Science.gov

Sample records for lcdm mass redshift

  1. Galaxy Cluster Masses at Moderate Redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, E.

    1998-01-01

    The masses of galaxy clusters are dominated by dark matter, and a robust determination of their masses has the potential of indicating how much dark matter exists on large scales in the universe, and the cosmological parameter Omega. X-ray observations of galaxy clusters provide a direct measure of both the gas mass in the intra-cluster medium, and also the total gravitating mass of the cluster. We used new and archival ROSAT observations to measure these quantities for a sample of intermediate redshift clusters which have also been subject to intensive dynamical studies, in order to compare the mass estimates from different methods. A direct comparison of dynamical mass estimates yielded surprisingly good results.

  2. Galaxy Cluster Masses at Moderate Redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, E.

    1998-01-01

    The masses of galaxy clusters are dominated by dark matter, and a robust determination of their masses has the potential of indicating how much dark matter exists on large scales in the universe, and the cosmological parameter Omega. X-ray observations of galaxy clusters provide a direct measure of both the gas mass in the intra-cluster medium, and also the total gravitating mass of the cluster. We used new and archival ROSAT observations to measure these quantities for a sample of intermediate redshift clusters which have also been subject to intensive dynamical studies, in order to compare the mass estimates from different methods. We used data from 14 of the CNOC cluster sample at 0.18 less than z less than 0.55 for this study. A direct comparison of dynamical mass estimates from Carlberg, Yee & Ellingson (1997) yielded surprisingly good results. The X-ray/dynamical mass ratios have a mean of 0.96+/- 0.10, indicating that for this sample, both methods are probably yielding very robust mass estimates. Comparison with mass estimates from gravitational lensing studies from the literature showed a small systematic with weak lensing estimates, and large discrepancies with strong lensing estimates. This latter is not surprising, given that these measurement are made close to the central core, where optical and X-ray estimates are less certain, and where substructure and the effects of individual galaxies will be more pronounced. These results are presented in Lewis, Ellingson, Morris/Carlberg, 1998, submitted to the Astrophysical Journal. (Note that Lewis is Ellingson's Ph.D. thesis, who received direct support from this grant and is using this investigation as part of his thesis.) Three additional papers are in preparation. The first provides a comparison of the mass profiles as measured in X- rays and in galaxy dynamics. These profiles are difficult to determine for individual clusters, and are subject to asphericity and other individual quirks of each cluster

  3. Formation of elongated galaxies with low masses at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai

    2015-10-01

    We report the identification of elongated (triaxial or prolate) galaxies in cosmological simulations at z ≃ 2. These are preferentially low-mass galaxies (M* ≤ 109.5 M⊙), residing in dark matter (DM) haloes with strongly elongated inner parts, a common feature of high-redshift DM haloes in the Λ cold dark matter cosmology. Feedback slows formation of stars at the centres of these haloes, so that a dominant and prolate DM distribution gives rise to galaxies elongated along the DM major axis. As galaxies grow in stellar mass, stars dominate the total mass within the galaxy half-mass radius, making stars and DM rounder and more oblate. A large population of elongated galaxies produces a very asymmetric distribution of projected axis ratios, as observed in high-z galaxy surveys. This indicates that the majority of the galaxies at high redshifts are not discs or spheroids but rather galaxies with elongated morphologies.

  4. On the formation redshift of Low-Mass Star-Forming Galaxies at intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Jesus; Rodriguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Pacifici, Camilla; Tresse, Laurence; Charlot, Stéphane; Gil de Paz, Armando; Barro, Guillermo; Gomez-Guijarro, Carlos; Villar, Víctor

    2015-08-01

    Dwarf galaxies play a key role in galaxy formation and evolution: (1) hierarchical models predict that low-mass systems merged to form massive galaxies (building block paradigm; Dekel & Silk 1986); (2) dwarf systems might have been responsible for the reionization of the Universe (Wyithe & Loeb 2006); (3) theoretical models are particularly sensitive to the density of low-mass systems at diferent redshifts (Mamon et al. 2011), being one of the key science cases for the future E-ELT (Evans et al. 2013). While the history of low-mass dark matter halos is relatively well understood, the formation history of dwarf galaxies is still poorly reproduced by the models due to the distinct evolution of baryonic and dark matter.We present constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of low-mass Star-Forming Galaxies (LMSFGs; 7.3 < log M∗/Mo < 8.0, at 0.3 < zspec < 0.9) selected by photometric stellar mass and apparent magnitude. The SFHs were obtained through the analysis of their spectral energy distributions using a novel approach (Pacifici et al. 2012) that (1) consistently combines photometric (HST and ground-based multi-broadband) and spectroscopic (equivalent widths of emission lines from VLT and GTC spectroscopy) data, and (2) uses physically motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time.The median SFH of our LMSFGs appears to form 90% of the median stellar mass inferred for the sample in the ˜0.5-1.8 Gyr immediately preceding the observation. These results suggest a recent stellar mass assembly for dwarf SFGs, consistent with the cosmological downsizing trends. We find similar median SFH timescales for a slightly more massive secondary sample 8.0 < log M∗/Mo < 9.1).This is a pilot study for future surveys on dwarf galaxies at high redshift.

  5. OPTIMAL MASS CONFIGURATIONS FOR LENSING HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark; Keeton, Charles R.

    2012-06-20

    We investigate the gravitational lensing properties of lines of sight containing multiple cluster-scale halos, motivated by their ability to lens very high redshift (z {approx} 10) sources into detectability. We control for the total mass along the line of sight, isolating the effects of distributing the mass among multiple halos and of varying the physical properties of the halos. Our results show that multiple-halo lines of sight can increase the magnified source-plane region compared to the single cluster lenses typically targeted for lensing studies and thus are generally better fields for detecting very high redshift sources. The configurations that result in optimal lensing cross sections benefit from interactions between the lens potentials of the halos when they overlap somewhat on the sky, creating regions of high magnification in the source plane not present when the halos are considered individually. The effect of these interactions on the lensing cross section can even be comparable to changing the total mass of the lens from 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. The gain in lensing cross section increases as the mass is split into more halos, provided that the lens potentials are projected close enough to interact with each other. A nonzero projected halo angular separation, equal halo mass ratio, and high projected halo concentration are the best mass configurations, whereas projected halo ellipticity, halo triaxiality, and the relative orientations of the halos are less important. Such high-mass, multiple-halo lines of sight exist in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  6. THE 2MASS REDSHIFT SURVEY-DESCRIPTION AND DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Huchra, John P.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael; Falco, Emilio; Mink, Jessica D.; Tokarz, Susan; Macri, Lucas M.; Masters, Karen L.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Crook, Aidan C.; Cutri, Roc; Erdogdu, Pirin; Lahav, Ofer; George, Teddy; Hutcheson, Conrad M.; Mader, Jeff; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Schneider, Stephen; Skrutskie, Michael; Westover, Michael E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.uk

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), a ten-year project to map the full three-dimensional distribution of galaxies in the nearby universe. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) was completed in 2003 and its final data products, including an extended source catalog (XSC), are available online. The 2MASS XSC contains nearly a million galaxies with K{sub s} {<=} 13.5 mag and is essentially complete and mostly unaffected by interstellar extinction and stellar confusion down to a galactic latitude of |b| = 5 Degree-Sign for bright galaxies. Near-infrared wavelengths are sensitive to the old stellar populations that dominate galaxy masses, making 2MASS an excellent starting point to study the distribution of matter in the nearby universe. We selected a sample of 44,599 2MASS galaxies with K{sub s} {<=} 11.75 mag and |b| {>=} 5 Degree-Sign ({>=}8 Degree-Sign toward the Galactic bulge) as the input catalog for our survey. We obtained spectroscopic observations for 11,000 galaxies and used previously obtained velocities for the remainder of the sample to generate a redshift catalog that is 97.6% complete to well-defined limits and covers 91% of the sky. This provides an unprecedented census of galaxy (baryonic mass) concentrations within 300 Mpc. Earlier versions of our survey have been used in a number of publications that have studied the bulk motion of the Local Group, mapped the density and peculiar velocity fields out to 50 h{sup -1} Mpc, detected galaxy groups, and estimated the values of several cosmological parameters. Additionally, we present morphological types for a nearly complete sub-sample of 20,860 galaxies with K{sub s} {<=} 11.25 mag and |b| {>=} 10 Degree-Sign .

  7. Star formation and mass assembly in high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Fiore, F.; Fontanot, F.; Boutsia, K.; Castellano, M.; Cristiani, S.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Nonino, M.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Vanzella, E.

    2009-09-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to infer the star formation properties and the mass assembly process of high redshift (0.3 ≤ z < 2.5) galaxies from their IR emission using the 24 μm band of MIPS-Spitzer. Methods: We used an updated version of the GOODS-MUSIC catalog, which has multiwavelength coverage from 0.3 to 24 μm and either spectroscopic or accurate photometric redshifts. We describe how the catalog has been extended by the addition of mid-IR fluxes derived from the MIPS 24 μm image. We compared two different estimators of the star formation rate (SFR hereafter). One is the total infrared emission derived from 24 μm, estimated using both synthetic and empirical IR templates. The other one is a multiwavelength fit to the full galaxy SED, which automatically accounts for dust reddening and age-star formation activity degeneracies. For both estimates, we computed the SFR density and the specific SFR. Results: We show that the two SFR indicators are roughly consistent, once the uncertainties involved are taken into account. However, they show a systematic trend, IR-based estimates exceeding the fit-based ones as the star formation rate increases. With this new catalog, we show that: a) at z>0.3, the star formation rate is correlated well with stellar mass, and this relationship seems to steepen with redshift if one relies on IR-based estimates of the SFR; b) the contribution to the global SFRD by massive galaxies increases with redshift up to ≃ 2.5, more rapidly than for galaxies of lower mass, but appears to flatten at higher z; c) despite this increase, the most important contributors to the SFRD at any z are galaxies of about, or immediately lower than, the characteristic stellar mass; d) at z≃ 2, massive galaxies are actively star-forming, with a median {SFR} ≃ 300 M_⊙ yr-1. During this epoch, our targeted galaxies assemble a substantial part of their final stellar mass; e) the specific SFR (SSFR) shows a clear bimodal distribution. Conclusions

  8. Low Masses and High Redshifts: The Evolution of the Mass-Metallicity Relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Alaina; Scarlata, Claudia; Dominguez, Alberto; Malkan, Matthew; Martin, Crystal L.; Siana, Brian; Atek, Hakim; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Teplitz, Harry; Bunker, Andrew J.; Dressler, Alan; Hathi, Nimish; Masters, Daniel; McCarthy, Patrick; Straughn, Amber

    2013-01-01

    We present the first robust measurement of the high redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation at 10(exp 8) < M/Stellar Mass < or approx. 10(exp 10), obtained by stacking spectra of 83 emission-line galaxies with secure redshifts between 1.3 < or approx. z < or approx. 2.3. For these redshifts, infrared grism spectroscopy with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 is sensitive to the R23 metallicity diagnostic: ([O II] (lambda)(lambda)3726, 3729 + [OIII] (lambda)(lambda)4959, 5007)/H(beta). Using spectra stacked in four mass quartiles, we find a MZ relation that declines significantly with decreasing mass, extending from 12+log(O/H) = 8.8 at M = 10(exp 9.8) Stellar Mass to 12+log(O/H)= 8.2 at M = 10(exp 8.2) Stellar Mass. After correcting for systematic offsets between metallicity indicators, we compare our MZ relation to measurements from the stacked spectra of galaxies with M > or approx. 10(exp 9.5) Stellar Mass and z approx. 2.3. Within the statistical uncertainties, our MZ relation agrees with the z approx. 2.3 result, particularly since our somewhat higher metallicities (by around 0.1 dex) are qualitatively consistent with the lower mean redshift (z = 1.76) of our sample. For the masses probed by our data, the MZ relation shows a steep slope which is suggestive of feedback from energy-driven winds, and a cosmological downsizing evolution where high mass galaxies reach the local MZ relation at earlier times. In addition, we show that our sample falls on an extrapolation of the star-forming main sequence (the SFR-M* relation) at this redshift. This result indicates that grism emission-line selected samples do not have preferentially high star formation rates (SFRs). Finally, we report no evidence for evolution of the mass-metallicity-SFR plane; our stack-averaged measurements show excellent agreement with the local relation.

  9. LOW MASSES AND HIGH REDSHIFTS: THE EVOLUTION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Alaina; Straughn, Amber; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Domínguez, Alberto; Siana, Brian; Masters, Daniel; Malkan, Matthew; Ross, Nathaniel; Martin, Crystal L.; Atek, Hakim; Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc; Teplitz, Harry; Bunker, Andrew J.; Dressler, Alan; Hathi, Nimish; McCarthy, Patrick

    2013-10-20

    We present the first robust measurement of the high redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation at 10{sup 8} ∼< M/M {sub ☉} ∼< 10{sup 10}, obtained by stacking spectra of 83 emission-line galaxies with secure redshifts between 1.3 ∼< z ∼< 2.3. For these redshifts, infrared grism spectroscopy with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 is sensitive to the R {sub 23} metallicity diagnostic: ([O II] λλ3726, 3729 + [O III] λλ4959, 5007)/Hβ. Using spectra stacked in four mass quartiles, we find a MZ relation that declines significantly with decreasing mass, extending from 12+log(O/H) = 8.8 at M = 10{sup 9.8} M {sub ☉}, to 12+log(O/H) = 8.2 at M = 10{sup 8.2} M {sub ☉}. After correcting for systematic offsets between metallicity indicators, we compare our MZ relation to measurements from the stacked spectra of galaxies with M ∼> 10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉} and z ∼ 2.3. Within the statistical uncertainties, our MZ relation agrees with the z ∼ 2.3 result, particularly since our somewhat higher metallicities (by around 0.1 dex) are qualitatively consistent with the lower mean redshift (z = 1.76) of our sample. For the masses probed by our data, the MZ relation shows a steep slope which is suggestive of feedback from energy-driven winds, and a cosmological downsizing evolution where high mass galaxies reach the local MZ relation at earlier times. In addition, we show that our sample falls on an extrapolation of the star-forming main sequence (the SFR-M {sub *} relation) at this redshift. This result indicates that grism emission-line selected samples do not have preferentially high star formation rates (SFRs). Finally, we report no evidence for evolution of the mass-metallicity-SFR plane; our stack-averaged measurements show excellent agreement with the local relation.

  10. Exploring the 2MASS extended and point source catalogues with clustering redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mubdi; Ménard, Brice; Scranton, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) has mapped out the low-redshift Universe down to KS ˜ 14 mag. As its near-infrared photometry primarily probes the featureless Rayleigh-Jeans tail of galaxy spectral energy distributions, colour-based redshift estimation is rather uninformative. Until now, redshift estimates for this data set have relied on optical follow-up suffering from selection biases. Here, we use the newly developed technique of clustering-based redshift estimation to infer the redshift distribution of the 2MASS sources regardless of their optical properties. We characterize redshift distributions of objects from the Extended Source Catalogue as a function of near-infrared colours and brightness and report some observed trends. We also apply the clustering redshift technique to dropout populations, sources with non-detections in one or more near-infrared bands, and present their redshift distributions. Combining all extended sources, we confirm with clustering redshifts that the distribution of this sample extends up to z ˜ 0.35. We perform a similar analysis with the Point Source Catalogue and show that it can be separated into stellar and extragalactic contributions with galaxies reaching z ˜ 0.7. We estimate that the Point Source Catalogue contains 1.6 million extragalactic objects: as many as in the Extended Source Catalogue but probing a cosmic volume 10 times larger.

  11. The mass-concentration-redshift relation of cold and warm dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Aaron D.; Bose, Sownak; Angulo, Raúl E.; Wang, Lan; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Navarro, Julio F.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-08-01

    We use a suite of cosmological simulations to study the mass-concentration-redshift relation, c(M, z), of dark matter haloes. Our simulations include standard Λ-cold dark matter (CDM) models, and additional runs with truncated power spectra, consistent with a thermal warm dark matter (WDM) scenario. We find that the mass profiles of CDM and WDM haloes are self-similar and well approximated by the Einasto profile. The c(M, z) relation of CDM haloes is monotonic: concentrations decrease with increasing virial mass at fixed redshift, and decrease with increasing redshift at fixed mass. The mass accretion histories (MAHs) of CDM haloes are also scale-free, and can be used to infer concentrations directly. These results do not apply to WDM haloes: their MAHs are not scale-free because of the characteristic scale imposed by the power spectrum suppression. Further, the WDM c(M, z) relation is non-monotonic: concentrations peak at a mass scale dictated by the truncation scale, and decrease at higher and lower masses. We show that the assembly history of a halo can still be used to infer its concentration, provided that the total mass of its progenitors is considered (the `collapsed mass history'; CMH), rather than just that of its main ancestor. This exploits the scale-free nature of CMHs to derive a simple scaling that reproduces the mass-concentration-redshift relation of both CDM and WDM haloes over a vast range of halo masses and redshifts. Our model therefore provides a robust account of the mass, redshift, cosmology and power spectrum dependence of dark matter halo concentrations.

  12. The Mass-Concentration-Redshift Relation of Cold and Warm Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Aaron D.; Bose, Sownak; Angulo, Raúl E.; Wang, Lan; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Navarro, Julio F.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-05-01

    We use a suite of cosmological simulations to study the mass-concentration-redshift relation, c(M, z), of dark matter halos. Our simulations include standard Λ-cold dark matter (CDM) models, and additional runs with truncated power spectra, consistent with a thermal warm dark matter (WDM) scenario. We find that the mass profiles of CDM and WDM halos are self-similar and well approximated by the Einasto profile. The c(M, z) relation of CDM halos is monotonic: concentrations decrease with increasing virial mass at fixed redshift, and decrease with increasing redshift at fixed mass. The mass accretion histories (MAHs) of CDM halos are also scale-free, and can be used to infer concentrations directly. These results do not apply to WDM halos: their MAHs are not scale-free because of the characteristic scale imposed by the power-spectrum suppression. Further, the WDM c(M, z) relation is non-monotonic: concentrations peak at a mass scale dictated by the truncation scale, and decrease at higher and lower masses. We show that the assembly history of a halo can still be used to infer its concentration, provided that the total mass of its progenitors is considered (the "collapsed mass history"; CMH), rather than just that of its main ancestor. This exploits the scale-free nature of CMHs to derive a simple scaling that reproduces the mass-concentration-redshift relation of both CDM and WDM halos over a vast range of halo masses and redshifts. Our model therefore provides a robust account of the mass, redshift, cosmology and power spectrum dependence of dark matter halo concentrations.

  13. Reconstructing the galaxy density field with photometric redshifts. I. Methodology and validation on stellar mass functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavasi, N.; Pozzetti, L.; Cucciati, O.; Bardelli, S.; Cimatti, A.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Measuring environment for large numbers of galaxies in the distant Universe is an open problem in astrophysics, as environment is important in determining many properties of galaxies during their formation and evolution. In order to measure galaxy environments, we need galaxy positions and redshifts. Photometric redshifts are more easily available for large numbers of galaxies, but at the price of larger uncertainties than spectroscopic redshifts. Aims: We study how photometric redshifts affect the measurement of galaxy environment and how the reconstruction of the density field may limit an analysis of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) in different environments. Methods: Through the use of mock galaxy catalogues, we measured galaxy environment with a fixed aperture method, using each galaxy's true and photometric redshifts. We varied the parameters defining the fixed aperture volume and explored different configurations. We also used photometric redshifts with different uncertainties to simulate the case of various surveys. We then computed GSMF of the mock galaxy catalogues as a function of redshift and environment to see how the environmental estimate based on photometric redshifts affects their analysis. Results: We found that the most extreme environments can be reconstructed in a fairly accurate way only when using high-precision photometric redshifts with σΔz/ (1 + z) ≲ 0.01, with a fraction ≥ 60 ÷ 80% of galaxies placed in the correct density quartile and a contamination of ≤10% by opposite quartile interlopers. A length of the volume in the radial direction comparable to the ±1.5σ error of photometric redshifts and a fixed aperture radius of a size similar to the physical scale of the studied environment grant a better reconstruction than other volume configurations. When using this kind of an estimate of the density field, we found that any difference between the starting GSMF (divided accordingly to the true galaxy environment

  14. Estimating luminosities and stellar masses of galaxies photometrically without determining redshifts

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, B. C.; Yee, H. K. C. E-mail: hyee@astro.utoronto.ca

    2014-09-10

    Large direct imaging surveys usually use a template-fitting technique to estimate photometric redshifts for galaxies, which are then applied to derive important galaxy properties such as luminosities and stellar masses. These estimates can be noisy and suffer from systematic biases because of the possible mis-selection of templates and the propagation of the photometric redshift uncertainty. We introduce an algorithm, the Direct Empirical Photometric method (DEmP), that can be used to directly estimate these quantities using training sets, bypassing photometric redshift determination. DEmP also applies two techniques to minimize the effects arising from the non-uniform distribution of training set galaxy redshifts from a flux-limited sample. First, for each input galaxy, fitting is performed using a subset of the training set galaxies with photometry and colors closest to those of the input galaxy. Second, the training set is artificially resampled to produce a flat distribution in redshift or other properties, e.g., luminosity. To test the performance of DEmP, we use a four filter-band mock catalog to examine its ability to recover redshift, luminosity, stellar mass, and luminosity and stellar mass functions. We also compare the results to those from two publicly available template-fitting methods, finding that the DEmP algorithm outperforms both. We find that resampling the training set to have a uniform redshift distribution produces the best results not only in photometric redshift, but also in estimating luminosity and stellar mass. The DEmP method is especially powerful in estimating quantities such as near-IR luminosities and stellar mass using only data from a small number of optical bands.

  15. Evolution of dwarf galaxies simulated in the cosmological LCDM scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Alejandro; Colin, Pedro; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Valenzuela, Octavio

    2014-03-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of low-mass galaxies with the aim to explore the way their stellar masses are assembled. We analyze how the mass assembly histories of the parent halo determine the growth of their host galaxy and its implications on the current paradigm of formation and evolution of low-mass structures in the LCDM scenario. We have found that low-mass galaxies simulated in this scenario assemble their stellar masses following roughly the dark matter halo assembly, which seems to be in tension with the downsizing trend suggested by current observational inferences. We show that there is no more room to increase the strength of feedback from astrophysical processes in order to deviate strongly the stellar mass assembly from the dark halo one, as has been recently invoked to solve some of the potential issues faced by CDM-based simulations of dwarf galaxies. Alejandro González acknowledges finacial support from UNAM, Fundacion UNAM, and the APS to attend this meeting.

  16. The binary Feige 24 - The mass, radius, and gravitational redshift of the DA white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Shipman, Harry L.; Thorstensen, John R.; Thejll, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Observations are reported which refine the binary ephemeris of the Feige 24 system, which contains a peculiar hot DA white dwarf and an M dwarf with an atmosphere illuminated by extreme ultraviolet radiation from the white dwarf. With the new ephemeris and a set of IUE high-dispersion spectra, showing phase-dependent redshifted C IV, N V, and Si IV resonance lines, the orbital velocity, and hence the mass (0.54 + or - 0.20 solar masses), and the gravitational redshift of the white dwarf (14.1 + or - 5.2 km/s) are determined independently. It is shown that the measured Einstein redshift is consistent with an estimated radius for the white dwarf obtained from a model atmosphere solid angle and a parallax measurement. This radius is twice the Hamada-Salpeter radius for the given mass and offers a prospect to investigate the presence of a massive hydrogen envelope in that white dwarf star.

  17. The redshift evolution of the mass function of cold gas in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, C.; Baugh, C. M.; Lacey, C. G.

    2010-07-01

    Accurately predicting how the cosmic abundance of neutral hydrogen evolves with redshift is a challenging problem facing modellers of galaxy formation. We investigate the predictions of four currently favoured semi-analytical galaxy formation models applied to the Millennium simulation for the mass function of cold neutral gas (atomic and molecular) in galaxies as a function of redshift, and we use these predictions to construct number counts for the next generation of all-sky neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) surveys. Despite the different implementations of the physical ingredients of galaxy formation, we find that the model predictions are broadly consistent with one another; the key differences reflect how the models treat active galactic nuclei feedback and how the time-scale for star formation evolves with redshift. The models produce mass functions of cold gas in galaxies that are generally in good agreement with HI surveys at . Interestingly, we find that these mass functions do not evolve significantly with redshift. Adopting a simple conversion factor for cold gas mass to HI mass that we apply to all galaxies at all redshifts, we derive mass functions of HI in galaxies from the predicted mass functions of cold gas, which we use to predict the number counts of sources likely to be detected by HI surveys on next generation radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders. We find the number counts peak at galaxies deg at for a year long HI hemispheric survey on a 1/10/100 per cent SKA with a 30 deg field of view, corresponding to an integration time of 12 h. On a full SKA with a 200 deg field of view (equivalent to an integration time of 80 h) the number counts peak at galaxies deg at . We show also how adopting a conversion factor for cold gas mass to HI mass that varies from galaxy to galaxy impacts on number counts. In addition, we examine how the typical angular sizes of galaxies vary with redshift. These decline strongly with

  18. The relation between mass and concentration in X-ray galaxy clusters at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amodeo, S.; Ettori, S.; Capasso, R.; Sereno, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Galaxy clusters are the most recent, gravitationally bound products of the hierarchical mass accretion over cosmological scales. How the mass is concentrated is predicted to correlate with the total mass in the halo of the cluster, wherein systems at higher mass are less concentrated at given redshift and, for any given mass, systems with lower concentration are found at higher redshifts. Aims: Through a spatial and spectral X-ray analysis, we reconstruct the total mass profile of 47 galaxy clusters observed with Chandra in the redshift range 0.4 mass and dark matter concentration and the evolution of this relation with redshift. This sample is the largest investigated so far at z> 0.4, and is well suited to providing the first constraint on the concentration-mass relation at z> 0.7 from X-ray analysis. Methods: Under the assumption that the distribution of the X-ray emitting gas is spherically symmetric and in the hydrostatic equilibrium with the underlined gravitational potential, we combine the deprojected gas density and spectral temperature profiles through the hydrostatic equilibrium equation to recover the parameters that describe a Navarro-Frenk-White total mass distribution. The comparison with results from weak-lensing analysis reveals a very good agreement both for masses and concentrations. The uncertainties are however too large to make any robust conclusion about the hydrostatic bias of these systems. Results: The distribution of concentrations is well approximated by a log-normal function in all the mass and redshift ranges investigated. The relation is well described by the form c ∝ MB(1 + z)C with B = -0.50 ± 0.20, C = 0.12 ± 0.61 (at 68.3% confidence). This relation is slightly steeper than that predicted by numerical simulations (B ~ -0.1) and does not show any evident redshift evolution. We obtain the first constraints on the properties of

  19. EDDINGTON-LIMITED ACCRETION AND THE BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Albert, Loic; Arzoumanian, Doris; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine

    2010-08-15

    We present discovery observations of a quasar in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) at redshift z = 6.44. We also use near-infrared spectroscopy of nine CFHQS quasars at z {approx} 6 to determine black hole masses. These are compared with similar estimates for more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars to investigate the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity. We find a strong correlation between Mg II FWHM and UV luminosity and that most quasars at this early epoch are accreting close to the Eddington limit. Thus, these quasars appear to be in an early stage of their life cycle where they are building up their black hole mass exponentially. Combining these results with the quasar luminosity function, we derive the black hole mass function at z = 6. Our black hole mass function is {approx}10{sup 4} times lower than at z = 0 and substantially below estimates from previous studies. The main uncertainties which could increase the black hole mass function are a larger population of obscured quasars at high redshift than is observed at low redshift and/or a low quasar duty cycle at z = 6. In comparison, the global stellar mass function is only {approx}10{sup 2} times lower at z = 6 than at z = 0. The difference between the black hole and stellar mass function evolution is due to either rapid early star formation which is not limited by radiation pressure as is the case for black hole growth or inefficient black hole seeding. Our work predicts that the black hole mass-stellar mass relation for a volume-limited sample of galaxies declines rapidly at very high redshift. This is in contrast to the observed increase at 4 < z < 6 from the local relation if one just studies the most massive black holes.

  20. PRIMUS: stellar mass growth since z=1 with redshifts over 8 sq deg of SWIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanton, Michael; Bolton, Adam; Coil, Alison; Cool, Richard; Eisenstein, Daniel; Hogg, David; Moustakas, John

    2008-03-01

    We propose here for archival research funding to measure the build-up of stellar mass over the last eight billion years, using an unprecedentedly large sample. Measuring the increase of stellar mass in galaxies, and determining its dependence on galaxy type and environment, yields crucial information about the star-formation and merger history of galaxies. This history has been the subject of intense research over the past few years, but has been limited by both systematic effects and by the sizes of the available observational samples. Our PRIMUS survey contains over 200,000 spectroscopic redshifts, measured at 1 percent precision, out to redshift z=1, covering 8 square degrees of SWIRE and S-COSMOS imaging. Our sample is flux-limited at i=23 and includes all galaxy types, spanning the red and blue galaxy populations. We have created this sample using a special mode we have developed for the IMACS instrument on the Magellan 6.5m at Las Campanas Observatories: a low dispersion prism in combination with a multi-slit mask. This configuration allows redshift determination of 1 percent accuracy, while also allowing extreme multiplexing to obtain over 2,000 galaxy spectra simultaneously. With the SWIRE optical and infrared imaging in combination with our redshift determinations, we can recover much more accurate estimates of the stellar mass of each galaxy and construct a high signal-to-noise estimate of the stellar mass function over a range of redshifts. These measurements will dramatically improve our current understanding of the build-up of stellar mass, both by decreasing the statistical uncertainty due to sample variance with our massive sample, and by decreasing the systematic uncertainties in stellar masses by using the SWIRE and S-COSMOS imaging.

  1. The shape of dark matter haloes: dependence on mass, redshift, radius and formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgood, Brandon; Flores, Ricardo A.; Primack, Joel R.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Bullock, James S.

    2006-04-01

    Using six high-resolution dissipationless simulations with a varying box size in a flat Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) universe, we study the mass and redshift dependence of dark matter halo shapes for Mvir= 9.0 × 1011- 2.0 × 1014h-1Msolar, over the redshift range z= 0-3, and for two values of σ8= 0.75 and 0.9. Remarkably, we find that the redshift, mass and σ8 dependence of the mean smallest-to-largest axis ratio of haloes is well described by the simple power-law relation = (0.54 +/- 0.02)(Mvir/M*)-0.050+/-0.003, where s is measured at 0.3Rvir, and the z and σ8 dependences are governed by the characteristic non-linear mass, M*=M*(z, σ8). We find that the scatter about the mean s is well described by a Gaussian with σ~ 0.1, for all masses and redshifts. We compare our results to a variety of previous works on halo shapes and find that reported differences between studies are primarily explained by differences in their methodologies. We address the evolutionary aspects of individual halo shapes by following the shapes of the haloes through ~100 snapshots in time. We determine the formation scalefactor ac as defined by Wechsler et al. and find that it can be related to the halo shape at z= 0 and its evolution over time.

  2. A Gravitational Redshift Determination of the Mean Mass of White Dwarfs. DA Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Williams, Kurtis A.

    2010-03-01

    We measure apparent velocities (v app) of the Hα and Hβ Balmer line cores for 449 non-binary thin disk normal DA white dwarfs (WDs) using optical spectra taken for the European Southern Observatory SN Ia progenitor survey (SPY). Assuming these WDs are nearby and comoving, we correct our velocities to the local standard of rest so that the remaining stellar motions are random. By averaging over the sample, we are left with the mean gravitational redshift, [vg]: we find [vg] = [vapp] = 32.57 ± 1.17 km s-1. Using the mass-radius relation from evolutionary models, this translates to a mean mass of 0.647+0.013 -0.014 Msun. We interpret this as the mean mass for all DAs. Our results are in agreement with previous gravitational redshift studies but are significantly higher than all previous spectroscopic determinations except the recent findings of Tremblay & Bergeron. Since the gravitational redshift method is independent of surface gravity from atmosphere models, we investigate the mean mass of DAs with spectroscopic T eff both above and below 12,000 K fits to line profiles give a rapid increase in the mean mass with decreasing Teff. Our results are consistent with no significant change in mean mass: [M]hot = 0.640 ± 0.014 M⊙ and [M]cool = 0.686+0.035 -0.039 M⊙.

  3. THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, STAR FORMATION RATE, AND GAS METALLICITY OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Niino, Yuu

    2012-12-20

    We investigate the relation between stellar mass (M{sub *}), star formation rate (SFR), and metallicity (Z) of galaxies, the so-called fundamental metallicity relation, in the galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We separate the galaxies into narrow redshift bins and compare the relation at different redshifts and find statistically significant (>99%) evolution. We test various observational effects that might cause seeming Z evolution and find it difficult to explain the evolution of the relation only by the observational effects. In the current sample of low-redshift galaxies, galaxies with different M{sub *} and SFR are sampled from different redshifts, and there is degeneracy between M{sub *}/SFR and redshift. Hence, it is not straightforward to distinguish a relation between Z and SFR from a relation between Z and redshift. The separation of the intrinsic relation from the redshift evolution effect is a crucial issue in the understanding of the evolution of galaxies.

  4. The Metallicity Evolution of Low Mass Galaxies: New Contraints at Intermediate Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.; Finlator, Kristian; Dressler, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We present abundance measurements from 26 emission-line-selected galaxies at z approx. 0.6-0.7. By reaching stellar masses as low as 10(exp 8) M stellar mass, these observations provide the first measurement of the intermediate-redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation below 10(exp 9)M stellar mass. For the portion of our sample above M is greater than 10(exp 9)M (8/26 galaxies), we find good agreement with previous measurements of the intermediate-redshift MZ relation. Compared to the local relation, we measure an evolution that corresponds to a 0.12 dex decrease in oxygen abundances at intermediate redshifts. This result confirms the trend that metallicity evolution becomes more significant toward lower stellar masses, in keeping with a downsizing scenario where low-mass galaxies evolve onto the local MZ relation at later cosmic times. We show that these galaxies follow the local fundamental metallicity relation, where objects with higher specific (mass-normalized) star formation rates (SFRs) have lower metallicities. Furthermore, we show that the galaxies in our sample lie on an extrapolation of the SFR-M* relation (the star-forming main sequence). Leveraging the MZ relation and star-forming main sequence (and combining our data with higher-mass measurements from the literature), we test models that assume an equilibrium between mass inflow, outflow, and star formation.We find that outflows are required to describe the data. By comparing different outflow prescriptions, we show that momentum, driven winds can describe the MZ relation; however, this model underpredicts the amount of star formation in low-mass galaxies. This disagreement may indicate that preventive feedback from gas heating has been overestimated, or it may signify a more fundamental deviation from the equilibrium assumption.

  5. Forecasts on neutrino mass constraints from the redshift-space two-point correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracca, F.; Marulli, F.; Moscardini, L.; Cimatti, A.; Carbone, C.; Angulo, R. E.

    2016-08-01

    We provide constraints on the accuracy with which the neutrino mass fraction, fν, can be estimated when exploiting measurements of redshift-space distortions, describing in particular how the error on neutrino mass depends on three fundamental parameters of a characteristic galaxy redshift survey: density, halo bias and volume. In doing this, we make use of a series of dark matter halo catalogues extracted from the BASICC simulation. The mock data are analysed via a Markov Chain Monte Carlo likelihood analysis. We find a fitting function that well describes the dependence of the error on bias, density and volume, showing a decrease in the error as the bias and volume increase, and a decrease with density down to an almost constant value for high density values. This fitting formula allows us to produce forecasts on the precision achievable with future surveys on measurements of the neutrino mass fraction. For example, a Euclid-like spectroscopic survey should be able to measure the neutrino mass fraction with an accuracy of δfν ≈ 3.1 × 10-3 (which is equivalent to δ∑mν ≈ 0.039eV), using redshift-space clustering once all the other cosmological parameters are kept fixed to the ΛCDM case.

  6. Galaxy cluster collision speeds as a test of LCDM: possible systematics & how to avoid them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Indranil; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2016-05-01

    The formation of structure may have been more efficient than expected in the concordance LCDM model. This is suggested by the early formation of the El Gordo cluster, but perhaps even more so by the high collision velocity of the two components of the Bullet Cluster. Unfortunately, the collision is mostly within the plane of the sky. With proper motions near-impossible to observe at z = 0.3, the collision speed estimate comes from modelling of the shock created in the gas by the collision. Also important is the separation of the gas and dark matter, inferred from comparing X-ray images with weak gravitational lensing maps. I will describe how the collision speed may be measured directly using the Moving Cluster Effect (MCE). This is based on the time-dependent potential of the cluster making double images of a background galaxy have different redshifts. I'll also explain some of the systematics that may affect such a measurement and some strategies that may reduce these. Measurements using the MCE may allow a much more reliable test of LCDM based on how often such fast collisions between galaxy clusters actually occur. More info: MNRAS, vol 450, page 3155

  7. The binary Feige 24 - The mass, radius, and gravitational redshift of the DA white dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Vennes, S.; Shipman, H.L.; Thorstensen, J.R.; Thejll, P. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH NORDITA, Copenhagen, Denmark )

    1991-05-01

    Observations are reported which refine the binary ephemeris of the Feige 24 system, which contains a peculiar hot DA white dwarf and an M dwarf with an atmosphere illuminated by extreme ultraviolet radiation from the white dwarf. With the new ephemeris and a set of IUE high-dispersion spectra, showing phase-dependent redshifted C IV, N V, and Si IV resonance lines, the orbital velocity, and hence the mass (0.54 + or {minus} 0.20 solar masses), and the gravitational redshift of the white dwarf (14.1 + or {minus} 5.2 km/s) are determined independently. It is shown that the measured Einstein redshift is consistent with an estimated radius for the white dwarf obtained from a model atmosphere solid angle and a parallax measurement. This radius is twice the Hamada-Salpeter radius for the given mass and offers a prospect to investigate the presence of a massive hydrogen envelope in that white dwarf star. 27 refs.

  8. A GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT DETERMINATION OF THE MEAN MASS OF WHITE DWARFS. DA STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Williams, Kurtis A. E-mail: dew@astro.as.utexas.ed E-mail: kurtis@astro.as.utexas.ed

    2010-03-20

    We measure apparent velocities (v{sub app}) of the Halpha and Hbeta Balmer line cores for 449 non-binary thin disk normal DA white dwarfs (WDs) using optical spectra taken for the European Southern Observatory SN Ia progenitor survey (SPY). Assuming these WDs are nearby and comoving, we correct our velocities to the local standard of rest so that the remaining stellar motions are random. By averaging over the sample, we are left with the mean gravitational redshift, (v{sub g}): we find (v{sub g}) = (v{sub app}) = 32.57 +- 1.17 km s{sup -1}. Using the mass-radius relation from evolutionary models, this translates to a mean mass of 0.647{sup +0.013}{sub -0.014} M{sub sun}. We interpret this as the mean mass for all DAs. Our results are in agreement with previous gravitational redshift studies but are significantly higher than all previous spectroscopic determinations except the recent findings of Tremblay and Bergeron. Since the gravitational redshift method is independent of surface gravity from atmosphere models, we investigate the mean mass of DAs with spectroscopic T{sub eff} both above and below 12,000 K; fits to line profiles give a rapid increase in the mean mass with decreasing T{sub eff}. Our results are consistent with no significant change in mean mass: (M){sup hot} = 0.640 +- 0.014 M{sub sun} and (M){sup cool} = 0.686{sup +0.035}{sub -0.039} M{sub sun}.

