for a limited study of the effect of source direction in addition to control of the acoustic level and frequency. To determine the range of Tollmien-Schlichting frequencies, a stability analysis using the pressure coefficient distribution along the side of the nacelle was performed. Then by applying these frequencies and varying the acoustic level, a study of the receptivity of the boundary layer to the acoustic signal, as determined by the shortening of the length of laminar flow, was conducted. Results are briefly discussed.

  18. A useful infrared source.

    PubMed

    Carlon, H R

    1966-08-01

    Reliable Inconel-sheathed cartridge heaters rated at hundreds or thousands of watts have been in use for many years. Miniature heaters have been manufactured, having axial leads, which when treated with an emissive coating meet or exceed Globar emissivities in the ir. Free-air temperatures approximating 800 degrees C have been obtained for power inputs of 10 W, while temperatures as high as 1150 degrees C are possible for short lifetimes, e.g., 10 h, at power dissipations of 24 W or more. Sources can be designed to operate from d or ac power with higher voltages and lower currents depending upon physical size limitations, resulting in simplified power supply problems. Although voltages from 12 V to 230 V are practical for larger units, the sources described below operated at 1060 degrees C from a nominal 1.07 A at 18.7 V d for apower consumption of 20 W variable continuously about this value. The small dimensions of these sources compare favorably to those of a 0.5-W electronic resistor. The present units are cylindrical, 1 cm long x 4 mm diam. The construction of smaller units is possible bt difficult under present state-of-the-art limitations. PMID:20057526

  19. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  20. Open-Source GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Burk, Thomas E [University of Minnesota; Lime, Steve [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

    2012-01-01

    The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

  1. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  2. Blind extraction of a dominant source signal from mixtures of many sources [audio source separation applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Sawada; Shoko Araki; Ryo Mukai; Shoji Makino

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a method for enhancing a dominant target source that is close to sensors, and suppressing other interferences. The enhancement is performed blindly, i.e. without knowing the number of total sources or information about each source, such as position and active time. We consider a general case where the number of sources is larger than the number of

  3. Chernobyl source term estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Integrated Power Source Grant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional spacecraft power systems incorporate a solar array energy source, an energy storage element (battery), and battery charge control and bus voltage regulation electronics to provide continuous electrical power for spacecraft systems and instruments. Dedicated power conditioning components provide limited fault isolation between systems and instruments, while a centralized power-switching unit provides spacecraft load control. Battery undervoltage conditions are detected by the spacecraft processor, which removes fault conditions and non-critical loads before permanent battery damage can occur. Cost effective operation of a micro-sat constellation requires a fault tolerant spacecraft architecture that minimizes on-orbit operational costs by permitting autonomous reconfiguration in response to unexpected fault conditions. A new micro-sat power system architecture that enhances spacecraft fault tolerance and improves power system survivability by continuously managing the battery charge and discharge processes on a cell-by-cell basis has been developed. This architecture is based on the Integrated Power Source (US patent 5644207), which integrates dual junction solar cells, Lithium Ion battery cells, and processor based charge control electronics into a structural panel that can be deployed or used to form a portion of the outer shell of a micro-spacecraft. The first generation Integrated Power Source is configured as a one inch thick panel in which prismatic Lithium Ion battery cells are arranged in a 3x7 matrix (26VDC) and a 3x1 matrix (3.7VDC) to provide the required output voltages and load currents. A multi-layer structure holds the battery cells, as well as the thermal insulators that are necessary to protect the Lithium Ion battery cells from the extreme temperatures of the solar cell layer. Independent thermal radiators, located on the back of the panel, are dedicated to the solar cell array, the electronics, and the battery cell array. In deployed panel applications, these radiators maintain the battery cells in an appropriate operational temperature range.

  5. LISA Sources in Globular Clusters

    E-print Network

    M J Benacquista; S Portegies Zwart; F A Rasio

    2000-10-09

    Globular clusters house a population of compact binaries that will be interesting gravitational wave sources for LISA. We provide estimates for the numbers of sources of several categories and discuss the sensitivity of LISA to detecting these sources. The estimated total number of detectable sources ranges from about 10 to about 1000 with gravitational wave frequencies above 1 mHz. These sources are typically undetectable by any other means and thus offer an opportunity for doing true gravitational-wave astronomy. The detection of these sources would provide information about both binary star evolution and the dynamics of globular clusters.

  6. Groklaw: Understanding Open Source Software

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Webbink, Red Hat's general counsel, wrote this article for attorneys wanting to know the basic issues regarding free and open source software. Aside from listing best practices for law offices, he provides a general overview of various open source licenses, explains US copyright law, defines derivative works, and touches on the indemnification issue and the difference between open source and shared source. Webbink also highlights some of the common myths and misconceptions about the General Public License (GPL) and open source and provides links to other sites with more information on open source software. Readers' comments and responses to the article are also posted in a threaded discussion format.

  7. Advanced Photon Source

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Synchrotrons are used to study the atomic structure of materials. The second largest synchrotron is the Advanced Photon Source, located at the Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The homepage provides information on the synchrotron and current research being conducted at the laboratory. This site covers one of the top ten scientific breakthroughs of 1997, compiled in the December 19, 1997 issue of Science. The top scientific breakthrough of 1997 was the cloning of a sheep, resulting in a lamb named Dolly. The nine runners up were: the Pathfinder mission to Mars, synchrotrons, biological clock genes, gamma ray bursts, Neandertal DNA, nanotubes, Europa's ocean, whole genome sequencing, and neurons.

  8. Compact ion accelerator source

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  9. Point radiographic source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, A.; Lee, R.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kolbe, G.; Nathel, H.

    1987-09-01

    A study was undertaken to find the optimal conditions for generating x rays using a high-power frequency-doubled Nd laser pulse for x-ray backlighting application. More than 30 laser shots on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory JANUS Research Laser system have been studied. The following specific questions are addressed: (a) X-ray yield dependence on the laser parameters: (i) temporal pulse width and (ii) focusing conditions. (b) X-ray source size versus target dimensions by using a tungsten wire with various diameters. (c) Influence of background plasma on the x-ray yield from the wire using 25- m wires surrounded by plastic.

  10. Microlensing of disk sources

    E-print Network

    S. Mollerach; E. Roulet

    1995-10-11

    We analyse the effects on the predictions for the microlensing searches toward the Galactic bulge coming from the fact that not all the stars monitored belong to the bulge itself, but that a non--negligible fraction of them actually are in the Galactic disk. The different distribution and motions of these disk stars make their associated microlensing rates and event duration distributions to be quite different from those of the bulge stars. We discuss the uncertainties in these predictions associated to the modeling of the Galactic components and the main implications resulting from the inclusion of this second source population.

  11. BirdSource

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Associated with the Audubon Society and the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, BirdSource is a Web site that allows Web users to participate in bird conservation and data gathering. By participating in bird identification and counts, citizens can help ornithologists determine species distribution and ranges. In addition to maps showing results from several public bird surveys, the site contains a great deal on identifying birds, conservation articles, and information for attracting birds to your feeder. This is a well rounded and attractive site for the bird enthusiast that offers data gathering opportunities throughout the year.

  12. World Development Sources (WDS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    World Development Sources is the "digital repository" of World Bank documents. It houses a searchable database of development-related reports produced since 1988 by the World Bank. These include Staff Appraisal Reports (SARs), World Bank President's Reports and Memoranda, Economic and Sector Work, Evaluation Reports and Studies, and Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Montreal Protocol Project documents. It also contains working papers and publications produced by the World Bank since 1993. All of these papers can be viewed online using the TMS Sequoia plug-in (available at the site for Windows and Macintosh).

  13. Open Source Physics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Open Source Physics (OSP) Collection brings together â??curriculum resources that engage students in physics, computation, and computer modeling." Visitors can look at the featured tools and resources on the homepage, which covers topics such as Newton's laws, moon phases, and working with physics simulators. Moving on, OSP News explores exciting new apps that can be used with existing resources. The Curriculum Packages should also not be missed. Here, visitors can learn how to combine computer simulations with tutorial materials and student worksheets.

  14. Large source test stand for H⁻(D⁻) ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Larson; R. McKenzie-Wilson

    1981-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Neutral Beam Group has constructed a Large Source Test Stand for testing of the various source modules under development. The first objective of the BNL program is to develop a source module capable of delivering 10A of H-(D-) at 25 kV operating in the steady state mode with satisfactory gas and power efficiency. The large source

  15. Large source test stand for H⁻(D⁻) ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Larson; R. McKenzie-Wilson

    1981-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Neutral Beam Group has constructed a large source test stand for testing of the various source modules under development. The first objective of the BNL program is to develop a source module capable of delivering 10A of H⁻(D⁻) at 25 kV operating in the steady state mode with satisfactory gas and power efficiency. The large source

  16. Source waters Several factors influence the selection of source

    E-print Network

    as it passes through the soil profile to the intake. This filtration improves the quality of feed water1 Source waters Several factors influence the selection of source waters to feed desalination plants: the location of the plant in relation to water sources available, the deliv- ery destination

  17. Source Monitoring Task Source Monitoring is a cognitive process by

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    to an interview Development Dynamics of Abuse Understand child Who is the perp? Do you see source monitoringSource Monitoring Task · Source Monitoring is a cognitive process by which an individual reasons And Suggestibility · Suggestibility is the extent to which children report that pieces of misinformation occurred

  18. Radioactive source recovery program responses to neutron source emergencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Dinehart; V. A. Hatler; D. W. Gray; A. D. Guillen

    1997-01-01

    Recovery of neutron sources containing Pu²³⁹ and Be is currently taking place at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The program was initiated in 1979 by the Department of Energy (DOE) to dismantle and recover sources owned primarily by universities and the Department of Defense. Since the inception of this program, Los Alamos has dismantled and recovered more than 1000 sources. The

  19. DreiserWebSource

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Designed and maintained by the Annenberg Rare Book and Manuscript Library Collection at the University of Pennsylvania, the DreiserWebSource website brings together a host of written ephemera, original essays, and electronic texts related to the life and writings of Theodore Dreiser, the prominent American author. While the site doesn't have a formal search engine, the material is divided into four primary sections: Correspondence & Texts, Scholarly Essays, Reference Sources, and Still and Moving images. The Correspondence & Texts section is a delight unto itself, as it contains a host of digitized correspondence between Dreiser and colleagues over several decades and a special section dedicated to his ground-breaking novel, Sister Carrie. Along with several editions of the complete novel there are several essays about the novel's composition and historical context, along with a virtual exhibition curated by Nancy M. Shawcross from the Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Penn. The site also includes a rare 3-minute silent film of Dreiser from 1938 at Mt. Kisco, New York, taken by Robert Elias.

  20. Modeling Magnetospheric Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Raymond J.; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Ogino, Tatsuki; Peroomian, Vahe; Richard, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    We have used global magnetohydrodynamic, simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and magnetosphere together with single particle trajectory calculations to investigate the sources of plasma entering the magnetosphere. In all of our calculations solar wind plasma primarily enters the magnetosphere when the field line on which it is convecting reconnects. When the interplanetary magnetic field has a northward component the reconnection is in the polar cusp region. In the simulations plasma in the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) can be on either open or closed field lines. Open field lines occur when the high latitude reconnection occurs in only one cusp. In the MHD calculations the ionosphere does not contribute significantly to the LLBL for northward IMF. The particle trajectory calculations show that ions preferentially enter in the cusp region where they can be accelerated by non-adiabatic motion across the high latitude electric field. For southward IMF in the MHD simulations the plasma in the middle and inner magnetosphere comes from the inner (ionospheric) boundary of the simulation. Solar wind plasma on open field lines is confined to high latitudes and exits the tailward boundary of the simulation without reaching the plasma sheet. The LLBL is populated by both ionospheric and solar wind plasma. When the particle trajectories are included solar wind ions can enter the middle magnetosphere. We have used both the MHD simulations and the particle calculations to estimate source rates for the magnetosphere which are consistent with those inferred from observations.

  1. Bepcii Positron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Guoxi; Sun, Yaolin; Liu, Jintong; Chi, Yunlong; Liu, Yuncheng; Liu, Nianzong

    2013-10-01

    BEPCII- an upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) is a factory type of e+e- collider. The fundamental requirements for its injector 1inac are the beam energy of 1.89GeV for on-energy injection and a 40mA positron beam current at the linac end with a low beam emittance of 1.6?m and a low energy spread of ±0.5% so as to guarantee a higher injection rate (?50mA/min) to the storage ring. Since the positron flux is proportional to the primary electron beam power on the target, we will increase the electron gun current from 4A to 10A by using a new electmn gun system and increase the primary electron energy from 120MeV to 240MeV. The positron souree itself is an extremely important system for producing more positrons, including a positron converter target chamber, a 12kA flux modulator, the 7-m focusing module with DC power supplies and the support. The new positron production linac from the electron gun to the positron source has been installed into the tunnel. In what follows, we will emphasize the positron source design, manufacture and tests.

  2. Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent H. Lundberg

    The noise behavior of bulk CMOS devices is dominated primarily by two noise sources: thermal noise and ?icker (1=f) noise. Other sources that are sometimes present in the noise spectrum are shot noise, generation\\/recombination noise, and \\\\popcorn\\

  3. HYDROCARBON POLLUTANTS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of hydrocarbon pollutants from stationary sources. Early in the study, readily available information was assembled on stationary sources of hydrocarbon emissions and effluents. Information was also obtained on process descriptions, operating pa...

  4. THE OPEN SOURCE MANUFACTURING STACK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierce Kuhnell; Amit Deshpande

    Manufacturing is plagued by communication issues due to proprietar y and closed architecture systems. In this paper, we outline the var ious methods, utilizing open source applications, to create Open Source Manufacturing Stack (OS MS) for use in the manufacturing sector. These open source applications include Ubuntu, Li nuxCNC, MTConnect, and Firefox. The OSMS has been implemented as part of

  5. How Is Open Source Special?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapor, Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Open source software projects involve the production of goods, but in software projects, the "goods" consist of information. The open source model is an alternative to the conventional centralized, command-and-control way in which things are usually made. In contrast, open source projects are genuinely decentralized and transparent. Transparent…

  6. Conceptualizing Sources in Online News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundar, S. Shyam; Nass, Clifford

    2001-01-01

    Identifies key conceptions of communication "sources" in the literature. Proposes a typology of sources that applies to traditional media and new online media. Evaluates this typology: confirms distinctions made in the typology, finding that attribution of identical content to four different types of online sources by undergraduate students was…

  7. Today's ground source heat pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bose

    1993-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps are one of the nation's fastest growing businesses in terms of increased sales of equipment as reported by water source heat pump manufacturers. The success can be attributed in part to these heat pump's reputation as a cost saving system and more recently as an environmentally sound concept. Engineers having an interest in ground source technology

  8. Ion sources for cyclotron applications

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; McDonald, D.S.; Young, A.T.

    1992-07-01

    The use of a multicusp plasma generator as an ion source has many advantages. The development of both positive and negative ion beams based on the multicusp source geometry is presented. It is shown that these sources can be operated at steady state or cw mode. As a result they are very suitable for cyclotron operations.

  9. Point Source Extraction with MOPEX

    E-print Network

    David Makovoz; Francine R. Marleau

    2005-06-30

    MOPEX (MOsaicking and Point source EXtraction) is a package developed at the Spitzer Science Center for astronomical image processing. We report on the point source extraction capabilities of MOPEX. Point source extraction is implemented as a two step process: point source detection and profile fitting. Non-linear matched filtering of input images can be performed optionally to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and improve detection of faint point sources. Point Response Function (PRF) fitting of point sources produces the final point source list which includes the fluxes and improved positions of the point sources, along with other parameters characterizing the fit. Passive and active deblending allows for successful fitting of confused point sources. Aperture photometry can also be computed for every extracted point source for an unlimited number of aperture sizes. PRF is estimated directly from the input images. Implementation of efficient methods of background and noise estimation, and modified Simplex algorithm contribute to the computational efficiency of MOPEX. The package is implemented as a loosely connected set of perl scripts, where each script runs a number of modules written in C/C++. Input parameter setting is done through namelists, ASCII configuration files. We present applications of point source extraction to the mosaic images taken at 24 and 70 micron with the Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) as part of the Spitzer extragalactic First Look Survey and to a Digital Sky Survey image. Completeness and reliability of point source extraction is computed using simulated data.

