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Sample records for ldef tray clamps

  1. Surface characterization of selected LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromer, T. F.; Grammer, H. L.; Wightman, J. P.; Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.

    1993-01-01

    The surface characterization of chromic acid anodized 6061-T6 aluminum alloy tray clamps has shown differences in surface chemistry depending upon the position on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Water contact angle results showed no changes in wettability of the tray clamps. The overall surface topography of the control, trailing edge(E3) and leading edge(D9) samples was similar. The thickness of the aluminum oxide layer for all samples determined by Auger depth profiling was less than one micron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the tray clamps showed significant differences in the surface composition. Carbon and silicon containing compounds were the primary contaminants detected.

  2. Spectral infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements for LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, B. K.; Shepherd, S. D.; Pender, C. W.; Wood, B. E.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements that were made on 58 chromic acid anodized tray clamps from LDEF are described. The measurements were made using a hemiellipsoidal mirror reflectometer with interferometer for wavelengths between 2-15 microns. The tray clamps investigated were from locations about the entire spacecraft and provided the opportunity for comparing the effects of atomic oxygen at each location. Results indicate there was essentially no dependence on atomic oxygen fluence for the surfaces studied, but there did appear to be a slight dependence on solar radiation exposure. The reflectances of the front sides of the tray clamps consistently were slightly higher than for the protected rear tray clamp surfaces.

  3. Spectral infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements for LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Bobby E.; Cromwell, Brian K.; Pender, Charles W.; Shepherd, Seth D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements (2-15 microns) that were made on 58 chromic acid anodized tray clamps retrieved from the LDEF spacecraft. These clamps were used for maintaining the experiments in place and were located at various locations about the spacecraft. Changes in reflectance of the tray clamps at these locations were compared with atomic oxygen fluxes at the same locations. A decrease in absorption band depth was seen for the surfaces exposed to space indicating that there was some surface layer erosion. In all of the surfaces measured, little evidence of contamination was observed and none of the samples showed evidence of the brown nicotine stain that was so prominent in other experiments. Total emissivity values were calculated for both exposed and unexposed tray clamp surfaces. Only small differences, usually less than 1 percent, were observed. The spectral reflectances were measured using a hemi-ellipsoidal mirror reflectometer matched with an interferometer spectrometer. The rapid scanning capability of the interferometer allowed the reflectance measurements to be made in a timely fashion. The ellipsoidal mirror has its two foci separated by 2 inches and located on the major axis. A blackbody source was located at one focus while the tray clamp samples were located at the conjugate focus. The blackbody radiation was modulated and then focused by the ellipsoid onto the tray clamps. Radiation reflected from the tray clamp was sampled by the interferometer by viewing through a hole in the ellipsoid. A gold mirror (reflectance approximately 98 percent) was used as the reference surface.

  4. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  5. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  6. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C09 The postflight photograph was taken prior to the experiment tray being removed from the LDEF. The tray corner clamp blocks are un-anodized aluminum and that alone accounts for the major difference in color between the corner clamp blocks and the center clamp blocks. The IDE mounting plate and the detector frames and detectors seem to be in excellent condition. Close inspection of the photograph reveals several locations where impacts on detector surfaces are visible. A faint gold or tan stain can be seen around several of the fasteners and in a rectangular configuration, near the center, along the bottom edge of the detector mounting plate. Stains can also be seen near the top right edge of the solar sensor, on the mounting plate, and around the extreme edges of the solar sensor baseplate. The colors and designs seen on the detectors are reflections of the surrounding area.

  7. LDEF (Postflight), S1001 : Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) for LDEF, Tray H01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph of the Low Tem perature Heat Pipe Package (HEPP) power tray was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after an all up system checkout with interfacing experiments and removal of the tray from the LDEF. An outline of the experiment tray clamp blocks is clearly visible in the light brown stain on the experiment tray flanges. The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Package (HEPP) experiment occupies two 12 inch deep LDEF experiment trays connected with an inter-tray wiring harness. The HEPP Power tray, an end cor ner tray, occupies a location on the space end of the LDEF in tray location H01 and the HEPP Experiment tray, a peripheral tray, is located in the LDEF tray location F12. The power tray (H01) consist of four solar array panels, one nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery, a Power System Electronics (PSE) unit, protective thermal blankets that line the tray interior and a thirty seven pound baseplate mounted on thermal isolators to provide a thermally stable mounting for the bat tery and the PSE. Thirteen strips of thin film thermal control materials, part of an experiment by NASA GSFC that consist of sixty-five samples located at three different LDEF tray locations (H01, F09 and F12), were attached to the experiment tray flanges with Kapton tape. The experi ment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasten ers. The experiment hardware appears to be intact with no apparent changes other than stains along outer edges of the solar arrays. The light brown stains observed along the upper edges of the solar array mounting plates and around the outer edge of the baseplate in the flight photograph are not apparent in the postflight photo. The atomic oxygen experiment thin film strips appear to be in place with no apparent damage. The Kapton tape appears to be firmly adhered to the tray flanges in all thirteen locations.

  8. LDEF (Postflight), S1006 : Balloon Material Degradation, Tray E06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF-II facility prior to removal of experiment trays from the LDEF and shows the positions of four (4) LDEF experiments mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. The Balloon Materials Degradation Experiment (S1006) experiment is located in the center one third (1/3rd) section, the Multiple Foil Microabrasion Package (MAP) Experiment (AO023) occupies the left one third (1/3rd) section, the Measurement of Heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei on LDEF Experiment (M0002-02) is located in the lower one half (1/2) of the right section and the Ion Beam Textured and Coated Surfaces Experiment (S1003) is shown in the top right section of the tray. The tray flanges appear as prelaunch but the white paint dots on tray clamp blocks have varying degrees of discoloration. The paint color on the lower-center clamp block is white, paint on the left-center clamp block is lightly discolored and paint on the top-right clamp block is heavily discolored. The Balloon Materials Degradation experiment, located in the center one third (1/3rd) tray section, consist of 38 polymer film specimen, in the form of either thin film or reinforced tape, and 24 fibrous cord specimen. The ends of each test polymer film specimen, approximately 1.0 inch wide and 6.0 inches long, were secured between aluminum clamp strips that attached to aluminum experiment mounting plates. The cord specimen, approximately 4.0 inches long, are secured along the left and right edges of the experiment mounting plates in a similar manner. The aluminum clamp strips and experiment mounting plates have a thermal coat of IITRI S13G-LO white paint. Non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners are used for the experiment assembly and for attaching the experiment mounting plate to the tray structure. The thin film polymeric material samples in the Balloon Materials Degradation experiment appear to have been severely degraded. All 26 of the unreinforced thin film samples have curled edges with

  9. LDEF (Flight), S1006 : Balloon Material Degradation, Tray E06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken from the orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval and shows the positions of four (4) LDEF experiments mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. The Balloon Materials Degradation Experiment (S1006) experiment is located in the center one third (1/3rd) section, the Multiple Foil Microabrasion Package (MAP) Experiment (AO023) occupies the left one third (1/3rd) section, the Measurement of Heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei on LDEF Experiment (M0002-02) is located in the lower one half (1/2) of the right section and the Ion Beam Textured and Coated Surfaces Experiment (S1003) is shown in the top-right section of the tray.The tray flanges appear as pre- launch but the white paint dots on tray clamp blocks have varying degrees of discoloration. The paint color on the lower-center clamp block is white, paint on the left-center clamp block is lightly discolored and paint on the upper-right clamp block is heavily discolored. The Balloon Materials Degradation experiment, located in the center one third (1/3rd) tray section, consist of 38 polymer film specimen, in the form of either thin film or reinforced tape, and 24 fibrous cord specimen. The ends of each test polymer film specimen, approximately 1.0 inch wide and 6.0 inches long, were secured between aluminum clamp strips that attached to aluminum experiment mounting plates. The cord specimen, approximately 4.0 inches long, are secured along the left and right edges of the experiment mounting plates in a similar manner. The aluminum clamp strips and experiment mounting plates have a thermal coat of IITRI S13G-LO white paint. Non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners are used for the experiment assembly and for attaching the experiment mounting plate to the tray structure. The thin film polymeric material samples in the Balloon Materials Degradation experiment appear to have been severely degraded. All 26 of the unreinforced thin film samples have curled edges, 12 samples appear to

  10. LDEF (Prelaunch), S1006 : Balloon Material Degradation, Tray E06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The prelaunch photograph shows the positions of four (4) LDEF experiments in a three (3) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. The Balloon Materials Degradation Experiment (S1006) experiment is located in the center one third (1/3rd) section, the Multiple Foil Microabrasion Package (MAP) Experiment (AO023) occupies the left one third (1/3rd) section, the Measurement of Heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei on LDEF Experiment (M0002-02) is located in the lower one half (1/2) of the right section and the Ion Beam Textured and Coated Surfaces Experiment (S1003) is shown in the top right section of the tray. The Balloon Materials Degradation experiment, located in the center one third (1/3rd) tray section, consist of 38 polymer film specimen, in the form of either thin film or reinforced tape, and 24 fibrous cord specimen. The ends of each test polymer film specimen, approximately 1.0 inch wide and 6.0 inches long, were secured between aluminum clamp strips that attached to aluminum experiment mounting plates. Two specimen of metallized film, aluminized polyester, are mounted on the lower experiment base plate with the reinforced polymer tapes. The cord specimen, approximately 4.0 inches long, are secured along the left and right edges of the experiment mounting plates in a similar manner. Non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners are used for the experiment assembly and for attaching the experiment mounting plate to the tray structure.

  11. LDEF (Postflight), S1001 : Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) for LDEF, Tray H01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), S1001 : Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) for LDEF, Tray H01 The post landing photograph of the Low Tempera ture Heat Pipe Package (HEPP) experiment was taken from the Orbiter's cargo bay access hatch during post landing operations to prepare the Orbiter for the ferry flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center to the Kennedy Space Center. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays right flange and upperer flange appear to be discolored. The discoloration diminishes as as the distance from the vent area of the thermal shields increases. The right and upper tray flanges also appear to be discolored. Finger prints are visible on the thermal panels in the vicinity of the panel mounting fasteners. The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Package (HEPP) experiment occupies two 12 inch deep LDEF experiment trays connected with an inter-tray wiring harness. The HEPP Power tray, an end cor ner tray, occupies a location on the space end of the LDEF in tray location H01 and the HEPP Experiment tray, a peripheral tray, is located in the LDEF tray location F12. The power tray (H01) consist of four solar array panels, one nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery, a Power System Electronics (PSE) unit, protective thermal blankets that line the tray interior and a thirty seven pound baseplate mounted on thermal isolators to provide a thermally stable mounting for the bat tery and the PSE.. Thirteen strips of thin film thermal control materials, part of an experiment by NASA GSFC that consist of sixty-five samples located at three different LDEF tray locations (H01, F09 and F12), were attached to the experiment tray flanges with Kapton tape. The experi ment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasten ers. The experiment hardware appears to be intact with no apparent changes other than stains along outer edges of the solar arrays. Light brown stains are visible along the upper edges of the

  12. LDEF (Flight), S1001 : Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) for LDEF, Tray H01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph of the Low Temperature Heat Pipe Package (HEPP) experiment was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays right flange and lower flange appear to be discolored. The discolor ation diminishes as as the distance from the vent area of the thermal shields increases. The right and lower tray flanges also appear to be discolored. Finger prints are visible on the thermal panels in the vicinity of the panel mounting fasteners. The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Package (HEPP) experiment occupies two 12 inch deep LDEF experiment trays connected with an inter-tray wiring harness. The HEPP Power tray, an end cor ner tray, occupies a location on the space end of the LDEF in tray location H01 and the HEPP Experiment tray, a peripheral tray, is located in the LDEF tray location F12. The power tray (H01) consist of four solar array panels, one nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery, a Power System Electronics (PSE) unit, protective thermal blankets that line the tray interior and a thirty seven pound baseplate mounted on thermal isolators to provide a thermally stable mounting for the bat tery and the PSE. Thirteen strips of thin film thermal control materials, part of an experiment by NASA GSFC that consist of sixty-five samples located at three different LDEF tray locations (H01, F09 and F12), were attached to the experiment tray flanges with Kapton tape. The experi ment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasten ers. The experiment hardware appears to be intact with no apparent changes other than stains along outer edges of the solar arrays. Light brown stains are visible along the upper edges of the solar array mounting plates with faint traces of a lighter colored stain around the outer edge of the base plate. The atomic oxygen experiment thin film strips appear to be in place with no

  13. Analysis of impactor residues in tray clamps from the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Part 1: Clamps from Bay A of the satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Bernhard, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) in 1984 and was recovered 5.7 years later. The LDEF was host to several individual experiments that were specifically designed to characterize critical aspects of meteoroid and debris environment in LEO. It was realized from the beginning, however, that the most efficient use of the satellite would be to examine the entire surface of the Earth for impact features. In this regard, particular interest has centered on common exposed materials that faced in all LDEF pointing directions. Among the most important of these materials is the tray clamps. Therefore, in an effort to understand the nature of particulates in LEO and their effects on spacecraft hardware better, we are analyzing residues found in impact features on LDEF tray clamp surfaces. This catalog presents all data from clamps from Bay A of the LDEF. Subsequent catalogs will include clamps from succeeding bays of the satellite.

  14. LDEF (Postflight), AO044 : Holographic Data Storage Crystals for LDEF, Tray E05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The Holographic Data Storage Crystals for LDEF Experiment (AO044) consist of four crystals of lithium niobate, three crystals contain recorded holograms and one crystal is an unrecorded control sample. The Holographic Data Storage experiment is an integral part of the Active Optical System Component Experiment (S0050) that contains 136 test specimen and is located in a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray. The experiment tray is divided into six sections, each consisting of a 1/4 inch thick chromic anodized aluminum base plate and a 1/16th inch thick aluminum hat shaped structure for mounting the test specimen. The test specimen are typically placed in fiberglass-epoxy retainer strip assemblies prior to installation on the hat shaped mounting structure. Five of the six sections are covered by a 1/8 inch thick anodized aluminum sun screen with openings that allowed 56 percent transmission over the central region. Two subexperiments, The Optical Materials and UV Detectors Experiment (S0050-01) consist of 15 optical windows, filters and detectors and occupies one of the trays six sub-sections and The Optical Substrates and Coatings Experiment (S0050-02 ) that includes 12 substrates and coatings and a secondary experiment, ThePyroelectric Infrared Detectors Experiment with twenty detectors, are also mounted in the integrated tray. The experiment structure was assembled with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The experiment hardware appears to be intact with no apparent damage. The excess blue color in the flight photograph is no longer present. The paint dots on the tray clamp blocks, initially white, are brown and tray flanges appear to have a light tan discoloration. The experiment sun screens and base plate also appear to have the same discoloration. The exposed experiment test specimen and their fiberglass-epoxy mountings appear to have

  15. LDEF (Postflight), S1001 : Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) for LDEF, Tray F12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), S1001 : Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) for LDEF, Tray F12 EL-1994-00190 The postflight photograph of the Low Temperature Heat Pipe Package (HEPP) experiment was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment from the LDEF. The color of the white paint dots on three of the experiment tray clamp blocks appears to be unchanged. The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Package (HEPP) experiment occupies two 12 inch deep LDEF experiment trays connected with an inter-tray wiring harness. The HEPP Experiment tray, a peripheral tray modified to accommodate radiator location and field of view requirements, is located in the LDEF tray location F12. The HEPP Power tray, an end corner tray, is located on the space end of the LDEF in tray location H01. The experiment tray (F12) contains a Constant ConductanceHeat Pipe, a Thermal Diode Low Temperature Heat Pipe, a radiator coupled with a phase change material canister, the data acquisition and control systems and the LDEF experiment power and data system (EPDS) for processing, recording and storing experiment data. The HEPP EPDS is also used to record and store thermal data from the CVCHPE (AO076) and the THERM (P0003) experiments. Fiberglass standoffs and internal multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets ther- mally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The radiator and radiator shield panels located in the left half of the tray were covered with silvered TEFLON® tape to provide the desired optical properties. The outside of the HEPP, except the radiator shield panels and the radiator, was covered with an aluminized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with the outer Kapton layer coated with vapor deposited aluminum on one side only. The two patches of thin film materials, part of an experiment byNASA GSFC that consist of five patches of thirteen samples each and located at three different places on the LDEF (F09, F12 and H01), were attached to

  16. LDEF (Postflight), P0006 : Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement Experiment, Tray F02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), P0006 : Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement Experiment, Tray F02 EL-1994-00193 LDEF (Postflight), P0006 : Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement Experiment, Tray F02 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Experiment (P0006) is one of three passive experiments located in a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. The experiment consist of two types of detectors, thermal luminescence and track type, assembled in a sealed container and a silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. Two other experiments, the Seeds in Space Experiment (P0004-01) and the Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P0004-02 were companion experiments in the tray. The experiment hardware was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Areas of the experiment tray flanges covered by the tray clamp blocks are unstained and clearly visible. The sealed Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Experiment container was machined from aluminum and assembled together with a Buna-N o-ring seal. The canister, approximately 6 inches in diameter and 4.5 inches high, was mounted on the top side of the experiment tray and painted white with Chemglaze II A-276. Thermal control was accomplished by placing the canister on fiberglass isolators and covering the experiment tray with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® specular cover secured with Velcro pads located on each of the P0004 canister domes and on clips attached to the tray sidewalls. The silvered TEFLON® thermal cover appears to be intact with no apparent damage. The surroundings reflected in the thermal covers specular surface provides an array of colors including white, browns, silver, red, and aqua.

  17. Cracking associated with micrometeoroid impact craters in anodized aluminum alloy clamps on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murr, Lawrence E.; Niou, Chorng S.; Quinones, Stella; Murr, Kyle S.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is a reusable hollow-cylindrical satellite sustaining a total of 57 different experiments. The 130 sq m of spacecraft surface area included anodized 6061-T6 Al alloy bay frames and clamps for holding experiment trays in the bay areas. Attention is presently given to the micrometeoroid impact crater features observed on two tray clamps recovered from the LDEF leading-edge locations. It is found that even very subtle surface modifications in structural alloy anodizing can influence micrometeoroid impact crater cracking, notable radial cracking due to the ejecta-rim of the impact craters.

  18. LDEF (Flight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray E11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the center of the lower tray flange, the center of the left tray flange and the right end of the upper tray flange have changed little from their original white color. Discolorations are visible on the upper, left side and lower experiment tray flanges. The Space Debris Impact Experiment consists of a three sixteenth (3/16) of an inch thick chromic anodized aluminum panel mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment tray. The side of the plate exposed to the LDEF interior is painted with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 wash primer. The panels are attached to the aluminum tray structure with non- magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The panel coatings, a thin layer of chromic anodize facing out and the Chemglaze Z-306 black paint facing the LDEF interior, contribute significantly to thermal control of the LDEF spacecraft. A portion of the pink and greenish-gray tint on the two (2) debris panels are by-products of the chromic anodize coating process, however, part of the intensity can be attributed to reflections of the blue sky. The vertical streaks on the debris panel are by-products of chromic anodizing that have been enhanced by the blue reflection. The light band along the vertical edge of the left debris panel is a reflection from the tray sidewall.

  19. LDEF (Flight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray F11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the center of the lower tray flange, the center of the left tray flange and the right end of the upper tray flange appear to have changed little from their original white color. A discolorations is visible on the lower half of the right experiment tray flange. The Space Debris Impact Experiment consists of a three sixteenth (3/16) of an inch thick chromic anodized aluminum panel mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment tray. The side of the plate exposed to the LDEF interior is painted with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 wash primer. The panels are attached to the aluminum tray structure with non- magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The panel coatings, a thin layer of chromic anodize facing out and the Chemglaze Z-306 black paint facing the LDEF interior, contribute significantly to thermal control of the LDEF spacecraft. A portion of the greenish-gray tint on the two (2) debris panels are by-products of the chromic anodize coating process, however, additional blue can be attributed to reflections of the blue sky. The vertical streaks on the right debris panel are by-products of chromic anodizing that have been enhanced by the blue reflection. The brown stains along the top edge of the right debris panel appear to be fingerprints from prelaunch handling. Light colored spots or discolorations are along the left side of the right debris panel. The light band along the vertical edge of the left debris panel is a reflection from the tray sidewall.

  20. LDEF (Flight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray B11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the center of the upper tray flange, the center of the right tray flange and the left end of the lower tray flange have changed little from their original white color. The discolorations on the lower left experiment tray sidewall appear to be fingerprints from prelaunch handling. The Space Debris Impact Experiment consists of a three sixteenth (3/16) of an inch thick chromic anodized aluminum panel mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment tray. The side of the plate exposed to the LDEF interior is painted with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 wash primer. The panels are attached to the aluminum tray structure with non- magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The panel coatings, a thin layer of chromic anodize facing out and the Chemglaze Z-306 black paint facing the LDEF interior, contribute significantly to thermal control of the LDEF spacecraft. A portion of the pink and greenish-gray tint on the two (2) debris panels are by-products of the chromic anodize coating process, however, part of the intensity can be attributed to reflections of the blue sky. The vertical streaks on the right debris panel are by-products of chromic anodizing that have been enhanced by the blue reflection. A light irregular shaped discoloration is visible on the left debris panel, starting near the center of the left edge and progressing down and to the right. The light band along the vertical edge of the left debris panel is a reflection from the tray sidewall.

  1. LDEF (Flight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray A12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the center of the upper tray flange, the center of the right tray flange and the left end of the lower tray flange appear to have changed little from their original white color. A brown discoloration is visible on the experiment tray flanges and sidewalls. The Space Debris Impact Experiment consists of a three sixteenth (3/16) of an inch thick chromic anodized aluminum panel mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment tray. The side of the plate exposed to the LDEF interior is painted with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 wash primer. The panels are attached to the aluminum tray structure with non- magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The panel coatings, a thin layer of chromic anodize facing out and the Chemglaze Z-306 black paint facing the LDEF interior, contribute significantly to thermal control of the LDEF spacecraft. A portion of the greenish-gray tint on the two (2) debris panels are by-products of the chromic anodize coating process, however, additional blue can be attributed to reflections of the blue sky. The vertical streaks on the debris panels are by-products of chromic anodizing that have been enhanced by the blue reflection. Brown stains are located along the left edge of the right debris panel. An irregular shaped discoloration extends horizontally across the lower half of the left debris panel. The light band along the vertical edge of the left debris panel and across the top of both debris panels is a reflection from the tray sidewall.