  9. Physical properties of low-mass star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z <1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, J.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Pacifici, C.; Tresse, L.; Charlot, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Barro, G.; Villar, V.

    2015-05-01

    In this poster we present the physical properties of a sample of low-mass star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z<1). We selected a population of dwarf galaxies because dwarf galaxies play a key role in galaxy formation and evolution: (1) they resemble the first structures that hierarchical models predict to form first in the Universe (Dekel & Silk 1986) and that are responsible for the reionization process (Bouwens et al. 2012); and (2) the way or epoch they form and how they evolve are still open questions of modern astrophysics. We selected the sample on the CDFS field. Photometry (40 bands, from UV to far-IR) and preliminary photometric redshifts and stellar masses were obtained from RAINBOW database (Pérez-González et al. 2008). Morphology fom Griffith et al. (2012). Main selection was done by stellar mass, selecting those galaxies with stellar mass M_*<10^8 {M}_⊙. Spectroscopic redshifts were obtained from deep (4 h) MOS spectroscopy with the VIMOS spectrograph at VLT. The average spectrum is characterized by a faint, blue and flat continuum and strong emission lines, revealing that the systems are dominated by an undergoing star formation burst. SFRs and stellar masses are consistent with the SF main-squence over a 2 dex range. More massive objects show higher SFRs than low-mass objects, following the SF main sequence. Distant dwarfs and BCDs follow the overall star-forming sequence in the excitation-luminosity diagram, populating the high excitation, low metallicity and high strength region.

  10. Stellar mass to halo mass scaling relation for X-ray-selected low-mass galaxy clusters and groups out to redshift z ≈ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, I.; Saro, A.; Mohr, J.; Desai, S.; Bocquet, S.; Capasso, R.; Gangkofner, C.; Gupta, N.; Liu, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present the stellar mass-halo mass scaling relation for 46 X-ray-selected low-mass clusters or groups detected in the XMM-Newton-Blanco Cosmology Survey (XMM-BCS) survey with masses 2 × 1013 M⊙ ≲ M500 ≲ 2.5 × 1014 M⊙ (median mass 8 × 1013 M⊙) at redshift 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 1.02 (median redshift 0.47). The cluster binding masses M500 are inferred from the measured X-ray luminosities LX, while the stellar masses M⋆ of the galaxy populations are estimated using near-infrared (NIR) imaging from the South Pole Telescope Deep Field survey and optical imaging from the BCS survey. With the measured LX and stellar mass M⋆, we determine the best-fitting stellar mass-halo mass relation, accounting for selection effects, measurement uncertainties and the intrinsic scatter in the scaling relation. The resulting mass trend is M_{star }∝ M_{500}^{0.69± 0.15}, the intrinsic (lognormal) scatter is σ _{ln M_{star }|M_{500}}=0.36^{+0.07}_{-0.06}, and there is no significant redshift trend M⋆ ∝ (1 + z)-0.04 ± 0.47, although the uncertainties are still large. We also examine M⋆ within a fixed projected radius of 0.5 Mpc, showing that it provides a cluster binding mass proxy with intrinsic scatter of ≈93 per cent (1σ in M500). We compare our M⋆ = M⋆(M500, z) scaling relation from the XMM-BCS clusters with samples of massive, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect selected clusters (M500 ≈ 6 × 1014 M⊙) and low-mass NIR-selected clusters (M500 ≈ 1014 M⊙) at redshift 0.6 ≲ z ≲ 1.3. After correcting for the known mass measurement systematics in the compared samples, we find that the scaling relation is in good agreement with the high-redshift samples, suggesting that for both groups and clusters the stellar content of the galaxy populations within R500 depends strongly on mass but only weakly on redshift out to z ≈ 1.

  11. The C IV Mass Density of the Universe at Redshift 5(exp 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettini, Max; Madau, Piero; Bolte, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X.; Ellison, Sara L.; Fan, Xiao-Hui

    2003-01-01

    In order to search for metals in the Ly alpha forest at redshifts z(sub abs) > 4, we have obtained spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio and moderately high resolution of three QSOs at z(sub em) > 5.4 discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These data allow us to probe to metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium at early times with higher sensitivity than previous studies. We find 16 C IV absorption systems with column densities logN(C IV) = 12.50-13.98 over a total redshift path Delta X = 3.29. In the redshift interval z = 4.5-5.0, where our statistics are most reliable, we deduce a comoving mass density of C(3+) ions Omega(sub C IV) = (4.3 +/- 2.5) x 10(exp -8) (90% confidence limits) for absorption systems with log N(C IV) > or = 13.0 (for an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology with h = 0.65). This value of Omega(sub C IV) is entirely consistent with those measured at z < 4; we confirm the earlier finding by Songaila that neither the column density distribution of C IV absorbers nor its integral show significant redshift evolution over a period of time that stretches from approx. 1.25 to approx. 4.5 Gyr after the big bang. This somewhat surprising conclusion may be an indication that the intergalactic medium was enriched in metals at z >> 5, perhaps by the sources responsible for its reionization. Alternatively, the C IV systems we see may be associated with outflows from massive star-forming galaxies at later times, while the truly intergalactic metals may reside in regions of the Ly alpha forest of lower density than those probed up to now.

  12. High-redshift quasars and the supermassive black hole mass budget: constraints on quasar formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, J. M.; Somerville, R. S.; Fabian, A. C.

    2004-05-01

    We investigate the constraints on models of supermassive black hole (SMBH) and quasar formation obtainable from two recent observational developments: the discovery of luminous quasars at z~ 6, and estimates of the local mass density of SMBHs. If ~90 per cent of this mass was accreted at redshifts z<~ 3, as suggested by the observed quasar luminosity functions, these joint constraints pose a challenge for models, which must account for the observed luminous quasar population at z~ 6 within a very limited `mass budget'. We investigate a class of models based within the hierarchical structure formation scenario, in which major mergers lead to black hole formation and fuelling, and the resulting quasars shine at their Eddington-limited rate until their fuel is exhausted. We show that the simplest such model, in which a constant fraction of the gas within the halo is accreted in each major merger, cannot satisfy both constraints simultaneously. When this model is normalized to reproduce the number density of luminous quasars at z~ 6, the mass budget is grossly exceeded owing to an overabundance of lower-mass SMBHs. We explore a range of modifications to the simple model designed to overcome this problem. We show that both constraints can be satisfied if the gas accretion fraction scales as a function of the halo virial velocity. Similar scalings have been proposed in order to reproduce the local M•-σ relation. Successful models can also be constructed by restricting the formation of seed black holes to redshifts above zcrit~ 11.5 or to haloes above a velocity threshold vcrit~ 55 km s-1, or assuming that only a fraction of major mergers result in formation of a seed SMBH. We also briefly discuss the issue of trying to assume a `universal M•-σ relation' within the framework of simple Press-Schechter models, and further show that a fixed universal relation between SMBH mass and host halo mass is unlikely.

  13. A Gravitational Redshift Determination of the Mean Mass of DBA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Williams, Kurtis A.

    2010-11-01

    We measure apparent velocities (νapp) of the Hα and Hβ Balmer line cores for 16 helium-dominated white dwarfs (WDs) using optical spectra taken for the European Southern Observatory SN Ia progenitor survey (SPY). Following the gravitational redshift method employed by Falcon et al. [1], we find a mean apparent velocity of <νapp> = 39.58+/-4.41 km s-1 and use it to derive a mean mass of = 0.701-0.046+0.042Msolar. Though the sample is small, the mean mass appears to be larger than the mean mass of DAs derived using the same method [0.647-0.014+0.013Msolar,1].

  14. From nearby low-mass protostars to high redshift starbursts: protostellar outflows tracing the IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; Bergin, Edwin

    2015-08-01

    Embedded low-mass protostars are notoriously difficult to observe even in the nearest Galactic high-mass clusters where they outnumber the high-mass protostars by orders of magnitude. Thus, without a good tracer of the low-mass population, we do not have a good handle on the shape of the initial (core) mass function, leaving little hope for extrapolating to extragalactic regions where we will never have neither the sensitivity nor the resolution to directly observe this population. A good tracer of the low-mass population is needed.One such physical tracer is outflows. Outflow emission is directly proportional to envelope mass, and outflows are predominantly active during the deeply embedded phases of star formation. What is required for this method to work is species and transitions tracing outflows uniquely such that any signal is not diluted by the surrounding cloud, such as certain methanol transitions, water, high-J CO (J > 10).I will present a statistical model of a forming high-mass cluster. The model includes what we currently know about Galactic high-mass clusters and incorporates outflow emission from low-mass protostars. The latter component is obtained from observations of tens of nearby embedded low-mass protostellar outflows in the above-mentioned tracers. The model is benchmarked against ALMA and Herschel-HIFI observations of Galactic clusters proving the concept, and preliminary extrapolations to the extragalactic regime are presented. With this new probe, and traditional probes of the distant star formation which predominantly trace high mass stars, we will be able to explore the IMF in starburst galaxies from low to high redshift.

  15. QUENCHING STAR FORMATION AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFTS: DOWNSIZING OF THE MASS FLUX DENSITY IN THE GREEN VALLEY

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves, Thiago S.; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Martin, D. Christopher; Wyder, Ted K.; Koekemoer, Anton

    2012-11-01

    The bimodality in galaxy properties has been observed at low and high redshifts, with a clear distinction between star-forming galaxies in the blue cloud and passively evolving objects in the red sequence; the absence of galaxies with intermediate properties indicates that the quenching of star formation and subsequent transition between populations must happen rapidly. In this paper, we present a study of over 100 transiting galaxies in the so-called green valley at intermediate redshifts (z {approx} 0.8). By using very deep spectroscopy with the DEIMOS instrument at the Keck telescope we are able to infer the star formation histories of these objects and measure the stellar mass flux density transiting from the blue cloud to the red sequence when the universe was half its current age. Our results indicate that the process happened more rapidly and for more massive galaxies in the past, suggesting a top-down scenario in which the massive end of the red sequence is forming first. This represents another aspect of downsizing, with the mass flux density moving toward smaller galaxies in recent times.

  16. New upper limit on the total neutrino mass from the 2 degree field galaxy redshift survey.

    PubMed

    Elgarøy, Ø; Lahav, O; Percival, W J; Peacock, J A; Madgwick, D S; Bridle, S L; Baugh, C M; Baldry, I K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Colless, M; Collins, C; Couch, W; Dalton, G; De Propris, R; Driver, S P; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, R S; Frenk, C S; Glazebrook, K; Jackson, C; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Maddox, S; Norberg, P; Peterson, B A; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K

    2002-08-01

    We constrain f(nu) identical with Omega(nu)/Omega(m), the fractional contribution of neutrinos to the total mass density in the Universe, by comparing the power spectrum of fluctuations derived from the 2 Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey with power spectra for models with four components: baryons, cold dark matter, massive neutrinos, and a cosmological constant. Adding constraints from independent cosmological probes we find f(nu)<0.13 (at 95% confidence) for a prior of 0.1mass m(nu,tot)<1.8 eV for "concordance" values of Omega(m) and the Hubble constant. PMID:12190573

  17. Inferences on the Relations Between Central Black Hole Mass and Total Galaxy Stellar Mass in the High-redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volonteri, Marta; Reines, Amy E.

    2016-03-01

    At the highest redshifts, z\\gt 6, several tens of luminous quasars have been detected. The search for fainter active galactic nucleus (AGN), in deep X-ray surveys, has proven less successful, with few candidates to date. An extrapolation of the relationship between black hole (BH) and bulge mass would predict that the sample of z\\gt 6 galaxies host relatively massive BHs (\\gt {10}6 {M}⊙ ), if one assumes that total stellar mass is a good proxy for bulge mass. At least a few of these BHs should be luminous enough to be detectable in the 4Ms CDFS. The relation between BH and stellar mass defined by local moderate-luminosity AGNs in low-mass galaxies, however, has a normalization that is lower by approximately an order of magnitude compared to the BH-bulge mass relation. We explore how this scaling changes the interpretation of AGNs in the high-z universe. Despite large uncertainties, driven by those in the stellar mass function, and in the extrapolation of local relations, one can explain the current non-detection of moderate-luminosity AGNs in Lyman Break Galaxies if galaxies below {10}11 {M}⊙ are characterized by the low-normalization scaling, and, even more so, if their Eddington ratio is also typical of moderate-luminosity AGNs rather than luminous quasars. AGNs being missed by X-ray searches due to obscuration or instrinsic X-ray weakness also remain a possibility.

  18. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Environmental effects shaping the galaxy stellar mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidzon, I.; Cucciati, O.; Bolzonella, M.; De Lucia, G.; Zamorani, G.; Arnouts, S.; Moutard, T.; Ilbert, O.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bel, J.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; de la Torre, S.; Di Porto, C.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Granett, B. R.; Guennou, L.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.

    2016-02-01

    We exploit the first public data release of VIPERS to investigate environmental effects in the evolution of galaxies between z ~ 0.5 and 0.9. The large number of spectroscopic redshifts (more than 50 000) over an area of about 10 deg2 provides a galaxy sample with high statistical power. The accurate redshift measurements (σz = 0.00047(1 + zspec)) allow us to robustly isolate galaxies living in the lowest and highest density environments (δ< 0.7 and δ> 4, respectively) as defined in terms of spatial 3D density contrast δ. We estimate the stellar mass function of galaxies residing in these two environments and constrain the high-mass end (ℳ ≳ 1011 ℳ⊙) with unprecedented precision. We find that the galaxy stellar mass function in the densest regions has a different shape than was measured at low densities, with an enhancement of massive galaxies and a hint of a flatter (less negative) slope at z< 0.8. We normalise each mass function to the comoving volume occupied by the corresponding environment and relate estimates from different redshift bins. We observe an evolution of the stellar mass function of VIPERS galaxies in high densities, while the low-density one is nearly constant. We compare these results to semi-analytical models and find consistent environmental signatures in the simulated stellar mass functions. We discuss how the halo mass function and fraction of central/satellite galaxies depend on the environments considered, making intrinsic and environmental properties of galaxies physically coupled, hence difficult to disentangle. The evolution of our low-density regions is described well by the formalism introduced by Peng et al. (2010, ApJ, 721, 193), and is consistent with the idea that galaxies become progressively passive because of internal physical processes. The same formalism could also describe the evolution of the mass function in the high density regions, but only if a significant contribution from dry mergers is considered. Based on

  19. A stellar feedback origin for neutral hydrogen in high-redshift quasar-mass haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Feldmann, Robert; Quataert, Eliot; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F.; Murray, Norman

    2016-09-01

    Observations reveal that quasar host haloes at z ˜ 2 have large covering fractions of cool dense gas (≳60 per cent for Lyman limit systems within a projected virial radius). Most simulations have so far failed to explain these large observed covering fractions. We analyse a new set of 15 simulated massive haloes with explicit stellar feedback from the FIRE project, covering the halo mass range Mh ≈ 2 × 1012 - 1013 M⊙ at z = 2. This extends our previous analysis of the circum-galactic medium of high-redshift galaxies to more massive haloes. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback is not included in these simulations. We find Lyman limit system covering fractions consistent with those observed around quasars. The large H I covering fractions arise from star formation-driven galactic winds, including winds from low-mass satellite galaxies that interact with cosmological filaments. We show that it is necessary to resolve these satellite galaxies and their winds to reproduce the large Lyman limit system covering fractions observed in quasar-mass haloes. Our simulations predict that galaxies occupying dark matter haloes of mass similar to quasars but without a luminous AGN should have Lyman limit system covering fractions comparable to quasars.

  20. Age-dating Low-Mass Star-Forming Galaxies at intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Jesus; Rodriguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Pacifici, Camilla; Tresse, Laurence; Charlot, Stéphane; Gil de Paz, Armando; Barro, Guillermo; Gomez-Guijarro, Carlos; Villar, Víctor

    2015-08-01

    Dwarf galaxies play a key role in galaxy formation and evolution: (1) hierarchical models predict that low-mass systems merged to form massive galaxies (building block paradigm; Dekel & Silk 1986); (2) dwarf systems might have been responsible for the reionization of the Universe (Wyithe & Loeb 2006); (3) theoretical models are particularly sensitive to the density of low-mass systems at diferent redshifts (Mamon et al. 2011), being one of the key science cases for the future E-ELT (Evans et al. 2013). While the history of low-mass dark matter halos is relatively well understood, the formation history of dwarf galaxies is still poorly reproduced by the models due to the distinct evolution of baryonic and dark matter.We present physical properties and constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of low-mass Star-Forming Galaxies (LMSFGs; 7.3 < log M∗/Mo < 8.0, at 0.3 < zspec < 0.9) selected by photometric stellar mass and apparent magnitude. The SFHs were obtained through the analysis of their spectral energy distributions using a novel approach (Pacifici et al. 2012) that (1) consistently combines photometric (HST and ground-based multi-broadband) and spectroscopic (equivalent widths of emission lines from VLT and GTC spectroscopy) data, and (2) uses physically motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time.The median SFH of our LMSFGs appears to form 90% of the median stellar mass inferred for the sample in the ˜0.5-1.8 Gyr immediately preceding the observation. These results suggest a recent stellar mass assembly for dwarf SFGs, consistent with the cosmological downsizing trends. We find similar median SFH timescales for a slightly more massive secondary sample 8.0 < log M∗/Mo < 9.1).

  1. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): curation and reanalysis of 16.6k redshifts in the G10/COSMOS region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Baldry, I. K.; Lange, R.; Liske, J.; Meyer, M.; Popping, A.; Wilkins, S. M.; Wright, A. H.

    2015-02-01

    We discuss the construction of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) 10h region (G10) using publicly available data in the Cosmic Evolution Survey region (COSMOS) in order to extend the GAMA survey to z ˜ 1 in a single deg2 field. In order to obtain the maximum number of high precision spectroscopic redshifts we re-reduce all archival zCOSMOS-bright data and use the GAMA automatic cross-correlation redshift fitting code AUTOZ. We use all available redshift information (AUTOZ, zCOSMOS-bright 10k, PRIMUS, VVDS, SDSS and photometric redshifts) to calculate robust best-fitting redshifts for all galaxies and visually inspect all 1D and 2D spectra to obtain 16 583 robust redshifts in the full COSMOS region. We then define the G10 region to be the central ˜1 deg2 of COSMOS, which has relatively high spectroscopic completeness, and encompasses the CHILES VLA region. We define a combined r < 23.0 mag and i < 22.0 mag G10 sample (selected to have the highest bijective overlap) with which to perform future analysis, containing 9861 sources with reliable high-precision VLT-VIMOS spectra. All tables, spectra and imaging are available at http://ict.icrar.org/cutout/G10.

  2. A GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT DETERMINATION OF THE MEAN MASS OF WHITE DWARFS: DBA AND DB STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Williams, Kurtis A. E-mail: dew@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: kurtis.williams@tamuc.edu

    2012-10-01

    We measure apparent velocities (v{sub app}) of absorption lines for 36 white dwarfs (WDs) with helium-dominated atmospheres-16 DBAs and 20 DBs-using optical spectra taken for the European Southern Observatory SN Ia progenitor survey. We find a difference of 6.9 {+-} 6.9 km s{sup -1} in the average apparent velocity of the H{alpha} lines versus that of the He I 5876 A lines for our DBAs. This is a measure of the blueshift of this He line due to pressure effects. By using this as a correction, we extend the gravitational redshift method employed by Falcon et al. to use the apparent velocity of the He I 5876 A line and conduct the first gravitational redshift investigation of a group of WDs without visible hydrogen lines. We use biweight estimators to find an average apparent velocity, (v{sub app}){sub BI}, (and hence average gravitational redshift, (v{sub g}){sub BI}) for our WDs; from that we derive an average mass, (M){sub BI}. For the DBAs, we find (v{sub app}){sub BI} = 40.8 {+-} 4.7 km s{sup -1} and derive (M){sub BI} = 0.71{sup +0.04}{sub -0.05} M{sub Sun }. Though different from (v{sub app}) of DAs (32.57 km s{sup -1}) at the 91% confidence level and suggestive of a larger DBA mean mass than that for normal DAs derived using the same method (0.647{sup +0.013}{sub -0.014} M{sub Sun }; Falcon et al.), we do not claim this as a stringent detection. Rather, we emphasize that the difference between (v{sub app}){sub BI} of the DBAs and (v{sub app}) of normal DAs is no larger than 9.2 km s{sup -1}, at the 95% confidence level; this corresponds to roughly 0.10 M{sub Sun }. For the DBs, we find (v {sup He}{sub app}){sub BI} = 42.9 {+-} 8.49 km s{sup -1} after applying the blueshift correction and determine (M){sub BI} = 0.74{sup +0.08}{sub -0.09} M{sub Sun }. The difference between (v{sup He}{sub app}){sub BI} of the DBs and (v{sub app}) of DAs is {<=}11.5 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.12 M{sub Sun }), at the 95% confidence level. The gravitational redshift method indicates

  3. SUPERDENSE GALAXIES AND THE MASS-SIZE RELATION AT LOW REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Poggianti, B. M.; Calvi, R.; Fasano, G.; Vulcani, B.; Bettoni, D.; Gullieuszik, M.; Omizzolo, A.; Bindoni, D.; D'Onofrio, M.; Moretti, A.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Fritz, J.; De Lucia, G.

    2013-01-10

    We search for massive and compact galaxies (superdense galaxies, hereafter SDGs) at z = 0.03-0.11 in the Padova-Millennium Galaxy and Group Catalogue, a spectroscopically complete sample representative of the general field population of the local universe. We find that compact galaxies with radii and mass densities comparable to high-z massive and passive galaxies represent 4.4% of all galaxies with stellar masses above 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }, yielding a number density of 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} h {sup 3} Mpc{sup -3}. Most of them are S0s (70%) or ellipticals (23%), are red, and have intermediate-to-old stellar populations, with a median luminosity-weighted age of 5.4 Gyr and a median mass-weighted age of 9.2 Gyr. Their velocity dispersions and dynamical masses are consistent with the small radii and high stellar mass estimates. Comparing with the WINGS sample of cluster galaxies at similar redshifts, the fraction of SDGs is three times smaller in the field than in clusters, and cluster SDGs are on average 4 Gyr older than field SDGs. We confirm the existence of a universal trend of smaller radii for older luminosity-weighted ages at fixed galaxy mass. As a consequence, the median mass-size relation shifts toward smaller radii for galaxies with older stars, but the effect is much more pronounced in clusters than in the field. Our results show that, on top of the well-known dependence of stellar age on galaxy mass, the luminosity-weighted age of galaxies depends on galaxy compactness at fixed mass and, for a fixed mass and radius, on environment. This effect needs to be taken into account in order not to overestimate the evolution of galaxy sizes from high to low z. Our results and hierarchical simulations suggest that a significant fraction of the massive compact galaxies at high z have evolved into compact galaxies in galaxy clusters today. When stellar age and environmental effects are taken into account, the average amount of

  4. Non-metric gravity: II. Spherically symmetric solution, missing mass and redshifts of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill; Shtanov, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    We continue the study of the non-metric theory of gravity introduced by Krasnov (2006 Preprint hep-th/0611182) and obtain its general spherically symmetric vacuum solution. It respects the analog of the Birkhoff theorem, i.e. the vacuum spherically symmetric solution is necessarily static. As in general relativity, the spherically symmetric solution is seen to describe a black hole. The exterior geometry is essentially the same as in the Schwarzschild case, with power-law corrections to the Newtonian potential. The behaviour inside the black-hole region is different from the Schwarzschild case in that the usual spacetime singularity gets replaced by a singular surface of a new type, where all basic fields of the theory remain finite but metric ceases to exist. The theory does not admit arbitrarily small black holes: for small objects, the curvature on the would-be horizon is so strong that non-metric modifications prevent the horizon from being formed. The theory allows for modifications of gravity of a very interesting nature. We discuss three physical effects, namely (i) correction to Newton's law in the neighborhood of the source, (ii) renormalization of effective gravitational and cosmological constants at large distances from the source and (iii) additional redshift factor between spatial regions of different curvature. The first two effects can be responsible, respectively, for the observed anomaly in the acceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft and for the alleged missing mass in spiral galaxies and other astrophysical objects. The third effect can be used to propose a non-cosmological explanation of high redshifts of quasars and gamma-ray bursts.

  5. The Galaxy Mass Function at High-Redshift from the Largest Available Spitzer-Based Survey (SERVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice-Atkinson, Xan; Maraston, Claudia; Lacy, Mark; Capozzi, Diego

    2015-08-01

    We exploit the largest (18 deg2) and deepest (AB = 23.1) galaxy and QSO survey available up to date of five highly observed astronomical fields (SERVS) to derive the galaxy stellar mass function and detailed galaxy properties as a function of cosmic time. SERVS obtained Spitzer 3.6µm and 4.5µm magnitudes for ~1 million galaxies up to redshift ~6, which we complement with multi-wavelength data from other on-going surveys, including VIDEO, GALEX, CFHTLS, UKIDSS, etc. in order to perform full SED fitting to models. The power of Spitzer data is its sensitivity to evolved stars at high-redshift, which allows us to better constrain the galaxy star formation histories. The wide area and depth of SERVS was designed precisely to capture the light from the most massive galaxies up to high-redshift. Results and comparison with the literature will be presented.

  6. Stochastic contribution to the growth factor in the LCDM model

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, A. L.B.; Andrade, A. P.A.; Letelier, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of noise on the evolution of the growth factor of density perturbations in the context of the LCDM model. Stochasticity is introduced as a Wiener process amplified by an intensity parameter alpha. By comparing the evolution of deterministic and stochastic cases for different values of alpha we estimate the intensity level necessary to make noise relevant for cosmological tests based on large-scale structure data. Our results indicate that the presence of random forces underlying the fluid description can lead to significant deviations from the nonstochastic solution at late times for alpha>0.001.

  7. Galaxy and mass assembly: Redshift space distortions from the clipped galaxy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, F.; Blake, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Heavens, A. F.; Heymans, C.; Loveday, J.; Norberg, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first cosmological measurement derived from a galaxy density field subject to a "clipping" transformation. By enforcing an upper bound on the galaxy number density field in the galaxy and mass assembly survey (GAMA), contributions from the nonlinear processes of virialization and galaxy bias are greatly reduced. This leads to a galaxy power spectrum which is easier to model, without calibration from numerical simulations. We develop a theoretical model for the power spectrum of a clipped field in redshift space, which is exact for the case of anisotropic Gaussian fields. Clipping is found to extend the applicability of the conventional Kaiser prescription by more than a factor of 3 in wave numbers, or a factor of 30 in terms of the number of Fourier modes. By modeling the galaxy power spectrum on scales k <0.3 h Mpc-1 and density fluctuations δg<4 we measure the normalized growth rate f σ8(z =0.18 )=0.29 ±0.10 .

  8. Alignments of Dark Matter Halos with Large-scale Tidal Fields: Mass and Redshift Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sijie; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Shi, Jingjing

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale tidal fields estimated directly from the distribution of dark matter halos are used to investigate how halo shapes and spin vectors are aligned with the cosmic web. The major, intermediate, and minor axes of halos are aligned with the corresponding tidal axes, and halo spin axes tend to be parallel with the intermediate axes and perpendicular to the major axes of the tidal field. The strengths of these alignments generally increase with halo mass and redshift, but the dependence is only on the peak height, ν \\equiv {δ }{{c}}/σ ({M}{{h}},z). The scaling relations of the alignment strengths with the value of ν indicate that the alignment strengths remain roughly constant when the structures within which the halos reside are still in a quasi-linear regime, but decreases as nonlinear evolution becomes more important. We also calculate the alignments in projection so that our results can be compared directly with observations. Finally, we investigate the alignments of tidal tensors on large scales, and use the results to understand alignments of halo pairs separated at various distances. Our results suggest that the coherent structure of the tidal field is the underlying reason for the alignments of halos and galaxies seen in numerical simulations and in observations.

  9. The ratio of CO to total gas mass in high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashian, Natalie; Sternberg, Amiel; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-11-01

    Walter et al. have recently identified the J = 6 - 5, 5 - 4, and 2 - 1 CO rotational emission lines, and [C II] fine-structure emission line from the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in the high-redshift submillimetre source HDF 850.1, at z = 5.183. We employ large velocity gradient (LVG) modelling to analyse the spectra of this source assuming the [C II] and CO emissions originate from (i) separate virialized regions, (ii) separate unvirialized regions, (iii) uniformly mixed virialized regions and (iv) uniformly mixed unvirialized regions. We present the best-fitting set of parameters, including for each case the ratio α between the total hydrogen/helium gas mass and the CO(1-0) line luminosity. We also present computations of the ratio of H2 mass to [C II] line luminosity for optically thin conditions, for a range of gas temperatures and densities, for direct conversion of [C II] line luminosities to `CO-dark' H2 masses. For HDF 850.1 we find that a model in which the CO and C+ are uniformly mixed in gas that is shielded from ultraviolet radiation requires a cosmic ray or X-ray ionization rate of ζ ≈ 3 × 10-14 s-1, plausibly consistent with the large star formation rate (˜103 M⊙ yr-1) observed in this source. Enforcing the cosmological constraint posed by the abundance of dark matter haloes in the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology and taking into account other possible contributions to the total gas mass, we find that the two models in which the virialization condition is enforced can be ruled out at the ≳2σ level, while the model assuming mixed unvirialized regions is less likely. We conclude that modelling HDF 850.1's ISM as a collection of unvirialized molecular clouds with distinct CO and C+ layers, for which α = 1.2 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 for the CO to H2 mass-to-luminosity ratio (similar to the standard ultraluminous infrared galaxy value), is most consistent with the ΛCDM cosmology.

  10. A lower fragmentation mass scale for clumps in high redshift galaxies: a systematic numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburello, Valentina; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James

    2015-08-01

    We perform a systematic study of the effect of sub-grid physics, resolution and structural parameters on the fragmentation of gas-rich galaxy discs into massive star forming clumps due to gravitational instability. We use the state-of-the-art zoom-in cosmological hydrodynamical simulation ARGO (Fiacconi et al. 2015) to set up the initial conditions of our models, and then carry out 26 high resolution controlled simulations of high-z galaxies using the GASOLINE2 code, which includes a modern, numerically robust SPH implementation.We find that when blast-wave feedback is included, the formation of long-lived, gravitationally bound clumps requires disc gas fractions of at least 50% and massive discs, which should have Vmax > 200 km/s at z ˜ 2, more massive than the typical galaxies expected at those redshifts.Less than 50 Myr after formation, clumps have stellar masses in the range 4 × 106 - 5 × 107 M⊙.Formation of clumps with mass exceeding ˜108 M⊙ is a rare occurrence, since it requires mergers between multiple massive clumps, as we verified by tracing back in time the particles belonging to such clumps. Such mergers happen after a few orbital times (˜200-300 Myr), but normally clumps migrate inward and are tidally disrupted on shorter timescales.Clump sizes are in the range 100-500 pc. We argue that giant clumps identified in observations (˜109 M⊙ and 1 kpc in size) might either have a different origin, such as minor mergers and clumpy gas accretion, or their sizes and masses may be overestimated due to resolution issues.Using an analytical model, already developed to explain the fragmentation scale in gravitationally unstable 3D protoplanetary discs, we can predict fairly accurately the characteristic gaseous masses of clumps soon after fragmentation, when standard Toome analysis becomes invalid.Due to their modest size, clumps have little effect on bulge growth as they migrate to the center. In our unstable discs a small bulge can form irrespective of

  11. A Population of Intermediate-mass Black Holes in Dwarf Starburst Galaxies Up to Redshift=1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezcua, M.; Civano, F.; Fabbiano, G.; Miyaji, T.; Marchesi, S.

    2016-01-01

    We study a sample of ˜50,000 dwarf starburst and late-type galaxies drawn from the COSMOS survey with the aim of investigating the presence of nuclear accreting black holes (BHs) as those seed BHs from which supermassive BHs could grow in the early universe. We divide the sample into five complete redshift bins up to z = 1.5 and perform an X-ray stacking analysis using the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey data. After removing the contribution from X-ray binaries and hot gas to the stacked X-ray emission, we still find an X-ray excess in the five redshift bins that can be explained by nuclear accreting BHs. This X-ray excess is more significant for z\\lt 0.5. At higher redshifts, these active galactic nuclei could suffer mild obscuration, as indicated by the analysis of their hardness ratios. The average nuclear X-ray luminosities in the soft band are in the range 1039-1040 erg s-1. Assuming that the sources accrete at ≥1% the Eddington rate, their BH masses would be ≤105 {M}⊙ , thus in the intermediate-mass BH regime, but their mass would be smaller than the one predicted by the BH-stellar mass relation. If instead the sources follow the correlation between BH mass and stellar mass, they would have sub-Eddington accreting rates of ˜10-3 and BH masses 1-9 × 105 {M}⊙ . We thus conclude that a population of intermediate-mass BHs exists in dwarf starburst galaxies, at least up to z = 1.5, though their detection beyond the local universe is challenging due to their low luminosity and mild obscuration unless deep surveys are employed.

  12. Rest-frame UV Single-epoch Black Hole Mass Estimates of Low-luminosity AGNs at Intermediate Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouzos, Marios; Woo, Jong-Hak; Matsuoka, Kenta; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Onken, Christopher A.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Park, Dawoo; Nagao, Tohru; Kim, Sang Chul

    2015-12-01

    The ability to accurately derive black hole (BH) masses at progressively higher redshifts and over a wide range of continuum luminosities has become indispensable in the era of large-area extragalactic spectroscopic surveys. In this paper, we present an extension of existing comparisons between rest-frame UV and optical virial BH mass estimators to intermediate redshifts and luminosities comparable to the local Hβ reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We focus on the Mg ii, C iv, and C iii] broad emission lines and compare them to both Hα and Hβ. We use newly acquired near-infrared spectra from the Fiber-fed Multi-object Spectrograph instrument on the Subaru telescope for 89 broad-lined AGNs at redshifts between 0.3 and 3.5, complemented by data from the AGES survey. We employ two different prescriptions for measuring the emission line widths and compare the results. We confirm that Mg ii shows a tight correlation with Hα and Hβ, with a scatter of ∼0.25 dex. The C iv and C iii] estimators, while showing larger scatter, are viable virial mass estimators after accounting for a trend with the UV-to-optical luminosity ratio. We find an intrinsic scatter of ∼0.37 dex between Balmer and carbon virial estimators by combining our data set with previous high redshift measurements. This updated comparison spans a total of three decades in BH mass. We calculate a virial factor for C iv/C iii] {log}{f}{{C}{{IV}}/{{C}}{{III}}]}=0.87 with an estimated systematic uncertainty of ∼0.4 dex and find excellent agreement between the local reverberation mapped AGN sample and our high-z sample.

  13. Adding Spice to Vanilla LCDM simulations: From Alternative Cosmologies to Lighting up Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahan Elahi, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Cold Dark Matter simulations have formed the backbone of our theoretical understanding of cosmological structure formation. Predictions from the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmology, in which the Universe contains two major dark components, namely Dark Matter and Dark Energy, are in excellent agreement with the Large-Scale Structures observed, i.e., the distribution of galaxies across cosmic time. However, this paradigm is in tension with observations at small-scales, from the number and properties of satellite galaxies around galaxies such as the Milky Way and Andromeda, to the lensing statistics of massive galaxy clusters. I will present several alternative models of cosmology (from Warm Dark Matter to coupled Dark Matter-Dark Energy models) and how they compare to vanilla LCDM by studying formation of groups and clusters dark matter only and adiabatic hydrodynamical zoom simulations. I will show how modifications to the dark sector can lead to some surprising results. For example, Warm Dark Matter, so often examined on small satellite galaxies scales, can be probed observationally using weak lensing at cluster scales. Coupled dark sectors, where dark matter decays into dark energy and experiences an effective gravitational potential that differs from that experienced by normal matter, is effectively hidden away from direct observations of galaxies. Studies like these are vital if we are to pinpoint observations which can look for unique signatures of the physics that governs the hidden Universe. Of course, all of these predictions are unfortunately affected by uncertain galaxy formation physics. I will end by presenting results from a comparison study of numerous hydrodynamical codes, the nIFTY cluster comparison project, and how even how purely adiabatic simulations run with different codes give in quite different galaxy populations. The galaxies that form in these simulations, which all attempt to reproduce the observed galaxy population via not

  14. The Evolution of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function at z = 4–8: A Steepening Low-mass-end Slope with Increasing Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Grazian, A.; Lu, Yu; Papovich, Casey; Salmon, Brett; Somerville, Rachel S.; Dickinson, Mark; Duncan, K.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fontana, Adriano; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish; Lee, Seong-Kook; Merlin, Emiliano; Willner, S. P.

    2016-07-01

    We present galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMFs) at z = 4–8 from a rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) selected sample of ∼4500 galaxies, found via photometric redshifts over an area of ∼280 arcmin2 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS)/Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The deepest Spitzer/IRAC data to date and the relatively large volume allow us to place a better constraint at both the low- and high-mass ends of the GSMFs compared to previous space-based studies from pre-CANDELS observations. Supplemented by a stacking analysis, we find a linear correlation between the rest-frame UV absolute magnitude at 1500 Å ({M}{{UV}}) and logarithmic stellar mass ({log}{M}* ) that holds for galaxies with {log}({M}* /{M}ȯ )≲ 10. We use simulations to validate our method of measuring the slope of the {log}{M}* –M UV relation, finding that the bias is minimized with a hybrid technique combining photometry of individual bright galaxies with stacked photometry for faint galaxies. The resultant measured slopes do not significantly evolve over z = 4–8, while the normalization of the trend exhibits a weak evolution toward lower masses at higher redshift. We combine the {log}{M}* –M UV distribution with observed rest-frame UV luminosity functions at each redshift to derive the GSMFs, finding that the low-mass-end slope becomes steeper with increasing redshift from α =-{1.55}-0.07+0.08 at z = 4 to α =-{2.25}-0.35+0.72 at z = 8. The inferred stellar mass density, when integrated over {M}* ={10}8–1013 M ⊙, increases by a factor of {10}-2+30 between z = 7 and z = 4 and is in good agreement with the time integral of the cosmic star formation rate density.

