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Sample records for ldl-scavenger receptor sites

  1. Nicotine recruits glutamate receptors to postsynaptic sites.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jing-Jing; Lozada, Adrian F; Gou, Chen-Yu; Xu, Jing; Chen, Yuan; Berg, Darwin K

    2015-09-01

    Cholinergic neurons project throughout the nervous system and activate nicotinic receptors to modulate synaptic function in ways that shape higher order brain function. The acute effects of nicotinic signaling on long-term synaptic plasticity have been well-characterized. Less well understood is how chronic exposure to low levels of nicotine, such as those encountered by habitual smokers, can alter neural connections to promote addiction and other lasting behavioral effects. We show here that chronic exposure of hippocampal neurons in culture to low levels of nicotine recruits AMPA and NMDA receptors to the cell surface and sequesters them at postsynaptic sites. The receptors include GluA2-containing AMPA receptors, which are responsible for most of the excitatory postsynaptic current mediated by AMPA receptors on the neurons, and include NMDA receptors containing GluN1 and GluN2B subunits. Moreover, we find that the nicotine treatment also increases expression of the presynaptic component synapsin 1 and arranges it in puncta juxtaposed to the additional AMPA and NMDA receptor puncta, suggestive of increases in synaptic contacts. Consistent with increased synaptic input, we find that the nicotine treatment leads to an increase in the excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by AMPA and NMDA receptors. Further, the increases skew the ratio of excitatory-to-inhibitory input that the cell receives, and this holds both for pyramidal neurons and inhibitory neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. The GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor redistribution at synapses is associated with a significant increase in GluN2B phosphorylation at Tyr1472, a site known to prevent GluN2B endocytosis. These results suggest that chronic exposure to low levels of nicotine not only alters functional connections but also is likely to change excitability levels across networks. Further, it may increase the propensity for synaptic plasticity, given the increase in synaptic NMDA receptors. PMID

  2. Multiple allosteric sites on muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, N J; Lazareno, S; Popham, A; Saldanha, J

    2001-04-27

    Proteins and small molecules are capable of regulating the agonist binding and function of G-protein coupled receptors by multiple allosteric mechanisms. In the case of muscarinic receptors, there is the well-characterised allosteric site that binds, for example, gallamine and brucine. The protein kinase inhibitor, KT5720, has now been shown to bind to a second allosteric site and to regulate agonist and antagonist binding. The binding of brucine and gallamine does not affect KT5720 binding nor its effects on the dissociation of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine from M1 receptors. Therefore it is possible to have a muscarinic receptor with three small ligands bound simultaneously. A model of the M1 receptor, based on the recently determined structure of rhodopsin, has the residues that have been shown to be important for gallamine binding clustered within and to one side of a cleft in the extracellular face of the receptor. This cleft may represent the access route of acetylcholine to its binding site. PMID:11392621

  3. Receptor-binding sites: bioinformatic approaches.

    PubMed

    Flower, Darren R

    2006-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that both transient and long-lasting interactions between biomacromolecules and their molecular partners are the most fundamental of all biological mechanisms and lie at the conceptual heart of protein function. In particular, the protein-binding site is the most fascinating and important mechanistic arbiter of protein function. In this review, I examine the nature of protein-binding sites found in both ligand-binding receptors and substrate-binding enzymes. I highlight two important concepts underlying the identification and analysis of binding sites. The first is based on knowledge: when one knows the location of a binding site in one protein, one can "inherit" the site from one protein to another. The second approach involves the a priori prediction of a binding site from a sequence or a structure. The full and complete analysis of binding sites will necessarily involve the full range of informatic techniques ranging from sequence-based bioinformatic analysis through structural bioinformatics to computational chemistry and molecular physics. Integration of both diverse experimental and diverse theoretical approaches is thus a mandatory requirement in the evaluation of binding sites and the binding events that occur within them. PMID:16671408

  4. Follitropin receptors contain cryptic ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lin, Win; Bernard, Michael P; Cao, Donghui; Myers, Rebecca V; Kerrigan, John E; Moyle, William R

    2007-01-01

    Human choriogonadotropin (hCG) and follitropin (hFSH) have been shown to contact different regions of the extracellular domains of G-protein coupled lutropin (LHR) and follitropin (FSHR) receptors. We report here that hCG and hFSH analogs interact with different regions of an FSHR/LHR chimera having only two unique LHR residues and that binds both hormones with high affinity. hCG and hFSH analogs dock with this receptor chimera in a manner similar to that in which they bind LHR and FSHR, respectively. This shows that although the FSHR does not normally bind hCG, it contains a cryptic lutropin binding site that has the potential to recognize hCG in a manner similar to the LHR. The presence of this cryptic site may explain why equine lutropins bind many mammalian FSHR and why mutations in the transmembrane domain distant from the extracellular domain enable the FSHR to bind hCG. The leucine-rich repeat domain (LRD) of the FSHR also appears to contain a cryptic FSH binding site that is obscured by other parts of the extracellular domain. This will explain why contacts seen in crystals of hFSH complexed with an LRD fragment of the human FSHR are hard to reconcile with the abilities of FSH analogs to interact with membrane G-protein coupled FSHR. We speculate that cryptic lutropin binding sites in the FSHR, which are also likely to be present in thyrotropin receptors (TSHR), permit the physiological regulation of ligand binding specificity. Cryptic FSH binding sites in the LRD may enable alternate spliced forms of the FSHR to interact with FSH. PMID:17059863

  5. [Sites of synthesis of acetylcholine receptors in denervated muscles].

    PubMed

    Giacobini Robecchi, M G; Garelli, M; Filogamo, G

    1980-09-01

    Muscle fibres binding with 125I alpha-bungarotoxine from Bungarus Multicinctus, after treatment with saponine, shows (in electron microscope autoradiography) intracellular binding sites identifying sites of acetylcholine receptor synthesis. In innervated muscle, the acetylcholine receptor is located only at the neuromuscular junction. In denervated muscle the receptor is distributed along the whole sarcolemma; in this situation the acetylcholine receptor is synthesized "ex novo" in the membrane system over the whole length of the muscle fibre. PMID:7214035

  6. Mu opioid receptor binding sites in human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pilapil, C.; Welner, S.; Magnan, J.; Zamir, N.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Our experiments focused on the examination of the distribution of mu opioid receptor binding sites in normal human brain using the highly selective ligand (/sup 3/H)DAGO, in both membrane binding assay and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Mu opioid binding sites are very discretely distributed in human brain with high densities of sites found in the posterior amygdala, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus and certain cortical areas. Moreover the autoradiographic distribution of (/sup 3/H)DAGO binding sites clearly reveals the discrete lamination (layers I and III-IV) of mu sites in cortical areas.

  7. Estradiol and tamoxifen interaction at receptor sites at 37 C.

    PubMed

    Fishman, J H

    1983-09-01

    Mature rat uterine cytosol was pretreated with dextran-coated charcoal at 0 C for 2 h. This renders the subsequently formed estradiol-receptor complex thermostable at 37 C and also uncovers antiestrogen binding sites, possibly by removing an endogenous ligand. A sharp distinction is found between tamoxifen and estradiol as receptor ligands in pretreated cytosols in that tamoxifen will inhibit estradiol binding, on incubation at 37 C, only if dithiothreitol (DTT) had been included in the pretreatment solution. The presence of tamoxifen as the sole ligand in cytosol pretreated in the presence of DTT does not protect the estradiol receptor from thermal inactivation and following 37 C incubation tamoxifen is found bound exclusively to antiestrogen binding sites. Incubating the cytosol at 37 C with an equimolar mixture of estradiol and tamoxifen results in a very large increase in receptor-bound estradiol. This effect is attributed to the presence of tamoxifen complexed with antiestrogen sites. Tamoxifen in such equimolar ligand mixture binds to antiestrogen sites and is excluded from receptor sites by the estradiol, whose affinity for these sites is much greater than that of tamoxifen. PMID:6191968

  8. Extra-helical binding site of a glucagon receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Ali; Doré, Andrew S; Lamb, Daniel; Krishnamurthy, Harini; Southall, Stacey M; Baig, Asma H; Bortolato, Andrea; Koglin, Markus; Robertson, Nathan J; Errey, James C; Andrews, Stephen P; Teobald, Iryna; Brown, Alastair J H; Cooke, Robert M; Weir, Malcolm; Marshall, Fiona H

    2016-05-12

    Glucagon is a 29-amino-acid peptide released from the α-cells of the islet of Langerhans, which has a key role in glucose homeostasis. Glucagon action is transduced by the class B G-protein-coupled glucagon receptor (GCGR), which is located on liver, kidney, intestinal smooth muscle, brain, adipose tissue, heart and pancreas cells, and this receptor has been considered an important drug target in the treatment of diabetes. Administration of recently identified small-molecule GCGR antagonists in patients with type 2 diabetes results in a substantial reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations. Although an X-ray structure of the transmembrane domain of the GCGR has previously been solved, the ligand (NNC0640) was not resolved. Here we report the 2.5 Å structure of human GCGR in complex with the antagonist MK-0893 (ref. 4), which is found to bind to an allosteric site outside the seven transmembrane (7TM) helical bundle in a position between TM6 and TM7 extending into the lipid bilayer. Mutagenesis of key residues identified in the X-ray structure confirms their role in the binding of MK-0893 to the receptor. The unexpected position of the binding site for MK-0893, which is structurally similar to other GCGR antagonists, suggests that glucagon activation of the receptor is prevented by restriction of the outward helical movement of TM6 required for G-protein coupling. Structural knowledge of class B receptors is limited, with only one other ligand-binding site defined--for the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRF1R)--which was located deep within the 7TM bundle. We describe a completely novel allosteric binding site for class B receptors, providing an opportunity for structure-based drug design for this receptor class and furthering our understanding of the mechanisms of activation of these receptors. PMID:27111510

  9. Evidence for a second receptor binding site on human prolactin.

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Struman, I; Mainfroid, V; Kinet, S; Martial, J A