  2. LDEF (Flight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D03 EL-1994-00129 LDEF (Flight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D03 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay. The Spacecraft Materials Experiment hardware consist of four LDEF peripheral trays (two sets), two Experiment Power and Data Systems (EPDS), two Environment Exposure Control Canisters (EECC), twelve LiSO2 batteries and internal support structure, instrumentation and black anodized aluminum mounting plates for experiment samples. The experiment structural members were assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. One six inch tray and one three inch tray with a connecting wiring harness, one EPDS, one EECC and six LiSO2 batteries were located in tray locations D08 and D09 near the LDEF leading edge and a similar set of hardware was located near the LDEF trailing edge in tray locations D03 and D04. The environmental exposure was similar with one significant exception, the trailing edge location was not exposed to continuous bombardment by the relativity high atomic oxygen flux. The white paint dots on the experiment tray clamp blocks appear to have changed significantly. The paint on the clamp block located in the center of the trays right flange is brown and the paint on the clamp blocks at each end of the left flange is gray. The tray flanges and clamp blocks appear to have a light tan discoloration. The experiment tray in the D03, trailing edge, location is divided into six sections. One of the six sections, lower right corner, provides space for one of three Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment, M0002-01, modules. The other five sections of the tray contain M0003 sub-experiments consisting of coatings, thermal paints, polymers, glasses, composites, semi-conductors and detectors that provide data on various

  3. LDEF (Postflight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray A05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to experiment removal from the LDEF. The originally white paint dots on clamp blocks at the center of the upper tray flange and at the center of the right flange are now brown. Since this tray is located adjacent to the LDEF's trailing edge, very little, if any, contami- nation has been cleaned away by atomic oxygen impacts. The greenish-gray and pink tints on the two (2) debris panels are a by-product of the chromic anodize coating process and not attributed to contamination and/or exposure to the space environment. The finger prints along the edges of the left panel that were observed in the flight photograph are still visible. Those seen previously along the top edges have been washed out by the lighting. The light band along the sides and across the bottom of the panels is caused by light reflecting from the tray sidewalls.

  4. LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C09 The flight photograph was taken during the LDEF retrieval and provides an on-orbit view of the C09 integrated tray. When comparing this photograph with the prelaunch photograph, very little difference can be seen. A brown stain is visible around some of the fasteners and on mounting plates. The stain has been attributed to outgassing and contamination from the LDEF and experiment related materials being flown. When compared to the prelaunch photograph, the C09 integrated tray seems to be in excellent condition. The Interplanetary Dust Experiment appears to have a thin brown stain around some of the fasteners and also a small rectangular stain, in the center, along the bottom edge of the detector mounting plate. The IDE seems to be in excellent condition with all hardware intact. The colors seen in the detectors is a reflection of the Orbiter's white cargo bay liner.

  5. LDEF (Postflight), P0004-01 : Seeds in Space Experiment, Tray F02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), P0004-01 : Seeds in Space Experiment, Tray F02 EL-1994-00704 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment was removed from the LDEF and the silvered TEFLON® thermal cover was removed from the experiment tray. The Seeds in Space Experiment (P0004-01) is one of three passive experiments located in a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. The experiment consist of 2 million seeds of 120 different varieties, one sealed canister, two smaller vented canisters, and a silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. Two other experiments, the Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P0004-02 and the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Experiment (P0006), were companion experiments in the tray. The experiment hardware was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Areas of the experiment tray flanges covered by the tray clamp blocks are unstained and clearly visible. The sealed Seeds in Space Experiment canister, a base portion and a dome portion, was machined from aluminum and assembled together with a butyl rubber o-ring seal. The machined interior was approximately 4 inches deep with a 12 inch internal diameter, providing a volume of approximately 1/3 cubic foot. the sealed canister was the center canister in the top row. The two vented canisters were also aluminum. One canister, 4 inches in diameter and 4 inches high, was mounted on the top side of the experiment tray at the lower right corner of the large sealed canister. The other vented canister was rectangular in shape and mounted on the bottom side of the tray, the side facing the LDEF interior. The exterior surfaces of all canisters located on the top side of the experiment tray were painted white with Chemglaze II A-276. The exterior surface of the rectangular canister on the bottom side of the experiment tray was coated with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 primer. Thermal control was accomplished by

  6. LDEF (Flight), P0004-02 : Space-Exposed Experiment Developed for Students, Tray F02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), P0004-02 : Space-Exposed Experiment Developed for Students, Tray F02 EL-1994-00132 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval and prior to the berthing of LDEF in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P0004-02 is one of three passive experiments located in a 6-inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. The experiment consist of 12.5 million Rutgers tomato seeds, five sealed canisters and a silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. Two other experiments, the Seeds in Space Experiment (P0004-01) and the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Experiment (P0006), were companion experiments in the tray. The experiment hardware was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The paint dots, originally white, located on experiment tray clamp blocks now appear brown. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be discolored. The sealed SEEDS canisters, 5 bases and 5 domes, were machined from aluminum plate material and assembled together with a butyl rubber o-ring seal. The machined interior was approximately 4 inches deep with a 12 inch internal diameter, providing an open volume of approximately 1/3 cubic foot in each canister. The 5 canisters were were mounted in the experiment tray along with a similar canister containing the Seeds in Space Experiment. The exterior surfaces of all canisters were painted white with Chemglaze II A-276 and surfaces facing the LDEF interior were coated with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 primer. Thermal control was accomplished by placing the canisters on fiberglass isolators and covering the experiment tray with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® specular cover secured with Velcro pads located on each of the canister domes and on clips attached to the tray sidewalls. The silvered TEFLON® thermal cover appears to be intact with no apparent damage. The three dark spots appearing in a vertical

  7. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05 EL-1994-00311 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a brown stain. Outlines of experiment tray clamp blocks are clearly visible on the upper and lower tray flanges. The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the

  8. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C06 EL-1994-00206 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C06 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a light brown stain. Outlines of experiment tray clamp blocks are clearly visible on the lower tray flanges.The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays upper flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments

  9. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C05 EL-1994-00205 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C05 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a brown stain that provides outlines of the experiment tray clamp blocks that are clearly visible on the upper and lower tray flanges.The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground

  10. LDEF (Flight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 EL-1994-00680 LDEF (Flight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 The flight photograph was taken with the LDEF on the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing the spacecraft in the cargo bay. The canisters are in their open condition (they were expected to open about two (2) weeks after launch and close about eleven (11) months into the mission) with three (3) full panels and 3/4th of the fourth panel covered with a highly reflective gold foil (>99.99 percent pure).The remaining area is covered with strips of other detector materials: zirconium, beryllium, titanium, platium, aluminum, carbon, Kapton, polyethylene and TEFLON®. The exposed fasteners are non-magnetic stainless steel. All of the exposed materials seem to be secure and no damage is evident. The contamination stain that has changed the white paint dot on the tray clamp blocks to brown also coats the tray flanges and the aluminum canister hardware. The end support beam scuff plate in the photograph was a bright yellow prior to launch but is a much darker, mustard yellow after the space exposure.

  11. LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10 The flight/on-orbit photograph of the G10 experi ment tray was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval. A light brown stain can be seen on the experiment tray flanges and to a lesser degree on the IDE Chemglaze Z tained their integrity. A light tan stain on the solar sensor base plate, located in the center of the tray, is more easily seen than that on the IDE mounting plate. Surface defects are highly visible due to the lighting conditions existing at the time the photograph was taken. The lighting angle is such that many impact craters can be seen. Two (2) detectors, located in the twenty (20) detector layout in the lower left corner of the tray, seem to have defects. A triangular shaped discoloration appears on the second detector from the left and in the second row from the bottom. Another irregular shaped discoloration can be seen on the fourth detector from the left and in the third row from the bottom. These discolorations appear to be due to material and/or fabrication defects and not reflected light. The blue colors on the detector's mirror like surface are caused by reflections of the LDEF surroundings.

  12. LDEF (Flight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D04 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay. Experiment Power and Data Systems (EPDS), two Environment Exposure Control Canisters (EECC), twelve LiSO2 batteries and internal support structure, instrumentation and black anodized aluminum mounting plates for experiment samples. The experiment structural members were assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. One six-inch tray and one three-inch tray with a connecting wiring harness, one EPDS, one EECC and six LiSO2 batteries were located in tray locations D08 and D09 near the LDEF leading edge and a similar set of hardware was located near the LDEF trailing edge in tray locations D03 and D04. The environmental exposure was similar with one significant exception, the trailing edge location was not exposed to continuous bombardment by the relativity high atomic oxygen flux. The white paint dots on the experiment tray clamp blocks appear to have changed significantly. The paint on the clamp block located in the center of the trays right flange is brown and the paint on the clamp block at the upper end of the left flange is gray. The trays right flange and clamp blocks appear to have a light tan discoloration. The experiment tray in the D04 location is divided into three sections.The top section provides space for the EPDS, the center section accommodates the Signal Conditioning Unit (SCU) and an experiment mounting plate, on an aluminum sub-structure, that is populated with composite material samples. The lower section houses the EECC with a complement of experiment samples that consist of coatings, thermal paints, polymers, glasses and semiconductors. Detectors within the experiment provide environmental data for use in postflight analyses. Batteries and the inter-tray wiring harness are located beneath the tray base plates

  13. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02 EL-1994-00385 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The white paint dot on the experiment tray clamp blocks located at the center of the trays lower and left flanges and at the right end of the trays upper flange appear to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be coated but with a lighter colored stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an

  14. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A02 EL-1994-00387 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A02 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The white paint dot on the experiment tray clamp blocks located at the center of the trays upper and right flanges and at the left end of the trays lower flange appear to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be coated but with a lighter colored stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar with a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an

  15. LDEF (Prelaunch), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray F11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray F11 The Space Debris Impact Experiment consist of two (2) three sixteenth (3/16th) inch thick chromic anodized aluminum panels mounted in a three (3) inch deep peripheral LDEF experiment tray. The side of the panels exposed to the LDEF interior are painted black with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 wash primer. The panels are attached to the aluminum tray structure with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The panel coatings, a thin layer of chromic anodize facing out and the Chemglaze Z-306 black paint facing the LDEF interior, contribute significantly to thermal control of the LDEF spacecraft. The photograph shown is a photograph of a spare flight Debris experiment tray and is used as a prototype for descriptive purposes only. An individual photograph of each Debris Experiment tray was not taken prior to installation of the tray on the LDEF.

  16. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C03 The IDE mounting plate and the detector frames are coated with a brown stain similiar to that seen on the other experiments in this and other trays located nearby. The stain seems to be slightly darker along the lower edge of the solar sensor mounting plate. The colors and designs seen on the detectors are reflections of the surrounding area. The thin brown film on the detectors metallic surface has resulted in a duller reflection of a technician, in the upper left, and other items.

  17. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 EL-1994-00391 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The paint dots on the experiment tray clamp blocks, originally white, appearsDE:to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be coated but with a lighter colored stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at leastDE:one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The

  18. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08 EL-1994-00661 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp block of the experiment trays upper flange and the right end of the experiment trays lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The tray flanges appear to be discolored by a light brown stain and the ground strap located in the center of the lower flange appears intact but a much darker copper color than in the prelaunch photograph. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored

  19. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05 EL-1994-00184 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The paint dots on the experiment tray clamp blocks, originally white, appears to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be coated but with a lighter colored stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE

  20. Atomic oxygen exposure of LDEF experiment trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The calculations are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation on atomic oxygen flux. Results incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the 6-year flight of the spacecraft. To facilitate use of the data, both detailed tabulations and summary charts for atomic oxygen fluences are presented.

  1. Analysis of impactor residues in tray clamps from the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Part 2: Clamps from Bay B of the satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was placed in low-Earth orbit (LEO) in 1984 and recovered 5.7 years later. The LDEF was host to several individual experiments specifically designed to characterize critical aspects of meteoroid and debris environment in LEO. However, it was realized from the beginning that the most efficient use of the satellite would be to examine the entire surface for impact features. In this regard, particular interest centered on common exposed materials that faced in all LDEF pointing directions. Among the most important of these materials was the tray clamps. Therefore, in an effort to better understand the nature of particulates in LEO and their effects on spacecraft hardware, residues found in impact features on LDEF tray clamp surfaces are being analyzed. This catalog presents all data from clamps from Bay B of the LDEF. NASA Technical Memorandum 104759 has cataloged impacts that occurred on Bay B (published March 1993). Subsequent catalogs will include clamps from succeeding bays of the satellite.

  2. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05 EL-1994-00088 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B05 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp block of the experiment trays lower flange appears to be discolored by a dark brown stain. The tray flanges also appear to be discolored but with a lighter stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays upper flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF

  3. Solar exposure of LDEF experiment trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation is one of the primary causes of degradation of materials on spacecraft. Accurate knowledge of solar exposure is needed to evaluate the performance of materials carried on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) during its nearly 6 year orbital flight. Presented here are tables and figures of calculated solar exposure for the experiment rows, longerons, and end bays of the spacecraft as functions of time in orbit. The data covers both direct solar and earth reflected radiation. Results are expressed in cumulative equivalent sun hours (CESH) or the hours of direct, zero incidence solar radiation that would cause the same irradiance of a surface. Space end bays received the most solar radiation, 14,000 CESH; earth end bays received the least, 4,500 CESH. Row locations received between 6,400 CESH and 11,200 CESH with rows facing either eastward or westward receiving the most radiation and rows facing northward or southward receiving the least.

  4. LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00020 LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The flight photograph of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays right flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The LDEF structure, top intercostal, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black thermal panel. Aluminum particles from the degraded CVCHPE thermal blanket are also visible in this area. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of an atomic oxygen experiment (see S1001) by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external CVCHPE materials have changed significantly. The Kapton on the thermal blanket aluminized Kapton cover appears to be completely eroded, except under Kel-F buttons used to secure the blanket, leaving only the very thin vapor deposited aluminum coating as a cover. Parts of the aluminum coating residue has moved to

  5. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The prelaunch photograph shows the six (6) inch deep Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) master control tray. The tray has three (3) mounting/cover plates elevated on fiberglass stand-offs to provide clearance and protection for hardware and electronics located underneath. The stand-offs also raise the plates to a level that minimizes shading of detectors by the tray sidewalls. The mounting plate located at the left hand end of the tray is populated with eighty (80) metaloxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type impact sensors and one (1) solar sensor that is located approximately in the center of the mounting plate. The IDE sensors are two (2) inch diameter MOS capacitor structures approximately 250 um thick. The detectors are formed by growing either 0.4um or 1.0um thick silicon oxide, SiO2, layer on the 250um thick, B-doped polished silicon wafer. The top metal contact, the visible surface, was formed by vapor deposition of 1000A of aluminum on the SiO2 surface. Aluminum was also vapor deposited on the backside to form the contact with the silicon substrate. Gold wires are bonded to the front and back aluminum layers for use in connecting the detectors to the circuits. The complete wafers, IDE detectors, are mounted on chromic anodized aluminum frames by bonding the detector backside to the aluminum frame with a space qualified RTV silicon adhesive, de-volatized RTV-511. The difference in colors of the detectors is caused by reflections in the metallized surfaces. A reflection of one of the technicians is visible in the three (3) rows of detector on the left hand side of the mounting plate. The solar sensor, located at the mounting plate center, consist of four (4) silicon solar cells connected in series and associated circuity bonded to an aluminum baseplate. The solar sensor registered each orbital sunrise independant of LDEF orientation at the time of sunrise. When IDE solar sensor data from the six

  6. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 EL-1994-00089 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays left flange and lower flange appear to be discolored by a dark brown stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays upper flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal cover appears to be specular and

  7. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02 EL-1994-00131 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E02 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays left flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal cover appears to be intact with out visible

  8. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10 EL-1994-00019 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays left flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal covers surface appears to have changed from

  9. LDEF (Flight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D08 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay. Experiment Power and Data Systems (EPDS), two Environment Exposure Control Canisters (EECC), twelve LiSO2 batteries and internal support structure, instrumentation and black anodized aluminum mounting plates for experiment samples. The experiment structural members were assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. One six-inch tray and one three-inch tray with a connecting wiring harness, one EPDS, one EECC and six LiSO2 batteries were located in tray locations D08 and D09 near the LDEF leading edge and a similar set of hardware was located near the LDEF trailing edge in tray locations D03 and D04. The environmental exposure was similar with one significant exception, the trailing edge location was not exposed to continuous bombardment by the relativity high atomic oxygen flux. The white paint dots on the experiment tray clamp blocks appear to have no significant change in color. The experiment tray in the D08 location is divided into three sections.The top section provides space for the EPDS, the center section accommodates the Signal Conditioning Unit (SCU) and an experiment mounting plate, on an aluminum sub-structure, that is populated with composite material samples. The lower section houses the EECC with a complement of experiment samples that consist of coatings, thermal paints, polymers, glasses and semiconductors. Detectors within the experiment provide environmental data for use in postflight analyses. Batteries and the inter-tray wiring harness are located beneath the tray base plates. The EPDS is located under an aluminum cover that is coated with a white thermal control paint (Chemglaze II A-276) and thermally iso- lated from the tray structure by fiberglass clips. The SCU cover is also coated with a white thermal

  10. LDEF (Flight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D09 EL-1994-00124 LDEF (Flight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D09 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay. The Spacecraft Materials Experiment hardware consist of four LDEF peripheral trays (two sets), two Experiment Power and Data Systems (EPDS), two Environment Exposure Control Canisters (EECC), twelve LiSO2 batteries and internal support structure, instrumentation and black anodized aluminum mounting plates for experiment samples. The experiment structural members were assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. One six-inch tray and one three-inch tray with a connecting wiring harness, one EPDS, one EECC and six LiSO2 batteries were located in tray locations D08 and D09 near the LDEF leading edge and a similar set of hardware was located near the LDEF trailing edge in tray locations D03 and D04. The environmental exposure was similar with one significant exception, the trailing edge location was not exposed to continuous bombardment by the relativity high atomic oxygen flux. The originally white paint dots on the clamp block located in the center of the trays right flange and on the clamp blocks at each end of the left flange appear to be off-white. The experiment tray in the D09, leading edge, location is divided into six sections. One of the six sections, upper right corner, provides space for one of three Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment, M0002-01, modules. The other five sections of the tray contain M0003 sub-experiments consisting of coatings, thermal paints, polymers, glasses, composites, solar power components, semi-conductors and detectors that provide various environmental data. The experiment, overall, appears in good condition. The experiments located in the upper left and center left sections are

  11. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01 EL-1994-00188 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The white paint dot on the experiment tray clamp block located at the center of the trays lower flange appears to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment trays lower flange also appear to be coated but with a lighter colored stain. The white paint dots on clamp blocks at each end of the trays upper flange appear to be discolored very little. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is

  12. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07 EL-1994-00312 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The outline of the experiment tray clamp blocks is clearly visible on the upper tray flange and to a lesser extent on the lower flange. The holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The prelaunch photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the experiment tray on the LDEF. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the

  13. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08 EL-1994-00212 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C08 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a brown stain. Outlines of experiment tray clamp blocks are clearly visible on the upper and lower experiment tray flanges.The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the

  14. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11 EL-1994-00299 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a light brown stain. Outlines of experiment tray clamp blocks are faint but visible on the upper and lower experiment tray flanges.The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground

  15. LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00354 LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment from the LDEF. The color of the white paint dots on the exper- iment tray clamp blocks appear to be unchanged. The LDEF structure, the intercostal on the right, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black Earth end thermal panel. Aluminum pieces of the degraded CVCHPE thermal cover that were shown lodged in the vent area between the intercostal and the black thermal panel in the flight photograph are gone. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external surface of the CVCHPE has changed from that observed in the flight photograph. The thin vapor deposited aluminum coating, left after the Kapton eroded, is essentially gone with only fragments left near the edges of the thermal blanket. Pieces of a layer of Dacron mesh (bridle vail) material, used to separate the thermal cover from the thermal

  16. LDEF (Postflight), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in periph eral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The brown discoloration appears to be much lighter in this photograph than in the flight photograph, however, the postflight photograph of the individual experiment verifies the darker discoloration in the flight photograph. The light ing angle and intensity appear to have washed out the colors in the upper half of the integrated tray. The sub experiments appear to be intact and secure.

  17. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01 EL-1994-00134 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D01 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dot , originally white, on the experiment tray clamp block located at the center of the trays lower flange appears to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment trays lower flange also appears to be coated but with a much lighter stain. The paint dots on clamp blocks at each end of the trays upper flange appear to be discolored very little. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the

  18. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05 EL-1994-00038 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp block of the experiment trays upper flange and on the tray clamp blocks at each end of the trays lower flange appear to be discolored by a brown stain. The experiment tray flanges also appear to be discolored by the stain. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical

  19. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07 EL-1994-00207 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear to be discolored by a light brown stain. An outline of experiment tray clamp block locations is clearly visible on the experiment trays upper flange and to a lesser extent on its lower flange. The holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to

  20. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10 The IDE experiment appears to be in excellent condition in the postflight photograph. All bond joints seem to have survived the space environment and the experiment hardware seems to be intact. The direction and intensity of the artificial light source has caused hot spots and reflections that tend to wash out the brown stain on the exposed surfaces. A close inspection of individual detectors reveal locations where impacts have occurred and damage is present. In the detector layout in the lower left corner of the tray, two detectors continue to show the discolorations observed in the flight photograph. A triangular shape can be seen in the detector located in the second horizontal row from the bottom and the second vertical row from the left. The other detector, located in the third horizontal row from the bottom and the fourth vertical row from the left has an irregular shaped, very faint, discolora tion. The blue color in the detectors metallic surface is caused by reflections of the surrounding area.

