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1

Improvements on the LBL AECR source  

SciTech Connect

Performance of the LBL AECR source was improved by simultaneously heating the plasma with microwaves of 10 and 14 GHz (two-frequency heating). Plasma stability was improved.and the ion charge state distribution shifted to higher charge state. Production of high charge state ions was increased a factor of 2 to 5 or higher for the very heavy ions such as bismuth and uranium, as compared to the case of single-frequency (14 GHz) heating. Fully stripped argon ions at intensity I {ge} 5 enA were directly identified by the AECR charge state analyzing system for the first time. High charge state ion beams of bismuth and uranium produced by the source were injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron. After acceleration to energies greater than 6 MeV/nucleon, the extracted beam intensities were 1{times}10{sup 6}pps or higher for Bi{sup 50+,51+} and {sup 238}U{sup 52+,53+}. Tests in the AECR source have also shown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating is an effective coating and a better method than the electron gun for providing cold electrons to the ECR plasma. The AECR source will be upgraded to raise its magnetic field strengths to obtain better plasma confinement and enhanced production of hi ah charge state heavy ions.

Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

1995-04-01

2

Beam acceleration in the LBL 88-inch cyclotron with injection from the AECR source  

SciTech Connect

The new Advanced ECR (AECR) source is being developed for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. It operates at 14.5 GHz, compared to 6.4 GHz for the present LBL ECR source. An electron gun injects electrons into the plasma chamber to increase the production of high charge state ions. The first AECR beams were injected into the cyclotron in June of 1990 and since then a variety of ion species from the AECR have been accelerated, including beams from oxygen at 32 MeV/u to bismuth at 4.6 MeV/u. A Xe{sup 32+} beam of 1054 MeV or 8 MeV/u was accelerated. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Clark, D.J.; Lyneis, C.M.; Xie, Zuqi.

1991-05-01

3

Integrating a Traveling Wave Tube into an AECR-U ion source  

SciTech Connect

An RF system of 500W - 10.75 to 12.75 GHz was designed and integrated into the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance - Upgrade (AECR-U) ion source of the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The AECR-U produces ion beams for the Cyclotron giving large flexibility of ion species and charge states. The broadband frequency of a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) allows modifying the volume that couples and heats the plasma. The TWT system design and integration with the AECR-U ion source and results from commissioning are presented.

Covo, Michel Kireeff; Benitez, Janilee Y.; Ratti, Alessandro; Vujic, Jasmina L.

2011-07-01

4

Operating experience with the LBL ECR source  

SciTech Connect

The overall performance of the LBL ECR source in providing beam for the 88-Inch Cyclotron has been excellent. However, during the past two years there have been some fluctuations in the peak performance, particularly for the highest charge states. Among the factors which influence the peak performance are coatings from solid feeds or gases such as SiH/sub 4/ or CO/sub 2/, changes in first stage output, and variation in outgassing rates on the wall. Modifications made to the source have also affected its performance. In the plasma chamber the screens between the sextupole bars were removed to lower its Q/sub 0/. When the 9.2 GHz klystron used to power the first stage failed, it was replaced by a 10.3 GHz klystron. Tests were also made using 6.4 GHz to drive both first and second stages. The source performance in these various configuration will be reviewed.

Lyneis, C.M.

1987-12-01

5

Performance of the LBL ECR ion source  

SciTech Connect

The LBL Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in test operation since January 1984 has produced a wide variety of high charge state ion beams suitable for injection into the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Two recent developments have dramatically improved the capability of the ECR source. The first development was the production of metallic ions. The intensities of aluminum ions produced were 36, 22, 10, and .065 e..mu..A for charge states 6, 7, 8, and 11, respectively. Calcium ion intensities were 36, 31, 4.6, and 0.20 e..mu..A for charge states 8, 9, 12, and 14, respectively. The second development was the replacement of the sextupole magnet used in of all other high charge state ECR sources with an octupole structure. This modification resulted in a dramatic improvement in the intensities of the high charge state beams and a significant upward shift in the charge state distribution (C.S.D.). The ECR-octupole or OCTIGUN has produced 89, 52, 9, and 2.5 e..mu..A of Ar/sup 8,9,11,12+/ and 21, 10, and 0.34 e..mu..A of Kr/sup 10,14,18+/, respectively. For the high charge states of argon and krypton the improvement gained by using the octupole is typically a factor of 5 to 10.

Lyneis, C.M.

1984-10-01

6

Recent developments of the LBL ECR ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the LBL ECR has improved significantly since January 85 when the last ECR Ion Source Workshop was held in Berkeley. The 88-Inch Cyclotron began regular operation with the ECR source just prior to the workshop. Since then about 80% of the cyclotron operating schedule has been with the ECR source. The light-ion filament source is used only

Lyneis

1986-01-01

7

Progress on the LBL ECR heavy ion source  

SciTech Connect

The LBL ECR ion source, which began test operation in January 1984, has already produced a variety of high charge state heavy ion beams of sufficient intensity for cyclotron operation, although actual use must wait for completion of the beam transport system. The source has produced 40 ..mu..A of O/sup 6 +/, 2 ..mu..A of O/sup 7 +/, 40 ..mu..A of Ar/sup 8 +/, and 0.20 ..mu..A of Ar/sup 12 +/. The source development has centered on optimizing source performance with modifications and parameter tuning. Future plans include construction of an SmCo/sub 5/ octupole structure, and testing of solid feed techniques. The construction of the beam transport line and calculations on center region geometry for heavy ion axial injection into the 88-Inch Cyclotron are also underway.

Clark, D.J.; Jongen, Y.; Lyneis, C.M.

1984-04-01

8

The LBL (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory) 88-inch cyclotron operating with an ECR source  

SciTech Connect

The features and operation of the LBL 88-inch Cyclotron are described, including its ECR source, injection system, and the cyclotron center region. The beams that have been accelerated at the cyclotron are discussed. (LEW)

Clark, D.J.

1986-10-01

9

Characterization of the plasma-switch interaction in the LBL HIF ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new way to characterize the performance of the LBL HIF ion source has been found. In the LBL source, ions are drawn from an arc-generated plasma reservoir in which the electrons are confined by a negative-biased switch'' mesh. Stagnation of the plasma is prevented by absorption of the excess ion flow on this mesh. The ion beam is generated by an external negative voltage that provides Child-Langmuir extraction of the ions through the switch mesh. We elucidate the physics requirements of the source and deduce switch mesh parameters needed for successful operation. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Hewett, D.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Rutkowski, H.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-12-10

10

Characterization of the plasma-switch interaction in the LBL HIF ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new way to characterize the performance of the LBL HIF ion source has been found. In the LBL source, ions are drawn from an arc-generated plasma reservoir in which the electrons are confined by a negative-biased switch'' mesh. Stagnation of the plasma is prevented by absorption of the excess ion flow on this mesh. The ion beam is generated by an external negative voltage that provides Child-Langmuir extraction of the ions through the switch mesh. We elucidate the physics requirements of the source and deduce switch mesh parameters needed for successful operation. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Hewett, D.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Rutkowski, H.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-01-01

11

Report on the engineering test of the LBL 30 second neutral beam source for the MFTF-B project  

SciTech Connect

Positive ion based neutral beam development in the US has centered on the long pulse, Advanced Positive Ion Source (APIS). APIS eventually focused on development of 30 second sources for MFTF-B. The Engineering Test was part of competitive testing of the LBL and ORNL long pulse sources carried out for the MFTF-B Project. The test consisted of 500 beam shots with 80 kV, 30 second deuterium, and was carried out on the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF). This report summarizes the results of LBL testing, in which the LBL APIS demonstrated that it would meet the requirements for MFTF-B 30 second sources. In part as a result of this test, the LBL design was found to be suitable as the baseline for a Common Long Pulse Source design for MFTF-B, TFTR, and Doublet Upgrade.

Vella, M.C.; Pincosy, P.A.; Hauck, C.A.; Pyle, R.V.

1984-08-01

12

Concept for a third generation ECR source at LBL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source has produced record high charge state beams and is now in operation with the 88-Inch Cyclotron, development of a third generation ECR source could provide major new research opportunities at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Higher intensities for particles with mass greater than 150 and energies above the Coulomb barrier would improve experiments using

C. M. Lyneis; Z. Q. Xie

1995-01-01

13

Concept for a third generation ECR source at LBL  

SciTech Connect

Although the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source has produced record high charge state beams and is now in operation with the 88-Inch Cyclotron, development of a third generation ECR source could provide major new research opportunities at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Higher intensities for particles with mass greater than 150 and energies above the Coulomb barrier would improve experiments using deep inelastic reactions to produce neutron rich compound nuclei that can be studied with the Gammasphere detector or its successor. Very high intensities (several particle {mu}A from the cyclotron) for masses between 30 to 65 would greatly benefit the heavy element research. On the basis of on progress in ECR source development, a third generation ECR source with multiple-frequency microwave drives, enhanced magnetic mirror ratios and high secondary emission walls for additional cold electrons could extend the performance of the cyclotron into the areas described above and serve as a tool for ECR study.

Lyneis, C.M.; Xie, Z.Q. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

1995-04-01

14

Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source at LBL  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the first of the new generation of dedicated synchrotron light sources to be put into operation. Specially designed insertion devices will be required to realize the high brightness photon beams made possible by the low emittance of the electron beam. The complement of insertion devices on the ALS will include undulators with periods as short as 3.9 cm and one or more high field wigglers. The first device to be designed is a 5 m long, 5 cm period, hybrid undulator. The goal of very high brightness and high harmonic output imposes unusually tight tolerances on the magnetic field quality and thus on the mechanical structure. The design process, using a generic structure for all undulators, is described. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hassenzahl, W.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Savoy, R.

1989-03-01

15

Ground motion measurements at the LBL Light Source site, the Bevatron and at SLAC  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technique for measuring ground motion at the site of the 1.0 to 2.0 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Facility which was known as the Advanced Light Source (in 1983 when the measurements were taken). The results of ground motion measurements at the Light Source site at Building 6 at LBL are presented. As comparison, ground motion measurements were made at the Byerly Tunnel, the Bevatron, Blackberry Canyon, and SLAC at the Spear Ring. Ground Motion at the Light Source site was measured in a band from 4 to 100 Hz. The measured noise is primarily local in origin and is not easily transported through LBL soils. The background ground motion is for the most part less than 0.1 microns. Localized truck traffic near Building 6 and the operation of the cranes in the building can result in local ground motions of a micron or more for short periods of time. The background motion at Building 6 is between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude higher than ground motion in a quiet seismic tunnel, which is representative of quiet sites worldwide. The magnitude of the ground motions at SLAC and the Bevatron are comparable to ground motions measured at the Building 6 Light Source site. However, the frequency signature of each site is very different.

Green, M.A.; Majer, E.I.; More, V.D.; O'Connell, D.R.; Shilling, R.C.

1986-12-01

16

ECR heavy-ion source for the LBL 88-inch cyclotron  

SciTech Connect

An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heavy-ion source is under construction at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron. This source will produce very-high-charge-state heavy ions, such as 0/sup 8 +/ and Ar/sup 12 +/, which will increase cyclotron energies by a factor of 2-4, up to A = 80. It is a two-stage source using room-temperature coils, a permanent-magnet sextupole, and a 6-9 GHz microwave system. Design features include adjustable first-to-second-stage plasma coupling, a variable second-stage mirror ratio, high-conductance radial pumping of the second stage, and a beam-diagnostic system. A remotely movable extraction electrode will optimize extraction efficiency. The project includes construction of a transport line and improvements to the cyclotron axial-injection system. The construction period is expected to be two years.

Clark, D.J.; Kalnins, J.G.; Lyneis, C.M.

1983-03-01

17

First operation of the LBL ERC ion source with the 88-inch cyclotron  

SciTech Connect

The LBL ECR ion source and new injection system are now in regular operation with the 88-Inch Cyclotron supplying stable, reliable heavy ion beams for both nuclear physics and applied research. The ions accelerated to date cover the mass range from nitrogen to xenon, and the energy range of 3 to 27 MeV/nucleon. Overall transmission of up to 14% from source to external cyclotron beam has been obtained. A beam from solid material, magnesium, has been used successfully for an experimental run. The emittance has been measured, at 10 kV accelerating voltage, for a variety of ions and has been found to vary from 100..pi.. mm mrad for the low charge states to 20..pi.. mm mrad for high charge states, for about 50% of the beam. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.

1985-05-01

18

The U5. 0 undulator design for the advanced light source at LBL  

SciTech Connect

The U5.0 undulator, currently under design, is the first in a series of insertion devices planned for the Advanced Light Source at LBL. U5.0 parameters include a 5 cm period, 5 m length with a 0.837 T maximum field at a 14 mm gap. A hybrid configuration utilizing Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material and Vanadium Permendur poles is used for the magnetic structure. Construction is modular with many pole assemblies attached to a pole mount, which in turn is fastened onto one of the backing beams. Vertical field integral correction at the ends is with permanent magnet rotators. The supports structure features a 4-post configuration, a rigid base with 3 kinematic floor supports and 2 rigid 5 m long backing beams that fit within the 2.4 m high accelerator enclosure. The drive system is computer controlled utilizing a stepper motor and shaft encode coupled to a roller-screw/nut and chain drive train. Vacuum chamber design is a rigid configuration with a 10 mm vertical by 218 mm horizontal aperture of 5.5 m length. Chamber fabrication features a two-piece welded chamber of 5083 H321 aluminum. Pumping is with ion and titanium sublimation pumps. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.; Savoy, R.

1989-08-01

19

Operational performance of the LBL 88-inch cyclotron with an ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) source  

SciTech Connect

The 88-Inch Cyclotron began regular operation with the ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) source in January 1985. Since then about 80% of the cyclotron operating schedule has been with the ECR source. The light-ion filament source is used only for runs two or more shifts in length using proton, deuteron, /sup 3/He, or alpha beams. Occasionally the polarized ion source is used. The heavy-ion PIG sources are no longer used. The operating experience with the Cyclotron + ECR has been highly successful in terms of reliability, stability, production of high charge state currents, and range of ions which can be produced. The performance of the Cyclotron + ECR has steadily improved since regular operation began. The improvement is a result of better source performance, better stability and tuning of the injection line, and better cyclotron tuning. Development of the ECR source has resulted in improved high charge state performance and a greater variety of ion species. The LBL ECR now produces 14 ..mu..A of O/sup 7 +/, 1 ..mu..A of O/sup 8 +/, 72 ..mu..A of Ar/sup 9 +/, 1.4 ..mu..A of Ar/sup 14 +/, 5 ..mu..A of I/sup 25 +/, and .009 ..mu..A of I/sup 30 +/. Metal ions from Mg, K, and Ca are produced in the ECR using an oven to inject vapor into the plasma chamber. Operation with the oven is quite stable and frequently requires no adjustment during runs lasting several days. Beams of F, Si, S, and Ti have been produced using various compounds as gases or solids with the oven. The overall transmission from source analyzing magnet to cyclotron external beam is typically 2 to 10% with a maximum of 17%. As a result of the improved source performance and transmission a wide variety of new beams can be produced. For example, a 32.5 MeV/u /sup 16/O/sup 8 +/ beam and /sup 48/Ca/sup 11 +/ beams with energy from 200 to 350 MeV have been used for nuclear physics experiments. A 1.08 GeV /sup 36/Ar/sup 18 +/ beam was used to test the response of various scintillator materials to intermediate energy heavy ions.

Lyneis, C.M.

1986-10-01

20

The LBL 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source  

SciTech Connect

The design of the 1 to 2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source to be built at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. The goal of this facility is to provide very high brightness photon beams in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions. The photon energy range to be served is from 0.5 eV to 10 keV, with the brightest beams available in the 1 eV to 1 keV interval. For time-resolved experiments, beam pulses of a few tens of picoseconds will be available. Emphasis will be on the use of undulators and wigglers to produce high quality, intense beams. Initially, four of the former and one of the latter devices will be installed, with six long straight sections left open for future installations. In addition, provision is being made for 48 beamlines from bending magnets. The storage ring is optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV, with a maximum energy of 1.9 GeV. The injection system includes a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron for full energy injection at the nominal operating energy of the storage ring. Filling time for the maximum storage ring intensity of 400 mA is about 2 minutes, and beam lifetime will be about 6 hours. Attention has been given to the extraordinary requirements for beam stability, and to the need to independently control photon beam alignment. Typical rms beam size in insertion regions is 201 ..mu..m horizontal, and 38 ..mu..m vertical. The manner in which this design achieves very high spectral brightness from undulators and wigglers, while maintaining a modest value for the beam current, will be described. Primarily, this requires that the design of the lattice, the arrangement of bending magnets, focusing quadrupoles and straight sections, be done with this in mind.

Selph, F.B.

1987-06-01

21

News from LBL  

SciTech Connect

We present a brief summary of recent news from LBL related to accelerator physics. This talk was given on October 29, 1993 at the 6th Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on the subject ``Synchro- Betraton Resonances,`` held in Funchal (Madeira, Portugal), October 24--30, 1993.

Furman, M.A.

1994-01-26

22

Production of high charge state ions with the advanced electron cyclotron resonance ion source at LBNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of high charge state ions with the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (AECR) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been significantly improved by application of various new techniques. Heating the plasma simultaneously with microwaves of two frequencies (10 and 14 GHz) has increased the production of very high charge state heavy ions. The two-frequency technique provides extra

Zu Qi Xie; C. M. Lyneis

1995-01-01

23

Multi-beam injector development at LBL  

SciTech Connect

LBL is developing a multi-beam injector that will be used for scaled accelerator experiments related to Heavy Ion Fusion. The device will produce sixteen 0.5 Amp beams of C+ at 2 MeV energy. The carbon arc source has been developed to the point where the emittance is within a factor of four of the design target. Modelling of the source behavior to find ways to reduce the emittance is discussed. Source lifetime and reliability is also of paramount importance to us and data regarding the lifetime and failure modes of different source configurations is discussed. One half of the accelerating column has been constructed and tested at high voltage. One beam experiments in this half column are underway. The second half of the column is being built and the transition 2 MV experiments should begin soon. In addition to beam and source performance we also discuss the controls for the injector and the electronics associated with the source and current injection. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Rutkowski, H.L.; Faltens, A.; Brodzik, D.A.; Johnson, R.M.; Pike, C.D.; Vanecek, D.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Humphries, S. Jr. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Meyer, E.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hewett, D.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1990-06-01

24

Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source) Booster Dipole Magnets  

SciTech Connect

A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs.

Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

1989-03-01

25

Calculation of collective effects and beam lifetimes for the LBL (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory) 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source  

SciTech Connect

In designing a third-generation high brightness synchrotron radiation source, attention must be paid to the various collective effects that can influence beam performance. We report on calculations, performed with the code ZAP, of the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime (from both Touschek and gas scattering) for our 1-2 GeV storage ring. In addition, we estimate the growth times for both longitudinal and transverse coupled bunch instabilities. Bunch lengths of about 20 ps should be obtainable and intrabeam scattering emittance growth is small. For a limiting undulator gap of 1 cm and residual gas pressure of 1n Torr, the beam lifetime is about 5 hours in the single-bunch mode; in the multibunch mode, lifetimes in excess of 6 hours are expected. These results indicate that all performance goals for the facility should be achievable.

Chattopadhyay, S.; Zisman, M.S.

1987-03-01

26

Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses

F. W. Meyer; M. I. Kirkpatrick

1991-01-01

27

Review of technical program and progress. LBL geothermal exploration technology development program, FY 1982  

SciTech Connect

The objectives, method of approach, main program elements, and progress through FY 1982 for Geothermal Exploration Technology Program at LBL are reviewed. Current tasks include controlled-source electromagnetic research, seismological research, magnetotelluric research, and electromagnetic technique evaluation and numerical modeling.

Goldstein, N.E.

1982-01-01

28

Recent developments in high charge state heavy ion beams at the LBL 88-inch Cyclotron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in design and operation of the internal PIG sources at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron have led to the development of high charge state (0.4 < or approx. = to Q\\/A < or approx. = to 0.5) heavy ion beams between lithium and neon with energies 20 < or approx. = to E\\/A < or approx. = to 32

R. A. Gough; D. J. Clark; L. R. Glasgow

1978-01-01

29

A new 14 GHz electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source for the heavy ion accelerator facility ATLAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14 GHz electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source has been designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory. The source is a modification of the AECR [D. J. Clark, C. M. Lyneis, and Z. Q. Xie, 14th Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC), IEEE Conference 91 CH3038-7, 1991 (unpublished), p. 2796 and C. M. Lyneis, Z. Q. Zie, D. J. Clark, R. S. Lam,

M. Schlapp; R. C. Pardo; R. C. Vondrasek; J. Szczech; P. J. Billquist; J. Vieregg; Z. Q. Xie; C. M. Lyneis; R. Harkewicz

1998-01-01

30

lh;"s_,-",(j ./,, ,".:_ J ...... LBL-31308  

E-print Network

lh;"s_,-",(j 'f fk, _ ./,, ,".:_ J ...... LBL-31308 UC-350 I I iiiiii I ] II III IIII B Lawrence Use and Trends M.A. Piette, J.H. Eto, and J.P. Harris September 1991 ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT DIVISION EQUIPMENT ENERGY USE AND TRENDS M. A. Piette, J.H. Eto, and J.P. Harris Energy and Environment Division

31

Mark F. Adams mfadams@lbl.gov  

E-print Network

. Tuminaro.] · Evaluation of Three Unstructured Multigrid Methods on 3D Finite Element Problems in Solid. · Parallel Multigrid Solvers for 3D Unstructured Finite Element Problems in Large Deformation ElasticityMark F. Adams mfadams@lbl.gov Education Ph.D. in Civil Engineering, December 1998 University

Adams, Mark

32

Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 810?h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200?AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1?L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 2022% incubated at 45C for 10?h by 10 AP?U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 4042%, 4648%, and 3840% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4?h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 410?h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 4050%). Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72?h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40%) obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value) demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value) after both treatments were free of bitterness. PMID:21876793

Tchorbanov, Bozhidar; Marinova, Margarita; Grozeva, Lydia

2011-01-01

33

Status of LBL/LLNL FEL (free electron laser) research for two beam accelerator applications  

SciTech Connect

We review the status of free electron laser (FEL) research being conducted at LBL and LLNL as part of a broader program of research on two beam accelerators (TBAs). Induction accelerator-driven FELs for use as power sources for high-gradient accelerators are discussed, along with preliminary cost estimates for this type of power source. Finally, a promising new version of an FEL/TBA is described. 25 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.

1989-03-01

34

DESCRIPTION OF THE LBL MULTITRACER MEASUREMENT SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past several years LBL has been developing the MultiTracer Measurement System (MTMS )t o provide full multizone air flow information in an accurate, real-time manner. MTMS is based on a qua- drapole mass spectrometer to provide high-speed concentration analysis of multiple tracer gasses in the (low) ppm level which are injected into multiple zones using mass flow controllers.

Darryl Dickerhoff; Max Sherman; Isaac Ameral; Helmut Feustel

35

Recent Developments in High Charge State Heavy Ion Beams at the LBL 88Inch Cyclotron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in design and operation of the internal PIG sources at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron have led to the development of high charge state (0.4 Q\\/A 0.5) heavy ion beams between lithium and neon with energies 20 E\\/ A 32 MeV ger nucleon, including fully stripped ions up to l6o8+. Total external intensities of these

R. A. Gough; D. J. Clark; L. R. Glasgow

1979-01-01

36

Design of the extraction system and beamline of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS  

SciTech Connect

A new, very high magnetic field superconducting ECR ion source, VENUS, is under construction at the LBNL 88-Inch Cyclotron [1,2]. The paper describes the VENUS extraction system and discusses the ion beam formation in the strong axial magnetic field (3 T) of the ECR ion source. Emittance values as expected from theory, which assumes a uniform plasma density across the plasma outlet hole, are compared with actual measurements from the AECR-U ion source. Results indicate that highly charged heavier ions are concentrated on the source axis. They are extracted from an ''effective'' plasma outlet hole, whose smaller radius must be included in ion optics simulations.

Leitner, Matthaeus A.; Wutte, Daniela C.; Lyneis, Claude M.

2001-05-07

37

Status of LBL/LLNL FEL (Free Electron Laser) research for two beam accelerator applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For this workshop, we review the status of free electron laser (FEL) research being conducted at LBL and LLNL as part of a broader program of research on two beam accelerators (TBAs). We discuss measurements made on high power 35 and 138 GHz FELs and their problem areas. Experience with 35 GHz accelerator section fabrication is summarized. Induction accelerator-driven FELs for use as power sources for high-gradient accelerators are discussed, along with preliminary cost estimates for this type of power source. Finally, a promising new version of an FEL/TBA is discussed.

Hopkins, D. B.; Sessler, A. M.

1988-11-01

38

Status of LBL/LLNL FEL (free electron laser) research for two beam accelerator applications  

SciTech Connect

For this workshop, we review the status of free electron laser (FEL) research being conducted at LBL and LLNL as part of a broader program of research on two beam accelerators (TBAs). We discuss measurements made on high power 35 and 138 GHz FELs and their problem areas. Experience with 35 GHz accelerator section fabrication is summarized. Induction accelerator-driven FELs for use as power sources for high-gradient accelerators are discussed, along with preliminary cost estimates for this type of power source. Finally, a promising new version of an FEL/TBA is discussed. 22 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.

1988-11-01

39

Production of high charge state ions with the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

Production of high charge state ions with the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (AECR) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been significantly improved by application of various new techniques. Heating the plasma simultaneously with microwaves of two frequencies (10 and 14 GHz) has increased the production of very high charge state heavy ions. The two-frequency technique provides extra electron cyclotron resonance heating zone as compared to the single-frequency heating and improves the heating of the plasma electrons. Aluminum oxide on the plasma chamber surface improves the production of cold electrons at the chamber surfaces and increases the performance of the AECR. Fully stripped argon ions, {gt} 5 enA, were produced and directly identified by the source charge state analyzing system. High charge state ion beams of bismuth and uranium, such as {sup 209}Bi{sup 51+} and {sup 238}U{sup 53+}, were produced by the source and accelerated by the 88-Inch Cyclotron to energies above 6 MeV/nucleon for the first time. To further increase the production of high charge state ions to support the nuclear science research programs at the 88-Inch Cyclotron, an upgrade is taking place to increase the AECR magnetic field strengths and mirror ratios to improve the plasma confinement. Conceptual design is underway for a 3rd Generation ECR that uses superconducting magnets to reach higher magnetic field strengths and higher mirror ratios, high secondary emission chamber walls to increase the yield of cold electrons at the chamber surfaces and microwaves of multiple frequencies to improve plasma heating.

Xie, Zu Qi; Lyneis, C.M.

1995-09-01

40

Subject Area/Division Contact Email/Phone/Pager AFRD Deborah Price DLPrice@lbl.gov  

E-print Network

& Safety Amy Tanouye PATanouye@lbl.gov Phone: x6896 Cell 621-9112 Engineering Deborah Price DLPrice Cell: 859-6227 ALS Division Amy Tanouye PATanouye@lbl.gov Phone: x6896 Cell 621-9112 ASD/Directorate Howard Hansen HLHansen@lbl.gov Phone: x5867 Cell 332-9652 Biohazardous waste Chan Ho Yi CHYi

Knowles, David William

41

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL  

SciTech Connect

In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

Not Available

1991-09-01

42

Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1990-04-01

43

Building Applications Team Dale Sartor 510.486.5988 DASartor@lbl.gov  

E-print Network

Building Applications Team Dale Sartor 510.486.5988 DASartor@lbl.gov http://ateam.lbl.gov The A advanced energy- efficient tech-nology and indoor environ-mental quality concepts in buildings both buildings. An important area of expertise is assistance with performance contracting for energy

44

75 FR 64691 - Information Collection; Land Between The Lakes (LBL) Communication Effectiveness Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...addressed to Greg Barnes, USDA Forest Service, Land Between The Lakes...facility operated by the USDA Forest Service. Current and potential...as LBL's own Web site. The Forest Service is proposing a study...conducted and led by LBL's own Social Science and Market...

2010-10-20

45

A new 14 GHz electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the heavy ion accelerator facility ATLAS: a status report  

SciTech Connect

A new 14 GHz ECRIS has been designed and built over the last 2 years. The source, a modification of the Berkeley AECR, incorporates the latest results from ECR developments to produce intense beams of highly charged ions, i.e., an improved electron confinement with an axial magnetic mirror ratio of 3.5 and a radial magnetic field inside the plasma chamber of 1.0 T. The aluminium plasma chamber and extraction electrode as well as a biased disk on axis at the microwave injection side donate additional electrons to the plasma, making use of the large secondary electron yield from Al oxide. Slots in the plasma chamber allow for radial pumping which increases the AECR performance. The source will also be capable of additional ECR plasma heating using two frequencies simultaneously to increase the electron energy gain for producing high charge states. To be able to deliver usable intensities of the heaviest ion beams, the design will also allow for axial access for metal evaporation ovens and solid material samples using plasma sputtering. Main design goal is to produce several e{mu}A of U{sup 34+} in order to obtain Coulomb- barrier energies from ATLAS without further stripping.

Schlapp, M.; Vondrasek, R.C.; Szczech, J.; Billquist, P.J.; Pardo, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Xie, Z.Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-11-01

46

Electron beam transport for the LBL IR-FEL  

SciTech Connect

The infrared flee-electron laser (IR-FEL) proposed by LBL as part of the Combustion Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL) consists of a multiple-pass accelerator with superconducting cavities supplying a 55 MeV 12 mA beam to an undulator within a 24-meter optical cavity. Future options include deceleration through the same cavities for energy recovery and reducing the power in the beam dump. The electron transport system from the injector through the cavities and undulator must satisfy conditions of high order achromaticity, isochronicity, unity first-order transport matrix around the recirculation loop, variable betatron match into the undulator, ease of operation and economical implementation. This paper presents a workable solution that satisfies these requirements.

Staples, J.; Edighoffer, J.; Kim, Kwang-Je

1992-07-01

47

Use of Silicon Photomultiplier in LBL Cosmic Tay Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a summer internship program at Hartnell Community College our team successfully constructed two complementary cosmic ray experiments. The first employed NIM electronic modules the second constructed as per specifications of a circuit board designed by the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Telescope Project (http://cosmic.lbl.gov/). During the following summer at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we worked on optimizing the performance of a group of Berkeley Lab Detector and developed tools to measure its performance. The next phase was exploring whether Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) can be used to replace the phototube of the Berkeley Detector. Data will be presented from both summers including the dependence of the cosmic ray flux on the separation and polar angle of scintillator paddles, as well as the results from our SiPM tests. Finally, I will include prospects for curriculum development using the cosmic ray experiments.

Osornio, Leo

2012-10-01

48

Case study data base companion report 3 to simulation of geothermal subsidence (LBL-10571)  

SciTech Connect

The data base developed for selection and evaluation of geothermal subsidence case studies is presented. Data from this data base were used in case studies of Wairakei, The Geysers, and Austin Bayou Prospect (Report LBL 10571).

Miller, I.; Dershowitz, W.; Jones, K.; Myer, L.; Roman, K.; Schauer, M.

1980-03-01

49

Composite Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly with inorganic nanoparticles and nanowires.  