  10. Scientific Data Visualization Data Sources

    E-print Network

    Fang, Shiaofen

    Acquisition Methods GeoVisualization 1 Scientific Data Sources Common data sources: Scanning devices Measuring - Domains Data sources (domain): Orbiting satellites, Spacecraft, Seismic devices, Statistical storage ­ Data synchronization 14 DFD example 3D medical imaging system: CT/MRI scanning Raw data Data

  11. The SLC polarized electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1990-10-01

    A polarized electron source consisting of a 3-electrode photocathode gun and a flashlamp-pumped dye laser has been designed and built for the SLC and is currently undergoing commissioning. The source is described, and the operating configuration is discussed. The present status of the source and future plans are briefly indicated. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  12. NITROGEN POLLUTION: FROM THE SOURCES

    E-print Network

    Lowe, Winsor H.

    NITROGEN POLLUTION: FROM THE SOURCES TO THE SEA A Science LinksTM Publication of the Hubbard Brook Research Foundation #12;PAGE 1 NITROGEN POLLUTION: FROM THE SOURCES TO THE SEA A Science Links activity has greatly increased the amount of nitrogen pollution in the environment. Human sources

  13. Thulium-170 heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1990-09-06

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  14. Moving Image Source

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you enjoy films, you will probably be delighted to learn about the Moving Image Source website. Created by the people at the Museum of the Moving Image, the site contains interviews and articles with film critics, filmmakers, and other commentators. The site contains four primary areas: "Articles", "Calendar", "Dialogues", and "Research Guide." The "Articles" area contains guided tours through Jean-Luc Godard's "Film Socialisme", the virtual visions of Marco Brambilla, and the many faces of Catherine Deneuve. The archives of these articles date back to 2008, and visitors can also search this collection by author. The "Dialogues" area contains audio files of conversations with film figures like Michael Caine, Amy Ryan, Terry Gilliam, and David O. Russell. The site is rounded out by the "Research Guide" area, which includes helpful links to sites that deal with film criticism, scoring, history, and technology.

  15. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOEpatents

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  16. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by many (bio)geochemical processes: oxidation of arsenic-bearing sulfides, desorption from oxides and hydroxides, reductive dissolution, evaporative concentration, leaching from sulfides by carbonate, and microbial mobilization. Arsenic enrichment also takes place in geothermally active areas; surface waters are more susceptible than groundwater to contamination in the vicinity of such geothermal systems, and evidence suggests that increased use of geothermal power may elevate risks of arsenic exposure in affected areas. Past and current mining activities continue to provide sources of environmental contamination by arsenic. Because gold- and arsenic-bearing minerals coexist, there is a hazard of mobilizing arsenic during gold mining activities. The Ashanti region of central Ghana currently faces this as a real risk. Historical arsenic contamination exists in Cornwall, UK; an example of a recent arsenic pollution event is that of Ron Phibun town in southern Thailand, where arsenic-related human health effects have been reported. Other important sources of arsenic exposure include coal burning in Slovakia, Turkey, and the Guizhou Province of China; use of arsenic as pesticides in Australia, New Zealand, and the US; and consumption of contaminated foodstuffs (China) and exposure to wood preserving arsenicals (Europe and North America). PMID:18982996

  17. Infrared source test

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  18. Migration Information Source

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As a publication of the Migration Policy Institute, the Migration Information Source "provides fresh thought, authoritative data from numerous global organizations and governments, and global analysis of international migration and refugee trends." Their well-organized homepage offers policy briefs, "Spotlight" features (including a recent one on Indian immigrants in the United States), and information about their ongoing projects. Policy makers and scholars will love the "Immigration Data Hub" area. Here they can get valuable data on state responses to immigrations, the top global destinations for Irish immigrants, as well as historical immigration data. Visitors can also use the "US in Focus" area to find out about specific immigration trends throughout the country, with a special focus on policy issues affecting states and urban areas. The site is rounded out by an RSS feed, a press room of recent news releases, and a glossary of terms.

  19. Large area plasma source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John (Inventor); Patterson, Michael (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An all permanent magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance, large diameter (e.g., 40 cm) plasma source suitable for ion/plasma processing or electric propulsion, is capable of producing uniform ion current densities at its exit plane at very low power (e.g., below 200 W), and is electrodeless to avoid sputtering or contamination issues. Microwave input power is efficiently coupled with an ionizing gas without using a dielectric microwave window and without developing a throat plasma by providing a ferromagnetic cylindrical chamber wall with a conical end narrowing to an axial entrance hole for microwaves supplied on-axis from an open-ended waveguide. Permanent magnet rings are attached inside the wall with alternating polarities against the wall. An entrance magnet ring surrounding the entrance hole has a ferromagnetic pole piece that extends into the chamber from the entrance hole to a continuing second face that extends radially across an inner pole of the entrance magnet ring.

  20. Radiation sources and process

    SciTech Connect

    Honious, H.B.; Janzow, E.F.; Malson, H.A.; Moyer, S.E.

    1980-04-08

    The invention relates to radiation sources comprising a substrate having an electrically-conductive non-radioactive metal surface, a layer of a metal radioactive isotope of the scandium group, which in addition to scandium, yttrium, lanthanum and actinium, includes all the lanthanide and actinide series of elements, with the actinide series usually being preferred because of the nature of the radioactive isotopes therein, particularly americium-241, curium-244, plutonium-238, californium-252 and promethium-147, and a non-radioactive bonding metal codeposited on the surface by electroplating the isotope and bonding metal from an electrolytic solution, the isotope being present in the layer in minor amount as compared to the bonding metal, and with or without a non-radioactive protective metal coating covering the isotoype and bonding metal on the surface, the coating being sufficiently thin to permit radiation to pass through the coating. The invention also relates to a process for providing radiation sources comprising codepositing a layer of the metal radioactive isotope with a non-radioactive bonding metal from an electrolytic solution in which the isotope is present in minor molar amount as compared to the bonding metal such that the codeposited layer contains a minor molar amount of the isotope compared to the bonding metal by electroplating on an electrically-conductive non-radioactive metal surface of a cathode substrate, and with or without depositing a nonradioactive protective metal coating over the isotope and bonding metal on the surface, the coating being sufficiently thin to permit radiation to pass through the coating.

  1. Interferometry using undulator sources

    SciTech Connect

    Beguiristain, R.; Goldberg, K.A.; Tejnil, E.; Bokor, J.; Medecki, H.; Attwood, D.T.; Jackson, K. [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., MS 2-400, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., MS 2-400, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Optical systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography need to use optical components with subnanometer surface figure error tolerances to achieve diffraction-limited performance [M.D. Himel, in {ital Soft} {ital X}-{ital Ray} {ital Projection} {ital Lithography}, A.M. Hawryluk and R.H. Stulen, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1993), {bold 18}, 1089, and D. Attwood {ital et} {ital al}., Appl. Opt. {bold 32}, 7022 (1993)]. Also, multilayer-coated optics require at-wavelength wavefront measurement to characterize phase effects that cannot be measured by conventional optical interferometry. Furthermore, EUV optical systems will additionally require final testing and alignment at the operational wavelength for adjustment and reduction of the cumulative optical surface errors. Therefore, at-wavelength interferometric measurement of EUV optics will be the necessary metrology tool for the successful development of optics for EUV lithography. An EUV point diffraction interferometer (PDI) has been developed at the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) and has been already in operation for a year [K. Goldberg {ital et} {ital al}., in {ital Extreme} {ital Ultra} {ital Lithography}, D.T. Attwood and F. Zernike, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1994), K. Goldberg {ital et} {ital al}., Proc. SPIE {bold 2437}, to be published, and K. Goldberg {ital et} {ital al}., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B {bold 13}, 2923 (1995)] using an undulator radiation source and coherent optics beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An overview of the PDI interferometer and some EUV wavefront measurements obtained with this instrument will be presented. In addition, future developments planned for EUV interferometry at CXRO towards the measurement of actual EUV lithography optics will be shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Ion dynamics in helicon sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, J. L. (John L.); Balkey, M. M. (Matthew M.); Keiter, P. A. (Paul A.); Scime, Earl E.; Keesee, Anne M.; Sun, X.; Harding R.; Compton, C.; Boivin, R. F.; Zintl, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that ion dominated phenomena, such as the lower hybrid resonance, can play an important role in helicon source operation. In this work, we review recent ion heating measurements and the role of the slow wave in heating ions at the edge of helicon. sources. We also discuss the relationship between parametrically driven waves and ion heating near the rf antenna in helicon sources. Recent measurements of parallel and rotational ion flows in helicon sources have important implications for particle confinement, instability growth, and helicon source operation. In this work we present new measurements of ion flows and summarize the important features of the flows.

  3. Radiation sources working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fazio, M.V.

    1998-12-31

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, components technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigation, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations.

  4. [The source of antioxidants].

    PubMed

    Guggenbühl, N

    2006-01-01

    Free radicals are thought to play an important part in the phenomenon of aging, especially as regards the eye. Antioxydants represent an interesting means of limiting the damage due to oxydation, as is shown by a number of studies. Food is an unexpected source of antioxydants, which exist in the form of thousands of different compounds. Colored fruits and vegetables are known to be rich in carotenoids, some of which such as lutein and zeaxanthin tend to accumulate at the level of the macula. But there are plenty of other foodstuffs that supply the antiradical armoury, as has been shown by analytical findings over a number of years. Legumes and whole cereals have a very high antioxydant potential. Other items, from tea to...chocolate, contribute to providing antioxydants through food. Although some specific antioxydants appear so far to be particularly interesting, the results gathered over a number of years in various fields show the advantages of combining several interacting antioxydants. A diet with a strong vegetal component, without being vegetarian, provides a very broad range of antioxydants and thus appears to be an important defense against oxidative stress. PMID:17552431

  5. Migration Information Source

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recently introduced by the Migration Policy Institute, the Migration Information Source Web site offers visitors a fantastic opportunity to stay on top of trends and changes in global migration. Looking at migration from many levels and on many planes, the site considers migrations on both national and international fronts. With a dropdown menu of the countries for which data is available (currently western European countries, Australia, and the US), the database is fully searchable, with more options on the way. Perhaps most interesting to those directly working in statistical, sociological, or ethnographic analyses of migration, the resource is broadly accessible and offers compelling glimpses of migrant populations, their reasons for moving, and their rates of assimilation into host countries. For those unfamiliar with field-specific terms employed in the site's reports, there is a detailed glossary of common terms and phrases. Closer to home, the Migration Information site presents an elaborate array of reports and studies on US-Mexico relations, with an emphasis on the ever-broadening trend toward northward migration in the Americas.

  6. Design calculations for the ANS (Advanced Neutron Source) cold source

    SciTech Connect

    Lillie, R.A.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The calculation procedure, based on discrete ordinates transport methods, that is being used to carry out design calculations for the Advanced Neutron Source cold source is described. Calculated results on the gain in cold neutron flux produced by a liquid deuterium cold source are compared with experimental data and with calculated data previously obtained by P. Ageron et al., at the Institute Max von Laue-Paul Langevin in Grenoble, France. Calculated results are also presented that indicated how the flux of cold neutrons vary with cold source parameters. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Today's ground source heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps are one of the nation's fastest growing businesses in terms of increased sales of equipment as reported by water source heat pump manufacturers. The success can be attributed in part to these heat pump's reputation as a cost saving system and more recently as an environmentally sound concept. Engineers having an interest in ground source technology come from a large and diverse audience consisting of those who have heard about ground source systems and are contemplating entering the business and those who are experienced and looking to broaden their application base. This article discusses the water source heat pump and its benefits, the commercial Water Loop Heat Pump (WLHP), the ground source heat pump, the commercial Closed Loop/Ground Coupled WLHP, designing a ground heat exchanger, information available for design, and successful systems.

  8. Sources of Terrestrial Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K. J.; Dones, L.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheres are found enveloping those planets and satellites best able to hold them. The obvious conclusion is that volatile escape must have played nearly as great a role as volatile supply. A consequence of this view is that volatile supplies were probably much greater than the atmospheres that remain. The likeliest candidates are sources associated with the main events of planetary accretion itself such as volatile-rich planetesimals, or direct gravitational capture of nebular gases. Late asteroidal or cometary volatile-rich veneers are attractive, but they present quantitative difficulties. Comets in particular are inadequate, because the associated mass of stray comets that would have been scattered to the Oort Cloud or beyond is excessive. This difficulty applies to Uranus-Neptune planetesimals as well as to a putative massive early Kuiper Belt. Another potential problem with comets is that the D/H ratio in the three comets for which this has been measured is about twice that of Earth's oceans. Objects falling from a much augmented ancient asteroid belt remain a viable option, but timing is an issue: Can the depopulation of the asteroid belt be delayed long enough that it makes sense to talk of asteroids as a late veneer? Early accretion of asteroids as objects scattered into the maw of infant Earth makes more sense. Another appealing candidate population of volatile-rich objects for the inner solar system would be scattered planetesimals associated with the accretion of Jupiter, for two reasons: (1) Before there was Jupiter, there was no object in the solar system capable of expelling comets efficiently, and (2) the cross section of the inner solar system to stray objects was Greater when there were m many planetesimals.

  9. Reull Vallis Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

  10. The institutionalization of Open Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Gehring

    2006-01-01

    Using concepts of neoinstitutional economics, such as transaction cost economics, institutional economics, property rights\\u000a theory, and information economics, the development of the Open Source movement is investigated. Following the evolution of\\u000a institutions in Open Source, it is discussed what the comparative institutional advantages of this model are. The conclusion\\u000a is that it is the institutional framework of Open Source, not

  11. Source-circuit design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

  12. Holey-plate ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshikazu Yoshida

    2000-01-01

    A low-pressure and high-density microwave ion source, created and sustained by evanescent waves emitted from a holey plate (HP) has been studied. This source is called a HP ion source. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is supplied from a rectangular waveguide and then converted into an evanescent mode through the use of a HP placed on a H plane located

  13. Ion sources for radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, R. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany)

    1994-05-01

    The ion sources reviewed here, most of them developed for isotope separation on-line (ISOL), are classified according to their ionizing mechanism, utilizing electrons, heat, light, and penetration of matter. Emphasis is put on the beam-optical characteristics, ion current density, energy spread, and emittance on the ISOL-essentials {open_quotes}efficient, fast, and selective,{close_quotes} both for the ion source and the complete target/ion source-system.

  14. The IRAS faint source survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshir, Mehrdad

    1991-01-01

    The principal features of the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a new product resulting from the extended IRAS mission, are reviewed. The FSS has achieved an increase in sensitivity of about a factor of 2.5 relative to the IRAS Point Source Catalog by coadding the data before extracting sources. The FSS was produced by point-source filtering the individual detector data streams and then coadding the data streams using a trimmed-average algorithm. The discussion covers FSS production methods; reliability, completeness, and positional accuracy of the FSS; and FSS view of the IR sky.

  15. Enhancement of SPES source performances

    SciTech Connect

    Fagotti, E.; Palmieri, A.; Ren, X. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35129 Padova (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell'Universita, 2 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Installation of SPES source at LNL was finished in July 2006 and the first beam was extracted in September 2006. Commissioning results confirmed very good performance of the extracted current density. Conversely, source reliability was very poor due to glow-discharge phenomena, which were caused by the ion source axial magnetic field protruding in the high-voltage column. This problem was fixed by changing the stainless steel plasma electrode support with a ferromagnetic one. This new configuration required us to recalculate ion source solenoids positions and fields in order to recover the correct resonance pattern. Details on magnetic simulations and experimental results of high voltage column shielding are presented.