  1. LDEF (Flight), S0069 : Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment, Tray A09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), S0069 : Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment, Tray A09 EL-1994-00660 The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the centers of the upper and left tray flanges have changed from their original white color to an off-white. Brown discolorations are visible on the experiment trays left and lower flanges. The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is completely self-contained in a twelve (12) inch deep LDEF experiment tray and consist of the power and data systems, a carousel, a pre-programmed controller and the sample materials. The experiment structure is fabricated from aluminum alloys and assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The photograph shows the carousel sample mounting plate rotated into the open position and a thermal shroud that covers the experiment structure and the power and data system components. The aluminum sample mounting plate accommodates twenty five (25) active samples mounted in calorimeters to thermally isolate the samples from the mounting plate, twenty-four (24) passive samples and three (3) radiometers. The thermal shroud, an aluminum alloy sheet material that is thermally isolated from the experiment structure, has an inside surface coated with black thermal paint and an outside (exposed) surface covered with two (2) mil silver TEFLON®, applied to the aluminum with Y966 acrylic adhesive. The most obvious change is the color of the 2 mil silver TEFLON® surface on the shroud. The original silver mirror-like surface now appears white with copious amounts of a brown discoloration in a distinct pattern. The upper and lower triangular sections of the shroud have many irregular shaped black discolorations and an areas where the adhesive appears to have failed. Changes in color have occurred in both the active and passive samples. Note the top four active coating samples located on

  2. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11 EL-1994-00010 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp block of the experiment trays left flange and on the clamp blocks located at the upper and lower ends of the experiment trays right flange appear to be in near prelaunch condition. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover

  3. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10 EL-1994-00018 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the clamp blocks located at the center of the experiment trays upper and right flanges appear to be in prelaunch condition while the one located at the left end of the trays lower flange appears slightly discolored. Note the dark brown stain on the LDEF structure adjacent to the edge of the black thermal cover. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays right flange is

  4. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07 EL-1994-00087 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray B07 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays left flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored but the paint dot on the clamp block located at the right end of the upper flange appears to be stained less. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the

  5. LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07 EL-1994-00062 LDEF (Flight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D07 The flight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dot on the center clamp block of the experiment trays upper flange appears to be in prelaunch condition but the paint dot on the clamp block located at the right end of the lower flange appears to be slightly discolored. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments

  6. LDEF (Postflight), S0069 : Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment, Tray A09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), S0069 : Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment, Tray A09 EL-1994-00144 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to experiment removal from the LDEF. The originally white paint dot on clamp blocks appear to have changed slightly to an off-white color. The experiment trays upper and left flanges appear to have a light tan discoloration. The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is completely self-contained in a twelve (12) inch deep LDEF experiment tray and consist of the power and data systems, a carousel, a pre-programmed controller and the sample materials. The experiment structure is fabricated from aluminum alloys and assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The photograph shows the carousel sample mounting plate rotated into the open position and a thermal shroud that covers the experiment structure and the power and data system components. The aluminum sample mounting plate accommodates twenty-five (25) active samples mounted in calorimeters to thermally isolate the samples from the mounting plate, twenty-four (24) passive samples and three (3) radiometers. The thermal shroud, an aluminum alloy sheet material that is thermally isolated from the experiment structure, has an inside surface coated with black thermal paint and an outside (exposed) surface covered with two (2) mil silver TEFLON®, bonded to the aluminum with Y966 adhesive. The most obvious change is the color of the 2 mil silver TEFLON® surface on the shroud. The original silver mirror-like surface now appears white with copious amounts of a brown discoloration in a distinct pattern. The upper and lower triangular sections of the shroud have many irregular shaped black discolorations and an areas where the adhesive appears to have failed. Changes in color have occurred in both the active and passive samples. Note the top four active coating samples located on the outer radii, two of the first three, originally white, now appear brown and

  7. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The postflight photograph shows little change of the exposed surfaces when compared with the prelaunch photograph. Although not noticable in the photograph, a light coating of contamination was seen on all experiment surfaces in this location. The difference in colors of the IDE detectors, located on the right hand mounting plate, is a result of the reflected surroundings and not related to space exposure. A close observation of the detector surfaces reveal that some damage has occured from meteroid and/or debris impacts. One impact crater can be seen, upper right quadrant, on the detector located in the sixth (6th) row down from the top and the fifth (5th) row from the right. Other impacts, smaller in size, show as small white dots on the detector surface. The solar sensor seems to have changed little, if any. However, the color of the solar array baseplate, showing indications of contamination, appears to be darker than the detector mounting plate. The center section cover plate shows little change when compared with the pre-launch photograph. However, during inspection, a light coat of the brown contamination has been observed on all surfaces. The color of the bonding material (RTV) used to secure several thin specimen, sapphire, to individual mounting plates has changed from pink to gold. At one location, that of a single specimen, the bonding material is more gray than gold in color. This has been attributed to the specimen being considerably thicker. The EPDS thermal cover in the right hand side of the tray shows a light coating of brown contamination on the Chemglaze II A-276 white paint.

  8. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00302 LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) on the LDEF. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners.

  9. LDEF (Flight), S0109 : Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment, Tray C12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment (FODTE) flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on clamp blocks at each end of the experiment tray lower flange appear to be discolored. The FODTE occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray and consist of an aluminum internal support structure, four aluminum mounting plates, an aluminum cover plate, ten fiber optic cable samples with connectors, aluminum brackets and non-magnet fasteners required to assemble the experiment. Four optical fiber cables (two black, one blue and one bright orange), each configured in the form of a planar, helix coil, are attached to the thermally isolated mounting plates with black anodized aluminum clips cushioned with silicone-rubber spacers. The four mounting plates are coated with a Catalac off-white thermal control paint and the exposed surface of the cover plate is painted with Chemglaze II A-276 white to meet thermal control requirements. Six additional coils of optical fiber cable samples, secured with nylon cable ties, are located in the bottom of the tray, four below the mounting plates and two below the cover plate. Each sample terminates in connectors mounted in brackets located in the tray bottom or on the backside of the thermally isolated mounting plates. The FODTE appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. A flow pattern of discoloration appears to the right of each fastener used to secure the four mounting plates. Colors of two of the four exposed coils of fiber optic cables have changed significantly. The cable located in the upper right corner, originally a bright orange, appears to be dark blue and the cable in the lower left position has faded from a light blue to a blue-gray color. The color of the silicone-rubber spacers under the coil attach clips appears to have changed from clear to brown. Two brown circular discolorations have appeared, one

  10. LDEF (Postflight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D03 EL-1994-00210 LDEF (Postflight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D03 The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The Spacecraft Materials Experiment hardware consist of four LDEF peripheral trays (two sets), two Experiment Power and Data Systems (EPDS), two Environment Exposure Control Canisters (EECC), twelve LiSO2 batteries and internal support structure, instrumentation and black anodized aluminum mounting plates for experiment samples. The experiment structural members were assembled using nonmagnetic stainless steel fasteners. One six inch tray and one three inch tray with a connecting wiring harness, one EPDS, one EECC and six LiSO2 batteries were located in tray locations D08 and D09 near the LDEF leading edge and a similar set of hardware was located near the LDEF trailing edge in tray locations D03 and D04. The environmental exposure was similar with one significant exception, the trailing edge location was not exposed to continuous bombardment by the relativity high atomic oxygen flux. The experiment tray in the D03 location is divided into six sections. One of the six sections, lower right corner, provides space for one of three Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment, M0002-01, modules. The other five sections of the tray contain M0003 sub-experiments consisting of coatings, thermal paints, polymers, glasses, composites, semi-conductors and detectors that provide data on various environmental parameters.The experiment appears to be in good condition. Composite material samples located in upper right, upper center and lower center tray sections remain intact but are bleached or discolored. The metallized and coated polymers located in the upper left tray section appear to be have survived the exposure intact but appear discolored. Approximately half of the

  11. LDEF (Postflight), S0109 : Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment, Tray C12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment (FODTE) postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The experiment trays lower flange has a light tan discoloration that is visible in areas not protected by the tray clamp blocks. Dark brown discolorations can be seen near the center of the tray left flange and on the upper and lower flanges near the corners of the white cover plate. The tray sidewalls appear to be heavily stained in corners, along the three areas adjacent to the white cover plate and at the intersection of the sidewalls with the experiment sup- port structure. The FODTE occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray and consist of an aluminum internal support structure, four aluminum mounting plates, an aluminum cover plate, ten fiber optic cable samples with connectors, aluminum brackets and non-magnet fasteners required to assemble the experiment. Four optical fiber cables (two black, one blue and one bright orange), each configured in the form of a planar, helix coil, are attached to the thermally isolated mounting plates with black anodized aluminum clips cushioned with silicone-rubber spacers. The four mounting plates are coated with a Catalac off-white thermal control paint and the exposed surface of the cover plate is painted with Chemglaze II A-276 white to meet thermal control requirements. Six additional coils of optical fiber cable samples, secured with nylon cable ties, are located in the bottom of the tray, four below the mounting plates and two below the cover plate. Each sample terminates in connectors mounted in brackets located in the tray bottom or on the backside of the thermally isolated mounting plates. The FODTE appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. A flow pattern of discoloration appears to flow in a downward direction from fasteners used to secure the four mounting plates. The colors of two coils of the externally mounted fiber optic cables have

  12. STS-32 photo survey of LDEF includes closeup of experiment tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 onboard view shows one of many individual trays on the twelve-sided bus-sized Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). This is the space end of LDEF, which spent 5 1/2 years in Earth orbit before STS-32 retrieval. In the center is the experiment titled 'Heavy Ions in Space' and was designed by the Laboratory for Cosmic Ray Physics at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C.

  13. LDEF (Prelaunch), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four (4) experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in peripheral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The identifica tion plate on the lower right corner of the experiment mounting plate identifies the experiments location and orientation in the experiment tray. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, consist of a primary experiment and three (3) sub experiments mounted on an aluminum mount ing plate. The primary experiment components include six (6) stacks of CR-39 passive detectors in individual aluminum housings and an aluminum mounting structure, configured to provide the desired exposure for the detector stacks. The secondary experiments consist of the Neutron and Proton Activation experiment that expose metal samples to the ambient flux throughout the mis sion, the Microsphere Dosimetry experiment housed in a cylindrical aluminum container and the Flux Measurement by Ion Trapping experiment consisting of a variety of sample materials that are exposed to the space environment for the total mission. The exterior surfaces of the mounting plate, the experiment housings and the support structure are coated with IITRI S13G-LO white paint.The experiment is assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners and safety wire.

  14. LDEF (Postflight), M0004 : Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optics Systems, Tray F08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment from the LDEF. The color of the white paint dot on the center clamp block of the experiment tray lower flange appears to be unchanged. The Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optic Systems Experiment occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray and consist of an aluminum internal support structure, an Electronic Power and Data System (EPDS), three aluminum experiment mounting plates, two aluminum cover plates, four operational digital optical data links (lengths of 48 m, 45 m and two 20 m) exposed to the space environment, three passive cabled fiber optic links (each 10 m long) with electronic components and end connectors, aluminum brackets and non-magnet stainless steel fasteners required to assemble the experiment. Four active cabled optical fiber links (one black, one blue, one yellow and one light tan), each configured in the form of a planar, helix coil, are attached to thermally isolated mounting plates with black anodized aluminum clips cushioned with silicone-rubber spacers. The three mounting plates are coated with a Catalac off-white thermal control paint, the large cover plate is coated with Chemglaze II A-276 white paint and the smaller cover plate is coated with IITRI S13G-LO white paint to meet thermal control requirements. The three passive cabled optical fiber links and all emitters, detectors and associated electronics are located in the interior volume of the tray. All cabled optical fibers terminate in connectors mounted in brackets that are located in the tray bottom or on the backside of the thermally isolated mounting plates. The Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optic Systems Experiment appears to be intact with no apparent structural damage. Colors of all three exposed coils of fiber optic cables have changed significantly. The cable located in the lower right corner, originally glossy black, appears to be dark brown and the cable in the lower

  15. LDEF (Flight), M0004 : Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optics Systems, Tray F08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dot on the center clamp block of the experiment tray lower flange appears to be slightly discolored. The Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optic Systems Experiment occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray and consist of an aluminum internal support structure, an Electronic Power and Data System (EPDS), three aluminum experiment mounting plates, two aluminum cover plates, four operational digital optical data links (lengths of 48 m, 45 m and two 20 m) exposed to the space environment, three passive cabled fiber optic links (each 10 m long) with electronic components and end connectors, aluminum brackets and non-magnet stainless steel fasteners required to assemble the experiment. Four active cabled optical fiber links (one black, one blue, one yellow and one light tan), each configured in the form of a planar, helix coil, are attached to thermally isolated mounting plates with black anodized aluminum clips cushioned with silicone-rubber spacers. The three mounting plates are coated with a Catalac off-white thermal control paint, the large cover plate is coated with Chemglaze II A-276 white paint and the smaller cover plate is coated with IITRI S13G-LO white paint to meet thermal control requirements. The three passive cabled optical fiber links and all emitters, detectors and associated electronics are located in the interior volume of the tray. All cabled optical fibers terminate in connectors mounted in brackets that are located in the tray bottom or on the backside of the thermally isolated mounting plates. The Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optic Systems Experiment appears to be intact with no apparent structural damage. Colors of all three exposed coils of fiber optic cables have changed significantly. The cable located in the upper right corner, originally glossy black, appears to be dark brown and the

  16. LDEF (Prelaunch), S0010 : Exposure of Spacecraft Coatings, Tray B09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF and shows the locations of two (2) LDEF experiments integrated into a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. The Exposure of Spacecraft Coatings Experiment (ESC) consist of two parts, one set of test specimen (49-2cm specimen and 12-4cm specimen) located in the upper right-half of the tray center section and the second set of test specimen (98-2cm specimen and 12-4cm specimen) in an Experiment Exposure Control Canister (EECC) located in the right section of the experiment tray. Both sets of specimen are mounted in aluminum base plates and are partially masked by a thin aluminum cover plate with circular openings. The cover plates and the support structure are assembled with non-magnetic fasteners. The EECC is in the closed position and specimen contained within cannot be seen. The visible parts of the canister consist of the larger anodized aluminum thermal cover attached to the canister body and sun shield attached to the canister drawer faceplate. The silver squares on the lower corners of the canister sun shield are pads of tape installed prior to launch.

  17. LDEF (Flight), S0010 : Exposure of Spacecraft Coatings, Tray B09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay and shows the locations of two (2) LDEF experiments integrated into a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. A brown discoloration is seen along the left half of the lower tray flange and also on the right half of the lower sidewall. The Experiment Exposure Control Canister (EECC), located in the lower section of the experiment tray, has a dark brown discoloration on the mounting structure in the bottom of the tray. Top and lower flanges appear to have very light discoloration and also have abrasions from prelaunch testing. The Exposure of Spacecraft Coatings Experiment (ESC) consist of two parts, one set of test specimen (49-2cm specimen and 12-4cm specimen) located in the lower right half of the tray center section and the second set of test specimen (98-2cm specimen and 12-4cm specimen) located in the EECC. Both sets of specimen are mounted in aluminum base plates and are partially masked by a thin aluminum cover plate with circular openings. The cover plates and the support structure are assembled with non-magnetic fasteners. Some exposed specimen coatings have changed colors and three of the larger (4cm) specimen appear to be severely degraded or missing. The EECC is in the closed position and specimen contained within cannot be viewed. The visible parts of the canister consist of the larger anodized aluminum thermal cover attached to the canister body and sun shield attached to the canister drawer faceplate. The silver squares on the lower corners of the canister sun shield are pads of tape installed prior to launch.

  18. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO135 : Effect of Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors, Tray E05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO135 : Effect of Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors, Tray E05 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors Experiment (AO135) consist of twenty detectors of three different types of materials, lithium-tantalate, strontium-barium-niobate and triglycine-sulfide. The Pyroelectric infrered detector experiment is an integral part of the Active Optical System Component Experiment (S0050) that contains 136 test specimen and is located in a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray. The experiment tray is divided into six sections, each consisting of a 1/4 inch thick chromic anodized aluminum base plate and a 1/16th inch thick aluminum hat shaped structure for mounting the test specimen. The test specimen are typi- cally placed in fiberglass-epoxy retainer strip assemblies prior to installation on the hat shaped mounting structure. Five of the six sections are covered by a 1/8 inch thick anodized aluminum sun screen with openings that allowed 56 percent transmission over the central region. Two subexperiments, The Optical Materials and UV Detectors Experiment (S0050-01) consist of 15 optical windows, filters and detectors and occupies one of the trays six sub-sections and The Optical Substrates and Coatings Experiment (S0050-02 ) that includes 12 substrates and coatings and a secondary experiment, The Holographic Data Storage Crystal Experiment (AO044) with four crystals, are also mounted in the integrated tray. The experiment structure was assembled with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners.

  19. LDEF (Postflight), S0010 : Exposure of Spacecraft Coatings, Tray B09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF and shows the locations of two (2) experiments integrated into a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. A brown discoloration is seen at the top end of the tray's left flange and also on the lower half of the tray's left sidewall. The Experiment Exposure Control Canister (EECC), located in the left section of the experiment tray, has a dark brown discoloration on the mounting structure in the bottom of the tray. The tray's right and left flanges and each end of the top flange have abrasions from prelaunch testing. The Exposure of Spacecraft Coatings Experiment (ESC)experiment consist of two parts, one set of test specimen (49-2cm specimen and 12-4cm specimen) located in the lower left half of the tray center section and the second set of test specimen (98-2cm specimen and 12-4cm specimen) located in the EECC. Both sets of specimen are mounted in aluminum base plates and are parially mask by a thin aluminum cover plate with circular openings. The cover plates and the sup- port structure are assembled with non-magnetic fasteners. Some exposed specimen coatings have changed colors and three of the larger (4cm) specimen appear to be severely degraded or missing. The EECC is in the closed position and specimen contained within cannot be viewed. The visible parts of the canister consist of the larger anodized aluminum thermal cover attached to the canister body and sun shield attached to the canister drawer faceplate. The silver squares on the lower corners of the canister sun shield are pads of tape installed prior to launch.

  20. LDEF (Postflight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D08 The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to the experiment trays removal from the LDEF. The Spacecraft Materials Experiment hardware consist of four LDEF peripheral trays (two sets), two Experiment Power and Data Systems (EPDS), two Environment Exposure Control Canisters (EECC), twelve LiSO2 batteries and internal support structure, instrumentation and black anodized aluminum mounting plates for experiment samples. The experiment structural members were assembled using nonmagnetic stainless steel fasteners. One six inch tray and one three inch tray with a connecting wiring harness, one EPDS, one EECC and six LiSO2 batteries were located in tray locations D08 and D09 near the LDEF leading edge and a similar set of hardware was located near the LDEF trailing edge in tray locations D03 and D04. The environmental exposure was similar with one significant exception, the trailing edge location was not exposed to continuous bombardment by the relativity high atomic oxygen flux. The experiment tray in the D08 location is divided into three sections.The right section provides space for the EPDS, the center section accommodates the Signal Conditioning Unit (SCU) and an experiment mounting plate, on an aluminum sub-structure, that is populated with composite material samples. The left section houses the EECC with a complement of experiment samples that consist of coatings, thermal paints, polymers, glasses, semi-conductors. Detectors within the experiment provide environmental data for use in postflight analyses. Batteries and inter-tray wiring harness are located beneath the tray base plates. The EPDS is under an aluminum cover, coated with a white thermal control paint (Chemglaze II A-276) and thermally isolated from the tray structure by fiberglass clips. The SCU cover is also coated with a white thermal control paint, IITRI S13G-LO, and the EECC is covered with a

  1. LDEF (Postflight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D04 The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The Spacecraft Materials Experiment hardware consist of four LDEF peripheral trays (two sets), two Experiment Power and Data Systems (EPDS), two Environment Exposure Control Canisters (EECC), twelve LiSO2 batteries and internal support structure, instrumentation and black anodized aluminum mounting plates for experiment samples. The experiment structural members were assembled using nonmagnetic stainless steel fasteners. One six inch tray and one three inch tray with a connecting wiring harness, one EPDS, one EECC and six LiSO2 batteries were located in tray locations D08 and D09 near the LDEF leading edge and a similar set of hardware was located near the LDEF trailing edge in tray locations D03 and D04. The environmental exposure was similar with one significant exception, the trailing edge location was not exposed to continuous bombardment by the relativity high atomic oxygen flux. The experiment tray in the D04 location is divided into three sections.The right section provides space for the EPDS, the center section accommodates the Signal Conditioning Unit (SCU) and an experiment mounting plate, on an aluminum sub-structure, that is populated with composite material samples. The left section houses the EECC with a complement of experiment samples that consist of coatings, thermal paints, polymers, glasses, semi-conductors. Detectors within the experiment provide environmental data for use in postflight analyses. Batteries and inter-tray wiring harness are located beneath the tray base plates. The EPDS is underneath an aluminum cover, coated with a white thermal control paint (Chemglaze II A-276) and thermally isolated from the tray structure by fiberglas clips. The SCU cover is also coated with a white thermal control paint, IITRI S13G-LO, and the EECC is covered with a

  2. LDEF (Prelaunch), M0004 : Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optics Systems, Tray F08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), M0004 : Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optics Systems, Tray F08 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optic Systems Experiment on the LDEF. The Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optic Systems Experiment occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray and consist of an aluminum internal support structure, an Electronic Power and Data System (EPDS), three aluminum experiment mounting plates, two aluminum cover plates, four operational digital optical data links (lengths of 48 m, 45 m and two 20 m) exposed to the space environment, three passive cabled fiber optic links (each 10 m long) with electronic components and end connectors, aluminum brackets and non-magnet stainless steel fasteners required to assemble the experiment. Four active cabled optical fiber links (one black, one blue, one yellow and one light tan), each configured in the form of a planar, helix coil, are attached to thermally isolated mounting plates with black anodized aluminum clips cushioned with silicone-rubber spacers. The three mounting plates are coated with a Catalac off-white thermal control paint, the large cover plate is coated with Chemglaze II A-276 white paint and the smaller cover plate is coated with IITRI S13G-LO white paint to meet thermal control requirements. The three passive cabled optical fiber links and all emitters, detectors and associated electronics are located in the interior volume of the tray. All cabled optical fibers terminate in connectors mounted in brackets that are located in the tray bottom or on the backside of the thermally isolated mounting plates.

  3. LDEF (Prelaunch), S0109 : Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment, Tray C12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment (FODTE) on the LDEF. The FODTE occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray and consist of an aluminum internal support structure, four aluminum mounting plates, an aluminum cover plate, ten fiber optic cable samples with connectors, aluminum brackets and non-magnet fasteners required to assemble the experiment. Four optical fiber cables (two black, one blue and one bright orange), each configured in the form of a planar, helix coil, are attached to the thermally isolated mounting plates with black anodized aluminum clips cushioned with silicone-rubber spacers. The four mounting plates are coated with a Catalac off-white thermal control paint and the exposed surface of the cover plate is painted with Chemglaze II A-276 white to meet thermal control requirements. Six additional coils of optical fiber cable samples, secured with nylon cable ties, are located in the bottom of the tray, four below the mounting plates and two below the cover plate. Each sample terminates in connectors mounted in brackets located in the tray bottom or on the backside of the thermally isolated mounting plates.

  4. LDEF (Postflight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D09 EL-1994-00211 LDEF (Postflight), M0003 : Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials, Tray D09 The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The Spacecraft Materials Experiment hardware consist of four LDEF peripheral trays (two sets), two Experiment Power and Data Systems (EPDS), two Environment Exposure Control Canisters (EECC), twelve LiSO2 batteries and internal support structure, instrumentation and black anodized aluminum mounting plates for experiment samples. The experiment structural members were assembled using nonmagnetic stainless steel fasteners. One six inch tray and one three inch tray with a connecting wiring harness, one EPDS, one EECC and six LiSO2 batteries were located in tray locations D08 and D09 near the LDEF leading edge and a similar set of hardware was located near the LDEF trailing edge in tray locations D03 and D04. The environmental exposure was similar with one significant exception, the trailing edge location was not exposed to continuous bombardment by the relativity high atomic oxygen flux. The experiment tray in the D09, leading edge, location is divided into six sections. One of the six sections, upper right corner, provides space for one of three Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment, M0002-01, modules. The other five sections of the tray contain M0003 sub-experiments consisting of coatings, thermal paints, polymers, glasses, composites, solar power components, semiconductors and detectors that provide various environmental data. The experiments, overall, appear to be in good condition. The experiments located in the upper left and center left sections are heavily coated with debris particles from the degradation of other experiments. Experiments in three of the five sections appear to have survived the mission intact with minor physical damage. Experiments in

  5. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 The prelaunch photograph shows the two (2) clam shell type canisters in their closed position. The canister shells are made of aluminum sheet material with end caps of diecast aluminum. The baseplate and support structure are fabricated from 6000 series aluminum. Fasteners are non-magnetic stainless steel. The electrical box and the stainless steel tubing located on the baseplate protect the drive system wiring. The experiment contains a timing mechanism that provides the intelligence to open the canisters after the Orbiter has departed the area and any initial outgassing or offgassing has occurred.