PubMed

New assembly techniques are required for creating advanced materials with enough structural flexibility to be tuned for specific applications, and to be practical, the techniques must be implemented at relatively low cost. Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly is a simple, versatile, and significantly inexpensive approach by which nanocomponents of different groups can be combined to coat both macroscopically flat and non-planar (e.g., colloidal core-shell particles) surfaces. Compared with other available assembly methods, LBL assembly is simpler and more universal and allows more precise thickness control at the nanoscale. LBL can be used to combine a wide variety of species--including nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets, and nanowires (NWs)--with polymers, thus merging the properties of each type of material. This versatility has led to recent exceptional growth in the use of LBL-generated nanocomposites. This Account will focus on the materials and biological applications of introducing inorganic nanocrystals into polymer thin films. Combining inorganic NPs and NWs with organic polymers allows researchers to manipulate the unique properties in the nanomaterial. We describe the LBL assembly technique for introducing metallic NPs into polymers in order to generate a material with combined optomechanical properties. Similarly, LBL assembly of highly luminescent semiconductor NPs like HgTe or CdTe with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was used to create uniform optical-quality coatings made on optical fibers and tube interiors. In addition, LBL assembly with inorganic nanosheets or clay molecules is reported for fabricating films with strong mechanical and ion transport properties, and the technique can also be employed to prepare Au/TiO(2) core/sheath NWs. The LBL approach not only will be useful for assembly of inorganic nanocrystals with various polymers but can be further applied to introduce specific functions. We discuss how the expanded use of NWs and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in nanocomposite materials holds promise in the design of conductive films and new nanoscale devices (e.g., thin-film transistors). New photonic materials, sensors, and amplifiers can be constructed using multilayer films of NPs and can enable fabrication of hybrid devices. On the biological side, inorganic nanoshells were used as assembly tools with the goal of detecting neurotransmitters (specifically, dopamine) directly inside brain cells. In addition, the stability of different cell lines was tested for fabricating biocompatible films using LBL. NP LBL assembly was also used for homogeneous and competitive fluorescence quenching immunoassay studies for biotin and anti-biotin immunoglobulin molecules. Finally, introduction of biomolecules with inorganic NPs for creating biocompatible surfaces could also lead to new directions in the field of biomedical applications. PMID:19053241

Srivastava, Sudhanshu; Kotov, Nicholas A

2008-12-01

50

Transverse distribution of beam current oscillations of a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal stability of oxygen ion beams has been studied with the 14 GHz A-ECR at JYFL (University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics). A sector Faraday cup was employed to measure the distribution of the beam current oscillations across the beam profile. The spatial and temporal characteristics of two different oscillation "modes" often observed with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS are discussed. It was observed that the low frequency oscillations below 200 Hz are distributed almost uniformly. In the high frequency oscillation "mode," with frequencies >300 Hz at the core of the beam, carrying most of the current, oscillates with smaller amplitude than the peripheral parts of the beam. The results help to explain differences observed between the two oscillation modes in terms of the transport efficiency through the JYFL K-130 cyclotron. The dependence of the oscillation pattern on ion source parameters is a strong indication that the mechanisms driving the fluctuations are plasma effects.

Tarvainen, O.; Toivanen, V.; Komppula, J.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.

2014-02-01

51

Version 1, July 2011Version 1, July 2011 @ a glance@ a glancehttp://esd.lbl.gov/about/staff/postdocs.html Guidelines for  

E-print Network

Version 1, July 2011Version 1, July 2011 @ a glance@ a glancehttp://esd.lbl.gov/about/staff/postdocs.html Institute Training link: http://www.lbl.gov/BLI/netraining.html · The ESD Postdoc webpage: http://esd.lbl.gov/about/staff/postdocs.html

Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

52

Version 1, July 2011Version 1, July 2011 @ a glance@ a glancehttp://esd.lbl.gov/about/staff/postdocs.html Postdoctoral Fellow's  

E-print Network

Version 1, July 2011Version 1, July 2011 @ a glance@ a glancehttp://esd.lbl.gov/about/staff/postdocs.html mentor Important Resources/Contacts · Berkeley Lab Institute Training link: http://www.lbl.gov/BLI/netraining.html · The ESD Postdoc webpage: http://esd.lbl.gov/about/staff/postdocs.html Postdoctoral training in the Earth

Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

53

LBL research on The Geysers: Conceptual models, simulation and monitoring studies  

SciTech Connect

As part of The Geysers research activities of DOE's Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, LBL, in close co-operation with industry, is performing fundamental and applied studies of vapor- dominated geothermal systems. These studies include the development of new methods for evaluating cold water injection, monitoring of the seismic activity in The Geysers associated with injection and production, interpretation of pressure and geochemical changes measured during well tests and long-term production and injection operations, and improvement of existing models of the geothermal system. A review is given of the latest results of DOE-sponsored LBL reservoir engineering and seismic studies relevant to The Geysers.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Majer, E.L.; Pruess, K.

1992-03-01

54

LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies  

SciTech Connect

As part of The Geysers research activities of DOE's Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, LBL, in close cooperation with industry, is performing fundamental and applied studies of vapor-dominated geothermal systems. These studies include the development of new methods for evaluating cold water injection, monitoring of the seismic activity in The Geysers associated with injection and production, interpretation of pressure and geochemical changes measured during well tests and long-term production and injection operations, and improvement of existing models of the geothermal system. A review is given of the latest results of DOE-sponsored LBL reservoir engineering and seismic studies relevant to The Geysers.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Majer, E.L.; Pruess, K.

1992-03-24

55

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

Not Available

1991-09-01

56

The effects of the interphase and strain gradients on the elasticity of layer by layer (LBL) polymer/clay nanocomposites  

E-print Network

A synergistic stiffening effect observed in the elastic mechanical properties of LBL assembled polymer/clay nanocomposites is studied via two continuum mechanics approaches. The nanostructure of the representative volume ...

Li, Yaning

57

Investigating the Impact of Land between the Lakes (LBL) and Land Use/Land Cover Change on Precipitation Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large dams/reservoirs as open water surface and as a mechanism of triggering land use/land cover changes in their vicinity have impacted local climate and extreme precipitation patterns as study show. Urbanization, agricultural development, and forestation are some of the Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCC) that are result of development of large dams/reservoirs. Thus creating heterogeneities. It is believed that such heterogeneities bring about a boundary of different air masses that triggers convection due to differential heating as well as variation in soil moisture. One such heterogeneities is of the Land Between the Lakes (LBL). LBL is an inland peninsula formed by Lake Kentucky on Tennessee River and Lake Barkley on Cumberland River in Western Kentucky. The development of the two lakes brought about an area of 680 sq.km forest cover. The LBL renders unique land use/land cover heterogeneities with in a shorter distance providing open water for evaporation and forest for evapotranspiration. Reports as well as a preliminary investigation of nearby weather radar data showed storms dying out as it approaches the inland peninsula and gaining strength east of LBL. The storm exhibits a wave like strength, attenuating before LBL and gaining strength after. The purpose of this study mainly is to investigate the impact of LBL and in general LULCC on precipitation in the area. In this study the following specific scientific question will be addressed a. Has the development of LBL modified precipitation in the region? b. Which LULCC predominately affects storm formation? Summer radar reflectivity data from Paducah, KY station along with North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) geopotential height and wind direction data will be analyzed for identification of LBL effect precipitation and synoptic effect precipitation, respectively. A Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) will be setup to investigate what land use/land cover predominately modifies precipitation in the region.

Degu, A. M.; Hossain, F.

2012-12-01

58

US008l3000lBl (12) United States Patent  

E-print Network

US008l3000lBl (12) United States Patent Dutta et al. US 8,130,001 B1 Mar. 6, 2012 (10) Patent N0 COMPLIMENTARY i 23" YES SENSOR Tlf'fs'gx'fhlcocl'gn'gg'b LOG/REPORT RECLOSE NO I k 247 FOLLOWED? RECEIVE LOCALLY;US. Patent Mar. 6, 2012 Sheet 1 of6 US 8,130,001 B1 150w STORAGE STORAGE L62 m f 172 --L STORAGE

Dutta, Prabal

59

Biomimetic LBL structured nanofibrous matrices assembled by chitosan/collagen for promoting wound healing.  

PubMed

This paper reports the fabrication of biomimetic nanofibrous matrices via co-electrospinning of polycaprolactone (PCL)/cellulose acetate (CA) and layer-by-layer self-assembly (LBL) of positively charged chitosan (CS) and negatively charged Type ? collagen on the nanofibrous matrix. FE-SEM images indicate that the average fiber diameter increased from 392 to 541nm when the coating bilayers varied from 5 to 20.5. Besides, the excellent biocompatibility and enhanced attachment and spreading of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) of prepared nanofibrous mats are confirmed by MTT and SEM results. Furthermore, the LBL structured (CS/collagen)n nanofibrous mats greatly improve the cell migration invitro, promote re-epithelialization and vascularization invivo, and up-regulate the expression of collagen ? and ?-tubulin, as well as the Integrin ?1 and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr-397. The levels of expressed protein are significantly enhanced with increasing coating bilayers via immunohistochemistry and western blotting analyses. Collectively, these results suggest that the LBL structured biomimetic nanofibrous matrices may enhance cell migration and further promote the skin regeneration by up-regulating the secretion of ECM protein and triggering Integrin/FAK signaling pathway, which demonstrate the potential use of the nanofibrous mats to rapidly restore the structural and functional properties of wounded skin. PMID:25890707

Huang, Rong; Li, Wangzhou; Lv, Xiaoxing; Lei, Zhanjun; Bian, Yongqian; Deng, Hongbing; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Jinqing; Li, Xueyong

2015-06-01

60

Bimodal Tumor-Targeting from Microenvironment Responsive Hyaluronan Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Active targeting of nanoscale drug carriers can improve tumor-specific delivery; however, cellular heterogeneity both within and among tumor sites is a fundamental barrier to their success. Here, we describe a tumor microenvironment-responsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer drug carrier that actively targets tumors based on two independent mechanisms: pH-dependent cellular uptake at hypoxic tumor pH and hyaluronan-directed targeting of cell-surface CD44 receptor, a well-characterized biomarker for breast and ovarian cancer stem cells. Hypoxic pH-induced structural reorganization of hyaluronan-LbL nanoparticles was a direct result of the nature of the LbL electrostatic complex, and led to targeted cellular delivery in vitro and in vivo, with effective tumor penetration and uptake. The nanoscale drug carriers selectively bound CD44 and diminished cancer cell migration in vitro, while co-localizing with the CD44 receptor in vivo. Multimodal targeting of LbL nanoparticles is a powerful strategy for tumor-specific cancer diagnostics and therapy that can be accomplished using a single bilayer of polyamine and hyaluronan that, when assembled, produce a dynamic and responsive cellparticle interface. PMID:25100313

Dreaden, Erik C.; Morton, Stephen W.; Shopsowitz, Kevin E.; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Deng, Zhou J.; Cho, Nam-Joon; Hammond, Paula T.

2014-01-01

61

Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H{sup {minus}} Source; The H{sup +} ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research.

Meyer, F W; Kirkpatrick, M I [eds.

1991-01-01

62

Research News: Tissue Geometry Plays Crucial Role in Breast Cell Invasion http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/LSD-tissue-geometry.html Celeste Nelson (left) and Mina Bissell led a collaboration that created a  

E-print Network

Research News: Tissue Geometry Plays Crucial Role in Breast Cell Invasion http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/LSD Crucial Role in Breast Cell Invasion http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/LSD

Nelson, Celeste M.

63

Color Images for LBL 38618 June 10, 1996 4 Three dimensional view of reservoir and the projected [I,J] extents of several  

E-print Network

Color Images for LBL 38618 June 10, 1996 4 Figure 7. Three dimensional view of reservoir June 10, 1996 3 Figure 6. The bottom­left image contains four overlapping bounding boxes which the extents of cell columns. #12; Color Images for LBL 38618 June 10, 1996 2 Figure 4. Streamlines

64

Survey and Alighment for the ALS Project at LBL Berkeley  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS), now under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a synchrotron radiation source of the third generation designed to produce extremely bright photon beams in the UV and soft X-ray regions. Its main accelerator components are a 1-1.9 GeV electron storage ring with 196.8 m circumference and 12 super-periods, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron with 75.0 m circumference and 4 super-periods, and a 50 MeV linac, as shown in Fig. 1. The storage ring has particularly tight positioning tolerances for lattice magnets and other components to assure the required operational characteristics. The general survey and alignment concept for the ALS is based on a network of fixed monuments installed in the building floor, to which all component positions are referred. Measurements include electronic distance measurements and separate sightings for horizontal and vertical directions, partially with automated electronic data capture. Most of the data processing is accomplished by running a customized version of PC-GEONET. It provides raw data storage, data reduction, and the calculation of adjusted coordinates, as well as an option for error analysis. PC-GEONET has also been used to establish an observation plan for the monuments and calculate their expected position accuracies, based on approximate coordinates. Additionally, for local survey tasks, the commercial software package ECDS is used. In this paper, the ALS survey and alignment strategy and techniques are presented and critically discussed. First experiences with the alignment of the linac and booster components are described.

Keller, R.; Lauritzen, T.; /LBL, Berkeley; Friedsam, H.; /SLAC

2005-08-12

65

Scintillator characterization using the LBL Pulsed X-ray Facility  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a bench-top pulsed x-ray system for measuring scintillation properties of compounds in crystal or powdered form. The source is a light-excited x-ray tube that produces 40 x-ray photons (mean energy 18.5 keV) per steradian in each 100 ps fwhm pulse. The repetition rate is adjustable from 0 to 10{sup 7} pulses per second. The fluorescent emanations from the x-ray excited samples are detected with either a sapphire-windowed microchannel plate photomultiplier tube (spectral range 150--650 nm, transit time jitter 40 ps fwhm) or a quartz windowed GaAs(Cs) photomultiplier tube (spectral range 160--930 nm, transit time jitter 4 ns fwhm). Decay time spectra are acquired using a TDC Havina 40 ps fwhm resolution over a 84 ms dynamic range. A computer controlled monochromator can be inserted into the optical path to measure the emission spectrum or wavelength resolved decay time spectrum. A computer controlled sample changer allows up to 64 samples to be measured without intervention.

Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Weber, M.J.; Blankespoor, S.C.; Ho, M.H.; West, A.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

1994-10-01

66

LBL/JSU/AGMUS science consortium annual report, FY 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

In 1983, a formal Memorandum of Understanding joined the Ana G. Mendez University System (AGMUS), Jackson State University (JSU), and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in a consortium designed to advance the science and technology programs of JSU and AGMUS. This is the first such collaboration between a Hispanic university system, a historically Black university, and a national laboratory. The goals of this alliance are basic and direct: to develop and effect a long-term, comprehensive program that will enable the campuses of AGMUS and JSU to provide a broad, high-quality offering in the natural and computer sciences, to increase the number of minority students entering these fields, and to contribute to scientific knowledge and the federal government`s science mission through research. This report documents the progress toward these goals and includes individual success stories. The LBL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium has developed plans for utilizing its program successes to help other institutions to adopt or adapt those elements of the model that have produced the greatest results. Within the five-year plan formulated in 1990 are eight major components, each with defining elements and goals. These elements have become the components of the Science Consortium`s current plan for expansion and propagation.

Not Available

1992-12-31

67

The effect of polysaccharide types on adsorption properties of LbL assembled multilayer films.  

PubMed

Three types of biocompatible films were fabricated via electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of oppositely charged cationic polyurethane and anionic polysaccharides with different primary structures, including sodium hyaluronate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate. The adsorption behaviors of films were investigated by using the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) as a model drug at various pH values and salt concentrations. The relationship between the type of polysaccharide and the adsorption behavior of LbL films was comparatively studied. It was found that the adsorption capacity increased with an increase of the initial concentration of MB in the concentration range of the experiment to all of the films, and the pH of environment ranged from 3.0 to 9.0. The Langmuir equation fit perfectly to the experiment data. In addition, a pseudo second-order adsorption model can well describe the adsorption behaviors of MB for three films. The results showed that the type of side chains and the charge density of the polysaccharides played key roles in the adsorption properties of the PU/polysaccharide multilayer films. PMID:25609027

Xu, Jie; Yang, Lixing; Hu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Shimei; Wang, Jide; Feng, Shun

2015-03-01

68

From the {psi} to charmed mesons: Three years with the SLAC-LBL detector at SPEAR  

SciTech Connect

As I look back at the first three years or so at SPEAR, I consider this one of the most revolutionary or perhaps the most revolutionary, experiment in the 60 year history of particle physics. It certainly was the most exciting time, in a laboratory that is, that I have ever experienced. In my talk I will cover the period 1973--1976 which saw the discoveries of the {psi} and {psi}{prime} resonances the {chi} states and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the D{degree}, D{sup +}* charmed meson doublet as well as the D{degree}* and D{sup +}* doublet. I will also refer briefly to some more recent results. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or ``MARK I`` which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. In 1976 the MARK I was modified to include a ``Lead Glass Wall`` (LGW) for improved photon and electron detection. This involved a new physics group from LBL, who built the LGW, Lina Barbaro-Galtieri et al. as well as a continuing group from SLAC, Martin Perl and Gary Feldman et al. to provide continuity in the running of the MARK I and to continue the study of the anomalous e{mu}events which Martin found earlier and which eventually were identified as the signature of the {tau} lepton.

Goldhaber, G.

1992-06-01

69

From the. psi. to charmed mesons: Three years with the SLAC-LBL detector at SPEAR  

SciTech Connect

As I look back at the first three years or so at SPEAR, I consider this one of the most revolutionary or perhaps the most revolutionary, experiment in the 60 year history of particle physics. It certainly was the most exciting time, in a laboratory that is, that I have ever experienced. In my talk I will cover the period 1973--1976 which saw the discoveries of the {psi} and {psi}{prime} resonances the {chi} states and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the D{degree}, D{sup +}* charmed meson doublet as well as the D{degree}* and D{sup +}* doublet. I will also refer briefly to some more recent results. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or MARK I'' which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. In 1976 the MARK I was modified to include a Lead Glass Wall'' (LGW) for improved photon and electron detection. This involved a new physics group from LBL, who built the LGW, Lina Barbaro-Galtieri et al. as well as a continuing group from SLAC, Martin Perl and Gary Feldman et al. to provide continuity in the running of the MARK I and to continue the study of the anomalous e{mu}events which Martin found earlier and which eventually were identified as the signature of the {tau} lepton.

Goldhaber, G.

1992-06-01

70

Metal ion reactive thin films using spray electrostatic LbL assembly.  

PubMed

By using the spray-layer-by-layer (Spray-LbL) technique, the number of metal counterions trapped within LbL coatings is significantly increased by kinetically freezing the film short of equilibrium, potentially limiting interchain penetration and forcing chains to remain extrinsically compensated to a much greater degree than observed in the traditional dipped LbL technique. The basis for the enhanced entrapment of metal ions such as Cu2+, Fe2+, and Ag+ is addressed, including the equilibrium driving force for extrinsic compensation by soft versus hard metal ions and the impact of Spray-LbL on the kinetics of polymer-ion complexation. These polymer-bound metal-ion coatings are also demonstrated to be effective treatments for air filtration, functionalizing existing filters with the ability to strongly bind toxic industrial compounds such as ammonia or cyanide gases, as well as chemical warfare agent simulants such as chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. On the basis of results reported here, future work could extend this method to include other toxic soft-base ligands such as carbon monoxide, benzene, or organophosphate nerve agents. PMID:18712910

Krogman, Kevin C; Lyon, Katharine F; Hammond, Paula T

2008-11-20

71

Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source  

SciTech Connect

At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide {sup c}ocktails{sup ,} a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-04-19

72

Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide "cocktails", a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

2013-04-01

73

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2380)-Status  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) (2380)- Status: OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE (2380)- MASS(2380)- MASS(2380)- MASS(2380)- MASS VALUE (Me 238498 45 BIAGI 86B SPEC SPS - beam (2380)- WIDTH(2380)- WIDTH(2380)- WIDTH(2380)- WIDTH VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 2623 45 BIAGI 86B SPEC SPS - beam (2380)- DECAY MODES(2380)- DECAY MODES

2010-01-01

74

AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS: 0 LBL-35700 AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS*  

E-print Network

AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS: 0 LBL-35700 AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS* Max Sherman Darryl Tight is the Building? Tens of thousands of unique fan pressurization measure- ments have been made of U- teristics in the U.S. housing stock in terms of region, age, construction type and quality. Keywords

75

UNCERTAINTIES IN FAN PRESSURIZATION MEASUREMENTS:April 13, 1995 Submitted to ASTM: Airflow Performance Conference 10/93 LBL-32115  

E-print Network

UNCERTAINTIES IN FAN PRESSURIZATION MEASUREMENTS:April 13, 1995 Submitted to ASTM: Airflow Performance Conference 10/93 LBL-32115 UNCERTAINTIES IN FAN PRESSURIZATION MEASUREMENTS Max Sherman1 Energy of building enve- lopes using fan pressurization.Uncertainty is introduced in the process from the uncer

76

Electron beam transport for the LBL IR-FEL. [Infrared free-electron laser  

SciTech Connect

The infrared flee-electron laser (IR-FEL) proposed by LBL as part of the Combustion Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL) consists of a multiple-pass accelerator with superconducting cavities supplying a 55 MeV 12 mA beam to an undulator within a 24-meter optical cavity. Future options include deceleration through the same cavities for energy recovery and reducing the power in the beam dump. The electron transport system from the injector through the cavities and undulator must satisfy conditions of high order achromaticity, isochronicity, unity first-order transport matrix around the recirculation loop, variable betatron match into the undulator, ease of operation and economical implementation. This paper presents a workable solution that satisfies these requirements.

Staples, J.; Edighoffer, J.; Kim, Kwang-Je.

1992-07-01

77

Effect of nano clay platelets and DNA on controlling the H-dimer of oxazine 4 perchlorate (OX4) in LbL film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxazine 4 perchlorate (OX4) forms dimer even in aqueous solution. In layer-by-layer (LbL) film of OX4, dimeric sites predominate over monomeric sites. This results in the quenching of fluorescence intensity. This communication reports a study of the control of H-dimer of OX4 in LbL film by incorporating nano clay platelets. Influence of deoxyribonucleic acid molecules in controlling the H-dimeric sites of Ox4 in the LbL film has also been studied. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic technique has been employed to study this effect. Atomic force microscopic image confirms the presence of nano clay platelets in the LbL film.

Bhattacharjee, J.; Hussain, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, D.

2014-09-01

78

Fabrication and performance of catalyst-coated membranes by LbL deposition of catalyst onto Nafion for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, four comparative methods are described for the preparation of catalyst coated membranes (CCM) via using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique. In the first method, LbL composite membrane is immersed into H2PtCl6 solution followed by reduction to metallic Pt. Secondly, Pt-C (hispec 3000) dispersed in the positively charged polyelectrolyte is assembled onto the membrane support. Thirdly, anionic polyelectrolyte with external

Serpil Y?lmaztrk; Tolga Gm?o?lu; Gl?en Albayrak Ar?; Faruk kszmer; Hseyin Deligz

79

A new 14 GHz Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) for the heavy ion accelerator facility ATLAS  

SciTech Connect

A 14 GHz Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) has been designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory. The source is a modification of the AECR at Berkeley and incorporates the latest results from ECR developments to produce intense beams of highly charged ions, including an improved magnetic confinement of the plasma electrons with an axial mirror ratio of 3.5. The aluminum plasma chamber and extraction electrode as well as a biased disk on axis at the microwave injection side donates additional electrons to the plasma, making use of the large secondary electron yield from aluminum oxide. The source is capable of ECR plasma heating using two different frequencies simultaneously to increase the electron energy gain for the production of high charge states. The main design goal is to produce several e{mu}A of at least {sup 238}U{sup 35+} in order to accelerate the beam to coulomb-barrier energies without further stripping. First charge state distributions for gaseous elements have been measured and 210 e{mu}A {sup 16}O{sup 7+} has been achieved. A normalized 90% emittance from 0.1 to 0.2 {pi} mm{sm_bullet}mrad for krypton and oxygen beam has been found.

Schlapp, M.; Pardo, R.C.; Vondrasek, R.C.; Billquist, P.J.; Szczech, J. [and others

1997-11-01

80

Design of the 3rd generation ECR ion source  

SciTech Connect

Development of the 3rd Generation ECR ion source has progressed from a concept described in the last ECR Ion Source Workshop to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. The prototype consists of three solenoid coils and six race track coils with iron poles forming the sextupole. The design calls for mirror fields of 4 T at injection and 3 T at extraction and for a radial field strength at the wall of 2.4 T. The prototype magnet will be tested this spring in an existing vertical cryostat to determine its operating characteristics including maximum operating values, training characteristics and to study the interaction between the solenoid and sextupole coils. Design of the ECR plasma chamber includes aluminum walls to provide an enhanced source of cold electrons, up to three separate microwave feeds to allow simultaneous heating of the plasma electrons at 10, 14 and 18 GHz or at 6, 10 and 14 GHz. Water cooling of the plasma chamber walls and the injection and extraction plates is planned so that up to 10 kW of microwave power can be used without excessive heating of the chamber components. Experience with the AECR-U at LBNL shows that increasing the magnetic fields and using two frequency heating allows operation at lower neutral pressures and higher microwave power density. Both of these conditions are needed to produce very high charge states from elements with masses greater than xenon and the resulting higher energy, more intense heavy beams from the 88-Inch Cyclotron would provide new research opportunities.

Lyneis, C.M.; Xie, Z.Q.; Taylor, C.E.

1997-02-01

81

Synchrotron light source data book  

SciTech Connect

The ''Synchrotron Light Source Data Book'' is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-ray Data Booklet, edited by D. Vaughan (LBL PUB-490), address the 'use' of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in 'practical units' and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices.

Murphy, J.

1989-01-01

82

Experimental reestablishment of red wolves (Canis rufus) on the Tennessee Valley Authority's Land Between the Lakes (LBL)  

SciTech Connect

For all practical purposes the red wolf (Canis rufus) is extirpated in its final range in southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana. Although the species can be preserved in captivity, the only means by which it can be preserved as a naturally occurring element of our national heritage is to reestablish viable populations within the wolf's historic range in the southeastern United States. This proposal outlines a suggested procedure for reestablishing red wolves at Land Between The Lakes (LBL) by initially releasing five adult mated pairs of animals on the area over a two-year period. Recommendations for additions, changes, and deletions to this proposal have been received from the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, other governmental agencies, and interested organizations and individuals in the surrounding area. This proposal includes information describing probable environmental impacts associated with the experimental reestablishment of red wolves at LBL. 39 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

Carley, C.J.; Mechler, J.L.

1983-10-01

83

LBL RUNAROUND RESULTS 3.00 km (1.86 mi) September 14, 1990 Place Time Name Group Group  

E-print Network

­39 6 17 11:29.6 Leo Rainier 30­39 7 18 11:34.1 Chip Miller Bardeen 22 37 12:14.6 D. W. Vasco 30­39 10 38 12:20.9 Charles Hernandez 30­39 11 39 12:23.8 John McNulty Gerlach 40­49 not LBL 50 12:38.8 Steven Rucker John

84

LBL/GRP studies of fractured rocks: Summary FY 1986--1990  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in site characterization and performance assessment of rock masses for the design and construction of nuclear waste repositories provided the motivation for the LBL studies of the hydraulic, mechanical geophysical, and geochemical properties of discontinuities. These studies are grouped into eight topics: (1) The study of the correlation between the mechanical properties of a fracture, its hydraulic conductivity, and the amount of seismic attenuation it causes; (2) the phenomenon of flow channeling through preferred pathways in the s, which has important implications for radionuclide transport; (3) the hydrologic characterization of near-vertical faults and odier potentially highly conductive features with a view to analyzing the flow of water and air in an unsaturated fault-rock system; (4) the use of Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) and cross-hole seismic tomography to map elastic properties indicative of fracture density and structure, and to detect and characterize fractures and fault zones away from subsurface workings; (5) as a complement to seismic methods, studies of the use of electrical resistivity properties of the subsurface to detect the presence of fractures and their geometric orientation away from boreholes; (6) near the waste canisters, investigations of the geochemical-hydrological interaction of radionuclides in the fluids with the material lining fractures in the rock; (7) numerical modeling studies to examine the effects of a varying thermal field on the precipitation of otherwise soluble minerals and the resulting decrease of porosity that could reduce the migration of solutes by diminishing mass diffusivity and fluid flow; (8) investigation of the mechanical degradation of the walls of the waste canister boreholes due to thermomechanical stress changes, and to understand the mechanical response of the fractured rock to elevated temperatures. The major findings in each of these areas are summarized briefly below.

Not Available

1990-11-01

85

Advances in metal ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Beams of metallic ion species can be produced by the ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source and by the MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) ion source. Although the ECR source is fundamentally a gaseous ion source, metal ion beams can be produced by introducing metallic feed material into the plasma discharge using a number of techniques. The ion charge states can be very high, which is a significant advantage to most applications. The MEVVA ion source, on the other hand, is specifically a metal ion source. It has produced metallic ion beams from virtually all the solid metallic elements at a current of typically hundreds of milliamperes; the ions produced are in general multiply ionized, but not as highly stripped as those generated in the ECR source. Although the MEVVA source at present operates in a pulsed mode with a low duty cycle (less than or equal to 1%), work is in progress to increase the duty cycle significantly. In this paper the operation and performance of the LBL ECR and MEVVA ion sources, with respect to metal ion generation, are described.

Brown, I.G.

1988-05-01

86

ARTEMIS-B: A room-temperature test electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University  

SciTech Connect

The current scheme for ion-beam injection into the coupled cyclotron accelerator at the NSCL involves the use of two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The first one is a 6.4 GHz fully superconducting that will be replaced within two years by SUSI, a third generation 18 GHz superconducting ECR ion source. The other source, ARTEMIS, is a room-temperature source based on the AECR-U design and built in collaboration with the University of Jyvaeskylae in 1999. Due to cyclotron operation constraint, very little time can be allowed to ion source development and optics studies of the cyclotron injection beam line. In this context, NSCL has decided to build ARTEMIS-B an exact replica of its room-temperature ECR ion source. The goal of this project is threefold. One is to improve the overall reliability of cyclotron operation through tests and studies of various ion source parameters that could benefit beam stability, tuning reproducibility, and of course overall extracted currents performance. Second is to implement and test modifications or upgrade made to the ion source: extraction geometry, new resistive or rf oven design, dual frequency use, liner, etc. Finally, this test source will be used to study various ion optics schemes such as electrostatic quadrupole doublet or triplet at the source extraction or the use of a correction sextupole and assess their effect on the ion beam through the use of an emittance scanner and imaging viewer that will be incorporated into ARTEMIS-B beam line. This article reviews the design and construction of ARTEMIS-B along with some initial commissioning results.

Machicoane, G.; Cole, D.; Ottarson, J.; Stetson, J.; Zavodszky, P. [NSCL Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2006-03-15

87

XUV synchrotron optical components for the Advanced Light Source: Summary of the requirements and the developmental program  

SciTech Connect

We give a brief summary of the requirements for water cooled optical components for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third generation synchrotron radiation source under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from a finished water cooled copper alloy mirror will be used to demonstrate the state of the art in optical metrology with the Takacs Long Trace Profiler (LTP II).

McKinney, W.; Irick, S.; Lunt, D.

1992-07-01

88

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System. Revised  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. Figure 1. ALS floor plan. Pairs of neutron and gamma radiation monitors are shown as dots numbered from 1 to 12. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies.

Ritchie, A.L.; Oldfather, D.E.; Lindner, A.F.