    1994-12-23

    The existence of a second receptor binding site on human prolactin (hPRL) was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. First, 12 residues of helices 1 and 3 were mutated to alanine. Since none of the resulting mutants exhibit reduced bioactivity in the Nb2 cell proliferation bioassay, the mutated residues do not appear to be functionally necessary. Next, small residues surrounding the helix 1-helix 3 interface were replaced with Arg and/or Trp, the aim being to sterically hinder the second binding site. Several of these mutants exhibit only weak agonistic properties, supporting our hypothesis that the channel between helices 1 and 3 is involved in a second receptor binding site. We then analyzed the antagonistic and self-antagonistic properties of native hPRL and of several hPRLs analogs altered at binding site 1 or 2. Even at high concentrations (approximately 10 microM), no self-inhibition was observed with native hPRL; site 2 hPRL mutants self-antagonized while site 1 mutants did not. From these data, we propose a model of hPRL-PRL receptor interaction which slightly differs from that proposed earlier for the homologous human growth hormone (hGH) (Fuh, G., Cunningham, B. C., Fukunaga, R., Nagata, S., and Goeddel, D. V., and Well, J. A. (1992) Science 256, 1677-1680). Like hGH, hPRL would bind sequentially to two receptor molecules, first through site 1, then through site 2, but we would expect the two sites of hPRL to display, unlike the two binding sites of hGH, about the same binding affinity, thus preventing self-antagonism at high concentrations. PMID:7798264

  10. N-glycosylation sites on the nicotinic ACh receptor subunits regulate receptor channel desensitization and conductance.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2003-06-10

    The present study investigated the effects of N-glycosylation sites on Torpedo acetylcholine (ACh) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by monitoring whole-cell membrane currents and single-channel currents from excised patches. Receptors with the mutant subunit at the asparagine residue on the conserved N-glycosylation site (mbetaN141D, mgammaN141D, or mdeltaN143D) or the serine/threonine residue (mbetaT143A, mgammaS143A, or mdeltaS145A) delayed the rate of current decay as compared with wild-type receptors, and the most striking effect was found with receptors with mbetaT143A or mgammaS143A. For wild-type receptors, the lectin concanavalin A, that binds to glycosylated membrane proteins with high affinity, mimicked this effect. Receptors with mbetaN141D or mdeltaN143D exhibited lower single-channel conductance, but those with mbetaT143A, mgammaS143A, or mdeltaS145A otherwise revealed higher conductance than wild-type receptors. Mean opening time of single-channel currents was little affected by the mutation. N-glycosylation sites, thus, appear to play a role in the regulation of ACh receptor desensitization and ion permeability. PMID:12829329

  11. Analysis of Chemokine Receptor Trafficking by Site-Specific Biotinylation

    PubMed Central

    Liebick, Marcel; Schläger, Christian; Oppermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine receptors undergo internalization and desensitization in response to ligand activation. Internalized receptors are either preferentially directed towards recycling pathways (e.g. CCR5) or sorted for proteasomal degradation (e.g. CXCR4). Here we describe a method for the analysis of receptor internalization and recycling based on specific Bir A-mediated biotinylation of an acceptor peptide coupled to the receptor, which allows a more detailed analysis of receptor trafficking compared to classical antibody-based detection methods. Studies on constitutive internalization of the chemokine receptors CXCR4 (12.1% ± 0.99% receptor internalization/h) and CCR5 (13.7% ± 0.68%/h) reveals modulation of these processes by inverse (TAK779; 10.9% ± 0.95%/h) or partial agonists (Met-CCL5; 15.6% ± 0.5%/h). These results suggest an actively driven internalization process. We also demonstrate the advantages of specific biotinylation compared to classical antibody detection during agonist-induced receptor internalization, which may be used for immunofluorescence analysis as well. Site-specific biotinylation may be applicable to studies on trafficking of transmembrane proteins, in general. PMID:27310579

  12. Visualization of growth factor receptor sites in rat forebrain

    SciTech Connect

    Quirion, R.; Araujo, D.; Nair, N.P.; Chabot, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    It is now known that various growth factors may also act in the central nervous system. Among them, it has recently been shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) may possess trophic effects in the mammalian brain. We report here on the respective autoradiographic distribution of (/sup 125/I)EGF and (/sup 125/I)IGF-I receptor binding sites in the rat brain, both during ontogeny and in adulthood. It appears that (/sup 125/I)EGF sites are mostly found in the rat forebrain during brain development. On the other hand, (/sup 125/I)IGF-I sites are more widely distributed both during ontogeny and in adulthood. These results reveal the plasticity of the expression of EGF and IGF-I receptor sites in the mammalian brain. This could be relevant for the respective role of these two growth factors in the development and maintenance of neuronal function.

  13. A Procedure for Preparing Models of Receptor Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, D. Eric; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses ways that chemists have traditionally used models to represent chemical structures. Suggests new ways to construct three-dimensional models of receptor sites using thermoplastics or heavy aluminum foil. Provides sketches and photographs of several models. Points out the advantages of using such models over traditional two-dimensional…

  14. Identification of Phosphorylation Sites Regulating sst3 Somatostatin Receptor Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Andreas; Kliewer, Andrea; Günther, Thomas; Nagel, Falko; Schulz, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The human somatostatin receptor 3 (sst3) is expressed in about 50% of all neuroendocrine tumors and hence a promising target for multireceptor somatostatin analogs. The sst3 receptor is unique among ssts in that it exhibits a very long intracellular C-terminal tail containing a huge number of potential phosphate acceptor sites. Consequently, our knowledge about the functional role of the C-terminal tail in sst3 receptor regulation is very limited. Here, we have generated a series of phosphorylation-deficient mutants that enabled us to determine crucial sites for its agonist-induced β-arrestin mobilization, internalization, and down-regulation. Based on this information, we generated phosphosite-specific antibodies for C-terminal Ser(337)/Thr(341), Thr(348), and Ser(361) that enabled us to investigate the temporal patterns of sst3 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We found that the endogenous ligand somatostatin induced a rapid and robust phosphorylation that was completely blocked by the sst3 antagonist NVP-ACQ090. The stable somatostatin analogs pasireotide and octreotide promoted clearly less phosphorylation compared with somatostatin. We also show that sst3 phosphorylation occurred within seconds to minutes, whereas dephosphorylation of the sst3 receptor occurred at a considerable slower rate. In addition, we also identified G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 and protein phosphatase 1α and 1β as key regulators of sst3 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. Thus, we here define the C-terminal phosphorylation motif of the human sst3 receptor that regulates its agonist-promoted phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment, and internalization of this clinically relevant receptor. PMID:27101376

  15. Functional differences between neurotransmitter binding sites of muscle acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapan K.; Bruhova, Iva; Chakraborty, Srirupa; Gupta, Shaweta; Zheng, Wenjun; Auerbach, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has two neurotransmitter binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αε (adult) or αγ (fetal) subunit interfaces. We used single-channel electrophysiology to measure the effects of mutations of five conserved aromatic residues at each site with regard to their contribution to the difference in free energy of agonist binding to active versus resting receptors (ΔGB1). The two binding sites behave independently in both adult and fetal AChRs. For four different agonists, including ACh and choline, ΔGB1 is ∼−2 kcal/mol more favorable at αγ compared with at αε and αδ. Only three of the aromatics contribute significantly to ΔGB1 at the adult sites (αY190, αY198, and αW149), but all five do so at αγ (as well as αY93 and γW55). γW55 makes a particularly large contribution only at αγ that is coupled energetically to those contributions of some of the α-subunit aromatics. The hydroxyl and benzene groups of loop C residues αY190 and αY198 behave similarly with regard to ΔGB1 at all three kinds of site. ACh binding energies estimated from molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with experimental values from electrophysiology and suggest that the αγ site is more compact, better organized, and less dynamic than αε and αδ. We speculate that the different sensitivities of the fetal αγ site versus the adult αε and αδ sites to choline and ACh are important for the proper maturation and function of the neuromuscular synapse. PMID:25422413

  16. FOLLITROPIN RECEPTORS CONTAIN CRYPTIC LIGAND BINDING SITES1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Win; Bernard, Michael P.; Cao, Donghui; Myers, Rebecca V.; Kerrigan, John E.; Moyle, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Human choriogonadotropin (hCG) and follitropin (hFSH) have been shown to contact different regions of the extracellular domains of G-protein coupled lutropin (LHR) and follitropin (FSHR) receptors. We report here that hCG and hFSH analogs interact with an FSHR/LHR chimera having only two unique LHR residues similar to the manners in which they dock with LHR and FSHR, respectively. This shows that although the FSHR does not normally bind hCG, it contains a cryptic lutropin binding site that has the potential to recognize hCG in a manner similar to the LHR. The presence of this cryptic site may explain why equine lutropins bind many mammalian FSHR and why mutations in the transmembrane domain distant from the extracellular domain enable the FSHR to bind hCG. The leucine-rich repeat domain (LRD) of the FSHR also appears to contain a cryptic FSH binding site that is obscured by other parts of the extracellular domain. This will explain why contacts seen in crystals of hFSH complexed with an LRD fragment of the human FSHR are hard to reconcile with the abilities of FSH analogs to interact with membrane G-protein coupled FSHR. We speculate that cryptic lutropin binding sites in the FSHR, which are also likely to be present in thyrotropin receptors (TSHR), permit the physiological regulation of ligand binding specificity. Cryptic FSH binding sites in the LRD may enable alternate spliced forms of the FSHR to interact with FSH. PMID:17059863

  17. Viral receptor-binding site antibodies with diverse germline origins

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Aaron G.; Therkelsen, Matthew D.; Stewart, Shaun; Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M. Anthony; Haynes, Barton F.; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines for rapidly evolving pathogens will confer lasting immunity if they elicit antibodies recognizing conserved epitopes, such as a receptor-binding site (RBS). From characteristics of an influenza-virus RBS-directed antibody, we devised a signature motif to search for similar antibodies. We identified, from three vaccinees, over 100 candidates encoded by eleven different VH genes. Crystal structures show that antibodies in this class engage the hemagglutinin RBS and mimic binding of the receptor, sialic acid, by supplying a critical dipeptide on their projecting, heavy-chain third complementarity determining region. They share contacts with conserved, receptor-binding residues but contact different residues on the RBS periphery, limiting the likelihood of viral escape when several such antibodies are present. These data show that related modes of RBS recognition can arise from different germline origins and mature through diverse affinity maturation pathways. Immunogens focused on an RBS-directed response will thus have a broad range of B-cell targets. PMID:25959776

  18. Viral receptor-binding site antibodies with diverse germline origins.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Aaron G; Therkelsen, Matthew D; Stewart, Shaun; Kepler, Thomas B; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M Anthony; Haynes, Barton F; Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-05-21