  6. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 EL-1994-00272 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A04 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF and the silvered TEFLON® thermal cover removed. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. A copper coated pressure sensitive tape was used to provide an electrical ground strap between the thermal cover and the LDEF structure. All experiment hardware appears to be in prelaunch condition and securely in place. The three cylindrical pressure vessels containing the experiment detectors are shown mounted in the experiment tray with the frame for mounting the

  7. LDEF (Flight), M0001 : Heavy Ions in Space, Tray H12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), M0001 : Heavy Ions in Space, Tray H12 EL-1994-00676 The flight photograph of the Heavy Ions in Space Experiment was taken from the Orbiter's aft flight deck during LDEF retrieval operations. A light coating of the stain can be seen on the tray flange adjacent to the American flag. The photograph shows four (4) experiment modules mounted in the LDEF provided end center experiment tray.An experiment module consist of the thermal cover, a top stack of Lexan sheets for detecting low-energy ions, a honeycomb pressure cover and the main stack of CR-39 used to detect cosmic rays mounted in an aluminum housing. Three modules are identical while the fourth module has been divided into four smaller units that allows the use of pressure covers with a lower energy threshold to Ion penetration. The exposed surface of each module is a white paint overcoat, Chemglaze II A-276, that has been applied to the top layer, aluminized Kapton, of a multilayer thermal blanket. The frame around each of the four modules, a Z shaped aluminum structure, is covered with a silverized TEFLON® film secured with 3M Y966 acrylic transfer tape. The 3M Y966 tape on a silverized TEFLON® film is also used to attach the multi-layer thermal insulation blankets to the modules frame. The combination of the silverized TEFLON® and the white paint provides the appropriate optical properities needed to meet experiment thermal requirements. Extensive damage occurred to the experiment's multi-layer thermal blankets during the LDEF mission, prior to retrieval operations. It appears that the tape used attach the thermal blankets to the structure failed in tension. When the bond joint released along two (2) sides, the tension was releaved and the remaining tape continued to hold the blanket to the structure through out the rest mission and the post-flight operations. The outside blanket surfaces that were originally white are now coated with a glossy dark brown stain thought to be from

  8. LDEF (Postflight)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Passive Grapple Tray postflight photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at KSC during the removal of LDEF from the Orbiter's cargo bay. The tray assembly consists of a modified six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray, a chromic anodized aluminum mounting plate, a Standard Mechanical Grapple Fixture, provided by JSC, and non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Two (2) aluminum plates, one in the upper left corner and one near the right center of the tray, cover access openings in the mounting plate. The black chevrons painted on the left half of the mounting plate are used for tray identification and the camera target, black with white markings, is attached to the right edge of the grapple fixture to assist the operator in positioning the RMS end effector during retrieval operations. The grapple tray assembly appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The white paint dot on clamp blocks located at the right and left ends of the lower tray flange has changed to a brown color and the tray upper sidewall and tray flanges have become discolored by a light brown stain. The chromic anodized aluminum mounting plate and the passive grapple fixture appear to be discolored by a light brown stain similar to that on the tray sidewall and flanges. The dark irregular shaped discoloration on the lower right corner of the grapple fixture mounting plate is an abrasion that existed preflight. The pinkish tint on the mounting plate is the by-product of the chromic anodizing process and is not attributed to exposure to the space environment. The white stripes on the black camera target and the white tip of the vertical rod located on the target have changed in color from white to brown. The light band along the right edge of the grapple fixture mounting plate is caused by light reflecting from the tray sidewalls.

  9. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray F04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray F04 EL-1994-00171 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray F04 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal cover appears to be specular and intact. The circular damaged locations that appeared to to be impact points in the flight photograph are not as apparent in the reflections and is less taut cover. The wrinkled spots on the thermal cover are areas

  10. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10 EL-1994-00122 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray A10 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at KSC during removal of the LDEF from the Orbiters cargo bay. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays upper flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal covers surface appears to have changed from specular to opaque (glossy white) with many black dots of various sizes that appear to be impact craters. An impact

  11. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10 EL-1994-00162 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray E10 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility during removal of the LDEF from the Orbiter's payload bay. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the experiments thermal cover and the LDEF structure. The UHCRE thermal covers surface appears to have changed from specular to opaque with numerous black dots of various sizes that appear to be impact craters. Many of the craters appear to have

  12. LDEF (Flight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray D06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight/on-orbit photograph of the D06 integrated tray was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval, while the spacecraft was attached to the remote manipulator system. During the mission, the tray surface was at an angle of approximately eighty-two (82) degrees to the orbital velocity vector and therefore exposed to a higher atomic oxygen flux than if it had been parallel with the velocity vector. Note the difference in color of the paint dots on tray clampblocks; white dots along the top edge, a light tan color on the center dot and a dark brown stain on the dots along the bottom of the photograph. The dots near the top of the photograph are adjacent to experiment location D07 and are exposed to a higher atomic oxygen flux than those adjacent to experiment location D05. Impacts of atomic oxygen with a surface tends to scrub away contamination from the that surface and leave it a much cleaner. The two (2) Space Debris Impact Experiment detector plates, located in the center and left end sections of a three (3) inch deep experiment tray, show fingerprints and a palm print that occurred during installation of the panelsDE:into the tray. These prints are not visible on the prelaunch photograph. The light angle is such that the panel serial numbers, stamped in the upper left corner of the each panel, can be seen. The grazing light angle also makes numerous impact craters visible that would not be easily detectible if the light source was perpendicular to the tray surface. When comparing the flightDE:photograph with the prelaunch photograph, A switch in panel colors can be seen. The flight tray has a center section panel with a green tint and an end section panel with a pink tint. The opposite is seen in the prelaunch tray photograph. The center section panel has the pink tint and the end section panel is pale green. No definitive answer has been determined for the visual changes.

  13. LDEF (Postflight), M0001 : Heavy Ions in Space, Tray H03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), M0001 : Heavy Ions in Space, Tray H03 EL-1994-00316 The postflight photograph was taken prior to the experiment being removed from the LDEF structure. The experiment's damaged multi-layer ther mal insulation blankets were removed from the experiment to accommodate experiment tray cover installation prior to operations that removed the experiment from the LDEF. The postflight photograph of the Heavy Ions in Space Experiment shows the four (4) experiment modules with the multi-layer thermal blankets severely degraded. The paint on the the thermal blankets top layer, previously white, is now a glossy tan or soft brown color. This change in color, from white to tan, was seen on other LDEF experiment surfaces that were coated with the same paint. The tape used to attach the thermal blanket to the module frames, 3M Y966 with a silvered TEFLON® film backing, failed during flight. The tape failed in tension across the width of the tape leaving portions of the tape on both the frame and the top layer of the thermal blanket. The tape failure is attributed to shrinkage of the thermal blanket which caused a significant buildup in tension across the taped joint. Detachment of the blankets along two (2) sides relieved the tension buildup and the blanket remained in place, although curled, during retrieval and post retrieval operations. The material exposed underneath the curled thermal blanket is the top sheet of the Lexan detector stack. The degraded multi-layer thermal blankets in each of the four modules show details of the blanket construction. The top layer of the thermal blanket is a 5 mil Kapton film with an aluminum coat ing vapor deposited on one side and with an exterior overcoat of Chemglaze II A-276 white paint on the other. The core or center section of the thermal blanket is constructed of approximately twenty two (22) layers of 1/4 mil perforated Mylar film with an aluminum coating vapor depos ited on each side. The bottom layer of the thermal

  14. LDEF (Postflight), M0001 : Heavy Ions in Space, Tray H12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph of the Heavy Ions in Space Experiment was taken prior to the experiment being removed from the LDEF structure. The experiment's damaged multi-layer thermal insulation blankets were removed from the exper- iment, so the experiment tray cover could be installed, prior to removing the experiment from the LDEF The Postflight photograph shows the four (4) experiment modules with multilayer thermal blankets that are severely degraded. Paint on the top layer, previously white, is now a glossy soft brown or tan color. The thermal blankets apparently shrunk in flight causing them to detach from the modules frame along two sides, thereby relieving the tension buildup. The tape used to attach the blanket to the structure failed in tension across the width of the tape leaving portions of the tape on both the frame and the top layer of the thermal blanket. The thermal blankets on the three (3) large modules have curled to expose the top Lexan layer of the detector stack beneath. The curled thermal blankets that protected the four (4) smaller modules now exposes the 5 mil aluminized Kapton pressure covers beneath. The damaged thermal blankets shown in the two (2) tray quadrants on the right side of the photograph reveal representative cross sections of the multilayer thermal blankets. The thermal blankets top layer is a 5 mil aluminized Kapton film with an exterior overcoat of Chemglaze II A-276 white paint. The blanket core, center section of the blanket, is constructed of approximately twenty two (22) layers of 1/4 mil perforated Mylar film with aluminum vapor deposited on each side. A Dacron mesh separator, clearly seen in the lower right quadrant, is placed between each aluminized Mylar layer of the core material and also between the core material and the aluminized Kapton film used for the thermal blanket top and bottom covers. Insertion of the Dacron mesh between the aluminized layers minimizes heat leaks within the thermal blanket.

  15. Durability evaluation of photovoltaic blanket materials exposed on LDEF tray S1003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Olle, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    Several candidate protective coatings on Kapton and uncoated Kapton were exposed to the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) to determine if the coatings could be used to protect polymeric substrates from degradation in the LEO environment. The coatings that were evaluated were 700 A of aluminum oxide, 650 A of silicon dioxide, and 650 A of a 4 percent polytetrafluoroethylene-96 percent silicon dioxide mixed coating. All of the coatings evaluated were ion beam sputter deposited. These materials were exposed to a very low atomic oxygen fluence (4.8 x 10 exp 19 atoms/sq. cm) as a result of the experiment tray being located 98 degrees from the ram direction. As a result of the low atomic oxygen fluence, determination of a change in mass was not possible for any of the samples including the uncoated Kapton. There was no evidence of spalling of any of the coatings after the approximately 33,600 thermal cycles recorded for LDEF. The surface of the uncoated Kapton, however, did show evidence of grazing incidence texturing. There was a 7-8 percent increase in solar absorptance for the silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide coated Kapton and only a 4 percent increase for the mixed coating. It appears that the addition of a small amount of fluoropolymer may reduce the magnitude of absorptance increase due to environmental exposure. Thermal emittance did not change significantly for any of the exposed samples. Scanning electron microscopy revealed few micrometeoroid or debris impacts, but the impact sites found indicated that the extent of damage or cracking of the coating around the defect site did not extend beyond a factor of three of the impact crater diameter. This limiting of impact damage is of great significance for the durability of thin film coatings used for protection against the LEO environment.

  16. Surface analysis of anodized aluminum clamps from NASA-LDEF satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammer, H. L.; Wightman, J. P.; Young, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface analysis results of selected anodized aluminum clamps containing black (Z306) and white (A276) paints which received nearly six years of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) exposure on the Long Duration Exposure Facility are reported. Surface analytical techniques, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysis by x-ray (SEM/EDAX), showed significant differences in the surface composition of these materials depending upon the position on the LDEF. Differences in the surface composition are attributed to varying amounts of atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV). Silicon containing compounds were the primary contaminant detected on the materials.

  17. Analytical electron microscopy of LDEF impactor residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Barrett, Ruth A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    The LDEF contained 57 individual experiment trays or tray portions specifically designed to characterize critical aspects of meteoroid and debris environment in low-Earth orbit (LEO). However, it was realized from the beginning that the most efficient use of the satellite would be to characterize impact features from the entire surface of the LDEF. With this in mind particular interest has focused on common materials facing in all 26 LDEF facing directions; among the most important of these materials has been the tray clamps. Therefore, in an effort to better understand the nature and flux of particulates in LEO, and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impact features on LDEF tray clamp surfaces. This paper summarizes all data from 79 clamps located on Bay A & B of the LDEF. We also describe current efforts to characterize impactor residues recovered from the impact craters, and we have found that a low, but significant, fraction of these residues have survived in a largely unmelted state. These residues can be characterized sufficiently to permit resolution of the impactor origin. We have concentrated on the residue from chondritic interplanetary dust particles (micrometeoroids), as these represent the harshest test of our analytical capabilities.

  18. LDEF (Postflight)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight) The LDEF structure is shown, from a front oblique angle, mounted on the LDEF Assembly and Transport System (LATS) in the SAEF II at the KSC after deintegration of experiments from the LDEF. The LDEF structure is a welded / bolted assembly fabricated from aluminum alloy 6061-T6 extrusions, forgings, tubing and plate materials and assembled with stainless steel fasteners. The eight (8) internal tubular diagonals between the center ring structure and the two end frames provide torsional stiffness to the structure. The passive grapple tray remains mounted in the LDEF C01 location. A thermal control panel, adjacent to the LDEF experiment A06 location, was removed prior to experiment deintegration in preparation for configuring the LDEF for rotation. A discoloration of the black chrome thermal control coating can be seen on the Earth end panel adjacent to the LDEF experiment A03 location. Discolorations are also visible on surfaces of the LDEF structure that were exposed during the mission.

  19. LDEF (Postflight)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight) The LDEF structure is shown, from a rear oblique angle, mounted on the LDEF Assembly and Transport System (LATS)in the SAEF II at the KSC after deintegration of experiments from the LDEF. The LDEF structure is a welded / bolted assembly fabricated from aluminum alloy 6061-T6 extrusions, forgings, tubing and plate materials and assembled with stainless steel fasteners. The eight (8) internal tubular diagonals between the center ring structure and the two end frames provides torsional stiffness to the structure. The passive grapple tray remains mounted in the LDEF C01 location. A thermal control panel, adjacent to the LDEF experiment F06 location, was removed prior to experiment deintegration in preparation for configuring the LDEF for rotation. A light brown discoloration can be seen on the anodized aluminum thermal control panels on the LDEF Space end. Discolorations are also visible on surfaces of the LDEF longeron and intercostal structures that were exposed during the mission.

  20. LDEF Materials/Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Gary

    1997-01-01

    This pictorial presentation reviews the post-flight analysis results from two type of hardware (tray clamp bolt heads and uhcre flight experiment tray walls) from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). It will also discuss flight hardware for one upcoming (Effects of the Space Environment on Materials (ESEM) flight experiment), and two current flight experiments evaluating the performance of materials in space (Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) 1&2 flight experiments. These flight experiments also are concerned with contamination effects which will also be discussed.

  1. Collection and review of metals data obtained from LDEF experiment specimens and support hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Roger; Pippin, H. Gary

    1995-01-01

    LDEF greatly extended the range of data available for metals exposed to the low-Earth-orbital environment. The effects of low-Earth-orbital exposure on metals include meteoroid and debris impacts, solar ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, cosmic rays, solar particles, and surface oxidation and contamination. This paper is limited to changes in surface composition and texture caused by oxidation and contamination. Surface property changes afford a means to study the environments (oxidation and contamination) as well as in-space stability of metal surfaces. We compare thermal-optical properties for bare aluminum and anodized aluminum clamps flown on LDEF. We also show that the silicon observed on the LDEF tray clamps and tray clamp bolt heads is not necessarily evidence of silicon contamination of LDEF from the shuttle. The paper concludes with a listing of LDEF reports that have been published thus far that contain significant findings concerning metals.

  2. Surface characterization of LDEF materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, J. P.; Grammer, Holly Little

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), a passive experimental satellite, was placed into low-Earth orbit by the Shuttle Challenger in Apr. 1984. The LDEF spent an unprecedented 69 months in space. The flight and recovery of the LDEF provided a wealth of information on the longterm space environmental effects of a variety of materials exposed to the low-Earth orbit environment. Surface characterization of LDEF materials included polymers, composites, thermal control paints, and aluminum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle analysis were used to document changes in both the surface composition and surface chemistry of these materials. Detailed XPS analysis of the polymer systems, such as Kapton, polyimide polysiloxane copolymers, and fluorinated ethylene propylene thermal blankets on the backside of the LDEF revealed significant changes in both the surface composition and surface chemistry as a result of exposure to the low-Earth orbit environment. Polymer systems such as Kapton, polyimide polysiloxane copolymers, and polysulfone showed a common trend of decreasing carbon content and increasing oxygen content with respect to the control sample. Carbon 1s curve fit XPS analysis of the composite samples, in conjunction with SEM photomicrographs, revealed significant ablation of the polymer matrix resin to expose the carbon fibers of the composite during exposure to the space environment. Surface characterization of anodized aluminum tray clamps, which were located at regular intervals over the entire LDEF frame, provided the first results to evaluate the extent of contamination with respect to position on the LDEF. The XPS results clearly showed that the amount and state of both silicon and fluorine contamination were directly dependent upon the position of the tray clamp on the LDEF.

  3. Surface characterization of LDEF materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wightman, J. P.; Grammer, Holly Little

    1993-10-01

    The NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), a passive experimental satellite, was placed into low-Earth orbit by the Shuttle Challenger in Apr. 1984. The LDEF spent an unprecedented 69 months in space. The flight and recovery of the LDEF provided a wealth of information on the longterm space environmental effects of a variety of materials exposed to the low-Earth orbit environment. Surface characterization of LDEF materials included polymers, composites, thermal control paints, and aluminum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle analysis were used to document changes in both the surface composition and surface chemistry of these materials. Detailed XPS analysis of the polymer systems, such as Kapton, polyimide polysiloxane copolymers, and fluorinated ethylene propylene thermal blankets on the backside of the LDEF revealed significant changes in both the surface composition and surface chemistry as a result of exposure to the low-Earth orbit environment. Polymer systems such as Kapton, polyimide polysiloxane copolymers, and polysulfone showed a common trend of decreasing carbon content and increasing oxygen content with respect to the control sample. Carbon 1s curve fit XPS analysis of the composite samples, in conjunction with SEM photomicrographs, revealed significant ablation of the polymer matrix resin to expose the carbon fibers of the composite during exposure to the space environment. Surface characterization of anodized aluminum tray clamps, which were located at regular intervals over the entire LDEF frame, provided the first results to evaluate the extent of contamination with respect to position on the LDEF. The XPS results clearly showed that the amount and state of both silicon and fluorine contamination were directly dependent upon the position of the tray clamp on the LDEF.

  4. Durability evaluation of photovoltaic blanket materials exposed on LDEF tray S1003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Olle, Raymond M.

    1991-06-01

    Several candidate protective coatings on Kapton and uncoated Kapton were exposed to the LEO environment on the LDEF in order to determine whether the coatings could be used to protect polymeric substrates from degradation in the LEO environment. These materials are used for flexible solar array panels in which the polymer is the structural member that supports the solar cell and current carriers. Arrays such as these are used on the Hubble Space Telescope and will be used on Space Station Freedom. The results of the experiments are presented.

  5. Vibration analysis of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) using SPAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edighoffer, H.

    1980-01-01

    The structural modeling of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) utilizing the SPAR system of computer programs for vibration analysis is discussed. The technical areas of interest were: (1) development of the LDEF finite element model; (2) derivation of tray effective panel stiffness matrix using finite element tray models; (3) assessment of attachment conditions and end fitting flexibility by comparing SPAR with test static displacements; (4) SPAR grouping; and (5) derivation of the LDEF frequencies and mode shapes and comparing them with tests. Special detailed finite element modeling was required to obtain good agreement between analytical and test vibration modes. An orthotropic panel in the overall model was developed. Orthotropic stiffness for this panel were obtained from finely detailed statically loaded SPAR models which included stiffness and allowed for partial relative sliding of the tray clamping attachments. Sensitivity to LDEF joint boundary conditions was determined, and static test data proved valuable in assessing modeling of local end fittings.

  6. LDEF materials data analysis: Representative examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Gary; Crutcher, Russ

    1993-01-01

    Part of the philosophy which guided the examination of hardware from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was that materials present at multiple locations should have fairly high priority for investigation. Properties of such materials were characterized as a function of exposure conditions to obtain as much data as possible for predicting performance lifetimes. Results from examination of several materials from interior locations of LDEF, selected measurements on silverized teflon blanket specimens, and detailed measurements on the copper grounding strap from tray D11 are summarized. Visual observations of interior locations of LDEF made during deintegration at KSC showed apparent changes in particular specimens. This inspection lead to testing of selected nylon clamps, fiberglass shims, and heat shrink tubing from wire harness clamps, and visually discolored silver coated hex nuts.

  7. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  8. Condition of chromic acid anodized aluminum clamps flown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plagemann, W. L.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of the condition of the chromic acid anodized (CAA) coating on selected LDEF tray clamps was carried out. Measurements of solar absorptance and thermal emittance were carried out at multiple locations on both the space exposed and spacecraft facing sides of the clamps. Multiple clamps from each available angle relative to the ram direction were examined. The diffuse component of the reflectance spectrum was measured for a selected subset of the clamps. The thickness of the CAA was determined for a small set of clamps. Examples of variation in integrity of the coatings from leading to trailing edge will be shown.

  9. LDEF (Flight), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, Tray D12 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval. During the mission, the tray surface was at an angle of approximately ninety-eight (98) degrees to the orbital velocity vector and therefore exposed to a lower atomic oxygen flux than if parallel with the velocity vector. A very light stain is present on white paint dots on experiment tray clamps along the lower edge of the tray. The Polymer Matrix Composite Materials experiment has several changes to material colors. The composite containing the aramid (Kevlar) fibers has changed from a yellow to a light brown color and the cylindrical tubes containing the boron and carbon fiber materials have changed from a light green tint to a brown color.

  10. Organic contamination of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1992-01-01

    A brown stain of varying thickness was present on most of the exterior surface of the retrieved Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Tape lifts of Earth-end LDEF surfaces taken in Feb. 1990 showed that the surface particle cleanliness immediately after retrieval was very good, but faint footprints of the tape strips on the tested surfaces indicated a very faint film was removed by the tape. Solvent wipes of these surfaces showed that the stain was not amenable to standard organic solvent removal. Infrared spectra of optical windows from tray E5 and scrapings indicate that the film is primarily of organic composition, but is not similar to the oil that seeped from tray C12. Very dark and heavy deposits of the stain are present at openings and vents to the interior of the LDEF. Heavy brown and blue-green deposits are present in the interior of LDEF where sunlight penetrated through cracks and vent openings. Photographs of the deintegrated LDEF graphically show the stain distribution. The exterior of the LDEF had significant areas painted with a white polyurethane paint for thermal control, and almost all of the interior was painted with a black polyurethane paint for thermal control. The brown staining of the LDEF is consistent with long-term outgassing of hydrocarbons from these paints followed by rapid solar-ultraviolet-induced polymerization of the outgassed hydrocarbons when the outgassed molecules stuck to surfaces exposed to sunlight.

  11. LDEF materials overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Bland A.

    1993-01-01

    The flight and retrieval of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provided an opportunity for the study of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment and long-duration space environmental effects (SEE) on materials that is unparalleled in the history of the U.S. Space Program. The 5-year, 9-month flight of LDEF greatly enhanced the potential value of all materials on LDEF to the international SEE community, compared to that of the original 1-year flight plan. The remarkable flight attitude stability of LDEF enables specific analyses of individual and combined effects of LEO environmental parameters on identical materials on the same space vehicle. NASA recognized this potential by forming the LDEF Space Environmental Effects on Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) to address the greatly expanded materials and LEO space environment analysis opportunities available in the LDEF structure, experiment trays, and corollary measurements so that the combined value of all LDEF materials data to current and future space missions will be addressed and documented. An overview of the interim LDEF materials findings of the principal investigators and the Materials Special Investigation Group is provided. These revelations are based on observations of LEO environmental effects on materials made in space during LDEF retrieval and during LDEF tray deintegration at the Kennedy Space Center, and on findings of approximately 1.5 years of laboratory analyses of LDEF materials by the LDEF materials scientists. These findings were extensively reviewed and discussed at the MSIG-sponsored LDEF Materials Workshop '91. The results are presented in a format that categorizes the revelations as 'clear findings' or 'obscure preliminary findings' (and progress toward their resolution), plus resultant needs for new space materials developments and ground simulation testing/analytical modeling, in seven categories: materials

  12. Effects of long-term exposure on LDEF fastener assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, Steve; Dursch, Harry

    1992-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the Systems Special Investigations Group (SIG) findings from testing and analysis of fastener assemblies used on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) structure, the tray mounting clamps, and by the various experimenters. The LDEF deintegration team and several experimenters noted severe fastener damage and hardware removal difficulties during post-flight activities. The System SIG has investigated all reported instances, and in all cases examined to date, the difficulties were attributed to galling during installation or post-flight removal. To date, no evidence of coldwelding was found. Correct selection of materials and lubricants as well as proper mechanical procedures is essential to ensure successful on-orbit or post-flight installation and removal of hardware.