1993-08-01

89

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2 graviton MASSgraviton MASSgraviton MASSgraviton MASS All of the following limits+12 with a possible graviton mass as a parameter. The combined frequentist mass limit is at 90%CL. 3 DAMOUR 91 on the level of scalar contribution in the context of a family of tensor [spin 2]-biscalar theories. graviton

90

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2 OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE graviton MASSgraviton MASSgraviton MASSgraviton MASS All+12 with a possible graviton mass as a parameter. The combined frequentist mass limit is at 90%CL. 3 DAMOUR 91 on the level of scalar contribution in the context of a family of tensor [spin 2]-biscalar theories. graviton

91

Sponsored by the Human Resources Benefits Team / Benefits@lbl.gov / (510) 486-6403 UC Berkeley Art Museum/Pacific Film Archive  

E-print Network

Sponsored by the Human Resources Benefits Team / Benefits@lbl.gov / (510) 486-6403 UC Berkeley Art theater admission UC Berkeley Art Museum/Pacific Film Archive www.bampfa.berkeley.edu · Discounts at local books and merchandise in the Museum Store · Invitations for two to all major exhibition openings · BAM

92

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2380)-Status  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) (2380)- Status: OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE (2380)- MASS(2380)- MASS(2380)- MASS(2380)- MASS VALUE (Me 238498 45 BIAGI 86B SPEC SPS - beam (2380)- WIDTH(2380)- WIDTH(2380)- WIDTH(2380)- WIDTH VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 2623 45 BIAGI 86B SPEC SPS - beam (2380)- DECAY MODES(2380)- DECAY MODES

2012-01-01

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) N(2250) G19  

E-print Network

or averages. Mode Fraction (i /) 1 N 5­15 % 2 N 3 K N(2250) BRANCHING RATIOSN(2250) BRANCHING RATIOSN(2250Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) N(2250) G19 I(JP) = 1 2(9 2 -) Status: Some obsolete results published before 1980 were last

94

Electronic systems for transverse coupled-bunch feedback in the Advanced Light Source (ALS)  

SciTech Connect

In order to effectively control a large number of transverse coupled-bunch modes in the LBL Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring, a broad-band, bunch-by-bunch feedback system has been designed, and is beginning to undergo testing and commissioning. This paper addresses, in some detail, the major electronic components of the feedback system. In particular, the components described include: broad-band microwave position detection receivers, closed orbit offset signal rejection circuitry, and baseband quadrature processing circuitry.

Barry, W.; Lambertson, G.R.; Lo, C.C.

1993-10-01

95

Influence of LbL surface modification on oxygen cross-over in self-assembled thin composite membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is concerned with the investigation of oxygen transport in layer-by-layer (LbL) self assembly of polystyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt (PSS) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) on Nafion membrane depending on the number of deposited bilayers, ion type within the multilayers and temperature. It is observed from SEM analysis that the polyelectrolyte layers growth on each side of Nafion membrane regularly. The oxygen permeability (P) of (PAH-PSS) 20 is 691 cm 3/(m 2 day bar) at 25 C while P of pristine Nafion is 2329 cm 3/(m 2 day bar) at the same temperature. This significant reduction (70.3%) in gas permeability can be explained by the formation of LbL multilayers which both restrict the mobility of gas through the polymer matrix and adjust gas solubility properties in conjunction with ion-dipole interaction between the polar phase of Nafion and the secondary ammonium groups of PAH. (PAH/PSS) 20-Na + and (PAH/PSS) 20-H + exhibit 64.4% and 52.3% reduction in oxygen permittivity at 25 C in comparison with the pristine Nafion 117, respectively, while the proton conductivities of these membranes are 106.9 and 136.9 mS/cm. Promisingly, it is found that the membrane selectivity values ( ?) of all multilayered membranes in both H + and Na + form are much higher than that of perfluorosulfonated ionomer. The thickness of deposited bilayers dominates the diffusion and solubility properties of oxygen through the composite membrane while the major effect of surface hydrophilicity is not observed on oxygen permeability.

Y?lmaztrk, Serpil; Ercan, Nevra; Deligz, Hseyin

2012-01-01

96

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) p I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) p I(JP) = 1 2(1 2 +) Status: p MASS (atomic mass units u)p MASS (atomic mass units u)p MASS (atomic mass units u)p MASS (atomic mass units u) The mass is known much more precisely in u (atomic mass units more precisely in u (atomic mass units) than in MeV. The conversion from u to MeV, 1 u = 931.494 061

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) p I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) p I(JP) = 1 2(1 2 +) Status: p MASS (atomic mass units u)p MASS (atomic mass units u)p MASS (atomic mass units u)p MASS (atomic mass units u) The mass is known much more precisely in u (atomic mass unitsV)p MASS (MeV)p MASS (MeV) The mass is known much more precisely in u (atomic mass units) than in Me

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 3(1990) IG (JPC ) = 1+(3 --)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) 3(1990) IG (JPC ) = 1+(3 - -) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE 3(1990) MASS3(1990) MASS3(1990) MASS3(1990) MASS VALUE (MeV) DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. 198214 1 ANISOVICH 02 SPEC 0.61.9 p p 0, 0, + - 2007 HASAN 94 RVUE p p 1 From

2010-01-01

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Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (1405) IG (JPC ) = 0+(0 -+)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) (1405) IG (JPC ) = 0+(0 - +) A REVIEW GOES HERE Check our WWW List of Reviews (1405) MASS(1405) MASS(1405) MASS(1405) MASS VALUE (MeV) DOCUMENT ID 1408.92.4 OUR AVERAGE1408.92.4 OUR AVERAGE1408852 2.5 NICHITIU 02 OBLX ANDO 86 SPEC 4.9 AUGUSTIN 90 DM2 3.3 FUKUI 91C SPEC 27.3 BOLTON 92B MRK3 2

2012-01-01

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Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 3(1990) IG (JPC ) = 1+(3 --)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) 3(1990) IG (JPC ) = 1+(3 - -) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE 3(1990) MASS3(1990) MASS3(1990) MASS3(1990) MASS VALUE (MeV) DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. 198214 1 ANISOVICH 02 SPEC 0.61.9 p p 0, 0, + - 2007 HASAN 94 RVUE p p 1 From

2012-01-01

101

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 2(1670) IG (JPC ) = 1-(2 -+)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) 2(1670) IG (JPC ) = 1-(2 - +) 2(1670) MASS2(1670) MASS2(1670) MASS2(1670) MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS - 50 - Cu + - - Cu 1676 6 4 EVANGELIS... 81 OMEG - 12 - p 3p 1657 14 4,5 DAUM 80D SPEC - 6394 p, fits, limits, etc. 1742 31 49 ANTREASYAN 90 CBAL e+ e- e+ e- 0 0 0 1624 21 1 BELLINI 85 SPEC

2012-01-01

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (1405) IG (JPC ) = 0+(0 -+)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) (1405) IG (JPC ) = 0+(0 - +) A REVIEW GOES HERE Check our WWW List of Reviews (1405) MASS(1405) MASS(1405) MASS(1405) MASS VALUE (MeV) DOCUMENT ID 1409.82.5 OUR AVERAGE1409.82.5 OUR AVERAGE1409852 1.9 NICHITIU 02 OBLX ANDO 86 SPEC 4.1 AUGUSTIN 90 DM2 3.9 FUKUI 91C SPEC 29.8 BOLTON 92B MRK3 2

2010-01-01

103

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) h1(1170) IG (JPC ) = 0-(1 + -)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) h1(1170) IG (JPC ) = 0-(1 + -) h1(1170) MASSh1(1170) MASSh1(1170) MASSh1(1170) MASS VALUE (Me ESTIMATE We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. 1168 4 ANDO 92 SPEC 8 - p + - 0 n 1166 53 1 ANDO 92 SPEC 8 - p + - 0 n 119060 2 DANKOWY... 81 SPEC 0 8 p 3n 1

2010-01-01

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Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) h1(1170) IG (JPC ) = 0-(1 + -)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) h1(1170) IG (JPC ) = 0-(1 + -) h1(1170) MASSh1(1170) MASSh1(1170) MASSh1(1170) MASS VALUE (Me ESTIMATE We do not use the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. 1168 4 ANDO 92 SPEC 8 - p + - 0 n 1166 53 1 ANDO 92 SPEC 8 - p + - 0 n 119060 2 DANKOWY... 81 SPEC 0 8 p 3n 1

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) IG (JPC ) = 0+(0 + +)  

E-print Network

) 5 BUGG 07A RVUE Compilation (484 ± 17)-i(255 ± 10) GARCIA-MAR...07 RVUE Ke4 (441+16 - 8)-i(272+ 9 RVUE (533 ± 25)-i(247 ± 25) 11 BUGG 03 RVUE 532 - i272 BLACK 01 RVUE 0 0 0 0 (470 ± 30)-i(295 ± 20(247 ± 3) KAMINSKI 94 RVUE , K K HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page 1 Created: 7/30/2010 16:46 #12;Citation: K

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) B-particle organization  

E-print Network

(5721)0 mass · B J (5732) mass, width · B2(5747)0 mass · B0 s mass, mean life branching fractions polarization in B0 s decay B0 s -B0 s mixing · B s mass · B sJ (5850) mass, width · B± c mass, mean life branching://pdg.lbl.gov) B-particle organization Many measurements of B decays involve admixtures of B hadrons. Pre- viously

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K2(2250) I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) K2(2250) I(JP) = 1 2(2-) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE This entry contains various peaks in strange-nucleon system, either in the mass spectra or in the JP = 2- wave. K2(2250) MASSK2(2250) MASSK2(2250) MASSK2(2250... 79 HBC + 32 K+ p p X 2240±20 20 LISSAUER 70 HBC 9 K+ p 1 JP = 2- from moments analysis. K2(2250

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Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K2(2250) I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) K2(2250) I(JP) = 1 2(2-) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE This entry contains various peaks in strange-nucleon system, either in the mass spectra or in the JP = 2- wave. K2(2250) MASSK2(2250) MASSK2(2250) MASSK2(2250... 79 HBC + 32 K+ p p X 2240±20 20 LISSAUER 70 HBC 9 K+ p 1 JP = 2- from moments analysis. K2(2250

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Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) sJ(5850) I(JP) = ?(??)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) B sJ(5850) I(JP) = ?(??) I, J, P need confirmation. OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE Signal can be interpreted as coming from bs states. Needs confir- mation. B sJ (5850) MASSB sJ (5850) MASSB sJ (5850) MASSB sJ (5850) MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 5853±155853±155853±155853±15 141 AKERS 95E

2012-01-01

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) sJ(5850) I(JP) = ?(??)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) B sJ(5850) I(JP) = ?(??) I, J, P need confirmation. OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE Signal can be interpreted as coming from bs states. Needs confir- mation. B sJ (5850) MASSB sJ (5850) MASSB sJ (5850) MASSB sJ (5850) MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 5853±155853±155853±155853±15 141 AKERS 95E

2010-01-01

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K(1460) I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K(1460) I(JP) = 1 2(0-) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE Observed in K partial-wave analysis. K(1460 the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. · · · 1460 DAUM 81C CNTR - 63 K- p K- 2p 1400 1 BRANDENB

2010-01-01

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (1475) IG (JPC ) = 0+(0 -+)  

E-print Network

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (1475) IG (JPC ) = 0+(0 - +) See also the (1405). (1475) MASS(1475) MASS(1475) MASS(1475) MASS K K MODE (K(892) K dominant)K K MODE (K(892) K dominant)K K MODE (K(892) K dominant)K K MODE (K(892) K

2010-01-01

113

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K2(1770) I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K2(1770) I(JP) = 1 2(2-) See our mini-review in the 2004 edition of this Review, PDG 04. K2± 81773± 81773± 8 1 ASTON 93 LASS 11K- p K- p · · · We do not use the following data for averages, fits

2010-01-01

114

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 4(2045) I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K 4(2045) I(JP) = 1 2(4+) K 4(2045) MASSK 4(2045) MASSK 4(2045) MASSK 4(2045) MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS Error includes scale factor of 1.1. 2062± 14±13 1 ASTON 86 LASS 0 11 K- p K- + n 2039± 10 400 2

2010-01-01

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K1(1400) I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K1(1400) I(JP) = 1 2(1+) K1(1400) MASSK1(1400) MASSK1(1400) MASSK1(1400) MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS 1463±64±68 7k ASNER 00B CLEO ± - K- + - 1373±14±18 1 ASTON 87 LASS 0 11 K- p K0 + - n 1392

2010-01-01

116

Heavy ion development at the LBL (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory) 88-inch cyclotron  

SciTech Connect

The 88-Inch Cyclotron produces a wide range of ions for basic and applied research. The 6.4 GHz ECR source has completely replaced the PIG source, giving higher charge states and higher cyclotron energies. The ECR source has produced ions of 34 elements, of which 28 have been accelerated in the cyclotron, using gases, and low and high temperature ovens. A higher frequency 14.5 GHz advanced ECR is now under construction. It will further increase the charge states and energies available. A conceptual design has been done for a superconducting ECR driven by a gyrotron at 28 GHz. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Clark, D.J.; Lyneis, C.M.

1989-05-01

117

A high charge state heavy ion beam source for HIF  

SciTech Connect

A high current low emittance high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver HIF (heavy ion fusion) driver accelerator scale beam. Using high-charge-state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system which consists of the gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 2D beam envelope simulations and experimental feasibility studies` results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector.

Eylon, S. [Duly Research, Inc., Rancho Palos Verdes, CA (United States); Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-04-01

118

ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons  

SciTech Connect

In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

Lyneis, C.M.

1986-10-01

119

Advanced Light Source beam position monitor  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation facility nearing completion at LBL. As a third-generation machine, the ALS is designed to produce intense light from bend magnets, wigglers, and undulators (insertion devices). The facility will include a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron, beam transport lines, a 1--2 GeV storage ring, insertion devices, and photon beam lines. Currently, the beam injection systems are being commissioned, and the storage ring is being installed. Electron beam position monitors (BPM) are installed throughout the accelerator and constitute the major part of accelerator beam diagnostics. The design of the BPM instruments is complete, and 50 units have been constructed for use in the injector systems. We are currently fabricating 100 additional instruments for the storage ring. In this paper I discuss engineering fabrication, testing and performance of the beam pickup electrodes and the BPM electronics.

Hinkson, J.

1991-10-28

120

Enroll online through Employee Self Service: https://hris.lbl.gov/selfservice/login. Select Training Enrollment from the menu then go to All Courses to make a selection. For additional information, please contact the HR Benefits Team at 510-486-6403 or be  

E-print Network

Enroll online through Employee Self Service: https://hris.lbl.gov/selfservice/login. Select, please contact the HR Benefits Team at 510-486-6403 or benefits@lbl.gov Enroll online through Employee Training Enrollment from the menu then go to All Courses to make a selection. For additional information

Knowles, David William

121

Enroll online through Employee Self Service: https://hris.lbl.gov/selfservice/login. Select Training Enrollment from the menu then go to All Courses to make a selection. For additional information, please contact the HR Benefits Team at 510-486-6403 or be  

E-print Network

Enroll online through Employee Self Service: https://hris.lbl.gov/selfservice/login. Select, please contact the HR Benefits Team at 510-486-6403 or benefits@lbl.gov * Enroll online through Employee Workplace Savings Plan 12:00 Information Desk, Caf Lobby MAY 2012 #12;Enroll online through Employee Self

Knowles, David William

122

Enroll online through Employee Self Service: https://hris.lbl.gov/selfservice/login. Select Training Enrollment from the menu then go to All Courses to make a selection. For additional information, please contact the HR Benefits Team at 510-486-6403 or be  

E-print Network

Enroll online through Employee Self Service: https://hris.lbl.gov/selfservice/login. Select Training Enrollment from the menu then go to All Courses to make a selection. For additional information, please contact the HR Benefits Team at 510-486-6403 or benefits@lbl.gov * Enroll online through Employee

Knowles, David William

123

Enroll online through Employee Self Service: https://hris.lbl.gov/selfservice/login. Select Training Enrollment from the menu then go to All Courses to make a selection. For additional information, please contact the HR Benefits Team at 510-486-6403 or be  

E-print Network

;Enroll online through Employee Self Service: https://hris.lbl.gov/selfservice/login. Select TrainingEnroll online through Employee Self Service: https://hris.lbl.gov/selfservice/login. Select Training Enrollment from the menu then go to All Courses to make a selection. For additional information

124

SciDAC - The Scientific Data Management Center (http://sdmcenter.lbl.gov)  

SciTech Connect

In SciDAC SDM project, the main assignment to the Georgia Institute of Technology team (according to the proposed work) is to develop advanced information extraction and information integration technologies on top of the XWRAP technology originated from Georgia Tech [LPH01]. We have developed XWRAPComposer technology to enable the XWRAP code generator to generate Java information wrappers that are capable of extraction of data from multiple linked pages. These information wrappers are used as gateways or adaptors for scientific information mediators to access and fuse interesting data and answering complex queries over a large collection of heterogeneous scientific information sources. Our accomplishments over the SciDAC sponsored years (July 2001 to July 2004) can be summarized along two dimensions. Technically, we have produced a number of major software releases and published over 30 research papers in both international conferences and international journals. The planned software releases include 1. Five Java wrappers and five WDSL-enabled wrappers for SDM Pilot scenarios, which were released in early 2003, 2. The XWRAPComposer toolkit (command line version) which was first released in late 2003 and then released in Summer 2004, 3. Five Ptolemy wrapper actors which were released first in Summer 2003, and then released again in Fall 2005. 4. The decomposable XWRAPComposer actor in Ptolemy, which we have made it available as open source in end of 2004 and tested it in early 2005.

Ling Liu Calton Pu

2005-06-20

125

Heparin-mimicking multilayer coating on polymeric membrane via LbL assembly of cyclodextrin-based supramolecules.  

PubMed

In this study, multifunctional and heparin-mimicking star-shaped supramolecules-deposited 3D porous multilayer films with improved biocompatibility were fabricated via a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method on polymeric membrane substrates. Star-shaped heparin-mimicking polyanions (including poly(styrenesulfonate-co-sodium acrylate; Star-PSS-AANa) and poly(styrenesulfonate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate; Star-PSS-EGMA)) and polycations (poly(methyl chloride-quaternized 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate; Star-PMeDMA) were first synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) based cores. Then assembly of 3D porous multilayers onto polymeric membrane surfaces was carried out by alternating deposition of the polyanions and polycations via electrostatic interaction. The surface morphology and composition, water contact angle, blood activation, and thrombotic potential as well as cell viability for the coated heparin-mimicking films were systematically investigated. The results of surface ATR-FTIR spectra and XPS spectra verified successful deposition of the star-shaped supramolecules onto the biomedical membrane surfaces; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations revealed that the modified substrate had 3D porous surface morphology, which might have a great biological influence on the biointerface. Furthermore, systematic in vitro investigation of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, human platelet factor 4 (PF4, indicates platelet activation), activate partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, indicates blood coagulant)), and blood-related complement activation (C3a and C5a, indicates inflammation potential) confirmed that the heparin-mimicking multilayer coated membranes exhibited ultralow blood component activations and excellent hemocompatibility. Meanwhile, after surface coating, endothelial cell viability was also promoted, which indicated that the heparin-mimicking multilayer coating might extend the application fields of polymeric membranes in biomedical fields. PMID:25375347

Deng, Jie; Liu, Xinyue; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Shi, Wenbin; Nie, Chuanxiong; Zhao, Changsheng

2014-12-10

126

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2250)-I(JP) = 0(??) Status  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) (2250)- I(JP) = 0(??) Status: (2250)- MASS(2250)- MASS(2250)- MASS(2250)- MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS13 44 ASTON 87B LASS K- p 11 GeV/c 2251 98 78 BIAGI 86B SPEC SPS - beam (2250)- WIDTH(2250)- WIDTH5518 OUR AVERAGE5518 OUR AVERAGE 8138 44 ASTON 87B LASS K- p 11 GeV/c 4820 78 BIAGI 86B SPEC SPS

2012-01-01

127

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2250)-I(JP) = 0(??) Status  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) (2250)- I(JP) = 0(??) Status: (2250)- MASS(2250)- MASS(2250)- MASS(2250)- MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS13 44 ASTON 87B LASS K- p 11 GeV/c 2251 98 78 BIAGI 86B SPEC SPS - beam (2250)- WIDTH(2250)- WIDTH5518 OUR AVERAGE5518 OUR AVERAGE 8138 44 ASTON 87B LASS K- p 11 GeV/c 4820 78 BIAGI 86B SPEC SPS

2010-01-01

128

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 2(1670) IG (JPC ) = 1-(2 -+)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) 2(1670) IG (JPC ) = 1-(2 - +) 2(1670) MASS2(1670) MASS2(1670) MASS2(1670) MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS - 12 - p 3p 1657 14 4,5 DAUM 80D SPEC - 6394 p 3X 1662 10 2000 4 BALTAY 77 HBC + 15 + p p 3 CBAL e+ e- e+ e- 0 0 0 1624 21 1 BELLINI 85 SPEC 40 - A - + - A 1622 35 6 BELLINI 85 SPEC 40

2010-01-01

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) I(JP) = 0(1  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) - b I(JP) = 0(1 2 +) I, J, P need confirmation. Status: In the quark model - b is ssb ground stateAL D0 p p at 1.96 TeV 1 Observed in - b J/- decays with 16+6 -4 candidates, a significance of 5.5 sigma from a combined mass-lifetime fit. 2 Observed in - b J/- decays with 17.8 ± 4.9 ± 0.8 candidates

130

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) I(JP) = 0(1  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) - b I(JP) = 0(1 2 +) I, J, P need confirmation. Status: In the quark model - b is ssb ground stateAL D0 p p at 1.96 TeV 1 Observed in - b J/- decays with 16+6 -4 candidates, a significance of 5.5 sigma from a combined mass-lifetime fit. 2 Observed in - b J/- decays with 17.8 ± 4.9 ± 0.8 candidates

131

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) sJ(2860) I(JP) = 0(??)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) D sJ(2860)± I(JP) = 0(??) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE Observed by AUBERT,BE 06E and AUBERT 09AR in inclusive pro- duction of D K and D K in e+ e- annihilation. JP is natural. D sJ(2860)+ MASSD sJ(2860)+ MASSD sJ (2860)+ MASSD sJ (2860)+ MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 2862 ±2 +5 -2 2862 ±2

2012-01-01

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) sJ(2860) I(JP) = 0(??)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) D sJ(2860)± I(JP) = 0(??) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE Observed by AUBERT,BE 06E and AUBERT 09AR in inclusive pro- duction of D K and D K in e+ e- annihilation. JP is natural. D sJ(2860)+ MASSD sJ(2860)+ MASSD sJ (2860)+ MASSD sJ (2860)+ MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 2862 ±2 +5 -2 2862 ±2

2010-01-01

133

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) B-particle organization  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) [Determination of Vc b and Vu b] · B mass · B1(5721)0 mass · B J (5732) mass, width · B2(5747)0 mass · B0 s mass, mean life branching fractions polarization in B0 s decay B0 s -B0 s mixing · B s mass · B sJ (5850 for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) B-particle organization Many measurements of B decays involve

134

Measurements of neutral beam species, impurities, spatial divergence, energy dispersion, pressure, and reionization for the TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) US Common Long Pulse Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

Physical characteristics of TFTR neutral beams were measured during the first tests and initial operating experience with production TFTR US Common Long Pulse Ion Sources on beamlines in the TFTR experimental environment under actual user conditions. These measurements were performed with different power supply systems, controls, diagnostics, and operating methods compared to those used at LBL during the development phase. The set of diagnostics included water calorimetry, thermocouples, vacuum ionization gauges, photodiodes, neutron, gamma-ray and charged particle backscatter spectroscopy, and implantation/secondary ion mass spectroscopy. These systems were used to perform complementary measurements of neutral beam species, measurements were performed either in the neutralizer region, where the beam contained both ions and neutrals, or in the region of the output neutral beam. In general, consistent with estimates made during the LBL development phase. They can provide guidance for the optimization of TFTR neutral beam heating operations and the understanding of auxilliary heated TFTR plasmas. 21 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

Kugel, H.W.; Gammel, G.M.; Grisham, L.R.; Kaita, R.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Langley, R.A.; Magee, C.W.; Medley, S.S.; Murphy, T.J.; Roquemore, A.L.; Williams, M.D.

1988-06-01

135

Super long-term glycemic control in diabetic rats by glucose-sensitive LbL films constructed of supramolecular insulin assembly.  

PubMed

The supramolecular assembly of porcine insulin (P-SIA) is prepared at moderate condition and monitored by Thioflavin T fluorescence to avoid the formation of mature amyloid fibrils with ?-sheet rich structure. P-SIA is characterized in terms of structure, morphology and the capability of sustained insulin release in vitro. Then, a glucose-sensitive layer-by-layer (LbL) film is fabricated with star poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (star-PDMAEMA), glucose oxidase (GOD), catalase (CAT) and P-SIA in the form of {(Star-PDMAEMA/P-SIA)(2) + (Star-PDMAEMA/CAT)(1) + (Star-PDMAEMA/GOD)(2)}(2) + Star-PDMAEMA, in which the CAT is introduced to eliminate the aggregated H(2)O(2) and maintain the activity of GOD in the long release time. Within the scope of the investigation, a single dose administration could provide effective glycemic control in diabetic rats for up to 295 days without hypoglycemia. The striking result is contributed both by the inherent property of P-SIA and the glucose-sensitive regulation capability of the LbL film, for which the mechanism was thoroughly investigated both in vitro and in vivo. These findings are valuable to inspire more researches to combine supramolecular insulin assembly with various functional drug delivery systems, biochemical additives, biomaterials and biomedical devices for diabetic therapy. PMID:22954517

Luo, Jun; Cao, Shuqin; Chen, Xingyu; Liu, Shuning; Tan, Hong; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

2012-11-01

136

pH-controlled assembly and properties of LbL membranes from branched conjugated poly(alkoxythiophene sulfonate) and various polycations.  

PubMed

We report on multilayer layer-by-layer (LbL) films of the conjugated polymer sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl)ethyloxy-4-butylsulfonate] (PTH) assembled with polycations: poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), 20% quaternized poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide) (Q20), poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). These films were prepared through spin-assisted LbL assembly under various pH conditions. We demonstrated a crucial role of the deposition pH in formation of PTH/polycation films and showed that decrease in the deposition pH from 7.5 to 2.5 limits the PTH multilayer formation to Q20/PTH and PDDA/PTH films due to reduced charge density in the poly(thiophene) chains. We show that optical and surface properties of the resulting PTH/polycation films can be tuned by varying a polycation component and/or by varying the deposition pH. The fluorescence properties of the Q20/PTH, PEI/PTH, and PDDA/PTH films are pH-dependent, and the films exhibit the drastic changes in photoluminescent intensity when transferred into solutions with different pH values, which may find useful in optical sensing applications. PMID:20000796

Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Kharlampieva, Eugenia; Jones, Keith; Lin, Zhiqun; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

2010-05-18

137

Characterization and nanoindentation testing of thin ZrO 2 films synthesized using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposited organic templates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin organic LbL (layer-by-layer) films with negatively charged surface were used as templates for biomimetic deposition of ZrO 2 on Si wafers by hydrolysis of Zr(SO 4) 2 solution. The as-deposited ceramic layers were fully amorphous and were composed of the mixture of zirconia and zirconium sulfate. During transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination, the amorphous ZrO 2 crystallized almost instantaneously to tetragonal (t) ZrO 2 under the electron beam. The ?110 nm thick as-deposited layers were crack-free and adhered well to the LbL surface. Annealing at 500 C led to complete crystallization of amorphous ZrO 2 to nanocrystalline t-ZrO 2. Further heating to 900 C resulted in transformation to monoclinic ZrO 2, complete removal of sulfur and twofold shrinkage of the ceramic layer thickness. Both the nanohardness and elastic modulus of the deposited zirconia layers were significantly improved following the heat treatments.

Zlotnikov, I.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E. Y.