  15. Precise Strong Lensing Mass Modeling of Four Hubble Frontier Field Clusters and a Sample of Magnified High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamata, Ryota; Oguri, Masamune; Ishigaki, Masafumi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami

    2016-03-01

    We conduct precise strong lensing mass modeling of four Hubble Frontier Field (HFF) clusters, Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745, and MACS J1149.6+2223, for which HFF imaging observations are completed. We construct a refined sample of more than 100 multiple images for each cluster by taking advantage of the full-depth HFF images, and conduct mass modeling using the glafic software, which assumes simply parametrized mass distributions. Our mass modeling also exploits a magnification constraint from the lensed SN Ia HFF14Tom for Abell 2744 and positional constraints from the multiple images S1-S4 of the lensed supernova SN Refsdal for MACS J1149.6+2223. We find that our best-fitting mass models reproduce the observed image positions with rms errors of ˜0.″4, which are smaller than rms errors in previous mass modeling that adopted similar numbers of multiple images. Our model predicts a new image of SN Refsdal with a relative time delay and magnification that are fully consistent with a recent detection of reappearance. We then construct catalogs of z ˜ 6-9 dropout galaxies behind the four clusters and estimate magnification factors for these dropout galaxies with our best-fitting mass models. The dropout sample from the four cluster fields contains ˜120 galaxies at z ≳ 6, about 20 of which are predicted to be magnified by a factor of more than 10. Some of the high-redshift galaxies detected in the HFF have lensing-corrected magnitudes of MUV ˜ -15 to -14. Our analysis demonstrates that the HFF data indeed offer an ideal opportunity to study faint high-redshift galaxies. All lensing maps produced from our mass modeling will be made available on the Space Telescope Science Institute website (https://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/frontier/lensmodels/).

  16. On the Intermediate-redshift Central Stellar Mass-Halo Mass Relation, and Implications for the Evolution of the Most Massive Galaxies Since z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Francesco; Guo, Hong; Bouillot, Vincent; Rettura, Alessandro; Meert, Alan; Buchan, Stewart; Kravtsov, Andrey; Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi; Vikram, Vinu; Marchesini, Danilo; Behroozi, Peter; Zheng, Zheng; Maraston, Claudia; Ascaso, Begoña; Lemaux, Brian C.; Capozzi, Diego; Huertas-Company, Marc; Gal, Roy R.; Lubin, Lori M.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Carollo, Marcella; Cattaneo, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The stellar mass-halo mass relation is a key constraint in all semi-analytic, numerical, and semi-empirical models of galaxy formation and evolution. However, its exact shape and redshift dependence remain under debate. Several recent works support a relation in the local universe steeper than previously thought. Based on comparisons with a variety of data on massive central galaxies, we show that this steepening holds up to z ~ 1 for stellar masses M star >~ 2 × 1011 M ⊙. Specifically, we find significant evidence for a high-mass end slope of β >~ 0.35-0.70 instead of the usual β <~ 0.20-0.30 reported by a number of previous results. When including the independent constraints from the recent Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey clustering measurements, the data, independent of any systematic errors in stellar masses, tend to favor a model with a very small scatter (lsim 0.15 dex) in stellar mass at fixed halo mass, in the redshift range z < 0.8 and for M star > 3 × 1011 M ⊙, suggesting a close connection between massive galaxies and host halos even at relatively recent epochs. We discuss the implications of our results with respect to the evolution of the most massive galaxies since z ~ 1.

  17. ON THE INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT CENTRAL STELLAR MASS-HALO MASS RELATION, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE MOST MASSIVE GALAXIES SINCE z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Francesco; Buchan, Stewart; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Zheng; Bouillot, Vincent; Rettura, Alessandro; Meert, Alan; Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi; Vikram, Vinu; Kravtsov, Andrey; Marchesini, Danilo; Behroozi, Peter; Maraston, Claudia; Capozzi, Diego; Ascaso, Begoña; Huertas-Company, Marc; Lemaux, Brian C.; Gal, Roy R.; Lubin, Lori M.; and others

    2014-12-20

    The stellar mass-halo mass relation is a key constraint in all semi-analytic, numerical, and semi-empirical models of galaxy formation and evolution. However, its exact shape and redshift dependence remain under debate. Several recent works support a relation in the local universe steeper than previously thought. Based on comparisons with a variety of data on massive central galaxies, we show that this steepening holds up to z ∼ 1 for stellar masses M {sub star} ≳ 2 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. Specifically, we find significant evidence for a high-mass end slope of β ≳ 0.35-0.70 instead of the usual β ≲ 0.20-0.30 reported by a number of previous results. When including the independent constraints from the recent Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey clustering measurements, the data, independent of any systematic errors in stellar masses, tend to favor a model with a very small scatter (≲ 0.15 dex) in stellar mass at fixed halo mass, in the redshift range z < 0.8 and for M {sub star} > 3 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, suggesting a close connection between massive galaxies and host halos even at relatively recent epochs. We discuss the implications of our results with respect to the evolution of the most massive galaxies since z ∼ 1.

  18. FEEDBACK FROM HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES ON THE HIGH-REDSHIFT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: MODEL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Chris; James, Gillian; Wynn, Graham; Combet, Celine

    2013-02-10

    Massive stars at redshifts z {approx}> 6 are predicted to have played a pivotal role in cosmological reionization as luminous sources of ultraviolet (UV) photons. However, the remnants of these massive stars could be equally important as X-ray-luminous (L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}) high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). Because the absorption cross section of neutral hydrogen decreases sharply with photon energy ({sigma}{proportional_to}E {sup -3}), X-rays can escape more freely than UV photons from the star-forming regions in which they are produced, allowing HMXBs to make a potentially significant contribution to the ionizing X-ray background during reionization. In this paper, we explore the ionizing power of HMXBs at redshifts z {approx}> 6 using a Monte Carlo model for a coeval stellar population of main-sequence stars and HMXBs. Using the archetypal Galactic HMXB Cygnus X-1 as our template, we propose a composite HMXB spectral energy distribution consisting of blackbody and power-law components, whose contributions depend on the accretion state of the system. We determine the time-dependent ionizing power of a combined population of UV-luminous stars and X-ray-luminous HMXBs and deduce fitting formulae for the boost in the population's ionizing power arising from HMXBs; these fits allow for simple implementation of HMXB feedback in numerical simulations. Based on this analysis, we estimate the contribution of high-redshift HMXBs to the present-day soft X-ray background, and we show that it is a factor of {approx}100-1000 smaller than the observed limit. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the role of HMXBs in reionization and in high-redshift galaxy formation.

  19. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate. PMID:25719667

  20. PROSPECTS FOR MEASURING THE MASS OF BLACK HOLES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS WITH RESOLVED KINEMATICS USING GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Hezaveh, Yashar D.

    2014-08-20

    Application of the most robust method of measuring black hole masses, spatially resolved kinematics of gas and stars, is presently limited to nearby galaxies. The Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) and 30m class telescopes (the Thirty Meter Telescope, the Giant Magellan Telescope, and the European Extremely Large Telescope) with milli-arcsecond resolution are expected to extend such measurements to larger distances. Here, we study the possibility of exploiting the angular magnification provided by strong gravitational lensing to measure black hole masses at high redshifts (z ∼ 1-6), using resolved gas kinematics with these instruments. We show that in ∼15% and ∼20% of strongly lensed galaxies, the inner 25 and 50 pc could be resolved, allowing the mass of ≳ 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} black holes to be dynamically measured with ALMA, if moderately bright molecular gas is present at these small radii. Given the large number of strong lenses discovered in current millimeter surveys and future optical surveys, this fraction could constitute a statistically significant population for studying the evolution of the M-σ relation at high redshifts.

  1. Mass calibration of galaxy clusters at redshift 0.1-1.0 using weak lensing in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 co-add

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Matthew P.; Lin, Huan; Soares-Santos, Marcelle

    2015-09-01

    We present galaxy cluster mass-richness relations found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 co-add using clusters found using a Voronoi tessellation cluster finder. These relations were found using stacked weak lensing shear observed in a large sample of galaxy clusters. These mass-richness relations are presented for four redshift bins, 0.1 < z ≤ 0.4, 0.4 < z ≤ 0.7, 0.7 < z ≤ 1.0 and 0.1 < z ≤ 1.0. We describe the sample of galaxy clusters and explain how these clusters were found using a Voronoi tessellation cluster finder. We fit a Navarro-Frenk-White profile to the stacked weak lensing shear signal in redshift and richness bins in order to measure virial mass (M200). We describe several effects that can bias weak lensing measurements, including photometric redshift bias, the effect of the central BCG, halo miscentering, photometric redshift uncertainty and foreground galaxy contamination. We present mass-richness relations using richness measure NVT with each of these effects considered separately as well as considered altogether. We also examine redshift evolution of the mass-richness relation. As a result, we present measurements of the mass coefficient (M200|20) and the power-law slope (α) for power-law fits to the mass and richness values in each of the redshift bins. We find values of the mass coefficient of 8.49 ± 0.526, 14.1 ± 1.78, 30.2 ± 8.74 and 9.23 ± 0.525 × 1013 h-1 M⊙ for each of the four redshift bins, respectively. We find values of the power-law slope of 0.905 ± 0.0585, 0.948 ± 0.100, 1.33 ± 0.260 and 0.883 ± 0.0500, respectively.

  2. Abundance and Clustering of C IV Absorption Systems in the SCDM, LCDM, and CHDM Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Hongguang; Fang, Li-Zhi

    1996-08-01

    We have developed a method for calculating the two-point correlation function of nonlinearly evolved mass and collapsed halos in the Press- Schechter formalism. The nonlinear gravitational interaction is treated as the sum of various individual spherical top-hat clustering. Because no collapsed halo of mass M can exist in initial regions (or top-hat spheres) of mass less than M, the bias that massive halos have stronger correlation than the background mass can be naturally introduced. We apply this method to derive constraints on popular dark-matter models from the spatial number density and the correlation function of C IV absorption systems in QSO spectra. Considering C IV systems should be hosted by collapsed halos, one can obtain an upper limit to the threshold mass of the collapsed halos by requiring their number density to be larger than that of observed C IV systems. On the other hand, in order to explain the observed clustering of C IV systems, a lower limit to the threshold mass will be set for the hosting halos. We found that the standard cold dark matter (SCDM) model and the low-density flat universe with a cosmological constant {LAMBDA}_0_ (LCDM) are consistent with the abundance and clustering of C IV systems. However, the two cold- plus-hot dark matter models (CHDMs) with the cosmological parameters ({OMEGA}_c_+ {OMEGA}_b_)/{OMEGA}_h_ = 0.7/0.3 and 0.8/0.2, respectively, have difficulty passing the two tests simultaneously. In these models, in order to have enough collapsed halos to host C IV systems, the threshold mass of the halos cannot be greater than 10^11^ M_sun_. But in order to agree with the two-point correlation function on the scales of {DELTA}_v_ ~ 300-1000 km s^-1^, the threshold mass should be larger than 10^12^ M_sun_.

  3. Adding Spice to Vanilla LCDM simulations: Alternative Cosmologies & Lighting up Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahan Elahi, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Cold Dark Matter simulations have formed the backbone of our theoretical understanding of cosmological structure formation. Predictions from the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmology, where the Universe contains two dark components, namely Dark Matter & Dark Energy, are in excellent agreement with the Large-Scale Structures observed, i.e., the distribution of galaxies across cosmic time. However, this paradigm is in tension with observations at small-scales, from the number and properties of satellite galaxies around galaxies such as the Milky Way and Andromeda, to the lensing statistics of massive galaxy clusters. I will present several alternative models of cosmology (from Warm Dark Matter to coupled Dark Matter-Dark Energy models) and how they compare to vanilla LCDM by studying formation of groups and clusters dark matter only and adiabatic hydrodynamical zoom simulations. I will show how modifications to the dark sector can lead to some surprising results. For example, Warm Dark Matter, so often examined on small satellite galaxies scales, can be probed observationally using weak lensing at cluster scales. Coupled dark sectors, where dark matter decays into dark energy and experiences an effective gravitational potential that differs from that experienced by normal matter, is effectively hidden away from direct observations of galaxies. Studies like these are vital if we are to pinpoint observations which can look for unique signatures of the physics that governs the hidden Universe. Finally, I will discuss how all of these predictions are affected by uncertain galaxy formation physics. I will present results from a major comparison study of numerous hydrodynamical codes, the nIFTY cluster comparison project. This comparison aims to understand the code-to-code scatter in the properties of dark matter haloes and the galaxies that reside in them. We find that even in purely adiabatic simulations, different codes form clusters with very different X

  4. REDSHIFT 6.4 HOST GALAXIES OF 10{sup 8} SOLAR MASS BLACK HOLES: LOW STAR FORMATION RATE AND DYNAMICAL MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Omont, Alain; Bergeron, Jacqueline

    2013-06-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of rest-frame far-infrared continuum and [C II] line emission in two z = 6.4 quasars with black hole masses of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. CFHQS J0210-0456 is detected in the continuum with a 1.2 mm flux of 120 {+-} 35 {mu}Jy, whereas CFHQS J2329-0301 is undetected at a similar noise level. J2329-0301 has a star formation rate limit of <40 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, considerably below the typical value at all redshifts for this bolometric luminosity. Through comparison with hydro simulations, we speculate that this quasar is observed at a relatively rare phase where quasar feedback has effectively shut down star formation in the host galaxy. [C II] emission is also detected only in J0210-0456. The ratio of [C II] to far-infrared luminosity is similar to that of low-redshift galaxies of comparable luminosity, suggesting that the previous finding of an offset in the relationships between this ratio and far-infrared luminosity at low and high redshifts may be partially due to a selection effect due to the limited sensitivity of previous continuum data. The [C II] line of J0210-0456 is relatively narrow (FWHM = 189 {+-} 18 km s{sup -1}), indicating a dynamical mass substantially lower than expected from the local black hole-velocity dispersion correlation. The [C II] line is marginally resolved at 0.''7 resolution with the blue and red wings spatially offset by 0.''5 (3 kpc) and a smooth velocity gradient of 100 km s{sup -1} across a scale of 6 kpc, possibly due to the rotation of a galaxy-wide disk. These observations are consistent with the idea that stellar mass growth lags black hole accretion for quasars at this epoch with respect to more recent times.

  5. AGN and stellar feedback in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2 : outflows, mass-loading and quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, O.

    2016-06-01

    Galactic-scale outflows are ubiquitous in observations of star-forming galaxies, up to high redshift. Such galactic outflows are mainly generated by internal sources of feedback: young stars, supernovae and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Still, the physical origins of such outflows are not well understood, and their main driver is still debated. Up to now, most simulations take into account AGN feedback or stellar feedback but not both, because both phenomena happen on very different spatial and time scales. Most of them also still fail to reproduce all observed parameters from first principles. In this poster, we present the POGO project: Physical Origins of Galactic Outflows. With this suite of 23 simulations, we model AGN and stellar feedback simultaneously based on physical assumptions for the first time at very high resolution (6 to 1.5 pc), and investigate their impact on the outflow parameters of the host-galaxy. Here, we show that AGN and stellar feedback couple non-linearly, and that the mass-loading of the resulting outflow highly depends on the mass of the host, all the more because the coupling can either be positive (small masses) or negative (intermediate masses). Nevertheless, the main driver of the outflow remains the AGN at all masses.

  6. TESTING THE UNIVERSALITY OF THE FUNDAMENTAL METALLICITY RELATION AT HIGH REDSHIFT USING LOW-MASS GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S.; Jones, Tucker; Richard, Johan

    2013-08-01

    We present rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of nine low-mass star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.5 < z < 3 which are gravitationally lensed by foreground clusters. We used Triplespec, an echelle spectrograph at the Palomar 200 inch telescope that is very effective for this purpose as it samples the entire near-infrared spectrum simultaneously. By measuring the flux of nebular emission lines, we derive gas-phase metallicities and star formation rates, and by fitting the optical to infrared spectral energy distributions we obtain stellar masses. Taking advantage of the high magnification due to strong lensing, we are able to probe the physical properties of galaxies with stellar masses in the range 7.8 < log M/M{sub Sun} < 9.4 whose star formation rates are similar to those of typical star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We compare our results with the locally determined relation between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate. Our data are in excellent agreement with this relation, with an average offset ({Delta}log (O/H)) = 0.01 {+-} 0.08, suggesting a universal relationship. Remarkably, the scatter around the fundamental metallicity relation is only 0.24 dex, smaller than that observed locally at the same stellar masses, which may provide an important additional constraint for galaxy evolution models.

  7. Improved limit on the neutrino mass with CMB and redshift-dependent halo bias-mass relations from SDSS, DEEP2, and Lyman-break galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Serra, Paolo; Cooray, Asantha; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2008-10-15

    We use measurements of luminosity-dependent galaxy bias at several different redshifts, SDSS at z=0.05, DEEP2 at z=1, and LBGs at z=3.8, combined with WMAP 5-year cosmic microwave background anisotropy data and SDSS Red Luminous Galaxy survey three-dimensional clustering power spectrum to put constraints on cosmological parameters. Fitting this combined dataset, we show that the luminosity-dependent bias data that probe the relation between halo bias and halo mass and its redshift evolution are very sensitive to sum of the neutrino masses: in particular, we obtain the upper limit of at the 95% confidence level for a {lambda}CDM+m{sub {nu}} model, with a {sigma}{sub 8} equal to {sigma}{sub 8}=0.759{+-}0.025 (1{sigma}). When we allow the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w to vary, we find w=-1.30{+-}0.19 for a general wCDM+m{sub {nu}} model with the 95% confidence level upper limit on the neutrino masses at . The constraint on the dark energy equation of state further improves to w=-1.125{+-}0.092 when using also ACBAR and supernovae Union data, in addition to above, with a prior on the Hubble constant from the Hubble Space Telescope.

  8. Extreme-mass-ratio inspiral corrections to the angular velocity and redshift factor of a mass in circular orbit about a Kerr black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Abhay G.; Friedman, John L.; Keidl, Tobias S.

    2012-10-01

    This is the first of two papers on computing the self-force in a radiation gauge for a particle of mass m moving in circular, equatorial orbit about a Kerr black hole. In the extreme-mass-ratio inspiral (EMRI) framework, with mode-sum renormalization, we compute the renormalized value of the quantity H≔(1)/(2)hαβuαuβ, gauge-invariant under gauge transformations generated by a helically symmetric gauge vector; here, hαβ is the metric perturbation, uα the particle’s 4-velocity. We find the related order m correction to the particle’s angular velocity at fixed renormalized redshift (and to its redshift at fixed angular velocity), each of which can be written in terms of H. The radiative part of the metric perturbation is constructed from a Hertz potential that is extracted from the Weyl scalar by an algebraic inversion T. S. Keidl , Phys. Rev. D 82, 124012 (2010). We then write the spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics as a sum over spin-weighted spherical harmonics Yℓms and use mode-sum renormalization to find the renormalization coefficients by matching a series in L=ℓ+1/2 to the large-L behavior of the expression for H. The nonradiative parts of the perturbed metric associated with changes in mass and angular momentum are calculated in the Kerr gauge.

  9. The Mass-Pitch Angle Relation for Three High Redshift Active Galaxies Selected from the GOODS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, John

    As we continue to investigate and ponder the heavens, we have come to realize the presence of highly energetic gravitational wells at the center of all galaxies. These supermassive black holes at a galaxies nucleus formed in the company of the other features making up the galaxy, particularly spiral arms. With nearby galaxies showing a relationship between the spiral arm pitch angle and that central mass, here we push that relationship out to distances of redshift one. With three galaxies at this distance we find that they also hold to the same relationship of tighter spiral arms corresponding to more massive central black holes. We find that these three galaxies near a redshift of one also fit the equation log (n/a) = (8.21 +/- 0.16) -- (0.062 +/- 0.009) P given by Berrier et al. (2013) for nearby spiral galaxies. Further investigation of higher signal to noise spectroscopic observations will increase this confidence and demonstrate the robustness of the M -- P relationship at greater distances.

  10. RECENT STELLAR MASS ASSEMBLY OF LOW-MASS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFTS 0.3 < z < 0.9

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Gallego, Jesús; De Paz, Armando Gil; Villar, Víctor; Tresse, Laurence; Charlot, Stéphane; Barro, Guillermo

    2015-01-20

    The epoch when low-mass star-forming galaxies (LMSFGs) form the bulk of their stellar mass is uncertain. While some models predict an early formation, others favor a delayed scenario until later ages of the universe. We present constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of LMSFGs obtained through the analysis of their spectral energy distributions using a novel approach that (1) consistently combines photometric (broadband) and spectroscopic (equivalent widths of emission lines) data, and (2) uses physically motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time. The sample includes 31 spectroscopically confirmed LMSFGs (7.3 ≤ log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} ≤ 8.0), at 0.3 < z {sub spec} < 0.9, in the Extended-Chandra Deep Field-South field. Among them, 24 were selected with photometric stellar mass log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} < 8.0, 0.3 < z {sub phot} < 1.0, and m {sub NB816,} {sub AB} < 26 mag; the remaining 7 were selected as blue compact dwarfs within the same photometric redshift and magnitude ranges. We also study a secondary sample of 43 more massive spectroscopically confirmed galaxies (8.0 < log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} ≤ 9.1), selected with the same criteria. The SFRs and stellar masses derived for both samples place our targets on the standard main sequence of star-forming galaxies. The median SFH of LMSFGs at intermediate redshifts appears to form 90% of the median stellar mass inferred for the sample in the ∼0.5-1.8 Gyr immediately preceding the observation. These results suggest a recent stellar mass assembly for LMSFGs, consistent with the cosmological downsizing trends. We find similar median SFH timescales for the more massive secondary sample.

  11. Recent Stellar Mass Assembly of Low-mass Star-forming Galaxies at Redshifts 0.3 < z < 0.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Gallego, Jesús; Pacifici, Camilla; Tresse, Laurence; Charlot, Stéphane; Gil de Paz, Armando; Barro, Guillermo; Villar, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    The epoch when low-mass star-forming galaxies (LMSFGs) form the bulk of their stellar mass is uncertain. While some models predict an early formation, others favor a delayed scenario until later ages of the universe. We present constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of LMSFGs obtained through the analysis of their spectral energy distributions using a novel approach that (1) consistently combines photometric (broadband) and spectroscopic (equivalent widths of emission lines) data, and (2) uses physically motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time. The sample includes 31 spectroscopically confirmed LMSFGs (7.3 <= log M */M ⊙ <= 8.0), at 0.3 < z spec < 0.9, in the Extended-Chandra Deep Field-South field. Among them, 24 were selected with photometric stellar mass log M */M ⊙ < 8.0, 0.3 < z phot < 1.0, and m NB816, AB < 26 mag; the remaining 7 were selected as blue compact dwarfs within the same photometric redshift and magnitude ranges. We also study a secondary sample of 43 more massive spectroscopically confirmed galaxies (8.0 < log M */M ⊙ <= 9.1), selected with the same criteria. The SFRs and stellar masses derived for both samples place our targets on the standard main sequence of star-forming galaxies. The median SFH of LMSFGs at intermediate redshifts appears to form 90% of the median stellar mass inferred for the sample in the ~0.5-1.8 Gyr immediately preceding the observation. These results suggest a recent stellar mass assembly for LMSFGs, consistent with the cosmological downsizing trends. We find similar median SFH timescales for the more massive secondary sample. Based on observations carried out with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programs 088.A-0321 and 090.A-0858.

  12. Upper Bound of 0.28 eV on Neutrino Masses from the Largest Photometric Redshift Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Shaun A.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Lahav, Ofer

    2010-07-16

    We present a new limit of (95% CL) on the sum of the neutrino masses assuming a flat {Lambda}CDM cosmology. This relaxes slightly to and when quasinonlinear scales are removed and w{ne}-1, respectively. These are derived from a new photometric catalogue of over 700 000 luminous red galaxies (MegaZ DR7) with a volume of 3.3 (Gpc h{sup -1}){sup 3} and redshift range 0.45

  13. A lower fragmentation mass scale in high-redshift galaxies and its implications on giant clumps: a systematic numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburello, Valentina; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James

    2015-11-01

    We study the effect of sub-grid physics, galaxy mass, structural parameters and resolution on the fragmentation of gas-rich galaxy discs into massive star-forming clumps. The initial conditions are set up with the aid of the ARGO cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. Blast-wave feedback does not suppress fragmentation, but reduces both the number of clumps and the duration of the unstable phase. Once formed, bound clumps cannot be destroyed by our feedback model. Widespread fragmentation is promoted by high gas fractions and low halo concentrations. Yet giant clumps M > 108 M⊙ lasting several hundred Myr are rare and mainly produced by clump-clump mergers. They occur in massive discs with maximum rotational velocities Vmax > 250 km s-1 at z ˜ 2, at the high-mass end of the observed galaxy population at those redshifts. The typical gaseous and stellar masses of clumps in all runs are in the range ˜107-108 M⊙ for galaxies with disc mass in the range 1010-8 × 1010 M⊙. Clumps sizes are usually in the range 100-400 pc, in agreement with recent clump observations in lensed high-z galaxies. We argue that many of the giant clumps identified in observations are not due to in situ fragmentation, or are the result of blending of smaller structures owing to insufficient resolution. Using an analytical model describing local collapse inside spiral arms, we can predict the characteristic gaseous masses of clumps at the onset of fragmentation (˜3-5 × 107 M⊙) quite accurately, while the conventional Toomre mass overestimates them. Due to their moderate masses, clumps which migrate to the centre have marginal effect on bulge growth.

  14. The dwarfs beyond: The stellar-to-halo mass relation for a new sample of intermediate redshift low-mass galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Sarah H.; Ellis, Richard S.; Newman, Andrew B.; Benson, Andrew

    2014-02-20

    A number of recent challenges to the standard ΛCDM paradigm relate to discrepancies that arise in comparing the abundance and kinematics of local dwarf galaxies with the predictions of numerical simulations. Such arguments rely heavily on the assumption that the Local Volume's dwarf and satellite galaxies form a representative distribution in terms of their stellar-to-halo mass ratios. To address this question, we present new, deep spectroscopy using DEIMOS on Keck for 82 low-mass (10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}), star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.2 < z < 1). For 50% of these we are able to determine resolved rotation curves using nebular emission lines and thereby construct the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation to masses as low as 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. Using scaling relations determined from weak lensing data, we convert this to a stellar-to-halo mass relation for comparison with abundance matching predictions. We find a discrepancy between our observations and the predictions from abundance matching in the sense that we observe 3-12 times more stellar mass at a given halo mass. We suggest possible reasons for this discrepancy, as well as improved tests for the future.

  15. The SAMI Pilot Survey: the fundamental and mass planes in three low-redshift clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Owers, Matt S.; Croom, Scott M.; Colless, Matthew; Davies, Roger L.; Brough, S.; Pracy, Michael B.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Jones, D. Heath; Allen, J. T.; Bryant, Julia J.; Cortese, Luca; Goodwin, Michael; Green, Andrew W.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Richards, Samuel; Sharp, Rob

    2015-08-01

    Using new integral field observations of 106 galaxies in three nearby clusters, we investigate how the intrinsic scatter of the Fundamental Plane depends on the way in which the velocity dispersion and effective radius are measured. Our spatially resolved spectroscopy, combined with a cluster sample with negligible relative distance errors, allows us to derive a Fundamental Plane with minimal systematic uncertainties. From the apertures we tested, we find that velocity dispersions measured within a circular aperture with radius equal to one effective radius minimizes the intrinsic scatter of the Fundamental Plane. Using simple yet powerful Jeans dynamical models, we determine dynamical masses for our galaxies. Replacing luminosity in the Fundamental Plane with dynamical mass, we demonstrate that the resulting Mass Plane has further reduced scatter, consistent with zero intrinsic scatter. Using these dynamical models, we also find evidence for a possibly non-linear relationship between dynamical mass-to-light ratio and velocity dispersion.

  16. Active galactic nuclei emission line diagnostics and the mass-metallicity relation up to redshift z ∼ 2: The impact of selection effects and evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gobat, Raphael; Jean-Baptiste, Ingrid; Le Floc'h, Émeric; Pannella, Maurilio; Schreiber, Corentin; Trump, Jonathan R.; Dickinson, Mark

    2014-06-10

    Emission line diagnostic diagrams probing the ionization sources in galaxies, such as the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, have been used extensively to distinguish active galactic nuclei (AGN) from purely star-forming galaxies. However, they remain poorly understood at higher redshifts. We shed light on this issue with an empirical approach based on a z ∼ 0 reference sample built from ∼300,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, from which we mimic selection effects due to typical emission line detection limits at higher redshift. We combine this low-redshift reference sample with a simple prescription for luminosity evolution of the global galaxy population to predict the loci of high-redshift galaxies on the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagrams. The predicted bivariate distributions agree remarkably well with direct observations of galaxies out to z ∼ 1.5, including the observed stellar mass-metallicity (MZ) relation evolution. As a result, we infer that high-redshift star-forming galaxies are consistent with having normal interstellar medium (ISM) properties out to z ∼ 1.5, after accounting for selection effects and line luminosity evolution. Namely, their optical line ratios and gas-phase metallicities are comparable to that of low-redshift galaxies with equivalent emission-line luminosities. In contrast, AGN narrow-line regions may show a shift toward lower metallicities at higher redshift. While a physical evolution of the ISM conditions is not ruled out for purely star-forming galaxies and may be more important starting at z ≳ 2, we find that reliably quantifying this evolution is hindered by selections effects. The recipes provided here may serve as a basis for future studies toward this goal. Code to predict the loci of galaxies on the BPT and MEx diagnostic diagrams and the MZ relation as a function of emission line luminosity limits is made publicly available.

  17. The evolution of host mass and black hole mass in quasi-stellar objects from the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, S.; Croom, S. M.; Miller, L.; Babic, A.; Moore, D.; Brewer, B.; Sharp, R. G.; Boyle, B. J.; Shanks, T.; Smith, R. J.; Outram, P. J.; Loaring, N. S.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the relation between the mass of supermassive black holes (MBH) in quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and the mass of the dark matter haloes hosting them (MDH). We measure the widths of broad emission lines (MgII λ2798, CIV λ1549) from QSO composite spectra as a function of redshift. These widths are then used to determine virial black hole mass estimates. We compare our virial black hole mass estimates to dark matter halo masses for QSO hosts derived by Croom et al. based on measurements of QSO clustering. This enables us to trace the MBH-MDH relation over the redshift range z = 0.5-2.5. We calculate the mean zero-point of the MBH-MDH relation to be MBH = 108.4+/-0.2Msolar for an MDH = 1012.5Msolar. These data are then compared with several models connecting MBH and MDH as well as recent hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy evolution. We note that the flux-limited nature of QSO samples can cause a Malmquist-type bias in the measured zero-point of the MBH-MDH relation. The magnitude of this bias depends on the scatter in the MBH-MDH relation, and we re-evaluate the zero-point assuming three published values for this scatter. We create a subsample of our data defined by a constant magnitude interval around L* and find (1 + z)3.3+/-1.3 evolution in MBH between z ~ 0.5 and 2.5 for typical, L* QSOs. We also determine the Eddington ratios (L/LEdd) for the same subsample and find no significant evolution: (1 + z)-0.4+/-1.1. Taken at face value, our data suggest that a decrease in active black hole mass since z ~ 2.5 is the driving force behind luminosity evolution of typical, L*, optically selected QSOs. However, we note that our data are also consistent with a picture in which reductions in both black hole mass and accretion rate contribute equally to luminosity evolution. In addition, we find that these evolution results are strongly affected by the virial black hole mass estimators used. Changes to the calibration of these have a significant effect on the

  18. ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF RAPIDLY ROTATING SOLAR-MASS STARS: EMISSION-LINE REDSHIFTS AS A TEST OF THE SOLAR-STELLAR CONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Bushinsky, Rachel; Ayres, Tom; France, Kevin

    2012-07-20

    We compare high-resolution ultraviolet spectra of the Sun and thirteen solar-mass main-sequence stars with different rotational periods that serve as proxies for their different ages and magnetic field structures. In this, the second paper in the series, we study the dependence of ultraviolet emission-line centroid velocities on stellar rotation period, as rotation rates decrease from that of the Pleiades star HII314 (P{sub rot} = 1.47 days) to {alpha} Cen A (P{sub rot} = 28 days). Our stellar sample of F9 V to G5 V stars consists of six stars observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and eight stars observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. We find a systematic trend of increasing redshift with more rapid rotation (decreasing rotation period) that is similar to the increase in line redshift between quiet and plage regions on the Sun. The fastest-rotating solar-mass star in our study, HII314, shows significantly enhanced redshifts at all temperatures above log T = 4.6, including the corona, which is very different from the redshift pattern observed in the more slowly rotating stars. This difference in the redshift pattern suggests that a qualitative change in the magnetic-heating process occurs near P{sub rot} = 2 days. We propose that HII314 is an example of a solar-mass star with a magnetic heating rate too large for the physical processes responsible for the redshift pattern to operate in the same way as for the more slowly rotating stars. HII314 may therefore lie above the high activity end of the set of solar-like phenomena that is often called the 'solar-stellar connection'.

  19. A PHYSICAL MODEL FOR THE 0 {approx}< z {approx}< 8 REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY AND STELLAR MASS FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C. Marcella; Trenti, Michele

    2013-05-10

    We present a model to understand the redshift evolution of the UV luminosity and stellar mass functions of Lyman break galaxies. Our approach is based on the assumption that the luminosity and stellar mass of a galaxy is related to its dark-matter (DM) halo assembly and gas infall rate. Specifically, galaxies experience a burst of star formation at the halo assembly time, followed by a constant star formation rate, representing a secular star formation activity sustained by steady gas accretion. Star formation from steady gas accretion is the dominant contribution to the galaxy UV luminosity at all redshifts. The model is calibrated by constructing a galaxy luminosity versus halo mass relation at z = 4 via abundance matching. After this luminosity calibration, the model naturally fits the z = 4 stellar mass function, and correctly predicts the evolution of both luminosity and stellar mass functions from z = 0 to z = 8. While the details of star formation efficiency and feedback are hidden within our calibrated luminosity versus halo mass relation, our study highlights that the primary driver of galaxy evolution across cosmic time is the buildup of DM halos, without the need to invoke a redshift-dependent efficiency in converting gas into stars.

  20. Evidence for nonzero mass photons associated with a vacuum-induced dissipative red-shift mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vigier, J.P. )

    1990-02-01

    Recent laboratory observations that suggest a frequency anisotropy in the direction of the Leo constellation of {delta}{nu}/{nu} {>=} 10{sup {minus} 6} can be interpreted following in terms of a nonzero photon mass m{sub {delta}} {congruent} 10{sup {minus} 65} g. If one then accepts Einstein and de Broglie's Theory of Light (considered as real Maxwellian waves and photons simultaneously), the experimental justification of the existence of real Maxwellian displacement currents implies the existence of m{sub {delta}} > 0 and of a vacuum dissipative mechanism which can interpret a part (or the totality) of Hubble's cosmological red shift.

  1. Upper bound of 0.28 eV on neutrino masses from the largest photometric redshift survey.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shaun A; Abdalla, Filipe B; Lahav, Ofer

    2010-07-16

    We present a new limit of ∑m(v) ≤ 0.28 (95% CL) on the sum of the neutrino masses assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology. This relaxes slightly to ∑m(ν) ≤ 0.34 and ∑m(v) ≤ 0.47 when quasinonlinear scales are removed and w≠ -1, respectively. These are derived from a new photometric catalogue of over 700,000 luminous red galaxies (MegaZ DR7) with a volume of 3.3  (Gpc h(-1))(3) and redshift range 0.45 < z < 0.65. The data are combined with WMAP 5-year CMB, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae, and a Hubble Space Telescope prior on h. When combined with WMAP these data are as constraining as adding all supernovae and baryon oscillation data available. The upper limit is one of the tightest constraints on the neutrino from cosmology or particle physics. Further, if these bounds hold, they all predict that current-to-next generation neutrino experiments, such as KATRIN, are unlikely to obtain a detection. PMID:20867754

  2. Mass calibration of galaxy clusters at redshift 0.1–1.0 using weak lensing in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 co-add

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wiesner, Matthew P.; Lin, Huan; Soares-Santos, Marcelle

    2015-07-08

    We present galaxy cluster mass–richness relations found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 co-add using clusters found using a Voronoi tessellation cluster finder. These relations were found using stacked weak lensing shear observed in a large sample of galaxy clusters. These mass–richness relations are presented for four redshift bins, 0.1 < z ≤ 0.4, 0.4 < z ≤ 0.7, 0.7 < z ≤ 1.0 and 0.1 < z ≤ 1.0. We describe the sample of galaxy clusters and explain how these clusters were found using a Voronoi tessellation cluster finder. We fit a Navarro-Frenk-White profile to the stackedmore » weak lensing shear signal in redshift and richness bins in order to measure virial mass (M200). We describe several effects that can bias weak lensing measurements, including photometric redshift bias, the effect of the central BCG, halo miscentering, photometric redshift uncertainty and foreground galaxy contamination. We present mass–richness relations using richness measure NVT with each of these effects considered separately as well as considered altogether. We also examine redshift evolution of the mass–richness relation. As a result, we present measurements of the mass coefficient (M200|20) and the power-law slope (α) for power-law fits to the mass and richness values in each of the redshift bins. We find values of the mass coefficient of 8.49 ± 0.526, 14.1 ± 1.78, 30.2 ± 8.74 and 9.23 ± 0.525 × 1013 h–1 M⊙ for each of the four redshift bins, respectively. As a result, we find values of the power-law slope of 0.905 ± 0.0585, 0.948 ± 0.100, 1.33 ± 0.260 and 0.883 ± 0.0500, respectively.« less

  3. Mass calibration of galaxy clusters at redshift 0.1–1.0 using weak lensing in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 co-add

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesner, Matthew P.; Lin, Huan; Soares-Santos, Marcelle

    2015-07-08

    We present galaxy cluster mass–richness relations found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 co-add using clusters found using a Voronoi tessellation cluster finder. These relations were found using stacked weak lensing shear observed in a large sample of galaxy clusters. These mass–richness relations are presented for four redshift bins, 0.1 < z ≤ 0.4, 0.4 < z ≤ 0.7, 0.7 < z ≤ 1.0 and 0.1 < z ≤ 1.0. We describe the sample of galaxy clusters and explain how these clusters were found using a Voronoi tessellation cluster finder. We fit a Navarro-Frenk-White profile to the stacked weak lensing shear signal in redshift and richness bins in order to measure virial mass (M200). We describe several effects that can bias weak lensing measurements, including photometric redshift bias, the effect of the central BCG, halo miscentering, photometric redshift uncertainty and foreground galaxy contamination. We present mass–richness relations using richness measure NVT with each of these effects considered separately as well as considered altogether. We also examine redshift evolution of the mass–richness relation. As a result, we present measurements of the mass coefficient (M200|20) and the power-law slope (α) for power-law fits to the mass and richness values in each of the redshift bins. We find values of the mass coefficient of 8.49 ± 0.526, 14.1 ± 1.78, 30.2 ± 8.74 and 9.23 ± 0.525 × 1013 h–1 M for each of the four redshift bins, respectively. As a result, we find values of the power-law slope of 0.905 ± 0.0585, 0.948 ± 0.100, 1.33 ± 0.260 and 0.883 ± 0.0500, respectively.