  16. High speed helicopter noise sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A.

    1977-01-01

    The state-of-the art of helicopter rotor impulsive noise is reviewed. A triangulation technique for locating impulsive noise sources is developed using once-per-rev index signals as time references. A computer program (INSL) was written implementing this technique. Applying triangulation to the full-scale UH-1 noise data of NASA/Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel, three different noise sources are found on the rotor disk. The primary sources of thickness noise are in the second quadrant and on the advancing side of rotor disk. Two aerodynamic sources due to blade/vortex interaction are found in the first quadrant.

  17. ACCELERATOR BASED CONTINUOUS NEUTRON SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPIRO,S.M.; RUGGIERO,A.G.; LUDEWIG,H.

    2003-03-25

    Until the last decade, most neutron experiments have been performed at steady-state, reactor-based sources. Recently, however, pulsed spallation sources have been shown to be very useful in a wide range of neutron studies. A major review of neutron sources in the US was conducted by a committee chaired by Nobel laureate Prof. W. Kohn: ''Neutron Sources for America's Future-BESAC Panel on Neutron Sources 1/93''. This distinguished panel concluded that steady state and pulsed sources are complementary and that the nation has need for both to maintain a balanced neutron research program. The report recommended that both a new reactor and a spallation source be built. This complementarity is recognized worldwide. The conclusion of this report is that a new continuous neutron source is needed for the second decade of the 20 year plan to replace aging US research reactors and close the US neutron gap. it is based on spallation production of neutrons using a high power continuous superconducting linac to generate protons impinging on a heavy metal target. There do not appear to be any major technical challenges to the building of such a facility since a continuous spallation source has been operating in Switzerland for several years.

  18. Noise source separation based on the blind source separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Yang; Zuoli Li; Xiuqin Wang; Di Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The identification of acoustic source accurately is a fundamental problem in noise control. In the practical project, if the contribution of multi-source-noise to the whole was identified, and then the noise level can be reduced accordingly. To get the accurate noise signal, measurements should be possible while the machines are constantly in action. It is easier to get the mixed

  19. Exploiting source non stationary and coloration in blind source separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinh Tuan Pham

    2002-01-01

    A new method for blind source separation of instantaneous mixtures is developed. It exploits both the spectral and time diversity of the sources and is based on Gaussian mutual information. As a result, it uses only second order statistics and can be efficiently implemented through a joint diagonalization algorithm. Simulation results illustrate the good performance of the method.

  20. On non-radiating sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musafir, Ricardo E.

    2013-08-01

    Following the analysis by P.E. Doak on the radiating (active) and non-radiating (reactive) parts of a source distribution and their effect on the identification of sources, this paper discusses the possible structure of non-radiating sources, i.e., of sources which produce a null field outside the source region. It is shown that these sources can be of three types, two of them only with arbitrary time dependence. In this case, the non-radiating sources are forcibly formed by the difference of two source distributions which generate, outside the region limited by the sources in question, the same field. In the type discussed by Doak, one source distribution encircles the other and cancelation is attained as a global effect. In the other, emphasized by Ffowcs Williams, the two source distributions are superimposed and cancelation is produced locally. The latter type of non-radiating source is discussed in detail, it being shown that, while they do not represent physical sources, they provide valuable information on non-radiating effects. The third type refers to single frequency sources and involves a particular match of wavelength, geometry and source strength distribution so that the acoustic energy gets trapped inside the source region. Of these three types of non-radiating sources, only the first one—that focused by Doak—can influence the identification of the active part of a source distribution from measurements made outside the source region. Evanescent waves, associated with a purely reactive field, are also discussed. It is pointed out that evanescent waves obtained in the decomposition of the field of a vibrating body of finite extent, although useful for representing certain aspects of the field, do not exist physically. Aspects affecting the identification of sources are also briefly tackled. Can the sources be taken as essentially omnidirectional or directional features of the individual sources are important? (should the sources be represented by e.g., dipoles or quadrupoles?) If discrete sources are considered, how should the source region be decomposed? And how do each source (or source element) relate to the others (i.e., how does phase vary across a non-compact source region)? Sometimes this last issue is fully considered in algorithms, but not always. Of course, it is simpler to consider independent point monopole sources, but this is not necessarily the best option—notably in aeroacoustics, where another issue is also to be considered: Which is the Green's function relating source and field? Again, it is simpler to consider the Green's function for waves in homogeneous medium at rest, i.e., that of Eq. (1), but if the sources are, e.g., in a moving medium, this choice may lead to incorrect results.Independently on the choices made, a solution (i.e., a source distribution) will be found. In general, algorithms will provide equivalent sources where one is looking for them, and of the prescribed type. These sources constitute a solution to a given problem considering the (explicitly or implicitly) specified constraints, but not necessarily the solution to the actual physical problem: this depends on how appropriate are the constraints considered (and also on the algorithm limitations). Examples of algorithms focusing on different aspects are given, e.g., in [9,10,27-35].Also, as noted in Section 2, the existence of eventual boundaries should be incorporated into the problem; otherwise, reflection or absorption will also be treated as additional equivalent sources, which is not a problem only in the case one is expecting this to happen. A simple way to check if a field governed by the d'Alembert equation is active or reactive without computing the intensity or the local impedance is to check the gradients of the field amplitude and phase (which can be done in the frequency domain or in the time domain): a non-zero phase gradient implies in an active part while a non-zero gradient of the absolute value implies in the existence of a reactive part.

  1. A NAIVE BAYES SOURCE CLASSIFIER FOR X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Broos, Patrick S.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Povich, Matthew S., E-mail: patb@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Chandra Carina Complex Project (CCCP) provides a sensitive X-ray survey of a nearby starburst region over >1 deg{sup 2} in extent. Thousands of faint X-ray sources are found, many concentrated into rich young stellar clusters. However, significant contamination from unrelated Galactic and extragalactic sources is present in the X-ray catalog. We describe the use of a naive Bayes classifier to assign membership probabilities to individual sources, based on source location, X-ray properties, and visual/infrared properties. For the particular membership decision rule adopted, 75% of CCCP sources are classified as members, 11% are classified as contaminants, and 14% remain unclassified. The resulting sample of stars likely to be Carina members is used in several other studies, which appear in this special issue devoted to the CCCP.

  2. Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources

    PubMed Central

    Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely available for download (right click with the mouse) at links http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-Peps-WEB.xlsx (web version) and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-sialogenins.zip (stand alone version). PMID:22778902

  3. The SIAM Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pairsuwan, Weerapong

    2007-01-01

    A short history of the SIAM Photon Source in Thailand is described. The facility is based on the 1 GeV storage ring obtained from the SORTEC consortium in Japan. After a redesign to include insertion straight sections it produced the first light in December 2001 and the first beam line became operational in early 2002. Special difficulties appear when a synchrotron light facility is obtained by donation, which have mostly to do with the absence of human resource development that elsewhere is commonly accomplished during design and construction. Additional problems arise by the distance of a developing country like Thailand from the origin of technical parts of the donation. A donation does not provide time to generate local capabilities or include in the technical design locally obtainable parts. This makes future developments, repairs and maintenance more time consuming, difficult and expensive than it should be. In other cases, parts of components are proprietary or obsolete or both which requires redesign and engineering at a time when the replacement part should be available to prevent stoppage of operation. The build-up of a user community is very difficult, especially when the radiation spectrum is confined to the VUV regime. Most of scientific interest these days is focused on the x-ray regime. Due to its low beam energy, the SIAM storage ring did not produce useful x-ray intensities and we are therefore in the midst of an upgrade to produce harder radiation. The first step has been achieved with a 20% increase of energy to 1.2 GeV. This step shifts the critical photon energy of bending magnet radiation from 800 eV to 1.4 keV providing useful radiation up to 7 keV. A XAS-beam line has been completed in 2005 and experimentation is very active by now. The next step is to install a 6.4 T wavelength shifter by the end of 2006 resulting in a critical photon energy of 6.15 keV. Further upgrades are planed for the comming years.

  4. The Linac Coherent Light Source.

    PubMed

    White, William E; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-05-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed. PMID:25931055

  5. MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING GUIDE DOCUMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant percentage of surface waters I the U.S. do not meet the designated use criteria as determined by high densities of fecal indicator bacteria as set forth by the Clean Water Act. Both point and non-point sources contribute to water pollution. In contrast to point sources such as sewage...

  6. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed. PMID:25931055

  7. Opportunities from open source search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wray Buntine; Karl Aberer; Ivana Podnar; Martin Rajman

    2005-01-01

    Internet search has a strong business model that permits a free service to users, so it is difficult to see why, if at all, there should be open source offerings as well. This paper first discusses open source search, and a rationale for the computer science community at large to get involved. Because there is no shortage of core open

  8. Opportunities from Open Source Search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wray L. Buntine; Karl Aberer; Ivana Podnar; Martin Rajman

    2005-01-01

    Internet search has a strong business model that permits a free service to users, so it is difficult to see why, if at all, there should be open source offerings as well. This paper first discusses open source search, and a rationale for the computer science community at large to get involved. Be- cause there is no shortage of core

  9. Power Sources for Small Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Dowling

    1997-01-01

    This report is a discussion, evaluation and comparison of potential sources of electrical power for small mobile systems. Power sources are an inevitable challenge in the design of portable and small mobile systems, especially robotic systems. Power systems cannot be an afterthought and, if left to final design stages, can result in severe and adverse effects on the system, such

  10. Electrical Neuroimaging with Irrotational Sources

    PubMed Central

    Grave de Peralta Menendez, Rolando; Gonzalez Andino, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses theoretical aspects of the modeling of the sources of the EEG (i.e., the bioelectromagnetic inverse problem or source localization problem). Using the Helmholtz decomposition (HD) of the current density vector (CDV) of the primary current into an irrotational (I) and a solenoidal (S) part we show that only the irrotational part can contribute to the EEG measurements. In particular we present for the first time the HD of a dipole and of a pure irrotational source. We show that, for both kinds of sources, I extends all over the space independently of whether the source is spatially concentrated (as the dipole) or not. However, the divergence remains confined to a region coinciding with the expected location of the sources, confirming that it is the divergence rather than the CDV that really defines the spatial extension of the generators, from where it follows that an irrotational source model (ELECTRA) is always physiologically meaningful as long as the divergence remains confined to the brain. Finally we show that the irrotational source model remains valid for the most general electrodynamics model of the EEG in inhomogeneous anisotropic dispersive media and thus far beyond the (quasi) static approximation. PMID:26113873

  11. Source of the Kerr Metric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Israel

    1970-01-01

    Assuming that the Kerr-Newman metric is the field of a layer of mass and charge distributed over the equatorial disk spanning the ring singularity, the source distribution on the disk is computed explicitly. In the uncharged case, this interpretation automatically excises the noncausal parts of the manifold, so that one obtains the unique source of the causally maximal extension of

  12. Improvements in quantitative source preparation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Denecke; G. Sibbens; T. Szabo; M. Hult; L. Persson

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative source preparation is indispensable for radionuclide standardisation. To improve the source quality, a device has been developed to accelerate the evaporation of solvents from a drop deposited on a substrate. Short drying times were reached by stirring the rotating drop with multiple jets of dry nitrogen at elevated temperature. Uniform deposits with a large number of small crystals were

  13. Economics of Open Source Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Pappas Johnson

    2001-01-01

    A simple model of open source software (as typified by the Linux operating system) is presented. Individual user-programmers decide whether to invest their valuable time and eort to develop a software application that will become a public good if so developed. Open source code potentially allows the entire Internet community to use its combined programming knowledge, creativity and expertise. On

  14. The SLAC polarized electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.E.; Alley, R.; Frisch, J.; Kotseroglou, T.; Mulhollan, G.; Schultz, D.; Tang, H.; Turner, J.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1997-08-01

    Since 1992, the SLAC 3-km linac has operated exclusively with polarized electrons. The polarized electron source is highly reliable, remotely operated and monitored, and able to produce a variety of electron bunch profiles for high-energy physics experiments. The source and its operating characteristics are described. Some implications drawn from the operating experience are discussed.

  15. Radioactive Sources in Chemical Laboratories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Jan

    Radioactive sources including all radioactive materials exceeding exemption levels have to be registered in national databases according to international standards based on the recommendations ICRP 60 and a proper licensing should take place as described for example in the 96\\/29\\/EURATOM. In spite of that, unregistered sources could be found, usually due to the fact that the owner is not aware

  16. Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kari, I.B. (Pakistan Petroleum Limited, Sindh (Pakistan))

    1993-02-01

    Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

  17. Macroeconmic Sources of FOREX Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike R Wickens; Peter N Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of measuring macroeconomic sources of financial risk. 1. It aims to provide a general theory of asset pricing suitable for taking account of macroeconomic sources of risk. Stochastic discount factor theory is used to provide the theoretical framework. This is capable of embracing most of the approaches in the literature, including general equilibrium theory. Market

  18. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

  19. Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Svoboda, James A.

    This interactive website from professor James A. Svoboda of Clarkson University describes current controlled current source (CCCS). The interactive applet depicts a circuit that contains a Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS). The gain of the CCCS can be changed using the scroll bar.

  20. 3, 475511, 2006 Source identification

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    by the isotopic signatures of nitrate in 12 Baltic rivers, in relation to the vegetation cover of their catchmentsBGD 3, 475­511, 2006 Source identification of riverine nitrate M. Voss et al. Title Page Abstract and source identification of nitrate by means of isotopic tracers in the Baltic Sea catchments M. Voss 1 , B

  1. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter identifies and describes major industrial sources of methane (CH4) emissions. or each source type examined, it identifies CH4 release points and discusses in detail the factors affecting emissions. t also summarizes and discusses available global and country-specific ...

  2. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOEpatents

    Ballou, N.E.

    1992-04-14

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  3. Ion source requirements for pulsed spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    The neutron scattering community has endorsed the need for a high- power (1 to 5 MW) accelerator-driven source of neutrons for materials research. Properly configured, the accelerator could produce very short (sub-microsecond) bursts of cold neutrons, said time structure offering advantages over the continuous flux from a reactor for a large class of experiments. The recent cancellation of the ANS reactor project has increased the urgency to develop a comprehensive strategy based on the best technological scenarios. Studies to date have built on the experience from ISIS (the 160 KW source in the UK), and call for a high-current (approx. 100 mA peak) H{sup {minus}} source-linac combination injecting into one or more accumulator rings in which beam may be further accelerated. The 1 to 5 GeV proton beam is extracted in a single turn and brought to the target-moderator stations. The high current, high duty-factor, high brightness and high reliability required of the ion source present a very large challenge to the ion source community. A workshop held in Berkeley in October 1994, analyzed in detail the source requirements for proposed accelerator scenarios, the present performance capabilities of different H{sup {minus}} source technologies, and identified necessary R&D efforts to bridge the gap.

  4. Slotted antenna waveguide plasma source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A high density plasma generated by microwave injection using a windowless electrodeless rectangular slotted antenna waveguide plasma source has been demonstrated. Plasma probe measurements indicate that the source could be applicable for low power ion thruster applications, ion implantation, and related applications. This slotted antenna plasma source invention operates on the principle of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). It employs no window and it is completely electrodeless and therefore its operation lifetime is long, being limited only by either the microwave generator itself or charged particle extraction grids if used. The high density plasma source can also be used to extract an electron beam that can be used as a plasma cathode neutralizer for ion source beam neutralization applications.

  5. Sealed source peer review plan

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leonard, Lee [RETIRED; Burns, Ron [CONTRACTOR

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR {section} 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements for the subject peer review.