2008-12-01

138

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) J = 1 2 MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) The muon's mass is obtained from the muon-electron mass ratio as deter- mined from the measurement of Zeeman transition frequencies in muonium (+ e- atom). Since the electron's mass is most

139

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) graviton J = 2 OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE graviton MASSgraviton1913+16 and PSR B1534+12 with a possible graviton mass as a parameter. The combined frequentist mass theories. graviton REFERENCESgraviton REFERENCESgraviton REFERENCESgraviton REFERENCES GOLDHABER 10 RMP 82

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2380)-Status  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2380)- Status: OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE (2380)- MASS(2380)- MASS(2380)- MASS(2380)- MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 2380 OUR ESTIMATE 2380 OUR ESTIMATE 2380 OUR ESTIMATE 2380 OUR ESTIMATE 238498 45 BIAGI 86B SPEC SPS - beam (2380)- WIDTH(2380

2010-01-01

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Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) N(2250) G19  

E-print Network

, not fits or averages. Mode Fraction (i /) 1 N 5­15 % 2 N 3 K N(2250) BRANCHING RATIOSN(2250) BRANCHINGCitation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) N(2250) G19 I(JP) = 1 2(9 2 -) Status: Some obsolete results

142

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K(1460) I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K(1460) I(JP) = 1 2(0-) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE Observed in K partial-wave analysis. K(1460) MASSK(1460) MASSK(1460) MASSK(1460) MASS VALUE (MeV) DOCUMENT ID TECN CHG

2010-01-01

143

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) µ J = 1 2 µ MASS (atomic mass units u)µ MASS (atomic mass units u)µ MASS (atomic mass units u)µ MASS (atomic mass units u) The muon's mass is obtained from the muon-electron mass ratio as deter- mined from the measurement of Zeeman transition frequencies in muonium (µ+ e- atom). Since the electron's mass is most

144

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2250)-I(JP) = 0(??) Status  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) (2250)- I(JP) = 0(??) Status: (2250)- MASS(2250)- MASS(2250)- MASS(2250)- MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 2252 9 OUR AVERAGE2252 9 OUR AVERAGE2252 9 OUR AVERAGE2252 9 OUR AVERAGE 225313 44 ASTON 87B LASS K- p 11 GeV/c 2251 98 78 BIAGI 86B SPEC

2010-01-01

145

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) IG (JPC ) = 0+(0 + +)  

E-print Network

CLEO D+ - + + (472 ± 30)-i(271 ± 30) 7 BUGG 07A RVUE Compilation (484 ± 17)-i(255 ± 10) GARCIA-MAR Compilation (440 ± 8)-i(212 ± 15) 12 PELAEZ 04A RVUE (533 ± 25)-i(247 ± 25) 13 BUGG 03 RVUE 532 - i272://pdg.lbl.gov) 525 - i269 23 ACHASOV 94 RVUE (506 ± 10)-i(247 ± 3) KAMINSKI 94 RVUE , K K 370 - i356 24 ZOU 94B

146

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) I(JP) = 0(1  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) - b I(JP) = 0(1 2 +) I, J, P need confirmation. Status at 1.96 TeV 6165 ±10 ±13 2 ABAZOV 08AL D0 p p at 1.96 TeV 1 Observed in - b J/- decays with 16+6 -4 candidates, a significance of 5.5 sigma from a combined mass-lifetime fit. 2 Observed in - b J/- decays

147

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K2(2250) I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K2(2250) I(JP) = 1 2(2-) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE This entry as enhancements seen in the antihyperon-nucleon system, either in the mass spectra or in the JP = 2- wave. K2(2250- from moments analysis. K2(2250) WIDTHK2(2250) WIDTHK2(2250) WIDTHK2(2250) WIDTH VALUE (MeV) EVTS

148

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) sJ(5850) I(JP) = ?(??)  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) B sJ(5850) I(JP) = ?(??) I, J, P need confirmation. OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE Signal can be interpreted as coming from bs states. Needs confir- mation. B sJ (5850) MASSB sJ (5850) MASSB sJ (5850) MASSB sJ (5850) MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 5853

2010-01-01

149

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) sJ(2860) I(JP) = 0(??)  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) D sJ(2860)± I(JP) = 0(??) OMITTED FROM SUMMARY TABLE Observed is natural. D sJ(2860)+ MASSD sJ(2860)+ MASSD sJ (2860)+ MASSD sJ (2860)+ MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID mass spec- trum. 2 Superseded by AUBERT 09AR. D sJ(2860)+ WIDTHD sJ(2860)+ WIDTHD sJ(2860)+ WIDTHD sJ

2010-01-01

150

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K1(1400) I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K1(1400) I(JP) = 1 2(1+) K1(1400) MASSK1(1400) MASSK11403± 7 OUR AVERAGE1403± 7 OUR AVERAGE 1463±64±68 7k ASNER 00B CLEO ± - K- + - 1373±14±18 1 ASTON 87

2010-01-01

151

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 4(2045) I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K 4(2045) I(JP) = 1 2(4+) K 4(2045) MASSK 4(2045) MASSK 4 0 11 K- p K- + n 2039± 10 400 2,3 CLELAND 82 SPEC ± 50 K+ p K0 S ± p 2070+100 - 40 4 ASTON 81C

2010-01-01

152

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K2(1770) I(JP) = 1  

E-print Network

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) K2(1770) I(JP) = 1 2(2-) See our mini-review in the 2004 edition of this Review, PDG 04. K2(1770) MASSK2(1770) MASSK2(1770) MASSK2(1770) MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN

2010-01-01

153

5/12/10 10:38 AMBerkeley Lab News Center: Today at Berkeley Lab Page 1 of 2http://www.lbl.gov/publicinfo/newscenter/tabl/index.html  

E-print Network

be done to clean up the Deepwater Horizon oil spill that is threatening coastal areas of the Gulf://www.lbl.gov/publicinfo/newscenter/tabl/index.html In The News Lab Scientist Pens New York Times Op- Ed on Gulf Spill Terry Hazen of the Earth Sciences Division, that can soak up oil. The soaked up oil can then compressed into blocks for burning or, better still, fed

Hazen, Terry

154

Tuning nanostructure of graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte LbL assemblies by controlling pH of GO suspension to fabricate transparent and super gas barrier films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique of layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly was used to prepare transparent multilayered gas barrier films consisting of graphene oxide (GO)/branched poly(ethylenimine) (BPEI) on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. The effect of the GO suspension pH on the nanostructure and oxygen barrier properties of the GO/BPEI film was investigated. The oxygen barrier properties of the assemblies were shown to be highly dependent on the pH. It was demonstrated that the film assemblies prepared using a GO suspension with a pH of 3.5 exhibited very dense and ordered structures and delivered very low oxygen transmission rates (the lowest was <0.05 cm3 m-2 day-1). The assemblies were characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry to identify the film growth mechanism, and the result indicated a linear growth behavior. To analyze the nanostructure of the films, atomic force microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used.A technique of layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly was used to prepare transparent multilayered gas barrier films consisting of graphene oxide (GO)/branched poly(ethylenimine) (BPEI) on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. The effect of the GO suspension pH on the nanostructure and oxygen barrier properties of the GO/BPEI film was investigated. The oxygen barrier properties of the assemblies were shown to be highly dependent on the pH. It was demonstrated that the film assemblies prepared using a GO suspension with a pH of 3.5 exhibited very dense and ordered structures and delivered very low oxygen transmission rates (the lowest was <0.05 cm3 m-2 day-1). The assemblies were characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry to identify the film growth mechanism, and the result indicated a linear growth behavior. To analyze the nanostructure of the films, atomic force microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02845c

Chen, Jung-Tsai; Fu, Ywu-Jang; An, Quan-Fu; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Hung, Wei-Song; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, Juin-Yih

2013-09-01

155

Neutron dose equivalents at the Advanced Light Source: Calculation using the MORSE code vs estimated values  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) complex at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is surrounded by a mezzanine and auxiliary buildings. An important radiological problem is the neutron dose equivalent in nearby occupied areas and at the LBL site boundary. Both the direct and air-scattered (skyshine) components of the neutron dose equivalents are evaluated using the neutron transport code MORSE. The shielding was designed using an empirical method based on data scaled from a 1977 SLAC experiment and on a compilation of experimental and theoretical material relevant to shielding of electron accelerators. From the MORSE calculation, the total occupational dose equivalent rate in the center of the ALS mezzanine was found to be less than 1 mSv (100 mrem) per shift year (2000-hr), and the total environmental dose equivalent rate at the ALS boundary, 125 m from the storage-ring center, was found to be about 302 {mu}Sv (30 mrem) per year. A comparison of the dose equivalents shows that the calculated MORSE-code values agree well with those estimated by the empirical method. That is, dose equivalents obtained by the empirical methods are of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding MORSE values. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Sun, Rai-Ko S.

1991-02-01

156

Tuning nanostructure of graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte LbL assemblies by controlling pH of GO suspension to fabricate transparent and super gas barrier films.  

PubMed

A technique of layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly was used to prepare transparent multilayered gas barrier films consisting of graphene oxide (GO)/branched poly(ethylenimine) (BPEI) on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. The effect of the GO suspension pH on the nanostructure and oxygen barrier properties of the GO/BPEI film was investigated. The oxygen barrier properties of the assemblies were shown to be highly dependent on the pH. It was demonstrated that the film assemblies prepared using a GO suspension with a pH of 3.5 exhibited very dense and ordered structures and delivered very low oxygen transmission rates (the lowest was <0.05 cm(3) m(-2) day(-1)). The assemblies were characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry to identify the film growth mechanism, and the result indicated a linear growth behavior. To analyze the nanostructure of the films, atomic force microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used. PMID:23900571

Chen, Jung-Tsai; Fu, Ywu-Jang; An, Quan-Fu; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Hung, Wei-Song; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, Juin-Yih

2013-10-01

157

Preliminary design report of a relativistic-Klystron two-beam-accelerator based power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass next linear collider  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported.

Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-02-22

158

A figure of merit for blazar-like source identification in the gamma-ray energy band  

SciTech Connect

The microwave to gamma-ray slope {alpha}{mu}{gamma} can be used as a viable figure of merit for blazar-like source identification in gamma-rays. Taking into account the constraints from the observed extragalactic gamma-ray background, one can estimate the maximum duty cycle allowed for a selected sample of low energy peaked (LBL) blazars, in order to be detectable for the nominal sensitivity values of AGILE and GLAST gamma-ray experiments. This work is based on the results of a recently derived blazar radio LogN-LogS obtained by combining several multi-frequency surveys. We present our estimates of duty cycle constraints applied on a sample composed by 146 high latitude and 74 medium latitude LBL blazars from the new WMAP3 yr catalog. Our results can be used as an indicator to identify good gamma-ray blazar candidates: sources with high values of duty cycle can in principle be detectable also in a ''steady'' state by AGILE and GLAST without over-predicting the extragalactic background.

Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Pittori, Carlotta; Giommi, Paolo; Colafrancesco, Sergio [ASI Science Data Center, Via Galileo Galilei, 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy)

2007-07-12

159

SOURCES SOUGHT  

Cancer.gov

Sources Sought Notice No.: SS-ETSB-91014-56 Project Title: Support for Research on Retroviral Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention This is a Small Business Sources Sought notice. This is NOT a solicitation for proposals, proposal abstracts,

160

An improved layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to generate biointerfaces for platelet adhesion studies: Dynamic LbL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) is a technique that generates engineered nano-scale films, coatings, and particles. These nanoscale films have recently been used in multiple biomedical applications. Concurrently, microfabrication methods and advances in microfluidics are being developed and combined to create "Lab-on-a-Chip" technologies. The potential to perform complex biological assays in vitro as a first-line screening technique before moving on to animal models has made the concept of lab on a chip a valuable research tool. Prior studies in the Biofluids Laboratory at Louisiana Tech have used layer-by-layer and in vitro biological assays to study thrombogenesis in a controlled, repeatable, engineered environment. The reliability of these previously established techniques was unsatisfactory for more complex cases such as chemical and shear stress interactions. The work presented in this dissertation was performed to test the principal assumptions behind the established laboratory methodologies, suggest improvements where needed, and test the impact of these improvements on accuracy and repeatability. The assumptions to be tested were: (1) The fluorescence microscopy (FM) images of acridine orange-tagged platelets accurately provide a measure of percent area of surface covered by platelets; (2) fibrinogen coatings can be accurately controlled, interact with platelets, and do not interfere with the ability to quantify platelet adhesion; and (3) the dependence of platelet adhesion on chemical agents, as measured with the modified methods, generally agrees with results obtained from our previous methods and with known responses of platelets that have been documented in the literature. The distribution of fibrinogen on the final LbL surface generated with the standard, static process (s-LbL) was imaged by tagging the fibrinogen with an anti-fibrinogen antibody bound to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). FITC FM images and acridine orange FM images were taken sequentially at selected surface locations to generate a composite overlap of presumed platelet adhesion as a function of fibrinogen distribution. The method was unable to distinguish the surface from the adhered cells. The surface inhomogeneity and porosity retained a large amount of acridine orange stain, even in the absence of platelets, and components in the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were found to fix acridine orange in a mode that fluoresced in the FITC imaging FM. Both of these problems obfuscated the platelet adhesion FM results when using s-LbL surfaces and acridine orange staining of platelets. A dynamic process (d-LbL) was developed in which a solution of the molecule to be layered was constantly washed over the surface, and was constantly mixed to maintain a more homogeneous distribution of solute relative to the surface during the layering process. The d-LbL surfaces were tested as described above, and found to reduce the size and number of regions of anomalous acridine orange pooling trapped by the surface, providing a greater consistency and reliability in identifying platelets. The improved surface was then used in a series of platelet adhesion experiments under static and dynamic flow conditions, and with and without the chemical additive L-arginine. The complex microcharmel system used in prior studies was replaced with a simpler system involving fewer nuisance variables for these tests. The tests were performed on both collagen and fibrinogen surfaces. Collagen has been used as a thrombogenic surface in multiple studies in the literature, but produces additional variables in thrombogenesis control that are avoided when fibrinogen is used. In these tests, fibrinogen was found to be as thrombogenic as collagen, and platelet coverage of both biointerfaces was reduced by L-arginine in a manner similar to previously reported work. The simpler system differed from the previous microchannel system in important factors: (1) It exposed the platelets to much lower shear stresses; (2) It introduced an oscillatory flow, which introduced a higher de

Lopez, Juan Manuel

161

Health Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes two health and medical reference databases on the EBSCOhost system from EBSCO publishing: Health Source: Consumer Edition and Health Source: Nursing\\/Academic Edition. The Consumer Edition is a diverse collection of consumer health information from magazines, reference books, and pamphlets. The Nursing\\/Academic Edition is an ideal source of scholarly journal articles on many medical specialties for nurses, allied

Patricia Mongelia

2004-01-01

162

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 2(1670) IG (JPC ) = 1-(2 -+)  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 2(1670) IG (JPC ) = 1-(2 - +) 2(1670) MASS2(1670) MASS2(1670) MASS2(1670) MASS VALUE (MeV) EVTS DOCUMENT ID TECN CHG COMMENT 1672.2 3.0 OUR AVERAGE1672.2 3.0 OUR 1657 14 4,5 DAUM 80D SPEC - 6394 p 3X 1662 10 2000 4 BALTAY 77 HBC + 15 + p p 3 We do

2010-01-01

163

Laser sources and techniques for spectroscopy and dynamics  

SciTech Connect

This program focuses on the development of novel laser and spectroscopic techniques in the IR, UV, and VUV regions for studying combustion related molecular dynamics at the microscopic level. Laser spectroscopic techniques have proven to be extremely powerful in the investigation of molecular processes which require very high sensitivity and selectivity. The authors approach is to use quantum electronic and non-linear optical techniques to extend the spectral coverage and to enhance the optical power of ultrahigh resolution laser sources so as to obtain and analyze photoionization, fluorescence, and photoelectron spectra of jet-cooled free radicals and of reaction products resulting from unimolecular and bimolecular dissociations. New spectroscopic techniques are developed with these sources for the detection of optically thin and often short-lived species. Recent activities center on regenerative amplification of high resolution solid-state lasers, development of tunable high power mid-IR lasers and short-pulse UV/VUV tunable lasers, and development of a multipurpose high-order suppressor crossed molecular beam apparatus for use with synchrotron radiation sources. This program also provides scientific and technical support within the Chemical Sciences Division to the development of LBL`s Combustion Dynamics Initiative.

Kung, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01

164

Ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

165

SOURCES SOUGHT  

Cancer.gov

Sources Sought Notice No.: SS-ETSB-01008-03 This is a Small Business Sources Sought notice. This is NOT a solicitation for proposals, proposal abstracts, or quotations. The purpose of this notice is to obtain information regarding: (1) the availability

166

Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although California uses more renewable resources than many other states, much of the state's electricity still comes from nonrenewable sources. Find out how using renewable energy sources to create electricity helps reduce fossil fuel consumption and how it has the potential to have the largest impact on climate change.

KQED

2012-03-27

167

Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video surveys the different current and potential sources of energy - both non-renewable and renewable. It provides some discussion of the pros and cons of the different sources and explains how they are used to produce energy that people can use.

WGBH Educational Foundation

168

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u)  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) J = 1 2 MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) The muon's mass is obtained from the muon-electron mass ratio as deter- mined from the measurement of Zeeman transition frequencies in muonium (+ e- atom

169

Light Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

1993-01-01

170

Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video provides an introduction to benefits and limitations of many sources of energy including fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. It also discusses hydrogen and hybrid cars.

WGBH - PBS

171

Sustainable Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sustainable Sources is a web site that provides information for green builders and other individuals interested in green building. Their site includes a directory of green building professionals, information on greenbuilt homes that are on the market, pertinent events, books and articles, online discussions, and links to other sites. You can also access the Sustainable Building Source book which contains a wealth of information on all aspects of green building through this web site.

172

New conditioning procedure derived from operating experience with the Common Long-Pulse Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

The DIII-D neutral beam system utilizes an 80 kV version of the Common Long-Pulse Ion Source designed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL) and originally built by RCA. Eight of these ion sources are mounted on four beamlines to provide a total of 20 MW of injected deuterium neutral power to the DIII-D tokamak. To support the DIII-D one-shift operation, neutral beams must be readied in a relatively short period of time each day, typically one hour. During non-operating periods conditioning time for the ion sources is limited, due to the costs of associated support services and the need to perform corrective and preventive maintenance. The experience gained over a six year period has resulted in finely tuned procedures for the conditioning and operation of these ion sources. Recently, an ion source was conditioned which had been accidentally filled with water for several days, resulting in surface corrosion and deconditioning of the grids and surfaces. The method of successful recovery along with data, experience and procedures derived this event and normal operations will be detailed and discussed.

Scoville, B.G.; Madruga, M.; Hong, R.M.; Phillips, J.C.

1993-10-01

173

New collider scheme at LBL  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents current ideas from Berkeley concerning a possible new facility for studying the phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter. The physics ideas have evolved over a period of more than five years, the VENUS concept for a 25 GeV/nucleon colliding beam facility having been presented in 1979. The concept for the Minicollider has been, like that of VENUS, the work of Hermann Grunder and Christoph Leemann.

Pugh, H.G.

1984-07-01

174

LBL EBIS test-strand  

SciTech Connect

An EBIS program was initiated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in late 1979. This first stage, construction of an EBIS research and development test-stand is described, along with results of the bare beam experiments.

Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.

1981-05-01

175

Superluminal sources.  

PubMed Central

Predictions for the apparent velocity statistics under simple beaming models are presented and compared to the observations. The potential applications for tests of unification models and for cosmology (source counts, measurements of the Hubble constant H0 and the deceleration parameter q0) are discussed. First results from a large homogeneous survey are presented. The data do not show compelling evidence for the existence of intrinsically different populations of galaxies, BL Lacertae objects, or quasars. Apparent velocities betaapp in the range 1-5 h-1, where h = H0/100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 megaparsec (Mpc) = 3.09 x 10(22) m], occur with roughly equal frequency; higher values, up to betaapp = 10 h-1, are rather more scarce than appeared to be the case from earlier work, which evidently concentrated on sources that are not representative of the general population. The betaapp distribution suggests that there might be a skewed distribution of Lorentz factors over the sample, with a peak at gammab approximately 2 h-1 and a tail up to at least gammab approximately 10 h-1. There appears to be a clearly rising upper envelope to the betaapp distribution when plotted as a function of observed 5-GHz luminosity; a combination of source counts and the apparent velocity statistics in a larger sample could provide much insight into the properties of radio jet sources. PMID:11607604

Vermeulen, R C

1995-01-01

176

Superluminal sources.  

PubMed

Predictions for the apparent velocity statistics under simple beaming models are presented and compared to the observations. The potential applications for tests of unification models and for cosmology (source counts, measurements of the Hubble constant H0 and the deceleration parameter q0) are discussed. First results from a large homogeneous survey are presented. The data do not show compelling evidence for the existence of intrinsically different populations of galaxies, BL Lacertae objects, or quasars. Apparent velocities betaapp in the range 1-5 h-1, where h = H0/100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 megaparsec (Mpc) = 3.09 x 10(22) m], occur with roughly equal frequency; higher values, up to betaapp = 10 h-1, are rather more scarce than appeared to be the case from earlier work, which evidently concentrated on sources that are not representative of the general population. The betaapp distribution suggests that there might be a skewed distribution of Lorentz factors over the sample, with a peak at gammab approximately 2 h-1 and a tail up to at least gammab approximately 10 h-1. There appears to be a clearly rising upper envelope to the betaapp distribution when plotted as a function of observed 5-GHz luminosity; a combination of source counts and the apparent velocity statistics in a larger sample could provide much insight into the properties of radio jet sources. PMID:11607604

Vermeulen, R C

1995-12-01

177

Power Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this short activity, students or groups are tasked to make concept sketches that track the source of electrical power as far back as they can conceive. The concept sketches reveal students' prior conceptions of the power grid and energy mix, and lead naturally into a lesson or discussion about energy resources and power production.

Steven Semken

178

Food Sources  

Cancer.gov

Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

179

Citing Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Helps and webpages that will assist you in citing sources while doing research Follow the Weber High Library on Twitter @weberhslibrary. 1. Pioneer Online Library Contact teachers or the librarians for the at home login and password. E-mail Mrs. Christensen at jchristensen@weber.k12.ut.us a. World Book Encyclopedia online. * Formatted citation at the bottom of each article. * Citation Generator: Home Page Research Tools Citation Builder. ...

Mrs. Christensen

2009-10-15

180

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) e J = 1 2 e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u) The primary determination of an electron's mass comes from measuring the ratio of the mass to that of a nucleus, so that the result is obtained in u (atomic mass units). The conversion

181

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)  

E-print Network

://pdg.lbl.gov) e J = 1 2 e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u) The primary determination of an electron's mass comes from measuring the ratio of the mass to that of a nucleus, so that the result is obtained in u (atomic mass units). The conversion

182

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units  

E-print Network

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) e J = 1 2 e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u)e MASS (atomic mass units u) The primary determination of an electron in u (atomic mass units). The conversion factor to MeV is more uncertain than the mass of the electron

183

Source Water Protection  

MedlinePLUS

... Drinking Water Source Water Source Water Protection Source Water Protection The drinking water we receive from our ... communities, resource managers and the public. My Source Water Basic Information Frequent Questions Source Water Pocket Guide ( ...

184

Advanced Light Source: Users` Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The ALS Users` Handbook is designed to help you prepare for your visit to the ALS, to assist you in getting your experiments underway, and to act as a resource to the facilities and services available at the ALS and LBL. We hope it encompasses ``what you need to know`` to make your stay at the ALS productive and enjoyable. The handbook contains six sections. Sections 1 and 2 explain how to become a user of the ALS and contain important information users need to know before arriving at the ALS. All ALS users are encouraged to read this part of the handbook well in advance of their planned visit to the ALS. Sections 3 and 4 describe general information about organizational structure and access to the ALS, and describe the facilities and describe the facilities and services offered at the ALS an LBL. Section 5 lists some fun things to see and do in the Berkeley area including museums, parks, and sports facilities. Section 6 contains reference information.

Not Available

1994-10-01

185

Radiation source  

DOEpatents

A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

186

Primary and Secondary Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to learn more about primary and secondary sources. 1. Explore the links below to learn about primary and secondary sources. When you have finished, you should be able to: Tell the difference between primary and secondary sources. Give at least three examples of primary sources and three examples of secondary sources. Explain why primary sources are important in research. Examples of Primary Sources Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources on the Same Topic Genres/Formats of Primary Sources 2. ...

Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

2010-01-23

187

The marine seismic source  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book are: Underlying physics and concepts; Source arrays and directivity; Interaction and wavefield determination; Practical aspects of wavefield stability; Source signature deconvolution; and Index.

Gregg, P.; Hatton, L.

1986-01-01

188

LISA Source Confusion  

E-print Network

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will detect thousands of gravitational wave sources. Many of these sources will be overlapping in the sense that their signals will have a non-zero cross-correlation. Such overlaps lead to source confusion, which adversely affects how well we can extract information about the individual sources. Here we study how source confusion impacts parameter estimation for galactic compact binaries, with emphasis on the effects of the number of overlaping sources, the time of observation, the gravitational wave frequencies of the sources, and the degree of the signal correlations. Our main findings are that the parameter resolution decays exponentially with the number of overlapping sources, and super-exponentially with the degree of cross-correlation. We also find that an extended mission lifetime is key to disentangling the source confusion as the parameter resolution for overlapping sources improves much faster than the usual square root of the observation time.

Jeff Crowder; Neil J. Cornish

2004-05-03

189

Self-assembled films containing crude extract of avocado as a source of tyrosinase for monophenol detection.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the use of the crude extract of avocado (CEA) fruit (Persea americana) as a source of tyrosinase enzyme. CEA was immobilized via layer by layer (LbL) technique onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates and applied in the detection of monophenol using a potentiometric biosensor. Poly(propylene imine) dendrimer of generation 3 (PPI-G3) was used as a counter ion in the layer by layer process due to its highly porous structure and functional groups suitable for enzyme linkage. After the immobilization of the crude CEA as multilayered films, standard samples of monophenol were detected in the 0.25-4.00 mM linear range with approximately 28 mV mM(-1) of sensitivity. This sensitivity is 14 times higher than the values found in the literature for a similar system. The results show that it is possible to obtain efficient and low-cost biosensors for monophenol detection using potentiometric transducers and alternative sources of enzymes without purification. PMID:23910293

Vieira, Nirton C S; Ferreira, Reginaldo A; da Cruz Rodrigues, Valquiria; Guimares, Francisco E G; de Queiroz, Alvaro A A

2013-10-01

190

Brain protein deciphered at Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

This computer-generated model of a rat glutamate receptor is the first complete portrait of this important link in the nervous system. At the top of the Y-shaped protein, a pair of molecules splay outward like diverging prongs. The bottom section, which is embedded in a neuronal membrane, houses the ion channel. The resolution of this image is 3.6 angstroms per pixel, or just under four ten-billionths of a meter per image unit. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/01/21/glutamate-receptor/

None

2010-01-01

191

Who goes there. A dialogue of questions and answers about benign hacking. [Securing access to computer from outside sources  

SciTech Connect

On August 23, 1986, it was noticed that the accounting files for one of LBL's computing systems failed to balance. On August 24, we received word that an unauthorized person was attempting entry into a US Navy computer from LBL. Preliminary investigation indicated that LBL was the victim of a benign hacker, where ''benign'' is used in the medical sense. It was thought that the perpetrator was a graduate student from a neighboring university, and that it would provide a useful object lesson to other such folk if he were caught and admonished. LBL therefore embarked upon a journey of detection and containment instead of prevention. That journey continues today, having led first across the country, then across the Atlantic. In the course of the journey we have gathered a number of observations that should be of interest to anyone running a computer with any connection to the outside world.

Stevens, D.F.

1987-04-01

192

Program improvement by source to source transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We treat a program as an object of manipulation, determine items of program constancy, and simplify the program based on the constancy. Some motivation for program manipulation is presented, along with two examples of higher level optimization written in an Algol-like language. A collection of program transformations and a model of the compilation process in terms of source-to-source transformations are

David B. Loveman

1976-01-01

193

An open source(d) controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open source software movement has been going on for a few decades now. Today, an increasing number of open source solutions enter the market and become valid alternatives to proprietary and closed solutions. Examples include operating systems like Linux and OpenSolaris, back-end solutions (e.g. LAMP -Linux, Apache web server, MySQL database, and Perl\\/PHP\\/Python programming languages - are among the

Johan Sarkinen

2007-01-01

194

iSource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

iSource, the Web presence of the magazine iSource, is dedicated to supply chain solutions. The site features short daily news stories written by the iSource.com editorial staff along with several in-depth articles. Also included are video archived presentations from the iSource 100 Summit. While the Website serves mainly as a teaser for the print version of the magazine, it does cover important supply chain information.

195

Aperture Ion Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aperture ion source was conceived to eliminate distortion in measurements of angular distributions of neutral atoms and molecules that require electron-impact ion sources. The approach simplifies the coupling between ion source and spectrometer while providing virtually distortion-free angular distributions and improved accuracy in the dimensions of the ionization region. Furthermore, it virtually eliminates the volume occupied by the ion source.

Herrero, Fred

2012-01-01

196

Ion sources for accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of different types of ion sources used for accelerator applications is given. Typical problems like the source life time, or the special need for technical solutions for specific elements will demonstrate the advantage of each type of ion source. In any case reliability is a main topic. Besides the plasma generation of the desired element, beam formation and

P. Spdtke; J. Bossler; H. Emig; K. D Leible; C. Mhle; H. Schulte; K. Tinschert

1998-01-01

197

Extragalactic Radio Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses new problems arising from the growing observational data through radio telescope arrays, involving the origin of radio sources, apparent superluminal velocities, conversion of radio sources to relativistic particles, and the nature of compact opaque and extended transparent sources. New physics may be needed to answer these cosmological

Kellerman, Kenneth I.

1973-01-01

198

Neutron source progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a de-classified June 1948 progress report on neutron source development at Monsanto Chemical`s Mound facility. Specific sources reviewed are: (1) Postum-beryllium, (2) Postum-Boron and Postum-Fluoborate, and (3) Postum-Lithium and Postum-Sodium. Preparation of each source is discussed, and some of their physical properties are given.

L. Bentz; J. Birden; R. Hertz

1948-01-01

199

Investigating Primary Source Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary source research requires students to acquire specialized research skills. This paper presents results from a user study testing the effectiveness of a Web guide designed to convey the concepts behind "primary source literacy". The study also evaluated students' strengths and weaknesses when conducting primary source research. (Contains 3

Archer, Joanne; Hanlon, Ann M.; Levine, Jennie A.

2009-01-01

200

Z-source inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an impedance-source (or impedance-fed) power converter (abbreviated as Z-source converter) and its control method for implementing DC-to-AC, AC-to-DC, AC-to-AC, and DC-to-DC power conversion. The Z-source converter employs a unique impedance network (or circuit) to couple the converter main circuit to the power source, thus providing unique features that cannot be obtained in the traditional voltage-source (or voltage-fed)

Fang Zheng Peng

2003-01-01

201

Opportunities for high aspect ratio micro-electro-magnetic-mechanical systems (HAR-MEMMS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: Opportunities for HAR-MEMMS at LBL; Industrial Needs and Opportunities; Deep Etch X-ray Lithography; MEMS Activities at BSAC; DNA Amplification with Microfabricated Reaction Chamber; Electrochemistry Research at LBL; MEMS Activities at LLNL; Space Microsensors and Microinstruments; The Advanced Light Source; Institute for Micromaching; IBM MEMS Interests; and Technology Transfer Opportunities at LBL.

Hunter, S. [ed.

1993-10-01

202

Microwave ion source  

DOEpatents

A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

2005-07-26

203

Full MTMS DOC DESCRIPTION OF THE LBL  

E-print Network

Applied Science Division Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 Mass-processing response-time can be made quite short, even forced-air-fan cycling can be observed. In all cases the system

204

CRISTINA CASTANHA _ ________________________ _________________ ccastanha@lbl.gov  

E-print Network

: Species Responses to Climate Manipulations Across an Elevational Gradient at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. AGU differences in treeline tree species germination in response to climate change. AGU, General Meeting. #12;2 St. Energy and Resources, 2004. Mineral and Climate Controls on Soil Organic Matter Storage and Cycling. John

Hazen, Terry

205

Swift observations of IBL and LBL objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: BL Lacs are an enigmatic class of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), characterized by the non-thermal continuum typically attributed to synchrotron and inverse Compton emission. Depending on the frequency location of the maxima of these components, they are subdivided into three subclasses LBLs, IBLs, and HBLs. We present the results of a set of observations of eight BL Lac objects

F. Massaro; P. Giommi; G. Tosti; A. Cassetti; R. Nesci; M. Perri; D. Burrows; N. Gerehls

2008-01-01

206

THELUMINAPROJECT http://light.lbl.gov  

E-print Network

used to perform income-earning jobs in Kenya. Lumina Research Note #4, the first report in this series are also becoming more prevalent alternatives to disposable dry cell batteries. Flashlights using

Jacobson, Arne

207

Dynamic radioactive particle source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

2012-06-26

208

Rf power sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.

Allen, M.A.

1988-05-01

209

General Weak Random Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following model for a weak random source is considered. The source is asked only once for R bits, and the source outputs an R-bit string such that no string has probability more than 2 -?R of being output. for some fixed ?>0. A pseudorandom generator that runs in time nO(log n) and simulates RP using as a seed a

David Zuckerman

1990-01-01

210

Pulsed spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Div.

1996-05-01

211

Improved ion source  

DOEpatents

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-05-04

212

Workshop on detectors for third-generation synchrotron sources: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The aims of the workshop were (1) to acquaint APS users with current R and D being carried out on detectors, (2) to identify new detector systems possible during the next five years, (3) to identify new detectors theoretically possible in the future, (4) to stimulate interactions between user groups and detector developers, and (5) to obtain recommendations from expert panels on technical issues needing resolution. Development of detectors at ESRF, Spring-8, BNL, CERN and LBL are included.

NONE

1994-12-01

213

High current ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper.

Brown, I.G.

1989-06-01

214

SOURCE:MARK ILLUSTRATION;  

E-print Network

the most distant planets, Oort cloud known as source comets that reach system. distribution dynamically--17) that Oort cloud must be affected differential tidal gravitational Galaxy (18). early 1980s that Oort into models sources Jupiterfamily comets: either dense inner the Oort cloud 25), necessary any to explain

215

Regulation of Indirect Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Division of Air Pollution Control, Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, has conducted an ambient air quality monitoring project focusing on carbon monoxide levels in and around several indirect sources. An analysis of the data indicates that highway-type pollutant emissions have the greatest impact on receptors in the vicinity of indirect sources. This implies that the principal, localized constraint on the

John J. Roberts; Stephen A. Tamplin; Gary L. Melvin

1975-01-01

216

Tsunami Sources Icosahedron Globe  

E-print Network

Tsunami Sources Icosahedron Globe August 2012 Edition NOAA National Geophysical Data Center World to reduce to 8.5" x 11". This globe of Earth shows the locations of historical tsunami sources, extracted from NGDC'sGlobal Historical Tsunami Database (ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard). A tsunamiisaseriesof traveling

217

Sources of Predictability  

E-print Network

Sources of predictability in the basic laws of physics are described in the most general theoretical context -- the quantum theory of the universe as a whole. (To appear in the Proceedings of the conference on Fundamental Sources of Unpredictability held at the Santa Fe Institute, March 28 to 30, 1996 to be published by Complexity.)