    Vaccines for rapidly evolving pathogens will confer lasting immunity if they elicit antibodies recognizing conserved epitopes, such as a receptor-binding site (RBS). From characteristics of an influenza-virus RBS-directed antibody, we devised a signature motif to search for similar antibodies. We identified, from three vaccinees, over 100 candidates encoded by 11 different VH genes. Crystal structures show that antibodies in this class engage the hemagglutinin RBS and mimic binding of the receptor, sialic acid, by supplying a critical dipeptide on their projecting, heavy-chain third complementarity determining region. They share contacts with conserved, receptor-binding residues but contact different residues on the RBS periphery, limiting the likelihood of viral escape when several such antibodies are present. These data show that related modes of RBS recognition can arise from different germline origins and mature through diverse affinity maturation pathways. Immunogens focused on an RBS-directed response will thus have a broad range of B cell targets. PMID:25959776

  19. Alternative sumoylation sites in the Drosophila nuclear receptor Usp.

    PubMed

    Bielska, Katarzyna; Seliga, Justyna; Wieczorek, Elżbieta; Kędracka-Krok, Sylwia; Niedenthal, Rainer; Ożyhar, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    The ultraspiracle protein (Usp), together with an ecdysone receptor (EcR) forms a heterodimeric ecdysteroid receptor complex, which controls metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Although the ecdysteroid receptor is considered to be a source of elements for ecdysteroid inducible gene switches in mammals, nothing is known about posttranslational modifications of the receptor constituents in mammalian cells. Up until now there has been no study about Usp sumoylation. Using Ubc9 fusion-directed sumoylation system, we identified Usp as a new target of SUMO1 and SUMO3 modification. Mutagenesis studies on the fragments of Usp indicated that sumoylation can occur alternatively on several defined Lys residues, i.e. three (Lys16, Lys20, Lys37) in A/B region, one (Lys424) in E region and one (Lys506) in F region. However, sumoylation of one Lys residue within A/B region prevents modification of other residues in this region. This was also observed for Lys residues in carboxyl-terminal fragment of Usp, i.e. comprising E and F regions. Mass spectrometry analysis of the full-length Usp indicated that the main SUMO attachment site is at Lys20. EcR, the heterodimerization partner of Usp, and muristerone A, the EcR ligand, do not influence sumoylation patterns of Usp. Another heterodimerization partner of Usp - HR38 fused with Ubc9 interacts with Usp in HEK293 cells and allows sumoylation of Usp independent of the direct fusion to Ubc9. Taken together, we propose that sumoylation of DmUsp can be an important factor in modulating its activity by changing molecular interactions. PMID:22676916

  20. Benzodiazepine-site pharmacology on GABAA receptors in histaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    May, A C; Fleischer, W; Kletke, O; Haas, H L; Sergeeva, O A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) of the posterior hypothalamus controls the cognitive aspects of vigilance which is reduced by common sedatives and anxiolytics. The receptors targeted by these drugs in histaminergic neurons are unknown. TMN neurons express nine different subunits of the GABAA receptor (GABAAR) with three α- (α1, α2 and α5) and two γ- (γ1, γ 2) subunits, which confer different pharmacologies of the benzodiazepine-binding site. Experimental Approach We investigated the actions of zolpidem, midazolam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, flumazenil (Ro15-1788) and methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) in TMN neurons using mouse genetics, electrophysiological and molecular biological methods. Key Results We find the sensitivity of GABAAR to zolpidem, midazolam and DMCM significantly reduced in TMN neurons from γ2F77I mice, but modulatory activities of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and flumazenil not affected. Potencies and efficacies of these compounds are in line with the dominance of α2- and α1-subunit containing receptors associated with γ2- or γ1-subunits. Functional expression of the γ1-subunit is supported by siRNA-based knock-down experiments in γ2F77I mice. Conclusions and Implications GABAAR of TMN neurons respond to a variety of common sedatives with a high affinity binding site (γ2F77I) involved. The γ1-subunit likely contributes to the action of common sedatives in TMN neurons. This study is relevant for understanding the role of neuronal histamine and benzodiazepines in disorders of sleep and metabolism. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-1 PMID:23799902

  1. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: location of the ligand binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, E.; Wheatley, M.; Curtis, C.; Birdsall, N.

    1987-05-01

    The key to understanding the pharmacological specificity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR's) is the location within the receptor sequence of the amino acid residues responsible for ligand binding. To approach this problem, they have purified mAChR's from rat brain to homogeneity by sequential ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and molecular weight fractionation. Following labelling of the binding site with an alkylating affinity label, /sup 3/H-propylbenzilycholine mustard aziridinium ion (/sup 3/H-PrBCM), the mAChR was digested with a lysine-specific endoproteinase, and a ladder of peptides of increasing molecular weight, each containing the glycosylated N-terminus, isolated by chromatography on wheat-germ agglutinin sepharose. The pattern of labelling showed that a residue in the peptides containing transmembrane helices 2 and/or 3 of the mAChR was alkylated. The linkage was cleaved by 1 M hydroxylamine, showing that /sup 3/H-PrBCM was attached to an acidic residue, whose properties strongly suggested it to be embedded in a hydrophobic intramembrane region of the mAChR. Examination of the cloned sequence of the mAChR reveals several candidate residues, the most likely of which is homologous to an aspartic acid residue thought to protonate the retinal Schiff's base in the congeneric protein rhodopsin.

  2. Binding of type II nuclear receptors and estrogen receptor to full and half-site estrogen response elements in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Klinge, C M; Bodenner, D L; Desai, D; Niles, R M; Traish, A M

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism by which retinoids, thyroid hormone (T3) and estrogens modulate the growth of breast cancer cells is unclear. Since nuclear type II nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptor (RAR), retinoid X receptor (RXR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR), bind direct repeats (DR) of the estrogen response elements (ERE) half-site (5'-AGGTCA-3'), we examined the ability of estrogen receptor (ER) versus type II nuclear receptors, i.e. RARalpha, beta and gamma, RXRbeta, TRalpha and TRbeta, to bind various EREs in vitro . ER bound a consensus ERE, containing a perfectly palindromic 17 bp inverted repeat (IR), as a homodimer. In contrast, ER did not bind to a single ERE half-site. Likewise, ER did not bind two tandem (38 bp apart) half-sites, but low ER binding was detected to three tandem copies of the same half-site. RARalpha,beta or gamma bound both ERE and half-site constructs as a homodimer. RXRbeta did not bind full or half-site EREs, nor did RXRbeta enhance RARalpha binding to a full ERE. However, RARalpha and RXRbeta bound a half-site ERE cooperatively forming a dimeric complex. The RARalpha-RXRbeta heterodimer bound the Xenopus vitellogenin B1 estrogen responsive unit, with two non-consensus EREs, with higher affinity than one or two copies of the full or half-site ERE. Both TRalpha and TRbeta bound the full and the half-site ERE as monomers and homodimers and cooperatively as heterodimers with RXRbeta. We suggest that the cellular concentrations of nuclear receptors and their ligands, and the nature of the ERE or half-site sequence and those of its flanking sequences determine the occupation of EREs in estrogen-regulated genes in vivo . PMID:9115356

  3. Substance P receptor binding sites are expressed by glia in vivo after neuronal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, P.W.; Johnson, D.J.; Boehmer, C.G.; Catton, M.D.; Vinters, H.V.; Maggio, J.E.; Too, Hengphon; Vigna, S.R. )

    1989-07-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that glia can express functional receptors for a variety of neurotransmitters. To determine whether similar neurotransmitter receptors are also expressed by glia in vivo, the authors examined the glial scar in the transected optic nerve of the albino rabbit by quantitative receptor autoradiography. Receptor binding sites for radiolabeled calcitonin gene-related peptide, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were examined. Specific receptor binding sites for each of these neurotransmitters were identified in the rabbit forebrain but were not detected in the normal optic nerve or tract. In the transected optic nerve and tract, only receptor binding sites for substance P were expressed at detectable levels. The density of substance P receptor binding sites observed in this glial scar is among the highest observed in the rabbit forebrain. Ligand displacement and saturation experiments indicate that the substance P receptor binding site expressed by the glial scar has pharmacological characteristics similar to those of substance P receptors in the rabbit striatum, rat brain, and rat and canine gut. The present study demonstrates that glial cells in vivo express high concentrations of substance P receptor binding sites after transection of retinal ganglion cell axons. Because substance P has been shown to regulate inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues, substance P may also, by analogy, be involved in regulating the glial response to injury in the central nervous system.

  4. Substance P Receptor Binding Sites are Expressed by Glia in vivo after Neuronal Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantyh, Patrick W.; Johnson, Donald J.; Boehmer, Christian G.; Catton, Mark D.; Vinters, Harry V.; Maggio, John E.; Too, Heng-Phon; Vigna, Steven R.

    1989-07-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that glia can express functional receptors for a variety of neurotransmitters. To determine whether similar neurotransmitter receptors are also expressed by glia in vivo, we examined the glial scar in the transected optic nerve of the albino rabbit by quantitative receptor autoradiography. Receptor binding sites for radiolabeled calcitonin gene-related peptide, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were examined. Specific receptor binding sites for each of these neurotransmitters were identified in the rabbit forebrain but were not detected in the normal optic nerve or tract. In the transected optic nerve and tract, only receptor binding sites for substance P were expressed at detectable levels. The density of substance P receptor binding sites observed in this glial scar is among the highest observed in the rabbit forebrain. Ligand displacement and saturation experiments indicate that the substance P receptor binding site expressed by the glial scar has pharmacological characteristics similar to those of substance P receptors in the rabbit striatum, rat brain, and rat and canine gut. The present study demonstrates that glial cells in vivo express high concentrations of substance P receptor binding sites after transection of retinal ganglion cell axons. Because substance P has been shown to regulate inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues, substance P may also, by analogy, be involved in regulating the glial response to injury in the central nervous system.