  6. Reversal ion source - A new source of negative ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of ion source utilizing beams of electrons and target molecules, rather than a diffuse, volume plasma, is described. The source utilizes an electrostatic electron 'mirror' which reverses trajectories in an electron beam, producing electrons at their turning point having a distribution of velocities centered at zero velocity. A gas which attaches zero-velocity electrons is introduced at this turning point. Negative ions are produced by an attachment or dissociative attachment process. For many of the thermal electron-attaching molecules the cross sections can be quite large, varying as the inverse square root of the electron energy or just the s-wave threshold law. The efficiency and current density of the ion source for production of Cl(-) through the large, thermal energy attachment process is estimated. It is argued that the source can be used for the production of negative ions through attachment resonances located at higher energies as well.

  7. GOVERNMENT INCOME SOURCE(S) Student Name Study Period

    E-print Network

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    May 2013 GOVERNMENT INCOME SOURCE Faculty/Year It is important to claim government benefits accurately in order to ensure your funding government agency about receiving benefits and OSAP or Part­Time Loan assistance at the same time. Therefore

  8. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  9. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  10. Lightning Mapping Array Source Powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlin, J. D.; Hamlin, T. D.; Krehbiel, P.; Thomas, R.; Rison, W.

    2005-12-01

    There are several Lightning Mapping Array's (LMA's) in operation around the country, that can locate VHF sources from lightning in 3-D and time. Another component that is also recorded is the received power at each station, and has not been fully utilized. The past calculations done by New Mexico Tech assumed an isotropic source and took a median value of the recorded source powers, not accounting for the antenna pattern or the ground interference. The NMT LMA uses a one half wavelength dipole antenna, and the height of the antennas above ground is known. For VHF the ground is neither a dielectric nor a conductor, but a complex combination with reflections that can be solved for numerically. The derived solution for the antenna pattern as a function of elevation angle is in good agreement with the empirical results. Once the antenna pattern is accounted for, it is possible to look at individual sources and see if they are indeed isotropic. It has been proposed that certain discharges, sferic Narrow Bi-polar Events (NBEs), which are often associated with high power VHF sources, have relativistic beaming effects. Another possible use of the powers is to look at the overall lightning and look for patterns in the storm data. During STEPS 2000 there were three power related results. First, as the source power increased so did the source altitude, possibly due to convection strength of the storms. Second was that the high power VHF events and associated NBEs, were predominately outside the core of the storm, with respect to both reflectivity and density of low power sources. The maximum source power in a storm increased with the storm size, either due to a more intense storm, or just a probability distribution effect due to a 1/P relation.

  11. Synchrotron radiation sources and research

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1995-12-31

    This is an introduction and a review of Synchrotron Radiation sources and the research performed using synchrotron radiation. I will begin with a brief discussion of the two principal uses of particle storage rings: for colliding beams (Collider) and for synchrotron radiation (Radiator). Then I will concentrate on discussions of synchrotron radiation topics, starting with a historical account, followed by descriptions of the features of the storage ring and the features of the radiation from the simplest source -- the bending magnet. I will then discuss the special insertion device sources -- wigglers and undulators -- and their radiations, and end with a brief general account of the research and other applications of synchrotron radiation.

  12. Radiation source with shaped emission

    DOEpatents

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2003-05-13

    Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

  13. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan (10516 Royal Birkdale, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Ingersoll, David (5824 Mimosa Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  14. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  15. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MAJOR BARIUM CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental effects the source severity,...

  16. An Open Source Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    An investigation into the current state of the art of open source real time programming practices. This document includes what technologies are available, how easy is it to obtain, configure, and use them, and some performance measures done on the different systems. A matrix of vendors and their products is included as part of this investigation, but this is not an exhaustive list, and represents only a snapshot of time in a field that is changing rapidly. Specifically, there are three approaches investigated: 1. Completely open source on generic hardware, downloaded from the net. 2. Open source packaged by a vender and provided as free evaluation copy. 3. Proprietary hardware with pre-loaded proprietary source available software provided by the vender as for our evaluation.

  17. Current Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Svoboda, James A.

    This interactive website from professor James A. Svoboda of Clarkson University describes a circuit that contains a Current Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS). The gain of the CCVS can be changed using the scrollbar.

  18. Mexart Measurements of Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Esparza, A.; Andrade, E.; Carrillo, A.; Jeyakumar, S.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Praveenkumar, A.; Sankarasubramanian, G.; Sureshkumar, S.; Sierra, P.; Vazquez, S.; Perex-Enriguez, R.; Kurtz, S.

    2005-09-01

    The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) consists of a 64x64 array of full-wave dipoles operating at 139.65 MHz. The primary aim of the array is to perform Interplanetary Scintillations (IPS) observations of radio sources to track large-scale solar wind perturbations within 1 AU. We describe the initial measurements of radio sources and the advances in the calibration of the antenna.

  19. Astrometry of southern radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Graeme L.; Jauncey, David L.; Harvey, Bruce R.; Savage, Ann; Gulkis, Samuel; Preston, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogs. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarcsecond radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way.

  20. Radiation source for helium magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation source (12) for optical magnetometers (10) which use helium isotopes as the resonance element (30) includes an electronically pumped semiconductor laser (12) which produces a single narrow line of radiation which is frequency stabilized to the center frequency of the helium resonance line to be optically pumped. The frequency stabilization is accomplished using electronic feedback (34, 40, 42, 44) to control a current sources (20) thus eliminating the need for mechanical frequency tuning.

  1. Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. O'Kelly

    2003-01-01

    The Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS) is a state of the art variable energy positron beam under construction at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL). Projected intensities on the order of the order of 10^7 e+\\/second using ^64Cu as the positron source are expected. Owing to is short half-life (t1\\/2 12.8 hrs), plans are to produce the ^64Cu isotope on-site

  2. Another source of atmospheric methane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Xinke

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric concentration of methane is steadily increasing. Lacking of precise estimates of source and sink strengths\\u000a for the atmospheric methane severely limits the current understanding of the global methane cycle. A good budget of atmospheric\\u000a methane can enhance our understanding of the global carbon cycle and global climate change. The known estimates of the main\\u000a source and sink strengths

  3. An atmospheric pressure plasma source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaeyoung Park; I. Henins; H. W. Herrmann; G. S. Selwyn; J. Y. Jeong; R. F. Hicks; D. Shim; C. S. Chang

    2000-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma source operated by radio frequency power has been developed. This source produces a unique discharge that is volumetric and homogeneous at atmospheric pressure with a gas temperature below 300 °C. It also produces a large quantity of oxygen atoms, ~5×1015 cm-3, which has important value for materials applications. A theoretical model shows electron densities of 0.2-2×1011

  4. Tandem-Mirror Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, A.; Stone, N.; Reasoner, D.; Chisholm, W.; Reynolds, J.

    1986-01-01

    Improved ion source produces beam of ions at any kinetic energy from 1 to 1,000 eV, with little spread in energy or angle. Such ion beams useful in studies of surface properties of materials, surface etching, deposition, and development of plasma-diagnostic instrumentation. Tandemmirror ion source uses electrostatic and magnetic fields to keep electrons in ionization chamber and assure uniform output ion beam having low divergence in energy and angle.

  5. Automated Classification of ROSAT Sources Using Heterogeneous Multiwavelength Source Catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, Thomas; Suchkov, A. A.; Winter, E. L.; Hanisch, R. J.; White, R. L.; Ochsenbein, F.; Derriere, S.; Voges, W.; Corcoran, M. F.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an on-line system for automated classification of X-ray sources, ClassX, and present preliminary results of classification of the three major catalogs of ROSAT sources, RASS BSC, RASS FSC, and WGACAT, into six class categories: stars, white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, galaxies, AGNs, and clusters of galaxies. ClassX is based on a machine learning technology. It represents a system of classifiers, each classifier consisting of a considerable number of oblique decision trees. These trees are built as the classifier is 'trained' to recognize various classes of objects using a training sample of sources of known object types. Each source is characterized by a preselected set of parameters, or attributes; the same set is then used as the classifier conducts classification of sources of unknown identity. The ClassX pipeline features an automatic search for X-ray source counterparts among heterogeneous data sets in on-line data archives using Virtual Observatory protocols; it retrieves from those archives all the attributes required by the selected classifier and inputs them to the classifier. The user input to ClassX is typically a file with target coordinates, optionally complemented with target IDs. The output contains the class name, attributes, and class probabilities for all classified targets. We discuss ways to characterize and assess the classifier quality and performance and present the respective validation procedures. Based on both internal and external validation, we conclude that the ClassX classifiers yield reasonable and reliable classifications for ROSAT sources and have the potential to broaden class representation significantly for rare object types.

  6. Optical Continuum Sources in Gravitationally Lensed Quasars

    E-print Network

    L. J. Goicoechea; D. Alcalde; V. N. Shalyapin

    2002-10-30

    We review some techniques to study the nature and size of the optical continuum sources in multiple QSOs. We focus on the source originating the events with several months timescale (the rapid variability source) as well as the source that is responsible for the non-variable background component (the background source). The techniques are used to study both the rapid variability source in Q0957+561 and the main (compact) background source in Q2237+0305.

  7. rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H- ion source.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y W; Fuja, R; Goulding, R H; Hardek, T; Lee, S-W; McCarthy, M P; Piller, M C; Shin, K; Stockli, M P; Welton, R F

    2010-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering approximately 38 mA H(-) beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. PMID:20192394

  8. Health Advertising: The Credibility of Organizational Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Sharon Lee

    A study investigated the perceived source credibility of organizations that produce health messages. Manipulated versions of a health advertisement were generated to represent three types of organizational sources: a nonprofit source, a for-profit source, and a combination of for-profit and nonprofit sources. The advertisements were then produced…

  9. Miniature field deployable terahertz source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, Mark G.

    2006-05-01

    Developments in terahertz sources include compacted electron beam systems, optical mixing techniques, and multiplication of microwave frequencies. Although significant advances in THz science have been achieved, efforts continue to obtain source technologies that are more mobile and suitable for field deployment. Strategies in source development have approached generation from either end of the THz spectrum, from up-conversion of high-frequency microwave to down-conversion of optical frequencies. In this paper, we present the design of a THz source which employs an up-conversion method in an assembly that integrates power supply, electronics, and radiative component into a man-portable unit for situations in which a lab system is not feasible. This unit will ultimately evolve into a ruggedized package suitable for use in extreme conditions, e.g. temporary security check points or emergency response teams, in conditions where THz diagnostics are needed with minimal planning or logistical support. In order to meet design goals of reduced size and complexity, the inner workings of the unit ideally would be condensed into a monolithic active element, with ancillary systems, e.g. user interface and power, coupled to the element. To attain these goals, the fundamental component of our design is a THz source and lens array that may be fabricated with either printed circuit board or wafer substrate. To reduce the volume occupied by the source array, the design employs a metamaterial composed of a periodic lattice of resonant elements. Each resonant element is an LC oscillator, or tank circuit, with inductance, capacitance, and center frequency determined by dimensioning and material parameters. The source array and supporting electronics are designed so that the radiative elements are driven in-phase to yield THz radiation with a high degree of partial coherence. Simulation indicates that the spectral width of operation may be controlled by detuning of critical dimensions. We discuss simulation results and frequency response for a single element and the source array, and the component density necessary to achieve target output intensities. After obtaining the primary objective of a designing a compact fieldable THz source, the secondary goal is developing a fabrication recipe which draws upon existing methods in PCB/integrated circuit manufacturing to obtain a device that may be produced at volume with high yield.

  10. Research on fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-19

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  11. Sources of pollution prevention information

    SciTech Connect

    Grulich, M.M. [Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Pollution prevention success is dependent on finding information that responds to an organization`s needs, but accessing information on pollution prevention can be challenging. Because pollution prevention programs must be tailored to respond to an organization`s technical needs, physical site restrictions, and culture, generic, readily accessible solutions are unusual. Fortunately, over the past few years a wide and growing network of support has developed for those investigating pollution prevention options. These sources range from federal, state, and local government agencies to academic research centers and private consultants. Information available varies from one source to another. Programs offer everything from where and how to start a program to applications of complicated chemistries that enhance process efficiency. Sources of information are provided in this chapter. The tables are provided as an overview of the types of sources generally available. Most of the sources listed in this chapter should be able to provide general information on pollution prevention or, at a minimum, provide a referral to an organization or materials that respond to a general request for information.

  12. 40 CFR 52.12 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.12 Section 52.12...Provisions § 52.12 Source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved,...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

  17. Melody Extraction: A Blind Source Separation Approach

    E-print Network

    Clausen, Michael

    Melody Extraction: A Blind Source Separation Approach Shankar Vembu German Research Center Source separation approach Experiments Conclusion #12;3 Extraction of melody Computer music transcription using source separation techniques Idea: Separate vocals from the polyphonic input Apply monophonic

  18. MODELING, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE

    E-print Network

    MODELING, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By MUHAMMAD HAIDER KHAN AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved..................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Overview of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.............................................. 1 1

  19. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310...49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

  20. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310...49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

  1. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310...49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

  2. Qualitydriven Source Selection using Data Envelopment Analysis

    E-print Network

    Freytag, Johann-Christoph

    Quality­driven Source Selection using Data Envelopment Analysis Felix Naumann \\Lambday Humboldt sources with one another or give a ranking of sources. We propose to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA

  3. A global sourcing strategy for durable tooling

    E-print Network

    Vasovski, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Competitive pressures in manufacturing industries have led to an increased utilization of strategic sourcing initiatives: among them is low cost sourcing. While low cost sourcing has been used extensively for direct ...

  4. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310...49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

  5. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310...49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that...

  6. Compact portable electric power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Sources of Variability in MEG

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Wanmei; Golland, Polina; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates and characterizes sources of variability in MEG signals in multi-site, multi-subject studies. Understanding these sources will help to develop efficient strategies for comparing and pooling data across repetitions of an experiment, across subjects, and across sites. In this work, we investigated somatosensory MEG data collected at three different sites and applied variance component analysis and nonparametric KL divergence analysis in order to characterize the sources of variability. Our analysis showed that inter-subject differences are the biggest factor in the signal variability. We demonstrated that the timing of the deflections is very consistent in the early somatosensory response, which justifies a direct comparison of deflection peak times acquired from different visits, subjects, and systems. Compared with deflection peak times, deflection magnitudes have larger variation across sites; modeling of this variability is necessary for data pooling. PMID:18044636

  8. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  9. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  10. Interference of dissimilar photon sources

    E-print Network

    Bennett, A J; Nicoll, C A; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J; 10.1038/nphys1373

    2010-01-01

    If identical photons meet at a semi-transparent mirror they appear to leave in the same direction, an effect called "two-photon interference". It has been known for some time that this effect should occur for photons generated by dissimilar sources with no common history, provided the easurement cannot distinguish between the photons. Here we report a technique to observe such interference with isolated, unsynchronized sources whose coherence times differ by several orders of magnitude. In an experiment we interfere photons generated via different physical processes, with different photon statistics. One source is stimulated emission from a tuneable laser, which has Poissonian statistics and a nano-eV bandwidth. The other is spontaneous emission from a quantum dot in a p-i-n diode with a micro-eV linewidth. We develop a theory to explain the visibility of interference, which is primarily limited by the timing resolution of our detectors.

  11. Bernas ion source discharge simulationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roudskoy, I.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Seleznev, D. N.; Pershin, V. I.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Poole, H. P.

    2008-02-01

    As the technology and applications continue to grow up, the development of plasma and ion sources with clearly specified characteristic is required. Therefore comprehensive numerical studies at the project stage are the key point for ion implantation source manufacturing (especially for low energy implantation). Recently the most commonly encountered numerical approach is the Monte Carlo particle-in-cell (MCPIC) method also known as particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions. In ITEP the 2D3V numerical code PICSIS-2D realizing MCPIC method was developed in the framework of the joint research program. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. These results are compared with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test bench.

  12. High energy synchrotron radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    1994-04-01

    In the world there are now about 43 laboratories in 16 countries engaged in the operation, construction or planning of electron storage rings, from a few hundred MeV to above 10 GeV, as sources of synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research. In this report we describe the new third generation high energy (i.e. hard X-ray) sources. The first of these, the 6 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France started operation in mid 1992. The 7 GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne, USA and the 8 GeV Super Photon Ring (SPring-8) in Nishi Harima, Japan are expected to start operation for users around 1996-1998.