James B. Hartle

1997-04-04

218

New Source Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature article outlines the concept and procedures followed in establishing performance standards for new emission sources and summarizes the standards that have been established to date. Five source catagories are enumerated: fossil fuel-fired steam generators, municipal incinerators, Portland cement plants, nitric acid plants, and sulfuric

Jenkins, Richard E.; McCutchen, Gary D.

1972-01-01

219

Energy Sources and Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will help students to distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy, investigate a variety of renewable energy resources and compare the benefits and drawbacks of each. Students will use internet resources to investigate and compare alternative sources of energy. It is presumed that students have some basic prior understanding of the concept of energy.

220

Using Primary Source Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

Mintz, Steven

2003-01-01

221

Spherical ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radial focusing of electrons in ion source produces greater ion densities, resulting in higher resolution and focus capability for a given source volume. Electron beam is focused near exit aperture by spherical fields. High density ions allow focusing ion beam to high density at echo, allowing high current through small aperture.

Hall, L. G.

1969-01-01

222

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01

223

Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal aircraft skins scanned rapidly in vibration tests. Relatively simple combination of permanent magnets and electromagnet serves as noncontact vibration source for nondestructive testing of metal aircraft skins. In test, source excites vibrations, and vibration waveforms measured, then analyzed for changes in resonances signifying cracks and other flaws.

Namkung, Min; Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz A.

1994-01-01

224

Equivariant adaptive source separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source separation consists of recovering a set of independent signals when only mixtures with unknown coefficients are observed. This paper introduces a class of adaptive algorithms for source separation that implements an adaptive version of equivariant estimation and is henceforth called equivariant adaptive separation via independence (EASI). The EASI algorithms are based on the idea of serial updating. This specific

Jean-franois Cardoso; Beate Hvam Laheld

1996-01-01

225

Creating Open Source Conversation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content

Sheehan, Kate

2009-01-01

226

Fugitive Dust: Nonpoint Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fugitive dust is a relatively new term for an old problem. Simply put, fugitive dust is a type of nonpoint source air pollution small airborne particles that do not originate from a specific point such as a gravel quarry or grain mill. Fugitive dust originates in small quantities over large areas. Significant sources include unpaved roads, agricultural cropland and

John H. Ferguson; H. Willard Downs; Donald L. Pfost

227

Piezotube borehole seismic source  

DOEpatents

A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

2014-05-06

228

Neutron sources and applications  

SciTech Connect

Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-01-01

229

Photonic crystal light source  

DOEpatents

A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Bur, James A. (Corrales, NM)

2004-07-27

230

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.

Kaufman, H. R.

1976-01-01

231

Estimation of neutron dose equivalent at the mezzanine of the Advanced Light Source and the laboratory boundary using the ORNL program MORSE.  

PubMed

To investigate the radiation effect of neutrons near the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) with respect to the neutron dose equivalents in nearby occupied areas and at the site boundary, the neutron transport code MORSE, from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was used. These dose equivalents result from both skyshine neutrons transported by air scattering and direct neutrons penetrating the shielding. The ALS neutron sources are a 50-MeV linear accelerator and its transfer line, a 1.5-GeV booster, a beam extraction line, and a 1.9-GeV storage ring. The most conservative total occupational-dose-equivalent rate in the center of the ALS mezzanine, 39 m from the ALS center, was found to be 1.14 X 10(-3) Sv y-1 per 2000-h "occupational" year, and the total environmental-dose-equivalent rate at the ALS boundary, 125 m from the ALS center, was found to be 3.02 X 10(-4) Sv y-1 per 8760-h calendar year. More realistic dose-equivalent rates, using the nominal (expected) storage-ring current, were calculated to be 1.0 X 10(-4) Sv y-1 and 2.65 X 10(-5) Sv y-1 occupational year and calendar year, respectively, which are much lower than the DOE reporting levels. PMID:2228611

Sun, R K

1990-12-01

232

Nuclear electric power sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

Singh, J. J.

1978-01-01

233

Darwin: Open Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On March 16th, 1999, Apple computer made two announcements that indicate radical changes in the direction of its OS. One of these announcements was that Apple is releasing the source code to portions of Mac OS X server. The project, called Darwin, has not only released the foundation layers of the operating system, but established a system of user-contributed modifications to the source. Modeled after Linux and Apache, this new direction by Apple has been embraced by Eric Raymond, President of the Open Source Initiative.

234

Microfabricated diffusion source  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-07-15

235

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOEpatents

An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

1996-01-01

236

Tunable terahertz radiation source  

DOEpatents

Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

2014-01-21

237

Galactic Superluminal Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of X-ray sources was clearly established with the discovery of highly relativistic radio jets from the two galactic sources GRS 1915+105 and GRO Jl655-40. Both of these objects have given us a broader view of black holes and the formation of jets, yet they also show the complexity of the accretion environment near relativistic objects. The fast apparent motion of the jets, their luminosity and variability, their high energy spectrum, and approximately scaling to the behavior of active galactic nuclei, certainly warrant the description "microquasar". A review of the observational data on these sources is presented, and where we stand on a physical picture of GRS 1915+105 and GRO J165540 as taken from multi-wavelength studies is also discussed. Other galactic sources which share some of the properties of the microquasars, and what to look for as a high energy "signature" in future observations is also discussed.

Harmon, B. Alan

1998-01-01

238

Galactic Superluminal Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of X-ray sources was clearly established with the discovery of highly relativistic radio jets from the galactic sources GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40. Both of these objects have given us a broader view of black holes and the formation of jets, yet they also show the complexity of the accretion environment near relativistic objects. The fast apparent motion of the jets, their luminosity and variability, high energy spectrum, and approximate scaling to the behavior of active galactic nuclei, certainly warrant the description 'microquasar". I present a review of the observational data on these sources, and discuss where we stand on a physical picture of GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40 as taken from multi-wavelength studies. I also point out other galactic sources which share some of the properties of the microquasars, and what to look for as a high energy "signature' in future observations.

Harmon, B. A.

1998-01-01

239

Open source hardware  

E-print Network

Open source software development models have created some of the most innovative tools and companies in the industry today modifying the way value is created and businesses developed. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze ...

Acosta, Roberto, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

240

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

241

National Synchrotron Light Source  

ScienceCinema

A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

None

2010-01-08

242

Permutation codes for sources.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Source encoding techniques based on permutation codes are investigated. For a broad class of distortion measures it is shown that optimum encoding of a source permutation code is easy to instrument even for very long block lengths. Also, the nonparametric nature of permutation encoding is well suited to situations involving unknown source statistics. For the squared-error distortion measure a procedure for generating good permutation codes of a given rate and block length is described. The performance of such codes for a memoryless Gaussian source is compared both with the rate-distortion function bound and with the performance of various quantization schemes. The comparison reveals that permutation codes are asymptotically ideal for small rates and perform as well as the best entropy-coded quantizers presently known for intermediate rates. They can be made to compare favorably at high rates, too, provided the coding delay associated with extremely long block lengths is tolerable.

Berger, T.; Jelinek, F.; Wolf, J. K.

1972-01-01

243

Calcium source (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

244

Sources of Test Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists and discusses sources of employment test information, with special attention on information given to what will be valuable to employment and career counselors. Includes discussion of trends, standards for employment testing, and legal aspects of testing. (Author/ABL)

Drummond, Robert J.

1988-01-01

245

Intense pulsed neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator requirements for pulsed spallation neutron sources are stated. Brief descriptions of the Argonne IPNS-I, the Japanese KENS, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory WNR/PSR, the Rutherford Laboratory SNS, and the West German SNQ facilities are presented.

Kustom, R.L.

1981-01-01

246

Sealed Radioactive Sources  

MedlinePLUS

... in which the metal can become contaminated with radioactivity, EPA determined that lost, abandoned, or stolen radioactive ... and Health Administration (OSHA) OSHA regulates exposure to radioactivity in the workplace. Radioactive Source Recovery Efforts This ...

247

National Synchrotron Light Source  

ScienceCinema

A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

BNL

2009-09-01

248

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

249

Hubble Source Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have created an initial catalog of objects observed by the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The catalog is based on observations taken on more than 6000 visits (telescope pointings) of ACS/WFC and more than 25000 visits of WFPC2. The catalog is obtained by cross matching by position in the sky all Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) Source Extractor source lists for these instruments. The source lists describe properties of source detections within a visit. The calculations are performed on a SQL Server database system. First we collect overlapping images into groups, e.g., Eta Car, and determine nearby (approximately matching) pairs of sources from different images within each group. We then apply a novel algorithm for improving the cross matching of pairs of sources by adjusting the astrometry of the images. Next, we combine pairwise matches into maximal sets of possible multi-source matches. We apply a greedy Bayesian method to split the maximal matches into more reliable matches. We test the accuracy of the matches by comparing the fluxes of the matched sources. The result is a set of information that ties together multiple observations of the same object. A byproduct of the catalog is greatly improved relative astrometry for many of the HST images. We also provide information on nondetections that can be used to determine dropouts. With the catalog, for the first time, one can carry out time domain, multi-wavelength studies across a large set of HST data. The catalog is publicly available. Much more can be done to expand the catalog capabilities.

Lubow, S.; Budavri, T.

2013-10-01

250

Magnetron sputtering source  

DOEpatents

A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

1994-08-02

251

Internet Medieval Source Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paul Halsall, sources editor for the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies, has recently created the Internet Medieval Source Book, a compendium of extracts and full text documents in Medieval History. Subjects covered include the end of the Classical World, Byzantium, Islam, formation and flowering of Latin Christendom, the Late Middle Ages, the Italian Renaissance, and the Early Reformation. Selected extracts are accompanied by short explanations, which help the reader to understand their context. The Source Book also contains links to a large number of medieval and religious sources, particularly strong with respect to Byzantine links. The purpose, scope and rationale behind the Source Book are explained clearly and concisely. The volume of texts and extracts, as well as the organization of the site, make this one of the premier Internet Medieval Studies sites. Note that all links of the Source Book and its links page are contained on two very large HTML pages, so users should be patient when navigating back and forth. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.html Medieval Links: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/medweb.html Online Reference Book to Medieval Studies: http://kuhttp.cc.ukans.edu/kansas/orb/mainpage.html

252

Microlensing of Large Sources  

E-print Network

We prove a gravitational lensing theorem: the magnification of a source of uniform brightness by a foreground spherical lens is mu =1+pi(2R_E^2-R_L^2)/A, where A is the area of the source and R_E and R_L are the Einstein radius and size of the lens projected into the source plane; this provides an accurate approximation to the exact magnification for R_L^2,R_E^2 << A. Remarkably, this result is independent of the shape of the source or position of the lens (except near the edges). We show that this formula can be generalized to include limb-darkening of a circular source by simply inserting the surface-brightness at the position of the foreground object (divided by the average surface-brightness of the star). We also show that similar formulae apply for a point-mass lens contained in a shear field and mass sheet, and for an ensemble of point masses as long as the Einstein radii are much smaller than the source size. This theorem may be used to compute transit or microlensing lightcurves for which the foreground star or planet has a size and Einstein radius much smaller than the background star.

Eric Agol

2003-03-20

253

Terahertz Schottky Multiplier Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the multiplier source technologies and the status/Performance of THz multiplier sources. An example of a THz application is imaging radar. The presentation reviews areas of requirements for THz sources: (1) Figures of merit, (i.e., Frequency Terahertz for high resolution Bandwidth of at least 15 GHz for high range resolution Efficiency (i.e., minimize power supply requirements) (2) Output power: (i.e., Milliwatts below 800 GHz, 10s of microwatts above 1 THz, 1-2 microwatts near 2 THz (3) Mechanical--stability, compact, low mass (4) Environmental -- radiation, vibration, thermal. Several sources for 0.3 - 2 THz are reviewed: FIR lasers, quantum cascade lasers (QCL), backward-wave oscillator (BWO), and Multiplier sources. The current state of the art (SoA) is shown as Substrateless Technology. It also shows where the SoA is for devices beyond 1 THz. The presentation concludes by reviewing the options for future development, and 2 technology roadmaps

Schlecht, Erich T.

2007-01-01

254

Light Sources 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Light Sources (LS:11) held in Fudan University, Shanghai, China in the period May 20th to 24th, 2007. In the 32 years since the first symposium was held in Loughborough, UK, the LS series has established itself as the major international event which brings together on a regular basis the world's leading scientists and engineers involved in the research and development of light source technologies. The participants come from the R&D laboratories of the world?s leading light source manufacturing companies and from research groups in universities, government laboratories and research institutes. The highly multi-disciplinary nature of the field results in a unique mix of physicists, chemists, chemical physicists, materials scientists and electrical, electronic and mechanical engineers attending the symposia. The more than 250 papers in these LS:11 proceedings provide an excellent overview of the current status of light source science and technology. The energy efficiency and light emission characteristics of existing technologies continue to be improved, solid state technologies are advancing rapidly and innovation flourishes generally. Audience Professional scientists and engineers involved in light source related R&D. Postgraduate-level students in the physical sciences, applied mathematics, materials science, and electrical and electronic engineering. The contents will also be of interest to anyone with a background in science and engineering wishing to gain an overview of current activity in this important global industry and research field.

Liu, M. Q.; Devonshire, R.

2007-04-01

255

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOEpatents

An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

Greenly, J.B.

1997-08-12

256

Astrophysics Source Code Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.

2013-10-01

257

Italian neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many research activities, instrumental analysis, studies of radiation damage, etc., require neutron sources. The main neutron sources present in Italy are described in three different sections: nuclear research reactors, accelerator driven, and metrology stations. The nuclear research reactors of LENA (University of Pavia) and ENEA Casaccia are described in terms of irradiation facilities available, neutron flux for each of them and the main activities carried out by each research centre. In the second section, the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG), the Frascati Beam-Test Facility (BTF) and their main features are reported. In the last section there is a detailed description of the institutional role and the main activities carried out in the field of neutron metrology by the National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (INMRI) with a brief description of neutron sources of which the institute is endowed.

Prata, M.; Alloni, D.; De Felice, P.; Palomba, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Pillon, M.; Quintieri, L.; Santagata, A.; Valente, P.

2014-11-01

258

The Advanced Light Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A division of the Berkeley Laboratory, the Advanced Light Source (ALS) "is a national user facility that generates intense light for scientific and technological research." Students and educators can learn how ALS, with the use of one of the world's brightest sources of ultraviolet and soft X-ray beams and the world's first third generation synchrotron light source in its energy range, studies the properties of materials, trace metals, and the structures of atoms and molecules. The website features scientific highlights from the facility including its study of why alcohol and water don't mix. Scientists can find the technical specification of the storage ring, photon, and beamline parameters for the many microscopes at the facility. Visiting the User's Guide, qualified researchers can also find out how to become an ALS user.

259

MEMS Incandescent Light Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A MEMS-based, low-power, incandescent light source is being developed. This light source is fabricated using three bonded chips. The bottom chip consists of a reflector on Silicon, the middle chip contains a Tungsten filament bonded to silicon and the top layer is a transparent window. A 25-micrometer-thick spiral filament is fabricated in Tungsten using lithography and wet-etching. A proof-of-concept device has been fabricated and tested in a vacuum chamber. Results indicate that the filament is electrically heated to approximately 2650 K. The power required to drive the proof-of-concept spiral filament to incandescence is 1.25 W. The emitted optical power is expected to be approximately 1.0 W with the spectral peak at 1.1 microns. The micromachining techniques used to fabricate this light source can be applied to other MEMS devices.

Tuma, Margaret; King, Kevin; Kim, Lynn; Hansler, Richard; Jones, Eric; George, Thomas

2001-01-01

260

Dual source heat pump  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01

261

Modulated infrared radiant source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modulated, infrared radiant energy source was developed to calibrate an airborne nadir-viewing pressure modulated radiometer to be used to detect from Earth orbit trace gases in the troposphere. The technique used an 8 cm long, 0.005 cm diameter platinum-iridium wire as an isothermal, thin line radiant energy source maintained at 1200 K. A + or - 20 K signal, oscillating at controllable frequencies from dc to 20 Hz, was superimposed on it. This periodic variation of the line source energy was used to verify the pressure modulated radiometer's capability to distinguish between the signal variations caused by the Earth's background surface and the signal from the atmospheric gases of interest.

Stewart, W. F.; Edwards, S. F.; Vann, D. S.; Mccormick, R. F.

1981-01-01

262

Sources of gravitational waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sources of low frequency gravitational radiation are reviewed from an astrophysical point of view. Cosmological sources include the formation of massive black holes in galactic nuclei, the capture by such holes of neutron stars, the coalescence of orbiting pairs of giant black holes, and various means of producing a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the early universe. Sources local to our Galaxy include various kinds of close binaries and coalescing binaries. Gravitational wave astronomy can provide information that no other form of observing can supply; in particular, the positive identification of a cosmological background originating in the early universe would be an event as significant as was the detection of the cosmic microwave background.

Schutz, Bernard F.

1989-01-01

263

Intense fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

2010-04-01

264

Intense fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-04-15

265

Femtosecond tunable light source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical source of continuously tunable coherent visible and infrared light would have an enormous impact on science, medicine and technology. While microwave and radio transmitters offer wide tunability at the ``turn of a knob,'' the best known source of coherent optical radiation, the laser, does not possess the same versatility. Dye lasers provide some degree of tunability, but many dyes are needed to cover even the visible region. Ti:sapphire lasers are tunable only over the red to near infra-red portion of the spectrum (about 65 0 nm to about 1.1?m). This presentation documents the development of a unique pulsed light source tunable across the visible and near infrared portion of the spectrum, a femtosecond optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Much work was expended in developing the system itself. But a great deal of work was also done in developing the support equipment (hardware and software) necessary to build as well as maintain and operate an OPA. Once completed, the system characteristics were measured and documented. Initially it possessed ``personality'' which had to be understood and removed as much as possible. In addition, the pump source for this OPA, a regenerative amplifier, is unique in that it uses Cr3+:LiSGaF as the gain medium. This regen was also characterized and compared to other more standard regenerative amplifiers. System verification was done by performing a standard experiment (Z-scan) on well known samples, several of which are well characterized at specific wavelengths (1.06 ?m, 0.523 ?m) in the nanosecond and picosecond regimes. The results were compared against previously published results. The OPA was also compared against another very similar system which became commercially available during the time of this research. The results were helpful in analyzing the light source(s) and data acquisition systems for areas that could be improved.

Miesak, Edward Jozef

1999-09-01

266

INEEL Source Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEELs drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Surveys Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agencys Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEELs Source Water Assessment. Of the INEELs 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEELs public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, Gerald

2003-03-01

267

ATLAS OF SOURCE EMISSION PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

An atlas of various source emission particles characterized by electron optical techniques has been compiled for use by air pollution investigators. The particles studied were emitted by mobile, stationary, and natural sources. Sources included automobiles, manufacturing operatio...

268

Trends in source gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

1989-01-01

269

River Sources and Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students learn about the differences in precipitation levels and elevation in the regions of the Nile and its source rivers (the White Nile and the Blue Nile) and will be able to explain the importance of the source rivers to civilization in Egypt. They use the MapMachine, an online atlas, and create elevation zones and precipitation maps of Africa. As they create each map, they compare it with their outline maps to answer some questions that will allow them to compare the physical characteristics of different regions and to understand the significance of one region to an adjoining area.

270

SNS: Spallation Neutron Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source currently being built by the United States Department of Energy. Users can find out about upcoming workshops, conferences, and other events dealing with the accelerator, which is scheduled to be completed in 2006. By downloading a series of materials, users can learn about SNS's benefits and mechanisms. Researchers can discover SNS's mission, instrumentation, moderators, and detectors. The website provides live video of the construction site. Visitors can also learn about employment opportunities.

271

Efficient Light Sources Today  

E-print Network

these sources. To make the proper choice of a lighting system, the evaluation must go far beyond the considerations of initial cost, lamp cost orilamp efficiency. It must include the efficiency qf the ballast and luminaire, the effect of the spa e (size... shave gone from a novelty to a light source that roduced over 80% of the light generated in this cou try. Fluorescent systems (lamp and ballBst) evol+ed thru switch start, instant start to rapid start; Ifrom 430 lOA F40's and Slimline lamps, to 800...

Hart, A. L.

1982-01-01

272

Alternative Energy Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to the most common alternative energy sources that they may encounter in electronic work including fuel cells, solar power, and ultracapacitors. The module includes course materials covering each of these alternative energy sources along with three "Knowledge Probes" which provide an opportunity for students to master the objectives of the module. By clicking on "Learning Resources" at the top of the page, users will also find supplemental learning activities and additional resources for practice and research. The module also includes a glossary of terms and a notebook function.

273

Download Mozilla Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Netscape offers its browser source code at its Mozilla.org (discussed in the Feburary 27, 1998 Scout Report) site. The compressed code is available for Macintosh, Unix, and Windows operating systems, and is between 8.8 and 11.9 Mb. Netscape strongly points out that this is source code, not executable programs, that it is of use to developers only, and that it "will be unstable." More information about the code, as well as selected build instructions, can be obtained at the site.

274

An independent hydrogen source  

SciTech Connect

Descriptions are given of the design and operation of an independent hydrogen source used in purifying and storing hydrogen. If LaNi/sub 5/ or TiFe is used as the sorbent, one can store about 500 liter of chemically bound hydrogen in a vessel of 0.9 liter. Molecular purification of the desorbed hydrogen is used. The IHS is a safe hydrogen source, since the hydrogen is trapped in the sorbent in the chemically bound state and in equilibrium with LaNi/sub 5/Hx at room temperature. If necessary, the IHS can serve as a compressor and provide higher hydrogen pressures. The device is compact and transportable.

Kobzenko, G.F.; Chubenko, M.V.; Kobzenko, N.S.; Senkevich, A.I.; Shkola, A.A.

1985-10-01

275

Ultrashort pulsed neutron source.  

PubMed

We report on a novel compact laser-driven neutron source with an unprecedented short pulse duration (<50??ps) and high peak flux (>10(18)??n/cm(2)/s), an order of magnitude higher than any existing source. In our experiments, high-energy electron jets are generated from thin (<3???m) plastic targets irradiated by a petawatt laser. These intense electron beams are employed to generate neutrons from a metal converter. Our method opens venues for enhancing neutron radiography contrast and for creating astrophysical conditions of heavy element synthesis in the laboratory. PMID:25396373

Pomerantz, I; McCary, E; Meadows, A R; Arefiev, A; Bernstein, A C; Chester, C; Cortez, J; Donovan, M E; Dyer, G; Gaul, E W; Hamilton, D; Kuk, D; Lestrade, A C; Wang, C; Ditmire, T; Hegelich, B M

2014-10-31

276

Nanoplasmonics enhanced terahertz sources.  

PubMed

Arrayed hexagonal metal nanostructures are used to maximize the local current density while providing effective thermal management at the nanoscale, thereby allowing for increased emission from photoconductive terahertz (THz) sources. The THz emission field amplitude was increased by 60% above that of a commercial THz photoconductive antenna, even though the hexagonal nanostructured device had 75% of the bias voltage. The arrayed hexagonal outperforms our previously investigated strip array nanoplasmonic structure by providing stronger localization of the current density near the metal surface with an operating bandwidth of 2.6 THz. This approach is promising to achieve efficient THz sources. PMID:25402040

Jooshesh, Afshin; Smith, Levi; Masnadi-Shirazi, Mostafa; Bahrami-Yekta, Vahid; Tiedje, Thomas; Darcie, Thomas E; Gordon, Reuven

2014-11-17

277

OLED area illumination source  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

Foust, Donald Franklin (Scotia, NY); Duggal, Anil Raj (Niskayuna, NY); Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Nealon, William Francis (Gloversville, NY); Bortscheller, Jacob Charles (Clifton Park, NY)

2008-03-25

278

Evaluating Open Source Portals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for

Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

2008-01-01

279

Source Book on Alaska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bases for the development of this resource book were notes and a course outline used in teaching Alaska History at the junior high school level. It can be used as a checklist, a guide to organizing lesson plans, selecting classroom and testing materials, and as a source of concepts and information for any grade level. Most of the material is

Peratrovich, Robert J., Jr., Comp.

280

Protected isotope heat source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioactive isotope capsule is disposed in a container (heat shield) which will have a single stable trim attitude when reentering the earth's atmosphere and while falling to earth. The center of gravity of the heat source is located forward of the midpoint between the front face and the rear face of the container. The capsule is insulated from the

R. K. Burns; L. I. Shure; E. D. Katzen

1975-01-01

281

Sources of Model Error  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial from Texas A&M University describes the common sources of weather forecasting computer model error, ways to identify model error, and how to correct a forecast for some simple types of error. Model sensitivity to parameterization and topography are covered.

John Nielsen-Gammon

1996-01-01

282

Bayesian Radiation Source Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locating illicit radiological sources using gamma ray or neutron detection is a key challenge for both homeland security and nuclear nonproliferation. Localization methods using an array of detectors or a sequence of observations in time and space must provide rapid results while accounting for a dynamic attenuating environment. In the presence of significant attenuation and scatter, more extensive numerical transport

Kenneth D. Jarman; Erin A. Miller; Richard S. Wittman; Christopher J. Gesh

2011-01-01

283

Open-Source Colorimeter  

PubMed Central

The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

2013-01-01

284

BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL Sealed Source  

E-print Network

Contaminations · Radiological Control Technician (RCT) #1 ­ Contamination found on his hands, shirt and shoes (Cs-137) Source Failure On September 28th @ ~1600 contamination event discovered · Two Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) · Bldg 923 hallway and parking lot · Government vehicle used by the two RCTs

Homes, Christopher C.

285

Custom uniform source system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose and scope of this final report is to provide information on the Custom Uniform Source System (CSTM-USS-4000). The report includes documentation and summaries of the results for the work performed under the contract. The Annex contain laboratory test findings, photographs, and drawings of the sphere system.

Balcom, John L.

1994-01-01

286

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

287

Broadband seismic energy source  

SciTech Connect

A vibratory seismic energy source capable of generating significant energy over a broad frequency band is described. The vibrating baseplate and associated structure are designed to have minimum weight while still retaining sufficient structural integrity to permit the use of high actuator forces. This, coupled with a large reaction mass results in the generation of significant energy levels in the earth at high frequencies.

Bedenbender, J.W.; Weber, R.M.

1981-03-03

288

Does Source Reduction Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that quantification is essential to establish the cost-effectiveness of source reduction (SR). Presents case studies of monitoring methods for seven different kinds of SR efforts: (1) packaging changes, (2) SR businesses, (3) waste exchanges, (4) individual nonresidential efforts, (5) variable garbage rates, (6) yard waste reduction, and

Allaway, David

1992-01-01

289

Chernobyl source term estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the

P. H. Gudiksen; T. F. Harvey; R. Lange

1990-01-01

290

Selective ion source  

DOEpatents

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01

291

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2 was approximately equal to the ion arrival rate at a partial pressure of about .00002 Torr. There were also ion source and ion pressure gauge maintenance problems as a result of the use of CF4. Large scale (4 sq cm) texturing of Si was accomplished using both Cu and stainless steel seed. The most effective seeding method for this texturing was to surround the sample with large inclined planes. Designing, fabricating, and testing a 200 sq cm rectangular beam ion source was emphasized. The design current density was 6 mA/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions, although power supply limitations permitted operation to only 2 mA/sq cm. The use of multiple rectangular beam ion sources for continuous processing of wider areas than would be possible with a single source was also studied. In all cases investigated, the most uniform coverage was obtained with 0 to 2 cm beam overlay. The maximum departure from uniform processing at optimum beam overlap was found to be +15%.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1979-01-01

292

High temperature ion source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified Nielsen-type ion source produces temperatures up to 1500 degrees C and permits obtaining a plasma from low vapor-pressure materials. Design minimizes thermal stresses. Dual-filament discharge chamber achieves the high temperature and provides independent control of the heating and electron emission functions.

Swift, R.

1970-01-01

293

Contacts & Information Sources  

Cancer.gov

PLCO participants who wish to update their information may contact: PLCO CDCC Manager: Samantha Lewis Email: samanthalewis@westat.com Phone: (888) 886-0750 Fax: (888) 251-1690 Contacts and Information Sources PLCO Project Officer Kelly Yu, PhD Early Detection

294

Chemical Plume Source Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of estimating a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume using an autonomous vehicle as a sensor probe in a fluid flow. The fluid flow is assumed to have a high Reynolds number. Therefore, the dispersion of the chemical is dominated by turbulence, resulting in an intermittent chemical signal. The

Shuo Pang; Jay A. Farrell

2006-01-01

295

MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal contamination of waters used for recreation, drinking water, and aquaculture is an environmental problem and poses significant human health risks. The problem is often difficult to correct because the source of the contamination cannot be determined with certainty. Run-of...

296

Open-source colorimeter.  

PubMed

The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

Anzalone, Gerald C; Glover, Alexandra G; Pearce, Joshua M

2013-01-01

297

Additional Sources of Information  

Cancer.gov

Additional Sources of Information Developing Medical Imaging Drug and Biological Products Part 1: Conducting Safety Assessments [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Part 2: Clinical Indications [PDF] (Issued 6/17/2004, Posted 6/17/2004) Content

298

Single sourcing for translations  

Microsoft Academic Search

OCLC Online Computer Library Center has reduced costs and improved quality by using single sourcing in the localization of its services. For its FirstSearch reference service (which provides access to 80 databases for 18,000 libraries in 64 countries), OCLC has been through three phases of localization. Each phase has increased consistency and efficiency and lowered our translation costs. In the

Deborah A. Hysell

2001-01-01

299

LabSOURCE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LabSOURCE is a periodic newsletter produced by the University of California. It provides news and information on UC's management of three DOE laboratories -- Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory -- and news highlights from the laboratories themselves.

300

Oceanography Information Sources 70.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet lists oceanography information sources in the first section under industries, laboratories and departments of oceanography, and other organizations which can provide free information and materials describing programs and activities. Publications listed in the second section include these educational materials: bibliographies, career

Vetter, Richard C.

301

A universal finite memory source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irreducible parameterization for a finite memory source is constructed in the form of a tree machine. A universal information source for the set of finite memory sources is constructed by a predictive modification of an earlier studied algorithm-Context. It is shown that this universal source incorporates any minimal data-generating tree machine in an asymptotically optimal manner in the following

Marcelo J. Weinberger; Jorma J. Rissanen; Meir Feder

1995-01-01

302

Refurbishing tritium contaminated ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended tritium experimentation on TFTR has necessitated refurbishing Neutral Beam Long Pulse Ion Sources (LPIS) which developed operational difficulties, both in the TFTR Test Cell and later, in the NE Source Refurbishment Shop. Shipping contaminated sources off-site for repair was not permissible from a transport and safety perspective. Therefore, the NE source repair facility was upgraded by relocating fixtures, tooling,

K. E. Wright; R. H. Carnevale; B. E. McCormack; T. Stevenson; A. von Halle

1995-01-01

303

NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Non-point source pollution is a diffuse source that is difficult to measure and is highly variable due to different rain patterns and other climatic conditions. In many areas, however, non-point source pollution is the greatest source of water quality degradation. Presently, stat...