  4. X-ray properties of K-selected galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.0: investigating trends with stellar mass, redshift and spectral type

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Therese M.; Kriek, Mariska; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Greene, Jenny E. E-mail: mkriek@berkeley.edu

    2014-03-01

    We examine how the total X-ray luminosity correlates with stellar mass, stellar population, and redshift for a K-band limited sample of ∼3500 galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.0 from the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey in the COSMOS field. The galaxy sample is divided into 32 different galaxy types, based on similarities between the spectral energy distributions. For each galaxy type, we further divide the sample into bins of redshift and stellar mass, and perform an X-ray stacking analysis using the Chandra COSMOS data. We find that full band X-ray luminosity is primarily increasing with stellar mass, and at similar mass and spectral type is higher at larger redshifts. When comparing at the same stellar mass, we find that the X-ray luminosity is slightly higher for younger galaxies (i.e., weaker 4000 Å breaks), but the scatter in this relation is large. We compare the observed X-ray luminosities to those expected from low- and high-mass X-ray binaries (XRBs). For blue galaxies, XRBs can almost fully account for the observed emission, while for older galaxies with larger 4000 Å breaks, active galactic nuclei (AGN) or hot gas dominate the measured X-ray flux. After correcting for XRBs, the X-ray luminosity is still slightly higher in younger galaxies, although this correlation is not significant. AGN appear to be a larger component of galaxy X-ray luminosity at earlier times, as the hardness ratio increases with redshift. Together with the slight increase in X-ray luminosity this may indicate more obscured AGNs or higher accretion rates at earlier times.

  5. A Tight Relation between N/O Ratio and Galaxy Stellar Mass Can Explain the Evolution of Strong Emission Line Ratios with Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Daniel; Faisst, Andreas; Capak, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The offset of high-redshift star-forming galaxies in the [O iii]/Hβ versus [N ii]/Hα (O3N2) diagram in comparison with the local star-forming galaxy sequence is now well established. The physical origin of the shift is the subject of some debate and has important implications for metallicity measurements based on strong lines at all redshifts. To investigate the origin of the O3N2 offset, we use a sample of ˜100,000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR12 to understand how measurable galaxy physical properties ({{{Σ }}}{SFR}, ionization parameter, nitrogen-to-oxygen (N/O) ratio, and stellar mass) drive galaxy position in two key diagnostic diagrams: O3N2 and [O iii]/Hβ versus [S ii]/Hα (O3S2). At fixed [O iii]/Hβ, galaxies close to the high-redshift locus in O3N2 have higher {{{Σ }}}{SFR}, stellar mass, and N/O ratio. We conclude that higher N/O ratios at fixed [O iii]/Hβ are the proximate cause of the O3N2 shift. We also find a tight correspondence in the distributions of stellar mass and N/O in the diagnostic diagrams. This relation, spanning a range of galaxy evolutionary states, suggests that the N/O–M * relation is more fundamental than the relation between N/O and O/H. We argue that a more fundamental N/O–M * relation is well-motivated physically. Because the mass–metallicity relation evolves more rapidly with redshift than N/O–M *, the N/O ratios of high-redshift galaxies are elevated in comparison with local galaxies with the same gas-phase O/H. The O3N2 shift and elevated N/O ratios observed in high-redshift galaxies, therefore, come about as a natural consequence of the N/O–M * relation combined with the evolution of the mass–metallicity relation.

  6. Black Hole Mass Estimates and Emission-line Properties of a Sample of Redshift z > 6.5 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Gisella; Venemans, Bram P.; Decarli, Roberto; Gennaro, Mario; Simcoe, Robert A.; Dietrich, Matthias; Peterson, Bradley M.; Walter, Fabian; Frank, Stephan; McMahon, Richard G.; Hewett, Paul C.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Simpson, Chris

    2014-08-01

    We present the analysis of optical and near-infrared spectra of the only four z > 6.5 quasars known to date, discovered in the UKIDSS-LAS and VISTA-VIKING surveys. Our data set consists of new Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter and Magellan/FIRE observations. These are the best optical/NIR spectroscopic data that are likely to be obtained for the z > 6.5 sample using current 6-10 m facilities. We estimate the black hole (BH) mass, the Eddington ratio, and the Si IV/C IV, C III]/C IV, and Fe II/Mg II emission-line flux ratios. We perform spectral modeling using a procedure that allows us to derive a probability distribution for the continuum components and to obtain the quasar properties weighted upon the underlying distribution of continuum models. The z > 6.5 quasars show the same emission properties as their counterparts at lower redshifts. The z > 6.5 quasars host BHs with masses of ~109 M ⊙ that are accreting close to the Eddington luminosity (langlog(L Bol/L Edd)rang = -0.4 ± 0.2), in agreement with what has been observed for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.5 quasars. By comparing the Si IV/C IV and C III]/C IV flux ratios with the results obtained from luminosity-matched samples at z ~ 6 and 2 <= z <= 4.5, we find no evidence of evolution of the line ratios with cosmic time. We compare the measured Fe II/Mg II flux ratios with those obtained for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.4 sources. The two samples are analyzed using a consistent procedure. There is no evidence that the Fe II/Mg II flux ratio evolves between z = 7 and z = 4. Under the assumption that the Fe II/Mg II traces the Fe/Mg abundance ratio, this implies the presence of major episodes of chemical enrichment in the quasar hosts in the first ~0.8 Gyr after the Big Bang. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, programs 286.A-5025, 087.A-0890, and 088.A-0897. This paper also includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescope located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  7. Black hole mass estimates and emission-line properties of a sample of redshift z > 6.5 quasars

    SciTech Connect

    De Rosa, Gisella; Peterson, Bradley M.; Frank, Stephan; Venemans, Bram P.; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Gennaro, Mario; Simcoe, Robert A.; Dietrich, Matthias; McMahon, Richard G.; Hewett, Paul C.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Simpson, Chris

    2014-08-01

    We present the analysis of optical and near-infrared spectra of the only four z > 6.5 quasars known to date, discovered in the UKIDSS-LAS and VISTA-VIKING surveys. Our data set consists of new Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter and Magellan/FIRE observations. These are the best optical/NIR spectroscopic data that are likely to be obtained for the z > 6.5 sample using current 6-10 m facilities. We estimate the black hole (BH) mass, the Eddington ratio, and the Si IV/C IV, C III]/C IV, and Fe II/Mg II emission-line flux ratios. We perform spectral modeling using a procedure that allows us to derive a probability distribution for the continuum components and to obtain the quasar properties weighted upon the underlying distribution of continuum models. The z > 6.5 quasars show the same emission properties as their counterparts at lower redshifts. The z > 6.5 quasars host BHs with masses of ∼10{sup 9} M{sub ☉} that are accreting close to the Eddington luminosity ((log(L{sub Bol}/L{sub Edd})) = –0.4 ± 0.2), in agreement with what has been observed for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.5 quasars. By comparing the Si IV/C IV and C III]/C IV flux ratios with the results obtained from luminosity-matched samples at z ∼ 6 and 2 ≤ z ≤ 4.5, we find no evidence of evolution of the line ratios with cosmic time. We compare the measured Fe II/Mg II flux ratios with those obtained for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.4 sources. The two samples are analyzed using a consistent procedure. There is no evidence that the Fe II/Mg II flux ratio evolves between z = 7 and z = 4. Under the assumption that the Fe II/Mg II traces the Fe/Mg abundance ratio, this implies the presence of major episodes of chemical enrichment in the quasar hosts in the first ∼0.8 Gyr after the Big Bang.

  8. The SL2S Galaxy-scale Lens Sample. IV. The Dependence of the Total Mass Density Profile of Early-type Galaxies on Redshift, Stellar Mass, and Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Suyu, Sherry H.; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range zd = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at zs = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (\\rho (r)\\propto r^{-\\gamma ^{\\prime }}), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ* = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M * and R eff, γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = -0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = -0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M *,R eff with the evolution of the R eff-M * taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work.

  9. Investigating the burstiness of the star formation history of low-mass galaxies at intermediate redshifts with KECK/DEIMOS spectroscopy and CANDELS imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Rafelski, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The history of gas accretion, expulsion, and recycling, and star formation of low-mass galaxies (with stellar mass below 10^9 Msun) is thought to be stochastic and bursty. We combine the deep broad-band images of CANDELS and the high-resolution optical spectroscopy from Keck/DEIMOS surveys --- TKRS, DEEP2, DEEP3, and HALO7D --- to explore the star formation histories of low-mass galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.5≤z≤1.0). We study (1) the stellar mass (M)--gas-phase metallicity (Z) relation (MZR) and its scatter and (2) the ratio of star formation rates (SFRs) measured through FUV to that through Hβ (FUV--Hβ ratio). Our MZR sample is ˜20 times larger than those in previous studies beyond the local universe. This huge gain in sample size enables superior constraints on the MZR and its scatter in the low-mass regime. We find that the scatter of the MZR increases as mass decreases. For the FUV--Hβ ratio, we find that it increases with the decrease of mass and SFR. Both results can be explained by low-mass galaxies having a star formation history with more bursts than massive galaxies having. A simple model shows that the star formation occuring in starburst phases in low-mass galaxies is 5x higher than that in a constant star formation phase, while, for massive galaxies, the bursty phases of star formation is negligible. Finally, we find that our median FUV--Hβ ratio for low-mass galaxies is higher than that of local galaxies of the same mass, implying a redshift evolution.

  10. What is the Dominant Mode of Star-Formation as a Function of Galaxy Mass and Redshift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassin, Susan

    We propose to determine star formation histories of galaxies since a redshift of 5. In particular, we will measure the fraction of galaxies which experience significantly elevated and depressed star-formation activity with respect to the cosmic average, and quantify the amount of time galaxies spend in such states. We will do this using our new galaxy spectral models which are based on a combination of star-formation and chemical enrichment histories from hierarchical simulations of galaxy formation. We propose to use these models to fit an extremely large data set of 105,000 galaxies over 0.2 < z < 5 with photometry spanning the UV through the infrared and with spectroscopic (80%, mostly from low resolution spectra) and photometric (20%) redshifts. There is no other data set larger or more complete in terms of redshift or wavelength, and there will likely not be one until JWST or 30-meter class telescopes are online.

  11. BULK FLOWS FROM GALAXY LUMINOSITIES: APPLICATION TO 2MASS REDSHIFT SURVEY AND FORECAST FOR NEXT-GENERATION DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect

    Nusser, Adi; Branchini, Enzo; Davis, Marc E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it

    2011-07-10

    We present a simple method for measuring cosmological bulk flows from large redshift surveys, based on the apparent dimming or brightening of galaxies due to their peculiar motion. It is aimed at estimating bulk flows of cosmological volumes containing large numbers of galaxies. Constraints on the bulk flow are obtained by minimizing systematic variations in galaxy luminosities with respect to a reference luminosity function measured from the whole survey. This method offers two advantages over more popular bulk flow estimators: it is independent of error-prone distance indicators and of the poorly known galaxy bias. We apply the method to the Two Micron All Sky Survey redshift survey to measure the local bulk flows of spherical shells centered on the Milky Way (MW). The result is consistent with that obtained by Nusser and Davis using the SFI++ catalogue of Tully-Fisher distance indicators. We also make an assessment of the ability of the method to constrain bulk flows at larger redshifts (z = 0.1-0.5) from next-generation data sets. As a case study we consider the planned EUCLID survey. Using this method we will be able to measure a bulk motion of {approx}200 km s{sup -1} of 10{sup 6} galaxies with photometric redshifts, at the 3{sigma} level for both z {approx} 0.15 and z {approx} 0.5. Thus, the method will allow us to put strong constraints on dark energy models as well as alternative theories for structure formation.

  12. UV-TO-FIR ANALYSIS OF SPITZER/IRAC SOURCES IN THE EXTENDED GROTH STRIP. II. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, STELLAR MASSES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barro, G.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Kajisawa, M.; Yamada, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    2011-04-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 {mu}m selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] {<=} 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg{sup 2}. The typical photometric redshift accuracy is {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 {mu}m data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z {approx}> 1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 {mu}m data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.

  13. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) . Luminosity and stellar mass dependence of galaxy clustering at 0.5 < z < 1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulli, F.; Bolzonella, M.; Branchini, E.; Davidzon, I.; de la Torre, S.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; Moscardini, L.; Pollo, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We investigate the dependence of galaxy clustering on luminosity and stellar mass in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.1, using the first ~ 55 000 redshifts from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Methods: We measured the redshift-space two-point correlation functions (2PCF), ξ(s) and ξ(rp,π) , and the projected correlation function, wp(rp), in samples covering different ranges of B-band absolute magnitudes and stellar masses. We considered both threshold and binned galaxy samples, with median B-band absolute magnitudes - 21.6 ≲ MB - 5log (h) ≲ - 19.5 and median stellar masses 9.8 ≲ log (M⋆ [h-2 M⊙]) ≲ 10.7. We assessed the real-space clustering in the data from the projected correlation function, which we model as a power law in the range 0.2 < rp [h-1 Mpc ] < 20. Finally, we estimated the galaxy bias as a function of luminosity, stellar mass, and redshift, assuming a flat Λ cold dark matter model to derive the dark matter 2PCF. Results: We provide the best-fit parameters of the power-law model assumed for the real-space 2PCF - the correlation length, r0, and the slope, γ - as well as the linear bias parameter, as a function of the B-band absolute magnitude, stellar mass, and redshift. We confirm and provide the tightest constraints on the dependence of clustering on luminosity at 0.5 < z < 1.1. We prove the complexity of comparing the clustering dependence on stellar mass from samples that are originally flux-limited and discuss the possible origin of the observed discrepancies. Overall, our measurements provide stronger constraints on galaxy formation models, which are now required to match, in addition to local observations, the clustering evolution measured by VIPERS galaxies between z = 0.5 and z = 1.1 for a broad range of luminosities and stellar masses. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, under programmes 182.A-0886 (LP) at the Very Large Telescope, and also based on

  14. A PARAMETERIZED GALAXY CATALOG SIMULATOR FOR TESTING CLUSTER FINDING, MASS ESTIMATION, AND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT ESTIMATION IN OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jeeseon; Mohr, Joseph J.; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Rude, Cody; Warren, Michael S.; Dolag, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    We present a galaxy catalog simulator that converts N-body simulations with halo and subhalo catalogs into mock, multiband photometric catalogs. The simulator assigns galaxy properties to each subhalo in a way that reproduces the observed cluster galaxy halo occupation distribution, the radial and mass-dependent variation in fractions of blue galaxies, the luminosity functions in the cluster and the field, and the color-magnitude relation in clusters. Moreover, the evolution of these parameters is tuned to match existing observational constraints. Parameterizing an ensemble of cluster galaxy properties enables us to create mock catalogs with variations in those properties, which in turn allows us to quantify the sensitivity of cluster finding to current observational uncertainties in these properties. Field galaxies are sampled from existing multiband photometric surveys of similar depth. We present an application of the catalog simulator to characterize the selection function and contamination of a galaxy cluster finder that utilizes the cluster red sequence together with galaxy clustering on the sky. We estimate systematic uncertainties in the selection to be at the {<=}15% level with current observational constraints on cluster galaxy populations and their evolution. We find the contamination in this cluster finder to be {approx}35% to redshift z {approx} 0.6. In addition, we use the mock galaxy catalogs to test the optical mass indicator B{sub gc} and a red-sequence redshift estimator. We measure the intrinsic scatter of the B{sub gc}-mass relation to be approximately log normal with {sigma}{sub log10M}{approx}0.25 and we demonstrate photometric redshift accuracies for massive clusters at the {approx}3% level out to z {approx} 0.7.

  15. The UV colours of high-redshift early-type galaxies: evidence for recent star formation and stellar mass assembly over the last 8 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, S.; Khochfar, S.; Schawinski, K.; Yi, S. K.; Gawiser, E.; Silk, J.; Virani, S. N.; Cardamone, C. N.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Urry, C. M.

    2008-07-01

    We combine deep optical and NIR (UBVRIzJK) photometry from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC) with redshifts from the COMBO-17 survey to perform a large-scale study of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties of 674 high-redshift (0.5 < z < 1) early-type galaxies, drawn from the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDFS). Galaxy morphologies are determined through visual inspection of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken from the GEMS survey. We harness the sensitivity of the UV to young (<1-Gyr old) stars to quantify the recent star formation history of early-type galaxies across a range of luminosities [-23.5 < M(V) < -18]. Comparisons to simple stellar populations forming at high redshift indicate that ~1.1 per cent of early-types in this sample are consistent with purely passive ageing since z = 2 - this value drops to ~0.24 per cent and ~0.15 per cent for z = 3 and 5, respectively. Parametrizing the recent star formation (RSF) in terms of the mass fraction of stars less than a Gyr old, we find that the early-type population as a whole shows a typical RSF between 5 and 13 per cent in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1. Early-types on the broad UV `red sequence' show RSF values less than 5 per cent, while the reddest early-types (which are also the most luminous) are virtually quiescent with RSF values of ~1 per cent. In contrast to their low-redshift (z < 0.1) counterparts, the high-redshift early-types in this sample show a pronounced bimodality in the rest-frame UV-optical colour, with a minor but significant peak centred on the blue cloud. Furthermore, star formation in the most active early-types is a factor of 2 greater at z ~ 0.7 than in the local universe. Given that evolved sources of UV flux (e.g. horizontal branch stars) should be absent at z > 0.5, implying that the UV is dominated by young stars, we find compelling evidence that early-types of all luminosities form stars over the lifetime of the Universe, although the bulk of their

  16. The Relative and Absolute Ages of Old Globular Clusters in the LCDM Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenti, Michele; Padoan, Paolo; Jimenez, Raul

    2015-08-01

    Old globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way have ages of about 13 Gyr, placing their formation time in the reionization epoch. We propose a novel scenario for the formation of these systems based on the merger of two or more atomic cooling halos at high redshift (z\\gt 6). First-generation stars are formed as an intense burst in the center of a minihalo that grows above the threshold for hydrogen cooling (halo mass {M}{{h}}∼ {10}8 {M}ȯ ) by undergoing a major merger within its cooling timescale (∼150 Myr). Subsequent minor mergers and sustained gas infall bring a new supply of pristine gas to the halo center, creating conditions that can trigger new episodes of star formation. The dark-matter halo around the GC is then stripped during assembly of the host-galaxy halo. Minihalo merging is efficient only in a short redshift window, set by the {{Λ }}{CDM} parameters, allowing us to make a strong prediction on the age distribution for old GCs. From cosmological simulations, we derive an average merging redshift < z> =9 and a narrow distribution {{Δ }}z=2, implying average GC age < {t}{age}> =13.0+/- 0.2 {Gyr} including ∼0.2 Gyr of star formation delay. Qualitatively, our scenario reproduces other general old GC properties (characteristic masses and number of objects, metallicity versus galactocentric radius anticorrelation, radial distribution), but unlike age, these generally depend on details of baryonic physics. In addition to improved age measurements, direct validation of the model at z∼ 10 may be within reach with ultradeep gravitationally lensed observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  17. Redshift surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Present-day understanding of the large-scale galaxy distribution is reviewed. The statistics of the CfA redshift survey are briefly discussed. The need for deeper surveys to clarify the issues raised by recent studies of large-scale galactic distribution is addressed.

  18. The zCOSMOS redshift survey: the role of environment and stellar mass in shaping the rise of the morphology-density relation from z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasca, L. A. M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Iovino, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Kovač, K.; Bolzonella, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Abraham, R. G.; Cassata, P.; Cucciati, O.; Guzzo, L.; Tresse, L.; Zamorani, G.; Capak, P.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Sheth, K.; Zucca, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; de La Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Vergani, D.; Tanaka, M.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Ilbert, O.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Pozzetti, L.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.

    2009-08-01

    Context: For more than two decades we have known that galaxy morphological segregation is present in the Local Universe. It is important to see how this relation evolves with cosmic time. Aims: To investigate how galaxy assembly took place with cosmic time, we explore the evolution of the morphology-density relation up to redshift z ~ 1 using about 10 000 galaxies drawn from the zCOSMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey. Taking advantage of accurate HST/ACS morphologies from the COSMOS survey, of the well-characterised zCOSMOS 3D environment, and of a large sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshift, we want to study here the evolution of the morphology-density relation up to z ~ 1 and its dependence on galaxy luminosity and stellar mass. The multi-wavelength coverage of the field also allows a first study of the galaxy morphological segregation dependence on colour. We further attempt to disentangle between processes that occurred early in the history of the Universe or late in the life of galaxies. Methods: The zCOSMOS field benefits of high-resolution imaging in the F814W filter from the Advanced Camera for Survey (ACS). We use standard morphology classifiers, optimised for being robust against band-shifting and surface brightness dimming, and a new, objective, and automated method to convert morphological parameters into early, spiral, and irregular types. We use about 10 000 galaxies down to I_AB = 22.5 with a spectroscopic sampling rate of 33% to characterise the environment of galaxies up to z ~ 1 from the 100 kpc scales of galaxy groups up to the 100 Mpc scales of the cosmic web. The evolution of the morphology-density relation in different environments is then studied for luminosity and stellar-mass selected, volume-limited samples of galaxies. The trends are described and related to the various physical processes that could play a relevant role in the build-up of the morphology-density relation. Results: We confirm that the morphological segregation is present

  19. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2013-11-10

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z{sub d} = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z{sub s} = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r{sup -γ{sup '}}), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ{sub *} = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M{sub *} and R{sub eff}, γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M{sub *},R{sub eff} with the evolution of the R{sub eff}-M{sub *} taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work.

  20. Luminous starbursts in the redshift desert at z˜ 1-2: star formation rates, masses and evidence for outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Manda; Chapman, S. C.; Smail, Ian; Alaghband-Zadeh, S.; Swinbank, A. M.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Blain, A. W.

    2011-12-01

    We present a spectroscopic catalogue of 40 luminous starburst galaxies at z= 0.7-1.7 (median z= 1.3). 19 of these are submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) and 21 are submillimetre-faint radio galaxies (SFRGs). This sample helps us to fill in the redshift desert at z= 1.2-1.7 in previous studies as well as to probe a lower luminosity population of galaxies. Radio fluxes are used to determine star formation rates for our sample which range from around 50-500 M⊙ yr-1 and are generally lower than those in z˜ 2 SMGs. We identify nebular [O II] 3727 emission in the rest-UV spectra and use the linewidths to show that SMGs and SFRGs in our sample have larger linewidths and therefore dynamical masses than optically selected star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The linewidths are indistinguishable from those measured in the z˜ 2 SMG populations suggesting little evolution in the dynamical masses of the galaxies between redshift 1 and 2. [Ne V] and [Ne III] emission lines are identified in a subset of the spectra indicating the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In addition, a host of interstellar absorption lines corresponding to transitions of Mg II and Fe II ions are also detected. These features show up prominently in composite spectra and we use these composites to demonstrate that the absorption lines are present at an average blueshift of -240 ± 50 km s-1 relative to the systemic velocities of the galaxies derived from [O II]. This indicates the presence of large-scale outflowing interstellar gas in these systems. We do not find any evidence for differences in outflow velocities between SMGs and SFRGs of similar infrared luminosities. We find that the outflow velocities of z˜ 1.3 SMGs and SFRGs are consistent with the V∝ SFR0.3 local envelope seen in lower redshift ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). These observations are well explained by a momentum-driven wind model.

  1. Is the misalignment of the Local Group velocity and the dipole generated by the 2MASS Redshift Survey typical in {lambda} cold dark matter and the halo model of galaxies?

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogdu, Pirin; Lahav, Ofer

    2009-08-15

    We predict the acceleration of the Local Group generated by the 2MASS Redshift Survey within the framework of {lambda} cold dark matter and the halo model of galaxies. We show that as the galaxy fluctuations derived from the halo model have more power on small scales compared with the mass fluctuations, the misalignment angle between the CMB velocity vector and the 2MASS Redshift Survey dipole is in reasonable agreement with the observed 21 deg. This statistical analysis suggests that it is not necessary to invoke a hypothetical nearby galaxy or a distant cluster to explain this misalignment.

  2. Gas-Rich Mergers in LCDM: Disk Survivability and the Baryonic Assembly of Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; /New York City Coll. Tech.

    2009-08-03

    We use N-body simulations and observationally-normalized relations between dark matter halo mass, stellar mass, and cold gas mass to derive robust expectations about the baryonic content of major mergers out to redshift z {approx} 2. First, we find that the majority of major mergers (m/M > 0.3) experienced by Milky Way size dark matter halos should have been gas-rich, and that gas-rich mergers are increasingly common at high redshift. Though the frequency of major mergers into galaxy halos in our simulations greatly exceeds the observed late-type galaxy fraction, the frequency of gas-poor major mergers is consistent with the observed fraction of bulge-dominated galaxies across the halo mass range M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 11} - 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}}. These results lend support to the conjecture that mergers with high baryonic gas fractions play an important role in building and/or preserving disk galaxies in the universe. Secondly, we find that there is a transition mass below which a galaxy's past major mergers were primarily gas-rich and above which they were gas poor. The associated stellar mass scale corresponds closely to that marking the observed bimodal division between blue, star-forming, disk-dominated systems and red, bulge-dominated systems with old populations. Finally, we find that the overall fraction of a galaxy's cold baryons deposited directly via major mergers is substantial. Approximately 30% of the cold baryonic material in M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} (M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 11.5} M{sub {circle_dot}}) galaxies is accreted as cold gas in major mergers. For more massive galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}} (M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}} the fraction of baryons amassed in mergers is even higher, {approx} 50%, but most of these accreted baryons are delivered directly in the form of stars. This baryonic mass deposition is almost unavoidable, and provides a limit on

  3. GAS-RICH MERGERS IN LCDM: DISK SURVIVABILITY AND THE BARYONIC ASSEMBLY OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Maller, Ariyeh H.

    2009-09-01

    We use N-body simulations and observationally normalized relations between dark matter halo mass, stellar mass, and cold gas mass to derive robust expectations about the baryonic content of major mergers out to redshift z {approx} 2. First, we find that the majority of major mergers (m/M>0.3) experienced by the Milky Way size dark matter halos should have been gas-rich, and that gas-rich mergers are increasingly common at high redshifts. Though the frequency of major mergers into galaxy halos in our simulations greatly exceeds the observed early-type galaxy fraction, the frequency of gas-poor major mergers is consistent with the observed fraction of bulge-dominated galaxies across the halo mass range M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 11}-10{sup 13} M{sub sun}. These results lend support to the conjecture that mergers with high-baryonic gas fractions play an important role in building and/or preserving disk galaxies in the universe. Second, we find that there is a transition mass below which a galaxy's past major mergers were primarily gas-rich and above which they were gas-poor. The associated stellar mass scale corresponds closely to that marking the observed bimodal division between blue, star-forming, disk-dominated systems and red, bulge-dominated systems with old populations. Finally, we find that the overall fraction of a galaxy's cold baryons deposited directly via major mergers is significant. Approximately {approx}20%-30% of the cold baryonic material in M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun} (M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 12} M{sub sun}) galaxies is accreted as cold gas or stars via major mergers since z = 2, with most of this accretion in the form of cold gas. For more massive galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} (M {sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub sun}), the fraction of baryons amassed in mergers since z = 2 is even higher, {approx}40%, but most of these accreted baryons are delivered directly in the form of stars. This baryonic mass

  4. Evolution of the mass, size, and star formation rate in high redshift merging galaxies. MIRAGE - A new sample of simulations with detailed stellar feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, V.; Renaud, F.; Epinat, B.; Amram, P.; Bournaud, F.; Contini, T.; Teyssier, R.; Lambert, J.-C.

    2014-02-01

    Context. In Λ-CDM models, galaxies are thought to grow both through continuous cold gas accretion coming from the cosmic web and episodic merger events. The relative importance of these different mechanisms at different cosmic epochs is nevertheless not yet understood well. Aims: We aim to address questions related to galaxy mass assembly through major and minor wet merging processes in the redshift range 1 < z < 2, an epoch that corresponds to the peak of cosmic star formation history. A significant fraction of Milky Way-like galaxies are thought to have undergone an unstable clumpy phase at this early stage. We focus on the behavior of the young clumpy disks when galaxies are undergoing gas-rich galaxy mergers. Methods: Using the adaptive mesh-refinement code RAMSES, we build the Merging and Isolated high redshift Adaptive mesh refinement Galaxies (MIRAGE) sample. It is composed of 20 mergers and 3 isolated idealized disks simulations, which sample disk orientations and merger masses. Our simulations can reach a physical resolution of 7 parsecs, and include star formation, metal line cooling, metallicity advection, and a recent physically-motivated implementation of stellar feedback that encompasses OB-type stars radiative pressure, photo-ionization heating, and supernovae. Results: The star formation history of isolated disks shows a stochastic star formation rate, which proceeds from the complex behavior of the giant clumps. Our minor and major gas-rich merger simulations do not trigger starbursts, suggesting a saturation of the star formation due to the detailed accounting of stellar feedback processes in a turbulent and clumpy interstellar medium fed by substantial accretion from the circumgalactic medium. Our simulations are close to the normal regime of the disk-like star formation on a Schmidt-Kennicutt diagram. The mass-size relation and its rate of evolution in the redshift range 1 < z < 2 matches observations, suggesting that the inside-out growth

  5. A Variable IMF Slope To Fit The LCDM Picture To Observed High-z Submillimeter Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, A. M.; Navarrete, F. P.; Lagos, C. Del P.; Padilla, N. D.; Cora, S. A.; Tecce, T. E.

    2011-10-01

    Using a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) allows to describe fairly well a large variety of properties in galaxies. However, some studies have found that it is necessary to change it for a top-heavy IMF in starbursts to give an adequate prediction in the abundance of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at high redshifts. We show preliminary results of an implementation of a star formation intensity dependent IMF slope in a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, which has been connected with a spectrophotometric code that provides an adequate treatment of reprocessed starlight by dust. We also explore systematic effects on the counts of submm sources coming from the beamsize of the receiver taking into account the spatial correlation of sources and foreground objects. This helps alleviate the discrepancies found between the model and the observations.

  6. Evidence for a non-universal stellar initial mass function in low-redshift high-density early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Simard, Luc

    2012-05-01

    We determine an absolute calibration of stellar mass-to-light ratios for the densest ≃3 per cent of early-type galaxies in the local Universe (redshift z≃ 0.08) from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. This sample of ˜4000 galaxies has, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF), effective stellar surface densities Σe > 2500 M⊙ pc-2, stellar population synthesis (SPS) stellar masses log10(MSPS/M⊙) < 10.8 and aperture velocity dispersions of ? (68 per cent range). In contrast to typical early-type galaxies, we show that these dense early-type galaxies follow the virial Fundamental Plane, which suggests that mass follows light. With the additional assumption that any dark matter does not follow the light, the dynamical masses of dense galaxies provide a direct measurement of stellar masses. Our dynamical masses (Mdyn), obtained from the spherical Jeans equations, are only weakly sensitive to the choice of anisotropy (β) due to the relatively large aperture of the SDSS fibre for these galaxies: Rap≃ 1.5Re. Assuming isotropic orbits (β= 0), we find a median log10(Mdyn/MSPS) = 0.233 ± 0.003, consistent with a Salpeter IMF, while more bottom-heavy IMFs and standard Milky Way IMFs are strongly disfavoured. Our results are consistent with, but do not require, a dependence of the IMF on dynamical mass or velocity dispersion. We find evidence for a colour dependence to the IMF such that redder galaxies have heavier IMFs with Mdyn/MSPS∝ (g-r)1.13 ± 0.09. This may reflect a more fundamental dependence of the IMF on the age or metallicity of a stellar population, or the density at which the stars formed.

  7. BROAD-LINE REGION PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN EXTREME POPULATION A QUASARS: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE CENTRAL BLACK HOLE MASS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W. E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es

    2012-09-20

    We describe a method for estimating physical conditions in the broad-line region (BLR) for a significant subsample of Seyfert 1 nuclei and quasars. Several diagnostic ratios based on intermediate (Al III {lambda}1860, Si III] {lambda}1892) and high (C IV {lambda}1549, Si IV {lambda}1397) ionization lines in the UV spectra of quasars are used to constrain density, ionization, and metallicity of the emitting gas. We apply the method to two extreme Population A quasars-the prototypical NLSy1 I Zw 1 and higher z source SDSS J120144.36+011611.6. Under assumptions of spherical symmetry and pure photoionization we infer BLR physical conditions: low ionization (ionization parameter <10{sup -2}), high density (10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}), and significant metal enrichment. Ionization parameter and density can be derived independently for each source with an uncertainty that is less than {+-}0.3 dex. We use the product of density and ionization parameter to estimate the BLR radius and derive an estimation of the virial black hole mass (M{sub BH}). Estimates of M{sub BH} based on the 'photoionization' analysis described in this paper are probably more accurate than those derived from the mass-luminosity correlations widely employed to compute black hole masses for high-redshift quasars.

  8. COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATIONS OF ACTIVE AND NON-ACTIVE GALAXIES IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELDS: HIGH-REDSHIFT CONSTRAINTS AND STELLAR-MASS SELECTION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Y. Q.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Rafferty, D. A.; Schneider, D. P.; Alexander, D. M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Bauer, F. E.; Silverman, J. D.

    2010-09-01

    We extend color-magnitude relations for moderate-luminosity X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) hosts and non-AGN galaxies through the galaxy formation epoch (z {approx} 1-4) in the Chandra Deep Field-North and Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-N and CDF-S, respectively; jointly CDFs) surveys. This study was enabled by the deepest available X-ray data from the 2 Ms CDF surveys as well as complementary ultradeep multiwavelength data in these regions. We utilized analyses of color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to assess the role of moderate-luminosity AGNs in galaxy evolution. First, we confirm some previous results and extend them to higher redshifts, finding, for example, that (1) there is no apparent color bimodality (i.e., the lack of an obvious red sequence and blue cloud) for AGN hosts from z {approx} 0to2, but non-AGN galaxy color bimodality exists up to z {approx} 3 and the relative fraction of red-sequence galaxies generally increases as the redshift decreases (consistent with a blue-to-red migration of galaxies), (2) most AGNs reside in massive hosts and the AGN fraction rises strongly toward higher stellar mass, up to z {approx} 2-3, and (3) the colors of both AGN hosts and non-AGN galaxies become redder as the stellar mass increases, up to z {approx} 2-3. Second, we point out that, in order to obtain a complete and reliable picture, it is critical to use mass-matched samples to examine color-magnitude relations of AGN hosts and non-AGN galaxies. We show that for mass-matched samples up to z {approx} 2-3, AGN hosts lie in the same region of the CMD as non-AGN galaxies; i.e., there is no specific clustering of AGN hosts in the CMD around the red sequence, the top of the blue cloud, or the green valley in between. The AGN fraction ({approx} 10%) is mostly independent of host-galaxy color, providing an indication of the duty cycle of supermassive black hole growth in typical massive galaxies. These results are in contrast to those obtained with non-mass

  9. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya; Magnelli, Benjamin; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola; McKee, Christopher F.; Pozzi, Francesca

    2013-08-20

    We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti and McKee to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) Herschel data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts (4 {approx}> z {approx}> 0.3) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in (1 + z{sub phot})/(1 + z{sub spec}) of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass (L/M) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution, rather than dust temperatures. To assess the dependence of our photometric redshift method on the data in this sample, we contrast the average accuracy of our method when we use PACS data, versus SPIRE data, versus both PACS and SPIRE data. We also discuss potential selection effects that may affect the Herschel sample. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared-bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to calculate the star formation rate density (SFRD) of submillimeter bright sources detected by AzTEC and PACS. The AzTEC-PACS sources, which have a threshold 850 {mu}m flux {approx}> 5 mJy, contribute 15% of the SFRD from all ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }), and 3% of the total SFRD at z {approx} 2.

  10. The Subaru FMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey (FastSound). III. The mass-metallicity relation and the fundamental metallicity relation at z ˜ 1.4*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, Kiyoto; Ohta, Kouji; Akiyama, Masayuki; Bunker, Andrew; Dalton, Gavin; Ellis, Richard; Glazebrook, Karl; Goto, Tomotsugu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Okada, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Tonegawa, Motonari; Totani, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    We present the results from a large near-infrared spectroscopic survey made with Subaru/FMOS (FastSound) consisting of ˜ 4000 galaxies at z ˜ 1.4 with significant Hα detection. We measure the gas-phase metallicity from the [N II]λ6583/Hα emission line ratio of the composite spectra in various stellar mass and star-formation rate bins. The resulting mass-metallicity relation generally agrees with previous studies obtained in a similar redshift range to that of our sample. No clear dependence of the mass-metallicity relation on star-formation rate is found. Our result at z ˜ 1.4 is roughly in agreement with the fundamental metallicity relation at z ˜ 0.1 with a fiber aperture corrected star-formation rate. We detect significant [S II]λλ6716,6731 emission lines from the composite spectra. The electron density estimated from the [S II]λλ6716,6731 line ratio ranges from 10-500 cm-3, which generally agrees with that of local galaxies. On the other hand, the distribution of our sample on [N II]λ6583/Hα vs. [S II]λλ6716,6731/Hα is different to that found locally. We estimate the nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio (N/O) from the N2S2 index, and find that the N/O in galaxies at z ˜ 1.4 is significantly higher than the local values at a fixed metallicity and stellar mass. The metallicity at z ˜ 1.4 recalculated with this N/O enhancement taken into account decreases by 0.1-0.2 dex. The resulting metallicity is lower than the local fundamental metallicity relation.

  11. THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: CLUSTERING DEPENDENCE ON GALAXY STELLAR MASS AND STAR FORMATION RATE AT z {approx} 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mostek, Nick; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael; Davis, Marc; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2013-04-10

    We present DEEP2 galaxy clustering measurements at z {approx} 1 as a function of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and specific SFR (sSFR). We find a strong positive correlation between stellar mass and clustering amplitude on 1-10 h {sup -1} Mpc scales for blue, star-forming galaxies with 9.5 < log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) < 11 and no dependence for red, quiescent galaxies with 10.5 < log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) < 11.5. Using recently re-calibrated DEEP2 SFRs from restframe B-band magnitude and optical colors, we find that within the blue galaxy population at z {approx} 1 the clustering amplitude increases strongly with increasing SFR and decreasing sSFR. For red galaxies there is no significant correlation between clustering amplitude and either SFR or sSFR. Blue galaxies with high SFR or low sSFR are as clustered on large scales as red galaxies. We find that the clustering trend observed with SFR can be explained mostly, but not entirely, by the correlation between stellar mass and clustering amplitude for blue galaxies. We also show that galaxies above the star-forming 'main sequence' are less clustered than galaxies below the main sequence, at a given stellar mass. These results are not consistent with the high-sSFR population being dominated by major mergers. We also measure the clustering amplitude on small scales ({<=}0.3 h {sup -1} Mpc) and find an enhanced clustering signal relative to the best-fit large-scale power law for red galaxies with high stellar mass, blue galaxies with high SFR, and both red and blue galaxies with high sSFR. The increased small-scale clustering for galaxies with high sSFRs is likely linked to triggered star formation in interacting galaxies. These measurements provide strong constraints on galaxy evolution and halo occupation distribution models at z {approx} 1.