  13. Graphite moderated (252)Cf source.

    PubMed

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Barros, Haydn; Greaves, Eduardo D; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2015-06-01

    The Thorium molten-salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid-fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a (252)Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the (252)Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. PMID:25770393

  14. Low-pressure ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, F.M.; Brainard, J.P.; O'Hagan, J.B.; Walko, R.J.

    1982-10-27

    A low pressure ion source for a neutron source comprises a filament cathode and an anode ring. Approximately 150V is applied between the cathode and the anode. Other electrodes, including a heat shield, a reflector and an aperture plate with a focus electrode, are placed at intermediate potentials. Electrons from the filament drawn out by the plasma and eventually removed by the anode are contained in a magnetic field created by a magnet ring. Ions are formed by electron impact with deuterium or tritium and are extracted at the aperture in the focus electrode. The ion source will typically generate a 200 mA beam through a 1.25 cm/sup 2/ aperture for an arc current of 10A. For deuterium gas, the ion beam is over 50 percent D/sup +/ with less than 1% impurity. The current density profile across the aperture will typically be uniform to within 20%.

  15. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The conceptual of Hefei Advanced Light Source, which is an advanced VUV and Soft X-ray source, was developed at NSRL of USTC. According to the synchrotron radiation user requirements and the trends of SR source development, some accelerator-based schemes were considered and compared; furthermore storage ring with ultra low emittance was adopted as the baseline scheme of HALS. To achieve ultra low emittance, some focusing structures were studied and optimized in the lattice design. Compromising of emittance, on-momentum and off-momentum dynamic aperture and ring scale, five bend acromat (FBA) was employed. In the preliminary design of HALS, the emittance was reduced to sub nm · rad, thus the radiation up to water window has full lateral coherence. The brilliance of undulator radiation covering several eVs to keVs range is higher than that of HLS by several orders. The HALS should be one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation light sources in the world.

  16. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PRIORITIZATION OF STATIONARY WATER POLLUTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives priority lists to aid in selecting specific sources of water effluents for detailed assessment. It describes the general water prioritization model, explains its implementation, and gives a detailed example of its use. It describes hazard factors that were develo...

  17. Musical Source Separation Using Time-Frequency Source Priors

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    about the sources (instrument names and localization). After a brief review of existing methods, we design a family of probabilistic mixture generative models combining modified positive Independent Sub available today raise many issues, among which interactive modi- fication of the data for applications

  18. Z-source inverter for UPS application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Senthilkumar; R. Bharanikumar; J. Jerom

    2007-01-01

    This project proposes an impedance-source inverter and its control method for implementing dc-to-ac, ac-to-dc, ac-to-ac, and dc-to-dc power conversion. The Z-source converter employs a unique impedance network to couple the converter main circuit to the power source. The Z-source converter overcomes the conceptual and theoretical barriers and limitations of the traditional voltage-source converter and current-source converter and provides a novel

  19. Tunable quantum dot parametric source.

    PubMed

    Andronico, A; Favero, I; Ducci, S; Gérard, J M; Leo, G

    2013-09-23

    We report on the modeling of an electrically pumped nonlinear source for spontaneous parametric down-conversion in an AlGaAs single-sided Bragg waveguide. Laser emission from InAs quantum dots embedded in the waveguide core is designed to excite a Bragg pump mode at 950 nm. This mode is phase matched with two cross-polarized total-internal-reflection fundamental signal and idler modes around 1900 nm. Besides numerically evaluating the source efficiency, we discuss the crucial role played by the quantum dots in the practical implementation of the phase-matching condition along with the tuning capabilities of this promising active device. PMID:24104126

  20. Sources of remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applications Branch, EROS Data Center

    1978-01-01

    NCIC was established within the USGS to provide a single-point contact source for cartographic-related information, including remotely sensed data. A computerized indexing system, the Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS), shows all holding for Federal agencies, with the long range goal of including data acquired on the state and local levels and (eventually) by private industry. The system directs the used to a particular agency which holds coverage over a particular unit area, based on the 7 1/2 minute USGS quadrangle system. The data will remain in the hands of the source agency.

  1. Tikal obsidian: sources and typology

    SciTech Connect

    Moholy-Nagy, H.; Asaro, F.; Stross, F.H.

    1984-01-01

    The obsidian industry of Classic period Tikal, Guatemala, is discussed with regard to geological source determinations and behavioral typology. The potential of these two approaches for cultural reconstruction is greatly extended when they can supplement each other. Recent source determinations of obsidian artifacts from Tikal indicate (1) a behavioral link between locally-produced prismatic blades of Highland Guatemalan stone and ceremonial incised obsidians and eccentrics, and (2) a Central Mexican origin for a seemingly large portion of Tikal's obsidian projectile points and knives. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Characterization of multiple light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Jessica Marie

    The integrating cavity absorption meter (ICAM) is an instrument that utilizes the absorption of water to detect alien substances in the water. The ICAM was first proposed by Elterman in 1970 and has since been enhanced by other scientists such as Kirk, Leathers, Fry, Musser, and Gray. While others have investigated the structure of the ICAM, little research has been published regarding the most efficient light source. This thesis compares the power consumption, spectral stability, and output intensity of three different light sources to determine which should be used in the ICAM to further develop its capabilities.

  3. Bacterial sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, L.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Langworthy, T. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in geochemical samples has been the source of much controversy. Although an anthropogenic input from detergent sources always appears likely, the distribution of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in some cases far exceeding that attributed to detergent input has led to a reappraisal of this view. Indeed, recent work involving analysis of the lipid hydrocarbon extracts from extant Thermoplasma bacteria has revealed the presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons. The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in sedimentary organic matter may therefore represent potential biological markers for thermophilic bacteria.

  4. The JavaScript Source

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The JavaScript Source contains hundreds of scripts which can be copied and used free of charge. Scripts are divided into categories such as Background Effects, Buttons, Cookies, and Forms. Included with each script is the description, file size, and contributor information. The JavaScript Source also provides several services beyond the collection. If you'd rather receive code in email, they will send it to you. A discussion forum is available. A free biweekly newsletter informs its subscribers of newly added scripts.

  5. Review: Semiconductor Quantum Light Sources

    E-print Network

    Andrew J Shields

    2007-04-03

    Lasers and LEDs display a statistical distribution in the number of photons emitted in a given time interval. New applications exploiting the quantum properties of light require sources for which either individual photons, or pairs, are generated in a regulated stream. Here we review recent research on single-photon sources based on the emission of a single semiconductor quantum dot. In just a few years remarkable progress has been made in generating indistinguishable single-photons and entangled photon pairs using such structures. It suggests it may be possible to realise compact, robust, LED-like semiconductor devices for quantum light generation.

  6. Advanced light source master oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.C.; Taylor, B.; Baptiste, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-03-01

    The Master Oscillator of the Advanced Light Source operates at a frequency of 499.654 MHz which is the 328th harmonic of the storage ring. The oscillator is capable of providing up to a maximum of {plus minus} 500 KHz frequency deviation for various experimental purposes. Provisions for external signal injection as well as using an external signal source have been designed into the unit. A power distribution system has also been included to provide signals for various parts of the ALS machine and user requirements. The Master Oscillator is made up with modules housed in a Euro chassis. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Secondary sources of seismic noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Geyer

    1977-01-01

    Examples of terrane response derived from the analysis and interpretation of data obtained by Stanolind Research Party 45 (now Amoco Production Company) in New Mexico, North Dakota, and West Texas, are presented. The secondary sources, the types of waves, the mechanisms of secondary-wave generation, and the relations between secondary waves and reflection quality were identified. Analysis was restricted to waves

  8. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the assessment of air emissions from the manufacture of carbon black, currently manufactured in the U.S. by two major processes: thermal and oil furnace. Sources of atmospheric emissions within oil furnace plants (about 90% of the 30 U.S. carbon black plants...

  9. The ``sources`` of plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.F. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A case is made for the following assertion: every significant advance in the understanding of plasma behavior has been the result of the invention of a new type of plasma source. The duoplasmatron source led to the observation of collisionless electron plasma waves. The hot house slow pinch allowed Alfven waves to be seen. The Q-machine led to the observation of ion acoustic waves and ion Landau damping and to the discovery of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves and drift waves. The double-plasma device permitted ion shocks, solitons, and double-layers to be studied. The large-area cathode discharge led to new discoveries in whistler propagation, current flow across magnetic fields, and filamentation of ionospheric currents. The laser-heated arc has been used to isolate the parametric instabilities of laser fusion and to demonstrate plasma-based particle acceleration. Even the tokamak H-mode can be considered a new plasma source, leading to their (future) understanding of instabilities in sheared electric fields. As plasma physics moves on to new horizons, the venerable gas discharge is coming back into vogue. In particular, low pressure rf discharges are being considered as replacements for the parallel capacitor discharge, which has so far served well the large semiconductor and flat-panel display industries. This talk will include their latest results on helicon wave plasma generators, as well as previously unpublished experiments using other plasma sources.

  10. Laser undulated synchrotron radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baine, Michael A. J.

    2000-07-01

    This work will address the practicality of using lasers to undulate electron beams for the production of tunable, short pulsed, monochromatic, synchrotron radiation. An x-ray source based on this mechanism, referred to as a Laser Synchrotron Source (LSS), has several attractive features: (1)x-rays can be generated with an electron beam whose energy is a factor of 100 smaller than competing synchrotron sources that use magnetic undulators, (2)the pulse length can be made extremely short (<100fs) by using short pulsed lasers, (3)the polarization can be controlled by changing the polarization of the incident laser, (4)the bandwidth can be quite narrow (<1%), and (5)the resultant x-rays are well collimated (? < .1 rad for ? > 10) in the direction of the electron beam. These factors combine to produce one of the brightest (>1018 J/s mrad mm2 1%BW) sources of x-rays available. The most attractive feature, however, is its compact size and low cost, which suit it well for applications in Medicine, Biology, and Physics. The problem will be treated in two parts: analysis of nonlinear Thomson scattering for arbitrary interaction geometry of intense lasers and relativistic electron beams, and description of a proof-of-principle experiment carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory.

  11. Alternative energy sources. Part B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manassah

    1981-01-01

    This text has been assembled from the proceedings of the Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) that was held in Kuwait in February 1980. The focus of this symposium was to review and assess those technologies that presently complement and will most likely substitute in the future

  12. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Dierker

    2008-03-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  13. The Source for Asperger's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Timothy P.

    This book is intended as a comprehensive source of information on the diagnosis and treatment of Asperger syndrome. Chapter 1 discusses major classification of characteristics and chapter 2 describes prevalence, comorbidity, and causal factors of Asperger syndrome. Chapter 3 examines clinical diagnosis and misdiagnosis and the influence of…

  14. Primary Sources and Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses inquiry learning and primary sources. Inquiry learning puts students in the active role of investigators. Questioning, authentic and active learning, and interactivity are a few of the characteristics of inquiry learning that put the teacher and library media specialist in the role of coaches while students…

  15. MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING GUIDE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 13% of surface waters in the United States do not meet designated use criteria as determined by high densities of fecal indicator bacteria. Although some of the contamination is attributed to point sources such as confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) and wastew...

  16. Bioaerosols – Sources and control measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Kummer; Wolf R. Thiel

    2008-01-01

    In every field of activity where organic material is being handled, emissions of dust, gases, odor as well as bioaerosols are bound to arise. For this reason, waste management facilities or else agricultural enterprises are potential emission sources of bioaerosols. The dispersion of bioaerosols from waste treatment facilities and their health impacts continue to be the subject of numerous discussions.

  17. Fusion of open source information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Noble

    2005-01-01

    Open source information on the Internet can contribute significantly to such assessments as competitive intelligence, business trends, or evolving social attitudes. Unfortunately, this information is mostly unstructured text, and varies widely in accuracy, focus, and level of impartiality. Estimates on factors important to planning and decision-making, such as likely responses of competitors to a corporation's market actions, can be inferred

  18. 1, 311333, 2004 Carbon sources

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    was evident from sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) and 13 CTOC data. PLFA 13 C data indicate) and bulk organic carbon. Export of mangrove-derived organic matter to the adjacent5 seagrass-covered bayBGD 1, 311­333, 2004 Carbon sources supporting benthic mineralization S. Bouillon et al. Title Page

  19. Six Regularities of Source Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Murray; Hilford, Andy; Kim, Kisok

    2004-01-01

    In recent work, researchers have shown that source-recognition memory can be incorporated in an extended signal detection model that covers both it and item-recognition memory (A. Hilford, M. Glanzer, K. Kim, & L. T. DeCarlo, 2002). In 5 experiments, using learning variables that have an established effect on item recognition, the authors tested…

  20. Integrating Autonomous Heterogeneous Information Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rex Jakobovits

    1997-01-01

    this paper, most attempts at implementing a multidatabase system have had their handsfull dealing with the heterogeneities of much simpler domains. This is crossoverresearch, combining complex data type management with integration issues [SSU96].This paper is a survey of the existing computer science research approaches to achievinginteroperability between autonomous heterogeneous data sources.B. Schematic Conflicts

  1. Source Code Exploration with Google

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denys Poshyvanyk; Maksym Petrenko; Andrian Marcus; Xinrong Xie; Dapeng Liu

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach to source code exploration, which is the result of integrating the Google Desktop Search (GDS) engine into the Eclipse development environment. The resulting search engine, named Google Eclipse Search (GES), provides improved searching in Eclipse software projects. The paper advocates for a component-based approach that allows us to develop strong tools, which support various

  2. Locating Features in Source Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Eisenbarth; Rainer Koschke; Daniel Simon

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the implementation of a certain feature of a system requires to identify the computational units of the system that contribute to this feature. In many cases, the mapping of features to the source code is poorly documented. In this paper, we present a semi-automatic technique that reconstructs the mapping for features that are triggered by the user and exhibit

  3. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: ASPHALT HOT MIX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the asphalt hot mix industry. A representative asphalt hot mix plant was defined, based on the results of an industrial survey, to assess the severity of emissions from this industry. Source severity was defined as the ratio of th...

  4. SOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The options for pollution abatement in WWF can be implemented at the source by land management and pollution prevention techniques, in the collection system, offline by storage, or in a treatment plant. An integrated system that combines prevention, control, and treatment has of...

  5. Transistorized Ion Source Power Supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank M. Propst; Harry Tomaschke; Dominic Skaperdas

    1963-01-01

    A d-c power supply is designed for regulating the trap current in an ; electron bombardment ion source. The power supply is based on an ion gage supply ; and incorporates a chopper amplifier for d-c isolation from the filament current ; supply. The operation and performance of the power supply are described. ; (D.L.C.);

  6. High power microwave source development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James N. Benford; Gabriel Miller; Seth Potter; Steve Ashby; Richard R. Smith

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of this project have been to: (1) improve and expand the sources available in the facility for testing purposes and (2) perform specific tasks under direction of the Defense Nuclear Agency about the applications of high power microwaves (HPM). In this project the HPM application was power beaming. The requirements of this program were met in the following

  7. Image Makers: Reporters or Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruzzello, Marion C.

    To explore how news sources are used by media to create a social image of women during key suffrage events of 1858, 1920, and 1970, the front page stories of the "New York Times" were reviewed for 1 week prior to and 1 week following each of these events: May 14, 1858, the Eighth National Women's Rights Convention in New York City; August 27,…

  8. THE OPEN SOURCING OF EPANET

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal was made at the 2009 EWRI Congress in Kansas City, MO to establish an Open Source Project (OSP) for the widely used EPANET pipe network analysis program. This would be an ongoing collaborative effort among a group of geographically dispersed advisors and developers, wo...