  5. Insulin Mimetic Peptide Disrupts the Primary Binding Site of the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Callum F; Margetts, Mai B; Menting, John G; Smith, Nicholas A; Smith, Brian J; Ward, Colin W; Lawrence, Michael C

    2016-07-22

    Sets of synthetic peptides that interact with the insulin receptor ectodomain have been discovered by phage display and reported in the literature. These peptides were grouped into three classes termed Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 based on their mutual competition of binding to the receptor. Further refinement has yielded, in particular, a 36-residue Site 2-Site 1 fusion peptide, S519, that binds the insulin receptor with subnanomolar affinity and exhibits agonist activity in both lipogenesis and glucose uptake assays. Here, we report three-dimensional crystallographic detail of the interaction of the C-terminal, 16-residue Site 1 component (S519C16) of S519 with the first leucine-rich repeat domain (L1) of the insulin receptor. Our structure shows that S519C16 binds to the same site on the L1 surface as that occupied by a critical component of the primary binding site, namely the helical C-terminal segment of the insulin receptor α-chain (termed αCT). In particular, the two phenylalanine residues within the FYXWF motif of S519C16 are seen to engage the insulin receptor L1 domain surface in a fashion almost identical to the respective αCT residues Phe(701) and Phe(705) The structure provides a platform for the further development of peptidic and/or small molecule agents directed toward the insulin receptor and/or the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor. PMID:27281820

  6. Elimination of a ligand gating site generates a supersensitive olfactory receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kanika; Ahuja, Gaurav; Hussain, Ashiq; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction poses one of the most complex ligand-receptor matching problems in biology due to the unparalleled multitude of odor molecules facing a large number of cognate olfactory receptors. We have recently deorphanized an olfactory receptor, TAAR13c, as a specific receptor for the death-associated odor cadaverine. Here we have modeled the cadaverine/TAAR13c interaction, exchanged predicted binding residues by site-directed mutagenesis, and measured the activity of the mutant receptors. Unexpectedly we observed a binding site for cadaverine at the external surface of the receptor, in addition to an internal binding site, whose mutation resulted in complete loss of activity. In stark contrast, elimination of the external binding site generated supersensitive receptors. Modeling suggests this site to act as a gate, limiting access of the ligand to the internal binding site and thereby downregulating the affinity of the native receptor. This constitutes a novel mechanism to fine-tune physiological sensitivity to socially relevant odors. PMID:27323929

  7. The heterodimeric sweet taste receptor has multiple potential ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Maillet, Emeline; Max, Marianna; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman

    2006-01-01

    The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of two G protein coupled receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. This discovery has increased our understanding at the molecular level of the mechanisms underlying sweet taste. Previous experimental studies using sweet receptor chimeras and mutants show that there are at least three potential binding sites in this heterodimeric receptor. Receptor activity toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame depends on residues in the amino terminal domain of human T1R2. In contrast, receptor activity toward the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole depends on residues within the transmembrane domain of human T1R3. Furthermore, receptor activity toward the sweet protein brazzein depends on the cysteine rich domain of human T1R3. Although crystal structures are not available for the sweet taste receptor, useful homology models can be developed based on appropriate templates. The amino terminal domain, cysteine rich domain and transmembrane helix domain of T1R2 and T1R3 have been modeled based on the crystal structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1, tumor necrosis factor receptor, and bovine rhodopsin, respectively. We have used homology models of the sweet taste receptors, molecular docking of sweet ligands to the receptors, and site-directed mutagenesis of the receptors to identify potential ligand binding sites of the sweet taste receptor. These studies have led to a better understanding of the structure and function of this heterodimeric receptor, and can act as a guide for rational structure-based design of novel non-caloric sweeteners, which can be used in the fighting against obesity and diabetes. PMID:17168764

  8. Virtual Screening of Receptor Sites for Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    PubMed

    Bates, Ferdia; Cela-Pérez, María Concepción; Karim, Kal; Piletsky, Sergey; López-Vilariño, José Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) are highly advantageous in the field of analytical chemistry. However, interference from secondary molecules can also impede capture of a target by a MIP receptor. This greatly complicates the design process and often requires extensive laboratory screening which is time consuming, costly, and creates substantial waste products. Herein, is presented a new technique for screening of "virtually imprinted receptors" for rebinding of the molecular template as well as secondary structures, correlating the virtual predictions with experimentally acquired data in three case studies. This novel technique is particularly applicable to the evaluation and prediction of MIP receptor specificity and efficiency in complex aqueous systems. PMID:27076379

  9. Structural Studies of GABAA Receptor Binding Sites: Which Experimental Structure Tells us What?

    PubMed

    Puthenkalam, Roshan; Hieckel, Marcel; Simeone, Xenia; Suwattanasophon, Chonticha; Feldbauer, Roman V; Ecker, Gerhard F; Ernst, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Atomic resolution structures of cys-loop receptors, including one of a γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA receptor) subtype, allow amazing insights into the structural features and conformational changes that these pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) display. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of more than 30 cys-loop receptor structures of homologous proteins that revealed several allosteric binding sites not previously described in GABAA receptors. These novel binding sites were examined in GABAA receptor homology models and assessed as putative candidate sites for allosteric ligands. Four so far undescribed putative ligand binding sites were proposed for follow up studies based on their presence in the GABAA receptor homology models. A comprehensive analysis of conserved structural features in GABAA and glycine receptors (GlyRs), the glutamate gated ion channel, the bacterial homologs Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC) and Gloeobacter violaceus GLIC, and the serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptor was performed. The conserved features were integrated into a master alignment that led to improved homology models. The large fragment of the intracellular domain that is present in the structure of the 5-HT3 receptor was utilized to generate GABAA receptor models with a corresponding intracellular domain fragment. Results of mutational and photoaffinity ligand studies in GABAA receptors were analyzed in the light of the model structures. This led to an assignment of candidate ligands to two proposed novel pockets, candidate binding sites for furosemide and neurosteroids in the trans-membrane domain were identified. The homology models can serve as hypotheses generators, and some previously controversial structural interpretations of biochemical data can be resolved in the light of the presented multi-template approach to comparative modeling. Crystal and cryo-EM microscopic structures of the closest homologs that were solved in different conformational

  10. Functions of the major tyrosine phosphorylation site of the PDGF receptor beta subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskas, A; Durden, D L; Cooper, J A

    1991-01-01

    Two tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the human platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) beta subunit have been mapped previously to tyrosine (Y)751, in the kinase insert, and Y857, in the kinase domain. Y857 is the major site of tyrosine phosphorylation in PDGF-stimulated cells. To evaluate the importance of these phosphorylations, we have characterized the wild-type (WT) and mutant human PDGF receptor beta subunits in dog kidney epithelial cells. Replacement of either Y751 or Y857 with phenylalanine (F) reduced PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis to approximately 50% of the WT level. A mutant receptor with both tyrosines mutated was unable to initiate DNA synthesis, as was a kinase-inactive mutant receptor. Transmodulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor required Y857 but not Y751. We also tested the effects of phosphorylation site mutations on PDGF-stimulated receptor kinase activity. PDGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of two cellular proteins, phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and the GTPase activating protein of Ras (GAP), was assayed in epithelial cells expressing each of the mutant receptors. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GAP and PLC gamma 1 was reduced markedly by the F857 mutation but not significantly by the F751 mutation. Reduced kinase activity of F857 receptors was also evident in vitro. Immunoprecipitated WT receptors showed a two- to fourfold increase in specific kinase activity if immunoprecipitated from PDGF-stimulated cells. The F751 receptors showed a similar increase in activity, but F857 receptors did not. Our data suggest that phosphorylation of Y857 may be important for stimulation of kinase activity of the receptors and for downstream actions such as epidermal growth factor receptor transmodulation and mitogenesis. Images PMID:1653029

  11. Purification of high affinity benzodiazepine receptor binding site fragments from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    In central nervous system benzodiazepine recognition sites occur on neuronal cell surfaces as one member of a multireceptor complex, including recognition sites for benzodiazepines, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), barbiturates and a chloride ionophore. During photoaffinity labelling, the benzodiazepine agonist, /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam, is irreversibly bound to central benzodiazepine high affinity recognition sites in the presence of ultraviolet light. In these studies a /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam radiolabel was used to track the isolation and purification of high affinity agonist binding site fragments from membrane-bound benzodiazepine receptor in rat brain. The authors present a method for limited proteolysis of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam photoaffinity labeled rat brain membranes, generating photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site. Using trypsin chymotrypsin A/sub 4/, or a combination of these two proteases, they have demonstrated the extent and time course for partial digestion of benzodiazepine receptor, yielding photolabeled receptor binding site fragments. These photolabeled receptor fragments have been further purified on the basis of size, using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) as well as on the basis of hydrophobicity, using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) precolumn, several HPLC elution schemes, and two different HPLC column types. Using these procedures, they have purified three photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site which appear to have a molecular weight of less than 2000 daltons each.

  12. Identification of the sites for CaMK-II-dependent phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Houston, Catriona M; Lee, Henry H C; Hosie, Alastair M; Moss, Stephen J; Smart, Trevor G

    2007-06-15

    Phosphorylation can affect both the function and trafficking of GABA(A) receptors with significant consequences for neuronal excitability. Serine/threonine kinases can phosphorylate the intracellular loops between M3-4 of GABA(A) receptor beta and gamma subunits thereby modulating receptor function in heterologous expression systems and in neurons (1, 2). Specifically, CaMK-II has been demonstrated to phosphorylate the M3-4 loop of GABA(A) receptor subunits expressed as GST fusion proteins (3, 4). It also increases the amplitude of GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents in a number of neuronal cell types (5-7). To identify which substrate sites CaMK-II might phosphorylate and the consequent functional effects, we expressed recombinant GABA(A) receptors in NG108-15 cells, which have previously been shown to support CaMK-II modulation of GABA(A) receptors containing the beta3 subunit (8). We now demonstrate that CaMK-II mediates its effects on alpha1beta3 receptors via phosphorylation of Ser(383) within the M3-4 domain of the beta subunit. Ablation of beta3 subunit phosphorylation sites for CaMK-II revealed that for alphabetagamma receptors, CaMK-II has a residual effect on GABA currents that is not mediated by previously identified sites of CaMK-II phosphorylation. This residual effect is abolished by mutation of tyrosine phosphorylation sites, Tyr(365) and Tyr(367), on the gamma2S subunit, and by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. These results suggested that CaMK-II is capable of directly phosphorylating GABA(A) receptors and activating endogenous tyrosine kinases to phosphorylate the gamma2 subunit in NG108-15 cells. These findings were confirmed in a neuronal environment by expressing recombinant GABA(A) receptors in cerebellar granule neurons. PMID:17442679

  13. Site-directed alkylation of multiple opioid receptors. I. Binding selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    James, I.F.; Goldstein, A.

    1984-05-01

    A method for measuring and expressing the binding selectivity of ligands for mu, delta, and kappa opioid binding sites is reported. Radioligands are used that are partially selective for these sites in combination with membrane preparations enriched in each site. Enrichment was obtained by treatment of membranes with the alkylating agent beta-chlornaltrexamine in the presence of appropriate protecting ligands. After enrichment for mu receptors, (/sup 3/H) dihydromorphine bound to a single type of site as judged by the slope of competition binding curves. After enrichment for delta or kappa receptors, binding sites for (/sup 3/H) (D-Ala2, D-Leu5)enkephalin and (3H)ethylketocyclazocine, respectively, were still not homogeneous. There were residual mu sites in delta-enriched membranes but no evidence for residual mu or delta sites in kappa-enriched membranes were found. This method was used to identify ligands that are highly selective for each of the three types of sites.