  12. Near-Infrared Properties of Moderate-Redshift Galaxy Clusters: Halo Occupation Number, Mass-to-Light Ratios and Omega(M)

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzin, Adam; Yee, H.K.C.; Hall, Patrick B.; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    Using K-band imaging for 15 of the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology (CNOC1) clusters we examine the near-infrared properties of moderate-redshift (0.19 < z < 0.55) galaxy clusters. We find that the number of K-band selected cluster galaxies within R{sub 500} (the Halo Occupation Number, HON) is well-correlated with the cluster dynamical mass (M{sub 500}) and X-ray Temperature (T{sub x}); however, the intrinsic scatter in these scaling relations is 37% and 46% respectively. Comparison with clusters in the local universe shows that the HON-M{sub 500} relation does not evolve significantly between z = 0 and z {approx} 0.3. This suggests that if dark matter halos are disrupted or undergo significant tidal-stripping in high-density regions as seen in numerical simulations, the stellar mass within the halos is tightly bound, and not removed during the process. The total K-band cluster light (L{sub 200},K) and K-band selected richness (parameterized by B{sub gc,K}) are also correlated with both the cluster T{sub x} and M{sub 200}. The total (intrinsic) scatter in the L{sub 200,K}-M{sub 200} and B{sub gc,K}-M{sub 200} relations are 43%(31%) and 35%(18%) respectively and indicates that for massive clusters both L{sub 200,K} and B{sub gc,K} can predict M{sub 200} with similar accuracy as T{sub x}, L{sub x} or optical richness (B{sub gc}). Examination of the mass-to-light ratios of the clusters shows that similar to local clusters, the K-band mass-to-light ratio is an increasing function of halo mass. Using the K-band mass-to-light ratios of the clusters, we apply the Oort technique and find {Omega}{sub m,0} = 0.22 {+-} 0.02, which agrees well with recent combined concordance cosmology parameters, but, similar to previous cluster studies, is on the low-density end of preferred values.

  13. The COS-Halos survey: physical conditions and baryonic mass in the low-redshift circumgalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Werk, Jessica K.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Tejos, Nicolas; Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal; Lehner, Nicolas; O'Meara, John M.; Ford, Amanda Brady; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Davé, Romeel; Weinberg, David H.

    2014-09-01

    We analyze the physical conditions of the cool, photoionized (T ∼10{sup 4} K) circumgalactic medium (CGM) using the COS-Halos suite of gas column density measurements for 44 gaseous halos within 160 kpc of L ∼ L* galaxies at z ∼ 0.2. These data are well described by simple photoionization models, with the gas highly ionized (n {sub H} {sub II}/n {sub H} ≳ 99%) by the extragalactic ultraviolet background. Scaling by estimates for the virial radius, R {sub vir}, we show that the ionization state (tracked by the dimensionless ionization parameter, U) increases with distance from the host galaxy. The ionization parameters imply a decreasing volume density profile n {sub H} = (10{sup –4.2±0.25})(R/R {sub vir}){sup –0.8±0.3}. Our derived gas volume densities are several orders of magnitude lower than predictions from standard two-phase models with a cool medium in pressure equilibrium with a hot, coronal medium expected in virialized halos at this mass scale. Applying the ionization corrections to the H I column densities, we estimate a lower limit to the cool gas mass M{sub CGM}{sup cool}>6.5×10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} for the volume within R < R {sub vir}. Allowing for an additional warm-hot, O VI-traced phase, the CGM accounts for at least half of the baryons purported to be missing from dark matter halos at the 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} scale.

  14. HerMES: The Contribution to the Cosmic Infrared Background from Galaxies Selected by Mass and Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, M. P.; Moncelsi, L.; Quadri, R. F.; Arumugam, V.; Assef, R. J.; Béthermin, M.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Casey, C. M.; Conley, A.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Glenn, J.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ikarashi, S.; Ivison, R. J.; Kohno, K.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G.; Schulz, B.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Vaccari, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Zemcov, M.

    2013-12-01

    We quantify the fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) that originates from galaxies identified in the UV/optical/near-infrared by stacking 81,250 (~35.7 arcmin-2) K-selected sources (K AB < 24.0) split according to their rest-frame U - V versus V - J colors into 72,216 star-forming and 9034 quiescent galaxies, on maps from Spitzer/MIPS (24 μm), Herschel/PACS (100, 160 μm), Herschel/SPIRE (250, 350, 500 μm), and AzTEC (1100 μm). The fraction of the CIB resolved by our catalog is (69% ± 15%) at 24 μm, (78% ± 17%) at 70 μm, (58% ± 13%) at 100 μm, (78% ± 18%) at 160 μm, (80% ± 17%) at 250 μm, (69% ± 14%) at 350 μm, (65% ± 12%) at 500 μm, and (45% ± 8%) at 1100 μm. Of that total, about 95% originates from star-forming galaxies, while the remaining 5% is from apparently quiescent galaxies. The CIB at λ <~ 200 μm appears to be sourced predominantly from galaxies at z <~ 1, while at λ >~ 200 μm the bulk originates from 1 <~ z <~ 2. Galaxies with stellar masses log(M/M ⊙) = 9.5-11 are responsible for the majority of the CIB, with those in the log(M/M ⊙) = 9.5-10 bin contributing mostly at λ < 250 μm, and those in the log(M/M ⊙) = 10-11 bin dominating at λ > 350 μm. The contribution from galaxies in the log(M/M ⊙) = 9.0-9.5 (lowest) and log(M/M ⊙) = 11.0-12.0 (highest) stellar-mass bins contribute the least—both of order 5%—although the highest stellar-mass bin is a significant contributor to the luminosity density at z >~ 2. The luminosities of the galaxies responsible for the CIB shifts from combinations of "normal" and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) at λ <~ 160 μm, to LIRGs at 160 <~ λ <~ 500 μm, to finally LIRGs and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at λ >~ 500 μm. Stacking analyses were performed using SIMSTACK, a novel algorithm designed to account for possible biases in the stacked flux density due to clustering. It is made available to the public at www

  15. HerMES: The contribution to the cosmic infrared background from galaxies selected by mass and redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Viero, M. P.; Moncelsi, L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Cooray, A.; Quadri, R. F.; Arumugam, V.; Ivison, R. J.; Assef, R. J.; Béthermin, M.; Conley, A.; Glenn, J.; Farrah, D.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ikarashi, S.; Kohno, K.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; and others

    2013-12-10

    We quantify the fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) that originates from galaxies identified in the UV/optical/near-infrared by stacking 81,250 (∼35.7 arcmin{sup –2}) K-selected sources (K {sub AB} < 24.0) split according to their rest-frame U – V versus V – J colors into 72,216 star-forming and 9034 quiescent galaxies, on maps from Spitzer/MIPS (24 μm), Herschel/PACS (100, 160 μm), Herschel/SPIRE (250, 350, 500 μm), and AzTEC (1100 μm). The fraction of the CIB resolved by our catalog is (69% ± 15%) at 24 μm, (78% ± 17%) at 70 μm, (58% ± 13%) at 100 μm, (78% ± 18%) at 160 μm, (80% ± 17%) at 250 μm, (69% ± 14%) at 350 μm, (65% ± 12%) at 500 μm, and (45% ± 8%) at 1100 μm. Of that total, about 95% originates from star-forming galaxies, while the remaining 5% is from apparently quiescent galaxies. The CIB at λ ≲ 200 μm appears to be sourced predominantly from galaxies at z ≲ 1, while at λ ≳ 200 μm the bulk originates from 1 ≲ z ≲ 2. Galaxies with stellar masses log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 9.5-11 are responsible for the majority of the CIB, with those in the log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 9.5-10 bin contributing mostly at λ < 250 μm, and those in the log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 10-11 bin dominating at λ > 350 μm. The contribution from galaxies in the log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 9.0-9.5 (lowest) and log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 11.0-12.0 (highest) stellar-mass bins contribute the least—both of order 5%—although the highest stellar-mass bin is a significant contributor to the luminosity density at z ≳ 2. The luminosities of the galaxies responsible for the CIB shifts from combinations of 'normal' and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) at λ ≲ 160 μm, to LIRGs at 160 ≲ λ ≲ 500 μm, to finally LIRGs and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at λ ≳ 500 μm. Stacking analyses were performed using SIMSTACK, a novel algorithm designed to account for possible biases in the stacked flux density due to clustering. It is made available to the public

  16. X-Ray Properties of K-Selected Galaxies at 0.5 Less than z Less than 2.0: Investigating Trends with Stellar Mass, Redshift and Spectral Type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Therese M.; Kriek, Mariska; vanDokkum, Peter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Greene, Jenny E.; Labbe, Ivo; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    We examine how the total X-ray luminosity correlates with stellar mass, stellar population, and redshift for a K-band limited sample of approximately 3500 galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.0 from the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey in the COSMOS field. The galaxy sample is divided into 32 different galaxy types, based on similarities between the spectral energy distributions. For each galaxy type, we further divide the sample into bins of redshift and stellar mass, and perform an X-ray stacking analysis using the Chandra COSMOS data. We find that full band X-ray luminosity is primarily increasing with stellar mass, and at similar mass and spectral type is higher at larger redshifts. When comparing at the same stellar mass, we find that the X-ray luminosity is slightly higher for younger galaxies (i.e., weaker 4000 angstrom breaks), but the scatter in this relation is large. We compare the observed X-ray luminosities to those expected from low- and high-mass X-ray binaries (XRBs). For blue galaxies, XRBs can almost fully account for the observed emission, while for older galaxies with larger 4000 angstrom breaks, active galactic nuclei (AGN) or hot gas dominate the measured X-ray flux. After correcting for XRBs, the X-ray luminosity is still slightly higher in younger galaxies, although this correlation is not significant. AGN appear to be a larger component of galaxy X-ray luminosity at earlier times, as the hardness ratio increases with redshift. Together with the slight increase in X-ray luminosity this may indicate more obscured AGNs or higher accretion rates at earlier times.

  17. THE SLOAN LENS ACS SURVEY. XI. BEYOND HUBBLE RESOLUTION: SIZE, LUMINOSITY, AND STELLAR MASS OF COMPACT LENSED GALAXIES AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Gavazzi, Raphaeel; Bolton, Adam S.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2011-06-20

    We exploit the strong lensing effect to explore the properties of intrinsically faint and compact galaxies at intermediate redshift (z{sub s} {approx_equal} 0.4-0.8) at the highest possible resolution at optical wavelengths. Our sample consists of 46 strongly lensed emission line galaxies (ELGs) discovered by the Sloan Lens ACS Survey (SLACS). The galaxies have been imaged at high resolution with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in three bands (V{sub HST} , I{sub 814}, and H{sub 160}), allowing us to infer their size, luminosity, and stellar mass using stellar population synthesis models. Lens modeling is performed using a new fast and robust code, KLENS, which we test extensively on real and synthetic non-lensed galaxies, and also on simulated galaxies multiply imaged by SLACS-like galaxy-scale lenses. Our tests show that our measurements of galaxy size, flux, and Sersic index are robust and accurate, even for objects intrinsically smaller than the HST point-spread function. The median magnification is 8.8, with a long tail that extends to magnifications above 40. Modeling the SLACS sources reveals a population of galaxies with colors and Sersic indices (median n {approx} 1) consistent with the galaxies detected with HST in the Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs (GEMS) and Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) surveys, but that are (typically) {approx}2 mag fainter and {approx}5 times smaller in apparent size than GEMS and {approx}4 mag brighter than but similar in size to HUDF. The size-stellar-mass and size-luminosity relations for the SLACS sources are offset to smaller sizes with respect to both comparison samples. The closest analog are ultracompact ELGs identified by HST grism surveys. The lowest mass galaxies in our sample are comparable to the brightest Milky Way satellites in stellar mass (10{sup 7} M{sub sun}) and have well-determined half-light radii of 0.''05 ({approx}0.3 kpc).

  18. Atom gravimeters and gravitational redshift.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Peter; Blanchet, Luc; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude

    2010-09-01

    In ref. 1 the authors present a re-interpretation of atom interferometry experiments published a decade ago. They now consider the atom interferometry experiments as a measurement of the gravitational redshift on the quantum clock operating at the Compton frequency omega(C) = mc(2)/ approximately 2pi x 3.0 x 10(25) Hz, where m is the caesium (Cs) atom rest mass. They then argue that this redshift measurement compares favourably with existing as well as projected clock tests. Here we show that this interpretation is incorrect. PMID:20811407

  19. Gravitational redshift in Kerr-Newman geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Anuj Kumar; Sen, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    It is well known fact that gravitational mass can alter the space time structure and gravitational redshift is one of its examples. Static electric or magnetic charge can also alter the space time structure, similar to gravitational mass, giving rise to its effect on redshift. This can also be considered as electro and magneto static redshift. Gravitational redshift has been reported by most of the authors without consideration of static electric and/or magnetic charges present in the rotating body. In the present paper, we considered the three parameters: mass, rotation parameter and charge to discuss their combined effect on redshift, for a charged rotating body by using Kerr-Newman metric. It has been found that, the presence of electrostatic and magnetostatic charge increases the value of so-called gravitational redshift. Calculations have been also done here to determine the effect of electrostatic and magnetostatic charges on the amount of redshift of a light ray emitted at various latitudes from a charged rotating body. The variation of gravitational redshift from equatorial to non- equatorial region has been calculated, for a given set of values of electrostatic and magnetostatic charges.

  20. Discovery of a 12 billion solar mass black hole at redshift 6.3 and its challenge to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution at cosmic dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-08-01

    To date about 40 quasars with redshifts z>6 have been discovered. Each quasar harbors a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses. The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years after the Big Bang presents significant challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the black hole/galaxy co-evolution. I will report a recent discovery of an ultra-luminous quasar at redshift z=6.30, which has an observed optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z>6 quasars. With near-infrared spectroscopy, we obtain a black hole mass of about 12 billion solar masses, which is well consistent with the mass derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion. This ultra-luminous quasar with a 12 billion solar mass black hole at z>6 provides a unique laboratory to the study of the mass assembly and galaxy formation around the most massive black holes in the early Universe. It raises further challenges to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution in the epoch of cosmic reionization because the black hole needs to grow much faster than the host galaxy.

  1. CONSTRAINING SOURCE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS WITH GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, D.; Dawson, W. A.

    2012-09-10

    We introduce a new method for constraining the redshift distribution of a set of galaxies, using weak gravitational lensing shear. Instead of using observed shears and redshifts to constrain cosmological parameters, we ask how well the shears around clusters can constrain the redshifts, assuming fixed cosmological parameters. This provides a check on photometric redshifts, independent of source spectral energy distribution properties and therefore free of confounding factors such as misidentification of spectral breaks. We find that {approx}40 massive ({sigma}{sub v} = 1200 km s{sup -1}) cluster lenses are sufficient to determine the fraction of sources in each of six coarse redshift bins to {approx}11%, given weak (20%) priors on the masses of the highest-redshift lenses, tight (5%) priors on the masses of the lowest-redshift lenses, and only modest (20%-50%) priors on calibration and evolution effects. Additional massive lenses drive down uncertainties as N{sub lens}{sup -1/2}, but the improvement slows as one is forced to use lenses further down the mass function. Future large surveys contain enough clusters to reach 1% precision in the bin fractions if the tight lens-mass priors can be maintained for large samples of lenses. In practice this will be difficult to achieve, but the method may be valuable as a complement to other more precise methods because it is based on different physics and therefore has different systematic errors.

  2. Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, Halton C.

    1988-09-01

    Introduction; 1. Distance of quasars; 2. The battle over statistics; 3. Galaxies visibly connected to quasars; 4. Certain galaxies with many quasars; 5. Distribution of quasars in space; 6. Galaxies with excess redshift; 7. Small excess redshifts, the local group of galaxies, and quantization of redshifts; 8. Correcting intrinsic redshifts and identifying hydrogen clouds within nearby groups of galaxies; 9. Ejection from galaxies; 10. The sociology of the controversy; 11. Interpretations; Glossary; Index.

  3. Leveraging 3D-HST Grism Redshifts to Quantify Photometric Redshift Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezanson, Rachel; Wake, David A.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study of photometric redshift accuracy in the 3D-HST photometric catalogs, using 3D-HST grism redshifts to quantify and dissect trends in redshift accuracy for galaxies brighter than JH IR > 24 with an unprecedented and representative high-redshift galaxy sample. We find an average scatter of 0.0197 ± 0.0003(1 + z) in the Skelton et al. photometric redshifts. Photometric redshift accuracy decreases with magnitude and redshift, but does not vary monotonically with color or stellar mass. The 1σ scatter lies between 0.01 and 0.03 (1 + z) for galaxies of all masses and colors below z < 2.5 (for JH IR < 24), with the exception of a population of very red (U ‑ V > 2), dusty star-forming galaxies for which the scatter increases to ∼0.1 (1 + z). We find that photometric redshifts depend significantly on galaxy size; the largest galaxies at fixed magnitude have photo-zs with up to ∼30% more scatter and ∼5 times the outlier rate. Although the overall photometric redshift accuracy for quiescent galaxies is better than that for star-forming galaxies, scatter depends more strongly on magnitude and redshift than on galaxy type. We verify these trends using the redshift distributions of close pairs and extend the analysis to fainter objects, where photometric redshift errors further increase to ∼0.046 (1 + z) at {H}F160W=26. We demonstrate that photometric redshift accuracy is strongly filter dependent and quantify the contribution of multiple filter combinations. We evaluate the widths of redshift probability distribution functions and find that error estimates are underestimated by a factor of ∼1.1–1.6, but that uniformly broadening the distribution does not adequately account for fitting outliers. Finally, we suggest possible applications of these data in planning for current and future surveys and simulate photometric redshift performance in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Dark Energy Survey (DES), and combined DES and Vista Hemisphere

  4. Properties of the redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tifft, William G.; Cocke, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    Central to any analysis of dynamical systems, or large scale motion, is the interpretation of redshifts of galaxies as classical Doppler velocity shifts. This is a testable assumption and for many years evidence has accumulated that is inconsistent with the assumption. Here, the authors review recent evidence suggesting systematic radial dependence and temporal variation of redshifts.

  5. Stars and gas in high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max

    Recent advances in instrumentation and observing techniques have made it possible to begin to study in detail the stellar populations and the interstellar media of galaxies at redshift z=3, when the universe was still in its "teen years". In keeping with the theme of this conference, I show how our knowledge of local star-forming regions can be applied directly to these distant galaxies to deduce their ages, metallicities, initial mass function, and masses. I also discuss areas where current limitations in stellar astrophysics have a direct bearing on the interpretation of the data being gathered, at an ever increasing rate, on the high redshift universe.

  6. High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1996-01-01

    The report for this period includes three papers: 'Associated Absorption at Low and High Redshift'; 'Strong X-ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar: PHL5200'; and 'ASCA and ROSAT X-ray Spectra of High-Redshift Radio-Loud Quasars'. The first gives examples from both low and high redshift for combining information on absorbing material in active galactic nuclei from both x-ray and the UV. The second presents ASCA observations of the z = 1.98 prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO): PHL 5200, detected with both the solid-state imaging spectrometers and the gas imaging spectometers. The third paper presents results on the x-ray properties of 9 high-redshift radio-loud quasars observed by ASCA and ROSAT, including ASCA observations of S5 0014+81 (z = 3.38) and S5 0836+71 (z = 2.17) and ROSAT observations of PKS 2126-158.

  7. MARZ: Redshifting Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    MARZ analyzes objects and produces high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features. The software has an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra, and can be run interactively or from the command line, and runs as a Web application. MARZ can be run on a local server; it is also available for use on a public server.

  8. Plasma Redshift Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari

    2011-04-01

    The newly discovered plasma redshift cross section explains a long range of phenomena; including the cosmological redshift, and the intrinsic redshift of Sun, stars, galaxies and quasars. It explains the beautiful black body spectrum of the CMB, and it predicts correctly: a) the observed XRB, b) the magnitude redshift relation for supernovae, and c) the surface- brightness-redshift relation for galaxies. There is no need for Big Bang, Inflation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Accelerated Expansion, and Black Holes. The universe is quasi-static and can renew itself forever (for details, see: http://www.plasmaredshift.org). There is no cosmic time dilation. In intergalactic space, the average electron temperature is T = 2.7 million K, and the average electron density is N = 0.0002 per cubic cm. Plasma redshift is derived theoretically from conventional axioms of physics by using more accurate methods than those conventionally used. The main difference is: 1) the proper inclusion of the dielectric constant, 2) more exact calculations of imaginary part of the dielectric constant, and as required 3) a quantum mechanical treatment of the interactions.

  9. Gravitational Redshift of Deformed Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Alexis; Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin

    2015-04-01

    Non-rotating neutron stars are generally treated in theoretical studies as perfect spheres. Such a treatment, however, may not be correct if strong magnetic fields are present and/or the pressure of the matter in the cores of neutron stars is non-isotropic, leading to neutron stars which are deformed. In this work, we investigate the impact of deformation on the gravitational redshift of neutron stars in the framework of general relativity. Using a parameterized metric to model non-spherical mass distributions, we derive an expression for the gravitational redshift in terms of the mass, radius, and deformity of a neutron star. Numerical solutions for the redshifts of sequences of deformed neutron stars are presented and observational implications are pointed out. This research is funded by the NIH through the Maximizing Access to Research Careers (MARC), under Grant Number: 5T34GM008303-25 and through the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-1411708.

  10. Discovery of 90 Type Ia supernovae among 700 000 Sloan spectra: the Type Ia supernova rate versus galaxy mass and star formation rate at redshift ˜0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graur, Or; Maoz, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Using a method to discover and classify supernovae (SNe) in galaxy spectra, we find 90 Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) and 10 Type II SNe among the ˜700 000 galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 that have star-formation histories (SFHs) derived with the VErsatile SPectral Analysis code (VESPA). We use the SN Ia sample to measure SN Ia rates per unit stellar mass. We confirm, at the median redshift of the sample, z = 0.1, the inverse dependence on galaxy mass of the SN Ia rate per unit mass, previously reported by Li et al. for a local sample. We further confirm, following Kistler et al., that this relation can be explained by the combination of galaxy `downsizing' and a power-law delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a hypothetical burst of star formation and the subsequent SN Ia explosions) with an index of -1, inherent to the double-degenerate progenitor scenario. We use the method of Maoz et al. to recover the DTD by comparing the number of SNe Ia hosted by each galaxy in our sample with the VESPA-derived SFH of the stellar population within the spectral aperture. In this galaxy sample, which is dominated by old and massive galaxies, we recover a `delayed' component to the DTD of 4.5 ± 0.6 (statistical){_{-0.5}^+0.3} (systematic) × 10- 14 SNe M⊙- 1 yr- 1 for delays in the range >2.4 Gyr. The mass-normalized SN Ia rate, averaged over all masses and redshifts in our galaxy sample, is R_{Ia,M}(z=0.1) = 0.10 ± 0.01 (statistical) ± 0.01 (systematic) SNuM, and the volumetric rate is RIa, V(z = 0.1) = 0.247_{-0.026}^{+0.029} (statistical) _{-0.031}^{+0.016} (systematic) × 10- 4 SNe yr- 1 Mpc- 3. This rate is consistent with the rates and rate evolution from other recent SN Ia surveys, which together also indicate a ˜t-1 DTD.

  11. 3D-HST WFC3-SELECTED PHOTOMETRIC CATALOGS IN THE FIVE CANDELS/3D-HST FIELDS: PHOTOMETRY, PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, AND STELLAR MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Bezanson, Rachel; Leja, Joel; Nelson, Erica J.; Oesch, Pascal; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Van der Wel, Arjen; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Maseda, Michael V.; Förster Schreiber, Natascha; Kriek, Mariska; Lundgren, Britt F.; Magee, Daniel; Marchesini, Danilo; and others

    2014-10-01

    The 3D-HST and CANDELS programs have provided WFC3 and ACS spectroscopy and photometry over ≈900 arcmin{sup 2} in five fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-North, GOODS-South, and the UKIDSS UDS field. All these fields have a wealth of publicly available imaging data sets in addition to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data, which makes it possible to construct the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of objects over a wide wavelength range. In this paper we describe a photometric analysis of the CANDELS and 3D-HST HST imaging and the ancillary imaging data at wavelengths 0.3-8 μm. Objects were selected in the WFC3 near-IR bands, and their SEDs were determined by carefully taking the effects of the point-spread function in each observation into account. A total of 147 distinct imaging data sets were used in the analysis. The photometry is made available in the form of six catalogs: one for each field, as well as a master catalog containing all objects in the entire survey. We also provide derived data products: photometric redshifts, determined with the EAZY code, and stellar population parameters determined with the FAST code. We make all the imaging data that were used in the analysis available, including our reductions of the WFC3 imaging in all five fields. 3D-HST is a spectroscopic survey with the WFC3 and ACS grisms, and the photometric catalogs presented here constitute a necessary first step in the analysis of these grism data. All the data presented in this paper are available through the 3D-HST Web site (http://3dhst.research.yale.edu)

  12. Regularity underlying complexity: a redshift-independent description of the continuous variation of galaxy-scale molecular gas properties in the mass-star formation rate plane

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, M. T.; Daddi, E.; Béthermin, M.; Aussel, H.; Juneau, S.; Elbaz, D.; Hwang, H. S.; Da Cunha, E.

    2014-09-20

    Star-forming galaxies (SFGs) display a continuous specific star formation rate (sSFR) distribution, which can be approximated by two log-normal functions: one encompassing the galaxy main sequence (MS), and the other a rarer, starbursting population. Starburst (SB) sSFRs can be regarded as the outcome of a physical process (plausibly merging) taking the mathematical form of a log-normal boosting kernel that enhances star formation activity. We explore the utility of splitting the star-forming population into MS and SB galaxies—an approach we term the '2-Star Formation Mode' framework—for understanding their molecular gas properties. Star formation efficiency (SFE) and gas fraction variations among SFGs take a simple redshift-independent form, once these quantities are normalized to the corresponding values for average MS galaxies. SFE enhancements during SB episodes scale supra-linearly with the SFR increase, as expected for mergers. Consequently, galaxies separate more clearly into loci for SBs and normal galaxies in the Schmidt-Kennicutt plane than in (s)SFR versus M {sub *} space. SBs with large deviations (>10 fold) from the MS, e.g., local ULIRGs, are not average SBs, but are much rarer events whose progenitors had larger gas fractions than typical MS galaxies. Statistically, gas fractions in SBs are reduced two- to threefold compared to their direct MS progenitors, as expected for short-lived SFR boosts where internal gas reservoirs are depleted more quickly than gas is re-accreted from the cosmic web. We predict variations of the conversion factor α{sub CO} in the SFR-M {sub *} plane and we show that the higher sSFR of distant galaxies is directly related to their larger gas fractions.

  13. SMOOTH(ER) STELLAR MASS MAPS IN CANDELS: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LONGEVITY OF CLUMPS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Newman, Jeffrey A.; and others

    2012-07-10

    We perform a detailed analysis of the resolved colors and stellar populations of a complete sample of 323 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.5 < z < 1.5 and 326 SFGs at 1.5 < z < 2.5 in the ERS and CANDELS-Deep region of GOODS-South. Galaxies were selected to be more massive than 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and have specific star formation rates (SFRs) above 1/t{sub H} . We model the seven-band optical ACS + near-IR WFC3 spectral energy distributions of individual bins of pixels, accounting simultaneously for the galaxy-integrated photometric constraints available over a longer wavelength range. We analyze variations in rest-frame color, stellar surface mass density, age, and extinction as a function of galactocentric radius and local surface brightness/density, and measure structural parameters on luminosity and stellar mass maps. We find evidence for redder colors, older stellar ages, and increased dust extinction in the nuclei of galaxies. Big star-forming clumps seen in star formation tracers are less prominent or even invisible in the inferred stellar mass distributions. Off-center clumps contribute up to {approx}20% to the integrated SFR, but only 7% or less to the integrated mass of all massive SFGs at z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2, with the fractional contributions being a decreasing function of wavelength used to select the clumps. The stellar mass profiles tend to have smaller sizes and M20 coefficients, and higher concentration and Gini coefficients than the light distribution. Our results are consistent with an inside-out disk growth scenario with brief (100-200 Myr) episodic local enhancements in star formation superposed on the underlying disk. Alternatively, the young ages of off-center clumps may signal inward clump migration, provided this happens efficiently on the order of an orbital timescale.

  14. High redshift GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-09-01

    The Swift mission has opened a new, high redshift window on the universe. In this review we provide an overview of gamma-ray burst (GRB) science, describe the Swift mission, discuss high-z GRBs and tools for high-z studies, and look forward at future capabilities. A new mission concept - Lobster - is described that would monitor the X-ray sky at order of magnitude higher sensitivity than current missions.

  15. High Redshift GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The Swift mission has opened a new, high redshift window on the universe. In this review we provide an overview of gamma-ray burst (GRB) science, describe the Swift mission, discuss high-z GRBs and tools for high-z studies, and look forward at future capabilities. A new mission concept - Lobster - is described that would monitor the X-ray sky at order of magnitude higher sensitivity than current missions.

  16. Relativistic Transverse Gravitational Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    The parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism is a tool for quantitative analysis of the weak gravitational field based on the field equations of general relativity. This formalism and its ten parameters provide the practical theoretical foundation for the evaluation of empirical data produced by space-based missions designed to map and better understand the gravitational field (e.g., GRAIL, GRACE, GOCE). Accordingly, mission data is interpreted in the context of the canonical PPN formalism; unexpected, anomalous data are explained as similarly unexpected but apparently real physical phenomena, which may be characterized as ``gravitational anomalies," or by various sources contributing to the total error budget. Another possibility, which is typically not considered, is a small modeling error in canonical general relativity. The concept of the idealized point-mass spherical equipotential surface, which originates with Newton's law of gravity, is preserved in Einstein's synthesis of special relativity with accelerated reference frames in the form of the field equations. It was not previously realized that the fundamental principles of relativity invalidate this concept and with it the idea that the gravitational field is conservative (i.e., zero net work is done on any closed path). The ideal radial free fall of a material body from arbitrarily-large range to a point on such an equipotential surface (S) determines a unique escape-velocity vector of magnitude v collinear to the acceleration vector of magnitude g at this point. For two such points on S separated by angle dφ , the Equivalence Principle implies distinct reference frames experiencing inertial acceleration of identical magnitude g in different directions in space. The complete equivalence of these inertially-accelerated frames to their analogous frames at rest on S requires evaluation at instantaneous velocity v relative to a local inertial observer. Because these velocity vectors are not parallel, a

  17. Requirements on the Redshift Accuracy for future Supernova andNumber Count Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Huterer, Dragan; Kim, Alex; Broderick, Tamara

    2004-08-09

    We investigate the required redshift accuracy of type Ia supernova and cluster number-count surveys in order for the redshift uncertainties not to contribute appreciably to the dark energy parameter error budget. For the SNAP supernova experiment, we find that, without the assistance of ground-based measurements, individual supernova redshifts would need to be determined to about 0.002 or better, which is a challenging but feasible requirement for a low-resolution spectrograph. However, we find that accurate redshifts for z < 0.1 supernovae, obtained with ground-based experiments, are sufficient to immunize the results against even relatively large redshift errors at high z. For the future cluster number-count surveys such as the South Pole Telescope, Planck or DUET, we find that the purely statistical error in photometric redshift is less important, and that the irreducible, systematic bias in redshift drives the requirements. The redshift bias will have to be kept below 0.001-0.005 per redshift bin (which is determined by the filter set), depending on the sky coverage and details of the definition of the minimal mass of the survey. Furthermore, we find that X-ray surveys have a more stringent required redshift accuracy than Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect surveys since they use a shorter lever arm in redshift; conversely, SZ surveys benefit from their high redshift reach only so long as some redshift information is available for distant (zgtrsim1) clusters.

  18. Quasar redshifts: the intrinsic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an intrinsic component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.

  19. SHELS: Complete Redshift Surveys of Two Widely Separated Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Dell’Antonio, Ian P.; Zahid, Harus Jabran; Kurtz, Michael J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.

    2016-05-01

    The Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey (SHELS) is a complete redshift survey covering two well-separated fields (F1 and F2) of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS). Both fields are more than 94% complete to a Galactic extinction corrected R 0 = 20.2. Here, we describe the redshift survey of the F1 field centered at R.A.2000 = 00h53m25.ˢ3 and decl.2000 = 12°33‧55″ like F2, the F1 field covers ˜4 deg2. The redshift survey of the F1 field includes 9426 new galaxy redshifts measured with Hectospec on the MMT (published here). As a guide to future uses of the combined survey, we compare the mass metallicity relation and the distributions of D n 4000 as a function of stellar mass and redshift for the two fields. The mass–metallicity relations differ by an insignificant 1.6σ. For galaxies in the stellar mass range 1010–1011 M ⊙, the increase in the star-forming fraction with redshift is remarkably similar in the two fields. The seemingly surprising 31%–38% difference in the overall galaxy counts in F1 and F2 is probably consistent with the expected cosmic variance given the subtleties of the relative systematics in the two surveys. We also review the DLS cluster detections in the two fields: poorer photometric data for F1 precluded secure detection of the single massive cluster at z = 0.35 that we find in SHELS. Taken together, the two fields include 16,055 redshifts for galaxies with {R}0≤slant 20.2 and 20,754 redshifts for galaxies with R ≤ 20.6. These dense surveys in two well-separated fields provide a basis for future investigations of galaxy properties and large-scale structure.

  20. SHELS: Complete Redshift Surveys of Two Widely Separated Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Dell’Antonio, Ian P.; Zahid, Harus Jabran; Kurtz, Michael J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.

    2016-05-01

    The Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey (SHELS) is a complete redshift survey covering two well-separated fields (F1 and F2) of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS). Both fields are more than 94% complete to a Galactic extinction corrected R 0 = 20.2. Here, we describe the redshift survey of the F1 field centered at R.A.2000 = 00h53m25.ˢ3 and decl.2000 = 12°33‧55″ like F2, the F1 field covers ∼4 deg2. The redshift survey of the F1 field includes 9426 new galaxy redshifts measured with Hectospec on the MMT (published here). As a guide to future uses of the combined survey, we compare the mass metallicity relation and the distributions of D n 4000 as a function of stellar mass and redshift for the two fields. The mass–metallicity relations differ by an insignificant 1.6σ. For galaxies in the stellar mass range 1010–1011 M ⊙, the increase in the star-forming fraction with redshift is remarkably similar in the two fields. The seemingly surprising 31%–38% difference in the overall galaxy counts in F1 and F2 is probably consistent with the expected cosmic variance given the subtleties of the relative systematics in the two surveys. We also review the DLS cluster detections in the two fields: poorer photometric data for F1 precluded secure detection of the single massive cluster at z = 0.35 that we find in SHELS. Taken together, the two fields include 16,055 redshifts for galaxies with {R}0≤slant 20.2 and 20,754 redshifts for galaxies with R ≤ 20.6. These dense surveys in two well-separated fields provide a basis for future investigations of galaxy properties and large-scale structure.

  1. Redshift Survey Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. W.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Kaiser, N.

    1994-12-01

    In the first half of 1995, the Anglo-Australian Observatory is due to commission a wide field (2.1(deg) ), 400-fiber, double spectrograph system (2dF) at the f/3.3 prime focus of the AAT 3.9m bi-national facility. The instrument should be able to measure ~ 4000 galaxy redshifts (assuming a magnitude limit of b_J ~\\ 20) in a single dark night and is therefore ideally suited to studies of large-scale structure. We have carried out simple 3D numerical simulations to judge the relative merits of sparse surveys and contiguous surveys. We generate a survey volume and fill it randomly with particles according to a selection function which mimics a magnitude-limited survey at b_J = 19.7. Each of the particles is perturbed by a gaussian random field according to the dimensionless power spectrum k(3) P(k) / 2pi (2) determined by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994) from the IRAS QDOT survey. We introduce some redshift-space distortion as described by Kaiser (1987), a `thermal' component measured from pairwise velocities (Davis & Peebles 1983), and `fingers of god' due to rich clusters at random density enhancements. Our particular concern is to understand how the window function W(2(k)) of the survey geometry compromises the accuracy of statistical measures [e.g., P(k), xi (r), xi (r_sigma ,r_pi )] commonly used in the study of large-scale structure. We also examine the reliability of various tools (e.g. genus) for describing the topological structure within a contiguous region of the survey.

  2. Caltech Faint Galaxy Redshift Survey. XI. The Merger Rate to Redshift 1 from Kinematic Pairs.

    PubMed

    Carlberg; Cohen; Patton; Blandford; Hogg; Yee; Morris; Lin; Hall; Sawicki; Wirth; Cowie; Hu; Songaila

    2000-03-20

    The rate of mass accumulation due to galaxy merging depends on the mass, density, and velocity distribution of galaxies in the near neighborhood of a host galaxy. The fractional luminosity in kinematic pairs combines all of these effects in a single estimator that is relatively insensitive to population evolution. Here we use a k-corrected and evolution-compensated volume-limited sample having an R-band absolute magnitude of Mk,eRredshifts from the Caltech Faint Galaxy Redshift Survey and 3000 from the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology field galaxy survey to measure the rate and redshift evolution of merging. The combined sample has an approximately constant comoving number and luminosity density from redshift 0.1 to 1.1 (OmegaM=0.2, OmegaLambda=0.8); hence, any merger evolution will be dominated by correlation and velocity evolution, not density evolution. We identify kinematic pairs with projected separations less than either 50 or 100 h-1 kpc and rest-frame velocity differences of less than 1000 km s-1. The fractional luminosity in pairs is modeled as fL&parl0;Deltav,rp,Mk,er&parr0;&parl0;1+z&parr0;mL, where &sqbl0;fL,mL&sqbr0; are &sqbl0;0.14+/-0.07,0+/-1.4&sqbr0; and &sqbl0;0.37+/-0.7,0.1+/-0.5&sqbr0; for rpredshift-space statistics to a merger rate, we use the data to derive a conversion factor to a physical space pair density, a merger probability, and a mean in-spiral time. The resulting mass accretion rate per galaxy (M1,M2>/=0.2M*) is 0.02+/-0.01&parl0;1+z&parr0;0.1+/-0.5M* Gyr-1. Present-day high-luminosity galaxies therefore have accreted approximately 0.15M* of their mass over the approximately 7 Gyr to redshift 1. Since merging is likely only weakly dependent on the host mass, the fractional effect, deltaM&solm0;M approximately 0.15M*&solm0;M, is dramatic for lower mass

  3. Overconfidence in photometric redshift estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittman, David; Bhaskar, Ramya; Tobin, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    We describe a new test of photometric redshift performance given a spectroscopic redshift sample. This test complements the traditional comparison of redshift differences by testing whether the probability density functions p(z) have the correct width. We test two photometric redshift codes, BPZ and EAZY, on each of two data sets and find that BPZ is consistently overconfident (the p(z) are too narrow) while EAZY produces approximately the correct level of confidence. We show that this is because EAZY models the uncertainty in its spectral energy distribution templates, and that post-hoc smoothing of the BPZ p(z) provides a reasonable substitute for detailed modelling of template uncertainties. Either remedy still leaves a small surplus of galaxies with spectroscopic redshift very far from the peaks. Thus, better modelling of low-probability tails will be needed for high-precision work such as dark energy constraints with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and other large surveys.