304

Open Source Physics  

E-print Network

Open Source Physics (Brown, 2012; Christian, 2010; Esquembre, 2012; Hwang, 2010) empowers teachers and students to create and use these free tools with the associated intellectual property rights given to customise (Wee & Mak, 2009) the computer models/tools to suit their teaching and learning needs. Open Source Physics (OSP) focuses on design of computer models, such as Easy Java Simulations (EJS) and the use of video modeling and analysis (Tracker). They allow students to investigate, explore and analyse data which is either real or simulated. The OSP approach helps users overcome barriers in creating, using and scaling up meaningful ICT use in education. In Singapore, teachers and students have created or customised existing computer models to design and re-purpose EJS models to suit their context and learning needs. Tracker tools allow students to analyse different aspects of a physics phenomena to deepen their understanding of abstract physics concepts. Using Tracker, students record the motion of ob...

Wee, Loo Kang

2013-01-01

305

The advanced photon source  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV third-generation synchrotron radiation storage ring and full-energy positron injector. Construction project funding began in 1989, and ground breaking took place on 5 May 1990. Construction of all accelerator facilities was completed in January 1995 and storage ring commissioning is underway. First observation of x-rays from a bending magnet source took place on 26 March 1995. Nearly all performance specifications of the injector have been reached, and first observations indicate that the reliability, dynamic aperture, emittance, and orbit stability in the storage ring are satisfactory. Observation of radiation from the first of 20 insertion device beamlines is scheduled for October 1995. Start of regular operations is expected to take place well before the APS Project target date of December 1996.

Galayda, J.N.

1995-07-01

306

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOEpatents

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

307

Marine petroleum source rocks  

SciTech Connect

Marine petroleum source rocks are of interest not only to petroleum geologists and geochemists but also to sedimentologists, stratigraphers and many oceanographers. This book is a collection of papers which were presented at a meeting held at the Royal Society, London, which was organized by the Petroleum Geochemistry and Marine Studies Groups of the Geological Society of London, with support from the Petroleum Exploration Society of Great Britain and various oil companies. The aim of the meeting was to bring together acknowledged experts and active workers from all the various disciplines that study marine petroleum source rocks and organic-rich marine sediments. General principles, depositional environments, especially important geographical areas and critical periods of the geological record were considered.

Brooks, J.; Fleet, A.

1986-01-01

308

Evaluated teletherapy source library  

DOEpatents

The Evaluated Teletherapy Source Library (ETSL) is a system of hardware and software that provides for maintenance of a library of useful phase space descriptions (PSDs) of teletherapy sources used in radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The PSDs are designed to be used by PEREGRINE, the all-particle Monte Carlo dose calculation system. ETSL also stores other relevant information such as monitor unit factors (MUFs) for use with the PSDs, results of PEREGRINE calculations using the PSDs, clinical calibration measurements, and geometry descriptions sufficient for calculational purposes. Not all of this information is directly needed by PEREGRINE. It also is capable of acting as a repository for the Monte Carlo simulation history files from which the generic PSDs are derived.

Cox, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schach Von Wittenau, Alexis E. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

309

Ion source apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A gas is introduced into a discharge chamber of an ion source apparatus, and a gas discharge is performed between a thermionic cathode and an anode. Ions are extracted from the plasma formed in this gas discharge by a grid electrode. The thermionic cathode has a hollow cylindrical shape. A cathode chamber is defined by the thermionic cathode and a cylindrical partition wall supporting it. A columnar auxiliary electrode is coaxially inserted in the thermionic cathode. An A.C. voltage from a power source unit is supplied between the thermionic cathode and the auxiliary electrode such that effective power for keeping the thermionic cathode at a positive potential with respect to the auxiliary electrode is higher than that for keeping the auxiliary electrode at a positive potential with respect to the thermionic cathode.

Sugawara, T.; Ito, Y.

1985-03-19

310

Understanding Slat Noise Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-scale aeroacoustic tests of large civil transports point to the leading-edge slat as a dominant high-lift noise source in the low- to mid-frequencies during aircraft approach and landing. Using generic multi-element high-lift models, complementary experimental and numerical tests were carefully planned and executed at NASA in order to isolate slat noise sources and the underlying noise generation mechanisms. In this paper, a brief overview of the supporting computational effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center, is provided. Both tonal and broadband aspects of slat noise are discussed. Recent gains in predicting a slat s far-field acoustic noise, current shortcomings of numerical simulations, and other remaining open issues, are presented. Finally, an example of the ever-expanding role of computational simulations in noise reduction studies also is given.

Khorrami, Medhi R.

2003-01-01

311

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOEpatents

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26

312

Filtered cathodic arc source  

DOEpatents

A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA); Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

313

Terahertz sources and detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the support of the US Army Research Office we are developing terahertz sources and detectors suitable for use in the spectroscopy of chemical and biological materials as well as for use in imaging systems to detect concealed weapons. Our technology relies on nonlinear diodes to translate the functionality achieved at microwave frequencies to the terahertz band. Basic building blocks that have been developed for this application include low-noise mixers, frequency multipliers, sideband generators and direct detectors. These components rely on planar Schottky diodes and integrated diode circuits and are therefore easy to assemble and robust. They require no mechanical tuners to achieve high efficiency and broad bandwidth. This paper will review the range of performance that has been achieved with these terahertz components and briefly discuss preliminary results achieved with a spectroscopy system and the development of sources for imaging systems.

Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David W.; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Bishop, William L.; Kurtz, David S.; Hui, Kai

2005-05-01

314

The Advanced Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th} {approx} 9{center dot}10{sup 19} m{sup -2}{center dot}s{sup -1}) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Hayter, J.B.

1989-01-01

315

Sources of tritium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of both natural and man-made tritium sources is presented. Tritium production and release rates are discussed for light-water reactors (LWRs), heavy-water reactors (HWRs), high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten-salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for the tritium production facility near Aiken, S.C., fuel-reprocessing plants, explosives, and fusion reactors. A

J. E. Phillips; C. E. Easterly

1981-01-01

316

Background sources at PEP  

SciTech Connect

Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

1988-01-01

317

THz Sources for Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terahertz is the primary frequency for line and continuum radiation from cool (5-100K) gas (atoms and molecules) and dust. This viewgraph presentation reviews the reasons for the interest in Terahertz Space Applications; the Terahertz Space Missions: in the past, present and planned for the future, Terahertz source requirements and examples of some JPL instruments; and a case study for a flight deliverable: THz Local Oscillators for ESA s Herschel Space Telescope

Siegel, Peter H.; Ward, John; Maiwald, Frank; Mehdi, Imran

2007-01-01

318

The European Spallation Source  

SciTech Connect

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.

2011-03-01

319

High current ion source  

DOEpatents

An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

1990-01-01

320

Atrial fibrillation source identification.  

PubMed

Atrial Fibrillation, a common arrhythmia accompanied by an increased morbidity and mortality remains difficult to treat either with medications or invasive procedures. Targeted destruction of atrial fibrillation triggers offers the best hope for permanent resolution of the arrhythmia. In this work, identification of atrial triggers is based on the analysis of complex endocardial recordings. Here, we propose a novel algorithm to detect the source of atrial fibrillation by classifying the signals originating from the four pulmonary veins in the left atrium. PMID:22255314

Vaizurs, Raja Sarath Chandra Prasad; Sankar, Ravi; Leonelli, Fabio

2011-01-01

321

Intense fusion neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons\\/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion

B. V. Kuteev; P. R. Goncharov; V. Yu. Sergeev; V. I. Khripunov

2010-01-01

322

Intense fusion neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects\\u000a of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10151021 neutrons\\/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes\\u000a and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of\\u000a fusion

B. V. Kuteev; P. R. Goncharov; V. Yu. Sergeev; V. I. Khripunov

2010-01-01

323

Open-Source GIS  

SciTech Connect

The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Burk, Thomas E [University of Minnesota; Lime, Steve [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

2012-01-01

324

EUV source collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collector subsystem has been designed, built, and tested. The subsystem consists of a 320mm diameter ellipsoidal collector coated with a graded multilayer, mounting mechanics, thermal management capability, and a collector protection system. The EUV light emission can be collected with a solid angle of 1.6 sr. Collector substrates have been developed with the goal of offering both optical surface quality to support high multilayer mirror (MLM) reflectivity and material compatibility for long-term operation in the EUV source system. An interface-engineered MLM coating capable of maintaining high normal-incidence peak reflectivity at 13.5 nm during continuous operation at 400 C has been developed. The thermal management of the system has been engineered and tested to maintain uniform substrate temperature during operation. Lastly, protection techniques have been developed to provide the collector with a long operational lifetime. Performance data for the entire subsystem are presented. The collector was installed in the source chamber of a laser-produced-plasma EUV source during system integration experiments using a tin droplet target. First results of the collected EUV output at the intermediate focus measured with a power meter and a fluorescence-converter-based imaging system are discussed.

Bwering, Norbert R.; Ershov, Alex I.; Marx, William F.; Khodykin, Oleh V.; Hansson, Bjrn A. M.; Vargas L., Ernesto; Chavez, Juan A.; Fomenkov, Igor V.; Myers, David W.; Brandt, David C.

2006-03-01

325

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

326

Intersunspot Microwave Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied a number of solar active regions using two-dimensional spatially resolved microwave observations. Data from the Nobeyama Radioheliograph and the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope together with observations by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) have allowed us to identify long-lived intersunspot sources (ISSs) in most of the investigated active regions. Their centers are often located above the line-of-sight magnetic field inversion line that separates the leading and following polarities of a full active region (first type of ISS) or above the inversion line that separates magnetic polarities inside of a complex of sunspots (second type of ISS). ISSs of the first type are extended and, in general, they are sources of bremsstrahlung emission. ISSs of the second type are compact and are, most likely, sources of gyroresonance or gyrosynchrotron emission. We propose a qualitative model involving three types of magnetic connectivity to explain how long-lasting ISSs may be generated.

Bakunina, I. A.; Melnikov, V. F.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Abramov-Maximov, V. E.

2015-01-01

327

Improved negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, J.E.

1984-05-01

328

BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION  

SciTech Connect

The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

2007-08-26

329

Chandra Source Catalog: User Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is intended to be the definitive catalog of all X-ray sources detected by Chandra. For each source, the CSC provides positions and multi-band fluxes, as well as derived spatial, spectral, and temporal source properties. Full-field and source region data products are also available, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra. The Chandra X-ray

Nina Bonaventura; Ian N. Evans; Arnold H. Rots; Michael S. Tibbetts; David W. van Stone; Panagoula Zografou; Francis A. Primini; Kenny J. Glotfelty; Craig S. Anderson; Judy C. Chen; John E. Davis; Stephen M. Doe; Janet D. Evans; Giuseppina Fabbiano; Elizabeth C. Galle; Danny G. Gibbs II; John D. Grier; Roger Hain; Diane M. Hall; Peter N. Harbo; Helen He; John C. Houck; Margarita Karovska; Vinay L. Kashyap; Jennifer Lauer; Michael L. McCollough; Jonathan C. McDowell; Joseph B. Miller; Arik W. Mitschang; Douglas L. Morgan; Amy E. Mossman; Joy S. Nichols; Michael A. Nowak; David A. Plummer; Brian L. Refsdal; Aneta L. Siemiginowska; Beth A. Sundheim; Sherry L. Winkelman

2009-01-01

330

SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

1998-07-01

331

Integrated Power Source Grant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional spacecraft power systems incorporate a solar array energy source, an energy storage element (battery), and battery charge control and bus voltage regulation electronics to provide continuous electrical power for spacecraft systems and instruments. Dedicated power conditioning components provide limited fault isolation between systems and instruments, while a centralized power-switching unit provides spacecraft load control. Battery undervoltage conditions are detected by the spacecraft processor, which removes fault conditions and non-critical loads before permanent battery damage can occur. Cost effective operation of a micro-sat constellation requires a fault tolerant spacecraft architecture that minimizes on-orbit operational costs by permitting autonomous reconfiguration in response to unexpected fault conditions. A new micro-sat power system architecture that enhances spacecraft fault tolerance and improves power system survivability by continuously managing the battery charge and discharge processes on a cell-by-cell basis has been developed. This architecture is based on the Integrated Power Source (US patent 5644207), which integrates dual junction solar cells, Lithium Ion battery cells, and processor based charge control electronics into a structural panel that can be deployed or used to form a portion of the outer shell of a micro-spacecraft. The first generation Integrated Power Source is configured as a one inch thick panel in which prismatic Lithium Ion battery cells are arranged in a 3x7 matrix (26VDC) and a 3x1 matrix (3.7VDC) to provide the required output voltages and load currents. A multi-layer structure holds the battery cells, as well as the thermal insulators that are necessary to protect the Lithium Ion battery cells from the extreme temperatures of the solar cell layer. Independent thermal radiators, located on the back of the panel, are dedicated to the solar cell array, the electronics, and the battery cell array. In deployed panel applications, these radiators maintain the battery cells in an appropriate operational temperature range.

2001-01-01

332

World Development Sources (WDS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Development Sources is the "digital repository" of World Bank documents. It houses a searchable database of development-related reports produced since 1988 by the World Bank. These include Staff Appraisal Reports (SARs), World Bank President's Reports and Memoranda, Economic and Sector Work, Evaluation Reports and Studies, and Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Montreal Protocol Project documents. It also contains working papers and publications produced by the World Bank since 1993. All of these papers can be viewed online using the TMS Sequoia plug-in (available at the site for Windows and Macintosh).

1997-01-01

333

Advanced Photon Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Synchrotrons are used to study the atomic structure of materials. The second largest synchrotron is the Advanced Photon Source, located at the Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The homepage provides information on the synchrotron and current research being conducted at the laboratory. This site covers one of the top ten scientific breakthroughs of 1997, compiled in the December 19, 1997 issue of Science. The top scientific breakthrough of 1997 was the cloning of a sheep, resulting in a lamb named Dolly. The nine runners up were: the Pathfinder mission to Mars, synchrotrons, biological clock genes, gamma ray bursts, Neandertal DNA, nanotubes, Europa's ocean, whole genome sequencing, and neurons.

1998-01-01

334

Real Climate: Data Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for quick, trustworthy information on climate change? Look no further. This winner of the Scientific American Science and Technology Web Award delivers up-to-date, empirically solid articles, commentaries, and data sources about the global climate situation. To begin, click the Start Here link, and peruse articles divided by level of expertise. ??For complete beginners,? for instance, lists links to the National Center for Atmospheric Research and NASA, among others. ??For those with some knowledge? includes links to 20 more advanced articles on climate change, while ??Informed but in need of more detail? showcases actual reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

335

Sources of tritium  

SciTech Connect

A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water.

Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

1980-12-01

336

The European Spallation Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

Lindroos, M.; Bousson, S.; Calaga, R.; Danared, H.; Devanz, G.; Duperrier, R.; Eguia, J.; Eshraqi, M.; Gammino, S.; Hahn, H.; Jansson, A.; Oyon, C.; Pape-Mller, S.; Peggs, S.; Ponton, A.; Rathsman, K.; Ruber, R.; Satogata, T.; Trahern, G.

2011-12-01

337

Compact ion accelerator source  

DOEpatents

An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

2014-04-29

338

Open Source Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Open Source Physics (OSP) Collection brings together ??curriculum resources that engage students in physics, computation, and computer modeling." Visitors can look at the featured tools and resources on the homepage, which covers topics such as Newton's laws, moon phases, and working with physics simulators. Moving on, OSP News explores exciting new apps that can be used with existing resources. The Curriculum Packages should also not be missed. Here, visitors can learn how to combine computer simulations with tutorial materials and student worksheets.

339

A surface ionization source  

E-print Network

The Einzel Lens. 2 The Quadrupole Triplet . . 3. The Beam Scanner. . . 4 The Four-plate Detectors and Faraday Cups. III TESTING AND OPTIMIZING THE BEAM LINE 10 12 13 A. Initial Results. IV THE THEORY OF SURFACE IONIZATION . . . . . V ION SOURCES. 21... representation of the beam line. Page 2 Schematic of the vacuum system 3 Cross section of the einzel lens, with equipotentials. 4 The quadrupole triplet . 5 Polanties of the quadrupole tnplet 6 Beam scanner probe with V-shaped vane for x, y sensing...

Buzatu, Daniel J.

1995-01-01

340

Collective Bargaining Information Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest online resource from the always excellent Catherwood Library of the School of Industrial and Labor, Cornell University, was created as a compilation of resources to help Cornell students with a "mock bargaining" exercise. From the table of contents across the left side of page, users can access a collection of full-text resources and citations, including industry and economic information, costs of the labor contracts, news and trends, and wage and benefit information. Sources are thoughtfully annotated, including the paths to access information most pertinent to collective bargaining.

341

Groklaw: Understanding Open Source Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mark Webbink, Red Hat's general counsel, wrote this article for attorneys wanting to know the basic issues regarding free and open source software. Aside from listing best practices for law offices, he provides a general overview of various open source licenses, explains US copyright law, defines derivative works, and touches on the indemnification issue and the difference between open source and shared source. Webbink also highlights some of the common myths and misconceptions about the General Public License (GPL) and open source and provides links to other sites with more information on open source software. Readers' comments and responses to the article are also posted in a threaded discussion format.

342

LISA Sources in Globular Clusters  

E-print Network

Globular clusters house a population of compact binaries that will be interesting gravitational wave sources for LISA. We provide estimates for the numbers of sources of several categories and discuss the sensitivity of LISA to detecting these sources. The estimated total number of detectable sources ranges from about 10 to about 1000 with gravitational wave frequencies above 1 mHz. These sources are typically undetectable by any other means and thus offer an opportunity for doing true gravitational-wave astronomy. The detection of these sources would provide information about both binary star evolution and the dynamics of globular clusters.

M J Benacquista; S Portegies Zwart; F A Rasio

2000-10-09

343

DreiserWebSource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed and maintained by the Annenberg Rare Book and Manuscript Library Collection at the University of Pennsylvania, the DreiserWebSource website brings together a host of written ephemera, original essays, and electronic texts related to the life and writings of Theodore Dreiser, the prominent American author. While the site doesn't have a formal search engine, the material is divided into four primary sections: Correspondence & Texts, Scholarly Essays, Reference Sources, and Still and Moving images. The Correspondence & Texts section is a delight unto itself, as it contains a host of digitized correspondence between Dreiser and colleagues over several decades and a special section dedicated to his ground-breaking novel, Sister Carrie. Along with several editions of the complete novel there are several essays about the novel's composition and historical context, along with a virtual exhibition curated by Nancy M. Shawcross from the Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Penn. The site also includes a rare 3-minute silent film of Dreiser from 1938 at Mt. Kisco, New York, taken by Robert Elias.

344

HYDROCARBON POLLUTANTS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of hydrocarbon pollutants from stationary sources. Early in the study, readily available information was assembled on stationary sources of hydrocarbon emissions and effluents. Information was also obtained on process descriptions, operating pa...

345

AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION (AGNPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model addresses concerns related to the potential impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on surface and groundwater quality (Young et al., 1989). It was designed to quantit...

346

Californium252 sources for afterloading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Californium-252 neutron sources have been developed to investigate the value of this radionuclide in cancer therapy. The primary objective of the neutron source development is to meet the changing needs of the radiotherapist with safe, reliable, and uniform products. Thus far point and line sources containing 0.5 microgram to 1.0 milligram of californium-252 have been designed. The neutron source forms

P. H. Permar; A. R. Boulogne; W. C. Jr. Mosley; V. W. Walker

1976-01-01

347

Variability of VHE ?-ray sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study changes in the ?-ray intensity at very high energies observed from selected active galactic nuclei. Publicly available data collected by Cherenkov telescopes were examined by means of a simple method utilizing solely the number of source and background events. Our results point to some degree of time variability in signal observed from the investigated sources. Several measurements were found to be excessive or deficient in the number of source events when compared to the source intensity deduced from other observations.

Stefanik, Stanislav; Nosek, Dalibor

2014-11-01

348

Source memory in the rat  

PubMed Central

Summary Source memory is a representation of the origin (source) of information. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic, allowing us to differentiate one event from another [1, 2]. Here we asked if rats remember the source of encoded information. Rats foraged for distinctive flavors of food that replenished (or failed to replenish) at its recently encountered location according to a source-information rule. To predict replenishment, rats needed to remember where they had encountered a preferred food type (chocolate) with self-generated (walking along a runway encountering chocolate) or experimenter-generated (placement of the rat at the chocolate site by an experimenter) cues. Three lines of evidence implicate the presence of source memory. First, rats selectively adjusted revisits to the chocolate location based on source information, under conditions in which familiarity of events could not produce successful performance. Second, source memory was dissociated from location memory by different decay rates. Third, temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with lidocaine selectively eliminated source memory, suggesting that source memory is dependent upon an intact hippocampus. Development of an animal model of source memory may be valuable to probe the biological underpinnings of memory disorders marked by impairments in source memory. PMID:23394830

Crystal, Jonathon D.; Alford, Wesley T.; Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.

2013-01-01

349

ORNL ECR multicharged ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicharged ion source based on Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating was designed and built at ORNL. The ECR ion source, which is completely dedicated for atomic physics collision studies, produces higher charge states and higher beam intensities than the present ORNL PIG multicharged ion source, and will thus permit study of collision processes involving ions of higher charge states

F. W. Meyer

1984-01-01

350

Large area plasma source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An all permanent magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance, large diameter (e.g., 40 cm) plasma source suitable for ion/plasma processing or electric propulsion, is capable of producing uniform ion current densities at its exit plane at very low power (e.g., below 200 W), and is electrodeless to avoid sputtering or contamination issues. Microwave input power is efficiently coupled with an ionizing gas without using a dielectric microwave window and without developing a throat plasma by providing a ferromagnetic cylindrical chamber wall with a conical end narrowing to an axial entrance hole for microwaves supplied on-axis from an open-ended waveguide. Permanent magnet rings are attached inside the wall with alternating polarities against the wall. An entrance magnet ring surrounding the entrance hole has a ferromagnetic pole piece that extends into the chamber from the entrance hole to a continuing second face that extends radially across an inner pole of the entrance magnet ring.

Foster, John (Inventor); Patterson, Michael (Inventor)

2008-01-01

351

Extragalactic radio sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The standard model for extragalactic variable radio sources comprises an isotropically expanding plasmoid with frozen magnetic flux and an electron distribution which evolves adiabatically. This model leads to the following relaton between the peak luminosity L (sub nu, m) and the relevant frequency nu(sub m) which are functions of time: L(sub nu,m) is proportional to nu(sub m)(n) where N = (7n + 5)/(4n + 5). In this expression, n is the spectral index in the optically thin part of the spectrum, where L (sub nu) is proportional to nu (-n). For n in the range 0.5 to 1.5, the standard model yields N in the range 1.2 to 1.4. By contrast, analysis of observational data yields estimates of N in a small range about the mean value 0.4, in clear contradiction with the standard model.

Sturrock, P. A.

1984-01-01

352

Tubular shear wave source  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vibratory source for imparting seismic shear wave energy into an earth medium, underlying a relatively softer earth surface medium. It comprises: rigid, hollow tube means of elongate, tubular shape having an axis and first and second ends with the first end inserted through the surface medium into firm energy-coupling engagement with the earth medium; a housing means rigidly secured in axially balanced relationship on the second end of the tube means; shaft means rotatably supported in the housing means in axial alignment with the tube means adjacent the type means second end; motor means rigidly secured to the housing means and providing rotational drive to the shaft means; and an eccentric weight rotor secured on the shaft means and generating an orbital force for transmission along the length of the tube means to be the first end thereby to couple seismic wave energy of predetermined frequency and duration into the earth medium.

Cole, J.H.

1989-09-19

353

High brightness electron sources  

SciTech Connect

High energy physics accelerators and free electron lasers put increased demands on the electron beam sources. This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams using photoinjectors. Recent results from the experimental programs will be given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers will be discussed, and the following topics will be covered. Progress has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency. Cesium telluride has demonstrated significantly longer lifetimes than cesium antimonide at 10{sup {minus}8} torr. However, the laser system is more difficult because cesium telluride requires quadrupled YLF instead of the doubled YLF required for cesium antimonide. The difficulty in using photoinjectors is primarily the drive laser, in particular the amplitude stability. Finally, emittance measurements of photoinjector systems can be complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam. An example of the difficulty in measuring beam emittance is given.

Sheffield, R.L.

1995-07-01

354

Multiple source heat pump  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01

355

Semiconductor Surface Plasmon Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are propagating electromagnetic modes bound at a metal-dielectric interface. We report on electrical generation of SPPs by reproducing the analogue in the near field of the slit-doublet experiment, in a device which includes all the building blocks required for a fully integrated plasmonic active source: an electrical generator of SPPs, a coupler, and a passive metallic waveguide. SPPs are generated upon injection of electrical current, and they are then launched at the edges of a passive metallic strip. The interference fringes arising from the plasmonic standing wave on the surface of the metallic strip are unambiguously detected with apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy.

Babuty, A.; Bousseksou, A.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Doyen, I. Moldovan; Sirtori, C.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.; de Wilde, Y.; Colombelli, R.

2010-06-01

356

Migration Information Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a publication of the Migration Policy Institute, the Migration Information Source "provides fresh thought, authoritative data from numerous global organizations and governments, and global analysis of international migration and refugee trends." Their well-organized homepage offers policy briefs, "Spotlight" features (including a recent one on Indian immigrants in the United States), and information about their ongoing projects. Policy makers and scholars will love the "Immigration Data Hub" area. Here they can get valuable data on state responses to immigrations, the top global destinations for Irish immigrants, as well as historical immigration data. Visitors can also use the "US in Focus" area to find out about specific immigration trends throughout the country, with a special focus on policy issues affecting states and urban areas. The site is rounded out by an RSS feed, a press room of recent news releases, and a glossary of terms.

357

Arsenic pollution sources.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by many (bio)geochemical processes: oxidation of arsenic-bearing sulfides, desorption from oxides and hydroxides, reductive dissolution, evaporative concentration, leaching from sulfides by carbonate, and microbial mobilization. Arsenic enrichment also takes place in geothermally active areas; surface waters are more susceptible than groundwater to contamination in the vicinity of such geothermal systems, and evidence suggests that increased use of geothermal power may elevate risks of arsenic exposure in affected areas. Past and current mining activities continue to provide sources of environmental contamination by arsenic. Because gold- and arsenic-bearing minerals coexist, there is a hazard of mobilizing arsenic during gold mining activities. The Ashanti region of central Ghana currently faces this as a real risk. Historical arsenic contamination exists in Cornwall, UK; an example of a recent arsenic pollution event is that of Ron Phibun town in southern Thailand, where arsenic-related human health effects have been reported. Other important sources of arsenic exposure include coal burning in Slovakia, Turkey, and the Guizhou Province of China; use of arsenic as pesticides in Australia, New Zealand, and the US; and consumption of contaminated foodstuffs (China) and exposure to wood preserving arsenicals (Europe and North America). PMID:18982996

Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

2008-01-01

358

Moving Image Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you enjoy films, you will probably be delighted to learn about the Moving Image Source website. Created by the people at the Museum of the Moving Image, the site contains interviews and articles with film critics, filmmakers, and other commentators. The site contains four primary areas: "Articles", "Calendar", "Dialogues", and "Research Guide." The "Articles" area contains guided tours through Jean-Luc Godard's "Film Socialisme", the virtual visions of Marco Brambilla, and the many faces of Catherine Deneuve. The archives of these articles date back to 2008, and visitors can also search this collection by author. The "Dialogues" area contains audio files of conversations with film figures like Michael Caine, Amy Ryan, Terry Gilliam, and David O. Russell. The site is rounded out by the "Research Guide" area, which includes helpful links to sites that deal with film criticism, scoring, history, and technology.

359

Chandra Source Catalog: User Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CSCview data mining interface is available for browsing the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) and downloading tables of quality-assured source properties and data products. Once the desired source properties and search criteria are entered into the CSCview query form, the resulting source matches are returned in a table along with the values of the requested source properties for each source. (The catalog can be searched on any source property, not just position.) At this point, the table of search results may be saved to a text file, and the available data products for each source may be downloaded. CSCview save files are output in RDB-like and VOTable format. The available CSC data products include event files, spectra, lightcurves, and images, all of which are processed with the CIAO software. CSC data may also be accessed non-interactively with Unix command-line tools such as cURL and Wget, using ADQL 2.0 query syntax. In fact, CSCview features a separate ADQL query form for those who wish to specify this type of query within the GUI. Several interfaces are available for learning if a source is included in the catalog (in addition to CSCview): 1) the CSC interface to Sky in Google Earth shows the footprint of each Chandra observation on the sky, along with the CSC footprint for comparison (CSC source properties are also accessible when a source within a Chandra field-of-view is clicked); 2) the CSC Limiting Sensitivity online tool indicates if a source at an input celestial location was too faint for detection; 3) an IVOA Simple Cone Search interface locates all CSC sources within a specified radius of an R.A. and Dec.; and 4) the CSC-SDSS cross-match service returns the list of sources common to the CSC and SDSS, either all such sources or a subset based on search criteria.

Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, I. N.; Harbo, P. N.; Rots, A. H.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Zografou, P.; Anderson, C. S.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Primini, F. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Winkelman, S. L.

2010-02-01

360

Ion dynamics in helicon sources.  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments have demonstrated that ion dominated phenomena, such as the lower hybrid resonance, can play an important role in helicon source operation. In this work, we review recent ion heating measurements and the role of the slow wave in heating ions at the edge of helicon. sources. We also discuss the relationship between parametrically driven waves and ion heating near the rf antenna in helicon sources. Recent measurements of parallel and rotational ion flows in helicon sources have important implications for particle confinement, instability growth, and helicon source operation. In this work we present new measurements of ion flows and summarize the important features of the flows.

Kline, J. L. (John L.); Balkey, M. M. (Matthew M.); Keiter, P. A. (Paul A.); Scime, Earl E.; Keesee, Anne M.; Sun, X.; Harding R.; Compton, C.; Boivin, R. F.; Zintl, M. W.

2002-01-01

361

Radiation sources working group summary  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, components technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigation, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations.

Fazio, M.V.

1998-12-31

362

4X source  

SciTech Connect

Our Penning surface-plasma source (SPS) discharge chamber was enlarged 4X in two dimensions. To date, three pulsed discharge modes have been studied: two with noisy arc (greater than or equal to 20% H/sup -/ current fluctuations) and one with quiescent arc (less than or equal to 1% H/sup -/ current fluctuations). Lower arc magnetic field and higher H/sub 2/ gas flow allow switching from the noisy to the quiescent mode. The noisy modes yield up to 120 mA of 29-keV H/sup -/ beam; for 110 mA at 29 keV, the two-dimensional normalized rms emittance is 0.017 x 0.018 ..pi...cm.mrad. The quiescent mode yields 75 mA of 29-keV H/sup -/beam; for 67 mA at 24 keV, the emittance is 0.011 x 0.012 ..pi...cm.mrad.

Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.; Sherman, J.D.