  14. Novel Electrophilic and Photoaffinity Covalent Probes for Mapping the Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Allosteric Site(s)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable side effects associated with orthosteric agonists/antagonists of cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R), a tractable target for treating several pathologies affecting humans, have greatly limited their translational potential. Recent discovery of CB1R negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has renewed interest in CB1R by offering a potentially safer therapeutic avenue. To elucidate the CB1R allosteric binding motif and thereby facilitate rational drug discovery, we report the synthesis and biochemical characterization of first covalent ligands designed to bind irreversibly to the CB1R allosteric site. Either an electrophilic or a photoactivatable group was introduced at key positions of two classical CB1R NAMs: Org27569 (1) and PSNCBAM-1 (2). Among these, 20 (GAT100) emerged as the most potent NAM in functional assays, did not exhibit inverse agonism, and behaved as a robust positive allosteric modulator of binding of orthosteric agonist CP55,940. This novel covalent probe can serve as a useful tool for characterizing CB1R allosteric ligand-binding motifs. PMID:26529344

  15. Novel Electrophilic and Photoaffinity Covalent Probes for Mapping the Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Allosteric Site(s).

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Pushkar M; Kulkarni, Abhijit R; Korde, Anisha; Tichkule, Ritesh B; Laprairie, Robert B; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M; Zhou, Han; Janero, David R; Zvonok, Nikolai; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Cascio, Maria G; Pertwee, Roger G; Thakur, Ganesh A

    2016-01-14

    Undesirable side effects associated with orthosteric agonists/antagonists of cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R), a tractable target for treating several pathologies affecting humans, have greatly limited their translational potential. Recent discovery of CB1R negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has renewed interest in CB1R by offering a potentially safer therapeutic avenue. To elucidate the CB1R allosteric binding motif and thereby facilitate rational drug discovery, we report the synthesis and biochemical characterization of first covalent ligands designed to bind irreversibly to the CB1R allosteric site. Either an electrophilic or a photoactivatable group was introduced at key positions of two classical CB1R NAMs: Org27569 (1) and PSNCBAM-1 (2). Among these, 20 (GAT100) emerged as the most potent NAM in functional assays, did not exhibit inverse agonism, and behaved as a robust positive allosteric modulator of binding of orthosteric agonist CP55,940. This novel covalent probe can serve as a useful tool for characterizing CB1R allosteric ligand-binding motifs. PMID:26529344

  16. Chronic caffeine or theophylline exposure reduces gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodiazepine receptor site interactions.

    PubMed

    Roca, D J; Schiller, G D; Farb, D H

    1988-05-01

    Methylxanthines, such as caffeine and theophylline, are adenosine receptor antagonists that exert dramatic effects upon the behavior of vertebrate animals by increasing attentiveness, anxiety, and convulsive activity. Benzodiazepines, such as flunitrazepam, generally exert behavioral effects that are opposite to those of methylxanthines. We report the finding that chronic exposure of embryonic brain neurons to caffeine or theophylline reduces the ability of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to potentiate the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor. This theophylline-induced "uncoupling" of GABA- and benzodiazepine-binding site allosteric interactions is blocked by chloroadenosine, an adenosine receptor agonist, indicating that the chronic effects of theophylline are mediated by a site that resembles an adenosine receptor. We speculate that adverse central nervous system effects of long-term exposure to methylxanthines such as in caffeine-containing beverages or theophylline-containing medications may be exerted by a cell-mediated modification of the GABAA receptor. PMID:2835648

  17. Estrophilin immunoreactivity versus estrogen receptor binding activity in meningiomas: evidence for multiple estrogen binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lesch, K.P.; Schott, W.; Gross, S.

    1987-09-01

    The existence of estrogen receptors in human meningiomas has long been a controversial issue. This may be explained, in part, by apparent heterogeneity of estrogen binding sites in meningioma tissue. In this study, estrogen receptors were determined in 58 meningiomas with an enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies against human estrogen receptor protein (estrophilin) and with a sensitive radioligand binding assay using /sup 125/I-labeled estradiol (/sup 125/I-estradiol) as radioligand. Low levels of estrophilin immunoreactivity were found in tumors from 62% of patients, whereas radioligand binding activity was demonstrated in about 46% of the meningiomas examined. In eight (14%) tissue samples multiple binding sites for estradiol were observed. The immunoreactive binding sites correspond to the classical, high affinity estrogen receptors: the Kd for /sup 125/I-estradiol binding to the receptor was approximately 0.2 nM and the binding was specific for estrogens. The second, low affinity class of binding sites considerably influenced measurement of the classical receptor even at low ligand concentrations. The epidemiological and clinical data from patients with meningiomas, and the existence of specific estrogen receptors confirmed by immunochemical detection, may be important factors in a theory of oncogenesis.

  18. Ivermectin binding sites in human and invertebrate Cys-loop receptors.

    PubMed

    Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W

    2012-08-01

    Ivermectin is a gold standard antiparasitic drug that has been used successfully to treat billions of humans, livestock and pets. Until recently, the binding site on its Cys-loop receptor target had been a mystery. Recent protein crystal structures, site-directed mutagenesis data and molecular modelling now explain how ivermectin binds to these receptors and reveal why it is selective for invertebrate members of the Cys-loop receptor family. Combining this with emerging genomic information, we are now in a position to predict species sensitivity to ivermectin and better understand the molecular basis of ivermectin resistance. An understanding of the molecular structure of the ivermectin binding site, which is formed at the interface of two adjacent subunits in the transmembrane domain of the receptor, should also aid the development of new lead compounds both as anthelmintics and as therapies for a wide variety of human neurological disorders. PMID:22677714

  19. Metal binding sites of the estradiol receptor from calf uterus and their possible role in the regulation of receptor function

    SciTech Connect

    Medici, N.; Minucci, S.; Nigro, V.; Abbondanza, C.; Armetta, I.; Molinari, A.M.; Puca, G.A. )

    1989-01-10

    The existence of putative metal binding sites on the estradiol receptor (ER) molecule from calf uterus was evaluated by immobilizing various divalent metals to iminodiacetate-Sepharose. ER from both crude and highly purified preparations binds to metal-containing adsorbents complexed with Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Cu(II), but not to those complexed with Fe(II) and Cd(II). Analysis of affinity-labeled ER by ({sup 3}H)tamoxifen aziridine after elution from a column of Zn(II)-charged iminodiacetate-Sepharose showed that ER fragments obtained by extensive trypsinization were also bound. Zn(II) and the same other metals able to bind ER, when immobilized on resins, inhibit the binding of estradiol to the receptor at micromolar concentration. This inhibition is noncompetitive and can be reversed by EDTA. The inhibition of the hormone binding was still present after trypsin treatment of the cytosol, and it was abolished by preincubation with the hormone. Micromolar concentrations of these metals were able to block those chemical-physical changes occurring during the process of ER transformation in vitro. The presence of metal binding sites that modulate the ER activity in the hormone binding domain of ER is speculated. Since progesterone receptor showed the same pattern of binding and elution from metal-containing adsorbents, the presence of metal binding regulatory sites could be a property of all steroid receptors.

  20. Substance P and substance K receptor binding sites in the human gastrointestinal tract: localization by autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.S.; Zimmerman, R.P.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to localize and quantify the distribution of binding sites for /sup 125/I-radiolabeled substance P (SP), substance K (SK) and neuromedin K (NK) in the human GI tract using histologically normal tissue obtained from uninvolved margins of resections for carcinoma. The distribution of SP and SK binding sites is different for each gastrointestinal (GI) segment examined. Specific SP binding sites are expressed by arterioles and venules, myenteric plexus, external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, muscularis mucosa, epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the germinal centers of lymph nodules. SK binding sites are distributed in a pattern distinct from SP binding sites and are localized to the external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, and the muscularis mucosa. Binding sites for NK were not detected in any part of the human GI tract. These results demonstrate that: (1) surgical specimens from the human GI tract can be effectively processed for quantitative receptor autoradiography; (2) of the three mammalian tachykinins tested, SP and SK, but not NK binding sites are expressed in detectable levels in the human GI tract; (3) whereas SK receptor binding sites are expressed almost exclusively by smooth muscle, SP binding sites are expressed by smooth muscle cells, arterioles, venules, epithelial cells of the mucosa and cells associated with lymph nodules; and (4) both SP and SK binding sites expressed by smooth muscle are more stable than SP binding sites expressed by blood vessels, lymph nodules, and mucosal cells.

  1. Identification of the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 receptor binding site in botulinum neurotoxin A.

    PubMed

    Strotmeier, Jasmin; Mahrhold, Stefan; Krez, Nadja; Janzen, Constantin; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D; Binz, Thomas; Rummel, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) inhibit neurotransmitter release by hydrolysing SNARE proteins. The most important serotype BoNT/A employs the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) isoforms A-C as neuronal receptors. Here, we identified their binding site by blocking SV2 interaction using monoclonal antibodies with characterised epitopes within the cell binding domain (HC). The site is located on the backside of the conserved ganglioside binding pocket at the interface of the HCC and HCN subdomains. The dimension of the binding pocket was characterised in detail by site directed mutagenesis allowing the development of potent inhibitors as well as modifying receptor binding properties. PMID:24583011

  2. GHB receptor targets in the CNS: focus on high-affinity binding sites.

    PubMed

    Bay, Tina; Eghorn, Laura F; Klein, Anders B; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2014-01-15

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound in the mammalian brain with both low- and high-affinity receptor targets. GHB is used clinically in the treatment of symptoms of narcolepsy and alcoholism, but also illicitly abused as the recreational drug Fantasy. Major pharmacological effects of exogenous GHB are mediated by GABA subtype B (GABAB) receptors that bind GHB with low affinity. The existence of GHB high-affinity binding sites has been known for more than three decades, but the uncovering of their molecular identity has only recently begun. This has been prompted by the generation of molecular tools to selectively study high-affinity sites. These include both genetically modified GABAB knock-out mice and engineered selective GHB ligands. Recently, certain GABA subtype A (GABAA) receptor subtypes emerged as high-affinity GHB binding sites and potential physiological mediators of GHB effects. In this research update, a description of the various reported receptors for GHB is provided, including GABAB receptors, certain GABAA receptor subtypes and other reported GHB receptors. The main focus will thus be on the high-affinity binding targets for GHB and their potential functional roles in the mammalian brain. PMID:24269284

  3. Biochemical study of multiple drug recognition sites on central benzodiazepine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Trifiletti, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The benzodiazepine receptor complex of mammalian brain possesses recognition sites which mediate (at least in part) the pharmacologic actions of the 1,4-benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Evidence is provided suggesting the existence of least seven distinct drug recognition sites on this complex. Interactions between the various recognition sites have been explored using radioligand binding techniques. This information is utilized to provide a comprehensive scheme for characterizing receptor-active drugs on an anxiolytic-anticonvulsant/proconvulsant continuum using radioligand binding techniques, as well as a comprehensive program for identifying potential endogenous receptor-active substances. Further evidence is provided here supporting the notion of benzodiazepine recognition site heterogeneity. Classical 1,4-benzodiazepines do not appear to differentiate two populations of benzodiazepine receptors in an equilibrium sense, but appear to do so in a kinetic sense. An apparent physical separation of the two receptor subtypes can be achieved by differential solubilization. The benzodiazepine binding subunit can be identified by photoaffinity labeling with the benzodiazepine agonist (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepan. Conditions for reproducible partial proteolytic mapping of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam photoaffinity labeled receptors are established. From these maps, it is concluded that there are probably no major differences in the primary sequence of the benzodiazepine binding subunit in various regions of the rat central nervous system.