  4. Probing neutrinos from Planck and forthcoming galaxy redshift surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Yoshitaka; Kadota, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how much the constraints on the neutrino properties can be improved by combining the CMB, the photometric and spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys which include the CMB lensing, galaxy lensing tomography, galaxy clustering and redshift space distortion observables. We pay a particular attention to the constraint on the neutrino mass in view of the forthcoming redshift surveys such as the Euclid satellite and the LSST survey along with the Planck CMB lensing measurements. Combining the transverse mode information from the angular power spectrum and the longitudinal mode information from the spectroscopic survey with the redshift space distortion measurements can determine the total neutrino mass with the projected error of Script O(0.02) eV. Our analysis fixes the mass splittings among the neutrino species to be consistent with the neutrino oscillation data, and we accordingly study the sensitivity of our parameter estimations on the minimal neutrino mass. The cosmological measurement of the total neutrino mass can distinguish between the normal and inverted mass hierarchy scenarios if the minimal neutrino mass lesssim0.005 eV with the predicted 1-σ uncertainties taken into account.

  5. Probing neutrinos from Planck and forthcoming galaxy redshift surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Yoshitaka; Kadota, Kenji E-mail: kadota.kenji@f.nagoya-u.jp

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how much the constraints on the neutrino properties can be improved by combining the CMB, the photometric and spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys which include the CMB lensing, galaxy lensing tomography, galaxy clustering and redshift space distortion observables. We pay a particular attention to the constraint on the neutrino mass in view of the forthcoming redshift surveys such as the Euclid satellite and the LSST survey along with the Planck CMB lensing measurements. Combining the transverse mode information from the angular power spectrum and the longitudinal mode information from the spectroscopic survey with the redshift space distortion measurements can determine the total neutrino mass with the projected error of O(0.02) eV. Our analysis fixes the mass splittings among the neutrino species to be consistent with the neutrino oscillation data, and we accordingly study the sensitivity of our parameter estimations on the minimal neutrino mass. The cosmological measurement of the total neutrino mass can distinguish between the normal and inverted mass hierarchy scenarios if the minimal neutrino mass ∼<0.005 eV with the predicted 1–σ uncertainties taken into account.

  6. The Muenster Redshift Project (MRSP).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuecker, P.; Horstmann, H.; Seitter, W. C.; Ott, H.-A.; Duemmler, R.; Tucholke, H.-J.; Teuber, D.; Meijer, J.; Cunow, B.

    The Astronomical Institute Muenster, in 1986, has started the Muenster Redshift Project (MRSP), where redshifts z are measured automatically from low-dispersion objective prism plates. The number of galaxy redshifts per square degree is approximately 250, the scale reached z = 0.3, compared to about 2 galaxies per square degree and z = 0.05 for currently available large-area surveys. This is a significant growth, gained, however, with the loss of resolution in redshift space: the low dispersion of the spectra gives redshift accuracies of dz = 0.01 or 30 h-1Mpc (H0 = 100 h km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0.5). Nevertheless, in most cases the large numbers of objects compensate for the statistical redshift errors, while the derivations of global and cosmological quantities are less affected by small-number statistics, are more representative, and thus lead to more reliable values. The detection of voids on scales z < 0.02 is not possible, unless the structures in redshift space are sharpened, using, e.g. deconvolution techniques.

  7. Searches for High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, R.

    In recent years, the technique of Lyman break imaging has proven very effective at identifying large numbers of galaxies at high redshifts through deep multicolour imaging (Steidel et al 1996b; Steidel et al 1999). The combination of an intrinsic break in the spectra of star-forming galaxies below the rest-frame wavelength of Lyman-alpha and attenuation by intervening HI systems on the line of sight to high redshifts makes for a pronounced drop in the flux of high redshift galaxies between 912 Å and 1216 Å in the rest-frame. At redshifts z> 3, the break is shifted sufficiently far into the optical window accessible to ground-based telescopes for galaxies at such redshift to be distinguished from the foreground galaxy population through photometry alone. Through modelling of the expected colours of a wide range of galaxy types, ages and redshifts, taking into account the effects of reddening (Calzetti, Kinney and Storchi-Bergmann 1994) and intergalactic attenuation (Madau 1995), we assess the likely colours of high redshift galaxies and determine the redshift ranges most effectively probed by the imaging filters. We obtain multicolour imaging of the fields of four high redshift radio galaxies, covering around 40 arcmin2 in each, allowing us to attempt to find ordinary galaxies at similar redshifts to the central radio galaxies through photometric colour selection techniques. Some idea as to the effectiveness comes through additional colour and morphological information obtained from high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images and from data taken in the near infra-red. While we do not have spectroscopic evidence for the redshifts of our candidates, given the available evidence we conclude that the number densities of Lyman break galaxies in the radio galaxy fields are in broad agreement with the data of Steidel et al (1999). Finally, we assess the prospects for future studies of the high redshift Universe, in particular the potential of the Oxford Deep Wide Field

  8. Dust Emission from High-Redshift QSOs.

    PubMed

    Carilli; Bertoldi; Menten; Rupen; Kreysa; Fan; Strauss; Schneider; Bertarini; Yun; Zylka

    2000-04-10

    We present detections of emission at 250 GHz (1.2 mm) from two high-redshift QSOs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample using the bolometer array at the IRAM 30 m telescope. The sources are SDSSp 015048.83+004126.2 at z=3.7 and SDSSp J033829.31+002156.3 at z=5.0; the latter is the third highest redshift QSO known and the highest redshift millimeter-emitting source yet identified. We also present deep radio continuum imaging of these two sources at 1.4 GHz using the Very Large Array. The combination of centimeter and millimeter observations indicate that the 250 GHz emission is most likely thermal dust emission, with implied dust masses approximately 108 M middle dot in circle. We consider possible dust heating mechanisms, including UV emission from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and a massive starburst concurrent with the AGN, with implied star formation rates greater than 103 M middle dot in circle yr-1. PMID:10727380

  9. Bimodal star formation - Constraints from galaxy colors at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Silk, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that at early epochs the light from elliptical galaxies is dominated by stars with an initial mass function (IMF) which is deficient in low-mass stars, relative to the solar neighborhood is investigated. V-R colors for the optical counterparts of 3CR radio sources offer the most severe constraints on the models. Reasonable fits are obtained to both the blue, high-redshift colors and the redder, low-redshift colors with a model galaxy which forms with initially equal star formation rates in each of two IMF modes: one lacking low-mass stars, and one with stars of all masses. The net effect is that the time-integrated IMF has twice as many high-mass stars as the solar neighborhood IMF, relative to low mass stars. A conventional solar neighborhood IMF does not simultaneously account for both the range in colors at high redshift and the redness of nearby ellipticals, with any single star formation epoch. Models with a standard IMF require half the stellar population to be formed in a burst at low redshift z of about 1.

  10. Jets in AGN at extremely high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvits, Leonid I.; Frey, Sándor; Paragi, Zsolt

    2015-03-01

    The jet phenomenon is a trademark of active galactic nuclei (AGN). In most general terms, the current understanding of this phenomenon explains the jet appearance by effects of relativistic plasma physics. The fundamental source of energy that feeds the plasma flow is believed to be the gravitational field of a central supermassive black hole. While the mechanism of energy transfer and a multitude of effects controlling the plasma flow are yet to be understood, major properties of jets are strikingly similar in a broad range of scales from stellar to galactic. They are supposed to be controlled by a limited number of physical parameters, such as the mass of a central black hole and its spin, magnetic field induction and accretion rate. In a very simplified sense, these parameters define the formation of a typical core-jet structure observed at radio wavelengths in the region of the innermost central tens of parsecs in AGN. These core-jet structures are studied in the radio domain by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) with milli- and sub-milliarcsecond angular resolution. Such structures are detectable at a broad range of redshifts. If observed at a fixed wavelength, a typical core-jet AGN morphology would appear as having a steep-spectrum jet fading away with the increasing redshift while a flat-spectrum core becoming more dominant. If core-jet AGN constitute the same population of objects throughout the redshift space, the apparent ``prominence'' of jets at higher redshifts must decrease (Gurvits 1999): well pronounced jets at high z must appear less frequent than at low z.

  11. Very high redshift radio galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W.J.M., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) provide unique targets for the study of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters at very high redshifts. We discuss how efficient HzRG samples ae selected, the evidence for strong morphological evolution at near-infracd wavelengths, and for jet-induced star formation in the z = 3 800 HzRG 4C41 17

  12. Redshifts distribution in A262

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. S. R.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Hashim, N.; Lee, D. A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest virialized systems in the Universe containing a collection of galaxies of different redshifts. The redshift distribution of galaxies in galaxy clusters is concentrated at a certain redshift range which remarkably tells us that only the galaxies in a certain radial range belong to the galaxy cluster. This leads to a boundary estimation of the cluster. Background and foreground systems are represented by a histogram that determines whether some of the galaxies are too far or too high in redshift to be counted as the member of the cluster. With the recent advances in multifibre spectroscopy, it has become possible to perform detailed analysis of the redshift distribution of several galaxy clusters in the Abell Catalogue. This has given rise to significantly improved estimates of cluster membership, extent and dynamical history. Here we present a spectroscopic analysis of the galaxy cluster A262. We find 55 galaxies fall within z = 0.0143 and 0.0183 with velocity range 4450-5300 km s-1, and are therefore members of the cluster. We derived a new mean redshift of z = 0.016 173 ± 0.000 074 (4852 ± 22 km s-1) for the system of which we compare with our neutral hydrogen (H I) detection which peaks at 4970 ± 0.5 km s-1. It is found that the distribution of H I tends to be located at the edge of the cluster since most of spiral rich galaxies were away from cluster centre.

  13. Improving photometric redshifts with Lyα tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; White, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Forming a three dimensional view of the Universe is a long-standing goal of astronomical observations, and one that becomes increasingly difficult at high redshift. In this paper we discuss how tomography of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z ≃ 2.5 can be used to estimate the redshifts of massive galaxies in a large volume of the Universe based on spectra of galaxies in their background. Our method is based on the fact that hierarchical structure formation leads to a strong dependence of the halo density on large-scale environment. A map of the latter can thus be used to refine our knowledge of the redshifts of halos and the galaxies and AGN which they host. We show that tomographic maps of the IGM at a resolution of 2.5 h-1Mpc can determine the redshifts of more than 90 per cent of massive galaxies with redshift uncertainty Δz/(1 + z) = 0.01. Higher resolution maps allow such redshift estimation for lower mass galaxies and halos.

  14. The dust emission of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipski, C.; Meisenheimer, K.

    2012-07-01

    The detection of powerful near-infrared emission in high redshift (z > 5) quasars demonstrates that very hot dust is present close to the active nucleus also in the very early universe. A number of high-redshift objects even show significant excess emission in the rest frame NIR over more local AGN spectral energy distribution (SED) templates. In order to test if this is a result of the very high luminosities or redshifts, we construct mean SEDs from the latest SDSS quasar catalogue in combination with MIR data from the WISE preliminary data release for several redshift and luminosity bins. Comparing these mean SEDs with a large sample of z > 5 quasars we could not identify any significant trends of the NIR spectral slope with luminosity or redshift in the regime 2.5 < z lesssim 6 and 1045 < νLν (1350Å) lesssim 1047 erg/s. In addition to the NIR regime, our combined Herschel and Spitzer photometry provides full infrared SED coverage of the same sample of z > 5 quasars. These observations reveal strong FIR emission (LFIR gtrsim 1013 Lodot) in seven objects, possibly indicating star-formation rates of several thousand solar masses per year. The FIR excess emission has unusally high temperatures (T~65K) which is in contrast to the temperature typically expected from studies at lower redshift (T~45K). These objects are currently being investigated in more detail.

  15. Bayesian redshift-space distortions correction from galaxy redshift surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Ata, Metin; Angulo, Raul E.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Monteagudo, Carlos Hernández; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo

    2016-03-01

    We present a Bayesian reconstruction method which maps a galaxy distribution from redshift- to real-space inferring the distances of the individual galaxies. The method is based on sampling density fields assuming a lognormal prior with a likelihood modelling non-linear stochastic bias. Coherent redshift-space distortions are corrected in a Gibbs-sampling procedure by moving the galaxies from redshift- to real-space according to the peculiar motions derived from the recovered density field using linear theory. The virialized distortions are corrected by sampling candidate real-space positions along the line of sight, which are compatible with the bulk flow corrected redshift-space position adding a random dispersion term in high-density collapsed regions (defined by the eigenvalues of the Hessian). This approach presents an alternative method to estimate the distances to galaxies using the three-dimensional spatial information, and assuming isotropy. Hence the number of applications is very broad. In this work, we show the potential of this method to constrain the growth rate up to k ˜ 0.3 h Mpc-1. Furthermore it could be useful to correct for photometric redshift errors, and to obtain improved baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) reconstructions.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VUDS Dicovery of a high-redshift protocluster (Lemaux+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaux, B. C.; Cucciati, O.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Le Fevre, O.; Zamorani, G.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Capak, P.; Cassara, L.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cuby, J. G.; de la Torre, S.; Durkalec, A.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Moreau, C.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Salvato, M.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Wang, P. W.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Fotopoulou, S.; Gal, R. R.; Kocevski, D. D.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Lubin, L. M.; Mellier, Y.; Sadibekova, T.; Scoville, N.

    2014-08-01

    Parameters for the 19 secure spectroscopic members and the 6 questionable spectroscopic members of Cl J0227-0421. The given parameters are galaxy equatorial coordinates, all optical and NIR magnitudes, spectroscopic redshifts with a corresponding confidence flag, photometric redshifts, absolute magnitudes in the NUV, r', & J bands, stellar mass, and star formation rate. The latter four quantities only available when the photometry allowed for a fit. Magnitudes are either MAG_AUTO (optical+JHK) or aperture-corrected total magnitudes (Spitzer Channels 1 & 2) and are corrected for Galactic extinction. Stellar masses and SFRs are calculated for a Chabrier (2003PASP..115..763C) initial mass function. Best-fit values from the spectral energy distribution fitting are adopted. For galaxies with a confidence flag 1 or 9, the redshift was not fixed in the spectral energy distribution fitting process. For all other galaxies the redshift was fixed to the spectroscopic redshift. (1 data file).

  17. Precision Photometric Redshifts Of Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, L.; Annis, J.

    2006-06-01

    Clusters of galaxies provide a means to achieve more precise photometric redshifts than achievable using individual galaxies simply because of the numbers of galaxies available in clusters. Here we examine the expectation that one can achieve root-N improvement using the N galaxies in a cluster. We extracted from a maxBCG SDSS cluster catalog 28,000 clusters and used SDSS DR4 spectra to find spectroscopic redshifts for the cluster. We examined both using the brightest cluster galaxy redshift as the proxy for the cluster and using the mean of a collection of galaxies within a given angular diameter and redshift (about the cluster photo-z) range. We find that the BCG provides a better estimate of the cluster redshift, to be understood in the context of a handful of spectra in the neighborhood of the cluster. We find that the cluster photo-z has an approximate root-N scaling behavior with the normalization for maxBCG techniques being 0.07. We predict what ``afterburner photo-z'' techniques, which use individual galaxy photo-z's good to 0.03-0.05, can achieve for cluster catalogs and for cluster cosmology.

  18. Metals at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitjean, Patrick

    The amount of metals present in the Universe and its cosmological evolution is a key issue for our understanding of how star formation proceeds from the collapse of the first objects to the formation of present day galaxies. We discuss here recent results at the two extremes of the density scale. 1. Part of the tenuous intergalactic medium (IGM) revealed by neutral hydrogen absorptions in the spectra of remote quasars (the so-called Lyman-α forest) contains metals. This is not surprising as there is a close interplay between the formation of galaxies and the evolution of the IGM. The IGM acts as the baryonic reservoir from which galaxies form, while star formation in the forming galaxies strongly influences the IGM by enrichment with metals and the emission of ionizing radiation. The spatial distribution of metals in the IGM is largely unknown however. The possibility remains that metals are associated with the filaments and sheets of the dark matter spatial distribution where stars are expected to form, whereas the space delineated by these features remains unpolluted. 2. Damped Lyman-α (DLA) systems observed in the spectra of high-redshift quasars are considered as the progenitors of present-day galaxies. Indeed, the large neutral hydrogen column densities observed and the presence of metals imply that the gas is somehow closely associated with regions of star formation. The nature of the absorbing objects is unclear however. It is probable that very different objects contribute to this population of absorption systems. Here we concentrate on summarizing the properties of the gas: presence of dust in small amount; nucleosynthesis signature and lack of H_2 molecules. The presence of H_2 molecules has been investigated in the course of a mini-survey with UVES at the VLT. The upper limits on the molecular fraction, f = 2N(H_2)/(2N(H_2)+N(HI)), derived in eight systems are in the range 1.2 ×10^-7 - 1.6 × 10^-5. There is no evidence in this sample for any

  19. Galaxy and cluster redshift surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1988-01-01

    The present evaluation of galaxy and cluster redshift surveys gives attention to the CfA redshift survey and a deep Abell cluster redshift survey. These data support a structure in which galaxies lie on thin sheets which nearly surround vast, low-density voids. Voids such as that in Bootes are a common feature of galaxy distribution, posing a serious challenge for models. The Huchra et al. (1988) deep-cluster survey exhibits a correlation function amplitude that is a factor of about 2 smaller than that of the earlier Bahcall and Soneira (1983) sample; the difference may not be significant, however, because the cluster samples are sufficiently small to be dominated by single systems.

  20. RANDOM FORESTS FOR PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Carliles, Samuel; Szalay, Alexander S.; Budavari, Tamas; Heinis, Sebastien; Priebe, Carey

    2010-03-20

    The main challenge today in photometric redshift estimation is not in the accuracy but in understanding the uncertainties. We introduce an empirical method based on Random Forests to address these issues. The training algorithm builds a set of optimal decision trees on subsets of the available spectroscopic sample, which provide independent constraints on the redshift of each galaxy. The combined forest estimates have intriguing statistical properties, notable among which are Gaussian errors. We demonstrate the power of our approach on multi-color measurements of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  1. On the Evolution of High-redshift Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jirong; Kim, Minsun

    2016-09-01

    We build a simple physical model to study the high-redshift active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution within the co-evolution framework of central black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies. The correlation between the circular velocity of a dark halo V c and the velocity dispersion of a galaxy σ is used to link the dark matter halo mass and BH mass. The dark matter halo mass function is converted to the BH mass function for any given redshift. The high-redshift optical AGN luminosity functions (LFs) are constructed. At z∼ 4, the flattening feature is not shown at the faint end of the optical AGN LF. This is consistent with observational results. If the optical AGN LF at z∼ 6 can be reproduced in the case in which central BHs have the Eddington-limited accretion, it is possible for the AGN lifetime to have a small value of 2× {10}5 {{years}}. The X-ray AGN LFs and X-ray AGN number counts are also calculated at 2.0\\lt z\\lt 5.0 and z\\gt 3, respectively, using the same parameters adopted in the calculation for the optical AGN LF at z∼ 4. It is estimated that about 30 AGNs per {{{\\deg }}}2 at z\\gt 6 can be detected with a flux limit of 3× {10}-17 {erg} {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 in the 0.5–2 keV band. Additionally, the cosmic reionization is also investigated. The ultraviolet photons emitted from the high-redshift AGNs mainly contribute to the cosmic reionization, and the central BHs of the high-redshift AGNs have a mass range of {10}6{--}{10}8{M}ȯ . We also discuss some uncertainties in both the AGN LFs and AGN number counts originating from the {M}{{BH}}{--}σ relation, Eddington ratio, AGN lifetime, and X-ray attenuation in our model.

  2. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  3. Sky Mining - Application to Photomorphic Redshift Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Pragyansmita

    . 4. In addition to the redshift estimate, the likelihood distribution of the estimate is even more useful, and my Bayesian Network models provide that information. This is particularly useful in ensemble methods as well as the kernel for mass distribution in the universe. 5. The generated Bayesian Network models can be applied to any of the variables, not just limited to redshift. Example applications include quality analysis and missing value imputation. Different types of Bayesian Network learning algorithms---constraint-based, score-based and hybrid---were investigated in detail.

  4. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, Pablo A.; Lasky, Paul D.; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳1010M⊙ can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.

  5. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-11

    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms. PMID:27015470

  6. The Dark Halo - Spheroid Conspiracy Reloaded: Evolution with Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Burkert, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The total density profiles of elliptical galaxies can be fit by a single power law, i.e., ρtot ~ r γ with γ ~ -2. While strong lensing observations show a tendency for the slopes to become flatter with increasing redshift, simulations indicate an opposite trend. To understand this discrepancy, we study a set of simulated spheroids formed within the cosmological framework. From our simulations we find that the steepness of the total density slope correlates with the compactness of the stellar component within the half-mass radius, and that spheroidal galaxies tend to be more compact at high redshifts than their present-day counterparts. While both these results are in agreement with observations, the observed trend of the total density slope with redshift remains in contradiction to the results from simulations.

  7. The Highest Redshift Relativistic Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, C.C.; Stawarz, L.; Siemiginowska, A.; Harris, D.E; Schwartz, D.A.; Wardle, J.F.C.; Gobeille, D.; Lee, N.P.

    2007-12-18

    We describe our efforts to understand large-scale (10's-100's kpc) relativistic jet systems through observations of the highest-redshift quasars. Results from a VLA survey search for radio jets in {approx} 30 z > 3.4 quasars are described along with new Chandra observations of 4 selected targets.

  8. Are quasar redshifts randomly distributed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weymann, R. J.; Boroson, T.; Scargle, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A statistical analysis of possible clumping (not periodicity) of emission line redshifts of QSO's shows the available data to be compatible with random fluctuations of a smooth, non-clumped distribution. This result is demonstrated with Monte Carlo simulations as well as with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. It is in complete disagreement with the analysis by Varshni, which is shown to be incorrect.

  9. The redshift-distance relation.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I E

    1993-01-01

    Key predictions of the Hubble law are inconsistent with direct observations on equitable complete samples of extragalactic sources in the optical, infrared, and x-ray wave bands-e.g., the predicted dispersion in apparent magnitude is persistently greatly in excess of its observed value, precluding an explanation via hypothetical perturbations or irregularities. In contrast, the predictions of the Lundmark (homogeneous quadratic) law are consistent with the observations. The Lundmark law moreover predicts the deviations between Hubble law predictions and observation with statistical consistency, while the Hubble law provides no explanation for the close fit of the Lundmark law. The flux-redshift law F [symbol, see text] (1 + z)/z appears consistent with observations on equitable complete samples in the entire observed redshift range, when due account is taken of flux limits by an optimal statistical method. Under the theoretical assumption that space is a fixed sphere, as in the Einstein universe, this law implies the redshift-distance relation z = tan2(r/2R), where R is the radius of the spherical space. This relation coincides with the prediction of chronometric cosmology, which estimates R as 160 +/- 40 Mpc (1 parsec = 3.09 x 10(16) m) from the proper motion to redshift relation of superluminal sources. Tangential aspects, including statistical methodology, fundamental physical theory, bright cluster galaxy samples, and proposed luminosity evolution, are briefly considered. PMID:11607390

  10. The Weyl Definition of Redshifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In 1923, Weyl published a (not widely known) protocol for the calculation of redshifts. It is completely independent of the origin of the shift and treats it as a pure Doppler shift. The method is comprehensive and depends solely on the relation between the world lines of source and observer. It has the merit of simplicity of statement and…

  11. Spectroscopy of Moderately High Redshift RCS-1 Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbank, David G.; Yee, H. K. C.; Ellingson, E.; Gladders, M. D.; Barrientos, L. F.; Blindert, K.

    2007-07-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of 11 moderately high-redshift (z~0.7-1.0) clusters from the first Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-1). We confirm that at least 10 of the 11 systems represent genuine overdensities in redshift space and show that for the remaining system, the spectroscopy was not deep enough to confirm a cluster. This is in good agreement with the estimated false positive rate of <5% at these redshifts from simulations. We find excellent agreement between the red-sequence-estimated redshift and the spectroscopic redshift, with a scatter of 10% at z>0.7. At the high-redshift end (z>~0.9) of the sample, we find that two of the systems selected are projections of pairs of comparably rich systems, with red sequences too close to discriminate in (R-z') color. In one of these systems, the two components are close enough to be physically associated. For a subsample of clusters with sufficient spectroscopic members, we examine the correlation between BgcR (optical richness) and the dynamical mass inferred from the velocity dispersion. We find these measurements to be compatible, within the relatively large uncertainties, with the correlation established at lower redshift for the X-ray-selected Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology clusters and also for a lower redshift sample of RCS-1 clusters. Confirmation of this and calibration of the scatter in the relation will require larger samples of clusters at these and higher redshifts. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT

  12. Cosmology with photometric redshift surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Chris; Bridle, Sarah

    2005-11-01

    We explore the utility of future photometric redshift imaging surveys for delineating the large-scale structure of the Universe, and assess the resulting constraints on the cosmological model. We perform the following two complementary types of analysis. (i) We quantify the statistical confidence and the accuracy with which such surveys will be able to detect and measure characteristic features in the clustering power spectrum such as the acoustic oscillations and the turnover, in a `model-independent' fashion. We show for example that a 10000-deg2 imaging survey with depth r= 22.5 and photometric redshift accuracy δz/(1 +z) = 0.03 will detect the acoustic oscillations with 99.9 per cent confidence, measuring the associated preferred cosmological scale with 2 per cent precision. Such a survey will also detect the turnover with 95 per cent confidence, determining the corresponding scale with 20 per cent accuracy. (ii) By assuming a Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model power spectrum we calculate the confidence with which a non-zero baryon fraction can be deduced from such future galaxy surveys. We quantify `wiggle detection' by calculating the number of standard deviations by which the baryon fraction is measured, after marginalizing over the shape parameter. This is typically a factor of 4 more significant (in terms of number of standard deviations) than the above `model-independent' result. For both analyses, we quantify the variation of the results with magnitude depth and photometric redshift precision, and discuss the prospects for obtaining the required performance with realistic future surveys. We conclude that the precision with which the clustering pattern may be inferred from future photometric redshift surveys will be competitive with contemporaneous spectroscopic redshift surveys, assuming that systematic effects can be controlled. We find that for equivalent wiggle detection power, a photometric redshift survey requires an area approximately 12[δz/(1 +z

  13. Studying the high redshift Universe with Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    Athena is the second large mission selected in the ESA Cosmic Vision plan. With its large collecting area, high spectral-energy resolution (X-IFU instrument) and impressive grasp (WFI instrument), Athena will truly revolutionise X-ray astronomy. The most prodigious sources of high-energy photons are often transitory in nature. Athena will provide the sensitivity and spectral resolution coupled with rapid response to enable the study of the dynamic sky. Potential sources include: distant Gamma-Ray Bursts to probe the reionisation epoch and find ‘missing’ baryons in the cosmic web; tidal disruption events to reveal dormant supermassive and intermediate-mass black holes; and supernova explosions to understand progenitors and their environments.Using detailed simulations, we illustrate Athena’s extraordinary capabilities for transients out to the highest redshifts and show how it will be able to constrain the nature of explosive transients including gas metallicity and dynamics, constraining environments and progenitors.

  14. High-redshift galaxy populations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Esther M; Cowie, Lennox L

    2006-04-27

    We now see many galaxies as they were only 800 million years after the Big Bang, and that limit may soon be exceeded when wide-field infrared detectors are widely available. Multi-wavelength studies show that there was relatively little star formation at very early times and that star formation was at its maximum at about half the age of the Universe. A small number of high-redshift objects have been found by targeting X-ray and radio sources and most recently, gamma-ray bursts. The gamma-ray burst sources may provide a way to reach even higher-redshift galaxies in the future, and to probe the first generation of stars. PMID:16641986

  15. Dusty Quasars at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine

    2016-09-01

    A population of quasars at z ˜ 2 is determined based on dust luminosities νL ν (7.8 μm) that includes unobscured, partially obscured, and obscured quasars. Quasars are classified by the ratio νL ν (0.25 μm)/νL ν (7.8 μm) = UV/IR, assumed to measure obscuration of UV luminosity by the dust that produces IR luminosity. Quasar counts at rest-frame 7.8 μm are determined for quasars in the Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey using 24 μm sources with optical redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) or infrared redshifts from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. Spectral energy distributions are extended to far-infrared wavelengths using observations from the Herschel Space Observatory Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), and new SPIRE photometry is presented for 77 high-redshift quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It is found that unobscured and obscured quasars have similar space densities at rest-frame 7.8 μm, but the ratio L ν (100 μm)/L ν (7.8 μm) is about three times higher for obscured quasars than for unobscured, so that far-infrared or submillimeter quasar detections are dominated by obscured quasars. We find that only ˜5% of high-redshift submillimeter sources are quasars and that existing 850 μm surveys or 2 mm surveys should already have detected sources at z ˜ 10 if quasar and starburst luminosity functions remain the same from z = 2 until z = 10.

  16. Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger; Peters, Achim

    2011-04-15

    We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.

  17. El Universo a alto redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, M. V.

    The Universe we see today is the result of structures and galaxies that have been evolving since earlier times. Looking the evolution of the galaxy population at z ˜ 1 has emphasized the important role played by high redshift data. This is the case of the morphology - density relationship, where the morphological type of galaxies in distant clusters has given us a clear vision of evolutionary processes, partly led by environmental effects. I review part of the data available at high redshifts that are fundamental today to check the validity of galaxy formation models in reproducing local and basic galaxy properties. Briefly, I will comment about high redshift studies, a still little explored portion of the Universe, and the current strategies that allow us the study. In this sense, the epoch of reionization is essential for understanding the formation of structures because it is the phase where the first protogalaxies were formed, creating stars and enriching the intergalactic medium. Because of the great distances involved in these studies, gamma-ray bursts, quasars and Lyman-α galaxies are the best tools to study these earlier times. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. Neutrino Redshifts -- A Search for Information.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Charles

    2005-04-01

    Neutrinos will undergo Redshifts due to Doppler and/or Space Expansion effects similar to Electromagnetic Radiation (Photons). However, in some situations (ex., Quasars, etc), Photon Redshifts may be due to cumulative energy-loss mechanisms with the intervening medium. In this situation, the corresponding Neutrino Redshifts will be much smaller since the interaction cross-section for neutrino-medium interactions will be much smaller than any photon-medium cross-section. Thus, observation and comparison of photon redshifts vs corresponding neutrinos redshifts will be very informative. If the photon and neutrino redshifts are similar, then a Doppler and/or Space Expansion interpretation is justified. If the neutrino redshift is much smaller than any corresponding photon redshift, then an interpretation via a cumulative energy-loss mechanism is justified. This is a very definitive experimental test of redshift interpretations. The latest neutrino data will be examined, particularly relevant to quasars and supernova. Reference: ``Redshifts of Cosmological Neutrinos as Definitive Experimental Test of Doppler versus Non-Doppler Redshifts'' by C. F. Gallo in IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, vol. 31, No. 6, pgs. 1230-1231, Dec. 2003.

  19. Leveraging Spitzer's Legacy: Quasars and Feedback at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon; Anderson, Scott; Bauer, Franz; Deo, Rajesh; Fan, Xiaohui; Gallagher, Sarah; Myers, Adam; Strauss, Michael; Zakamska, Nadia

    2009-04-01

    Recent research efforts to understand the evolution of galaxies and quasars are beginning to form a consistent picture. Galaxies and their supermassive black holes grow through mergers, but with decreasing characteristic mass scales over time. Much less, however, is known about the evolution of galaxies at high redshifts and the role played by energy injection from the onset of active black hole growth. Understanding these events requires investigating a statistically significant number of high-redshift quasars and crossing the L* boundary in luminosity. To construct an appropriate data set requires both relatively wide-areas (to find these rare objects) and moderate-depth imaging (to probe below L* in luminosity). Unfortunately, existing optical and MIR surveys fail to meet both of these requirements. Furthermore, both optical and MIR quasar selection are blindest at the most crucial redshifts. Here we propose to address these gaps with targeted IRAC observations of a few hundred high-redshift quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Such a sample will enable the construction of a proper training set for the discovery of 2.5redshift quasars in other fields over a large range in luminosity. With this knowledge, we will crack open the high-z quasar discovery space within existing IRAC legacy surveys (SWIRE, XFLS, Bootes, COSMOS). With a large sample of high-redshift quasars spanning a large range in luminosity, we can turn the quasar luminosity function and quasar clustering analysis into tools for distinguishing between different evolutionary models and feedback prescriptions. In all, we will observe 330 SDSS quasars using 307 pointings/AORs, totaling 48.5 hours of IRAC time.

  20. Photometric Redshifts in the Sloan Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowards-Emmerd, D.; McKay, T. A.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, J. A.

    1999-05-01

    In the past few years, photometric redshifts have proven themselves to be a robust means of estimating redshifts. In the near future, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey will compile high-quality photometric data for 108 galaxies. Photometric redshifts will provide approximate distances to this enormous set of objects. In this poster, we describe results from a preliminary study of photometric redshift calibration on data in the SDSS colors. We present 5 color photometry for 2195 galaxies drawn from the Las Campanas Redshift Survey. Data was obtained on the Curtis Schmidt telescope at CTIO during Aug 97 and Feb/Mar 98 using filters nearly identical to the SDSS system. We also present photometric redshift predictions expressed as polynomial functions of galaxy colors and magnitudes derived from this training set. Finally, applications of photometric redshifts will be considered, including lensing studies, cosmology, and determination of fundamental astrophysical quantities. Support was provided by NSF grant #9703282.

  1. Cosmological limits on neutrino unknowns versus low redshift priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropy measurements from the Planck mission have significantly improved previous constraints on the neutrino masses as well as the bounds on extended models with massless or massive sterile neutrino states. However, due to parameter degeneracies, additional low redshift priors are mandatory in order to sharpen the CMB neutrino bounds. We explore here the role of different priors on low redshift quantities, such as the Hubble constant, the cluster mass bias, and the reionization optical depth τ . Concerning current priors on the Hubble constant and the cluster mass bias, the bounds on the neutrino parameters may differ appreciably depending on the choices adopted in the analyses. With regard to future improvements in the priors on the reionization optical depth, a value of τ =0.05 ±0.01 , motivated by astrophysical estimates of the reionization redshift, would lead to ∑mν<0.0926 eV at 90% C.L., when combining the full Planck measurements, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Planck clusters data, thereby opening the window to unravel the neutrino mass hierarchy with existing cosmological probes.

  2. Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouvel, S.; et al.

    2015-09-23

    We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\\% and 68\\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6redshifts, the mean redshift for the bright and faint sample is 0.85 and 0.9 respectively. Star contamination is lower than 2\\%. We measure a galaxy bias averaged on scales of 1 and 10~Mpc/h of 1.72 \\pm 0.1 for the bright sample and of 1.78 \\pm 0.12 for the faint sample. The error on the galaxy bias have been obtained propagating the errors in the correlation function to the fitted parameters. This redshift evolution for the galaxy bias is in agreement with theoretical expectations for a galaxy population with MB-5\\log h < -21.0. We note that biasing is derived from the galaxy clustering relative to a model for the mass fluctuations. We investigate the quality of the DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.

  3. Intergalactic stellar populations in intermediate redshift clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, J.; Giraud, E.; Toledo, I.; Selman, F.; Quintana, H.

    2012-11-01

    A substantial fraction of the total stellar mass in rich clusters of galaxies resides in a diffuse intergalactic component usually referred to as the intracluster light (ICL). Theoretical models indicate that these intergalactic stars originate mostly from the tidal interaction of the cluster galaxies during the assembly history of the cluster, and that a significant fraction of these stars could have formed in situ from the late infall of cold metal-poor gas clouds on to the cluster. However, these models also overpredict the fraction of stellar mass in the ICL by a substantial margin, something that is still not well understood. The models also make predictions about the age distribution of the ICL stars, which may provide additional observational constraints. Here we present population synthesis models for the ICL of an intermediate redshift (z = 0.29) X-ray cluster that we have extensively studied in previous papers. The advantage of observing intermediate redshift clusters rather than nearby ones is that the former fit the field of view of multi-object spectrographs in 8-m telescopes and therefore permit us to encompass most of the ICL with only a few well-placed slits. In this paper we show that by stacking spectra at different locations within the ICL it is possible to reach sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratios to fit population synthesis models and derive meaningful results. The models provide ages and metallicities for the dominant populations at several different locations within the ICL and the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) halo, as well as measures of the kinematics of the stars as a function of distance from the BCG. We thus find that the ICL in our cluster is dominated by old metal-rich stars, at odds with what has been found in nearby clusters where the stars that dominate the ICL are old and metal poor. While we see weak evidence of a young, metal-poor component, if real, these young stars would amount to less than 1 per cent of the total ICL

  4. Theoretical considerations for star formation at low and high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2015-08-01

    Star formation processes in strongly self-gravitating cloud cores should be similar at all redshifts, forming single or multiple stars with a range of masses determined by local magneto-hydrodynamics. The formation processes for these cores, however, as well as their structures, temperatures, Mach numbers, etc., and the boundedness and mass distribution functions of the resulting stars, should depend on environment, as should the characteristic mass, density, and column density at which cloud self-gravity dominates other forces. Because the environments for high and low redshift star formation differ significantly, we expect the resulting gas to stellar conversion details to differ also. At high redshift, the universe is denser and more gas-rich, so the active parts of galaxies are denser and more gas rich too, leading to shorter gas consumption timescales, higher cloud pressures, and denser, more massive, bound stellar clusters at the high mass end. With shorter consumption times corresponding to higher relative cosmic accretion rates, and with the resulting higher star formation rates and their higher feedback powers, the ISM has greater turbulent speeds relative to the rotation speeds, thicker gas disks, and larger cloud and star complex sizes at the characteristic Jeans length. The result is a more chaotic appearance at high redshift, bridging the morphology gap between today’s quiescent spirals and today’s major-mergers, with neither spiral nor major-merger processes actually in play at that time. The result is also a thick disk at early times, and after in-plane accretion from relatively large clump torques, a classical bulge. Today’s disks are much thinner and torque-driven accretion is much slower outside of the inner barred regions. This talk will review the basic theoretical processes involved with star formation in order to illustrate its evolution over time and environment.