  13. Induced activation study of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is continuing with extraction of specific activities for various spacecraft materials. Data and results of activation measurements from eight facilities are being collected for interpretation at Eastern Kentucky University and NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The major activation mechanism in LDEF components is the proton flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). This flux is highly anisotropic, and could be sampled by taking advantage of the gravity-gradient stabilization of the LDEF. The directionally-dependent activation due to these protons was clearly observed in the data from aluminum experiment tray clamps (reaction product Na-22), steel trunnions (reaction product Mn-54 and others) and is also indicated by the presence of a variety of nuclides in other materials. A secondary production mechanism, thermal neutron capture, was observed in cobalt, indium, and tantalum, which are known to have large capture cross sections. Experiments containing samples of these metals and significant amounts of thermalizing low atomic number (Z) material showed clear evidence of enhanced activation of Co-60, In-114m, and Ta-182. Other mechanisms which activate spacecraft material that are not as easily separable from SAA proton activation, such as galactic proton bombardment and secondary production by fast neutrons, are being investigated by comparison to radiation environmental calculations. Deviations from one-dimensional radiation models indicate that these mechanisms are more important at greater shielding depths. The current status of the induced radioactivity measurements as of mid-year 1992 are reviewed. Specific activities for a number of materials which show SAA effects and thermal neutron capture are presented. The results for consistency by combining data from the participating institutions is also examined.

  14. Organic contamination of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1991-01-01

    A brown stain of varying thickness was present on most of the exterior surface of the retrieved Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Tape lifts of Earth-end LDEF surfaces taken showed that the surface particle cleanliness immediately after retrieval was very good, but faint footprints of the tape strips on the tested surfaces indicated a very faint film was removed by the tape. Solvent wipes of these surfaces showed that the stain was not amenable to standard organic solvent removal. Infrared spectra of optical windows from tray E5 show that the organic film is hydrocarbon in composition, but is not similar to the oil that seeped from tray C12. Very dark and heavy deposits of the stain is present at openings and vents to the interior of LDEF. Heavy brown and blue-green deposits are present in the interior of LDEF where sunlight penetrated through cracks and vent openings. The exterior of LDEF had significant areas painted with a white polyurethane paint for thermal control, and almost all of the interior was painted with a black polyurethane paint. Brown staining is consistent with outgassing of hydrocarbons from these paints by rapid solar UV induced polymerization of the outgassed hydrocarbons when they hit sunlight exposed areas.

  15. Manual for LDEF tensile tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    One of the experiments aboard the NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) consists of a tray of approximately one hundred tensile specimens of several candidate space structure composite materials. During the LDEF flight the materials will be subjected to the space environment and to possible contamination during launch and recovery. Tensile tests of representative samples were made before the LDEF flight to obtain baseline data. Similar tests will be made on control specimens stored on earth for the length of the LDEF flight and on recovered flight specimens. This manual codifies the details of testing, data acquisition, and handling used in obtaining the baseline data so that the same procedures and equipment will be used on the subsequent tests.

  16. LDEF (Flight), S0050 : Investigation of the Effects of Long-Duration Exposure on Active Optical Syst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), S0050 : Investigation of the Effects of Long-Duration Exposure on Active Optical System Components, Tray E05 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval and prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay. The Active Optical System Component Experiment (S0050) contained 136 test specimen located in a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray. The complement of specimen included optical and electro-optical components, glasses and samples of various surface finishes. The experiment tray was divided into six sections, each consisting of a 1/4 inch thick chromic anodized aluminum base plate and a 1/16th inch thick aluminum hat-shaped structure for mounting the test specimens. The test specimens were typically placed in fiberglass-epoxy retainer strip assemblies prior to installation on the hat-shaped mounting structure. Five of the six sections were covered by a 1/8 inch thick anodized aluminum sun screen with openings that allowed 56 percent transmission over the central region. Two sub-experiments, The Optical Materials and UV Detectors Experiment (S0050-01) consist of 15 optical windows, filters and detectors and occupies one of the trays six sub-sections and The Optical Substrates and Coatings Experiment (S0050-02 ) that includes 12 substrates and coatings and two secondary experiments,The Holographic Data Storage Experiment (AO044) consisting of four crystals of lithium niobate and ThePyroelectric Infrared Detectors Experiment (AO135) with twenty detectors, are also mounted in the integrated tray. The experiment structure was assembled with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The experiment hardware appears to be intact with no apparent damage. The excess blue color in the photograph makes a detailed assessment of color changes difficult. The paint dots on the tray clamp blocks, initially white, appear to have darkened and tray flanges appear discolored. The experiment sun screens and

  17. Ionizing radiation exposure of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V. (Editor); Heinrich, W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was launched into orbit by the Space Shuttle 'Challenger' mission 41C on 6 April 1984 and was deployed on 8 April 1984. The original altitude of the circular orbit was 258.5 nautical miles (479 km) with the orbital inclination being 28.5 degrees. The 21,500 lb NASA Langley Research Center satellite, having dimensions of some 30x14 ft was one of the largest payloads ever deployed by the Space Shuttle. LDEF carried 57 major experiments and remained in orbit five years and nine months (completing 32,422 orbits). It was retrieved by the Shuttle 'Columbia' on January 11, 1990. By that time, the LDEF orbit had decayed to the altitude of 175 nm (324 km). The experiments were mounted around the periphery of the LDEF on 86 trays and involved the representation of more than 200 investigators, 33 private companies, 21 universities, seven NASA centers, nine Department of Defense laboratories and eight foreign countries. The experiments covered a wide range of disciplines including basic science, electronics, optics, materials, structures, power and propulsion. The data contained in the LDEF mission represents an invaluable asset and one which is not likely to be duplicated in the foreseeable future. The data and the subsequent knowledge which will evolve from the analysis of the LDEF experiments will have a very important bearing on the design and construction of the Space Station Freedom and indeed on other long-term, near-earth orbital space missions. A list of the LDEF experiments according to experiment category and sponsor is given, as well as a list of experiments containing radiation detectors on LDEF including the LDEF experiment number, the title of the experiment, the principal investigator, and the type of radiation detectors carried by the specific experiment.

  18. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) contamination study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Karen P.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the optical measurements that were taken of LDEF surfaces during the deintegration of LDEF from February to April 1990. This project was one part of an overall effort conducted by Boeing Aerospace to determine and track contamination on LDEF. The purpose of this portion of the contamination project was to provide early documentation of the contamination level on LDEF experiments before shipment and disassembly by the principle investigators (PI). 35% of experiment trays located on all areas of LDEF were examined to, in particular, catalogue global differences in contamination depending on tray location. The optical measurements were performed with a Model BHMJ Nomarski microscope which had also darkfield and oblique lighting capabilities. The optical measurements were documented by video and 35-mm cameras that could be attached to the microscope. Approximately 15 hours of video and 17 rolls of film (24 exposure) were taken. A full list of all trays and experiments observed is presented in Appendix C. Due to the high volume of data, a short 10-min. video has been compiled to illustrate the different contamination processes observed on LDEF.

  19. Particle types and sources associated with LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, E. R.; Wascher, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    The particulate contamination history of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) can be resolved by careful analysis of particle types, the LDEF time line, evidence of the relationship between particles and the surface of the LDEF, and a consideration of probable sources. This work is far from complete but was initiated as part of the characterization of the condition of experimental trays that were returned to principle investigators for their analysis. The work presented in this photo-essay is continuing and will be updated in subsequent reports to NASA and at future technical meetings.

  20. Exposure of LDEF materials to atomic oxygen: Results of EOIM 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggers, C. H.; Meshishnek, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The third Effects of Oxygen Atom Interaction with Materials (EOIM 3) experiment flew on STS-46 from July 31 to August 8, 1992. The EOIM-3 sample tray was exposed to the low-earth orbit space environment for 58.55 hours at an altitude of 124 nautical miles resulting in a calculated total atomic oxygen (AO) fluence of 1.99 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. Five samples previously flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment M0003 were included on the Aerospace EOIM 3 experimental tray: (1) Chemglaze A276 white thermal control paint from the LDEF trailing edge (TE); (2) S13GLO white thermal control paint from the LDEF TE; (3) S13GLO from the LDEF leading edge (LE) with a visible contamination layer from the LDEF mission; (4) Z306 black thermal control paint from the LDEF TE with a contamination layer from the LDEF mission; and (5) anodized aluminum from the LDEF TE with a contamination layer from the LDEF mission. The purpose of this experiment was twofold: (l) investigate the response of trailing edge LDEF materials to atomic oxygen exposure, thereby simulating LDEF leading edge phenomena; (2) investigate the response of contaminated LDEF samples to atomic oxygen in attempts to understand LDEF contamination-atomic oxygen interactions. This paper describes the response of these materials to atomic oxygen exposure, and compares the results of the EOIM 3 experiment to the LDEF mission and to ground-based atomic oxygen exposure studies.

  1. Holographic data storage crystals for the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. Russell; Gaylord, Thomas K.

    1993-01-01

    Crystals of lithium niobate were passively exposed to the space environment of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Three of the four crystals contained volume holograms. Although the crystals suffered the surface damage characteristic of that suffered by other components on the Georgia Tech tray, the crystals remained suitable for the formation of volume holograms.

  2. The LDEF ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smit, A.; Domingo, C.

    1991-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) used 16 side viewing LDEF trays giving a total geometry factor for high energy cosmic rays of 30 sq m sr. The total exposure factor was 170 sq m sr y. The experiment is based on a modular array of 192 solid state nuclear track detector stacks, mounted in sets of 4 pressure vessels (3 experiment tray). The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced potential scientific yield from the UHCRE. Initial scanning results indicate that at least 2000 cosmic ray nuclei with Z greater than 65 were collected, including the world's first statistically significant sample of actinides. Postflight work to date and the current status of the experiment are reviewed. Provisional results from analysis of preflight and postflight calibrations are presented.

  3. Duplication and analysis of meteoroid damage on LDEF and advanced spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, David C.; Rose, M. Frank

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of exposed surfaces on LDEF since its retrieval in 1990 has revealed a wide range of meteoroid and debris (M&D) impact features in the sub-micron to millimeter size range, ranging from quasi-infinite target cratering in LDEF metallic structural members (e.g. inter-costals, tray clamps, etc.) to non-marginal perforations in metallic experimental surfaces (e.g. thin foil detectors, etc.). Approximately 34,000 impact features are estimated to exist on the exposed surfaces of LDEF. The vast majority of impact craters in metal substrates exhibit circular footprints, with approximately 50 percent retaining impactor residues in varying states of shock processing. The fundamental goals of this project were to duplicate and analyze meteoroid impact damage on spacecraft metallic materials with a view to quantifying the residue retention and oblique impact morphology characteristics. Using the hypervelocity impact test facility established at Auburn University a series of impact tests (normal and oblique incidence) were executed producing consistently high (11-12 km/s) peak impact velocities, the results of which were subsequently analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS) facilities at Auburn University.

  4. LDEF yaw and pitch angle estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Gebauer, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Quantification of the LDEF yaw and pitch misorientations is crucial to the knowledge of atomic oxygen exposure of samples placed on LDEF. Video camera documentation of the LDEF spacecraft prior to grapple attachment, atomic oxygen shadows on experiment trays and longerons, and a pinhole atomic oxygen camera placed on LDEF provided sources of documentation of the yaw and pitch misorientation. Based on uncertainty-weighted averaging of data, the LDEF yaw offset was found to be 8.1 plus or minus 0.6 degrees, allowing higher atomic oxygen exposure of row 12 than initially anticipated. The LDEF pitch angle offset was found to be 0.8 plus or minus 0.4 degrees, such that the space end was tipped forward toward the direction of travel. The resulting consequences of the yaw and pitch misorientation of LDEF on the atomic oxygen fluence is a factor of 2.16 increase for samples located on row 12, and a factor of 1.18 increase for samples located on the space end compared to that which would be expected for perfect orientation.

  5. Radioactive 7Be materials flown on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Following the discovery of the atmospheric cosmogenic radionuclide Be-7 on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), we began a search for other known nuclides produced by similar mechanisms. None of the others have the narrow gamma-ray line emission of Be-7 decay which enable its rapid detection and quantification. A search for Be-10 atoms on LDEF clamp plates using accelerator mass spectrometry is described. An unexpected result was obtained.

  6. LDEF: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouger, H. Garland (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a free-flying cylindrical structure that housed self-contained experiments in trays mounted on the exterior of the structure. Launched into orbit from the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984, the LDEF spent almost six years in space before being recovered in 1990. The 57 experiments investigated the effects of the low earth orbit environment on materials, coatings, electronics, thermal systems, seeds, and optics. It also carried experiments that measured crystals growth, cosmic radiation, and micrometeoroids. This bibliography contains 435 selected records from the NASA aerospace database covering the years 1973 through June of 1992. The citations are arranged within subject categories by author and date of publication.

  7. LDEF: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouger, H. Garland

    1992-11-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a free-flying cylindrical structure that housed self-contained experiments in trays mounted on the exterior of the structure. Launched into orbit from the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984, the LDEF spent almost six years in space before being recovered in 1990. The 57 experiments investigated the effects of the low earth orbit environment on materials, coatings, electronics, thermal systems, seeds, and optics. It also carried experiments that measured crystals growth, cosmic radiation, and micrometeoroids. This bibliography contains 435 selected records from the NASA aerospace database covering the years 1973 through June of 1992. The citations are arranged within subject categories by author and date of publication.

  8. Proceedings of the LDEF Materials Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Bland A. (Compiler); Young, Philip R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The 5-year, 10-month flight of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) greatly enhanced the potential value of most LDEF materials, compared to the original 1-year flight plan. NASA recognized this potential by forming the LDEF Space Environmental Effects on Materials Special Investigation Group in early 1989 to address the expanded opportunities available in the LDEF structure and on experimental trays, so that the value of all LDEF materials to current and future space missions would be assessed and documented. The LDEF Materials Data Analysis Workshop served as one step toward the realization of that responsibility and ran concurrently with activities surrounding the successful return of the spacecraft to the NASA Kennedy Space Center. A compilation of visual aids utilized by speakers at the workshop is presented. Session 1 summarized current information on analysis responsibilities and plans and was aimed at updating the workshop attendees: the LDEF Advisory Committee, Principle Investigators, Special Investigation Group Members, and others involved in LDEF analyses or management. Sessions 2 and 3 addressed materials data analysis methodology, specimen preparation, shipment and archival, and initial plans for the LDEF Materials Data Base. A complementary objective of the workshop was to stimulate interest and awareness of opportunities to vastly expand the overall data base by considering the entire spacecraft as a materials experiment.

  9. LDEF Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This video explores the research being done on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), a satellite carrying 57 experiments designed to study the effects of the space environment, which had been in orbit for almost 6 years, and was retrieved and brought back to Earth by the Space Shuttle astronauts. The video shows scenes of the retrieval of LDEF, as well as scenes of ongoing research into the data returned with the satellite from experiments on external coating, contamination of optical materials by thermal control paint, the effects of cosmic rays on different materials, and the effect of the space environment on 12 million tomato seeds that have since been planted.

  10. The LDEF ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smit, A.; Domingo, C.

    1992-01-01

    The LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) used 16 side viewing LDEF trays giving a total geometry factor for high energy cosmic rays of 30 sq m sr. The total exposure factor was 170 sq m sr y. The experiment is based on a modular array of 192 solid state nuclear track detector stacks, mounted in sets of four in 48 pressure vessels. The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced potential scientific yield from the UHCRE. Initial scanning results indicate that at least 1800 cosmic ray nuclei with Z greater than 65 were collected, including the world's first statistically significant sample of actinides. Post flight work to date and the current status of the experiment are reviewed.

  11. LDEF materials: An overview of the interim findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Bland A.

    1992-01-01

    The flight and retrieval of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provided an opportunity for the study of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment and long-duration space environmental effect (SEE) on materials that are unparalleled in the history of the U.S. space program. The 5.8-year flight of LDEF greatly enhanced the potential value of materials data from LDEF to the international SEE community, compared to that of the original 1-year flight plan. The remarkable flight attitude stability of LDEF enables specific analyses of various individual and combined effects of LEO environmental parameters on identical materials of the same space vehicle. NASA recognized the potential by forming the LDEF Space Environmental Effects on Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) to address the greatly expanded materials and LEO space environment parameter analysis opportunities available in the LDEF structure, experiment trays, and corollary measurements, so that the combined value of all LDEF materials data to current and future space missions will be assessed and documented. This paper provides an overview of the interim LDEF materials findings of the Principal Investigators and the Materials Special Investigation Group. These revelations are based on observations of LEO environmental effects on materials made in-space during LDEF retrieval and during LDEF tray deintegration at the Kennedy Space Center, and on findings of approximately 1.5 years of laboratory analyses of LDEF materials by the LDEF materials scientists. These findings were extensively reviewed and discussed at the MSIG-sponsored LDEF Materials Workshop '91. The results are presented in a format which categorizes the revelations as 'clear findings' or 'confusing/unexplained findings' and resultant needs for new space materials developments and ground simulation testing/analytical modeling in seven categories: environmental parameters and data bases; LDEF

  12. Analysis of materials from MSFC LDEF experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1991-01-01

    In preparation for the arrival of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) samples, a material testing and handling approach was developed for the evaluation of the materials. A configured lab was made ready for the de-integration of the LDEF experiments. The lab was prepared to clean room specifications and arranged with the appropriate clean benches, tables, lab benches, clean room tools, particulate counter, and calibrated and characterized analytical instrumentation. Clean room procedures were followed. Clean room attire and shoe cleaning equipment were selected and installed for those entering. Upon arrival of the shipping crates they were taken to the lab, logged in, and opened for examination. The sample trays were then opened for inspection and test measurements. The control sample measurements were made prior to placement into handling and transport containers for the flight sample measurements and analysis. Both LDEF flight samples and LDEF type materials were analyzed and tested for future flight candidate material evaluation. Both existing and newly purchased equipment was used for the testing and evaluation. Existing Space Simulation Systems had to be upgraded to incorporate revised test objectives and approaches. Fixtures such as special configured sample holders, water, power and LN2 feed-throughs, temperature measurement and control, front surface mirrors for reflectance and deposition, and UV grade windows had to be designed, fabricated, and installed into systems to achieve the revised requirements. New equipment purchased for LDEF analysis was incorporated into and/or used with existing components and systems. A partial list of this equipment includes a portable monochromator, enhanced UV System, portable helium leak detector for porosity and leak measurements, new turbo pumping system, vacuum coaster assembly, cryopumps, and analytical and data acquisition equipment. A list of materials tested, equipment designed, fabricated and installed

  13. Cosmogenic radionuclides on LDEF: An unexpected Be-10 result

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Albrecht, A.; Herzog, G.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Dezfouly-Arjomandy, B.; Harmon, B. A.

    1993-01-01

    Following the discovery of the atmospheric derived cosmogenic radionuclide Be-7 on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), a search began for other known nuclides produced by similar mechanisms. None of the others have the narrow gamma-ray line emission of Be-7 decay which enabled its rapid detection and quantification. A search for Be-10 atoms on LDEF clamp plates using accelerator mass spectrometry is described. An unexpected result was obtained.

  14. LDEF microenvironments, observed and predicted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Complex protrusions and surface indentations on spacecraft equipment alter exposure environments by casting shadows, producing reflections and scattering incident atomic oxygen flux and UV radiation. A computer model is being developed to predict these effects. The model accounts for any arbitrary shape, size, orientation, or curvature of exposed objects. LDEF offers a unique opportunity to compare model prediction with observations. For this purpose, a study is underway on twelve of LDEF's copper grounding straps. These straps were exposed at various angles from the ram vector during the LDEF flight. Microenvironment variables include shadowing and reflections from clamps and fasteners, and varying exposure caused by bending of the straps. Strap measurements include optical properties, surface film composition by ESCA, and film thickness measurements by optical interference techniques. The features of the microenvironment model and the analytical methods used to examine the straps are discussed. Data are presented showing predicted microenvironmental variations. These variations are compared with observed point to point differences in surface properties of the straps.

  15. LDEF mechanical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, Steve; Dursch, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Following the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), the Systems Special Investigation Group (SIG) was involved in a considerable amount of testing of mechanical hardware flown on the LDEF. The primary objectives were to determine the effects of the long term exposure on: (1) mechanisms employed both on the LDEF or as part of individual experiments; (2) structural components; and (3) fasteners. Results of testing the following LDEF hardware are presented: LDEF structure, fasteners, trunnions, end support beam, environment exposure control cannisters, motors, and lubricants. A limited discussion of PI test results is included. The lessons learned are discussed along with the future activities of the System SIG.

  16. Oxygen isotopes implanted in the LDEF spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxton, J. M.; Lyon, I. C.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vanlierde, P.; Gilmour, J. D.; Turner, G.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to study oxygen implanted in the surface of copper from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Oxidation that occurred in orbit shows a characteristic oxygen isotope composition, depleted in O-18. The measured depletion is comparable to the predicted depletion (45 percent) based on a model of the gravitational separation of the oxygen isotopes. The anomalous oxygen was contained within 10nm of the surface. Tray E10 was calculated to have received 5.14 x 10(exp 21) atoms of oxygen cm(sup -2) during the LDEF mission and so there is sufficient anomalous implanted oxygen present in the surface to obtain a reliable isotopic profile.

  17. Characterization of polymer films retrieved from LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letton, Alan; Rock, Neil I.; Williams, Kevin D.; Strganac, Thomas W.; Farrow, Allan

    1992-01-01

    One of the trays aboard LDEF was an experiment having the objective of assessing the effects of long term exposure of candidate balloon films, tapes, and lines to the hostile environment of space. The fortuitous location of these materials on LDEF minimized direct impact by atomic oxygen thus providing an opportunity to study the effects of low earth orbit environments on polymeric materials without the worry of atomic oxygen abrasion. The resulting chemical, morphological, and thermomechanical changes for polyethylene specimens are reviewed. In addition, preliminary data for fluorinated ethylene/propylene copolymers used for thermal blankets is presented. Polyethylene is observed to crosslink and branch from exposure to atomic oxygen and/or ultraviolet with a decrease in crystallinity.