1985-01-01

363

Industrial ion source technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction with the texturing models to provide an important input to that model. The establishment of a general procedure that will allow the treatment of manay different sputtering configurations is outlined. Calculation of cross sections for energetic binary collisions was extened to Ar, Kr.. and Xe with total cross sections for viscosity and diffusion calculated for the interaction energy range from leV to 1000eV. Physical sputtering and reactive ion etching experiments provided experimental data on the operating limits of a broad beam ion source using CF4 as a working gas to produce reactive species in a sputtering beam. Magnetic clustering effects are observed when Al is seeded with Fe and sputtered with Ar(?) ions. Silicon was textured at a micron scale by using a substrate temperature of 600 C.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

1978-01-01

364

Sources of Terrestrial Volatiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheres are found enveloping those planets and satellites best able to hold them. The obvious conclusion is that volatile escape must have played nearly as great a role as volatile supply. A consequence of this view is that volatile supplies were probably much greater than the atmospheres that remain. The likeliest candidates are sources associated with the main events of planetary accretion itself such as volatile-rich planetesimals, or direct gravitational capture of nebular gases. Late asteroidal or cometary volatile-rich veneers are attractive, but they present quantitative difficulties. Comets in particular are inadequate, because the associated mass of stray comets that would have been scattered to the Oort Cloud or beyond is excessive. This difficulty applies to Uranus-Neptune planetesimals as well as to a putative massive early Kuiper Belt. Another potential problem with comets is that the D/H ratio in the three comets for which this has been measured is about twice that of Earth's oceans. Objects falling from a much augmented ancient asteroid belt remain a viable option, but timing is an issue: Can the depopulation of the asteroid belt be delayed long enough that it makes sense to talk of asteroids as a late veneer? Early accretion of asteroids as objects scattered into the maw of infant Earth makes more sense. Another appealing candidate population of volatile-rich objects for the inner solar system would be scattered planetesimals associated with the accretion of Jupiter, for two reasons: (1) Before there was Jupiter, there was no object in the solar system capable of expelling comets efficiently, and (2) the cross section of the inner solar system to stray objects was Greater when there were m many planetesimals.

Zahnle, K. J.; Dones, L.

1998-01-01

365

Portable Source Identification Device  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nations ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. As the deployment of radiation detection systems proceeds, there is a need to adapt the baseline radiation portal monitor (RPM) system technology to operations at these diverse ports of entry. When screening produces an alarm in the primary inspection RPM, the alarming vehicle is removed from the flow of commerce and the alarm is typically confirmed in a secondary inspection RPM. The portable source identification device (PSID) is a radiation sensor panel (RSP), based on thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detector and gamma spectroscopic analysis hardware and software, mounted on a scissor lift on a small truck. The lift supports a box containing a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sodium iodide detector that provides real-time isotopic identification, including neutron detectors to interdict Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and radiation dispersion devices (RDD). The scissor lift will lower the detectors to within a foot off the ground and raise them to approximately 24 feet in the air, allowing a wide vertical scanning range.

Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Gervais, Kevin L.

2005-08-01

366

Portable source identification device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation"s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. As the deployment of radiation detection systems proceeds, there is a need to adapt the baseline radiation portal monitor (RPM) system technology to operations at these diverse ports of entry. When screening produces an alarm in the primary inspection RPM, the alarming vehicle is removed from the flow of commerce and the alarm is typically confirmed in a secondary inspection RPM. The portable source identification device (PSID) is a radiation sensor panel (RSP), based on thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detector and gamma spectroscopic analysis hardware and software, mounted on a scissor lift on a small truck. The lift supports a box containing a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sodium iodide detector that provides real-time isotopic identification, including neutron detectors to interdict Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and radiation dispersion devices (RDD). The scissor lift will lower the detectors to within a foot off the ground and raise them to approximately 24 feet (7.3 m) in the air, allowing a wide vertical scanning range.

Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Gervais, Kevin L.

2005-05-01

367

What are cirrus point sources?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most cirrus point sources are associated with interstellar gas. A subset of these was isolated, together with other sources showing large band 4 to 3 flux density ratios, that are not associated with interstellar gas. Most of the point sources are associated with diffuse cirrus emissions. The sources appear to be distributed randomly on the sky, with the exception of six clusters, one of which is not associated with any known object. Six sources out of seventeen that were observed for redshifted H I at Arecibo were found to be associated with relatively nondescript external galaxies. Most of the sources do not appear on the Palomar Sky Survey. Deep optical observations of eight fields revealed some fairly distant galaxies, one object with a very peculiar optical spectrum, and several blank fields.

Heiles, Carl; Mccarthy, Patrick J.; Reach, William; Strauss, Michael A.

1987-01-01

368

Constricted glow discharge plasma source  

DOEpatents

A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Dickinson, Michael (San Leandro, CA); Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Winnetka, IL)

2000-01-01

369

Source-circuit design overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

Ross, R. G., Jr.

1983-01-01

370

Curium-248 standard neutron source  

PubMed

A new standard neutron source based on curium-248 has been developed, prepared, and certified. The curium-248 isotope is more long-lived than californium-252. The active core of this source is a pellet made of an alloy of platinum with curium. The measured full neutron yield for this source is 2.30 x 10(4) s(-1) with 4% error at 0.95 confidence. PMID:11003529

Radchenko; Ryabinin; Andreytchuk; Gavrilov; Karelin

2000-10-01

371

Ion sources for electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion systems, which accelerate ions of Cs, Hg, or colloid particles by electrostatic fields, are furthest advanced and ready for application. Four kinds of ion sources have been developed: The contact ionization source for Cs as propellants, the electron bombardment source for Cs or Hg, the RF ionization source for Hg, and the hollow needle spray nozzle for colloidal glycerol particles. In each case, the ion beam must be neutralized by injection of electrons shortly behind the exit orifice to avoid adverse space charge effects.

Stuhlinger, E.

1971-01-01

372

Attribute grammar inversion and source-to-source translation  

SciTech Connect

This thesis investigates the idea of attribute grammar inversion and how this technique can be used to build source-to-source translators. An attribute grammar is a declarative formalism for specifying the translation from one language to another. The basis of an attribute grammar is a context-free grammar. This grammar specifies the source language. An attribute grammar augments the context-free grammar with attributes and semantic functions in order to define a translation from a source language to a target language. This thesis shows that given an attribute grammar specifying the translation T from language L1 to language L2, one can automatically construct the attribute grammar specifying the inverse translation T/sup -1/ from language L2 back to language L1. The INVERT system implements the inversion algorithm, employing several special techniques to help create efficient inverse specification. After discussing the theoretical and practical issues of attribute grammar inversion, it is demonstrated how the technique can be used to build source-to0source translators. To prove the feasibility of the inversion approach to source-to-source translation, it has been used to generate translators between the programming languages Pascal and C.

Yellin, D.M.

1987-01-01

373

Source Inversion Validation: Quantifying Uncertainties in Earthquake Source Inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake source inversions image the spatio-temporal rupture evolution on one or more fault planes using seismic and/or geodetic data. Source inversion methods thus represent an important research tool in seismology to unravel the complexity of earthquake ruptures. Subsequently, source-inversion results are used to study earthquake mechanics, to develop spontaneous dynamic rupture models, to build models for generating rupture realizations for ground-motion simulations, and to perform Coulomb-stress modeling. In all these applications, the underlying finite-source rupture models are treated as data (input information), but the uncertainties in these data (i.e. source models obtained from solving an inherently ill-posed inverse problem) are hardly known, and almost always neglected. The Source Inversion Validation (SIV) project attempts to better understand the intra-event variability of earthquake rupture models. We plan to build a long-standing and rigorous testing platform to examine the current state-of-the-art in earthquake source inversion that also facilitates to develop robust approaches to quantify rupture-model uncertainties. Our contribution reviews the current status of the SIV project, recent forward-modeling tests for point and extended sources in layered media, and discusses the strategy of the SIV-project for the coming years.

Mai, P. M.; Page, M. T.; Schorlemmer, D.

2010-12-01

374

SOURCE PARTITIONING USING STABLE ISOTOPES: COPING WITH TOO MANY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in environmental studies. One application is to use isotopic ratios to quantitatively determine the proportional contribution of several sources to a mixture, such as the proportion of various pollution sources in a waste st...

375

On non-radiating sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the analysis by P.E. Doak on the radiating (active) and non-radiating (reactive) parts of a source distribution and their effect on the identification of sources, this paper discusses the possible structure of non-radiating sources, i.e., of sources which produce a null field outside the source region. It is shown that these sources can be of three types, two of them only with arbitrary time dependence. In this case, the non-radiating sources are forcibly formed by the difference of two source distributions which generate, outside the region limited by the sources in question, the same field. In the type discussed by Doak, one source distribution encircles the other and cancelation is attained as a global effect. In the other, emphasized by Ffowcs Williams, the two source distributions are superimposed and cancelation is produced locally. The latter type of non-radiating source is discussed in detail, it being shown that, while they do not represent physical sources, they provide valuable information on non-radiating effects. The third type refers to single frequency sources and involves a particular match of wavelength, geometry and source strength distribution so that the acoustic energy gets trapped inside the source region. Of these three types of non-radiating sources, only the first onethat focused by Doakcan influence the identification of the active part of a source distribution from measurements made outside the source region. Evanescent waves, associated with a purely reactive field, are also discussed. It is pointed out that evanescent waves obtained in the decomposition of the field of a vibrating body of finite extent, although useful for representing certain aspects of the field, do not exist physically. Aspects affecting the identification of sources are also briefly tackled. Can the sources be taken as essentially omnidirectional or directional features of the individual sources are important? (should the sources be represented by e.g., dipoles or quadrupoles?) If discrete sources are considered, how should the source region be decomposed? And how do each source (or source element) relate to the others (i.e., how does phase vary across a non-compact source region)? Sometimes this last issue is fully considered in algorithms, but not always. Of course, it is simpler to consider independent point monopole sources, but this is not necessarily the best optionnotably in aeroacoustics, where another issue is also to be considered: Which is the Green's function relating source and field? Again, it is simpler to consider the Green's function for waves in homogeneous medium at rest, i.e., that of Eq. (1), but if the sources are, e.g., in a moving medium, this choice may lead to incorrect results.Independently on the choices made, a solution (i.e., a source distribution) will be found. In general, algorithms will provide equivalent sources where one is looking for them, and of the prescribed type. These sources constitute a solution to a given problem considering the (explicitly or implicitly) specified constraints, but not necessarily the solution to the actual physical problem: this depends on how appropriate are the constraints considered (and also on the algorithm limitations). Examples of algorithms focusing on different aspects are given, e.g., in [9,10,27-35].Also, as noted in Section 2, the existence of eventual boundaries should be incorporated into the problem; otherwise, reflection or absorption will also be treated as additional equivalent sources, which is not a problem only in the case one is expecting this to happen. A simple way to check if a field governed by the d'Alembert equation is active or reactive without computing the intensity or the local impedance is to check the gradients of the field amplitude and phase (which can be done in the frequency domain or in the time domain): a non-zero phase gradient implies in an active part while a non-zero gradient of the absolute value implies in the existence of a reactive part.

Musafir, Ricardo E.

2013-08-01

376

Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources  

PubMed Central

Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely available for download (right click with the mouse) at links http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-Peps-WEB.xlsx (web version) and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-sialogenins.zip (stand alone version). PMID:22778902

Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, Jos M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

2012-01-01

377

A NAIVE BAYES SOURCE CLASSIFIER FOR X-RAY SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

The Chandra Carina Complex Project (CCCP) provides a sensitive X-ray survey of a nearby starburst region over >1 deg{sup 2} in extent. Thousands of faint X-ray sources are found, many concentrated into rich young stellar clusters. However, significant contamination from unrelated Galactic and extragalactic sources is present in the X-ray catalog. We describe the use of a naive Bayes classifier to assign membership probabilities to individual sources, based on source location, X-ray properties, and visual/infrared properties. For the particular membership decision rule adopted, 75% of CCCP sources are classified as members, 11% are classified as contaminants, and 14% remain unclassified. The resulting sample of stars likely to be Carina members is used in several other studies, which appear in this special issue devoted to the CCCP.

Broos, Patrick S.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Povich, Matthew S., E-mail: patb@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2011-05-01

378

A Naive Bayes Source Classifier for X-ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chandra Carina Complex Project (CCCP) provides a sensitive X-ray survey of a nearby starburst region over >1 deg2 in extent. Thousands of faint X-ray sources are found, many concentrated into rich young stellar clusters. However, significant contamination from unrelated Galactic and extragalactic sources is present in the X-ray catalog. We describe the use of a naive Bayes classifier to assign membership probabilities to individual sources, based on source location, X-ray properties, and visual/infrared properties. For the particular membership decision rule adopted, 75% of CCCP sources are classified as members, 11% are classified as contaminants, and 14% remain unclassified. The resulting sample of stars likely to be Carina members is used in several other studies, which appear in this special issue devoted to the CCCP.

Broos, Patrick S.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Povich, Matthew S.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Garmire, Gordon P.

2011-05-01

379

Thermal Management of Light Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary task of light sources is illumination, i.e., the emission of visible radiationlight. However, depending on the generation principle, besides light, also heat will be dissipated to the surroundings. Traditional thermal light sources generate light by the electrical heating of a tungsten wire to temperatures of about 3000 K. Even at this high temperature, the majority of the emitted thermal radiation is within the long wavelength range of the spectrum, i.e., not in the visible range of the optical spectrum. Generation of light with discharge lamps is completely different and non-thermal; however, even in this case the electrodes are heated to temperatures well above 2000 K. Thus, discharge lamps also suffer from thermal problems. In the case of solid-state light sources, also non-thermal light sources, the driving electrical current causes heating of the device, for which the temperature is, or should usually be, below 420 K for proper operation. Contrary to thermal or discharge light sources, such relatively low temperatures of solid-state light sources prevent efficient cooling by thermal radiation, requiring convective or conductive cooling. However, for all mentioned light sources, the thermal management, i.e., the adjusting and maintaining of an optimum operation temperature are vital for the efficiency and lifetime of the light sources. This paper deals with the methods of generation and measurement of the thermal load in the respective light sources and discusses ways to optimize the efficiency and lifetime of such light sources. Also, some practical examples are given to emphasize the relevance of such thermal management for industry, pointing out the potential for future more energy-efficient light source concepts.

Hartmann, J.; Vlker, Stephan

2011-01-01

380

Online Sources for Competitor Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competitor information gathering is a key aspect of business planning. Information can be collected from either published or unpublished sources. Unpublished information will often be verified based on material from published sources. Published information is more likely to be factual and includes financial, stockmarket, press, market and

Weiss, Arthur

381

SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK  

EPA Science Inventory

This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

382

Ultra-wideband source research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave sources and antennas are of interest for a variety of applications such as transient radar, mine detection and unexploded ordnance (UXO) location and identification. Much of the current research is being performed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Kirtland AFB, NM, USA. The approach to high power source development has included high pressure gas switching,

William D. Prather; Carl E. Baum; Jane M. Lehr; J. P. O'Loughlin; S. Tyo; J. S. H. Schoenberg; R. J. Torres; T. C. Tran; D. W. Scholfield; J. W. Burger; J. Gaudet

1999-01-01

383

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter identifies and describes major industrial sources of methane (CH4) emissions. or each source type examined, it identifies CH4 release points and discusses in detail the factors affecting emissions. t also summarizes and discusses available global and country-specific ...

384

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air pollutants released during the manufacture of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The potential environmental effect of the source was evaluated using source severity, S, defined as the ratio of the maximum ground level concentration of an emission to t...

385

Hollow electrode plasma excitation source  

DOEpatents

A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures.

Ballou, Nathan E. (West Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

386

Sources of Variability in MEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates and characterizes sources of variabil- ity in MEG signals in multi-site, multi-subject studies. Understanding these sources will help to develop efficient strategies for comparingand pooling data across repetitions of an experiment, across subjects, and across sites. In this work, we investigated somatosensory MEG data col- lected at three different sites and applied variance component analysis and nonparametric

Wanmei Ou; Polina Golland; Matti Hmlinen

2007-01-01

387

Mob Data Sourcing Daniel Deutch  

E-print Network

or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation-sourced data and an illustration of what can be achieved with a crowd-based data sourcing model. Other examples databases of tagged images - traffic information aggregators like Waze [29] and hotel and movie ratings like

Milo, Tova

388

Hollow electrode plasma excitation source  

DOEpatents

A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

Ballou, N.E.

1992-04-14

389

Accelerator-based Neutron Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the earliest experiments defining the properties of the neutron, accelerators have played an important role in providing neutrons for research and applications. For many years, neutrons produced at accelerator facilities have complemented capabilities available from reactor-based sources. Now, with the declining availability of reactor facilities, upgrades of existing accelerator facilities and proposed new, more powerful accelerator-based sources will be

James B. Ball

1997-01-01

390

MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING GUIDE DOCUMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A significant percentage of surface waters I the U.S. do not meet the designated use criteria as determined by high densities of fecal indicator bacteria as set forth by the Clean Water Act. Both point and non-point sources contribute to water pollution. In contrast to point sources such as sewage...

391

Tracking Radioactive Sources in Commerce  

E-print Network

Tracking Radioactive Sources in Commerce Deborah Kopsick, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Schultz, Dudley Pinson; NorthWest Nuclear, LLC Millions of radioactive material packages are shipped each year © In transit, sealed radioactive sources may be vulnerable to loss or theft due to: ? Minimal

392

Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive website from professor James A. Svoboda of Clarkson University describes current controlled current source (CCCS). The interactive applet depicts a circuit that contains a Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS). The gain of the CCCS can be changed using the scroll bar.

Svoboda, James A.

393

Sources of Stem Cells for Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic Donor matching for allogeneic transplant Sources of stem cells for transplant There are 3 possible sources of ... cord blood transplants are being actively studied. Which stem cell source is best? All 3 sources of stem ...

394

ORNL ECR multicharged ion source  

SciTech Connect

A multicharged ion source based on Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating has been designed and built at ORNL. The ECR ion source, which is completely dedicated for atomic physics collision studies, produces higher charge states and higher beam intensities than the present ORNL PIG multicharged ion source, and will thus permit study of collision processes involving ions of higher charge states in experiments requiring higher beam intensities than could be previously obtained in our laboratory. The source has already produced up to fully stripped C and O beams, as well as up to He-like Ar beams. Measurements of the energy spread of ions extracted from the ion source operating in both single-stage and two-stage mode are described. In addition, initial results of total cross section measurements for fully stripped light ions incident on atomic hydrogen in the energy range 0.2 to 10 keV are presented. 13 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

Meyer, F.W.

1984-01-01

395

Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Sources  

E-print Network

Astrophysical sources are extremely efficient accelerators. Some sources emit photons up to multi-TeV energies, a signature of the presence, within them, of particles with energies much higher than those achievable with the largest accelerators on Earth. Even more compelling evidence comes from the study of Cosmic Rays, charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with incredibly high energies: at the highest energy end of their spectrum, these subatomic particles are carrying a macroscopic energy, up to a few Joules. Here I will address the best candidate sources and mechanisms as cosmic particle accelerators. I will mainly focus on Galactic sources such as Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae, which being close and bright, are the best studied among astrophysical accelerators. These sources are held responsible for most of the energy that is put in relativistic particles in the Universe, but they are not thought to accelerate particles up to the highest individual energies, $\\approx 10^{20}$ eV...

Amato, Elena

2015-01-01

396

Automated Classification of ROSAT Sources Using Heterogeneous Multiwavelength Source Catalogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an online system for automated classification of X-ray sources, ClassX, and we present preliminary results of classification of the three major catalogs of ROSAT sources, ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) Bright Source Catalog, RASS Faint Source Catalog, and WGACAT, into six class categories: stars, white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and clusters of galaxies. ClassX is based on a machine-learning technology. It represents a system of classifiers, each classifier consisting of a considerable number of oblique decision trees. These trees are built as the classifier is ``trained'' to recognize various classes of objects using a training sample of sources of known object types. Each source is characterized by a preselected set of parameters, or attributes; the same set is then used as the classifier conducts classification of sources of unknown identity. The ClassX pipeline features an automatic search for X-ray source counterparts among heterogeneous data sets in online data archives using Virtual Observatory protocols; it retrieves from those archives all the attributes required by the selected classifier and inputs them to the classifier. The user input to ClassX is typically a file with target coordinates, optionally complemented with target IDs. The output contains the class name, attributes, and class probabilities for all classified targets. We discuss ways to characterize and assess the classifier quality and performance, and we present the respective validation procedures. On the basis of both internal validation and external verification, we conclude that the ClassX classifiers yield reasonable and reliable classifications for ROSAT sources and have the potential to broaden class representation significantly for rare object types.

McGlynn, T. A.; Suchkov, A. A.; Winter, E. L.; Hanisch, R. J.; White, R. L.; Ochsenbein, F.; Derriere, S.; Voges, W.; Corcoran, M. F.; Drake, S. A.; Donahue, M.

2004-12-01

397

Sealed source peer review plan  

SciTech Connect

Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR {section} 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements for the subject peer review.

Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leonard, Lee [RETIRED; Burns, Ron [CONTRACTOR

2009-01-01

398

The Chandra Source Catalog: Processing and Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chandra Source Catalog processing recalibrates each observation using the latest available calibration data, and employs a wavelet-based source detection algorithm to identify all the X-ray sources in the field of view. Source properties are then extracted from each detected source that is a candidate for inclusion in the catalog. Catalog processing is completed by matching sources across multiple observations, merging

Janet Evans; Ian N. Evans; Kenny J. Glotfelty; Roger Hain; Diane M. Hall; Joseph B. Miller; David A. Plummer; Panagoula Zografou; Francis A. Primini; Craig S. Anderson; Nina R. Bonaventura; Judy C. Chen; John E. Davis; Stephen M. Doe; Giuseppina Fabbiano; Elizabeth C. Galle; Danny G. Gibbs II; John D. Grier; Peter N. Harbo; John C. Houck; Margarita Karovska; Vinay L. Kashyap; Jennifer Lauer; Michael L. McCollough; Jonathan C. McDowell; Arik W. Mitschang; Douglas L. Morgan; Amy E. Mossman; Joy S. Nichols; Michael A. Nowak; Brian L. Refsdal; Arnold H. Rots; Aneta L. Siemiginowska; Beth A. Sundheim; Michael S. Tibbetts; David W. van Stone; Sherry L. Winkelman

2009-01-01

399

Reversal ion source - A new source of negative ion beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of ion source utilizing beams of electrons and target molecules, rather than a diffuse, volume plasma, is described. The source utilizes an electrostatic electron 'mirror' which reverses trajectories in an electron beam, producing electrons at their turning point having a distribution of velocities centered at zero velocity. A gas which attaches zero-velocity electrons is introduced at this turning point. Negative ions are produced by an attachment or dissociative attachment process. For many of the thermal electron-attaching molecules the cross sections can be quite large, varying as the inverse square root of the electron energy or just the s-wave threshold law. The efficiency and current density of the ion source for production of Cl(-) through the large, thermal energy attachment process is estimated. It is argued that the source can be used for the production of negative ions through attachment resonances located at higher energies as well.

Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

1985-01-01

400

Spallation source neutron target systems  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to design a next-generation spallation source neutron target system for the Manuel Lujan, Jr., Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos. It has been recognized for some time that new advanced neutron sources are needed in the US if the country is to maintain a competitive position in several important scientific and technological areas. A recent DOE panel concluded that the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (a nuclear reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and a high-power pulsed spallation source are both needed in the near future. One of the most technically challenging designs for a spallation source is the target station itself and, more specifically, the target-moderator-reflector arrangement. Los Alamos has demonstrated capabilities in designing, building, and operating high-power spallation-neutron-source target stations. Most of the new design ideas proposed worldwide for target system design for the next generation pulsed spallation source have either been conceived and implemented at LANSCE or proposed by LANSCE target system designers. These concepts include split targets, flux-trap moderators, back scattering and composite moderators, and composite reflectors.

Russell, G.; Brown, R.; Collier, M.; Donahue, J. [and others

1996-07-01

401

Diversity employment and recruitment sources  

SciTech Connect

Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

Not Available

1994-08-01

402

International Data on Radiological Sources  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT The mission of radiological dispersal device (RDD) nuclear forensics is to identify the provenance of nuclear and radiological materials used in RDDs and to aid law enforcement in tracking nuclear materials and routes. The application of databases to radiological forensics is to match RDD source material to a source model in the database, provide guidance regarding a possible second device, and aid the FBI by providing a short list of manufacturers and distributors, and ultimately to the last legal owner of the source. The Argonne/Idaho National Laboratory RDD attribution database is a powerful technical tool in radiological forensics. The database (1267 unique vendors) includes all sealed sources and a device registered in the U.S., is complemented by data from the IAEA Catalogue, and is supported by rigorous in-lab characterization of selected sealed sources regarding physical form, radiochemical composition, and age-dating profiles. Close working relationships with global partners in the commercial sealed sources industry provide invaluable technical information and expertise in the development of signature profiles. These profiles are critical to the down-selection of potential candidates in either pre- or post- event RDD attribution. The down-selection process includes a match between an interdicted (or detonated) source and a model in the database linked to one or more manufacturers and distributors.

Martha Finck; Margaret Goldberg

2010-07-01

403

Major sources of benzene exposure.  

PubMed Central

Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis. PMID:2477239

Wallace, L A

1989-01-01

404

Major sources of benzene exposure.  

PubMed

Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis. PMID:2477239

Wallace, L A

1989-07-01

405

Major sources of benzene exposure  

SciTech Connect

Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis.

Wallace, L.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-07-01

406

Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources  

SciTech Connect

This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R&D program is included in an appendix.

Weiren Chou

2003-02-06

407

Source spectra of seismic hum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of seismic hum from 2 to 20 mHz, also known as Earth's background free oscillations, has been established. Recent observations by broad-band seismometers show simultaneous excitation of Love waves (fundamental toroidal modes) and Rayleigh waves (fundamental spheroidal modes). The excitation amplitudes above 10 mHz can be explained by random shear traction sources on Earth's surface. With estimated source distributions, the most likely excitation mechanism is a linear coupling between ocean infragravity waves and seismic surface waves through seafloor topography. Observed Love and Rayleigh wave amplitudes below 5 mHz suggest that surface pressure sources could also contribute to their excitations, although the amplitudes have large uncertainties due to the high noise levels of the horizontal components. To quantify the observation, we develop a new method for estimation of the source spectra of random tractions on Earth's surface by modelling cross-spectra between pairs of stations. The method is to calculate synthetic cross-spectra for spatially isotropic and homogeneous excitations by random shear traction and pressure sources, and invert them with the observed cross-spectra to obtain the source spectra. We applied this method to the IRIS, ORFEUS, and F-net records from 618 stations with three components of broad-band seismometers for 2004-2011. The results show the dominance of shear traction above 5 mHz, which is consistent with past studies. Below 5 mHz, however, the spectral amplitudes of the pressure sources are comparable to those of shear traction. Observed acoustic resonance between the atmosphere and the solid Earth at 3.7 and 4.4 mHz suggests that atmospheric disturbances are responsible for the surface pressure sources, although non-linear ocean wave processes are also candidates for the pressure sources. Excitation mechanisms of seismic hum should be considered as a superposition of the processes of the solid Earth, atmosphere and ocean as a coupled system.

Nishida, Kiwamu

2014-10-01

408

The EUVE bright source list  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial results for bright extreme ultraviolet sources discovered during the EUVE all-sky and deep ecliptic surveys have been published as a Bright Source List (BSL) and released to the astronomical community with a recent NASA research announcement (NRA 93-OSS-02, Appendix F). This paper describes the data processing software, the EUVE survey data set, and the production of the BSL at the Center for EUV Astrophysics. The contents, format, and selection criteria for sources, the data processing strategy, some problems encountered, and a summary of the BSL results are presented.

Stroozas, B.; Mcdonald, K.; Antia, B.; Mcdonald, J.; Wiercigroch, A.

1993-01-01

409

Synchrotron radiation sources and research  

SciTech Connect

This is an introduction and a review of Synchrotron Radiation sources and the research performed using synchrotron radiation. I will begin with a brief discussion of the two principal uses of particle storage rings: for colliding beams (Collider) and for synchrotron radiation (Radiator). Then I will concentrate on discussions of synchrotron radiation topics, starting with a historical account, followed by descriptions of the features of the storage ring and the features of the radiation from the simplest source -- the bending magnet. I will then discuss the special insertion device sources -- wigglers and undulators -- and their radiations, and end with a brief general account of the research and other applications of synchrotron radiation.

Teng, L.C.

1995-12-31

410

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

1983-11-10

411

The cosmic ray source composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmic ray source composition is shown to be related to the observed cosmic ray abundances by a set of linear equations which are valid for either ad hoc pathlength distributions or quantitative solutions to Galactic propagation models. These relations can be used to propagate abundances from the source or to the source, and the method described here allows a simple propagation of abundance uncertainties. A simultaneous analysis of B/C and (21-25)Fe indicates a need for truncation of the pathlength distribution.

Margolis, S. H.

1983-01-01

412

Electrolyte salts for power sources  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

1995-11-28

413

Funding Sources for Women's Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Winter 1997 issue of Feminist Collections, produced by the University of Wisconsin System's Women's Studies Librarian's Office, includes a column by Elizabeth Breed on Internet sites on grants, scholarships, and other funding sources for women's studies.

414

Radiation source with shaped emission  

DOEpatents

Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

2003-05-13

415

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MAJOR BARIUM CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental effects the source severity,...

416

Electrolyte salts for power sources  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

Doddapaneni, Narayan (10516 Royal Birkdale, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Ingersoll, David (5824 Mimosa Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

1995-01-01

417

Quantum fields as gravitational sources  

E-print Network

The practice of setting quantum fields as sources for classical general relativity is examined. Several conceptual problems are identified which invalidate apparently innocuous equations. Alternative ways to links classical general relativity with quantum theory using Bohm's theory are proposed.

Mark J Hadley

2008-08-13

418

Carotenoids, chemistry, sources and physiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter for the Enclyclopedia of Human Nutrition (3rd edition) summarizes the structure, chemical and physiological mechanisms, dietary sources, and metabolism of carotenoids. Carotenoids are a family of phytonutrients which have antioxidant properties under most physiological conditions. Num...

419

Generalizations of permutation source codes  

E-print Network

Permutation source codes are a class of structured vector quantizers with a computationally- simple encoding procedure. In this thesis, we provide two extensions that preserve the computational simplicity but yield improved ...

Nguyen, Ha Quy

2009-01-01

420

Dynamics of Open Source Movements  

E-print Network

This paper considers a dynamic model of the evolution of open-source software projects, focusing on the evolution of quality, contributing programmers, and users who contribute customer support to other users. Programmers ...

Athey, Susan

421

What Is Nonpoint Source Pollution?  

MedlinePLUS

... ground waters. Nonpoint source pollution can include: Excess fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides from agricultural lands and residential areas Oil, grease and toxic chemicals from urban runoff and energy production Sediment from improperly managed construction sites, crop and ...