  4. A Three-Site Mechanism for Agonist/Antagonist Selective Binding to Vasopressin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Noureldin; Saladino, Giorgio; Gervasio, Francesco L; Haensele, Elke; Banting, Lee; Whitley, David C; Sopkova-de Oliveira Santos, Jana; Bureau, Ronan; Clark, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations with metadynamics enhanced sampling reveal three distinct binding sites for arginine vasopressin (AVP) within its V2 -receptor (V2 R). Two of these, the vestibule and intermediate sites, block (antagonize) the receptor, and the third is the orthosteric activation (agonist) site. The contacts found for the orthosteric site satisfy all the requirements deduced from mutagenesis experiments. Metadynamics simulations for V2 R and its V1a R-analog give an excellent correlation with experimental binding free energies by assuming that the most stable binding site in the simulations corresponds to the experimental binding free energy in each case. The resulting three-site mechanism separates agonists from antagonists and explains subtype selectivity. PMID:27184628

  5. A Binding Site Model and Structure-Activity Relationships for the Rat A3 Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    VAN GALEN, PHILIP J. M.; VAN BERGEN, ANDREW H.; GALLO-RODRIGUEZ, CAROLA; MELMAN, NELI; OLAH, MARK E.; IJZERMAN, AD P.; STILES, GARY L.; JACOBSON, KENNETH A.

    2012-01-01

    rat A3 receptors. The model presented here, which is consistent with the detailed SAR found in this study, may serve to suggest future chemical modification, site-directed mutagenesis, and SAR studies to further define essential characteristics of the ligand-receptor interaction and to develop even more potent and selective A3 receptor ligands. PMID:8022403

  6. New paradigms in chemokine receptor signal transduction: Moving beyond the two-site model.

    PubMed

    Kleist, Andrew B; Getschman, Anthony E; Ziarek, Joshua J; Nevins, Amanda M; Gauthier, Pierre-Arnaud; Chevigné, Andy; Szpakowska, Martyna; Volkman, Brian F

    2016-08-15

    Chemokine receptor (CKR) signaling forms the basis of essential immune cellular functions, and dysregulated CKR signaling underpins numerous disease processes of the immune system and beyond. CKRs, which belong to the seven transmembrane domain receptor (7TMR) superfamily, initiate signaling upon binding of endogenous, secreted chemokine ligands. Chemokine-CKR interactions are traditionally described by a two-step/two-site mechanism, in which the CKR N-terminus recognizes the chemokine globular core (i.e. site 1 interaction), followed by activation when the unstructured chemokine N-terminus is inserted into the receptor TM bundle (i.e. site 2 interaction). Several recent studies challenge the structural independence of sites 1 and 2 by demonstrating physical and allosteric links between these supposedly separate sites. Others contest the functional independence of these sites, identifying nuanced roles for site 1 and other interactions in CKR activation. These developments emerge within a rapidly changing landscape in which CKR signaling is influenced by receptor PTMs, chemokine and CKR dimerization, and endogenous non-chemokine ligands. Simultaneous advances in the structural and functional characterization of 7TMR biased signaling have altered how we understand promiscuous chemokine-CKR interactions. In this review, we explore new paradigms in CKR signal transduction by considering studies that depict a more intricate architecture governing the consequences of chemokine-CKR interactions. PMID:27106080

  7. Defining the functional binding sites of interleukin 12 receptor β1 and interleukin 23 receptor to Janus kinases.

    PubMed

    Floss, Doreen M; Klöcker, Tobias; Schröder, Jutta; Lamertz, Larissa; Mrotzek, Simone; Strobl, Birgit; Hermanns, Heike; Scheller, Jürgen

    2016-07-15

    The interleukin (IL)-12-type cytokines IL-12 and IL-23 are involved in T-helper (Th) 1 and Th17 immunity, respectively. They share the IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1) as one component of their receptor signaling complexes, with IL-12Rβ2 as second receptor for IL-12 and IL-23R for IL-23 signal transduction. Stimulation with IL-12 and IL-23 results in activation of receptor-associated Janus kinases (Jak) and phosphorylation of STAT proteins in target cells. The Janus kinase tyrosine kinase (Tyk) 2 associates with IL-12Rβ1, whereas Jak2 binds to IL-23R and also to IL-12Rβ2. Receptor association of Jak2 is mediated by Box1 and Box2 motifs located within the intracellular domain of the receptor chains. Here we define the Box1 and Box2 motifs in IL-12Rβ1 and an unusual Jak2-binding site in IL-23R by the use of deletion and site-directed mutagenesis. Our data show that nonfunctional box motifs abolish IL-12- and IL-23-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and cytokine-dependent proliferation of Ba/F3 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation of Tyk2 by IL-12Rβ1 and Jak2 by IL‑23R supported these findings. In addition, our data demonstrate that association of Jak2 with IL-23R is mandatory for IL-12 and/or IL-23 signaling, whereas Tyk2 seems to be dispensable. PMID:27193299

  8. Varenicline Interactions at the 5-HT3 Receptor Ligand Binding Site are Revealed by 5-HTBP

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cys-loop receptors are the site of action of many therapeutic drugs. One of these is the smoking cessation agent varenicline, which has its major therapeutic effects at nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors but also acts at 5-HT3 receptors. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the 5-HT binding protein (5-HTBP) in complex with varenicline, and test the predicted interactions by probing the potency of varenicline in a range of mutant 5-HT3 receptors expressed in HEK293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. The structure reveals a range of interactions between varenicline and 5-HTBP. We identified residues within 5 Å of varenicline and substituted the equivalent residues in the 5-HT3 receptor with Ala or a residue with similar chemical properties. Functional characterization of these mutant 5-HT3 receptors, using a fluorescent membrane potential dye in HEK cells and voltage clamp in oocytes, supports interactions between varenicline and the receptor that are similar to those in 5-HTBP. The structure also revealed C-loop closure that was less than in the 5-HT-bound 5-HTBP, and hydrogen bonding between varenicline and the complementary face of the binding pocket via a water molecule, which are characteristics consistent with partial agonist behavior of varenicline in the 5-HT3 receptor. Together, these data reveal detailed insights into the molecular interaction of varenicline in the 5-HT3 receptor. PMID:25648658

  9. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding sites differentiated by their affinity for pirenzepine do not interconvert

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, D.W.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1986-05-01

    Although it has been suggested by many investigators that subtypes of muscarinic cholinergic receptors exist, physical studies of solubilized receptors have indicated that only a single molecular species may exist. To test the hypothesis that the putative muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat forebrain are interconvertible states of the same receptor, the selective antagonist pirenzepine (PZ) was used to protect muscarinic receptors from blockade by the irreversible muscarinic receptor antagonist propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PBCM). If interconversion of high (M1) and low (M2) affinity binding sites for PZ occurs, incubation of cerebral cortical membranes with PBCM in the presence of PZ should not alter the proportions of M1 and M2 binding sites that are unalkylated (i.e., protected). If, on the other hand, the binding sites are not interconvertible, PZ should be able to selectively protect M1 sites and alter the proportions of unalkylated M1 and M2 binding sites. In the absence of PZ, treatment of cerebral cortical membranes with 20 nM PBCM at 4 degrees C for 50 min resulted in a 69% reduction in the density of M1 binding sites and a 55% reduction in the density of M2 binding sites with no change in the equilibrium dissociation constants of the radioligands (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate or (/sup 3/H)PZ. The reasons for this somewhat selective effect of PBCM are not apparent. In radioligand binding experiments using cerebral cortical membranes, PZ inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in a biphasic manner.

  10. Global Flexibility in a Sensory Receptor: A Site-Directed Cross-Linking Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, Joseph J.; Koshland, Daniel E.

    1987-09-01

    The aspartate receptor of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium is a cell surface sensory transducer that binds extracellular aspartate and sends a transmembrane signal to the inside of the bacterium. The flexibility and allostery of this receptor was examined by placing sulfhydryl groups as potential cross-linking sites at targeted locations in the protein. Seven different mutant receptors were constructed, each containing a single cysteine residue at a different position in the primary structure. Intramolecular disulfide bond formation within oligomers of these mutant receptors is shown to trap structural fluctuations and to detect ligand-induced changes in structure. The results indicate that the receptor oligomer has a flexible, dynamic structure which undergoes a global change upon aspartate binding.