  18. Heavy ion measurement on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Enge, W.

    1991-01-01

    The Kiel Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment M0002, mounted on experiment tray E6, was designed to measure the heavy ion environment by means of CR-39 plastic solid state track detectors. The detector stack with a size of 40x34x4.5 cu cm was exposed in vacuum covered by thermal protection foils with a total thickness of approx. 14 mg/sq cm. After etching small samples of the detector foils tracks with Z greater than or = 6 could be easily detected on a background of small etch pits, which were probably produced by secondaries from proton interactions. The LDEF orientation with respect to the magnetic field lines within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is expected to be constant during the mission. Therefore, the azimuth angle distribution was measured on the detector foils for low energy stopping particles. All detected arrival directions are close to a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field line of -20 deg declination and -40 deg inclination at location 34 deg W and 27 deg S. Together with the steep energy spectrum, this spatial distribution close to the mirror plane in the SAA is an evidence that heavy ions were detected from a radiation belt population.

  19. LDEF (Flight), S1002 : Investigation of Critical Surface Degradation Effects on Coating and Solar Ce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), S1002 : Investigation of Critical Surface Degradation Effects on Coating and Solar Cells Developed in Germany, Tray E03 The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The capture cells of experiment A0187-02 are in the left two thirdsThe Experiment Exposure Control Canister containing experiment S1002 is the item located in the right one third section of the tray. The EECC is closed with the S1002 experiments inside. The EECC hardware is intact and appears to be in very good shape. The material on the corners of the thermal cover, near the center of the tray, is layers of tape used to blunt corners of the cover that could possibly snag an astronaut's suit if brushed during an EVA. The tape layers seem to have separated but are still attached and remain in place. The brown stain coats the exposed tray sidewall, the base plate in the tray bottom, the lead screw and the thermal covers. Two (2) Impact craters are located near the center of the base plate, another is located between the two (2) lower screws on the support rail at the right bottom edge of the tray. An impact crater appears as a white dot on the darker background. Additional craters are visible on the EECC aluminum thermal covers, the tray flanges and the LDEF structure.

  20. LDEF (Postflight), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, Tray D12 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF-II facility prior to removal of experiment trays from the LDEF. The Polymer Matrix Composite Materials experiment appears the same as in the flight photograph. The composite containing the aramid (Kevlar) fibers has changed from a yellow to a light brown color and the cylinderical tubes containing the boron and carbon fiber materials have changed from a light green tint to a brown color. The experiment mounting hardware and fasteners seem to be intact and in very good condition.

  1. Post clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K. (Inventor); Meyn, Erwin H. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A pair of spaced collars are mounted at right angles on a clamp body by retaining rings which enable the collars to rotate with respect to the clamp body. Mounting posts extend through aligned holes in the collars and clamp body. Each collar can be clamped onto the inserted post while the clamp body remains free to rotate about the post and collar. The clamp body is selectively clamped onto each post.

  2. A final look at LDEF electro-optic systems components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1995-01-01

    Postrecovery characteristics of LDEF electro-optic components from the GTRI tray are compared with their prelaunch characteristics and with the characteristics of similar components from related experiments. Components considered here include lasers, light-emitting diodes, semiconducting radiation detectors and arrays, optical substrates, filters, and mirrors, and specialized coatings. Our understanding of the physical effects resulting from low earth orbit are described, and guidelines and recommendations for component and materials choices are presented.

  3. LDEF (Prelaunch), S1002 : Investigation of Critical Surface Degradation Effects on Coating and Solar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), S1002 : Investigation of Critical Surface Degradation Effects on Coating and Solar Cells Developed in Germany, Tray E03 The prelaunch photograph provides a view of the two (2) experiments located in a six (6) inch LDEF experiment tray. The A0187-02 is located in the right two thirds (2/3rd) of the tray and the EECC containing the S1002 experiment occupies the remaining section. The tan colored strips on the tray flanges are protective coatings that are removed prior to tray testing. S1002 - The Effects on Coatings and Solar Cells experiment is contained within the Experiment Exposure Control Canister (EECC) that is located in the left one third (1/3rd) of the experiment tray. The EECC hardware consists of the housing, the drawer that contains the experiment samples, the drawer opening and closing mechanism (a screw drive system) and chromic anodized aluminum thermal covers that are seen in the photograph. The hardware is fabricated from aluminum or non-magnetic steels and is assembled with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The canister will be opened in orbit after the LDEF has been deployed, the Orbiter has departed and initial outgassing of materials on the LDEF has occurred. The canister is programmed to close approximately nine (9) months after opening and prior to the scheduled LDEF retrieval. Experiment samples located in the EECC consist of Second Surface Mirrors (SSM), SSM with Interference Filters (SSM/IF), SSM/IF with a Conductive Layer (SSM/IF/LS, Optical Solar Reflectors (OSR), Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), Coatings and Solar Cell Modules of the types flown on the GEOS and OTS satellites.

  4. Cosmogenic radioisotopes on LDEF surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Albrecht, A.; Herzog, G.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radioisotope Be-7 was discovered in early 1990 on the front surface, and the front surface only, of the LDEF. A working hypothesis is that the isotope, which is known to be mainly produced in the stratosphere by spallation of nitrogen and oxygen nuclei with cosmic ray protons or secondary neutrons, diffuses upward and is absorbed onto metal surfaces of spacecraft. The upward transport must be rapid, that is, its characteristic time scale is similar to, or shorter than, the 53 day half-life of the isotope. It is probably by analogy with meteoritic metal atmospheric chemistry, that the form of the Be at a few 100 km altitude is as the positive ion Be(+) which is efficiently incorporated into the ionic lattice of oxides, such as Al2O3, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, etc., naturally occurring on surfaces of Al and stainless steel. Other radioisotopes of Be, Cl, and C are also produced in the atmosphere, and a search was begun to discover these. Of interest are Be-10 and C-14 for which the production cross sections are well known. The method of analysis is accelerator mass spectrometry. Samples from LDEF clamp plates are being chemically extracted, purified, and prepared for an accelerator run.

  5. LDEF (Postflight), AO187-02 : Chemical and Isotropic Measurements of Micrometeoroids by Secondary Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO187-02 : Chemical and Isotropic Measurements of Micrometeoroids by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Tray E08 This postflight photograph shows an experiment that has been severely degraded due to orbital exposure on the leading edge of the LDEF. The metallic coated thin Mylar film has been lost on each of the capture cells. As the thin Mylar film failed, the material curled tightly into small conical shapes and can be seen still attached to the aluminum mounting structure edges of many capture cells. Close examination of capture cells near the tray center clearly show the four individual high purity germanium plates with some of the bonding material exposed between plates. The green tint on the germanium plate at the right edge of the experiment tray is a reflection from the lights in the high bay area of SAEF II at KFC. Dim reflections from various sources can be seen on other sections of the experiment.

  6. LDEF environment modeling updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Tim; Rantanen, Ray; Whitaker, Ann F.

    1995-01-01

    An updated gas dynamics model for gas interactions around the LDEF is presented that includes improved scattering algorithms. The primary improvement is more accurate predictions of surface fluxes in the wake region. The code used is the Integrated Spacecraft Environments Model (ISEM). Additionally, initial results of a detailed ISEM prediction model of the Solar Array Passive LDEF Experiment (SAMPLE), A0171, is presented. This model includes details of the A0171 geometry and outgassing characteristics of the many surfaces on the experiment. The detailed model includes the multiple scattering that exists between the ambient atmosphere, LDEF outgassing, and atomic oxygen erosion products. Predictions are made for gas densities, surface fluxes and deposition at three different time periods of the LDEF mission.

  7. Mechanisms flown on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry; Spear, Steve

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of mechanisms were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). These include canisters, valves, gears, drive train assemblies, and motors. This report will provide the status of the Systems SIG effort into documenting, integrating, and developing 'lessons learned' for the variety of mechanisms flown on the LDEF. Results will include both testing data developed by the various experimenters and data acquired by testing of hardware at Boeing.

  8. LDEF post-retrieval evaluation of exobiology interests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Radicatldibrozolo, F.; Fitzgerald, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Cursory examination of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) shows the existence of thousands of impact craters of which less than 1/3 exceed 0.3 mm in diameter; the largest crater is 5.5 mm. Few craters show oblique impact morphology and, surprisingly, only a low number of craters have recognizable impact debris. Study of this debris could be of interest to exobiology in terms of C content and carbonaceous materials. All craters greater that 0.3 mm have been imaged and recorded into a data base by the preliminary examination team. Various portions of the LDEF surfaces are contaminated by outgassed materials from experimenters trays, in addition to the LDEF autocontamination and impact with orbital debris not of extraterrestrial origin. Because interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) nominally impacted the LDEF at velocities greater than 3 km/s, the potential for intact survival of carbonaceous compounds is mostly unknown for hypervelocity impacts. Calculations show that for solid phthalic acid (a test impactor), molecular dissociation would not necessarily occur below 3 km/s, if all of the impact energy was directed at breaking molecular bonds, which is not the case. Hypervelocity impact experiments (LDEF analogs) were performed using the Ames Vertical Gun Facility. Grains of phthalic acid and the Murchison meteorite (grain diameter = 0.2 for both) were fired into an Al plate at 2.1 and 4.1 km/s respectively. The results of the study are presented, and it is concluded that meaningful biogenic elemental and compound information can be obtained from IDP impacts on the LDEF.

  9. Rigid clamp

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.; Burt, J.D.

    1994-07-12

    The invention relates to a clamp mechanism that can be used to attach or temporarily support objects inside of tubular goods. The clamp mechanism can also be modified so that it grips objects. The clamp has a self-centering feature to accommodate out-of-roundness or other internal defections in tubular objects such as pipe. A plurality of clamping shoes are expanded by a linkage which is preferably powered by a motor to contact the inside of a pipe. The motion can be reversed and jaw elements can be connected to the linkage so as to bring the jaws together to grab an object. 12 figs.

  10. Rigid clamp

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.; Burt, Jack D.

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a clamp mechanism that can be used to attach or temporarily support objects inside of tubular goods. The clamp mechanism can also be modified so that it grips objects. The clamp has a self-centering feature to accommodate out-of-roundness or other internal defections in tubular objects such as pipe. A plurality of clamping shoes are expanded by a linkage which is preferably powered by a motor to contact the inside of a pipe. The motion can be reversed and jaw elements can be connected to the linkage so as to bring the jaws together to grab an object.

  11. Development and application of a 3-D geometry/mass model for LDEF satellite ionizing radiation assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colborn, B. L.; Armstong, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional geometry and mass model of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft and experiment trays was developed for use in predictions and data interpretation related to ionizing radiation measurements. The modeling approach, level of detail incorporated, example models for specific experiments and radiation dosimeters, and example applications of the model are described.

  12. Selected results for metals from LDEF experiment A0171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.

    1992-01-01

    Metal specimens in disk type and ribbon configurations of interest to various programs at the Marshall Space Flight Center were exposed to the LEO environment for 5.8 years on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0171. Most of the metals flown were well heat sunk in the LDEF experiment tray which experienced benign temperatures, but a few metals were thermally isolated allowing them to experience greater thermal extremes. All metal specimens whose preflight weights were known showed a weight change as a result of exposure. Optical property and mass changes are attributed principally to atomic oxygen exposures. Silver and copper were grossly affected whereas tantalum, molybdenum, and several preoxidized alloys were the least affected. Metals contained in this experiment are shown. Results including mass, surface morphology, and optical property changes from selected evaluations of these metals are presented.

  13. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers work performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) under contract NAS8-39386 from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center entitled LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses. The basic objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of present models and computational methods for defining the ionizing radiation environment for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by making comparisons with radiation measurements made on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The emphasis of the work here is on predictions and comparisons with LDEF measurements of induced radioactivity and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) measurements. These model/data comparisons have been used to evaluate the accuracy of current models for predicting the flux and directionality of trapped protons for LEO missions.

  14. LDEF satellite radiation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1994-01-01

    Some early results are summarized from a program under way to utilize LDEF satellite data for evaluating and improving current models of the space radiation environment in low earth orbit. Reported here are predictions and comparisons with some of the LDEF dose and induced radioactivity data, which are used to check the accuracy of current models describing the magnitude and directionality of the trapped proton environment. Preliminary findings are that the environment models underestimate both dose and activation from trapped protons by a factor of about two, and the observed anisotropy is higher than predicted.

  15. Protein crystal growth tray assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Miller, Teresa Y. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A protein crystal growth tray assembly includes a tray that has a plurality of individual crystal growth chambers. Each chamber has a movable pedestal which carries a protein crystal growth compartment at an upper end. The several pedestals for each tray assembly are ganged together for concurrent movement so that the solutions in the various pedestal growth compartments can be separated from the solutions in the tray's growth chambers until the experiment is to be activated.

  16. Status of LDEF radiation modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, John W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    The current status of model prediction and comparison with LDEF radiation dosimetry measurements is summarized with emphasis on major results obtained in evaluating the uncertainties of present radiation environment model. The consistency of results and conclusions obtained from model comparison with different sets of LDEF radiation data (dose, activation, fluence, LET spectra) is discussed. Examples where LDEF radiation data and modeling results can be utilized to provide improved radiation assessments for planned LEO missions (e.g., Space Station) are given.

  17. Modeling of LDEF contamination environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. Ralph, Jr.; Rantanen, Ray; Gordon, Tim

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite was unique in many ways. It was a large structure that was in space for an extended period of time and was stable in orientation relative to the velocity vector. There are obvious and well documented effects of contamination and space environment effects on the LDEF satellite. In order to examine the interaction of LDEF with its environment and the resulting effect on the satellite, the Integrated Spacecraft Environments Model (ISEM) was used to model the LDEF-induced neutral environment at several different times and altitudes during the mission.

  18. Comparison of Contamination Model Predictions to LDEF Surface Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Tim; Rantanen, Ray; Pippin, Gary; Finckenor, Miria

    1998-01-01

    Contaminant deposition measurements have been made on species content and depth profiles on three experiments trays from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Auger, Argon sputtering, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. The integrated spacecraft environment model (ISEM) was used to predict the deposition levels of the contaminants measured on the three trays. The details of the modeling and assumptions used are presented along with the predictions for the deposition on select surfaces on the trays. These are compared to the measured results. The trays represent surfaces that have a high atomic oxygen flux, and intermediate oxygen flux, and no oxygen flux. All surfaces received significant solar Ultraviolet flux. It appears that the atomic oxygen was the primary agent that caused significant deposition to occur. Surfaces that saw significant contaminant flux solar UV and no atomic oxygen did not show any appreciable levels of observable deposition. The implications of the atom ic oxygen interaction with contaminant deposits containing silicon contaminant sources is discussed. The primary contaminant sources are DC61104 adhesive and Z306 paint. The results and interpretation of the findings have a potential significant impact on spacecraft surfaces that are exposed to solar UV and atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit.

  19. Aerospace Food Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Maureen A.; Fohey, Michael F.

    1990-01-01

    Lightweight tray designed for use in microgravity. Provides restraint and thermal insulation for modular packages of food. Magnetic utensils restrained by attraction to ferrous plate mounted underneath. Restraints for pouch and spring clips also provided. Surfaces made smooth to facilitate cleaning, and number of cracks, crevices, and pits where food residues collect kept to minimum. Useful for serving meals in airplanes, boats, hospitals, and facilities that care for children.

  20. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) photographic survey special publication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Robert L.; Levine, Arlene S.; Kiser, Carol C.

    1995-01-01

    During the construction, integration, launch, retrieval and deintegration of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), photographic surveys were made. Approximately 10,000 photographs were taken during the various phases of the LDEF project. These surveys are of technical and scientific importance because they revealed the pre and post flight conditions of the experiment trays as well as the spacecraft. Visual inspection of the photographs reveal valuable data such as space environment's effects and the earth atmosphere's effects post-retrieval. Careful files and records have been kept of these photographs. Each photograph has a Kennedy Space Center photo number or a Johnson Spaceflight Center photo number as well as a Langley Research Center photo number. The tray number, row number, and experiment number are also noted. Out of the 10,000 photographs taken, approximately 700 selected photographs were chosen for publication in a NASA Special Publication (SP) because they reveal the effects of space exposure to the viewer. These photographs will give researchers and spacecraft designers visual images of the effects of the space environment on specific materials, systems and spacecraft in general. One can visually see the degradation of thermal blankets, meteoroid craters, outgassing discoloration, atomic oxygen erosion, etc.

  1. Charlie's Clamp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarino, Janet Z.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a version of the crush-the-can demonstration which is a hands-on activity in which students use an inexpensive, easily made holder for the can called Charlie's clamp. Includes some suggestions for the follow-up discussion. (DDR)

  2. LDEF materials data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the accompanying experiments were composed of and contained a wide variety of materials representing the largest collection of materials flown in low Earth orbit (LEO) and retrieved for ground based analysis to date. The results and implications of the mechanical, thermal, optical, and electrical data from these materials are the foundation on which future LEO space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been charged with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the spacecraft user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. This paper discusses the format and content of the three data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task. The hardware and software requirements for each of these three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases. This paper also serves as a user's guide to the MAPTIS LDEF Materials Data Base.

  3. Oxygen isotopes implanted in the LDEF spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxton, J. M.; Lyon, I. C.; Chatzitheodoredis, E.; Gilmour, J. D.; Turner, G.

    1992-01-01

    Depth profiles of O-16 and O-18/O-16 were measured on stainless steel nuts and copper sheet (from a grounding strap) recovered from the leading edge of LDEF (Tray E10). The measurements were obtained by dynamic SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) using a VG Isolab 54 ion microprobe. Plots of O-18/O-16 against time, show large depletions of up to a factor of 2 compared to the O-18/O-16 value at sea level. The O-16 current decreases by 2 orders of magnitude in the interior of the metal, and the corresponding profile of anomalous O-16 is strongly peaked in the outer few tens of nanometers of the surface. This depth scale is a tentative one based on estimated sputtering rates. Plots of O-18/O-16 against 1/O-16 should be linear if two isotopically distinct components, one of variable concentration (orbital component) and one of fixed concentration (normal oxygen), are mixed. Data to be presented at the meeting show departures from linearity which result from variability in the concentration of normal oxygen, but may also arise from the implantation of oxygen with a range of fractionation due to the decaying orbit of the LDEF, sputtering of the surface by atomic oxygen, and the different momenta of the two isotopes due to their equal velocities. The potential for using this method as a means of identifying exposure to low-Earth orbit, de-convoluting the effects of space exposure from terrestrial contamination, and using the implanted anomolous oxygen as a means of studying the atomic oxygen density and upper atmosphere temperature height profile will be discussed at the meeting.

  4. LDEF Space Plasma-High Voltage Drainage Experiment post-flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaung, J. Y.; Blakkolb, B. K.; Wong, W. C.; Ryan, L. E.; Schurig, H. J.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Plasma-High Voltage Drainage Experiment (SP-HVDE) was comprised of two identical experimental trays. With one tray located on the leading (ram facing, B10) edge and the other located on the trailing (wake facing, D4) edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), it was possible to directly compare the effects of ram and wake spacecraft environments on charged dielectric materials. Six arrays of Kapton dielectric samples of 2 mil, 3 mil, and 5 mil thicknesses maintained at +/- 300, +/- 500, and +/- 1000 voltage bias formed the experimental matrix of each tray. In addition, each tray carried two solar cell strings, one biased at +300 volts and the other at -300 volts, to study current leakage from High Voltage Solar Arrays (HVSA). The SP-HVDE provides the first direct, long-term, in-flight measurements of average leakage current through dielectric materials under electric stress. The experiment also yields information on the long term stability of the bulk dielectric properties of such materials. Data and findings of the SP-HVDE are an extension of those from shorter term flight experiments such as the PIX-1 (Plasma Interaction Experiment) and PIX-2 and are therefore valuable in the design and evaluation of long-lived space systems with high voltage systems exposed to the low earth orbital environment. A summary of the SP-HVDE post flight analysis final report delivered to the LDEF Project Office under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is presented.

  5. LDEF (Postflight), S1002 : Investigation of Critical Surface Degradation Effects on Coating and Sola

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), S1002 : Investigation of Critical Surface Degradation Effects on Coating and Solar Cells Developed in Germany, Tray E03 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The capture cells of experiment A0187-02 are in the left two thirdsThe Experiment Exposure Control Canister containing experiment S1002 is the item located in the right one third section of the tray. Details of the EECC containing the experiment cannot be defined due to the glare of the lights on the aluminum surfaces. The brown stain is clearly visible on the left end of the bottom tray flange. Note the spring collar near the lower end of the lead screw. The collar, pushed along the lead screw as the door opens, is an indication that the EECC did open and close while in orbit. The green tint on the two (2) debris panels is a by-product of the chromic anodize coating process and not attributed to contamination and/or exposure to the space environment. A light colored irregular shaped vertical streak is seen on the right debris panel. The light band across the top and bottom edges of the panels is caused by light reflecting from the tray sidewalls.

  6. Automatic agar tray inoculation device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic agar tray inoculation device is simple in design and foolproof in operation. It employs either conventional inoculating loop or cotton swab for uniform inoculation of agar media, and it allows technician to carry on with other activities while tray is being inoculated.

  7. Way to predict tray temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, V.L.

    1984-08-01

    An analysis of distillation columns often requires data for individual tray temperatures, either specific ones or the entire profile. A common approach to obtain this temperature information is through use of a rigorous tray-by-tray distillation simulation, usually with a main-frame computer system. Unfortunately, this rigorous approach is either impractical or just too much trouble in many cases. For example, an on-line optimizing control scheme rarely has enough space (computer memory) or real time for a rigorous calculation of distillation column tray temperatures. A shorter method is presented in this article that predicts the tray temperatures of simple distillation columns. Following the theoretical discussion of the method, some examples of its use are presented.

  8. Data bases for LDEF results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) carried 57 experiments and 10,000 specimens for some 200 LDEF experiment investigators. The external surface of LDEF had a large variety of materials exposed to the space environment which were tested preflight, during flight, and post flight. Thermal blankets, optical materials, thermal control paints, aluminum, and composites are among the materials flown. The investigations have produced an abundance of analysis results. One of the responsibilities of the Boeing Support Contract, Materials and Systems Special Investigation Group, is to collate and compile that information into an organized fashion. The databases developed at Boeing to accomplish this task is described.

  9. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Model calculations and analyses have been carried out to compare with several sets of data (dose, induced radioactivity in various experiment samples and spacecraft components, fission foil measurements, and LET spectra) from passive radiation dosimetry on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The calculations and data comparisons are used to estimate the accuracy of current models and methods for predicting the ionizing radiation environment in low earth orbit. The emphasis is on checking the accuracy of trapped proton flux and anisotropy models.

  10. Space Station WP-2 application of LDEF MLI results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles A.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Jones, Cherie A.