  9. Deep space travel energy sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Oman

    2003-01-01

    Exploration of the planets beyond Mars and their surroundings is already planned. Astronomy researchers are citing important information that can be obtained with instrumented spacecraft that fly beyond the planets of our solar system. Spacecraft flying these missions need power for performing their functions and communicating with Earth stations. Sunlight in these zones is so weak that alternative energy sources

  10. Renewable energy sources for desalination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eftihia Tzen; Richard Morris

    2003-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES) coupled to desalination offers a promising prospect for covering the fundamental needs of power and water in remote regions, where connection to the public electrical grid is either not cost effective or not feasible, and where the water scarcity is severe. Stand-alone systems for electricity supply in isolated locations are now proven technologies. Correct matching of

  11. SOURCES OF COPPER AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to update estimates of atmospheric emissions of copper and copper compounds in the U.S. Source categories evaluated included: metallic minerals, primary copper smelters, iron and steel making, combustion, municipal incineration, secondary coppe...

  12. Cotton source/sink relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolite source/sink relationships govern assimilate partitioning, developmental rates and fruit abscission in cotton. This subject is, therefore, of primary importance in the improvement of cotton plant types and in cotton culture. Historically, cotton has been among the most valuable of agrono...

  13. Guam and Micronesia Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.; Goniwiecha, Mark C.

    1993-01-01

    This article lists reference sources for studying Guam and Micronesia. The entries are arranged alphabetically by main entry within each section in the categories of: (1) bibliographical works; (2) travel and guide books; (3) handbooks and surveys; (4) dictionaries; (5) yearbooks; (6) periodical and newspaper publications; and (7) audiovisual…

  14. Voltage Controlled Current Source (VCCS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorf, Richard C.

    Hosted by Clarkson University, this websited contains an applet which demonstrates a circuit that contains a voltage controlled current source (VCCS). The gain of the VCCS can be changed using the scrollbar. This simple resource is a nice representation for a technical education classroom.

  15. Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorf, Richard C.

    Hosted by Clarkson University, this applet demonstrates a circuit that contains a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS). The gain may be modified using the scroll bar. Even though brief, this resource can be used in a variety of different technical education classrooms.

  16. History Sources on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Kenneth D.

    This paper provides descriptions of key online history resources useful to teachers, librarians, and other education professionals. Highlights include: primary sources on the Internet; archives; Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs); the American Historical Association (AHA) Web site; state and federal government resources; business history…

  17. Good Sources of Nutrients: Iron

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

    2008-08-28

    Iron is a mineral that functions primarily to carry oxygen in the body. This publication explains how people can get enough iron in their diets and how to prepare foods to retain iron. It also lists foods that are good sources of iron. (2 pp., 2...

  18. Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, D.

    2003-03-01

    The Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS) is a state of the art variable energy positron beam under construction at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL). Projected intensities on the order of the order of 10^7 e+/second using ^64Cu as the positron source are expected. Owing to is short half-life (t1/2 12.8 hrs), plans are to produce the ^64Cu isotope on-site using beam port 1 of NETL TRIGA Mark II reactor. Following tungsten moderation, the positrons will be electrostatically focused and accelerated from few 10's of eV up to 30 keV. This intensity and energy range should allow routine performance of several analytical techniques of interest to surface scientists (PALS, PADB and perhaps PAES and LEPD.) The TIPS project is being developed in parallel phases. Phase I of the project entails construction of the vacuum system, source chamber, main beam line, electrostatic/magnetic focusing and transport system as well as moderator design. Initial construction, testing and characterization of moderator and beam transport elements are underway and will use a commercially available 10 mCi ^22Na radioisotope as a source of positrons. Phase II of the project is concerned primarily with the Cu source geometry and thermal properties as well as production and physical handling of the radioisotope. Additional instrument optimizing based upon experience gained during Phase I will be incorporated in the final design. Current progress of both phases will be presented along with motivations and future directions.

  19. The Advanced Neutron Source liquid deuterium cold source

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will employ two cold sources to moderate neutrons to low energy (<10 meV). The cold neutrons produced are then passed through beam guides to various experiment stations. Each cold source moderator is a sphere of 410-mm internal diameter. The moderator material is liquid deuterium flowing at a rate of 1 kg/s and maintained at subcooled temperatures at all points of the circuit, to prevent boiling. Nuclear beat deposited within the liquid deuterium and its containment structure totals more than 30 kW. All of this heat is removed by the liquid deuterium, which raises its temperature by 5 K. The liquid prime mover is a cryogenic circulator that is situated in the return leg of the flow loop. This arrangement minimizes the heat added to the liquid between the heat exchanger and the moderator vessel, allowing the moderator to be operated at the minimum practical temperature. This report describes the latest thinking at the time of project termination. It also includes the status of various systems at that time and outlines anticipated directions in which the design would have progressed. In this regard, some detail differences between this report and official design documents reflect ideas that were not approved at the time of closure but are considered noteworthy.

  20. A fluid source for the Kerr metric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Haggag

    1990-01-01

    Summary  A fluid source for the Kerr metric is constructed. At the static limit, the metric tensor for the source reduces to a form\\u000a equivalent to the Schwarzschild interior solution. Matter constituting the source is shown to satisfy the strong-energy condition,\\u000a and hence the source is physically reasonable.

  1. Economics of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canavan

    1991-01-01

    Nonrenewable sources are subject to intertemporal optimization. Electrical and renewable sources, which are exogenous, can be integrated and treated on nonrenewable sources. For typical conditions, the model predicts that prices will increase and flows will fall more abruptly than is generally expected. These trends are exacerbated by limits on renewable sources. Predicted price trajectories should permit the introduction of alternative

  2. BLIND SOURCE SEPARATION USING REPETITIVE STRUCTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mitchell Parry; Irfan Essa

    2005-01-01

    Blind source separation algorithms typically involve decorrelat- ing time-aligned mixture signals. The usual assumption is that all sources are active at all times. However, if this is not the case, we show that the unique pattern of source activity\\/inactivity helps sep- aration. Music is the most obvious example of sources exhibiting repetitive structure because it is carefully constructed. We present

  3. Blind source separation with perceptual post processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devangi N. Parikh; David V. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    In an environment with multiple audio sources, blind source separation (BSS) makes use of multiple microphone signals to estimate the respective source signals. Under normal circumstances, it is not possible to completely “unmix” the audio sources. One technique to further improve the system performance is to use all BSS outputs to generate a Wiener filter that is then applied to

  4. Performance measurement in blind audio source separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Vincent; Rémi Gribonval; Cédric Févotte

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the evaluation of blind audio source separation (BASS) algorithms. Depending on the exact application, different distortions can be allowed between an estimated source and the wanted true source. We consider four dif- ferent sets of such allowed distortions, from time-invariant gains to time-varying filters. In each case, we decompose the estimated source into a true

  5. S and Ku band frequency source development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of the two part S- and Ku-band source development program are described. The S- and Ku-band sources were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. A high performance S- and Ku-band microwave signal source using state-of-the-art oscillator and microwave source technology was developed.

  6. Diagnostic of CHORDIS ion source plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Rück; J. Jacoby; H. Emig

    1992-01-01

    Each ion source consists of two principle parts: the plasma source and the extraction system. The characterization of the plasma source of a high current bucket ion source has been investigated. An optical plasma diagnostic method was used. In the following paper a description of the experimental method and the data analysis is given. The results and the limitation of

  7. Syndrome source coding and its universal generalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancheta, T. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method of using error-correcting codes to obtain data compression, called syndrome-source-coding, is described in which the source sequence is treated as an error pattern whose syndrome forms the compressed data. It is shown that syndrome-source-coding can achieve arbitrarily small distortion with the number of compressed digits per source digit arbitrarily close to the entropy of a binary memoryless source. A universal generalization of syndrome-source-coding is formulated which provides robustly-effective, distortionless, coding of source ensembles.

  8. Indiana University: Chemical Information Sources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fantastic Indiana University website helps individuals "find and learn how to use chemical information resources on the Internet and elsewhere." Users can find two types of resource guides. The first, SIRCh (Selected Internet Resources for Chemistry) offers numerous links to educational websites where users can find answers to many of their chemistry questions. The second, CCIIM (Clearinghouse for Chemical Information Instructional Materials), is a collection of items created by chemistry and science librarians, chemists, and publishers to help visitors learn how to use chemical information sources. Users can find links to four databases providing information on publications, references, acronyms, and crystallography. The website offers archives of the University's Chemical Information Sources Discussion List and materials on chemical information classes taught at Indiana University.

  9. Uranus as a radio source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Zarka, P.; Lecacheux, A.; Leblanc, Y.; Aubier, M.; Ortega-Molina, A.

    1991-01-01

    The complex nature of the Uranus radio emissions, both magnetospheric and atmospheric, is reviewed, with emphasis on the identification of distinct components and the determination of their source locations. Seven radii components were discovered in addition to the RF signature of lightning in the planet's atmosphere. Six of the seven magnetospheric components are freely propagating emissions; one component, the nonthermal continuum, is trapped in the density cavity between the magnetopause and the dense inner magnetosphere. The radio components are divided into two types according to their emission signature: bursty emission and smooth emission. The inferred source location for the dominant nightside emission is above the nightside magnetic pole, largely overlapping the UV auroral region and the magnetic polar cap. The N-burst component appears to be associated with solar-wind enhancements at Uranus, consistent with the idea that the solar wind was triggering magnetospheric substormlike activity during the encounter.

  10. Rapidly pulsed helium droplet source

    SciTech Connect

    Pentlehner, Dominik; Riechers, Ricarda; Dick, Bernhard; Slenczka, Alkwin [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Even, Uzi; Lavie, Nachum; Brown, Raviv; Luria, Kfir [Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2009-04-15

    A pulsed valve connected to a closed-cycle cryostat was optimized for producing helium droplets. The pulsed droplet beam appeared with a bimodal size distribution. The leading part of the pulse consists of droplets suitable for doping with molecules. The average size of this part can be varied between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} helium atoms, and the width of the distribution is smaller as compared to a continuous-flow droplet source. The system has been tested in a single pulse mode and at repetition rates of up to 500 Hz with almost constant intensity. The droplet density was found to be increased by more than an order of magnitude as compared to a continuous-flow droplet source.

  11. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the fraction that arrives at another continent [2]. At the deposition end of the chain, it is still unclear how the limited minerals in the dust such as iron are released for uptake by organisms either on land or in the ocean. Not all dust deposited into oceans results in a phytoplankton bloom. The process requires a chemical pathway that mobilizes a fraction of the iron into soluble form. Meskhidze et al [3] show that phytoplankton blooms following dust transport from the Gobi desert in Asia into the Pacific ocean result in a phytoplankton bloom only if the dust is accompanied by high initial SO2-to-dust ratios, suggesting that sulfuric acid coatings on the dust particle mobilize the embedded iron in the dust for phytoplankton uptake. Quantifying transport, deposition and nutrient availability are the latter ends of a puzzle that must begin by identifying and quantifying dust emission at the sources. The emission process is complex at the microscale requiring the right conditions for saltation and bombardment, which makes identification and inclusion of sources in global transport models very difficult. The result is that estimates of annual global dust emissions range from 1000 to 3000 Tg per year [4]. Even as global estimates of dust emissions are uncertain, localizing the sources brings even greater uncertainty. It has been recognized for several years that dust sources are not uniformly distributed over the arid regions of the Earth, but are regulated to topographic lows associated with dried lake deposits [5]. Using aerosol information from satellites, a comprehensive map of the world's source regions shows sources localized to specific areas of the Earth's arid regions [6]. Still these maps suggest broad emission sources covering several degrees of latitude and longitude. In the paper by Koren and co-authors [7] appearing in this issue, one particular dust source, the Bodélé depression in Chad, is analyzed in detail. They find that the specific topography of the depression combined with the prevailing wind direction in the winter provides perfect condition

  12. Separation of Convolutive Mixtures with Hybrid Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Servière

    2009-01-01

    We propose in this paper a unique method to separate sources that may have different statistical properties, in the case of\\u000a FIR convolutive mixtures. No constraint is necessary on the source statistics (i.i.d variables, Gaussian sources or temporally\\u000a correlated sources..), nor on the number of each type of sources. On the contrary of previous works, no assumption of overdetermined\\u000a mixtures

  13. Ganymede: A New Radio Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Roux, A.; Bolton, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    Observations by the Galileo plasma wave receiver during the first two flybys of Ganymede revealed that this Jovian moon is the source of narrowband electromagnetic radio waves, making it the only satellite in the solar system known to generate non-thermal radio emissions. The emissions are the result of mode-coupling from electrostatic electron cyclotron emissions mu the upper hybrid resonance frequency, similar to non-thermal continuum radiation found at the known magnetized planets.

  14. Sources Variability With Planck LFI

    E-print Network

    L. Terenzi; M. Bersanelli; C. Burigana; R. C. Butler; G. De Zotti; N. Mandolesi; A. Mennella; G. Morgante; M. Sandri; L. Valenziano; F. Villa

    2002-03-22

    Planck LFI (Low Frequency Instrument) will produce a complete survey of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. Data stream analysis will provide the possibility to reveal unexpected millimeter sources and to study their flux evolution in time at different frequencies. We describe here the main implications and discuss data analysis methods. Planck sensitivities typical for this kind of detection are taken into account. We present also preliminary results of our simulation activity.

  15. AUDIO SOURCE SEPARATION USING SPARSITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A?ssa-el-bey; K. Abed-meraim; Y. Grenier

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we are interested in blind source separation from instantaneous mixtures of audio signals. Using the sparsity property of audio signals, we propose an iterative method that relies on a relative gradient technique which minimizes,a contrast function based on the ‘p norm. This norm,is considered as a good sparsity measure. The simulations show that the proposed method,outperforms,other

  16. High power millimetric wavelength sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itzhak Shraga

    1989-01-01

    The aim was to develop powerful, millimetric-wavelength microwave sources, based on a free electron laser in which a dense relativistic electron beam interacts with a longitudinal magnetostatic wiggler. The theoretical background is presented for magnetically guided electron orbits, cyclotron resonance instability, and the Lowbitron-longitudinal wiggler. The electron beam was produced by a PI105 accelerator, which can accelerate 10-kA beams to

  17. An open-source SIFTLibrary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Hess

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosion in the use of invariant keypoint methods across nearly every area of computer vision research. Since its introduction, the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) has been one of the most effective and widely-used of these methods and has served as a major catalyst in their popularization. In this paper, I present an open-source SIFT library,

  18. Theory of extragalactic radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Begelman, M.C.; Blandford, R.D.; Rees, M.J.

    1984-04-01

    Powerful extragalactic radio sources comprise two extended regions containing magnetic field and synchrotron-emitting relativistic electrons, each linked by a jet to a central compact radio source located in the nucleus of the associated galaxy. These jets are collimated streams of plasma that emerge from the nucleus in opposite directions, along which flow mass, momentum, energy, and magnetic flux. Methods of using the observations diagnostically to infer the pressures, densities, and fluid velocities within jets are explained. The jets terminate in the extended radio components, where they interact strongly with the surrounding medium through a combination of shock waves and instabilities. Jets may expand freely, be confined by external gas pressure, or be pinched by toroidal magnetic fields. Shear flows are known to be Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable and thus may be responsible for some of the observed oscillation of jets about their mean directions and for creating the turbulence and shock waves needed to accelerate the relativistic electrons. Larger-scale bending may be caused by changes in the jet axis within the nucleus, gravitational interaction of the radio galaxy with a companion galaxy, or rapid motion of the source through dense intergalactic gas. The compact radio sources also exhibit a jet morphology and contain more direct clues as to the origins of jets; in particular, the variations sometimes observed imply bulk flows that are relativistic. It is widely believed that nuclear activity is ultimately ascribable to gas accreting onto a massive black hole. The accretion can proceed in several different fashions, depending upon whether or not the gas has angular momentum and whether or not the radiation emitted is sufficiently intense to influence the dynamics of the flow. Several distinct mechanisms for jet production in the context of black holes have been proposed.