  11. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-01-01

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser696 and Ser698 in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser886 and/or Ser893 in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser717 in the JM, and at Ser733, Thr752, Ser783, Ser864, Ser911, Ser958 and Thr998 in the kinase domain. The LC–ESI–MS/MS spectra provided support that up to three sites (Thr890, Ser893 and Thr894) in the AL were likely to be phosphorylated in vitro. These sites are evolutionarily highly conserved in PSK receptors, indicative of a conserved function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the four conserved residues in the activation segment, Thr890, Ser893, Thr894 and Thr899, differentially altered kinase activity in vitro and growth-promoting activity in planta. The T899A and the quadruple-mutated TSTT-A (T890A/S893A/T894A/T899A) mutants were both kinase-inactive, but PSKR1(T899A) retained growth-promoting activity. The T890A and S893A/T894A substitutions diminished kinase activity and growth promotion. We hypothesize that phosphorylation within the AL activates kinase activity and receptor function in a gradual and distinctive manner that may be a means to modulate the PSK response. PMID:26472115

  12. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-12-15

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser(696) and Ser(698) in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser(886) and/or Ser(893) in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser(717) in the JM, and at Ser(733), Thr(752), Ser(783), Ser(864), Ser(911), Ser(958) and Thr(998) in the kinase domain. The LC-ESI-MS/MS spectra provided support that up to three sites (Thr(890), Ser(893) and Thr(894)) in the AL were likely to be phosphorylated in vitro. These sites are evolutionarily highly conserved in PSK receptors, indicative of a conserved function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the four conserved residues in the activation segment, Thr(890), Ser(893), Thr(894) and Thr(899), differentially altered kinase activity in vitro and growth-promoting activity in planta. The T899A and the quadruple-mutated TSTT-A (T890A/S893A/T894A/T899A) mutants were both kinase-inactive, but PSKR1(T899A) retained growth-promoting activity. The T890A and S893A/T894A substitutions diminished kinase activity and growth promotion. We hypothesize that phosphorylation within the AL activates kinase activity and receptor function in a gradual and distinctive manner that may be a means to modulate the PSK response. PMID:26472115

  13. Autoradiography of dopamine receptors and dopamine uptake sites in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kujirai, K.; Przedborski, S.; Kostic, V.; Jackson-Lewis, V.; Fahn, S.; Cadet, J.L. )

    1990-11-01

    We examined the status of dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors by using (3H)SCH 23390 and (3H)spiperone binding, respectively, and DA uptake sites by using (3H)mazindol binding in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SHR showed significantly higher (3H)SCH 23390 and (3H)spiperone binding in the caudate-putamen (CPu), the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the olfactory tubercle (OT) in comparison to the SD rats. There were no significant differences in (3H)mazindol-labeled DA uptake sites between the two strains. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection into the striatum resulted in more than 90% depletion of DA uptake sites in the CPu in both strains. 6-OHDA-induced DA depletion was associated with significant increases in striatal (3H)spiperone binding which were of similar magnitude in the SD rats (+64.1%) and SHR (+51.3%). There were only small decreases (-5.4%) in D1 receptor binding in the dorsolateral aspect of the CPu in the SHR, whereas there were no changes in striatal D1 receptors in the SD rats. These results indicate that, although the SHR have higher concentrations of both D1 and D2 receptors in the basal ganglia, these receptors are regulated in a fashion similar to DA receptors in SD rats after 6-OHDA-induced striatal DA depletion.

  14. Cholesterol Modulates the Dimer Interface of the β2-Adrenergic Receptor via Cholesterol Occupancy Sites

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Xavier; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Sengupta, Durba

    2014-01-01

    The β2-adrenergic receptor is an important member of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, whose stability and function are modulated by membrane cholesterol. The recent high-resolution crystal structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor revealed the presence of possible cholesterol-binding sites in the receptor. However, the functional relevance of cholesterol binding to the receptor remains unexplored. We used MARTINI coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to explore dimerization of the β2-adrenergic receptor in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol. A novel (to our knowledge) aspect of our results is that receptor dimerization is modulated by membrane cholesterol. We show that cholesterol binds to transmembrane helix IV, and cholesterol occupancy at this site restricts its involvement at the dimer interface. With increasing cholesterol concentration, an increased presence of transmembrane helices I and II, but a reduced presence of transmembrane helix IV, is observed at the dimer interface. To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to explore the correlation between cholesterol occupancy and GPCR organization. Our results indicate that dimer plasticity is relevant not just as an organizational principle but also as a subtle regulatory principle for GPCR function. We believe these results constitute an important step toward designing better drugs for GPCR dimer targets. PMID:24655504

  15. Identification of the PGRMC1 protein complex as the putative sigma-2 receptor binding site

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinbin; Zeng, Chenbo; Chu, Wenhua; Pan, Fenghui; Rothfuss, Justin M.; Zhang, Fanjie; Tu, Zhude; Zhou, Dong; Zeng, Dexing; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Johnston, Fabian; Spitzer, Dirk; Chang, Katherine C.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Hawkins, William G.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Mach, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The sigma-2 receptor, whose gene remains to be cloned, has been validated as a biomarker for tumor cell proliferation. Here we report the use of a novel photoaffinity probe, WC-21, to identify the sigma-2 receptor binding site. WC-21, a sigma-2 ligand containing both a photoactive moiety azide and a fluorescein isothiocyanate group, irreversibly labels sigma-2 receptors in rat liver; the membrane-bound protein was then identified as PGRMC1 (progesterone receptor membrane component-1). Immunocytochemistry reveals that both PGRMC1 and SW120, a fluorescent sigma-2 receptor ligand, colocalizes with molecular markers of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in HeLa cells. Overexpression and knockdown of the PGRMC1 protein results in an increase and a decrease in binding of a sigma-2 selective radioligand, respectively. The identification of the putative sigma-2 receptor binding site as PGRMC1 should stimulate the development of unique imaging agents and cancer therapeutics that target the sigma-2 receptor/PGRMC1 complex. PMID:21730960

  16. Characterization of a second ligand binding site of the insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hao Caili; Whittaker, Linda; Whittaker, Jonathan . E-mail: jonathan.whittaker@case.edu

    2006-08-18

    Insulin binding to its receptor is characterized by high affinity, curvilinear Scatchard plots, and negative cooperativity. These properties may be the consequence of binding of insulin to two receptor binding sites. The N-terminal L1 domain and the C-terminus of the {alpha} subunit contain one binding site. To locate a second site, we examined the binding properties of chimeric receptors in which the L1 and L2 domains and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor were replaced by corresponding regions of the insulin receptor. Substitutions of the L2 domain and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat together with the L1 domain produced 80- and 300-fold increases in affinity for insulin. Fusion of these domains to human immunoglobulin Fc fragment produced a protein which bound insulin with a K {sub d} of 2.9 nM. These data strongly suggest that these domains contain an insulin binding site.

  17. Multiple binding sites in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: An opportunity for polypharmacolgy.

    PubMed

    Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Bermudez, Isabel; Varas, Rodrigo; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    For decades, the development of selective compounds has been the main goal for chemists and biologists involved in drug discovery. However, diverse lines of evidence indicate that polypharmacological agents, i.e. those that act simultaneously at various protein targets, might show better profiles than selective ligands, regarding both efficacy and side effects. On the other hand, the availability of the crystal structure of different receptors allows a detailed analysis of the main interactions between drugs and receptors in a specific binding site. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) constitute a large and diverse family of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) that, as a product of its modulation, regulate neurotransmitter release, which in turns produce a global neuromodulation of the central nervous system. nAChRs are pentameric protein complexes in such a way that expression of compatible subunits can lead to various receptor assemblies or subtypes. The agonist binding site, located at the extracellular region, exhibits different properties depending on the subunits that conform the receptor. In the last years, it has been recognized that nAChRs could also contain one or more allosteric sites which could bind non-classical nicotinic ligands including several therapeutically useful drugs. The presence of multiple binding sites in nAChRs offers an interesting possibility for the development of novel polypharmacological agents with a wide spectrum of actions. PMID:26318763

  18. Binding-site analysis of opioid receptors using monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Structural relatedness between the variable region of anti-ligand antibodies and opioid binding sites allowed the generation of anti-idiotypic antibodies which recognized opioid receptors. The IgG{sub 3}k antibodies which bound to opioid receptors were obtained when an anti-morphine antiserum was the idiotype. Both antibodies bound to opioid receptors, but only one of these blocked the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone. The antibody which did not inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone was itself displaced from the receptor by opioid ligands. The unique binding properties displayed by this antibody indicated that anti-idiotypic antibodies are not always a perfect image of the original ligand, and therefore may be more useful than typical ligands as probes for the receptor. An auto-anti-idiotypic technique was successfully used to obtain anti-opioid receptor antibodies. Another IgG{sub 3}k antibody that blocked the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone to rat brain opioid receptors was obtained when a mouse was immunized with naloxone conjugated to bovine serum albumin. These data confirmed that an idiotype-anti-idiotype network which can generate an anti-receptor antibody normally functions when an opioid ligand is introduced into an animal in an immunogenic form.

  19. Metal binding sites of the estradiol receptor from calf uterus and their possible role in the regulation of receptor function.

    PubMed

    Medici, N; Minucci, S; Nigro, V; Abbondanza, C; Armetta, I; Molinari, A M; Puca, G A

    1989-01-10

    The existence of putative metal binding sites on the estradiol receptor (ER) molecule from calf uterus was evaluated by immobilizing various divalent metals to iminodiacetate-Sepharose. ER from both crude and highly purified preparations binds to metal-containing adsorbents complexed with Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Cu(II), but not to those complexed with Fe(II) and Cd(II). Elution of ER was obtained by chelating agents or by imidazole, thus indicating that histidine residues on the ER molecule are involved in the interaction with the metal. Analysis of affinity-labeled ER by [3H]tamoxifen aziridine after elution from a column of Zn(II)-charged iminodiacetate-Sepharose showed that ER fragments obtained by extensive trypsinization were also bound. Zn(II) and the same other metals able to bind ER, when immobilized on resins, inhibit the binding of estradiol to the receptor at micromolar concentrations. This inhibition is noncompetitive and can be reversed by EDTA. The inhibition of the hormone binding was still present after trypsin treatment of the cytosol, and it was abolished by preincubation with the hormone. Micromolar concentrations of these metals were able to block those chemical-physical changes occurring during the process of ER transformation in vitro. Furthermore, if added to pretransformed ER-hormone complex, they strongly inhibited the binding of the complex to isolated nuclei. The presence of metal binding sites that modulate the ER activity in the hormone binding domain of ER is therefore speculated. Since progesterone receptor showed the same pattern of binding and elution from metal-containing adsorbents, the presence of metal binding regulatory sites could be a property of all steroid receptors. PMID:2706244

  20. Characterization of a neurokinin B receptor site in rat brain using a highly selective radioligand

    SciTech Connect

    Laufer, R.; Gilon, C.; Chorev, M.; Selinger, Z.