  5. SHELS: TESTING WEAK-LENSING MAPS WITH REDSHIFT SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.; Ramella, Massimo E-mail: mkurtz@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: ian@het.brown.ed

    2010-02-01

    Weak-lensing surveys are emerging as an important tool for the construction of 'mass-selected' clusters of galaxies. We evaluate both the efficiency and completeness of a weak-lensing selection by combining a dense, complete redshift survey, the Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey (SHELS), with a weak-lensing map from the Deep Lens Survey (DLS). SHELS includes 11,692 redshifts for galaxies with R <= 20.6 in the 4 deg{sup 2} DLS field; the survey is a solid basis for identifying massive clusters of galaxies with redshift z approx< 0.55. The range of sensitivity of the redshift survey is similar to the range for the DLS convergence map. Only four of the 12 convergence peaks with signal to noise >=3.5 correspond to clusters of galaxies with M approx> 1.7 x 10{sup 14} M{sub sun}. Four of the eight massive clusters in SHELS are detected in the weak-lensing map yielding a completeness of approx50%. We examine the seven known extended cluster X-ray sources in the DLS field: three can be detected in the weak-lensing map, three should not be detected without boosting from superposed large-scale structure, and one is mysteriously undetected even though its optical properties suggest that it should produce a detectable lensing signal. Taken together, these results underscore the need for more extensive comparisons among different methods of massive cluster identification.

  6. Photometric Redshift with Bayesian Priors on Physical Properties of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masayuki

    2015-03-01

    We present a proof-of-concept analysis of photometric redshifts with Bayesian priors on physical properties of galaxies. This concept is particularly suited for upcoming/on-going large imaging surveys, in which only several broadband filters are available and it is hard to break some of the degeneracies in the multi-color space. We construct model templates of galaxies using a stellar population synthesis code and apply Bayesian priors on physical properties such as stellar mass and star formation rate. These priors are a function of redshift and they effectively evolve the templates with time in an observationally motivated way. We demonstrate that the priors help reduce the degeneracy and deliver significantly improved photometric redshifts. Furthermore, we show that a template error function, which corrects for systematic flux errors in the model templates as a function of rest-frame wavelength, delivers further improvements. One great advantage of our technique is that we simultaneously measure redshifts and physical properties of galaxies in a fully self-consistent manner, unlike the two-step measurements with different templates often performed in the literature. One may rightly worry that the physical priors bias the inferred galaxy properties, but we show that the bias is smaller than systematic uncertainties inherent in physical properties inferred from the spectral energy distribution fitting and hence is not a major issue. We will extensively test and tune the priors in the on-going Hyper Suprime-Cam survey and will make the code publicly available in the future.

  7. Surveying the Origin of O VI Gas at Low Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Tripp, Todd; Aracil, Bastien; Davé, Romeel; Mulchaey, John; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2005-08-01

    A comparison of the baryonic mass density inferred from BBN and the CMB with a census of visible baryonic components at the present epoch indicates a significant fraction of the universe's baryons are hidden in a dark component. Theoretical investigations predict that the majority of 'missing' baryons lie in a hot (T ~ 10^5-7 K), low density medium which can be efficiently detected through O VI absorption. More importantly, recent STIS+FUSE surveys for O VI are consistent with this gas comprising a significant fraction of the missing baryons. Establishing the physical nature of these O VI absorbers directly impacts our understanding of the distribution of baryons in the universe. The principal goal of our program is to determine if this O VI gas arises in galactic halos, the intragroup or intracluster medium, the low density 'cosmic web', or a different region of the universe altogether. We are pursuing an observational program to search for galaxies associated with O VI absorbers at low redshift. To accomplish this project, we require deep UBVRI images in fields surrounding quasars surveyed for O VI absorption. This dataset will provide precise photometric redshifts of z< 0.3 galaxies with L > L^*/10 and measures of color and morphology. Ultimately, we will use the photometric redshifts to efficiently pre-select galaxies for spectroscopy on multi-slit spectrometers. By correlating the galaxy redshifts against the O VI absorption lines and comparing directly with cosmological simulations, we will establish the origin of the O VI gas.

  8. Surveying the Origin of O VI Gas at Low Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Tripp, Todd; Aracil, Bastien; Davé, Romeel; Mulchaey, John; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2006-02-01

    A comparison of the baryonic mass density inferred from BBN and the CMB with a census of visible baryonic components at the present epoch indicates a significant fraction of the universe's baryons are hidden in a dark component. Theoretical investigations predict that the majority of 'missing' baryons lie in a hot (T ~ 10^5-7 K), low density medium which can be efficiently detected through O VI absorption. More importantly, recent STIS+FUSE surveys for O VI are consistent with this gas comprising a significant fraction of the missing baryons. Establishing the physical nature of these O VI absorbers directly impacts our understanding of the distribution of baryons in the universe. The principal goal of our program is to determine if this O VI gas arises in galactic halos, the intragroup or intracluster medium, the low density 'cosmic web', or a different region of the universe altogether. We are pursuing an observational program to search for galaxies associated with O VI absorbers at low redshift. To accomplish this project, we require deep UBVRI images in fields surrounding quasars surveyed for O VI absorption. This dataset will provide precise photometric redshifts of z< 0.3 galaxies with L > L^*/10 and measures of color and morphology. Ultimately, we will use the photometric redshifts to efficiently pre-select galaxies for spectroscopy on multi-slit spectrometers. By correlating the galaxy redshifts against the O VI absorption lines and comparing directly with cosmological simulations, we will establish the origin of the O VI gas.

  9. Star Formation and the Butcher-Oemler effect in Intermediate Redshift Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, S. M.; Bershady, M. A.; Hoessel, J. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Butcher-Oemler effect, the increasing population of blue galaxies in galaxy clusters with redshift, has been confirmed through extensive photometric and spectroscopic studies, but strong variations are seen between clusters even at similar redshifts. Furthermore, the total star formation, measured via several different methods, occurring in a small sample of intermediate redshift clusters displays trends with redshift, mass, and X-ray luminosity. We present narrow-band observations from the WIYN 3.5m telescope of six intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) galaxy clusters to measure the total star formation in these rich clusters. These observations almost double the number of measurements of star formation occurring in intermediate redshift clusters and give a consistent measurement of un-obscured star formation through the OII[λ 3727] emission line down to 0.1 M{⊙ }/yr. We investigate any trends seen between the clusters total star formation and its properties such as mass, luminosity, redshift, and virialization. We quantify the virialization through the luminosity gap statistic, the asymmetry of the galaxy distribution, and the offset from the Tx- σ relationship for each cluster. The recent merger history in galaxy clusters is one explanation for the excess in blue galaxies seen in some clusters. This work was supported by HST ARCHIVE grant #9917, NSF grant AST-0307417, and an award from the Wisconsin Space Grant Corportation.

  10. Superluminous supernovae at redshifts of 2.05 and 3.90.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Jeff; Sullivan, Mark; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Barton, Elizabeth J; Carlberg, Raymond G; Ryan-Weber, Emma V; Horst, Chuck; Omori, Yuuki; Díaz, C Gonzalo

    2012-11-01

    A rare class of 'superluminous' supernovae that are about ten or more times more luminous at their peaks than other types of luminous supernova has recently been found at low to intermediate redshifts. A small subset of these events have luminosities that evolve slowly and result in radiated energies of up to about 10(51) ergs. Therefore, they are probably examples of 'pair-instability' or 'pulsational pair-instability' supernovae with estimated progenitor masses of 100 to 250 times that of the Sun. These events are exceedingly rare at low redshift, but are expected to be more common at high redshift because the mass distribution of the earliest stars was probably skewed to high values. Here we report the detection of two superluminous supernovae, at redshifts of 2.05 and 3.90, that have slowly evolving light curves. We estimate the rate of events at redshifts of 2 and 4 to be approximately ten times higher than the rate at low redshift. The extreme luminosities of superluminous supernovae extend the redshift limit for supernova detection using present technology, previously 2.36 (ref. 8), and provide a way of investigating the deaths of the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang. PMID:23123848

  11. POPULATION III STARS AND REMNANTS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Wise, John H. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu

    2013-08-20

    Recent simulations of Population III star formation have suggested that some fraction form in binary systems, in addition to having a characteristic mass of tens of solar masses. The deaths of metal-free stars result in the initial chemical enrichment of the universe and the production of the first stellar-mass black holes. Here we present a cosmological adaptive mesh refinement simulation of an overdense region that forms a few 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} dark matter halos and over 13,000 Population III stars by redshift 15. We find that most halos do not form Population III stars until they reach M{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} because this biased region is quickly enriched from both Population III and galaxies, which also produce high levels of ultraviolet radiation that suppress H{sub 2} formation. Nevertheless, Population III stars continue to form, albeit in more massive halos, at a rate of {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} at redshift 15. The most massive starless halo has a mass of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, which could host massive black hole formation through the direct gaseous collapse scenario. We show that the multiplicity of the Population III remnants grows with halo mass above 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, culminating in 50 remnants located in 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} halos on average. This has implications that high-mass X-ray binaries and intermediate-mass black holes that originate from metal-free stars may be abundant in high-redshift galaxies.

  12. Galaxy Evolution Across The Redshift Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotulla, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    GALEV evolutionary synthesis models are an ideal tool to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. I present a large model grid that contains undisturbed E and Sa-Sd type galaxies as well as a wide range of models undergoing starbursts of various strengths and at different times and also includes the subsequent post-starburst phases for these galaxies. This model grid not only allows to describe and refine currently used color selection criteria for Lyman Break Galaxies, BzK galaxies, Extremely Red Objects (ERO) and both Distant and Luminous Red Galaxies (DRG, LRG). It also gives accurate stellar masses, gas fractions, star formation rates, metallicities and burst strengths for an unprecedentedly large sample of galaxies with multi-band photometry. We find, amongst other things, that LBGs are most likely progenitors of local early type spiral galaxies and low-mass ellipticals. We are for the first time able to reproduce E+A features in EROs by post-starbursts as an alternative to dusty starforming galaxies and predict how to discriminate between these scenarios. Our results from photometric analyses perfectly agree with all available spectroscopic information and open up a much wider perspective, including the bulk of the less luminous and more typical galaxy population, in the redshift desert and beyond. All model data are available online at http://www.galev.org.

  13. Local Analogs for High-redshift Galaxies: Resembling the Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    We present a sample of local analogs for high-redshift galaxies selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in these local analogs resemble those in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their positions in the [O iii]/Hβ versus [N ii]/Hα nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. We show that these local analogs share similar physical properties with high-redshift galaxies, including high specific star formation rates (sSFRs), flat UV continuums, and compact galaxy sizes. In particular, the ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in z ≃ 2–3 galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by ≃0.6 dex and ≃0.9 dex, respectively. The mass–metallicity relation (MZR) in these local analogs shows ‑0.2 dex offset from that in SDSS star-forming galaxies at the low-mass end, which is consistent with the MZR of the z˜ 2{--}3 galaxies. We compare the local analogs in this study with those in other studies, including Lyman break analogs (LBA) and green pea (GP) galaxies. The analogs in this study share a similar star formation surface density with LBAs, but the ionization parameters and electron density in our analogs are higher than those in LBAs by factors of 1.5 and 3, respectively. The analogs in this study have comparable ionization parameters and electron densities to the GP galaxies, but our method can select galaxies in a wider redshift range. We find the high sSFR and SFR surface density can increase the electron density and ionization parameters, but still cannot fully explain the difference in ISM condition between nearby galaxies and the local analogs/high-redshift galaxies.

  14. Local Analogs for High-redshift Galaxies: Resembling the Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    We present a sample of local analogs for high-redshift galaxies selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in these local analogs resemble those in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their positions in the [O iii]/Hβ versus [N ii]/Hα nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. We show that these local analogs share similar physical properties with high-redshift galaxies, including high specific star formation rates (sSFRs), flat UV continuums, and compact galaxy sizes. In particular, the ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in z ≃ 2–3 galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by ≃0.6 dex and ≃0.9 dex, respectively. The mass–metallicity relation (MZR) in these local analogs shows ‑0.2 dex offset from that in SDSS star-forming galaxies at the low-mass end, which is consistent with the MZR of the z∼ 2{--}3 galaxies. We compare the local analogs in this study with those in other studies, including Lyman break analogs (LBA) and green pea (GP) galaxies. The analogs in this study share a similar star formation surface density with LBAs, but the ionization parameters and electron density in our analogs are higher than those in LBAs by factors of 1.5 and 3, respectively. The analogs in this study have comparable ionization parameters and electron densities to the GP galaxies, but our method can select galaxies in a wider redshift range. We find the high sSFR and SFR surface density can increase the electron density and ionization parameters, but still cannot fully explain the difference in ISM condition between nearby galaxies and the local analogs/high-redshift galaxies.

  15. Intergalactic shells at large redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. M.; Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    The intergalactic shells produced by galactic explosions at large redshift, whose interiors cool by inverse Compton scattering off the cosmic background radiation, have a characteristic angular size of about 1 arcmin at peak brightness. At z values lower than 2, the shells typically have a radius of 0.5 Mpc, a velocity of about 50 km/sec, a metal abundance of about 0.0001 of cosmic values, and strong radiation in H I(Lyman-alpha), He II 304 A, and the IR fine-structure lines of C II and Si II. The predicted extragalactic background emission from many shells, strongly peaked toward the UV, sets an upper limit to the number of exploding sources at z values of about 10. Shell absorption lines of H I, C II, Si II, and Fe II, which may be seen at more recent epochs in quasar spectra, may probe otherwise invisible explosions in the early universe.

  16. Photometric Redshifts in the IRAC Shallow Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Brodwin, M; Brown, M; Ashby, M; Bian, C; Brand, K; Dey, A; Eisenhardt, P; Eisenstein, D; Gonzalez, A; Huang, J; Kochanek, C; McKenzie, E; Pahre, M; Smith, H; Soifer, B; Stanford, S; Stern, D; Elston, R

    2006-06-13

    Accurate photometric redshifts are calculated for nearly 200,000 galaxies to a 4.5 micron flux limit of {approx} 13 {micro}Jy in the 8.5 deg{sup 2} Spitzer/IRAC Shallow survey. Using a hybrid photometric redshift algorithm incorporating both neural-net and template-fitting techniques, calibrated with over 15,000 spectroscopic redshifts, a redshift accuracy of {sigma} = 0.06 (1+z) is achieved for 95% of galaxies at 0 < z < 1.5. The accuracy is {sigma} = 0.12 (1 + z) for 95% of AGN at 0 < z < 3. Redshift probability functions, central to several ongoing studies of the galaxy population, are computed for the full sample. We demonstrate that these functions accurately represent the true redshift probability density, allowing the calculation of valid confidence intervals for all objects. These probability functions have already been used to successfully identify a population of Spitzer-selected high redshift (z > 1) galaxy clusters. We present one such spectroscopically confirmed cluster at = 1.24, ISCS J1434.2+3426. Finally, we present a measurement of the 4.5 {micro}m-selected galaxy redshift distribution.

  17. Obtaining an unbiased redshift distribution for submm galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivison, Rob; Norris, Ray; Feain, Ilana; Huynh, Minh; Smail, Ian; Thomson, Alasdair

    2009-07-01

    We request 36hr with ATCA to test a new method for determining an unbiased redshift distribution for submm galaxies (SMGs) - a critical parameter capable of breaking degeneracies in galaxy evolution models. Our method is based on the expectation that dusty ULIRGs will exhibit maser activity similar to that observed in other IR-luminous AGN. As well as determining redshifts, detections will allow us to estimate the mass of the central black hole (to compare with X-ray-based estimates), to pinpoint the maser relative to the synchrotron emission, and to explore any correlation between L(FIR) and L(H2O). The key to our project is the largest deep submm survey undertaken thus far - LESS - in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. We propose to piggyback on the Huynh et al. 5-GHz survey of ECDFS, going 2.3x deeper in two pointings centred on over-densities of bright SMGs.

  18. High-redshift galaxy populations and their descendants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qi; White, Simon D. M.

    2009-06-01

    We study predictions in the concordance Λ cold dark matter cosmology for the abundance and clustering of high-redshift galaxies and for the properties of their descendants. We focus on three high-redshift populations: Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 3, optically selected star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2 (BXs) and distant red galaxies (DRGs) at z ~ 2. We select galaxies from mock catalogues based on the Millennium Simulation using the observational colour and apparent magnitude criteria. With plausible dust assumptions, our galaxy formation model can simultaneously reproduce the abundances, redshift distributions and clustering of all three observed populations. The star formation rates (SFRs) of model LBGs and BXs are lower than those quoted for the real samples, reflecting differing initial mass functions and scatter in model dust properties. About 85 per cent of model galaxies selected as DRGs are star forming, with SFRs in the range 1 to ~100Msolaryr-1. Model LBGs, BXs and DRGs together account for less than half of all star formation over the range 1.5 < z < 3.2; many massive, star-forming galaxies are predicted to be too heavily obscured to appear in these populations. Model BXs have metallicities which agree roughly with observation, but model LBGs are only slightly more metal poor, in disagreement with recent observational results. The model galaxies are predominantly disc dominated. Stellar masses for LBGs and BXs are ~109.9Msolar, and for DRGs are ~1010.7Msolar. Only about 30 per cent of model galaxies with M* > 1011Msolar are classified as LBGs or BXs at the relevant redshifts, while 65 per cent are classified as DRGs. Almost all model LBGs and BXs are the central galaxies of their dark haloes, but fewer than half of the haloes of any given mass have an LBG or BX central galaxy. Half of all LBG descendants at z = 2 would be identified as BXs, but very few as DRGs. Clustering increases with decreasing redshift for descendants of all three populations

  19. Real-time cosmography with redshift derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.; Martinelli, M.; Calabrese, E.; Ramos, M. P. L. P.

    2016-08-01

    The drift in the redshift of objects passively following the cosmological expansion has long been recognized as a key model-independent probe of cosmology. Here, we study the cosmological relevance of measurements of time or redshift derivatives of this drift, arguing that the combination of first and second redshift derivatives is a powerful test of the Λ CDM cosmological model. In particular, the latter can be obtained numerically from a set of measurements of the drift at different redshifts. We show that, in the low-redshift limit, a measurement of the derivative of the drift can provide a constraint on the jerk parameter, which is j =1 for flat Λ CDM , while generically j ≠1 for other models. We emphasize that such a measurement is well within the reach of the ELT-HIRES and SKA Phase 2 array surveys.

  20. A faint galaxy redshift survey behind massive clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Brenda

    1999-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with the gravitational lensing effect by massive galaxy clusters. We have explored a new technique for measuring galaxy masses and for detecting high-z galaxies by their optical colors. A redshift survey has been obtained at the Keck for a magnitude limited sample of objects (I<23) behind three clusters, A1689, A2390, and A2218 within a radius of 0.5M pc. For each cluster we see both a clear trend of increasing flux and redshift towards the center. This behavior is the result of image magnifications, such that at fixed redshift one sees further down the luminosity function. The gradient of this magnification is, unlike measurements of image distortion, sensitive to the mass profile, and found to depart strongly from a pure isothermal halo. We have found that V RI color selection can be used effectively as a discriminant for finding high-z galaxies behind clusters and present five 4.1 < z < 5.1 spectra which are of very high quality due to their high mean magnification of {approximately}20, showing strong, visibly-saturated interstellar metal lines in some cases. We have also investigated the radio ring lens PKS 1830-211, locating the source and multiple images and detected molecular absorption at mm wavelengths. Broad molecular absorption of width 1/40kms is found toward the southwest component only, where surprisingly it does not reach the base of the continuum, which implies incomplete coverage of the SW component by molecular gas, despite the small projected size of the source, less than 1/8h pc at the absorption redshift.

  1. Redshift evolution of the dynamical properties of massive galaxies from SDSS-III/BOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Beifiori, Alessandra; Saglia, Roberto P.; Bender, Ralf; Senger, Robert; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Steele, Oliver; Masters, Karen L.; Pforr, Janine; Tojeiro, Rita; Johansson, Jonas; Nichol, Robert C.; Chen, Yan-Mei; Wake, David; Bolton, Adam; Brownstein, Joel R.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Schneider, Donald P.; Skibba, Ramin; Pan, Kaike; and others

    2014-07-10

    We study the redshift evolution of the dynamical properties of ∼180, 000 massive galaxies from SDSS-III/BOSS combined with a local early-type galaxy sample from SDSS-II in the redshift range 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.6. The typical stellar mass of this sample is M{sub *} ∼2 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ☉}. We analyze the evolution of the galaxy parameters effective radius, stellar velocity dispersion, and the dynamical to stellar mass ratio with redshift. As the effective radii of BOSS galaxies at these redshifts are not well resolved in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging we calibrate the SDSS size measurements with Hubble Space Telescope/COSMOS photometry for a sub-sample of galaxies. We further apply a correction for progenitor bias to build a sample which consists of a coeval, passively evolving population. Systematic errors due to size correction and the calculation of dynamical mass are assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. At fixed stellar or dynamical mass, we find moderate evolution in galaxy size and stellar velocity dispersion, in agreement with previous studies. We show that this results in a decrease of the dynamical to stellar mass ratio with redshift at >2σ significance. By combining our sample with high-redshift literature data, we find that this evolution of the dynamical to stellar mass ratio continues beyond z ∼ 0.7 up to z > 2 as M{sub dyn}/M{sub *} ∼(1 + z){sup –0.30±0.12}, further strengthening the evidence for an increase of M{sub dyn}/M{sub *} with cosmic time. This result is in line with recent predictions from galaxy formation simulations based on minor merger driven mass growth, in which the dark matter fraction within the half-light radius increases with cosmic time.

  2. The effects of spatial resolution on integral field spectrograph surveys at different redshifts - The CALIFA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, D.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sánchez, S. F.; Vílchez, J. M.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Walcher, C. J.; Husemann, B.; Márquez, I.; Marino, R. A.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Galbany, L.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Kehrig, C.; del Olmo, A.; Relaño, M.; Wisotzki, L.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Bekeraitè, S.; Papaderos, P.; Wild, V.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Ziegler, B.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; van de Ven, G.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Over the past decade, 3D optical spectroscopy has become the preferred tool for understanding the properties of galaxies and is now increasingly used to carry out galaxy surveys. Low redshift surveys include SAURON, DiskMass, ATLAS3D, PINGS, and VENGA. At redshifts above 0.7, surveys such as MASSIV, SINS, GLACE, and IMAGES have targeted the most luminous galaxies to study mainly their kinematic properties. The on-going CALIFA survey (z ~ 0.02) is the first of a series of upcoming integral field spectroscopy (IFS) surveys with large samples representative of the entire population of galaxies. Others include SAMI and MaNGA at lower redshift and the upcoming KMOS surveys at higher redshift. Given the importance of spatial scales in IFS surveys, the study of the effects of spatial resolution on the recovered parameters becomes important. Aims: We explore the capability of the CALIFA survey and a hypothetical higher redshift survey to reproduce the properties of a sample of objects observed with better spatial resolution at lower redshift. Methods: Using a sample of PINGS galaxies, we simulated observations at different redshifts. We then studied the behaviour of different parameters as the spatial resolution degrades with increasing redshift. Results: We show that at the CALIFA resolution, we are able to measure and map common observables in a galaxy study: the number and distribution of H ii regions (Hα flux structure), the gas metallicity (using the O3N2 method), the gas ionization properties (through the [N ii]/Hα and [O iii]/Hβ line ratios), and the age of the underlying stellar population (using the D4000 index). This supports the aim of the survey to characterise the observable properties of galaxies in the Local Universe. Our analysis of simulated IFS data cubes at higher redshifts highlights the importance of the projected spatial scale per spaxel as the most important figure of merit in the design of an integral field survey.

  3. IONIZED NITROGEN AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Bertoldi, F.; Carilli, C.; Kneib, J. P.; Lestrade, J. F.; Maiolino, R.; Omont, A.; Richard, J.; Riechers, D.; Thanjavur, K.; Weiss, A.

    2012-06-10

    We present secure [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} detections in two millimeter-bright, strongly lensed objects at high redshift, APM 08279+5255 (z = 3.911) and MM 18423+5938 (z = 3.930), using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Due to its ionization energy [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} is a good tracer of the ionized gas phase in the interstellar medium. The measured fluxes are S([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (4.8 {+-} 0.8) Jy km s{sup -1} and (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Jy km s{sup -1}, respectively, yielding line luminosities of L([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (1.8 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} for APM 08279+5255 and L([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (2.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} for MM 18423+5938. Our high-resolution map of the [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} and 1 mm continuum emission in MM 18423+5938 clearly resolves an Einstein ring in this source and reveals a velocity gradient in the dynamics of the ionized gas. A comparison of these maps with high-resolution EVLA CO observations enables us to perform the first spatially resolved study of the dust continuum-to-molecular gas surface brightness ({Sigma}{sub FIR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup N}{sub CO}, which can be interpreted as the star formation law) in a high-redshift object. We find a steep relation (N = 1.4 {+-} 0.2), consistent with a starbursting environment. We measure a [N II]{sub 205{mu}m}/FIR luminosity ratio in APM 08279+5255 and MM 18423+5938 of 9.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, respectively. This is in agreement with the decrease of the [N II]{sub 205{mu}m}/FIR ratio at high FIR luminosities observed in local galaxies.

  4. Broadband Observations of High Redshift Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Stalin, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 (z = 3.37), CGRaBS J0225+1846 (z = 2.69), BZQ J1430+4205 (z = 4.72), and 3FGL J1656.2‑3303 (z = 2.40) using quasi-simultaneous data from the Swift, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also archival XMM-Newton observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2‑3303, none of the sources were known as γ-ray emitters, and our analysis of ∼7.5 yr of LAT data reveals the first time detection of statistically significant γ-ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of NuSTAR observations and reproduce them using a one-zone leptonic emission model. The optical‑UV emission in all the objects can be explained by radiation from the accretion disk, whereas the X-ray to γ-ray windows of the SEDs are found to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering off the broad line region photons. All of them host black holes that are billions of solar masses. Comparing the accretion disk luminosity and the jet power of these sources with a large sample of blazars, we find them to occupy a high disk luminosity–jet power regime. We also investigate the X-ray spectral properties of the sources in detail with a major focus on studying the causes of soft X-ray deficit, a feature generally seen in high redshift radio-loud quasars. We summarize that this feature could be explained based on the intrinsic curvature in the jet emission rather than being due to the external effects predicted in earlier studies, such as host galaxy and/or warm absorption.

  5. PRIMUS: Redshifts for 140,000 Galaxies to z 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustakas, John; PRIMUS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The elapsed time since z 1, spanning roughly 60% of the age of the Universe, represents an important and dramatic epoch in galaxy evolution. During this time galaxies agglomerate into large-scale structures like groups and clusters, the cosmic rate of star formation declines by an order-of-magnitude, and there is a significant buildup in the population of red, passively evolving galaxies. However, efforts to understand this evolution by leveraging the tremendous multiwavelength datasets acquired from space -- from Spitzer, GALEX, Chandra, XMM, and HST -- have been hampered by a lack of precise redshifts for large samples of galaxies over a wide enough area of the sky to mitigate the effects of cosmic variance. To address these issues, we have carried out the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS), the largest spectroscopic survey of intermediate-redshift galaxies conducted to date. Combining redshifts from PRIMUS with ancillary ground- and space-based observations from the X-ray to the infrared, we have begun to measure the relative importance of large-scale environment on galaxy evolution, and the multivariate distributions of luminosity, color, star formation rate, stellar mass, and AGN activity in galaxies since z 1 with unprecedented precision. We introduce the survey and highlight the first science results from PRIMUS. PRIMUS is generously supported by grants from NASA and NSF.

  6. Bulge Growth Through Disc Instabilities in High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bournaud, Frédéric

    The role of disc instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disc galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges (Chap. 14 10.1007/978-3-319-19378-6_14"). This secular growth of bulges in modern disc galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudobulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disc instabilities at high redshift (z > 1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (1010 to a few 1011 M⊙ of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift discs are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 108-9 M⊙ of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disc evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms on short timescales. The giant clumps can migrate inward and coalesce into the bulge in a few 108 years. The instability in the very turbulent media drives intense gas inflows toward the bulge and nuclear region. Thick discs and supermassive black holes can grow concurrently as a result of the violent instability. This chapter reviews the properties of high-redshift disc instabilities, the evolution of giant clumps and other features associated to the instability, and the resulting growth of bulges and associated sub-galactic components.

  7. Surveying the Origin of O VI Gas at Low Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Tripp, Todd; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Mulchaey, John

    2002-08-01

    A comparison of the baryonic mass density inferred from BBN with a census of visible baryonic components (i.e. galaxies, HI gas) at the present epoch indicates a significant fraction of the universe's baryons are hidden in a dark component. Theoretical investigations into these missing bayons suggest the majority lie in a hot (T ~ 10^5-7 K), low density medium which can be efficiently detected through O VI absorption. More importantly, recent STIS+FUSE surveys for O VI are consistent with this gas comprising a significant fraction of the missing baryons. Establishing the physical nature of these O VI absorbers, therefore, may have great impact on our understanding of the distribution of baryons in the universe. The principal goal of this proposal is to determine if this O VI gas arises in galactic halos, the intragroup or intracluster medium, the low density 'cosmic web' which connects collapsed objects, or a different region of the universe altogether. We are currently pursuing a program to search for galaxies associated with O VI absorbers at low redshift (z < 0.5). To accomplish this project, we will obtain deep UBVRI images of the galaxies in four fields surrounding quasars surveyed for O VI absorption. This dataset will provide accurate photometric redshifts of the z< 0.5 galaxies with L > L^*/10 and will reveal their physical characteristics. Ultimately, we will utilize the photometric redshifts to efficiently pre-select galaxies for follow-up spectroscopy on multi- slit spectrographs. By correlating the photometric and spectroscopy galaxy redshifts against the O VI absorption lines and comparing directly with detailed cosmological simulations, we will establish the origin of the O VI gas.

  8. REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY VELOCITY DISPERSION FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bezanson, Rachel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Franx, Marijn; Brinchmann, Jarle; Labbe, Ivo; Van de Sande, Jesse; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Kriek, Mariska; Quadri, Ryan F.; Williams, Rik J.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2011-08-20

    We present a study of the evolution of the galaxy velocity dispersion function (VDF) from z = 0 to z = 1.5 using photometric data from the Ultra-Deep and the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey in the COSMOS field. The VDF has been measured locally using direct kinematic measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), but direct studies of the VDF at high redshift are difficult as they require velocity dispersion measurements of many thousands of galaxies. Taylor et al. demonstrated that dynamical and stellar masses are linearly related when the structure of the galaxy is accounted for. We show that the stellar mass, size, and Sersic index can reliably predict the velocity dispersions of SDSS galaxies. We apply this relation to galaxies at high redshift and determine the evolution of the inferred VDF. We find that the VDF at z {approx} 0.5 is very similar to the VDF at z = 0. At higher redshifts, we find that the number density of galaxies with dispersions {approx}< 200 km s{sup -1} is lower, but the number of high-dispersion galaxies is constant or even higher. At fixed cumulative number density, the velocity dispersions of galaxies with log N[Mpc{sup -3}] < -3.5 increase with time by a factor of {approx}1.4 from z {approx} 1.5-0, whereas the dispersions of galaxies with lower number density are approximately constant or decrease with time. The VDF appears to show less evolution than the stellar mass function, particularly at the lowest number densities. We note that these results are still somewhat uncertain and we suggest several avenues for further calibrating the inferred velocity dispersions.

  9. Redshifts for Superliminal Candidates.II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, R. C.; Taylor, G. B.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Browne, I. W. A.

    1996-03-01

    Spectra are presented for 24 compact extragalactic radio sources from complete samples being studied with VLBI. New emission line redshifts are given for 21 of the objects; in 7 of these we have also identified associated or intervening absorption line systems. In 1 other source there are absorption lines which provide a lower limit to the redshift. The remaining 2 objects have strong featureless spectra and are likely to be blazars.

  10. Astronomical redshifts and the expansion of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Nick

    2014-03-01

    In homogeneous cosmological models, the wavelength λ of a photon exchanged between two fundamental observers changes in proportion to expansion of the space D between them, so Δ log (λ/D) = 0. This is exactly the same as for a pair of observers receding from each other in flat space-time where the effect is purely kinematic. The interpretation of this has been the subject of considerable debate, and it has been suggested that all redshifts are a relative velocity effect, raising the question of whether the wavelength always stretches in proportion to the emitter-receiver separation. Here, we show that, for low redshift at least, Δ log (λ/D) vanishes for a photon exchanged between any two freely falling observers in a spatially constant tidal field, because such a field stretches wavelengths and the space between the observers identically. But in general there is a non-kinematic, and essentially gravitational, component of the redshift that is given by a weighted average of the gradient of the tidal field along the photon path. While the redshift can always be formally expressed using the Doppler formula, in situations where the gravitational redshift dominates, the `relative velocity' is typically quite different from the rate of change of D and it is misleading to think of the redshift as being a velocity or `kinematic' effect.

  11. Simulation of High-Redshift Galactic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Robert J.; Scannapieco, E.; Windhorst, R. A.; Thacker, R.

    2009-12-01

    We construct an observational model of galaxies at high redshifts (z 3 - 13) from numerical N-body and SPH simulations of galaxy formation using the computing cluster "Saguaro” at Arizona State University. The model uses a concordance Lambda-CDM model including baryonic components with gas heating and cooling and star formation using Gadget-2 simulations. Snapshots at various redshifts yield star "particles” (populations) with a modeled metallicity and age of formation. The Bruzual-Charlot '03 stellar population models are used to compute a red-shifted flux for various filters for each simulated star population. The flux and spatial coordinates are then used to create a pixel image in a fits file format. The different redshift "slices” are shifted randomly in the simulation periodic box, and resized according to the comoving distance to correct for the angular pixel mapping. The various redshift corrected fits images are then combined into a single image for each filter to produce simulated observational images. This is to enable the use of observational imaging tools to detect galaxies and to aid observational proposals at high redshifts including the new WFC3 camera to be installed on the HST. This method also permits estimates of the luminosity function at z >6 directly from the simulated stellar populations rather than just the size of the Dark Matter haloes. With runs of higher resolution, this will permit exploration of the faint end of the luminosity function. The computing time was supplied by the ASU Fulton HPC center.

  12. Astronomical redshifts of highly ionized regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2014-07-01

    Astronomical or cosmological redshifts are an observable property of extragalactic objects and have historically been wholly attributed to the recessional velocity of that object. The question of other, or intrinsic, components of the redshift has been highly controversial since it was first proposed. This paper investigates one theoretical source of intrinsic redshift that has been identified. The highly ionized regions of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO) are, by definition, plasmas. All plasmas have electromagnetic scattering characteristics that could contribute to the observed redshift. To investigate this possibility, one region of a generalized AGN was selected, the so called Broad Line Region (BLR). Even though unresolvable with current instrumentation, physical estimates of this region have been published for years in the astronomical literature. These data, selected and then averaged, are used to construct an overall model that is consistent with the published data to within an order of magnitude. The model is then subjected to a theoretical scattering investigation. The results suggest that intrinsic redshifts, derivable from the characteristics of the ambient plasma, may indeed contribute to the overall observed redshift of these objects.

  13. Lyman Break Analogs: Constraints on the Formation of Extreme Starbursts at Low and High Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goncalves, Thiago S.; Overzier, Roderik; Basu-Zych, Antara; Martin, D. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs), characterized by high far-UV luminosities and surface brightnesses as detected by GALEX, are intensely star-forming galaxies in the low-redshift universe (z approximately equal to 0.2), with star formation rates reaching up to 50 times that of the Milky Way. These objects present metallicities, morphologies and other physical properties similar to higher redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), motivating the detailed study of LBAs as local laboratories of this high-redshift galaxy population. We present results from our recent integral-field spectroscopy survey of LBAs with Keck/OSIRIS, which shows that these galaxies have the same nebular gas kinematic properties as high-redshift LBGs. We argue that such kinematic studies alone are not an appropriate diagnostic to rule out merger events as the trigger for the observed starburst. Comparison between the kinematic analysis and morphological indices from HST imaging illustrates the difficulties of properly identifying (minor or major) merger events, with no clear correlation between the results using either of the two methods. Artificial redshifting of our data indicates that this problem becomes even worse at high redshift due to surface brightness dimming and resolution loss. Whether mergers could generate the observed kinematic properties is strongly dependent on gas fractions in these galaxies. We present preliminary results of a CARMA survey for LBAs and discuss the implications of the inferred molecular gas masses for formation models.

  14. ON THE SHAPES AND STRUCTURES OF HIGH-REDSHIFT COMPACT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chevance, Melanie; Damjanov, Ivana; Abraham, Roberto G.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Simard, Luc; Van den Bergh, Sidney; Caris, Evelyn; Glazebrook, Karl

    2012-08-01

    Recent deep Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 imaging suggests that a majority of compact quiescent massive galaxies at z {approx} 2 may contain disks. To investigate this claim, we have compared the ellipticity distribution of 31 carefully selected high-redshift massive quiescent compact galaxies to a set of mass-selected ellipticity and Sersic index distributions obtained from two-dimensional structural fits to {approx}40, 000 nearby galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that the distribution of ellipticities for the high-redshift galaxies is consistent with the ellipticity distribution of a similarly chosen sample of massive early-type galaxies. However, the distribution of Sersic indices for the high-redshift sample is inconsistent with that of local early-type galaxies, and instead resembles that of local disk-dominated populations. The mismatch between the properties of high-redshift compact galaxies and those of both local early-type and disk-dominated systems leads us to conclude that the basic structures of high-redshift compact galaxies probably do not closely resemble those of any single local galaxy population. Any galaxy population analog to the high-redshift compact galaxies that exists at the current epoch is either a mix of different types of galaxies, or possibly a unique class of objects on their own.

  15. Peculiar velocities in redshift space: formalism, N-body simulations and perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, Teppei; Seljak, Uroš; Vlah, Zvonimir; Desjacques, Vincent E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu E-mail: Vincent.Desjacques@unige.ch

    2014-05-01

    Direct measurements of peculiar velocities of galaxies and clusters of galaxies can in principle provide explicit information on the three dimensional mass distribution, but this information is modulated by the fact that velocity field is sampled at galaxy positions, and is thus probing galaxy momentum. We derive expressions for the cross power spectrum between the density and momentum field and the auto spectrum of the momentum field in redshift space, by extending the distribution function method to these statistics. The resulting momentum cross and auto power spectra in redshift space are expressed as infinite sums over velocity moment correlators in real space, as is the case for the density power spectrum in redshift space. We compute each correlator using Eulerian perturbation theory (PT) and halo biasing model and compare the resulting redshift-space velocity statistics to those measured from N-body simulations for both dark matter and halos. We find that in redshift space linear theory predictions for the density-momentum cross power spectrum as well as for the momentum auto spectrum fail to predict the N-body results at very large scales. On the other hand, our nonlinear PT prediction for these velocity statistics, together with real-space power spectrum for dark matter from simulations, improves the accuracy for both dark matter and halos. We also present the same analysis in configuration space, computing the redshift-space pairwise mean infall velocities and velocity correlation function and compare to nonlinear PT.

  16. Evolution of Field Spiral Galaxies up to Redshifts z = 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Asmus; Ziegler, Bodo L.