  19. Spallation source materials test program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Maloy; W. F. Sommer

    1997-01-01

    A spallation source materials program has been developed to irradiate and test candidate materials (Inconel 718, 316L and 304L stainless steel, modified 9Cr-1Mo(T91), Al6061-T6, Al5052-O) for use in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) target and blanket in prototypic proton and neutron fluxes at prototypic temperatures. The study uses the 800 MeV, 1mA proton accelerator at the Los Alamos Neutron

  20. Regional nonpoint source program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.; Partee, G.; Fleming, F.

    1992-11-01

    The Regional Nonpoint Source Program Summary outlines the major components of the strategies for controlling nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in EPA Region 10. The document was developed from the Clean Water Act Section 319 Nonpoint Source Assessments, NPS Management Programs and related documents for Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington and for the Colville Confederated Tribes. The water resources and associated land uses vary widely both within and between the four states in EPA Region 10. The primary purpose of the NPS Assessments and Management Programs is to provide the states and tribes with a new blueprint for implementing integrated programs to address priority NPS water quality problems. The focus is needed in order to identify innovative funding opportunities and to effectively direct limited resources toward the highest priority issues and waterbodies. A secondary purpose of the Assessments and Management Programs involves the fulfillment of Clean Water Act requirements in order for states and tribes to compete for Section 319 grants for implementing NPS controls. The Regional NPS Program Summary provides a synthesis of these documents in order to improve understanding of the programs and to assist in their implementation.

  1. Dislocation sources in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Appel, F.; Wagner, R. [GKSS-Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. for Materials Research; Mecking, H. [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    An overview on the current understanding of dislocation sources and multiplication mechanisms is made for ordered intermetallic alloys of the L1{sub 2}, B2, and D0{sub 19} structures. In L1{sub 2} alloys, a large disparity of edge/screw segments in their relative mobility reduces the efficiency of a Frank-Read Type multiplication mechanism. In Fe-40%Al of the B2 structure, a variety of dislocation sources are available for <111> slip, including ones resulting from condensation of thermal vacancies. In NiAl with the relatively high APB energy, <100> dislocations may result from the dislocation decomposition reactions, the prismatic punching out from inclusion particles, and/or steps and coated layers of the surface. Internal interfaces often provide sites for dislocation multiplication, e.g., grain boundaries, sub-boundaries in Ni{sub 3}Ga, NiAl and Ti{sub 3}Al, and antiphase domain boundaries in Ti{sub 3}Al. As for the crack tip as a dislocation source, extended SISFs trailed by super-Shockley partials emanating form the cracks in Ni{sub 3}Al and Co{sub 3}Ti are discussed in view of a possible toughening mechanism.

  2. Canonical source reconstruction for MEG.

    PubMed

    Mattout, Jérémie; Henson, Richard N; Friston, Karl J

    2007-01-01

    We describe a simple and efficient solution to the problem of reconstructing electromagnetic sources into a canonical or standard anatomical space. Its simplicity rests upon incorporating subject-specific anatomy into the forward model in a way that eschews the need for cortical surface extraction. The forward model starts with a canonical cortical mesh, defined in a standard stereotactic space. The mesh is warped, in a nonlinear fashion, to match the subject's anatomy. This warping is the inverse of the transformation derived from spatial normalization of the subject's structural MRI image, using fully automated procedures that have been established for other imaging modalities. Electromagnetic lead fields are computed using the warped mesh, in conjunction with a spherical head model (which does not rely on individual anatomy). The ensuing forward model is inverted using an empirical Bayesian scheme that we have described previously in several publications. Critically, because anatomical information enters the forward model, there is no need to spatially normalize the reconstructed source activity. In other words, each source, comprising the mesh, has a predetermined and unique anatomical attribution within standard stereotactic space. This enables the pooling of data from multiple subjects and the reporting of results in stereotactic coordinates. Furthermore, it allows the graceful fusion of fMRI and MEG data within the same anatomical framework. PMID:18350131

  3. 10 CFR 35.2067 - Records of leaks tests and inventory of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and inventory of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources. 35.2067 Section 35...and inventory of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources. (a) A licensee...physical inventory of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources required by §...

  4. Ultrafast X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2010-04-19

    Since before the scattering of X-rays off of DNA led to the first understanding of the double helix structure, sources of X-rays have been an essential tool for scientists examining the structure and interactions of matter. The resolution of a microscope is proportional to the wavelength of light so x-rays can see much finer structures than visible light, down to single atoms. In addition, the energy of X-rays is resonant with the core atomic levels of atoms so with appropriate wavelengths the placement of specific atoms in a large molecule can be determined. Over 10,000 scientists use synchrotron sources, storage rings of high energy electrons, each year worldwide. As an example of such use, virtually every picture of a protein or drug molecule that one sees in the scientific press is a reconstruction based on X-ray scattering of synchrotron light from the crystallized form of that molecule. Unfortunately those pictures are static and proteins work through configuration (shape) changes in response to energy transfer. To understand how biological systems work requires following the energy flow to these molecules and tracking how shape changes drive their interaction with other molecules. We'd like to be able to freeze the action of these molecules at various steps along the way with an X-ray strobe light. How fast does it have to be? To actually get a picture of a molecule in a fixed configuration requires X-ray pulses as short as 30 femtoseconds (1/30 of a millionth of a millionth of a second). To capture the energy flow through changes in electronic levels requires a faster strobe, less than 1 femtosecond! And to acquire such information in smaller samples with higher accuracy demands brighter and brighter X-rays. Unfortunately modern synchrotrons (dubbed 3rd Generation Light Sources) cannot deliver such short bright pulses of X-rays. An entirely new approach is required, linear-accelerator (linac-)-based light sources termed 4th or Next Generation Light Sources (NGLSs). Although NGLSs will not displace synchrotrons from their role they do offer exciting new capabilities which can be understood from the physics of the light production in each device.

  5. Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA)

    2012-06-05

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

  6. Reactivity studies on the advanced neutron source. [Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Redmond, E.L. II; Fletcher, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    An Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) with a peak thermal neutron flux of about 8.5 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} is being designed for condensed matter physics, materials science, isotope production, and fundamental physics research. The ANS is a new reactor-based research facility being planned by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet the need for an intense steady-state source of neutrons. The design effort is currently in the conceptual phase. A reference reactor design has been selected in order to examine the safety, performance, and costs associated with this one design. The ANS Project has an established, documented safety philosophy, and safety-related design criteria are currently being established. The purpose of this paper is to present analyses of safety aspects of the reference reactor design that are related to core reactivity events. These analyses include control rod worth, shutdown rod worth, heavy water voiding, neutron beam tube flooding, light water ingress, and single fuel element criticality. Understanding these safety aspects will allow us to make design modifications that improve the reactor safety and achieve the safety related design criteria. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. The HYPE Open Source Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömbäck, L.; Pers, C.; Isberg, K.; Nyström, K.; Arheimer, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model is a dynamic, semi-distributed, process-based, integrated catchment model. It uses well-known hydrological and nutrient transport concepts and can be applied for both small and large scale assessments of water resources and status. In the model, the landscape is divided into classes according to soil type, vegetation and altitude. The soil representation is stratified and can be divided in up to three layers. Water and substances are routed through the same flow paths and storages (snow, soil, groundwater, streams, rivers, lakes) considering turn-over and transformation on the way towards the sea. HYPE has been successfully used in many hydrological applications at SMHI. For Europe, we currently have three different models; The S-HYPE model for Sweden; The BALT-HYPE model for the Baltic Sea; and the E-HYPE model for the whole Europe. These models simulate hydrological conditions and nutrients for their respective areas and are used for characterization, forecasts, and scenario analyses. Model data can be downloaded from hypeweb.smhi.se. In addition, we provide models for the Arctic region, the Arab (Middle East and Northern Africa) region, India, the Niger River basin, the La Plata Basin. This demonstrates the applicability of the HYPE model for large scale modeling in different regions of the world. An important goal with our work is to make our data and tools available as open data and services. For this aim we created the HYPE Open Source Community (OSC) that makes the source code of HYPE available for anyone interested in further development of HYPE. The HYPE OSC (hype.sourceforge.net) is an open source initiative under the Lesser GNU Public License taken by SMHI to strengthen international collaboration in hydrological modeling and hydrological data production. The hypothesis is that more brains and more testing will result in better models and better code. The code is transparent and can be changed and learnt from. New versions of the main code are delivered frequently. HYPE OSC is open to everyone interested in hydrology, hydrological modeling and code development - e.g. scientists, authorities, and consultancies. By joining the HYPE OSC you get access a state-of-the-art operational hydrological model. The HYPE source code is designed to efficiently handle large scale modeling for forecast, hindcast and climate applications. The code is under constant development to improve the hydrological processes, efficiency and readability. In the beginning of 2013 we released a version with new and better modularization based on hydrological processes. This will make the code easier to understand and further develop for a new user. An important challenge in this process is to produce code that is easy for anyone to understand and work with, but still maintain the properties that make the code efficient enough for large scale applications. Input from the HYPE Open Source Community is an important source for future improvements of the HYPE model. Therefore, by joining the community you become an active part of the development, get access to the latest features and can influence future versions of the model.

  8. Populations of extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, J. V.

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, radio sky surveys were the center of an intense and public debate -- Big-Bang versus Steady-State cosmology -- the arguments revolving about source counts and statistical interpretations in the face of instrumental complications. The 1965 discovery of the microwave background took the fire from the debate, but left the momentum in place for large-area radio surveys at different frequencies, and for extensive identification/redshift-measurement programs. By the 1970s the data enabled us to start disentangling the different populations of extragalactic radio sources. We could refine our taxonomy, and we could view the possibility of delineating individual cosmic histories and evolutions. We could at least describe a goal to elucidate the birth-life-death cycles of the objects involved 1quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and radio galaxies: together the 'active galactic nuclei' (AGNs)1 whose unaccountably prodigious energies somehow produce the beautifully aligned radio structures with which we are now familiar. One part of John Bolton's vision was to see how distorted a view of the AGN universe the original long-wavelength surveys provided. One legacy is thus the 'short-wavelength survey' for extragalactic radio sources, which has done so much to balance our picture of the radio sky. And indeed the legacy continues in the form of the immense sky surveys at present under way, complete with their sub-industries of radio-positioning and identification. From these, yet further results are emerging on spatial distribution and the skeleton structure of the universe. It is the purpose of this paper to outline something of this current view of the populations, their differences, similarities and unifying concepts.

  9. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Santandrea, Robert P. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR)

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

  10. Modeling the LANL Ultracold neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takeyasu; LANL Ultracold Neutron Source Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The ultracold neutron (UCN) source at LANL uses a solid deuterium UCN converter and is driven by pulsed spallation neutrons. This UCN source has been and is being used for various science experiments. An effort to further upgrade the UCN source is currently underway. An extensive source modeling has been performed. In this talk, the method and results of the modeling of the current and the upgraded sources, the insight gained by the modeling work, and the expected performance of the upgraded source will be presented.

  11. CHINA SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE DESIGN.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.

    2007-01-29

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is an accelerator-based high-power project currently in preparation under the direction of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The complex is based on an H- linear accelerator, a rapid cycling proton synchrotron accelerating the beam to 1.6 GeV, a solid tungsten target station, and five initial instruments for spallation neutron applications. The facility will operate at 25 Hz repetition rate with a phase-I beam power of about 120 kW. The major challenge is to build a robust and reliable user's facility with upgrade potential at a fractional of ''world standard'' cost.

  12. Sources for Generalized Gauge Fields

    E-print Network

    Claudio Bunster; Marc Henneaux

    2013-09-26

    Generalized gauge fields are tensor fields with mixed symmetries. For gravity and higher spins in dimensions greater than four, the fundamental field in the "magnetic representation" is a generalized gauge field. It is shown that the analog of a point source for a generalized gauge field is a special type of brane whose worldsheet has another brane interwoven into it: a current within a current. In the case of gravity in higher dimensions, this combined extended object is the generalization of a magnetic pole. The Dirac quantization condition for the "electric" and "magnetic" strengths holds.

  13. Severe accident source term reassessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hazzan, M.J.; Gardner, R.; Warman, E.A.; Jacobs, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the reassessment of severe reactor accident source terms, which are defined as the quantity, type, and timing of fission product releases from such accidents. Concentration is on the major results and conclusions of analyses with modern methods for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), and the special case of containment bypass. Some distinctions are drawn between analyses for PWRs and BWRs. In general, the more the matter is examined, the consequences, or probability of serious consequences, seem to be less.

  14. Gamma source for active interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Barletta, William A.

    2012-10-02

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  15. Gamma source for active interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lou, Tak Pui (Berkeley, CA); Barletta, William A. (Oakland, CA)

    2009-09-29

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  16. Space Shuttle Payload Information Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Payload Information Source Compact Disk (CD) is a joint NASA and USA project to introduce Space Shuttle capabilities, payload services and accommodations, and the payload integration process. The CD will be given to new payload customers or to organizations outside of NASA considering using the Space Shuttle as a launch vehicle. The information is high-level in a visually attractive format with a voice over. The format is in a presentation style plus 360 degree views, videos, and animation. Hyperlinks are provided to connect to the Internet for updates and more detailed information on how payloads are integrated into the Space Shuttle.

  17. Sources for generalized gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Generalized gauge fields are tensor fields with mixed symmetries. For gravity and higher spins in dimensions greater than four, the fundamental field in the “magnetic representation” is a generalized gauge field. It is shown that the analog of a point source for a generalized gauge field is a special type of brane whose world sheet has another brane interwoven into it: a current within a current. In the case of gravity in higher dimensions, this combined extended object is the generalization of a magnetic pole. The product of the “electric” and “magnetic” strengths is quantized.

  18. The RHIC polarized source upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.

    2010-09-27

    The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

  19. Dying Radio Sources in Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Murgia; P. Parma; K.-H. Mack; H. R. de Ruiter; R. Fanti; F. Govoni; A. Tarchi; S. Giacintucci; M. Markevitch

    2010-01-01

    We present the study of five `dying' nearby radio galaxies belonging to the\\u000aWENSS minisurvey and to the B2 bright catalogs: WNB1734+6407, WNB1829+6911,\\u000aWNB1851+5707, B2 0120+33, and B2 1610+29. These sources have been selected on\\u000athe basis of their extremely steep broad-band radio spectra. The modeling of\\u000athe integrated spectra and the deep spectral index images obtained with the VLA

  20. SOURCE OF MICROBUNCHING AT BNL NSLS SOURCE DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Hidaka, Y.; Murphy, J.B.; Podobedov, B.; Qian, H.; Shen, Y.; Wang, J.; Yang, X.

    2011-03-28

    We report experimental studies of the origins of electron beam microbunching instability at BNL Source Development Laboratory (SDL). We eliminated laser-induced microbunching by utilizing an ultra-short photocathode laser. The measurements of the resulting electron beam led us to conclude that, at SDL, microbunching arising from shot noise is not amplified to any significant level. Our results demonstrated that the only source of microbunching instability at SDL is the longitudinal modulation of the photocathode laser pulse. Our work shows that assuring a longitudinally smoothed photocathode laser pulse allows mitigating microbunching instability at a typical FEL injector with a moderate microbunching gain. In this paper we investigated the source of microbunching instability at the SDL. To distinguish microbunching induced by shot noise from that arising from the longitudinal modulation of the photocathode laser, we studied the beam created by a very short laser pulse, thus eliminating the possibility of laser-induced microbunching. While the measured energy spectra of compressed beam did reveal severe longitudinal fragmentation, an analysis of the beam dynamics proved this to be due to self-fields acting on a beam with an initially smooth longitudinal profile, and not due to microbunching instability. Such fragmentation only was possible with the very short bunch chosen for these studies, and is absent in routine SDL operations. Our experiment shows that in the absence of the initial laser-induced beam modulation, microbunching instability at the SDL is not observed, and must be well below the levels that would limit the FEL performance. This result agrees with assumption of previous SDL studies that (when present under different machine conditions) microbunching instability at the SDL was laser-induced. Microbunching instability gain at the SDL is moderate. This is mainly because the SDL utilizes a single stage bunch compressor as well as due to the small compression ratio. Since the design of the SDL injector is typical of the majority of FEL injectors, our experiment proves that one possible way to control microbunching instability in such machines (that by design have a moderate microbunching gain) is to maintain a sufficiently smooth longitudinal profile of the photo-cathode laser. We note that the general principles for designing a machine with a moderate microbunching instability gain are presented in [12]. In conclusion, our experiment demonstrates that microbunching instability can be eliminated from a typical FEL injector with single stage bunch compressor (and operating without a laser heater) as long as the photocathode laser is longitudinally smooth. For machines with multi-stage bunch compressors, our results offer an important benchmark to establish a minimal laser heater power for instability-free operation.