    1993-01-01

    The Cascaded Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment, which was developed by Michael Grote of McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Company, was located in Tray F-9 of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), where it received atomic oxygen almost normal to its surface. The majority of the tray was covered by aluminized Kapton polyimide multilayer insulation (MLI), which showed substantial changes from atomic oxygen erosion. Most of the outermost Kapton layer of the MLI and the polyester scrim cloth under it were lost, and there was evidence of contaminant deposition which discolored the edges of the MLI blanket. Micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MM/OD) hits caused small rips in the MLI layers, and in some cases left cloudy areas where the vapor plume caused by a hit condensed on the next layer. The MLI was bent gradually through 90 deg at the edges to enclose the experiment, and the Kapton that survived along the curved portion showed the effects of atomic oxygen erosion at oblique angles. In spite of space environment effects over the period of the LDEF mission, the MLI blanket remained functional. The results of the analysis of LDEF MLI were used in developing the standard MLI blanket for Space Station Work Package-2 (WP-2). This blanket is expected to last 30 years when exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment constituents of atomic oxygen and MM/OD, which are the most damaging to MLI materials. The WP-2 standard blanket consists of an outer cover made from Beta-cloth glass fiber fabric which is aluminized on the interior surface, and an inner cover of 0.076-mm (0.003-in) double-side-aluminized perforated Kapton. The inner reflector layers are 0.0076-mm (0.0003-in) double-side aluminized, perforated Kapton separated by layers of Dacron polyester fabric. The outer cover was selected to be resistant to the LEO environment and durable enough to survive in orbit for 30 years. This paper describes the analyses of the LDEF MLI results, and how these

  11. LDEF (Postflight), S0050 : Investigation of the Effects of Long-Duration Exposure on Active Optical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), S0050 : Investigation of the Effects of Long-Duration Exposure on Active Optical System Components, Tray E05 The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF and the sun screens removed. The Active Optical System Component Experiment (S0050) contained 136 test specimen located in a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray. The complement of specimen included optical and electro-optical components, glasses and samples of various surface finishes. The experiment tray was divided into six sections, each consisting of a 1/4 inch thick chromic anodized aluminum base plate and a 1/16th inch thick aluminum hat shaped structure for mounting the test specimen. The test specimen were typically placed in fiberglass-epoxy retainer strip assemblies prior to installation on the hat shaped mounting structure. Five of the six sections were covered by a 1/8 inch thick anodized aluminum sun screen with openings that allowed 56 percent transmission over the central region. Two sub-experiments, The Optical Materials and UV Detectors Experiment (S0050-01) consist of 15 optical windows, filters and detectors and occupies one of the trays six sub-sections and The Optical Substrates and Coatings Experiment (S0050-02 ) that includes 12 substrates and coatings and two secondary experiments,The Holographic Data Storage Experiment (AO044) consisting of four crystals of lithium niobate and ThePyroelectric Infrared Detectors Experiment (AO135) with twenty detectors, are also mounted in the integrated tray. The experiment structure was assembled with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The experiment hardware appears to be intact with no apparent damage. A brown discoloration is clearly visible on the tray flanges. The location of experiment test specimen and their mountings are shown in this photograph. The fiberglass-epoxy mounting strip colors vary from the typical greenish-gray to a slate gray in

  12. Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

  13. Some results of the oxidation investigation of copper and silver samples flown on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derooij, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Mission provides a unique opportunity to study the long term effects of the space environment on materials. The LDEF has been deployed in orbit on 7 April 1984 by the shuttle Challenger in an almost circular orbit with a mean altitude of 477 km and an inclination of 28.5 degrees. It was retrieved from its decayed orbit of 335 km by the shuttle Columbia on 12 January 1990 after almost 6 years in space. The LDEF is a 12-sided, 4.267 m diameter, and 9.144 m long structure. The experiments, placed on trays, are attached to the twelve sides and the two ends of the spacecraft. The LDEF was passively stabilized with one end of the spacecraft always pointing towards the earth center and one of the sides (row 9) always facing the flight direction. The materials investigated originate from the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE). The main objective is a detailed study of the charge spectra of ultraheavy cosmic-ray nuclei from zinc to uranium and beyond, using solid-state track detectors. Besides the aluminium alloy used for the experiment, UHCRE comprises several other materials. The results of space exposure for two of them, the copper grounding strips and the thermal covers (FEP Teflon/Ag/Inconel) painted black on the inner side (Chemglaze Z306), are presented.

  14. Development and application of a 3-D geometry/mass model for LDEF satellite ionizing radiation assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colborn, B. L.; Armstrong, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    A computer model of the three dimensional geometry and material distributions for the LDEF spacecraft, experiment trays, and, for selected trays, the components of experiments within a tray was developed for use in ionizing radiation assessments. The model is being applied to provide 3-D shielding distributions around radiation dosimeters to aid in data interpretation, particularly in assessing the directional properties of the radiation exposure. Also, the model has been interfaced with radiation transport codes for 3-D dosimetry response predictions and for calculations related to determining the accuracy of trapped proton and cosmic ray environment models. The methodology is described used in developing the 3-D LDEF model and the level of detail incorporated. Currently, the trays modeled in detail are F2, F8, and H12 and H3. Applications of the model which are discussed include the 3-D shielding distributions around various dosimeters, the influence of shielding on dosimetry responses, and comparisons of dose predictions based on the present 3-D model vs those from 1-D geometry model approximations used in initial estimates.

  15. Clamp usable as jig and lifting clamp

    DOEpatents

    Tsuyama, Yoshizo

    1976-01-01

    There is provided a clamp which is well suited for use as a lifting clamp for lifting and moving materials of assembly in a shipyard, etc. and as a pulling jig in welding and other operations. The clamp comprises a clamp body including a shackle for engagement with a pulling device and a slot for receiving an article, and a pair of jaws provided on the leg portions of the clamp body on the opposite sides of the slot to grip the article in the slot, one of said jaws consisting of a screw rod and the other jaw consisting of a swivel jaw with a spherical surface, whereby when the article clamped in the slot by the pair of jaws tends to slide in any direction with respect to the clamp body, the article is more positively gripped by the pair of jaws.

  16. LDEF meteoroid and debris database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dardano, C. B.; See, Thomas H.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) database is maintained at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas, and consists of five data tables containing information about individual features, digitized images of selected features, and LDEF hardware (i.e., approximately 950 samples) archived at JSC. About 4000 penetrations (greater than 300 micron in diameter) and craters (greater than 500 micron in diameter) were identified and photodocumented during the disassembly of LDEF at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), while an additional 4500 or so have subsequently been characterized at JSC. The database also contains some data that have been submitted by various PI's, yet the amount of such data is extremely limited in its extent, and investigators are encouraged to submit any and all M&D-type data to JSC for inclusion within the M&D database. Digitized stereo-image pairs are available for approximately 4500 features through the database.

  17. Transmittance measurements of ultra violet and visible wavelength interference filters flown aboard LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Thomas A.; Smajkiewicz, Ali

    1991-01-01

    A set of ten interference filters for the UV and VIS spectral region were flown on the surface of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Tray B-8 along with earth radiation budget (ERB) components from the Eppley Laboratory. Transmittance changes and other degradation observed after the return of the filters to Barr are reported. Substrates, coatings, and (where applicable) cement materials are identified. In general, all filters except those containing lead compounds survived well. Metal dielectric filters for the UV developed large numbers of pinholes which caused an increase in transmittance. Band shapes and spectral positioning, however, did not change.

  18. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  19. Changes in oxidation state of chromium during LDEF exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1992-01-01

    The solar collector used for the McDonnell-Douglas Cascade Variable Heat Pipe, Experiment A0076 (Michael Grote - Principal Investigator) was finished with black chromium plating as a thermal control coating. The coating is metallic for low emittance, and is finely microcrystalline to a dimension which yields its high absorptivity. An underplate of nickel was applied to the aluminum absorber plate in order to achieve optimal absorptance characteristics from the black chromium plate surface. Experiment A0076 was located at tray position F9, receiving a projected 8.7 x 10 exp 21 atomic oxygen atoms/sq cm and 11,200 ESH solar radiation. During retrieval, it was observed that the aluminized kapton thermal blankets covering most of the tray were severely eroded by atomic oxygen, and that a 'flap' of aluminum foil was overlaying a roughly triangular shaped portion of the absorber panel. The aluminum foil 'flap' was lost sometime between the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) retrieval and deintegration. At deintegration, the black chromium was observed to have discolored where it had been covered by the foil 'flap'. A summary of the investigation into the cause of the discoloration is presented.

  20. Flexible Interior-Impression-Molding Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1991-01-01

    Device used inside combustion chamber of complicated shape for nondestructive evaluation of qualities of welds, including such features as offset, warping, misalignment of parts, and dropthrough. Includes flexible polypropylene tray trimmed to fit desired interior surface contour. Two neodymium boron magnets and inflatable bladder attached to tray. Tray and putty inserted in cavity to make mold of interior surface.

  1. Heavy ion measurement on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Enge, W.

    1992-01-01

    A stack of CR-39 and Kodak CN track detectors was exposed on the NASA satellite LDEF and recovered after almost six years in space. The quick look analysis yielded heavy ion tracks on a background of low energy secondaries from proton interaction. The detected heavy ions show a steep energy spectrum which indicates a radiation belt origin.

  2. Surface Analysis of LDEF Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The abstract to the M.S. thesis included as appendix to this report contains the details of the research performed under this grant. Presentations and publications resulting from the research are listed as the main content of the report itself. The thesis describes the surface characterization procedures and analysis of materials flown in the NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  3. LDEF Materials Results for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F. (Compiler); Gregory, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings describe the application of LDEF data to spacecraft and payload design, and emphasize where space environmental effects on materials research and development is needed as defined by LDEF data. The LDEF six years of exposure of materials has proven to be by far the most comprehensive source of information ever obtained on the long-term performance of materials in the space environment. The conference provided a forum for materials scientists and engineers to review and critically assess the LDEF results from the standpoint of their relevance, significance, and impact on spacecraft design practice. The impact of the LDEF findings on materials selection and qualification, and the needs and plans for further study, were addressed from several perspectives. Many timely and needed changes and modifications in external spacecraft materials selection have occurred as a result of LDEF investigations.

  4. Efficiencies of trays in cryogenic distillation columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddulph, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    This Paper considers the behaviour of the distillation trays in conventional use in cryogenic air separation plants. An earlier study showed that the trays should operate at higher efficiencies than plant experience would indicate. This conclusion was based on the assumption of uniform liquid flow across the trays. In practice, stagnant zones can occur which reduce the efficiency. A study of a small hole-size tray, rectangular in shape, providing uniform flow has confirmed the predictions of the theoretical model by producing high efficiencies. These results, together with those from the earlier study, provide an indication of the benefits of improving the flow behaviour of air separation distillation trays.

  5. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brenda K.

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System is designed to provide spacecraft designers and space environment researchers single point access to all available resources from LDEF. These include data, micrographs, photographs, technical reports, papers, hardware and test specimens, as well as technical expertise. Further, the LDEF Archive System is planned such that it could be the foundation for a NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Archive System, with the addition of other spaceflight, laboratory and theoretical space environments and effects data and associated materials. This paper describes the current status and plans of the LDEF Archive System.

  6. Force-Measuring Clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A precision clamp that accurately measures force over a wide range of conditions is described. Using a full bridge or other strain gage configuration. the elastic deformation of the clamp is measured or detected by the strain gages. Thc strain gages transmit a signal that corresponds to the degree of stress upon the clamp. Thc strain gage signal is converted to a numeric display. Calibration is achieved by ero and span potentiometers which enable accurate measurements by the force-measuring clamp.

  7. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOEpatents

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Brown, Malcolm P.; Stancel, Robert

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  8. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert

    2013-03-19

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  9. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  10. An interim overview of LDEF materials findings

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    The flight and retrieval of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provided an opportunity for the study of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment and long-duration space environmental effects (SEE) on materials that is unparalleled in the history of the U.S. Space Program. The remarkable flight attitude stability of LDEF enables specific analyses of various individual and combined effects of LEO environmental parameters on identical materials on the same space vehicle. This paper provides an overview of the interim LDEF materials findings of the Principal Investigators and the Materials Special Investigation Group. In general, the LDEF data is remarkably consistent; LDEF will provide a benchmark for materials design data bases for satellites in low-Earth orbit. Some materials were identified to be encouragingly resistant to LEO SEE for 5.8 years; other space qualified materials displayed significant environmental degradation. Molecular contamination was widespread; LDEF offers an unprecedented opportunity to provide a unified perspective of unmanned LEO spacecraft contamination mechanisms. New material development requirements for long-term LEO missions have been identified and current ground simulation testing methods/data for new, durable materials concepts can be validated with LDEF results. LDEF findings are already being integrated into the design of Space Station Freedom.

  11. An interim overview of LDEF materials findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Brad A.

    1992-01-01

    The flight and retrieval of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provided an opportunity for the study of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment and long-duration space environmental effects (SEE) on materials that is unparalleled in the history of the U.S. Space Program. The remarkable flight attitude stability of LDEF enables specific analyses of various individual and combined effects of LEO environmental parameters on identical materials on the same space vehicle. This paper provides an overview of the interim LDEF materials findings of the Principal Investigators and the Materials Special Investigation Group. In general, the LDEF data is remarkably consistent; LDEF will provide a 'benchmark' for materials design data bases for satellites in low-Earth orbit. Some materials were identified to be encouragingly resistant to LEO SEE for 5.8 years; other 'space qualified' materials displayed significant environmental degradation. Molecular contamination was widespread; LDEF offers an unprecedented opportunity to provide a unified perspective of unmanned LEO spacecraft contamination mechanisms. New material development requirements for long-term LEO missions have been identified and current ground simulation testing methods/data for new, durable materials concepts can be validated with LDEF results. LDEF findings are already being integrated into the design of Space Station Freedom.

  12. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties, Tray A01 The Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties experiment is located in two (2) three (3) inch deep peripheral trays, A01 and A07. The experiment hardware configuration in the A01 tray consists of a graph- ite-epoxy honeycomb sandwich panel in the lower one half (1/2) of the tray, a graphite-epoxy panel in the upper right one third (1/3rd) section and two (2) graphite-polyimide panels, one in the upper center and one in the upper left sections of the experiment tray. The panels are supported by a substructure and held in place with aluminum strips and non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The mounting system, designed to allow for differential thermal expansion, minimizes the risk of inducing high stresses into the test panels.

  13. LDEF meteoroid and debris database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardano, C. B.; See, Thomas H.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) database is maintained at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas, and consists of five data tables containing information about individual features, digitized images of selected features, and LDEF hardware (i.e., approximately 950 samples) archived at JSC. About 4000 penetrations (greater than 300 micron in diameter) and craters (greater than 500 micron in diameter) were identified and photo-documented during the disassembly of LDEF at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), while an additional 4500 or so have subsequently been characterized at JSC. The database also contains some data that have been submitted by various PI's, yet the amount of such data is extremely limited in its extent, and investigators are encouraged to submit any and all M&D-type data to JSC for inclusion within the M&D database. Digitized stereo-image pairs are available for approximately 4500 features through the database.

  14. Micrometeoroids and debris on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandeville, Jean-Claude

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments within the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) and devoted to the detection of cosmic dust were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). A variety of sensors and collecting devices have made possible the study of impact processes on dedicated sensors and on materials of technological interest. Examination of hypervelocity impact features on these experiments gives valuable information on the size distribution and nature of interplanetary dust particles in low-Earth orbit (LEO), within the 0.5-300 micrometer size range. However no crater smaller than 1.5 microns has been observed, thus suggesting a cut-off in the near Earth particle distribution. Chemical investigation of craters by EDX clearly shows evidence of elements (Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe) consistent with cosmic origin. However, remnants of orbital debris have been found in a few craters; this can be the result of particles in eccentric orbits about the Earth and of the 8 deg offset in the orientation of LDEF. Crater size distribution is compared with results from other dust experiments flown on LDEF and with current models. Possible origin and orbital evolution of micrometeoroids is discussed. Use of thin foil detectors for the chemical study of particle remnants looks promising for future experiments.

  15. The bond strength of elastomer tray adhesives to thermoplastic and acrylic resin tray materials.

    PubMed

    Hogans, W R; Agar, J R

    1992-04-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength of selected impression materials (Permlastic, Express, and Hydrosil) to a thermoplastic custom tray material as a function of drying time of the adhesive after application to a tray material. In addition, bond strengths of a polysulfide impression material to an acrylic resin tray material and to a thermoplastic tray material made directly against wax were evaluated. Bond strengths were obtained directly from values of applied load at failure and important conclusions were drawn. PMID:1507140

  16. A Search for Meteor Shower Signatures in the LDEF IDE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.; McNamara, Heather A.

    2005-01-01

    For 346 days after the deployment of the LDEF satellite on April 7, 1984, the tape recorder belonging to the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (DE) stored information on over 15,000 impacts made by submicron and larger-size particles on its metal oxide silicon (MOS) detectors. These detectors were mounted on trays facing in six orthogonal directions - LDEF ram and trailing edge, the poles of the LDEF orbit (north and south), and radially inward (towards the Earth) and outward (towards space). The 13.1 second time resolution provided by the IDE electronics, combined with the high sensitivity of the MOS detectors and large collecting area (approximately 1 sq.m) of the experiment, conclusively showed that the small particle environment at the LDEF altitude of 480 km was highly time-variable, with particle fluxes spanning over four orders of magnitude. A large number of the 15,000 impacts recorded by IDE occurred in groups, which were of two types - the spikes, single, isolated events of high intensity and the multiple orbit event sequences (MOES), which were series of events separated in time by integer multiples of the LDEF orbital period. Even though the spikes were generally more intense, the MOES could be quite long-lived, some lasting for many days. A previous paper by Cooke et al. attributed the MOES to impacts by man-made debris particles in orbits intersecting that of LDEF. The 20 day longevity of one of these events - termed the May Swarm - led to the suggestion that the debris particles must be con- stantly replenished by their source, as the orbits of micron sized particles will rapidly decay under the influence of radiation pressure and other non-gravitational forces, entering Earth's atmosphere after only a few revolutions. However, the date of onset of the May Swarm (May 22) and the long duration of this event may indicate a possible correlation with the annual Arietid meteor shower, which peaks around June 8. As this seemed to hold the promise of a less

  17. Radial wedge flange clamp

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    A radial wedge flange clamp comprising a pair of flanges each comprising a plurality of peripheral flat wedge facets having flat wedge surfaces and opposed and mating flat surfaces attached to or otherwise engaged with two elements to be joined and including a series of generally U-shaped wedge clamps each having flat wedge interior surfaces and engaging one pair of said peripheral flat wedge facets. Each of said generally U-shaped wedge clamps has in its opposing extremities apertures for the tangential insertion of bolts to apply uniform radial force to said wedge clamps when assembled about said wedge segments.

  18. Sand Tray Group Counseling with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Kay; Ritter, Kelli B.; Willingham, Elizabeth U.

    2003-01-01

    Sand tray group counseling with adolescents is an activity-based intervention designed to help participants address specific intrapersonal concerns, learn important skills of socialization, and develop a caring community. The main focus of the group is building small worlds with miniature figures in individual trays of sand and having an…

  19. A photon phreak digs the LDEF happening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Alan R.; Hurley, Donna L.

    1993-01-01

    A year ago at the First Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium, detailed measurements on trunnion sections, as well as results from 'intentional' samples (Co, Ni, In, Ta, and V) and spacecraft parts were reported. For this year's Symposium, some of these findings are re-evaluated in combination with more recent results, to cast a longer perspective on the LDEF experience, and to sketch some promising avenues toward more effective participation in future missions. The LDEF analysis effort has been a superb training exercise, from which lessons learned need to be applied to future missions - right back to the early phases of mission planning.

  20. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) preliminary findings: LEO space effects on the space plasma-voltage drainage experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakkolb, Brian K.; Yaung, James Y.; Henderson, Kelly A.; Taylor, William W.; Ryan, Lorraine E.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Plasma-High Voltage Drainage Experiment (SP-HVDE) provided a unique opportunity to study long term space environmental effects on materials because it was comprised of two identical experimental trays; one tray located on the ram facing side (D-10), and the other on the wake facing side (B-4) of the LDEF. This configuration allows for the comparison of identical materials exposed to two distinctly different environments. The purpose of this work is to document an assessment of the effects of five and three quarters years of low Earth orbital space exposure on materials comprising the SP-HVDE (experiment no. A0054). The findings of the materials investigation reported focus on atomic oxygen effects, micrometeor and debris impact site documentation, thermal property measurements, and environmentally induced contamination.

  1. Summary of LDEF battery analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chris; Thaller, Larry; Bittner, Harlin; Deligiannis, Frank; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David; Bene, James

    1992-01-01

    Tests and analyses of NiCd, LiSO2, and LiCf batteries flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) includes results from NASA, Aerospace, and commercial labs. The LiSO2 cells illustrate six-year degradation of internal components acceptable for space applications, with up to 85 percent battery capacity remaining on discharge of some returned cells. LiCf batteries completed their mission, but lost any remaining capacity due to internal degradation. Returned NiCd batteries tested an GSFC showed slight case distortion due to pressure build up, but were functioning as designed.

  2. Trapped iron measured on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Barz, S.; Enge, W.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy ions far below the cutoff energy were detected on the 28.5 deg inclination orbit of LDEF in a plastic track detector experiment. The Fe-group particles show a constant energy spectrum at 50 less than or equal to E less than or equal to 200 MeV/nuc. The steep energy spectrum of Fe-particles at 20 less than or equal to E less than or equal to 50 MeV/nuc and the arrival directions of these ions is consistent with a trapped component incident in the South Atlantic Anomaly at values of L=1.4-1.6.

  3. Quick action clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calco, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A quick release toggle clamp that utilizes a spring that requires a deliberate positive action for disengagement is presented. The clamp has a sliding bolt that provides a latching mechanism. The bolt is moved by a handle that tends to remain in an engaged position while under tension.

  4. Reusable thermal cycling clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debnam, W. J., Jr.; Fripp, A. L.; Crouch, R. K. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A reusable metal clamp for retaining a fused quartz ampoule during temperature cycling in the range of 20 deg C to 1000 deg C is described. A compressible graphite foil having a high radial coefficient of thermal expansion is interposed between the fused quartz ampoule and metal clamp to maintain a snug fit between these components at all temperature levels in the cycle.

  5. LDEF systems special investigation group overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Jim; Dursch, Harry

    1995-01-01

    The Systems Special Investigation Group (Systems SIG), formed by the LDEF Project Office to perform post-flight analysis of LDEF systems hardware, was chartered to investigate the effects of the extended LDEF mission on both satellite and experiment systems and to coordinate and integrate all systems related analyses performed during post-flight investigations. The Systems SIG published a summary report in April, 1992 titled 'Analysis of Systems Hardware Flown on LDEF - Results of the Systems Special Investigation Group' that described findings through the end of 1991. The Systems SIG, unfunded in FY 92 and FY93, has been funded in FY 94 to update this report with all new systems related findings. This paper provides a brief summary of the highlights of earlier Systems SIG accomplishments and describes tasks the Systems SIG has been funded to accomplish in FY 94.

  6. LDEF experiment A0034: Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Reynolds, John M.; Burris, Charles L.

    1992-01-01

    The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, 'Atomic Oxygen Stimulated Outgassing', consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge, and for reference, to the relative 'wake' environment of the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of the outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

  7. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The systematics of induced radioactivity on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied in a wide range of materials using low level background facilities for detection of gamma rays. Approx. 400 samples of materials processed from structural parts of the spacecraft, as well as materials from onboard experiments, were analyzed at national facilities. These measurements show the variety of radioisotopes that are produced with half-lives greater than 2 wks, most of which are characteristic of proton induced reactions above 20 MeV. For the higher activity, long lived isotopes, it was possible to map the depth and directional dependences of the activity. Due to the stabilized configuration of the LDEF, the induced radioactivity data clearly show contributions from the anisotropic trapped proton flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly. This effect is discussed, along with evidence for activation by galactic protons and thermal neutrons. The discovery of Be-7 was made on leading side parts of the spacecraft, although this was though not to be related to the in situ production of radioisotopes from external particle fluxes.