    2007-10-01

    We have gained intermediate-resolution spectroscopy with the FORS instruments of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and high-resolution imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard HST for a sample of 220 distant field spiral galaxies within the FORS Deep Field and William Herschel Deep Field. Spatially resolved rotation curves were extracted and fitted with synthetic velocity fields that take into account all geometric and observational effects, such as blurring due to the slit width and seeing influence. Using these fits, the maximum rotation velocity Vmax could be determined for 124 galaxies that cover the redshift range 0.1mass spirals, whereas the distant high-mass spirals are compatible with the local TFR. Taking the magnitude-limited character of our sample into account, we show that the slope of the local and the intermediate- z TFR would be in compliance if its scatter decreased by more than a factor of 3 between z~0.5 and 0. Accepting this large evolution of the TFR scatter, we hence find no strong evidence for a mass- or luminosity-dependent evolution of disk galaxies. On the other hand, we derive stellar mass-to-luminosity ratios (M/L) that indicate a luminosity-dependent evolution in the sense that distant low-luminosity disks have much lower M/L than their local counterparts, while high-luminosity disks barely evolved in M/L over the covered redshift range. This could be the manifestation of the ``downsizing'' effect, i.e., the successive shift of the peak of star formation from high-mass to low-mass galaxies toward lower redshifts. This trend might be canceled out in the TF diagram due to the simultaneous evolution of multiple parameters. We also estimate the ratios

  17. Detection of molecular gas in the quasar BR1202 - 0725 at redshift z = 4.69.

    PubMed

    Ohta, K; Yamada, T; Nakanishi, K; Kohno, K; Akiyama, M; Kawabe, R

    1996-08-01

    Although great efforts have been made to locate molecular gas--the material out of which stars form--in the early Universe, there have been only two firm detections at high redshift. Both are gravitationally lensed objects at redshift z approximately = 2.5 (refs 9-14). Here we report the detection of CO emission from the radio-quiet quasar BR1202 - 0725, which is at redshift z = 4.69. From the observed CO luminosity, we estimate that almost 10(11) solar masses of molecular hydrogen are associated with the quasar; this is comparable to the stellar mass of a present-day luminous galaxy. Our results suggest that BR1202 - 0725 is a massive galaxy, in which the gas is largely concentrated in the central region, and that is currently undergoing a large burst of star formation. PMID:8684482

  18. Simultaneous Estimation of Photometric Redshifts and SED Parameters: Improved Techniques and a Realistic Error Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Raichoor, Anand; Gawiser, Eric

    2015-05-01

    We seek to improve the accuracy of joint galaxy photometric redshift estimation and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. By simulating different sources of uncorrected systematic errors, we demonstrate that if the uncertainties in the photometric redshifts are estimated correctly, so are those on the other SED fitting parameters, such as stellar mass, stellar age, and dust reddening. Furthermore, we find that if the redshift uncertainties are over(under)-estimated, the uncertainties in SED parameters tend to be over(under)-estimated by similar amounts. These results hold even in the presence of severe systematics and provide, for the first time, a mechanism to validate the uncertainties on these parameters via comparison with spectroscopic redshifts. We propose a new technique (annealing) to re-calibrate the joint uncertainties in the photo-z and SED fitting parameters without compromising the performance of the SED fitting + photo-z estimation. This procedure provides a consistent estimation of the multi-dimensional probability distribution function in SED fitting + z parameter space, including all correlations. While the performance of joint SED fitting and photo-z estimation might be hindered by template incompleteness, we demonstrate that the latter is “flagged” by a large fraction of outliers in redshift, and that significant improvements can be achieved by using flexible stellar populations synthesis models and more realistic star formation histories. In all cases, we find that the median stellar age is better recovered than the time elapsed from the onset of star formation. Finally, we show that using a photometric redshift code such as EAZY to obtain redshift probability distributions that are then used as priors for SED fitting codes leads to only a modest bias in the SED fitting parameters and is thus a viable alternative to the simultaneous estimation of SED parameters and photometric redshifts.

  19. SHELS: A complete galaxy redshift survey with R ≤ 20.6

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.; Zahid, Harus Jabran E-mail: hhwang@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: mkurtz@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jabran@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-08-01

    The SHELS (Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey) is a complete redshift survey covering two well-separated fields (F1 and F2) of the Deep Lens Survey to a limiting R = 20.6. Here we describe the redshift survey of the F2 field (R.A.{sub 2000} = 09{sup h}19{sup m}32.4 and decl.{sub 2000} = +30°00'00''). The survey includes 16,294 new redshifts measured with the Hectospec on the MMT. The resulting survey of the 4 deg{sup 2} F2 field is 95% complete to R = 20.6, currently the densest survey to this magnitude limit. The median survey redshift is z = 0.3; the survey provides a view of structure in the range 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.6. An animation displays the large-scale structure in the survey region. We provide a redshift, spectral index D {sub n}4000, and stellar mass for each galaxy in the survey. We also provide a metallicity for each galaxy in the range 0.2 mass, and redshift. The known evolutionary and stellar mass dependent properties of the galaxy population are cleanly evident in the data. We also show that the mass-metallicity relation previously determined from these data is robust to the analysis approach.

  20. Discovery of Compact Quiescent Galaxies at Intermediate Redshifts in DEEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancato, Kirsten; Chilingarian, Igor; Damjanov, Ivana; Moran, Sean; Katkov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Compact quiescent galaxies in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.1 are the missing link needed to complete the evolutionary histories of these objects from the high redshift z ≥ 2 Universe to the local z ~ 0 Universe. We identify the first intermediate redshift compact quiescent galaxies by searching a sample of 1,089 objects in the DEEP2 Redshift Survey that have multi-band photometry, spectral fitting, and readily available structural parameters. We find 27 compact quiescent candidates between z = 0.6 and z = 1.1 where each candidate galaxy has archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and is visually confirmed to be early-type. The candidates have half-light radii ranging from 0.83 < Re,c < 7.14 kpc (median Re,c = 1.77 kpc) and virial masses ranging from 2.2E10 < Mdyn < 5.6E11 Msun (median Mdyn = 7.7E10 Msun). Of our 27 compact quiescent candidates, 13 are truly compact with sizes at most half of the size of their z ~ 0 counterparts of the same mass. In addition to their structural properties bridging the gap between their high and low redshift counterparts, our sample of intermediate redshift quiescent galaxies span a large range of ages but is drawn from two distinct epochs of galaxy formation: formation at z > 2 which suggests these objects may be the relics of the observed high redshift compact galaxies and formation at z ≤ 2 which suggests there is an additional population of more recently formed massive compact galaxies. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  1. Two Micron All Sky Survey Photometric Redshift Catalog: A Comprehensive Three-dimensional Census of the Whole Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Peacock, John A.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Steward, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Key cosmological applications require the three-dimensional (3D) galaxy distribution on the entire celestial sphere. These include measuring the gravitational pull on the Local Group, estimating the large-scale bulk flow, and testing the Copernican principle. However, the largest all-sky redshift surveys—the 2MASS Redshift Survey and IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey—have median redshifts of only z = 0.03 and sample the very local universe. All-sky galaxy catalogs exist that reach much deeper—SuperCOSMOS in the optical, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the near-IR, and WISE in the mid-IR—but these lack complete redshift information. At present, the only rapid way toward larger 3D catalogs covering the whole sky is through photometric redshift techniques. In this paper we present the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalog (2MPZ) containing one million galaxies, constructed by cross-matching Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog (2MASS XSC), WISE, and SuperCOSMOS all-sky samples and employing the artificial neural network approach (the ANNz algorithm), trained on such redshift surveys as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 6dFGS, and 2dFGRS. The derived photometric redshifts have errors nearly independent of distance, with an all-sky accuracy of σ z = 0.015 and a very small percentage of outliers. In this way, we obtain redshift estimates with a typical precision of 12% for all the 2MASS XSC galaxies that lack spectroscopy. In addition, we have made an early effort toward probing the entire 3D sky beyond 2MASS, by pairing up WISE with SuperCOSMOS and training the ANNz on GAMA redshift data currently reaching to z med ~ 0.2. This has yielded photo-z accuracies comparable to those in the 2MPZ. These all-sky photo-z catalogs, with a median z ~ 0.1 for the 2MPZ, and significantly deeper for future WISE-based samples, will be the largest and most complete of their kind for the foreseeable future.

  2. Spectra of High-Redshift Type Ia Supernovae and a Comparison withtheir Low-Redshift Counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Burns,M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Folatelli, G.; Garavini, G.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente,P.; Sainton, G.; Schaefer, B.E.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev,V.; Thomas, R.C.; Walton, N.A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2005-07-20

    We present spectra for 14 high-redshift (0.17 < z < 0.83) supernovae, which were discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project as part of a campaign to measure cosmological parameters. The spectra are used to determine the redshift and classify the supernova type, essential information if the supernovae are to be used for cosmological studies. Redshifts were derived either from the spectrum of the host galaxy or from the spectrum of the supernova itself. We present evidence that these supernovae are of Type Ia by matching to spectra of nearby supernovae. We find that the dates of the spectra relative to maximum light determined from this fitting process are consistent with the dates determined from the photometric light curves, and moreover the spectral time-sequence for SNe Type Ia at low and high redshift is indistinguishable. We also show that the expansion velocities measured from blueshifted Ca H&K are consistent with those measured for low-redshift Type Ia supernovae. From these first-level quantitative comparisons we find no evidence for evolution in SNIa properties between these low- and high-redshift samples. Thus even though our samples may not be complete, we conclude that there is a population of SNe Ia at high redshift whose spectral properties match those at low redshift.

  3. Type IIn supernovae at redshift z approximately 2 from archival data.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Jeff; Sullivan, Mark; Barton, Elizabeth J; Bullock, James S; Carlberg, Ray G; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Tollerud, Erik

    2009-07-01

    Supernovae have been confirmed to redshift z approximately 1.7 (refs 1, 2) for type Ia (thermonuclear detonation of a white dwarf) and to z approximately 0.7 (refs 1, 3-5) for type II (collapse of the core of the star). The subclass type IIn (ref. 6) supernovae are luminous core-collapse explosions of massive stars and, unlike other types, are very bright in the ultraviolet, which should enable them to be found optically at redshifts z approximately 2 and higher. In addition, the interaction of the ejecta with circumstellar material creates strong, long-lived emission lines that allow spectroscopic confirmation of many events of this type at z approximately 2 for 3-5 years after explosion (ref. 14). Here we report three spectroscopically confirmed type IIn supernovae, at redshifts z = 0.808, 2.013 and 2.357, detected in archival data using a method designed to exploit these properties at z approximately 2. Type IIn supernovae directly probe the formation of massive stars at high redshift. The number found to date is consistent with the expectations of a locally measured stellar initial mass function, but not with an evolving initial mass function proposed to explain independent observations at low and high redshift. PMID:19587765

  4. A luminous quasar at a redshift of z = 7.085.

    PubMed

    Mortlock, Daniel J; Warren, Stephen J; Venemans, Bram P; Patel, Mitesh; Hewett, Paul C; McMahon, Richard G; Simpson, Chris; Theuns, Tom; Gonzáles-Solares, Eduardo A; Adamson, Andy; Dye, Simon; Hambly, Nigel C; Hirst, Paul; Irwin, Mike J; Kuiper, Ernst; Lawrence, Andy; Röttgering, Huub J A

    2011-06-30

    The intergalactic medium was not completely reionized until approximately a billion years after the Big Bang, as revealed by observations of quasars with redshifts of less than 6.5. It has been difficult to probe to higher redshifts, however, because quasars have historically been identified in optical surveys, which are insensitive to sources at redshifts exceeding 6.5. Here we report observations of a quasar (ULAS J112001.48+064124.3) at a redshift of 7.085, which is 0.77 billion years after the Big Bang. ULAS J1120+0641 has a luminosity of 6.3 × 10(13)L(⊙) and hosts a black hole with a mass of 2 × 10(9)M(⊙) (where L(⊙) and M(⊙) are the luminosity and mass of the Sun). The measured radius of the ionized near zone around ULAS J1120+0641 is 1.9 megaparsecs, a factor of three smaller than is typical for quasars at redshifts between 6.0 and 6.4. The near-zone transmission profile is consistent with a Lyα damping wing, suggesting that the neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium in front of ULAS J1120+0641 exceeded 0.1. PMID:21720366

  5. RUNAWAY STARS AND THE ESCAPE OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2012-08-20

    Approximately 30% of all massive stars in the Galaxy are runaways with velocities exceeding 30 km s{sup -1}. Their high speeds allow them to travel {approx}0.1-1 kpc away from their birthplace before they explode at the end of their several Myr lifetimes. At high redshift, when galaxies were much smaller than in the local universe, runaways could venture far from the dense inner regions of their host galaxies. From these large radii, and therefore low column densities, much of their ionizing radiation is able to escape into the intergalactic medium. Runaways may therefore significantly enhance the overall escape fraction of ionizing radiation, f{sub esc}, from small galaxies at high redshift. We present simple models of the high-redshift runaway population and its impact on f{sub esc} as a function of halo mass, size, and redshift. We find that the inclusion of runaways enhances f{sub esc} by factors of Almost-Equal-To 1.1-8, depending on halo mass, galaxy geometry, and the mechanism of runaway production, implying that runaways may contribute 50%-90% of the total ionizing radiation escaping from high-redshift galaxies. Runaways may therefore play an important role in reionizing the universe.

  6. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  7. The fate of high redshift massive compact galaxies in dense environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, Tobias; Mayer, Lucio; Carollo, Marcella; Feldmann, Robert; /Fermilab /Chicago U., KICP

    2012-01-01

    Massive compact galaxies seem to be more common at high redshift than in the local universe, especially in denser environments. To investigate the fate of such massive galaxies identified at z {approx} 2 we analyse the evolution of their properties in three cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that form virialized galaxy groups of mass {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}} hosting a central massive elliptical/S0 galaxy by redshift zero. We find that at redshift {approx} 2 the population of galaxies with M{sub *} > 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} is diverse in terms of mass, velocity dispersion, star formation and effective radius, containing both very compact and relatively extended objects. In each simulation all the compact satellite galaxies have merged into the central galaxy by redshift 0 (with the exception of one simulation where one of such satellite galaxy survives). Satellites of similar mass at z = 0 are all less compact than their high redshift counterparts. They form later than the galaxies in the z = 2 sample and enter the group potential at z < 1, when dynamical friction times are longer than the Hubble time. Also, by z = 0 the central galaxies have increased substantially their characteristic radius via a combination of in situ star formation and mergers. Hence in a group environment descendants of compact galaxies either evolve towards larger sizes or they disappear before the present time as a result of the environment in which they evolve. Since the group-sized halos that we consider are representative of dense environments in the {Lambda}CDM cosmology, we conclude that the majority of high redshift compact massive galaxies do not survive until today as a result of the environment.

  8. SCUBA Observations of High Redshift Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Reuland, M; Rottgering, H; van Breugel, W

    2003-03-11

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) are key targets for studies of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies.The role of dust in these processes is uncertain. We have therefore observed the dust continuum emission from a sample of z > 3 radio galaxies with the SCUBA bolometer array. We confirm and strengthen the result found by Archibald et al. (1), that HzRGs are massive starforming systems and that submillimeter detection rate appears to be primarily a strong function of redshift. We also observed HzRG-candidates that have so far eluded spectroscopic redshift determination. Four of these have been detected, and provide evidence that they may be extremely obscured radio galaxies, possibly in an early stage of their evolution.

  9. Dusty Galaxies at the Highest Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, David L.

    2015-08-01

    Galaxies with very high star formation rates are usually shrouded in substantial amounts of dust obscuration, making their discovery impossible through optical and/or near-IR observations. Observations in the far-IR/submm in contrast can identify such objects from their colours, allowing these rare objects to be followup up in detail. Herschel surveys have found a significant population of such objects at 4redshift record holder lying at z=6.34. Such objects are a challenge for all current models of galaxy formation and evolution. We here present the latest results from the HerMES consortium's ongoing work on this population, including new imaging and spectroscopic redshifts from ALMA, analysis of lensing for bright z>5 sources, and progress in the search for dusty star forming galaxies at still higher redshifts.

  10. Cluster redshifts in five suspected superclusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardullo, R.; Ford, H.; Harms, R.

    1985-01-01

    Redshift surveys for rich superclusters were carried out in five regions of the sky containing surface-density enhancements of Abell clusters. While several superclusters are identified, projection effects dominate each field, and no system contains more than five rich clusters. Two systems are found to be especially interesting. The first, field 0136 10, is shown to contain a superposition of at least four distinct superclusters, with the richest system possessing a small velocity dispersion. The second system, 2206 - 22, though a region of exceedingly high Abell cluster surface density, appears to be a remarkable superposition of 23 rich clusters almost uniformly distributed in redshift space between 0.08 and 0.24. The new redshifts significantly increase the three-dimensional information available for the distance class 5 and 6 Abell clusters and allow the spatial correlation function around rich superclusters to be estimated.

  11. A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO THE HIGH-REDSHIFT OVERPRODUCTION OF STARS IN MODELED DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    White, Catherine E.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2015-02-01

    Both numerical hydrodynamic and semi-analytic cosmological models of galaxy formation struggle to match observed star formation histories of galaxies in low-mass halos (M {sub H} ≲ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}), predicting more star formation at high redshift and less star formation at low redshift than observed. The fundamental problem is that galaxies' gas accretion and star formation rates are too closely coupled in the models: the accretion rate largely drives the star formation rate. Observations point to gas accretion rates that outpace star formation at high redshift, resulting in a buildup of gas and a delay in star formation until lower redshifts. We present three empirical adjustments of standard recipes in a semi-analytic model motivated by three physical scenarios that could cause this decoupling: (1) the mass-loading factors of outflows driven by stellar feedback may have a steeper dependence on halo mass at earlier times, (2) the efficiency of star formation may be lower in low-mass halos at high redshift, and (3) gas may not be able to accrete efficiently onto the disk in low-mass halos at high redshift. These new recipes, once tuned, better reproduce the evolution of f {sub *}≡ M {sub *}/M {sub H} as a function of halo mass as derived from abundance matching over redshifts z = 0 to 3, though they have different effects on cold gas fractions, star formation rates, and metallicities. Changes to gas accretion and stellar-driven winds are promising, while direct modification of the star formation timescale requires drastic measures that are not physically well motivated.

  12. A Search for Moderate-redshift Survivors from the Population of Luminous Compact Passive Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Larson, Kirsten; Mann, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    From a search of a ~2400 deg2 region covered by both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey databases, we have attempted to identify galaxies at z ~ 0.5 that are consistent with their being essentially unmodified examples of the luminous passive compact galaxies found at z ~ 2.5. After isolating good candidates via deeper imaging, we further refine the sample with Keck moderate-resolution spectroscopy and laser guide star adaptive-optics imaging. For four of the five galaxies that so far remain after passing through this sieve, we analyze plausible star-formation histories based on our spectra in order to identify galaxies that may have survived with little modification from the population formed at high redshift. We find two galaxies that are consistent with having formed >~ 95% of their mass at z > 5. We attempt to estimate masses both from our stellar population determinations and from velocity dispersions. Given the high frequency of small axial ratios, both in our small sample and among samples found at high redshifts, we tentatively suggest that some of the more extreme examples of passive compact galaxies may have prolate morphologies. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. A search for moderate-redshift survivors from the population of luminous compact passive galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Larson, Kirsten; Mann, Andrew W. E-mail: hsshih@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: amann@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-01-10

    From a search of a ∼2400 deg{sup 2} region covered by both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey databases, we have attempted to identify galaxies at z ∼ 0.5 that are consistent with their being essentially unmodified examples of the luminous passive compact galaxies found at z ∼ 2.5. After isolating good candidates via deeper imaging, we further refine the sample with Keck moderate-resolution spectroscopy and laser guide star adaptive-optics imaging. For four of the five galaxies that so far remain after passing through this sieve, we analyze plausible star-formation histories based on our spectra in order to identify galaxies that may have survived with little modification from the population formed at high redshift. We find two galaxies that are consistent with having formed ≳ 95% of their mass at z > 5. We attempt to estimate masses both from our stellar population determinations and from velocity dispersions. Given the high frequency of small axial ratios, both in our small sample and among samples found at high redshifts, we tentatively suggest that some of the more extreme examples of passive compact galaxies may have prolate morphologies.

  14. Redshifts for galaxies in three Yerkes poor clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, J.; Spinrad, H.

    1980-01-01

    Redshifts have been obtained for 11 galaxies in the Yerkes poor cluster AWM 7, five galaxies in AWM 5, and two galaxies in AWM 1. In contrast to the result for AWM 4 previously noted by Stauffer and Spinrad, both AWM 5 and AWM 7 are real clusters with apparent line-of-sight velocity dispersions of 400 km/s and 600 km/s respectively. Surface photometry of the cD galaxy in AWM 7, obtained with the Berkeley PDS from a Crossley plate of the cluster, indicates that it is quite luminous, with an absolute magnitude to r about 30 kpc of M(v) about -23.5. A rough dynamical estimate of the AWM 7 cD mass from the spectroscopic data gives M(cD) about 2.0 x 10 to the 13th solar masses.

  15. LENSING MAGNIFICATION: A NOVEL METHOD TO WEIGH HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUSTERS AND ITS APPLICATION TO SpARCS

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, H.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Muzzin, A.; Erben, T.; Hoekstra, H.; Kuijken, K.; Surace, J.; Wilson, G.; Yee, H. K. C.

    2011-06-01

    We introduce a novel method to measure the masses of galaxy clusters at high redshift selected from optical and IR Spitzer data via the red-sequence technique. Lyman-break galaxies are used as a well-understood, high-redshift background sample allowing mass measurements of lenses at unprecedented high redshifts using weak lensing magnification. By stacking a significant number of clusters at different redshifts with average masses of {approx}(1-3) x 10{sup 14} M{sub sun}, as estimated from their richness, we can calibrate the normalization of the mass-richness relation. With the current data set (area: 6 deg{sup 2}) we detect a magnification signal at the >3{sigma} level. There is good agreement between the masses estimated from the richness of the clusters and the average masses estimated from magnification, albeit with large uncertainties. We perform tests that suggest the absence of strong systematic effects and support the robustness of the measurement. This method-when applied to larger data sets in the future-will yield an accurate calibration of the mass-observable relations at z {approx}> 1 which will represent an invaluable input for cosmological studies using the galaxy cluster mass function and astrophysical studies of cluster formation. Furthermore, this method will probably be the least expensive way to measure masses of large numbers of z > 1 clusters detected in future IR-imaging surveys.

  16. GLAST observation of high-redshift GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Calura, Francesco; Matteucci, Francesca; Omodei, Nicola

    2007-07-12

    We compare predicted Type Ib/c supernova (SNIb/c) rates with the observed long-duration Gamma-Ray-Burst (GRB) rates both locally and as a function of redshift, by assuming different star formation histories in galaxies of different morphological types. Due to the high star formation in spheroids at high redshift, we predict a large number of GRBs beyond z > 7. Moreover, based on our studies and on the current LAT performance, an estimate of the detection possibility of this burst population is presented.

  17. EZ: A Tool For Automatic Redshift Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumana, Marco; Garilli, Bianca

    2012-10-01

    EZ (Easy-Z) estimates redshifts for extragalactic objects. It compares the observed spectrum with a set of (user given) spectral templates to find out the best value for the redshift. To accomplish this task, it uses a highly configurable set of algorithms. EZ is easily extendible with new algorithms. It is implemented as a set of C programs and a number of python classes. It can be used as a standalone program, or the python classes can be directly imported by other applications.

  18. CLUSTER LENSING PROFILES DERIVED FROM A REDSHIFT ENHANCEMENT OF MAGNIFIED BOSS-SURVEY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Coupon, Jean; Umetsu, Keiichi; Broadhurst, Tom

    2013-07-20

    We report the first detection of a redshift-depth enhancement of background galaxies magnified by foreground clusters. Using 300,000 BOSS survey galaxies with accurate spectroscopic redshifts, we measure their mean redshift depth behind four large samples of optically selected clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveys, totaling 5000-15,000 clusters. A clear trend of increasing mean redshift toward the cluster centers is found, averaged over each of the four cluster samples. In addition, we find similar but noisier behavior for an independent X-ray sample of 158 clusters lying in the foreground of the current BOSS sky area. By adopting the mass-richness relationships appropriate for each survey, we compare our results with theoretical predictions for each of the four SDSS cluster catalogs. The radial form of this redshift enhancement is well fitted by a richness-to-mass weighted composite Navarro-Frenk-White profile with an effective mass ranging between M{sub 200} {approx} 1.4-1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} for the optically detected cluster samples, and M{sub 200} {approx} 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} for the X-ray sample. This lensing detection helps to establish the credibility of these SDSS cluster surveys, and provides a normalization for their respective mass-richness relations. In the context of the upcoming bigBOSS, Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph, and EUCLID-NISP spectroscopic surveys, this method represents an independent means of deriving the masses of cluster samples for examining the cosmological evolution, and provides a relatively clean consistency check of weak-lensing measurements, free from the systematic limitations of shear calibration.

  19. Optical galaxy cluster detection across a wide redshift range

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang

    2009-04-01

    The past decade is one of the most exciting period in the history of physics and astronomy. The discovery of cosmic acceleration dramatically changed our understanding about the evolution and constituents of the Universe. To accommodate the new acceleration phase into our well established Big Bang cosmological scenario under the frame work of General Relativity, there must exist a very special substance that has negative pressure and make up about 73% of the total energy density in our Universe. It is called Dark Energy. For the first time people realized that the vast majority of our Universe is made of things that are totally different from the things we are made of. Therefore, one of the major endeavors in physics and astronomy in the coming years is trying to understand, if we can, the nature of dark energy. Understanding dark energy cannot be achieved from pure logic. We need empirical evidence to finally determine about what is dark energy. The better we can constrain the energy density and evolution of the dark energy, the closer we will get to the answer. There are many ways to constrain the energy density and evolution of dark energy, each of which leads to degeneracy in certain directions in the parameter space. Therefore, a combination of complimentary methods will help to reduce the degeneracies and give tighter constraints. Dark energy became dominate over matter in the Universe only very recently (at about z ~ 1.5) and will affect both the cosmological geometry and large scale structure formation. Among the various experiments, some of them constrain the dark energy mainly via geometry (such as CMB, Supernovae) while some others provides constraints from both structures and geometry (such as BAO, Galaxy Clusters) Galaxy clusters can be used as a sensitive probe for cosmology. A large cluster catalog that extends to high redshift with well measured masses is indispensable for precisely constraining cosmological parameters. Detecting clusters in optical

  20. High-redshift galaxies and low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Bremer, Malcolm N.

    2014-03-01

    The sensitivity available to near-infrared surveys has recently allowed us to probe the galaxy population at z ≈ 7 and beyond. The existing Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Infrared Camera (VIRCam) instruments allow deep surveys to be undertaken well beyond 1 μm - a capability that will be further extended with the launch and commissioning of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As new regions of parameter space in both colour and depth are probed, new challenges for distant galaxy surveys are identified. In this paper, we present an analysis of the colours of L- and T-dwarf stars in widely used photometric systems. We also consider the implications of the newly identified Y-dwarf population - stars that are still cooler and less massive than T-dwarfs for both the photometric selection and spectroscopic follow-up of faint and distant galaxies. We highlight the dangers of working in the low-signal-to-noise regime, and the potential contamination of existing and future samples. We find that Hubble/WFC3 and VISTA/VIRCam Y-drop selections targeting galaxies at z ˜ 7.5 are vulnerable to contamination from T- and Y-class stars. Future observations using JWST, targeting the z ˜ 7 galaxy population, are also likely to prove difficult without deep medium-band observations. We demonstrate that single emission line detections in typical low-signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations may also be suspect, due to the unusual spectral characteristics of the cool dwarf star population.

  1. A new method to search for high-redshift clusters using photometric redshifts

    SciTech Connect

    Castignani, G.; Celotti, A.; Chiaberge, M.; Norman, C.

    2014-09-10

    We describe a new method (Poisson probability method, PPM) to search for high-redshift galaxy clusters and groups by using photometric redshift information and galaxy number counts. The method relies on Poisson statistics and is primarily introduced to search for megaparsec-scale environments around a specific beacon. The PPM is tailored to both the properties of the FR I radio galaxies in the Chiaberge et al. sample, which are selected within the COSMOS survey, and to the specific data set used. We test the efficiency of our method of searching for cluster candidates against simulations. Two different approaches are adopted. (1) We use two z ∼ 1 X-ray detected cluster candidates found in the COSMOS survey and we shift them to higher redshift up to z = 2. We find that the PPM detects the cluster candidates up to z = 1.5, and it correctly estimates both the redshift and size of the two clusters. (2) We simulate spherically symmetric clusters of different size and richness, and we locate them at different redshifts (i.e., z = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) in the COSMOS field. We find that the PPM detects the simulated clusters within the considered redshift range with a statistical 1σ redshift accuracy of ∼0.05. The PPM is an efficient alternative method for high-redshift cluster searches that may also be applied to both present and future wide field surveys such as SDSS Stripe 82, LSST, and Euclid. Accurate photometric redshifts and a survey depth similar or better than that of COSMOS (e.g., I < 25) are required.

  2. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    SciTech Connect

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter; Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher; McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui; Greiner, Jochen; Price, Paul

    2012-06-15

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i{sub P1} dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z{sub P1} magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, and a black hole mass of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Ly{beta} peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i{sub P1} dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z{sub P1} dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  3. What are protoclusters? - Defining high-redshift galaxy clusters and protoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muldrew, Stuart I.; Hatch, Nina A.; Cooke, Elizabeth A.

    2015-09-01

    We explore the structures of protoclusters and their relationship with high-redshift clusters using the Millennium Simulation combined with a semi-analytic model. We find that protoclusters are very extended, with 90 per cent of their mass spread across ˜35 h-1 Mpc comoving at z = 2 ( ˜ 30 arcmin). The `main halo', which can manifest as a high-redshift cluster or group, is only a minor feature of the protocluster, containing less than 20 per cent of all protocluster galaxies at z = 2. Furthermore, many protoclusters do not contain a main halo that is massive enough to be identified as a high-redshift cluster. Protoclusters exist in a range of evolutionary states at high redshift, independent of the mass they will evolve to at z = 0. We show that the evolutionary state of a protocluster can be approximated by the mass ratio of the first and second most massive haloes within the protocluster, and the z = 0 mass of a protocluster can be estimated to within 0.2 dex accuracy if both the mass of the main halo and the evolutionary state are known. We also investigate the biases introduced by only observing star-forming protocluster members within small fields. The star formation rate required for line-emitting galaxies to be detected is typically high, which leads to the artificial loss of low-mass galaxies from the protocluster sample. This effect is stronger for observations of the centre of the protocluster, where the quenched galaxy fraction is higher. This loss of low-mass galaxies, relative to the field, distorts the size of the galaxy overdensity, which in turn can contribute to errors in predicting the z = 0 evolved mass.

  4. A dust-obscured massive maximum-starburst galaxy at a redshift of 6.34.

    PubMed

    Riechers, Dominik A; Bradford, C M; Clements, D L; Dowell, C D; Pérez-Fournon, I; Ivison, R J; Bridge, C; Conley, A; Fu, Hai; Vieira, J D; Wardlow, J; Calanog, J; Cooray, A; Hurley, P; Neri, R; Kamenetzky, J; Aguirre, J E; Altieri, B; Arumugam, V; Benford, D J; Béthermin, M; Bock, J; Burgarella, D; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Chapman, S C; Cox, P; Dunlop, J S; Earle, L; Farrah, D; Ferrero, P; Franceschini, A; Gavazzi, R; Glenn, J; Solares, E A Gonzalez; Gurwell, M A; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hyde, A; Ibar, E; Kovács, A; Krips, M; Lupu, R E; Maloney, P R; Martinez-Navajas, P; Matsuhara, H; Murphy, E J; Naylor, B J; Nguyen, H T; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Petitpas, G; Rangwala, N; Roseboom, I G; Scott, D; Smith, A J; Staguhn, J G; Streblyanska, A; Thomson, A P; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L; Zemcov, M; Zmuidzinas, J

    2013-04-18

    Massive present-day early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies probably gained the bulk of their stellar mass and heavy elements through intense, dust-enshrouded starbursts--that is, increased rates of star formation--in the most massive dark-matter haloes at early epochs. However, it remains unknown how soon after the Big Bang massive starburst progenitors exist. The measured redshift (z) distribution of dusty, massive starbursts has long been suspected to be biased low in z owing to selection effects, as confirmed by recent findings of systems with redshifts as high as ~5 (refs 2-4). Here we report the identification of a massive starburst galaxy at z = 6.34 through a submillimetre colour-selection technique. We unambiguously determined the redshift from a suite of molecular and atomic fine-structure cooling lines. These measurements reveal a hundred billion solar masses of highly excited, chemically evolved interstellar medium in this galaxy, which constitutes at least 40 per cent of the baryonic mass. A 'maximum starburst' converts the gas into stars at a rate more than 2,000 times that of the Milky Way, a rate among the highest observed at any epoch. Despite the overall downturn in cosmic star formation towards the highest redshifts, it seems that environments mature enough to form the most massive, intense starbursts existed at least as early as 880 million years after the Big Bang. PMID:23598341

  5. Quasar clustering at intermediate redshift - Analysis of systematics and of luminosity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D.; Kourkchi, Ehsan; DiPompeo, Michael A.; White, Martin; Weinberg, David, H.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Ge, Jian; Paris, Isabelle; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shen, Yue; Streblyanska, Alina

    2016-01-01

    We measure the clustering of over 55,000 quasars at redshifts 2.2 < z < 3.4 drawn from the final sample of the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This is by far the largest sample ever used to study quasar clustering at "intermediate" redshifts. We ameliorate the effect of observational systematics on our clustering analyses by weighting our control catalogues of random points by maps of how observational systematics correlate with the BOSS quasar target density. We find that there is no significant evolution in the quasar correlation length and bias over our studied redshift range, implying that the masses of the dark matter halos that host quasars decreases slightly from z~2.2 to z~3.4. Our result also contradicts a monotonic relation between the optical luminosity of quasars near redshift 2.5 and their host halo masses. To begin to study whether this contradiction holds for quasars' bolometric luminosity, we use data from the Wide-field Infra red Survey Explorer (WISE) to study whether the luminosity or detection of BOSS quasars in the mid-IR is correlated with the masses of quasars' host halos. This work was partially supported by NSF award 1211112.

  6. LONG GRBs ARE METALLICITY-BIASED TRACERS OF STAR FORMATION: EVIDENCE FROM HOST GALAXIES AND REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G. E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the mass distribution of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies and the redshift distribution of long GRBs by considering that long GRBs occur in low-metallicity environments. We calculate the upper limit on the stellar mass of a galaxy which can produce long GRBs by utilizing the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation of galaxies. After comparing with the observed GRB host galaxies masses, we find that the observed GRB host galaxy masses can fit the predicted masses well if GRBs occur in low-metallicity 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7. GRB host galaxies have low metallicity, low mass, and high star formation rate compared with galaxies of seventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We also study the cumulative redshift distribution of the latest Swift long GRBs by adding dark GRBs and 10 new GRBs redshifts from the TOUGH survey. The observed discrepancy between the GRB rate and the star formation history can be reconciled by considering that GRBs tend to occur in low-metallicity galaxies with 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7. We conclude that the metallicity cutoff that can produce long GRBs is about 12 + log (O/H){sub KK04} < 8.7 from the host mass distribution and redshift distribution.

  7. MARZ: Manual and automatic redshifting software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, S. R.; Davis, Tamara M.; Lidman, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Lewis, G. F.

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES) is a 100-night spectroscopic survey underway on the Anglo-Australian Telescope using the fibre-fed 2-degree-field (2dF) spectrograph. We have developed a new redshifting application MARZ with greater usability, flexibility, and the capacity to analyse a wider range of object types than the RUNZ software package previously used for redshifting spectra from 2dF. MARZ is an open-source, client-based, Javascript web-application which provides an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra generated from the AAOmega spectrograph to produce high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. The software can be run interactively or via the command line, and is easily adaptable to other instruments and pipelines if conforming to the current FITS file standard is not possible. Behind the scenes, a modified version of the AUTOZ cross-correlation algorithm is used to match input spectra against a variety of stellar and galaxy templates, and automatic matching performance for OzDES spectra has increased from 54% (RUNZ) to 91% (MARZ). Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be easily redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features.

  8. On the redshift of Sirius B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstein, J. L.; Oke, J. B.; Shipman, H.

    1985-09-01

    The plates and record books of Adams' (1925) spectroscopic observations of Sirius B were reexamined in order to identify some possible sources of error in the redshift estimate. It is shown that Adams' spectra of Sirius B were contaminated by light from Sirius A. The implications of Adams' errors for the theory of relativistic degeneracy are briefly discussed.

  9. Local gravitational redshifts can bias cosmological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtak, Radosław; Davis, Tamara M.; Wiis, Jophiel

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of cosmological parameters via the distance-redshift relation usually rely on models that assume a homogenous universe. It is commonly presumed that the large-scale structure evident in our Universe has a negligible impact on the measurement if distances probed in observations are sufficiently large (compared to the scale of inhomogeneities) and are averaged over different directions on the sky. This presumption does not hold when considering the effect of the gravitational redshift caused by our local gravitational potential, which alters light coming from all distances and directions in the same way. Despite its small magnitude, this local gravitational redshift gives rise to noticeable effects in cosmological inference using SN Ia data. Assuming conservative prior knowledge of the local potential given by sampling a range of gravitational potentials at locations of Milky-Way-like galaxies identified in cosmological simulations, we show that ignoring the gravitational redshift effect in a standard data analysis leads to an additional systematic error of ~1% in the determination of density parameters and the dark energy equation of state. We conclude that our local gravitational field affects our cosmological inference at a level that is important in future observations aiming to achieve percent-level accuracy.

  10. Redshift periodicity in the Local Supercluster.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, B. N. G.; Napier, W. M.

    1996-06-01

    Persistent claims have been made over the last ~15yr that extragalactic redshifts, when corrected for the Sun's motion around the Galactic centre, occur in multiples of ~24 or ~36km/s. A recent investigation by us of 40 spiral galaxies out to 1000km/s, with accurately measured redshifts, gave evidence of a periodicity ~37.2-37.7km/s. Here we extend our enquiry out to the edge of the Local Supercluster (~2600km/s), applying a simple and robust procedure to a total of 97 accurately determined redshifts. We find that, when corrected for related vectors close to recent estimates of the Sun's galactocentric motion, the redshifts of spirals are strongly periodic (P~37.6km/s). The formal confidence level of the result is extremely high, and the signal is seen independently with different radio telescopes. We also examine a further sample of 117 spirals observed with the 300-foot Green Bank telescope alone. The periodicity phenomenon appears strongest for the galaxies linked by group membership, but phase coherence probably holds over large regions of the Local Supercluster.