422

Cotton Source\\/Sink Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolite source\\/sink relationships govern assimilate partitioning, developmental rates, and fruit abscission in cotton.\\u000a This subject is, therefore, of primary importance in the improvement of cotton plant types and in cotton culture. Here, we\\u000a focus on research which has led to an understanding of metabolite source\\/sink interactions and secondary physiological effects\\u000a resulting from those interactions. Much of this research has been

Donald N. Baker; Jeffery T. Baker

423

Search for dayside AKR sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT Reports concerning observations of dayside Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) sources are very scarce. This contribution presents a search of dayside AKR sources based on analysis of data collected with Polrad swept frequency analyzer during almost 2.5 years of Interball-2 mission. It is based on previous work [1], taking into account the last findings concerning AKR directivity [2]. Arguments for dayside location of some AKR sources are presented and discussed. For a given spacecraft location visibility maps of the part of auroral oval that can host sources seen from that location are constructed in the geomagnetic dipole coordinates. Maps are based on spacecraft-source rectangular coordinates system as defined in [1] and are similar to maps constructed in [2] but do not constrain values of propagation and azimuthal angles to the narrow beams detected in the frame of CLUSTER mission. If such map with maximum propagation angle 90 (no refraction) is fully located on the dayside part of the hemisphere, then AKR source in question should be located on that side too. Delimiting map to regions corresponding to the AKR beams discussed in [2], and especially taking into account beaming in the direction parallel to the auroral oval means smaller potential AKR source region that further strengthens our conclusion. On the other hand fitting lines of constant propagation angle to the lower boundary of the AKR dynamic spectrum makes possible determination of MLT of the source. References [1] Schreiber, R. (2005), A simple model of the auroral kilometric radiation visibility, J.Geophys.Res., 110, A11222, doi:10.1029/2004JA010903. [2] Mutel, R. L., I. W. Christopher, and J. S. Pickett (2008), Cluster multispacecraft determination of AKR angular beaming, Geophys.Res.Lett., 35, L07104, doi:10.1029/2008GL033377.

Schreiber, R.

2008-09-01

424

Radiation source for helium magnetometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation source (12) for optical magnetometers (10) which use helium isotopes as the resonance element (30) includes an electronically pumped semiconductor laser (12) which produces a single narrow line of radiation which is frequency stabilized to the center frequency of the helium resonance line to be optically pumped. The frequency stabilization is accomplished using electronic feedback (34, 40, 42, 44) to control a current sources (20) thus eliminating the need for mechanical frequency tuning.

Slocum, Robert E. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

425

HIMAC PIG ion source development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIMAC (Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) project is in progress. Necessary characteristics for the HIMAC ion source are high current (130-630 muA with a q\\/A of 1\\/7) from He to Ar, good stability, long life and easy maintenance. To attain these characteristics, an indirectly heated PIG ion source test bench has been designed and constructed since 1985. A low-energy

T. Yamada; Y. Sato; H. Ogawa; T. Kimura

1989-01-01

426

The T Tauri radio source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report VLA observations of T Tau at lambda = 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm and new infrared speckle measurements at lambda = 2.2, 3.2, and 3.8 mum. At lambda = 6 cm, the T Tau radio source is resolved into two components with a north-south separation of 0arcsec.54. The weaker northern source can be identified with T

P. R. Schwartz; T. Simon; B. Zuckerman; R. R. Howell

1984-01-01

427

Tandem-Mirror Ion Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved ion source produces beam of ions at any kinetic energy from 1 to 1,000 eV, with little spread in energy or angle. Such ion beams useful in studies of surface properties of materials, surface etching, deposition, and development of plasma-diagnostic instrumentation. Tandemmirror ion source uses electrostatic and magnetic fields to keep electrons in ionization chamber and assure uniform output ion beam having low divergence in energy and angle.

Biddle, A.; Stone, N.; Reasoner, D.; Chisholm, W.; Reynolds, J.

1986-01-01

428

An atmospheric pressure plasma source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric pressure plasma source operated by radio frequency power has been developed. This source produces a unique discharge that is volumetric and homogeneous at atmospheric pressure with a gas temperature below 300 C. It also produces a large quantity of oxygen atoms, ~51015 cm-3, which has important value for materials applications. A theoretical model shows electron densities of 0.2-21011

Jaeyoung Park; I. Henins; H. W. Herrmann; G. S. Selwyn; J. Y. Jeong; R. F. Hicks; D. Shim; C. S. Chang

2000-01-01

429

Astrometry of southern radio sources.  

PubMed

An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogues. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarc-second radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way. PMID:11538705

White, G L; Jauncey, D L; Harvey, B R; Savage, A; Gulkis, S; Preston, R A; Peterson, B A; Reynolds, J E; Nicolson, G D; Malin, D F

1991-01-01

430

Diffusion from a line source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem with predicting pollutant diffusion from a line source of arbitrary geometry is treated. The concentration at the line source may be arbitrarily varied with time. Special attention is given to the meteorological inputs which act as boundary conditions for the problem, and a mixing layer of arbitrary depth is assumed. Numerical application of the derived theory indicates the combinations of meteorological parameters that may be expected to result in high pollution concentrations.

Burns, R. E.

1973-01-01

431

A neutral lithium beam source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low energy neutral lithium beam source with energy about 6 keV and a neutral beam equivalent current of 20 ?A\\/cm2 has been developed in ASIPP in order to measure the density gradient and the fluctuations in the edge plasma of the HT-6M tokamak. In the source, lithium ions are extracted from a solid emitter (?-eucryptite), focused in a two-tube

Xiaodong Zhang; Zhengmin Wang; Liqun Hu

1994-01-01

432

Automated Classification of ROSAT Sources Using Heterogeneous Multiwavelength Source Catalogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an on-line system for automated classification of X-ray sources, ClassX, and present preliminary results of classification of the three major catalogs of ROSAT sources, RASS BSC, RASS FSC, and WGACAT, into six class categories: stars, white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, galaxies, AGNs, and clusters of galaxies. ClassX is based on a machine learning technology. It represents a system of classifiers, each classifier consisting of a considerable number of oblique decision trees. These trees are built as the classifier is 'trained' to recognize various classes of objects using a training sample of sources of known object types. Each source is characterized by a preselected set of parameters, or attributes; the same set is then used as the classifier conducts classification of sources of unknown identity. The ClassX pipeline features an automatic search for X-ray source counterparts among heterogeneous data sets in on-line data archives using Virtual Observatory protocols; it retrieves from those archives all the attributes required by the selected classifier and inputs them to the classifier. The user input to ClassX is typically a file with target coordinates, optionally complemented with target IDs. The output contains the class name, attributes, and class probabilities for all classified targets. We discuss ways to characterize and assess the classifier quality and performance and present the respective validation procedures. Based on both internal and external validation, we conclude that the ClassX classifiers yield reasonable and reliable classifications for ROSAT sources and have the potential to broaden class representation significantly for rare object types.

McGlynn, Thomas; Suchkov, A. A.; Winter, E. L.; Hanisch, R. J.; White, R. L.; Ochsenbein, F.; Derriere, S.; Voges, W.; Corcoran, M. F.

2004-01-01

433

Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources  

DOEpatents

A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

2002-01-01

434

Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources  

DOEpatents

A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

2001-04-03

435

Novel Large Area Plasma Source Injection Using Multihelicon Plasma Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-area multi-helicon plasma source has been developed for 300mm wafer etching. Large-area plasmas are formed by injection high-density plasmas with six helicon plasma sources distributed around the circular vacuum chamber. Plasma uniformity may be determined both by equal distribution of RF powers and by symmetric plasma confinement. To provide RF power deposition uniformly, we tried two method of antenna connection. The one is a hybrid of series and parallel connection, and the other is six-parallel antenna arrangement. Twelve electromagnets for plasma generation are arranged to form magnetic multi-cusp field configuration that can improve plasma uniformity as well as confinement. We achieved radial and azimuthal density uniformity of 10 percent with the diameter of 250mm at the level of processing target that is located 13cm below the level of multi source positions

Han, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Choi, Y. H.; Hwang, Y. S.

2001-10-01

436

Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources  

DOEpatents

A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

1997-06-24

437

Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources  

DOEpatents

A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01

438

Gamma-ray sources as Comptonized X-ray sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible contribution of Compton scattering to the formation of gamma-ray burst spectra is analyzed. Monte Carlo calculations are used to study the spectral distribution emerging from a plasma at temperatures typical of gamma-ray burst spectra (above 100 keV) with an underlying source of photons reprocessed by inverse Compton scattering surrounding a point source of blackbody radiation. Comparison of the computations with the observed spectrum of the burst GB781104 results in a best fit with a blackbody X-ray source at 2.4 keV, plasma temperature of about 150 eV and plasma column density of 4 x 10 to the 24th electrons/sq cm. The Comptonization model is also shown to be capable of accounting for the two-component spectra observed for bursts GB790329 and GB790524, and the moving low-energy spectral cut-off in the burst of November 18, 1978.

Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.; Stockdale, R. E.; Kane, S. R.

1982-01-01

439

Design parameters and source terms: Volume 3, Source terms  

SciTech Connect

The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository in Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1987-10-01

440

Liquid metal ion source and alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from

Clark Jr. William M; Mark W. Utlaut; Robert G. Behrens; Eugene G. Szklarz; Edmund K. Storms; Robert P. Santandrea; Lynwood W. Swanson

1988-01-01

441

Distributed Source Coding for Satellite Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by mobile satellite communications systems, we consider a source coding system which consists of multiple sources, multiple encoders, and multiple decoders. Each encoder has access to a certain subset of the sources, each decoder has access to certain subset of the encoders, and each decoder reconstructs a certain subset of the sources almost perfectly. The connectivity between the sources

Raymond W. Yeung; Zhen Zhang

1999-01-01

442

Ion sources for sealed neutron tubes  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we will compare a number of gas ion sources that can be used in sealed neutron tubes. The characteristics of the most popular ion source, the axial Penning discharge will be discussed as part of the zetatron neutron generator. Other sources to be discussed include the SAMIS source and RF ion source. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Burns, E.J. [Neutron Tube Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0516 (United States); Bischoff, G.C. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, P.O. Box 2908, Largo, Florida 34649-2908 (United States)

1997-02-01

443

Next Generation Spallation Neutron Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron Scattering Experiments are traditionally done at nuclear reactors where high neutron fluxes are available from fission inside the reactor core. Naturally these are cw sources, which makes a whole class of time resolved experiments difficult to perform. Pulsed neutron sources, based on the spallation of neutrons by impinging an intense proton beam on a high atomic number target material, have therefore generated a large interest ever since they were put into operation. So far the typical integrated neutron flux is one or two orders of magnitude smaller than in a reactor. With the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS*) at Oak Ridge National Lab and the Japanese Hadron Project (J-PARC) at JAERI in Japan two second generation facilities are under construction that will provide average neutron fluxes exceeding those of reactors and peak fluxes that will allow new science to be done. The European Spallation Source, a project that still is in the planning stage, would even go beyond that. The talk will start out with the existing Spallation Sources and give an overview about the two construction projects focusing on the SNS presently foreseen to be finished in 2006. * SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. Department of Energy. SNS is a partnership of six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge.

Holtkamp, Norbert

2004-05-01

444

Research on fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P.

2012-06-01

445

High energy synchrotron radiation sources  

SciTech Connect

In the world there are now about 43 laboratories in 16 counties engaged in the operation, construction or planning of electron storage rings, from a few hundred MeV to above 10 GeV, as sources of synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research. In this report we describe the new 3rd generation high energy (i.e.; hard X-ray) sources. The first of these, the 6 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France started operation in mid 1992. The 7 GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne, USA and the 8 GeV Super Photon Ring (SPring-8) in Nishi Harima, Japan are expected to start operation for users around 1996--98.

Winick, H.

1993-07-01

446

Compact portable electric power sources  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

1997-02-01

447

Miniature x-ray source  

DOEpatents

A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

2000-01-01

448

Stacee Observations of Extragalactic Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a ground-based gamma-ray telescope employing the atmospheric Cherenkov technique. STACEE uses 64 large heliostats at a solar research facility near Albuquerque NM, USA, to achieve a gamma-ray energy threshold below traditional imaging telescopes. The full STACEE experiment started regular observations in October, 2001. An earlier version of the experiment using 48 heliostats took data between January and June of 2001. Here we report the results from STACEE observations of extragalactic sources in 2001 and 2002. The sources observed include the active galaxies Markarian 421, Markarian 501, 3C 66A, and W Comae. We also summarize our future observing plan in the context of measuring the absorbtion of high energy emission due to radiation fields at the source, or in intergalactic space.

Mukherjee, R.; Boone, L. M.; Bramel, D.; Covault, C. E.; Fortin, P.; Gingrich, D.; Hanna, D.; Hinton, J. A.; Mueller, C.; Ong, R. A.; Ragan, K.; Scalzo, R. A.; Schuette, D. R.; Williams, D. A.

2002-04-01

449

Safety of sealed source disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disposal of sealed sources from industrial irradiators usually includes reuse or recycling where feasible, and then long-term storage at a waste management facility until the sources have decayed to a level at which they can be disposed of as essentially non-radioactive waste. The space required for this storage, and the time needed, are small relative to the needs of the power reactor industry. All aspects of this process are well established and licensed by regulatory agencies. There have been no accidents related to this activity that are known to the author. Accidents have occurred related to other applications of sealed sources; the causes of these are discussed and found to be unrelated to the industrial irradiator application.

Martell, E. S.

2004-09-01

450

Materials for spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The Workshop on Materials for Spallation Neutron Sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, February 6 to 10, 1995, gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss areas in which work is needed, successful designs and use of materials, and opportunities for further studies. During the first day of the workshop, speakers presented overviews of current spallation neutron sources. During the next 3 days, seven panels allowed speakers to present information on a variety of topics ranging from experimental and theoretical considerations on radiation damage to materials safety issues. An attempt was made to identify specific problems that require attention within the context of spallation neutron sources. This proceedings is a collection of summaries from the overview sessions and the panel presentations.

Sommer, W.F.; Daemen, L.L. [comps.

1996-03-01

451

GOVERNMENT INCOME SOURCE(S) Student Name Study Period  

E-print Network

May 2013 GOVERNMENT INCOME SOURCE Faculty/Year It is important to claim government benefits accurately in order to ensure your funding government agency about receiving benefits and OSAP or Part­Time Loan assistance at the same time. Therefore

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

452

SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA  

SciTech Connect

The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning (David) Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

2005-09-30

453

A global sourcing strategy for durable tooling  

E-print Network

Competitive pressures in manufacturing industries have led to an increased utilization of strategic sourcing initiatives: among them is low cost sourcing. While low cost sourcing has been used extensively for direct ...

Vasovski, Steven

2006-01-01

454

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2011-07-01

455

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2010-07-01

456

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2011-07-01

457

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2010-07-01

458

Source selection of agricultural journalists in Texas  

E-print Network

Journalists rely on sources in their daily routines, and the sources they choose affect news content over time. Agricultural journalists are no exception. Eleven agricultural journalists in Texas were studied to determine what types of sources...

Banks, Penelope Jean

1998-01-01

459

Bacterial sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in geochemical samples has been the source of much controversy. Although an anthropogenic input from detergent sources always appears likely, the distribution of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in some cases far exceeding that attributed to detergent input has led to a reappraisal of this view. Indeed, recent work involving analysis of the lipid hydrocarbon extracts from extant Thermoplasma bacteria has revealed the presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons. The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in sedimentary organic matter may therefore represent potential biological markers for thermophilic bacteria.

Ellis, L.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Langworthy, T. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)

1996-10-01

460

Online bibliographic sources in hydrology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traditional commercial bibliographic databases and indexes provide some access to hydrology materials produced by the government; however, these sources do not provide comprehensive coverage of relevant hydrologic publications. This paper discusses bibliographic information available from the federal government and state geological surveys, water resources agencies, and depositories. In addition to information in these databases, the paper describes the scope, styles of citing, subject terminology, and the ways these information sources are currently being searched, formally and informally, by hydrologists. Information available from the federal and state agencies and from the state depositories might be missed by limiting searches to commercially distributed databases. ?? 2001 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.].

Wild, E.C.; Michael, Havener W.

2001-01-01

461

Sensor/source electrometer circuit  

SciTech Connect

A multiple decade electrometer circuit is claimed which can measure low input currents or act as a current source and is comprised of a microprocessor controlled digital to analog converters to derive individual decades. A plurality of decades are created by multiple D-A voltage sources which generate electrometer currents through scaled resistors. After a first series of decades of current are successively produced, the converters are 10 cycled to generate current through new resistors scaled to produce another series decades of current. In this manner, the electrometer circuit generates or senses a plurality of decades of current without significant scale change.

Hughes, W.J.

1991-12-31

462

Gravitational Waves from Compact Sources  

E-print Network

We review sources of high-frequency gravitational waves, summarizing our current understanding of emission mechanisms, expected amplitudes and event rates. The most promising sources are gravitational collapse (formation of black holes or neutron stars) and subsequent ringing of the compact star, secular or dynamical rotational instabilities and high-mass compact objects formed through the merger of binary neutron stars. Significant and unique information for the various stages of the collapse, the structure of protoneutron stars and the high density equation of state of compact objects can be drawn from careful study of gravitational wave signals.

Kostas D. Kokkotas; Nikolaos Stergioulas

2005-07-06

463

The JavaScript Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The JavaScript Source contains hundreds of scripts which can be copied and used free of charge. Scripts are divided into categories such as Background Effects, Buttons, Cookies, and Forms. Included with each script is the description, file size, and contributor information. The JavaScript Source also provides several services beyond the collection. If you'd rather receive code in email, they will send it to you. A discussion forum is available. A free biweekly newsletter informs its subscribers of newly added scripts.

464

The Chandra Source Catalog: User Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is the definitive catalog of all X-ray sources detected by Chandra. The CSC is presented to the user in two tables: the Master Chandra Source Table and the Table of Individual Source Observations. Each distinct X-ray source identified in the CSC is represented by a single master source entry and one or more individual source entries. If a source is unaffected by confusion and pile-up in multiple observations, the individual source observations are merged to produce a master source. In each table, a row represents a source, and each column a quantity that is officially part of the catalog. The CSC contains positions and multi-band fluxes for the sources, as well as derived spatial, spectral, and temporal source properties. The CSC also includes associated source region and full-field data products for each source, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra. The master source properties represent the best estimates of the properties of a source, and are presented in the following categories: Position and Position Errors, Source Flags, Source Extent and Errors, Source Fluxes, Source Significance, Spectral Properties, and Source Variability. The CSC Data Access GUI provides direct access to the source properties and data products contained in the catalog. The user may query the catalog database via a web-style search or an SQL command-line query. Each query returns a table of source properties, along with the option to browse and download associated data products. The GUI is designed to run in a web browser with Java version 1.5 or higher, and may be accessed via a link on the CSC website homepage (http://cxc.harvard.edu/csc/). As an alternative to the GUI, the contents of the CSC may be accessed directly through a URL, using the command-line tool, cURL. Support: NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, I. N.; Harbo, P. N.; Rots, A. H.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Zografou, P.; Anderson, C. S.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Primini, F. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Winkelman, S. L.

2009-01-01

465

10 CFR 39.77 - Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources...Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources...i) Obtain NRC approval to implement abandonment procedures; or (ii) That the...

2010-01-01

466

cctbx news: Geometry restraints and other new features Ralf W. Grosse-Kunstleve, Pavel V. Afonine and Paul D. Adams,  

E-print Network

-Kunstleve@lbl.gov ; WWW: http://cci.lbl.gov/ 1: Introduction The Computational Crystallography Toolbox (cctbx, http, the full mmtbx sources are included in the bundles available at the http://cci to interactively run the examples scripts shown below, the reader is highly encouraged to visit http://cci

Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf

467

Future of small energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrialization and the concept of economy of scale eliminated the use of many small energy sources and introduced the concept of centralized energy supplies. Small energy resources that can be used where they are produced now appear to have a role as the need for diversification and conservation becomes stronger. Three processes now underway are the expansion of formerly uneconomical

Barnea

1981-01-01

468

Searching for the reionization sources  

E-print Network

Using a reionization model simultaneously accounting for a number of experimental data sets, we investigate the nature and properties of reionization sources. Such model predicts that hydrogen reionization starts at z \\approx 15, is initially driven by metal-free (PopIII) stars, and is 90% complete by z \\approx 8. We find that a fraction f_\\gamma >80% of the ionizing power at z > 7 comes from haloes of mass M10^9 M_sun haloes, yielding f_\\gamma \\approx 60% at z=6. Using Lyman-break broadband dropout techniques, J-band detection of sources contributing to 50% (90%) of the ionizing power at z \\sim 7.5 requires to reach a magnitude J_{110,AB} = 31.2 (31.7), where about 15 (30) (PopIII) sources/arcmin^2 are predicted. We conclude that z>7 sources tentatively identified in broadband surveys are relatively massive (M \\approx 10^9 M_sun) and rare objects which are only marginally (\\approx 1%) adding to the reionization photon budget.

T. Roy Choudhury; A. Ferrara

2007-05-16

469

Deep space travel energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration of the planets beyond Mars and their surroundings is already planned. Astronomy researchers are citing important information that can be obtained with instrumented spacecraft that fly beyond the planets of our solar system. Spacecraft flying these missions need power for performing their functions and communicating with Earth stations. Sunlight in these zones is so weak that alternative energy sources

H. Oman

2003-01-01

470

Jewish Women's Studies: Selected Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this annotated bibliography are over 150 books, chapters in books, and journal articles dealing with Jewish women and Jewish feminism. Only English language sources have been cited, and the majority of titles focus on the experience of Jewish women in the United States. Most of the items included were published in the 1970's and

Loeb, Catherine, Comp.

471

MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING GUIDE DOCUMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Approximately 13% of surface waters in the United States do not meet designated use criteria as determined by high densities of fecal indicator bacteria. Although some of the contamination is attributed to point sources such as confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) and wastew...

472

Sources of Information about Magazines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was prepared by the Magazine Publishers Association as a guide to some of the available sources of information about consumer magazines. Some of the data provided by the services listed in this booklet are based on circulation audits, actual measurements of advertising space, or factual statements of procedure and mechanical details.

Magazine Publishers Association, Inc., New York, NY.

473

History Sources on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides descriptions of key online history resources useful to teachers, librarians, and other education professionals. Highlights include: primary sources on the Internet; archives; Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs); the American Historical Association (AHA) Web site; state and federal government resources; business history

Fink, Kenneth D.

474

INPUFF, MULTIPLE SOURCE PUFF MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

INPUFF is a Gaussian integrated PUFF model. The Gaussian puff diffusion equation is used to compute the contribution to the concentration at each receptor from each puff every time step. Computations in INPUFF can be made for a single or multiple point sources at up to 100 recept...

475

Guide to Library Placement Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide updates the listing in the 1976 "Bowker Annual of Library and Book Trade Information" with information on new joblines, new services, and changes in contacts and groups listed. Sources listed primarily give assistance in obtaining professional positions; a few indicate assistance for paraprofessionals, although they are usually

American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

476

Primary Sources and Inquiry Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses inquiry learning and primary sources. Inquiry learning puts students in the active role of investigators. Questioning, authentic and active learning, and interactivity are a few of the characteristics of inquiry learning that put the teacher and library media specialist in the role of coaches while students

Pappas, Marjorie L.

2006-01-01

477

National Synchrotron Light Source II  

ScienceCinema

The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

Steve Dierker

2010-01-08

478

Source Code Exploration with Google  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new approach to source code exploration, which is the result of integrating the Google Desktop Search (GDS) engine into the Eclipse development environment. The resulting search engine, named Google Eclipse Search (GES), provides improved searching in Eclipse software projects. The paper advocates for a component-based approach that allows us to develop strong tools, which support various

Denys Poshyvanyk; Maksym Petrenko; Andrian Marcus; Xinrong Xie; Dapeng Liu

2006-01-01

479

Microbial Source Tracking Case Studies  

E-print Network

Soil and Environmental Microbiologist May 22, 2012 #12;#12;National Security Assessment: Water Scarcity Disrupting U.S. and Three Continents http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/2012/world/national- security-assessment-water-scarcity.W.; Lubbers, J.F. Microbial Source Tracking in a Watershed Dominated by Swine. Water 2010, 2, 587-604. #12

480

MIT inverse Compton source concept  

E-print Network

A compact X-ray source based on inverse Compton scattering of a high-power laser on a high-brightness linac beam is described. The facility can operate in two modes: at high (MHz) repetition rate with flux and brilliance ...

Graves, William S.

481

Lesson 2: Energy Sources Overview  

E-print Network

of the energy is dissipated by sound waves, some turns to heat that melts rock to the surroundings generally in the form of heat. #12;Overview · There are four primary energy sources for the processes that cause geologic hazards. They are: ­the

Chen, Po

482

THE OPEN SOURCING OF EPANET  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal was made at the 2009 EWRI Congress in Kansas City, MO to establish an Open Source Project (OSP) for the widely used EPANET pipe network analysis program. This would be an ongoing collaborative effort among a group of geographically dispersed advisors and developers, wo...

483

Focused X-ray source  

DOEpatents

An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary I. (Sunnyvale, CA); Maccagno, Pierre (Stanford, CA)

1990-01-01

484

Stress Sources among Student Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates several potential sources of stress (job environment, uncertainty/conflict, job pressure and responsibility, and rapport with management) at the beginning of the student teaching experience and subsequent changes in stress following completion of student teaching. Suggests strategies to avoid teacher stress. (MM)

Hourcade, Jack J.; And Others

1988-01-01

485

Sources of Consumer Education Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists publications issued by the federal government, universities, and commercial sources on consumer education with ordering information and prices. Subjects include foods, water conservation, money management, and auto defects, as well as general consumerism. Some of the materials contain lesson ideas and teaching activities. (MF)

Illinois Teacher of Home Economics, 1978

1978-01-01

486

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the assessment of air emissions from the manufacture of carbon black, currently manufactured in the U.S. by two major processes: thermal and oil furnace. Sources of atmospheric emissions within oil furnace plants (about 90% of the 30 U.S. carbon black plants...

487

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: ASPHALT HOT MIX  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the asphalt hot mix industry. A representative asphalt hot mix plant was defined, based on the results of an industrial survey, to assess the severity of emissions from this industry. Source severity was defined as the ratio of th...

488

Sources of stress in captivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals housed in artificial habitats are confronted by a wide range of potentially provocative environmental challenges. In this article, we review many of the potential stressors that may adversely affect animals living in captivity. These include abiotic, environmental sources of stress such as artificial lighting, exposure to loud or aversive sound, arousing odors, and uncomfortable temperatures or substrates. In addition,

Kathleen N. Morgan; Chris T. Tromborg

2007-01-01

489

Consistent Answers Integrated Data Sources  

E-print Network

(University at Bu#11;alo) Alvaro Cortes (Catholic University of Chile) Claudio Gutierrez (University of Chile for an architecture that o#11;ers a common interface to a set of possibly hetero- geneous information sources Data Generator Execution Engine User Interface Answers General Architecture of an Integration System 5 #12

Bertossi, Leopoldo

490

Environmental Source of Candida dubliniensis  

PubMed Central

We isolated Candida dubliniensis from a nonhuman source, namely, tick samples from an Irish seabird colony. The species was unambiguously identified by phenotypic and genotypic means. Analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene showed that the environmental isolates belong to C. dubliniensis genotype 1. PMID:17553256

Schfer, Stefanie M.; Petrou, Michael A.; Brown, Jillian R.M.

2007-01-01

491

IDENTIFYING SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution from ambient sources continues to adversely impact human health in the United States. A fundamental goal for EPA is to implement air quality standards and regulations that reduce health risks associated with exposures to criteria pollutants and air toxics. However...

492

Cotton source/sink relationships  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Metabolite source/sink relationships govern assimilate partitioning, developmental rates and fruit abscission in cotton. This subject is, therefore, of primary importance in the improvement of cotton plant types and in cotton culture. Historically, cotton has been among the most valuable of agrono...

493

Star pinch scalable EUV source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new direct discharge source of 13.5nm radiation addresses the heat load problem by creating the plasma remote from all surfaces. The plasma is initially formed at the intersection of many pulsed xenon beamlets. Further heating is then applied via a high current pulse to induce efficient radiation from Xe10+ ions. The plasma is compact, with a single pulse FWHM

Malcolm W. McGeoch; Charles T. Pike

2003-01-01

494

The Source for Asperger's Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended as a comprehensive source of information on the diagnosis and treatment of Asperger syndrome. Chapter 1 discusses major classification of characteristics and chapter 2 describes prevalence, comorbidity, and causal factors of Asperger syndrome. Chapter 3 examines clinical diagnosis and misdiagnosis and the influence of

Kowalski, Timothy P.

495

Spallation Neutron Source Materials Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation of accelerator facilities such as Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), ISIS at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the Swiss Institute Neutron Source (SINQ) at Paul Scherrer Institute, and others has provided valuable information on materials performance in high energy particle beams and high energy neutron environments. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project is sponsoring an extensive series of tests

W. F. Sommer

1998-01-01

496

SOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The options for pollution abatement in WWF can be implemented at the source by land management and pollution prevention techniques, in the collection system, offline by storage, or in a treatment plant. An integrated system that combines prevention, control, and treatment has of...

497

Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Clarkson University, this applet demonstrates a circuit that contains a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS). The gain may be modified using the scroll bar. Even though brief, this resource can be used in a variety of different technical education classrooms.

Dorf, Richard C.

498

Source Discrimination from Magnitude Curve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and numerical examinations on "magnitude curves" from explosions and earthquakes with various source time functions were made. The body-wave magnitude curve mb (T) is obtained by applying a series of narrow band-pass filters (0.75 f0 - 1.25 f0) at center frequencies f0 to instrument-corrected ground motions of P waves (0.1 <= f <= 10 Hz). The mb formula of Veith and Clawson (1972) is employed at these center periods. At each station, both raw and corrected magnitude curves have the same slopes and shapes with period since the correction factor depends not on frequency but on source depth and station distance. The surface-wave magnitude MS (T) curve is similarly obtained in the period range from 2 to 100 sec. The mb magnitude curves from an explosion source show sharp peaks with slopes +1 and -1 as well as +2 and -2 (1.5 and -1.5 for MS (T) magnitude curves) varied with log period at 0 or 5 km source depth. The mb magnitude curves from earthquakes are flat plateaus (slopes of 0; -0.5 for MS (T) curves) varied with log period at 0 or 5 km depth. For the case of an explosion plus tectonic release, a sharp magnitude peak for the explosion component and a flat plateau of slope 0 for the tectonic component for mb (T) (nearly flat plateau of slope -0.5 for MS (T)) are shown. The long-period magnitude falloff is controlled by the power dependence of T^(p+0-2) for body waves or T^(p+0.5-2) for surface waves: the T^p of the far-field (source) spectrum, the T^(-2) of amplitude to magnitude, T^0 of the far-field body-wave amplitude factor, and T^0.5 of the far-field surface-wave amplitude factor. The value of p is -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2. This approach is tested with ten events: five are known earthquakes and five are known explosions. With respect to body waves, the average body-wave magnitude curves for known explosion sources indicate triangular peaks of slopes +1 and -1 as well as +2 and -2 with log period. Known earthquake sources exhibit flat body-wave magnitude peaks with slopes 0 and the flanks with slopes +-1 and/or +-2. Known explosion events with tectonic release exhibit two body-wave magnitude peaks: one is an explosion triangular peak and the second peak which can be thought as slope combinations from explosion and earthquake.

Nguyen, B. V.

2011-12-01

499

Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source  

DOEpatents

A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA)

2003-04-15

500

Ion source antenna development for the Spallation Neutron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operational lifetime of a radio-frequency (rf) ion source is generally governed by the length of time the insulating structure protecting the antenna survives during exposure to the plasma. Coating the antenna with a thin layer of insulating material is a common means of extending the life of such antennas. When low-power\\/low-duty factor rf excitation is employed, antenna lifetimes of

R. F. Welton; M. P. Stockli; Y. Kang; M. Janney; R. Keller; R. W. Thomae; T. Schenkel; S. Shukla

2002-01-01