  8. Damage areas due to impact craters on LDEF aluminum panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Atkinson, Dale R.; Allbrooks, Martha; Wagner, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of its exposure time and total exposed surface area, the LDEF provides a unique opportunity to analyze the effects of the natural and man-made particle populations in low earth orbit (LEO). This study concentrated on collecting and analyzing measurements of impact craters from seven painted aluminum surfaces at different locations on the satellite. These data are being used to: (1) update the current theoretical micrometeoroid and debris models for LEO; (2) characterize the effects of the LEO micrometeoroid and debris environment of satellite components and designs; (3) help assess the probability of collision between spacecraft in LEO and already resident debris and the survivability of those spacecraft that must travel through, or reside in, LEO; and (4) help define and evaluate future debris mitigation and disposal methods. Measurements were collected from one aluminum experiment tray cover (Bay C-12), two aluminum grapple plates (Bays C-01, C-10), and four aluminum experiment sun-shields (Bay E-09), all of which were coated with thermal paint. These measurements were taken at the Facility for Optical Interpretation of Large Surfaces (FOILS) Lab at JSC. Virtually all features greater than 0.2 mm in diameter possessed a spall zone in which all of the paint was removed from the aluminum surface, and which varied in size from 2-5 crater diameters. The actual craters vary from central pits without raised rims to morphologies more typical of craters formed in aluminum under hypervelocity impact conditions for larger features. Most craters exhibit a shock zone that varies in size from approximately 1-20 crater diameters. In general, only the outermost layer of paint was affected by this impact-related phenomenon, with several impacts possessing ridge-like structures encircling the area in which this outer-most paint layer was removed. Overall, there were no noticeable penetrations or bulges on the underside of the trays. One tray from the E-09 bay exhibited a

  9. Develop and Manufacture an airlock sliding tray

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Cindy M.

    2014-02-26

    Objective: The goal of this project is to continue to develop an airlock sliding tray and then partner with an industrial manufacturing company for production. The sliding tray will be easily installed into and removed from most glovebox airlocks in a few minutes. Technical Approach: A prototype of a sliding tray has been developed and tested in the LANL cold lab and 35 trays are presently being built for the plutonium facility (PF-4). The current, recently approved design works for a 14-inch diameter round airlock and has a tray length of approximately 20 inches. The grant will take the already tested and approved round technology and design for the square airlock. These two designs will be suitable for the majority of the existing airlocks in the multitude of DOE facilities. Partnering with an external manufacturer will allow for production of the airlock trays at a much lower cost and increase the availability of the product for all DOE sites. Project duration is estimated to be 12-13 months. Benefits: The purpose of the airlock sliding trays is fourfold: 1) Mitigate risk of rotator cuff injuries, 2) Improve ALARA, 3) Reduce risk of glovebox glove breaches and glove punctures, and 4) Improve worker comfort. I have had the opportunity to visit many other DOE facilities including Savannah, Y-12, ORNL, Sandia, and Livermore for assistance with ergonomic problems and/or injuries. All of these sites would benefit from the airlock sliding tray and I can assume all other DOE facilities with gloveboxes built prior to 1985 could also use the sliding trays.

  10. Laser beam guard clamps

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, Richard K.

    2010-09-07

    A quick insert and release laser beam guard panel clamping apparatus having a base plate mountable on an optical table, a first jaw affixed to the base plate, and a spring-loaded second jaw slidably carried by the base plate to exert a clamping force. The first and second jaws each having a face acutely angled relative to the other face to form a V-shaped, open channel mouth, which enables wedge-action jaw separation by and subsequent clamping of a laser beam guard panel inserted through the open channel mouth. Preferably, the clamping apparatus also includes a support structure having an open slot aperture which is positioned over and parallel with the open channel mouth.

  11. A monogenean without clamps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectoparasites face a daily challenge: to remain attached to their host. Polyopisthocotylean monogeneans attach to the surface of fish gills by highly specialized structures, the sclerotized clamps. In the original description of the protomicrocotylid species Lethacotyle fijiensis, described 50 years...

  12. Sperm Patch-Clamp

    PubMed Central

    Lishko, Polina; Clapham, David E.; Navarro, Betsy; Kirichok, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Sperm intracellular pH and calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) are two central factors that control sperm activity within the female reproductive tract. As such, the ion channels of the sperm plasma membrane that alter intracellular sperm [Ca2+] and pH play important roles in sperm physiology and the process of fertilization. Indeed, sperm ion channels regulate sperm motility, control sperm chemotaxis toward the egg in some species, and may trigger the acrosome reaction. Until recently, our understanding of these important molecules was rudimentary due to the inability to patch-clamp spermatozoa and directly record the activity of these ion channels under voltage clamp. Recently, we overcame this technical barrier and developed a method for reproducible application of the patch-clamp technique to mouse and human spermatozoa. This chapter covers important aspects of application of the patch-clamp technique to spermatozoa, such as selection of the electrophysiological equipment, isolation of spermatozoa for patch-clamp experiments, formation of the gigaohm seal with spermatozoa, and transition into the whole-cell mode of recording. We also discuss potential pitfalls in application of the patch-clamp technique to flagellar ion channels. PMID:23522465

  13. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties, Tray A07 The Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties experiment fills two (2) three (3) inch deep peripheral trays, A01 and A07. The experiment in the A07 experiment tray, shown in this photograph, consist of three (3) Graphite-Polyimide laminate panels and associated mounting hardware. Each panel occupies one third (1/3) of the LDEF experiment tray; a PMR-15 precured graphite-polyimide panel (T40T30060-009) in the right one third section, a F-178/T300 cocured graphite-polyimide panel (T40T30060-005) in the center one third section and a F-178/T300 precured graphite-polyimide panel (T40T30060-001) is in the left one third section of the tray. The panels are held in place with aluminum strips and non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The aluminum strips are covered with a dull gold coating over most of the exposed surface. The coating has been scraped from the aluminum mounting strip near the upper left tray corner. The mounting system, designed to allow for differential thermal expansion, minimizes the risk of inducing high stresses into the test panels. PMR-15 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The PMR-15 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-009) is a uniform dark brown with a yellow identification number. The panel has several off-white marks in the lower right corner and light grayish-brown discolorations can be seen behind the identification number and behind the off-white marks. F-178/T300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (cocured) - The F178/T300 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-005) is also a dark brown with a yellow identification number and small offwhite marks in the lower right corner. F-178/300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The F178/300 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-001) is a dark brown color with a yellow identification number and

  14. View of food tray to be used in Skylab program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A close-up view of a food tray which is scheduled to be used in the Skylab program. Several packages of space food lie beside the tray. The food in the tray is ready to eat. Out of tray, starting from bottom left: grape drink, beef pot roast, chicken and rice, beef sandwiches and sugar cookie cubes, In tray, from back left: orange drink, strawberries, asparagus, prime rib, dinner roll and butterscotch pudding in the center.

  15. Holographic data storage crystals for the LDEF. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. Russell; Gaylord, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium niobate is a significant electro-optic material, with potential applications in ultra high capacity storage and processing systems. Lithium niobate is the material of choice for many integrated optical devices and holographic mass memory systems. For crystals of lithium niobate were passively exposed to the space environment of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Three of these crystals contained volume holograms. Although the crystals suffered the surface damage characteristics of most of the other optical components on the Georgia Tech tray, the crystals were recovered intact. The holograms were severely degraded because of the lengthy exposure, but the bulk properties are being investigated to determine the spaceworthiness for space data storage and retrieval systems.

  16. Clamp for arctic pipeline support

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, A.W.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a ring clamp for supporting and anchoring a large diameter metallic arctic pipeline comprising substantially rigid, curved clamp portions adapted to completely encircle the pipeline and fastening means connecting the clamp portions, the clamp portions having inner and outer layers of fiber reinforced rigid polymer material and an intermediate core layer of honeycomb-form aramid paper.

  17. LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties, Tray A01 The Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties experiment postflight photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility during the period when the LDEF was being transferred from the Orbiter cargo bay to the KSC Payload Transporter. The photograph shows considerably more detail than the flight photograph. The horizontal lines on the honeycomb panel that appear to be cracks from space exposure are instead fine lines of excess epoxy resin formed during the bagging and curing process. The harsh white color of the epoxy adhesive along the rivet lines is from the lighting conditions in the OPF. The brown discoloration on the paint dots and the stain on the aluminum mounting strips appear to have changed little from the flight photograph. The greater detail does show that a stain exists at most composite and mounting strip interfaces.

  18. Quantification of contaminants associated with LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, E. R.; Nishimura, L. S.; Warner, K. J.; Wascher, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    The quantification of contaminants on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and associated hardware or tools is addressed. The purpose of this study was to provide a background data base for the evaluation of the surface of the LDEF and the effects of orbital exposure on that surface. This study necessarily discusses the change in the distribution of contaminants on the LDEF with time and environmental exposure. Much of this information may be of value for the improvement of contamination control procedures during ground based operations. The particulate data represents the results of NASA contractor monitoring as well as the results of samples collected and analyzed by the authors. The data from the tapelifts collected in the Space Shuttle Bay at Edwards Air Force Base and KSC are also presented. The amount of molecular film distributed over the surface of the LDEF is estimated based on measurements made at specific locations and extrapolated over the surface area of the LDEF. Some consideration of total amount of volatile-condensible materials available to form the resultant deposit is also presented. All assumptions underlying these estimates are presented along with the rationale for the conclusions. Each section is presented in a subsection for particles and another for molecular films.

  19. Clamping characteristics study on different types of clamping unit

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haichao; Xie, Pengcheng; Yang, Weimin

    2015-05-22

    Plastic products are becoming more and more widely used in aerospace, IT, digital electronics and many other fields. With the development of technology, the requirement of product precision is getting higher and higher. However, type and working performance of clamping unit play a decisive role in product precision. Clamping characteristics of different types of clamping unit are discussed in this article, which use finite element numerical analysis method through the software ABAQUS to study the clamping uniformity, and detect the clamping force repeatability precision. The result shows that compared with toggled three-platen clamping unit, clamping characteristics of internal circulation two-platen clamping unit are better, for instance, its mold cavity deformation and force that bars and mold parting surface suffered are more uniform, and its clamping uniformity and repeatability precision is also better.

  20. LDEF Materials Workshop 1991, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Bland A. (Compiler); Young, Philip R. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The LDEF Materials Workshop 1991 was a follow-on to the Materials Sessions at the First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium held in Kissimmee, Florida, June 1991. The workshop comprised a series of technical sessions on materials themes, followed by theme panel meetings. Themes included materials, environmental parameters, and data bases; contamination; thermal control and protective coating and surface treatments; polymers and films; polymer matrix composites; metals, ceramics, and optical materials; lubricants adhesives, seals, fasteners, solar cells, and batteries. This document continues the LDEF Space Environmental Effects on Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) pursuit to investigate the effects of LEO exposure on materials which were not originally planned to be test specimens. Papers from the technical sessions are presented.

  1. Status of LDEF activation measurements and archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. Alan; Parnell, Thomas A.; Laird, Christopher E.

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of induced radioactivity measurements for the LDEF spacecraft which includes studies of the nuclide, target, directional and depth dependences of the activation. Analysis of the data has focused on extraction of the specific activities for many materials to develop a global picture of the low Earth orbital environment to which the LDEF was subjected. Preliminary comparisons of data in a previous review showed that it was possible to make meaningful intercomparisons between results obtained at different facilities. Generally these comparisons were good and gave results to within 10-20 percent, although some analysis remains. These results clearly provide constraints for recent calculations being performed of the radiation environment of the LDEF. We are not anticipating a period of production of final activation results. An archive is being prepared jointly between NASA/Marshall and Eastern Kentucky University which will include gamma ray spectra and other intermediate results.

  2. Partial analysis of LDEF experiment A-0114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1991-01-01

    During the contract period, work concentrated on four main components. Data from the UAH silver pin hole camera was analyzed for determination of the mean Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite attitude and stability in orbit, to include pitch and yaw. Chemical testing performed on the AO-114 hot plate determined the form and locus of absorption of cosmogenic beryllium-7. Reaction rates of atomic oxygen with Kapton and other polymeric solids integrated over the whole LDEF orbital lifetime were analyzed. These rates were compared with the JSC estimated values for Space Station exposures. Metal and polymer films exposed on A0114 (C-9 and C-3 plates) were also analyzed.

  3. LDEF electronic systems: Successes, failures and lessons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. A.; Brooks, L. K.; Johnson, C. J.; Levorsen, J. L.; Mulkey, O. R.; Porter, D. C.; Smith, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Following LDEF retrieval, a series of tests were performed of various NASA and experimenter electronics, including the NASA provided data and initiate systems. The post-flight test program objectives and observations are discussed, as well as the 'lessons learned' from these examinations. Results are also included of an evaluation of electronic hardware flown on Boeing's LDEF experiment. Overall the electronic systems performed remarkably well, even though most were developed under budget restraints and used some non-space qualified components. Several anomalies were observed, however, including some which resulted in loss of data. Suggestions for avoiding similar problems on future programs are presented.

  4. LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties, Tray A07 The postflight photograph was taken in the Operations and Control (O&C) facility after the LDEF had been transferred from the KSC Payload Transporter to the LDEF Assembly and Transport System (LATS) and shows more detail than the flight photograph. The areas on the aluminum mounting strips where the coating has been scraped and/or abraided can be seen in greater detail under the better lighting conditions. The coating color remains essentially the same. The white paint dots on the tray clampblocks have changed little from the orginal color. PMR-15 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The PMR-15 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-009) postflight photograph provides more detail than the flight photograph. The geometric pattern seen on the flight photograph is not visible, however, the horizontal lines, cracks and/or crazing, observed previously are better defined. A gray haze or dust appears to cover the gray/brown panel surface. The yellow colored identification numbers seem to be a little lighter than in the flight photograph but the white marking in the upper left corner do not appear to have changed. Scratch marks/abrasions on the lower left edge of panel were on prelaunch photographs. F-178/T300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (cocured) - The 178/T300 graphite-polyimide panel (T40T30060-005) seems to have changed in color from the light gray in the flight photograph to a brownish gray. The yellow identification numbers seem lighter while the white marking in the upper left corner appear brighter. The fine horizontal lines, cracks and/or crazing, are still visible on the panel surface. F178/T300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The 178/T300 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-001) seems to have changed to a brownish gray from the light gray color seen in the flight photograph

  5. Clamp for detonating fuze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holderman, E. J.

    1968-01-01

    Quick acting clamp provides physical support for a closely confined detonating fuse in an application requiring removal and replacement at frequent intervals during test. It can be designed with a base of any required strength and configuration to permit the insertion of an object.

  6. Effects of the LDEF orbital environment on the reflectance of optical mirror materials

    SciTech Connect

    Herzig, H.; Fleetwood, C. Jr.

    1995-02-01

    Specimens of eight different optical mirror materials were flown in low earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) manifest to determine their ability to withstand exposure to the residual atomic oxygen and other environmental effects at those altitudes. Optical thin films of aluminum, gold, iridium, osmium, platinum, magnesium fluoride-overcoated aluminum and reactively deposited, silicon monoxide-protected aluminum, all of which were vacuum deposited on polished fused silica substrates, were included as part of Experiment S0010, Exposure of Spacecraft Coatings. Two specimens of polished, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide were installed in sites available in Experiment A0114, Interaction of Atomic Oxygen with Solid Surfaces at Orbital Altitudes, which included trays in two of the spacecraft bays, one on the leading edge and the other on the trailing edge. One of the silicon carbide samples was located in each of these trays. This paper will compare specular reflectance data from the preflight and postflight measurements made on each of these samples and attempt to explain the changes in light of the specific environments to which the experiments were exposed.

  7. Effects of the LDEF orbital environment on the reflectance of optical mirror materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzig, Howard; Fleetwood, Charles, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Specimens of eight different optical mirror materials were flown in low earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) manifest to determine their ability to withstand exposure to the residual atomic oxygen and other environmental effects at those altitudes. Optical thin films of aluminum, gold, iridium, osmium, platinum, magnesium fluoride-overcoated aluminum and reactively deposited, silicon monoxide-protected aluminum, all of which were vacuum deposited on polished fused silica substrates, were included as part of Experiment S0010, Exposure of Spacecraft Coatings. Two specimens of polished, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide were installed in sites available in Experiment A0114, Interaction of Atomic Oxygen with Solid Surfaces at Orbital Altitudes, which included trays in two of the spacecraft bays, one on the leading edge and the other on the trailing edge. One of the silicon carbide samples was located in each of these trays. This paper will compare specular reflectance data from the preflight and postflight measurements made on each of these samples and attempt to explain the changes in light of the specific environments to which the experiments were exposed.

  8. Skylab Food Heating and Serving Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Shown here is the Skylab food heating and serving tray with food, drink, and utensils. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen in the Orbital Workshop wardroom was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  9. 106. INTERIOR OF CABLE TRAY TUNNEL, FROM LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. INTERIOR OF CABLE TRAY TUNNEL, FROM LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770), TOWARDS CABLE TRAY SHED - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Photographic Survey of the LDEF Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Robert L.; Levine, Arlene S.; Kiser, Carol C.

    1996-01-01

    This publication documents a selected number of pre-flight, in-flight, and postflight photographs of the LDEF and experiments. Changes in condition of the experiments caused by space exposure are discussed. The CD-ROM contains the color version of the photographs as well as the text.

  11. Selected results for LDEF thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    Several different thermal control coatings were analyzed as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Special Investigation Group activity and as part of the Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials Experiment M0003. A brief discussion of the results obtained for these materials is presented.

  12. Photographic Survey of the LDEF Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeal, Robert L.; Levine, Arlene S.; Kiser, Carol C.

    1996-01-01

    This publication documents a selected number of pre-flight, in-flight, and postflight photographs of the LDEF and experiments. Changes in condition of the experiments caused by space exposure are discussed. Accompanying this black and white publication it a CD-ROM that contains the color version of the photographs as well as the text.

  13. LDEF data: Comparisons with existing models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Watts, Alan J.; Wagner, John D.; Atkinson, Dale R.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the observed cratering impact damage on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) versus the existing models for both the natural environment of micrometeoroids and the man-made debris was investigated. Experimental data was provided by several LDEF Principal Investigators, Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) members, and by the Kennedy Space Center Analysis Team (KSC A-Team) members. These data were collected from various aluminum materials around the LDEF satellite. A PC (personal computer) computer program, SPENV, was written which incorporates the existing models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. This program calculates the expected number of impacts per unit area as functions of altitude, orbital inclination, time in orbit, and direction of the spacecraft surface relative to the velocity vector, for both micrometeoroids and man-made debris. Since both particle models are couched in terms of impact fluxes versus impactor particle size, and much of the LDEF data is in the form of crater production rates, scaling laws have been used to relate the two. Also many hydrodynamic impact computer simulations were conducted, using CTH, of various impact events, that identified certain modes of response, including simple metallic target cratering, perforations and delamination effects of coatings.

  14. LDEF data: Comparisons with existing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Watts, Alan J.; Wagner, John D.; Atkinson, Dale R.

    1993-04-01

    The relationship between the observed cratering impact damage on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) versus the existing models for both the natural environment of micrometeoroids and the man-made debris was investigated. Experimental data was provided by several LDEF Principal Investigators, Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) members, and by the Kennedy Space Center Analysis Team (KSC A-Team) members. These data were collected from various aluminum materials around the LDEF satellite. A PC (personal computer) computer program, SPENV, was written which incorporates the existing models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. This program calculates the expected number of impacts per unit area as functions of altitude, orbital inclination, time in orbit, and direction of the spacecraft surface relative to the velocity vector, for both micrometeoroids and man-made debris. Since both particle models are couched in terms of impact fluxes versus impactor particle size, and much of the LDEF data is in the form of crater production rates, scaling laws have been used to relate the two. Also many hydrodynamic impact computer simulations were conducted, using CTH, of various impact events, that identified certain modes of response, including simple metallic target cratering, perforations and delamination effects of coatings.

  15. The preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) materials data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Data Base was developed by the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). The LDEF Materials Data Base is envisioned to eventually contain the wide variety and vast quantity of materials data generated for LDEF. The data is searchable by optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, exposure parameters (such as atomic oxygen flux), and author(s) or principal investigator(s). The LDEF Materials Data Base was incorporated into the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS). MAPTIS is a collection of materials data which was computerized and is available to engineers, designers, and researchers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. This paper describes the LDEF Materials Data Base and includes step-by-step example searches using the data base. Information on how to become an authorized user of the system is included.

  16. Control-Chain Safety Tray and Friction Pull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajdik, G.; Peek, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Tray mounted above suspended ceiling keeps sprinkler-system control chain safely out of way of pedestrian traffic below. Tray reached easily by using fireman's hook short stepladder, or chair or by jumping up to grasp chain. Safety tray used for infrequently used control chains on vents and dampers.

  17. 21 CFR 872.6870 - Disposable fluoride tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

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  18. 21 CFR 872.6870 - Disposable fluoride tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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  19. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

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  20. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

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  1. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  2. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). 884... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1550 Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). (a) Identification. The amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray) is a collection of devices used to aspirate amniotic fluid from...

  3. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). 884... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1550 Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). (a) Identification. The amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray) is a collection of devices used to aspirate amniotic fluid from...

  4. 21 CFR 868.6100 - Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

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  5. 21 CFR 868.6100 - Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  6. 21 CFR 868.6100 - Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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  7. 21 CFR 868.6100 - Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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  8. 21 CFR 868.6100 - Anesthetic cabinet, table, or tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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  9. 21 CFR 872.6870 - Disposable fluoride tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposable fluoride tray. 872.6870 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6870 Disposable fluoride tray. (a) Identification. A disposable fluoride tray is a device made of styrofoam intended to apply fluoride topically...

  10. Contamination on LDEF: Sources, distribution, and history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Gary; Crutcher, Russ

    1993-01-01

    An introduction to contamination effects observed on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is presented. The activities reported are part of Boeing's obligation to the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group. The contamination films and particles had minimal influence on the thermal performance of the LDEF. Some specific areas did have large changes in optical properties. Films also interfered with recession rate determination by reacting with the oxygen or physically shielding underlying material. Generally, contaminant films lessen the measured recession rate relative to 'clean' surfaces. On orbit generation of particles may be an issue for sensitive optics. Deposition on lenses may lead to artifacts on photographic images or cause sensors to respond inappropriately. Particles in the line of sight of sensors can cause stray light to be scattered into sensors. Particles also represent a hazard for mechanisms in that they can physically block and/or increase friction or wear on moving surfaces. LDEF carried a rather complex mixture of samples and support hardware into orbit. The experiments were assembled under a variety of conditions and time constraints and stored for up to five years before launch. The structure itself was so large that it could not be baked after the interior was painted with chemglaze Z-306 polyurethane based black paint. Any analysis of the effects of molecular and particulate contamination must account for a complex array of sources, wide variation in processes over time, and extreme variation in environment from ground to launch to flight. Surface conditions at certain locations on LDEF were established by outgassing of molecular species from particular materials onto adjacent surfaces, followed by alteration of those species due to exposure to atomic oxygen and/or solar radiation.