  1. SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement Tempe AZ USA 85287 rajub@asu.edu, rao@asu.edu ABSTRACT One immediate challenge in searching the deep web-similarity-based relevance assess- ment. When applied to the deep web these methods have two deficiencies. First

  2. SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    SourceRank: Relevance and Trust Assessment for Deep Web Sources Based on Inter-Source Agreement. Existing methods have two deficiencies for applying to the open col- lections like the deep web. First query in the deep web, the agreements between theses an- swer sets are likely to be helpful in assessing

  3. SourceRank: relevance and trust assessment for deep web sources based on inter-source agreement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raju Balakrishnan; Subbarao Kambhampati

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of deep web source selection and argue that existing source selection methods are inadequate as they are based on local similarity assessment. Specically, they fail to account for the fact that sources can vary in trustworthiness and individual results can vary in importance. In response, we formulate a global measure to calculate relevance and trustworthiness of

  4. Many tasks in software engineering can be characterized as source to source transformations. Design recovery, software

    E-print Network

    Cordy, James R.

    transformations. Design recovery, software restructuring, forward engineering, language translation, platform designed to support rule- based source to source transformation. Originally conceived as a tool transformation. 1. Background Many tasks in software engineering and maintenance can be characterized as source

  5. Gravitational Wave Sources: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, Bernard F.

    2003-10-01

    With full-sensitivity operation of the first generation of gravitational wave detectors now just around the corner, and with the LISA space-based detector entering its final design stage, I review the wide variety of predicted sources from the perspective of what further theoretical work may be needed to assist in their detection. Some sources, such as binary black holes, require good theoretical models from which search templates for matched filtering of the data streams can be computed. Others, such as searches for un-modelled bursts, require clever robust search algorithms not tied to detailed waveform models. Still others, such as searches for continuous waves from pulsars, are compute-bound and need improved efficient computer algorithms. The sensitivity of initial ground-based detectors will depend in part on how good we are at searching the data. In the longer term, the amount of information we can extract from the LISA data stream will depend in part on how good we are at removing strong signals so that we can recover the weaker ones as well.

  6. Pulsating aurora: Source region & morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaynes, Allison

    Pulsating aurora, a common phenomenon in the polar night sky, offers a unique opportunity to study the precipitating particle populations responsible for this subtle yet fascinating display of lights. The conjecture that the source of these electrons originates near the equator, made decades ago, has now been confirmed using in-situ measurements. In this thesis, we present these results that compare the frequencies of equatorial electron flux pulsations and pulsating aurora luminosity fluctuations at the ionospheric footprint. We use simultaneous satellite-based data from GOES 13 and ground-based data from the THEMIS allsky imager array to show that there is a direct correlation between luminosity fluctuations near the ground and particle pulsations in equatorial space; the source region of the pulsating aurora. Pulsating aurora almost exclusively occurs embedded within a region of diffuse aurora. By studying the two particle populations, one can contribute to the theory behind auroral pulsations. The interplay between the two auroral types, and the systems that control them, are not yet well known. We analyze ground optical observations of pulsating aurora events to attempt to characterize the relationship between the two types of auroral precipitation. Pulsating aurora is a significant component of energy transfer within the framework of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Further study of the morphology, total energy deposition, and the pulsation mechanism of pulsating aurora is key to a better understanding of our earth-sun system.

  7. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  8. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  9. Independent EEG sources are dipolar.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Arnaud; Palmer, Jason; Onton, Julie; Oostenveld, Robert; Makeig, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) and blind source separation (BSS) methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG) and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI) in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR) effected by each decomposition, and decomposition 'dipolarity' defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA); best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison). PMID:22355308

  10. Survey of ion plating sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    Ion plating is a plasma deposition technique where ions of the gas and the evaporant have a decisive role in the formation of a coating in terms of adherence, coherence, and morphological growth. The range of materials that can be ion plated is predominantly determined by the selection of the evaporation source. Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following will be discussed: resistance, electron beam sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded substrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

  11. Independent EEG Sources Are Dipolar

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Arnaud; Palmer, Jason; Onton, Julie; Oostenveld, Robert; Makeig, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) and blind source separation (BSS) methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG) and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI) in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR) effected by each decomposition, and decomposition ‘dipolarity’ defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA); best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison). PMID:22355308

  12. Spallation Neutron Source Materials Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, W. F.

    1998-04-01

    Operation of accelerator facilities such as Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), ISIS at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the Swiss Institute Neutron Source (SINQ) at Paul Scherrer Institute, and others has provided valuable information on materials performance in high energy particle beams and high energy neutron environments. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project is sponsoring an extensive series of tests on the effect of spallation neutron source environments to physical and mechanical properties of candidate materials such as nickel-based alloys, stainless steel alloys, aluminum alloys and solid target materials such as tungsten. Measurements of corrosion rates of these candidate materials during irradiation and while in contact with flowing coolant water are being made. The APT tests use the irradiation facility in the beam stop area of the LANSCE accelerator using 800 MeV protons as well as the neutron flux-spectrum generated as these protons interact with targets. The initial irradiations were completed in summer 1997, exposing materials to a fluence approaching 4-6 x 10^21 protons/cm^2. Sample retrieval is now underway. Mechanical properties measurements are being conducted at several laboratories. Studies on components used in service have also been initiated.

  13. Spallation source materials test program

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, S.A.; Sommer, W.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1997-12-01

    A spallation source materials program has been developed to irradiate and test candidate materials (Inconel 718, 316L and 304L stainless steel, modified 9Cr-1Mo(T91), Al6061-T6, Al5052-O) for use in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) target and blanket in prototypic proton and neutron fluxes at prototypic temperatures. The study uses the 800 MeV, 1mA proton accelerator at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) which produces a Gaussian beam with 2 sigma = 3 cm. The experimental set-up contains prototypic modules of the tungsten neutron source and the lead/aluminum blanket with mechanical testing specimens of candidate APT materials placed in specific locations in the irradiation area. These specimens have been irradiated for greater than 3,600 hours with a maximum proton fluence of 4--5 {times} 10{sup 21} p/cm{sup 2} in the center of the proton beam. Specimens will yield some of the first data on the effect of proton irradiation to high dose on the materials` properties from tensile tests, 3 pt. bend tests, fracture toughness tests, pressurized tubes, U-bend stress corrosion cracking specimens, corrosion measurements and microstructural characterization of transmission electron microscopy specimens.

  14. Sweetening agents from natural sources.

    PubMed

    Morris, J A

    1976-01-01

    Sweetness is an important taste sensation to humans. The absence of suitable sweeteners as alternatives to cyclamates and saccharin has led to a renewed interest in sweeteners form natural sources. A brief review of the history of sweetener usage provides a basis for understanding our present heavy consumption of sweet substances. The structure of naturally-occurring compounds possessing a sweet taste range from simple sugars to complex, intensely sweet proteins. The structural types include monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroid saponins, dipeptides, and proteins. Some of these substances are not, strictly-speaking, natural but are derived from natural sources by relatively minor chemical modification. The properties of two non-sweet substances, miraculin and gymnemic acid, are included because of their close relationship to the subject of sweeteners. Miraculin causes sour substances to taste sweet and gymnemic acid selectively blocks sweet taste perception. The second part of the paper presents some of the work on monellin, the intensely sweet protein from "serendipity berries" (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii). The physico-chemical studies of monellin provide convincing evidence that it is, indeed, a protein. Structural studies using denaturants and specific chemical modifications have provided a beginning of our understanding of the molecular basis of the sweet taste of monellin. PMID:5643

  15. Eccentric source collimator assembly for rotating source ct scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Braden, A.B.; Covic, J.; Kuwik, J.J.; Richey, J.B.; Taylor, S.K.

    1981-12-08

    Disclosed is a collimator for a tomographic scanner which performs the collimator function of dividing a fan of radiation into a multiplicity of finger beams and the attenuator function of causing a generally bell-shaped radiation energy distribution across a scan circle. The collimator has larger effective apertures for forming radiation into finger beams to traverse the center of the scan circle than for forming finger beams to traverse the edges of the scan circle. The width of the collimator apertures are defined by radially oriented vanes arranged along a circular arc. By offsetting the radiation source from the geometric center of the circular arc, the vanes defining the width of some apertures are more skewed than others relative to the radiation paths.

  16. 40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment...PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source surveillance. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.479 Section 52.479 Protection of Environment...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.479 Source surveillance. (a) [Reserved] (b) The requirements...

  18. New developments with H-sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Joseph D.; Rouleau, G. (Gary)

    2002-01-01

    Existing spallation neutron source upgrades, planned spallation neutron sources, and high-energy accelerators for particle physics place demanding requirements on the Hsources. These requirements ask for increased beam currents and duty factor (df) while generally maintaining state-of-the art H' source emittance. A variety of H sources are being developed to address these challenges. These include volume sources with and without the addition of cesium for enhanced He production, increased df cesiated H' Penning and magnetron sources, and cesiated surface converter H- sources. Research on surface films of tantalum metal for enhanced volume H- production is also being studied. Innovative plasma production techniques to address the longer df requirement without sacrificing H- source reliability and liktime will be reviewed. The physical bases, the goals, and perceived challenges will be discussed.

  19. Acoustic Source Localization Using the Acoustic ENSBox

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    Acoustic Source Localization Using the Acoustic ENSBox Andreas M. Ali Kung Yao Electrical of new deployable acoustic sensor platforms presents opportunities to develop automated tools for bio-acoustic Keywords Bioacoustics, distributed signal processing, acoustic source localization, wireless sensor

  20. 40 CFR 63.73 - Source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Regulations...for Early Reductions of Hazardous Air Pollutants § 63.73 Source. ...or control that emit hazardous air pollutants; (3) Any portion of an...

  1. Problems with packaged sources in foreign countries

    SciTech Connect

    Abeyta, Cristy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matzke, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zarling, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tompkin, J. Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP), which is administered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), removes excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential threat to national security, public health, and safety. In total, GTRI/OSRP has been able to recover more than 25,000 excess and unwanted sealed sources from over 825 sites. In addition to transuranic sources, the GTRI/OSRP mission now includes recovery of beta/gamma emitting sources, which are of concern to both the U.S. government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper provides a synopsis of cooperative efforts in foreign countries to remove excess and unwanted sealed sources by discussing three topical areas: (1) The Regional Partnership with the International Atomic Energy Agency; (2) Challenges in repatriating sealed sources; and (3) Options for repatriating sealed sources.

  2. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance. (a...notification of the Administrator, or the Director of the Rhode Island Department of Health, sources with the...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance. (a...notification of the Administrator, or the Director of the Rhode Island Department of Health, sources with the...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance. (a...notification of the Administrator, or the Director of the Rhode Island Department of Health, sources with the...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance. (a...notification of the Administrator, or the Director of the Rhode Island Department of Health, sources with the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance. (a...notification of the Administrator, or the Director of the Rhode Island Department of Health, sources with the...

  7. Social Sciences Information: Typology of Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozsa, Gyorgy

    1978-01-01

    Based on the example of economic research, the method outlined permits the drawing up of a typology of Social Science information sources. Resources are grouped in four categories: organizational framework, reference sources, periodicals, and information services. (Author/JAB)

  8. 48 CFR 13.102 - Source list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...a) Contracting officers should use the Central Contractor Registration database (see subpart 4.11) at http://www.ccr.gov as their primary sources of vendor information. Offices maintaining additional vendor source files or listings...

  9. The adversarial joint source-channel problem

    E-print Network

    Kochman, Yuval

    This paper introduces the problem of joint source-channel coding in the setup where channel errors are adversarial and the distortion is worst case. Unlike the situation in the case of stochastic source-channel model, the ...

  10. Alternative heat sources for heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-09-01

    Solar assisted, water source, and ground source heat pumps are described as alternatives to air to air heat pumps for use in a broader range of climates. Publications for further information on these systems are listed.

  11. 48 CFR 13.102 - Source list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...should use the Central Contractor Registration database (see Subpart 4.11) at http://www.ccr.gov as their primary sources of vendor information. Offices maintaining additional vendor source files or listings should identify the...

  12. High power millimeter wave source development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T. V.

    1989-01-01

    High power millimeter wave sources for fusion program; ECH source development program strategy; and 1 MW, 140 GHz gyrotron experiment design philosophy are briefly outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  13. EXTERNAL COMBUSTION PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for external combustion sources. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from external combustion sources, the data were s...

  14. BUILDING 96 RECOMMENDATION FOR SOURCE AREA REMEDIATION

    E-print Network

    OU III BUILDING 96 RECOMMENDATION FOR SOURCE AREA REMEDIATION FINAL Prepared by: Brookhaven FOR U.S. Department of Energy March 2009 #12;i OU III BUILDING 96 RECOMMENDATION FOR SOURCE AREA..................................................................................................................4 4.0 Building 96 ­ Operational Background

  15. EUD in Enterprise Open Source Learning Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Pagano

    \\u000a Open Source development model gives users the opportunity to contribute. The development of Open Source System does not end\\u000a at deployment time but requires continuous user participation and contribution. Many companies are involved in Open Source\\u000a communities for enterprise software development and a huge amount of investments are related to training and new paradigms\\u000a of Distance Learning. Open Source Community

  16. Economics of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-05-01

    Nonrenewable sources are subject to intertemporal optimization. Electrical and renewable sources, which are exogenous, can be integrated and treated on nonrenewable sources. For typical conditions, the model predicts that prices will increase and flows will fall more abruptly than is generally expected. These trends are exacerbated by limits on renewable sources. Predicted price trajectories should permit the introduction of alternative fuels if available, but their late introduction could be costly. Greater imports do not appear likely or appropriate. 17 refs., 24 figs.

  17. Switched Inductor Z-Source Inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miao Zhu; Kun Yu; Fang Lin Luo

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the classical Z-source inverter, this paper presents a developed impedance-type power inverter that is termed the switched inductor (SL) Z-source inverter. To enlarge voltage adjustability, the proposed inverter employs a unique SL impedance network to couple the main circuit and the power source. Compared with the classical Z-source inverter, the proposed inverter increases the voltage boost

  18. Radiation studies in the antiproton source

    SciTech Connect

    Church, M.

    1990-09-10

    Experiment E760 has a lead glass (Pb-G) calorimeter situated in the antiproton source tunnel in the accumulator ring at location A50. This location is exposed to radiation from several sources during antiproton stacking operations. A series of radiation studies has been performed over the last two years to determine the sources of this radiation and as a result, some shielding has been installed in the antiproton source in order to protect the lead glass from radiation damage.

  19. Uncertainty in source partitioning using stable isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Phillips; Jillian W. Gregg

    2001-01-01

    Stable isotope analyses are often used to quan- tify the contribution of multiple sources to a mixture, such as proportions of food sources in an animal's diet, or C3 and C4 plant inputs to soil organic carbon. Linear mixing models can be used to partition two sources with a single isotopic signature (e.g., ?13C) or three sources with a second

  20. 40 CFR 52.533 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.533 Section 52.533 Protection of Environment...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.533 Source surveillance. The plan lacks test methods for several source...