    1986-08-05

    We have recently characterized a tachykinin receptor subtype (SP-N) whose preferred ligand is the mammalian neuropeptide, neurokinin B. To investigate this novel tachykinin receptor, we have now prepared a radiolabeled peptide, N alpha-(( /sup 125/I)desamino-3-iodotyrosyl)-(Asp5,6, N-methyl-Phe8)substance P (5-11) heptapeptide (/sup 125/I-BH-NH-Senktide), which selectively interacts with the SP-N receptor subtype. The binding of /sup 125/I-BH-NH-Senktide to rat cerebral cortex membranes was studied under conditions that minimized nonspecific binding. Unlike other tachykinin receptor probes, this radioligand is not degraded during the binding experiment. Binding of /sup 125/I-BH-NH-Senktide is reversible, saturable, and of high affinity (KD = 0.9 nM). The radioligand labels a single class of binding site (122 fmol binding sites/mg of protein), as indicated by a linear Scatchard plot and a Hill coefficient close to unity (nH = 1.05). The pharmacological specificity of this binding site corresponds to that of the neuronal SP-N receptor in guinea pig ileum myenteric plexus, which was determined by a functional bioassay. Among various rat brain regions, the highest binding was observed in the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. These results suggest the existence and specific distribution of a neurokinin B receptor site of the SP-N type in rat brain. /sup 125/I-BH-NH-Senktide is the first selective and potent probe for this receptor and is thus an important tool for further studies of its distribution, regulation, and functional role.

  1. A molecular characterization of the agonist binding site of a nematode cys-loop GABA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kaji, Mark D; Kwaka, Ariel; Callanan, Micah K; Nusrat, Humza; Desaulniers, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Sean G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cys-loop GABA receptors represent important targets for human chemotherapeutics and insecticides and are potential targets for novel anthelmintics (nematicides). However, compared with insect and mammalian receptors, little is known regarding the pharmacological characteristics of nematode Cys-loop GABA receptors. Here we have investigated the agonist binding site of the Cys-loop GABA receptor UNC-49 (Hco-UNC-49) from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Experimental Approach We used two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology to measure channel activation by classical GABA receptor agonists on Hco-UNC-49 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, along with site-directed mutagenesis and in silico homology modelling. Key Results The sulphonated molecules P4S and taurine had no effect on Hco-UNC-49. Other classical Cys-loop GABAA receptor agonists tested on the Hco-UNC-49B/C heteromeric channel had a rank order efficacy of GABA > trans-4-aminocrotonic acid > isoguvacine > imidazole-4-acetic acid (IMA) > (R)-(−)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [R(−)-GABOB] > (S)-(+)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [S(+)-GABOB] > guanidinoacetic acid > isonipecotic acid > 5-aminovaleric acid (DAVA) (partial agonist) > β-alanine (partial agonist). In silico ligand docking revealed some variation in binding between agonists. Mutagenesis of a key serine residue in binding loop C to threonine had minimal effects on GABA and IMA but significantly increased the maximal response to DAVA and decreased twofold the EC50 for R(−)- and S(+)-GABOB. Conclusions and Implications The pharmacological profile of Hco-UNC-49 differed from that of vertebrate Cys-loop GABA receptors and insect resistance to dieldrin receptors, suggesting differences in the agonist binding pocket. These findings could be exploited to develop new drugs that specifically target GABA receptors of parasitic nematodes. PMID:25850584

  2. Distinct ETA receptor binding mode of macitentan as determined by site directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Gatfield, John; Mueller Grandjean, Celia; Bur, Daniel; Bolli, Martin H; Nayler, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The competitive endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA) bosentan and ambrisentan, which have long been approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, are characterized by very short (1 min) occupancy half-lives at the ET(A) receptor. The novel ERA macitentan, displays a 20-fold increased receptor occupancy half-life, causing insurmountable antagonism of ET-1-induced signaling in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. We show here that the slow ET(A) receptor dissociation rate of macitentan was shared with a set of structural analogs, whereas compounds structurally related to bosentan displayed fast dissociation kinetics. NMR analysis showed that macitentan adopts a compact structure in aqueous solution and molecular modeling suggests that this conformation tightly fits into a well-defined ET(A) receptor binding pocket. In contrast the structurally different and negatively charged bosentan-type molecules only partially filled this pocket and expanded into an extended endothelin binding site. To further investigate these different ET(A) receptor-antagonist interaction modes, we performed functional studies using ET(A) receptor variants harboring amino acid point mutations in the presumed ERA interaction site. Three ET(A) receptor residues significantly and differentially affected ERA activity: Mutation R326Q did not affect the antagonist activity of macitentan, however the potencies of bosentan and ambrisentan were significantly reduced; mutation L322A rendered macitentan less potent, whereas bosentan and ambrisentan were unaffected; mutation I355A significantly reduced bosentan potency, but not ambrisentan and macitentan potencies. This suggests that--in contrast to bosentan and ambrisentan--macitentan-ET(A) receptor binding is not dependent on strong charge-charge interactions, but depends predominantly on hydrophobic interactions. This different binding mode could be the reason for macitentan's sustained target occupancy and insurmountable

  3. Cycloxaprid insecticide: nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding site and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xusheng; Swenson, Tami L; Casida, John E

    2013-08-21

    Cycloxaprid (CYC) is a novel neonicotinoid prepared from the (nitromethylene)imidazole (NMI) analogue of imidacloprid. In this study we consider whether CYC is active per se or only as a proinsecticide for NMI. The IC50 values (nM) for displacing [(3)H]NMI binding are 43-49 for CYC and 2.3-3.2 for NMI in house fly and honeybee head membranes and 302 and 7.2, respectively, in mouse brain membranes, potency relationships interpreted as partial conversion of some CYC to NMI under the assay conditions. The 6-8-fold difference in toxicity of injected CYC and NMI to house flies is consistent with their relative potencies as in vivo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) inhibitors in brain measured with [(3)H]NMI binding assays. CYC metabolism in mice largely involves cytochrome P450 pathways without NMI as a major intermediate. Metabolites of CYC tentatively assigned are five monohydroxy derivatives and one each of dihydroxy, nitroso, and amino modifications. CYC appears be a proinsecticide, serving as a slow-release reservoir for NMI with selective activity for insect versus mammalian nAChRs. PMID:23889077

  4. Identification of drugs competing with d-tubocurarine for an allosteric site on cardiac muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Waelbroeck, M

    1994-10-01

    d-Tubocurarine behaved as a weak allosteric inhibitor of N-[3H] methylscopolamine binding to cardiac M2 muscarinic receptors. In a low ionic strength buffer devoid of bivalent ions, d-tubocurarine recognized cardiac M2 receptors in the micromolar concentration range and decreased their affinity for N-[3H]methylscopolamine by at most 4-fold. To identify the compounds that preferentially recognize this accessory site (as opposed to the classical muscarinic binding site), we measured the inhibition by different drugs of N-[3H]methylscopolamine binding, in the absence or presence of d-tubocurarine. The effect of gallamine was competitively inhibited by d-tubocurarine; both drugs compete for the same accessory site on muscarinic receptors. The effects of dexetimide, levetimide, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-ethylpiperidine ethobromide, AF-DX 116, and telenzepine on N-[3H]methylscopolamine binding were not affected or were barely affected by d-tubocurarine; these compounds preferentially recognize another binding site (probably the muscarinic binding site). The dose-effect curves for pentamethylene-bis(4-diphenylacetoxymethylpiperidine) bromide and methoctramine were shifted, but at most 10-fold, by d-tubocurarine. It is likely that (in this low ionic strength incubation buffer) methoctramine and pentamethylene-bis(4-diphenylacetoxymethylpiperidine)bromide had comparable affinities for the muscarinic site and the accessory site. d-Tubocurarine competitively inhibited their binding to the accessory site and allosterically inhibited their binding to the muscarinic site. This resulted in a large decrease (40-60-fold) of their overall affinity for muscarinic receptors. PMID:7969047

  5. Receptor modelling of secondary particulate matter at UK sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charron, A.; Degrendele, C.; Laongsri, B.; Harrison, R. M.

    2012-10-01

    Complementary approaches have been taken to better understand the sources and their spatial distribution for secondary inorganic (nitrate and sulphate) and secondary organic aerosol sampled at a rural site (Harwell) in the southern United Kingdom. A concentration field map method was applied to 1581 daily samples of chloride, nitrate and sulphate from 2006 to 2010, and 982 samples for organic carbon and elemental carbon from 2007 to 2010. This revealed a rather similar pattern of sources for nitrate, sulphate and secondary organic carbon within western/central Europe, which in the case of nitrate and sulphate, correlated significantly with EMEP emissions maps of NOx and SO2. A slightly more southerly source emphasis for secondary organic carbon may reflect the contribution of biogenic sources. Trajectory clusters confirm this pattern of behaviour with a major contribution from mainland European sources. Similar behaviours of, on the one hand, sulphate and organic carbon and, on the other hand, EC and nitrate showed that the former are more subject to regional influence than the latter in agreement with the slower atmospheric formation of sulphate and secondary organic aerosol than for nitrate, and the local/mesoscale influences upon primary EC. In a separate study, measurements of sulphate, nitrate, elemental and organic carbon were made in 100 simultaneously collected samples at Harwell and at a suburban site in Birmingham (UK). This showed a significant correlation in concentrations between the two sites for all of the secondary constituents, further indicating secondary organic aerosol to be a regional pollutant behaving similarly to sulphate and nitrate.

  6. Analysis of acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation sites using antibodies to synthetic peptides and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Safran, A; Neumann, D; Fuchs, S

    1986-01-01

    Three peptides corresponding to residues 354-367, 364-374, 373-387 of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) delta subunit were synthesized. These peptides represent the proposed phosphorylation sites of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, the tyrosine-specific protein kinase and the calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase respectively. Using these peptides as substrates for phosphorylation by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase it was shown that only peptides 354-367 was phosphorylated whereas the other two were not. These results verify the location of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site within the AChR delta subunit. Antibodies elicited against these peptides reacted with the delta subunit. The antipeptide antibodies and two monoclonal antibodies (7F2, 5.46) specific for the delta subunit were tested for their binding to non-phosphorylated receptor and to receptor phosphorylated by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Antibodies to peptide 354-367 were found to react preferentially with non-phosphorylated receptor whereas the two other anti-peptide antibodies bound equally to phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated receptors. Monoclonal antibody 7F2 reacted preferentially with the phosphorylated form of the receptor whereas monoclonal antibody 5.46 did not distinguish between the two forms. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3816758

  7. Targeting of GLUR4-containing AMPA receptors to synaptic sites during in vitro classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Mokin, M; Keifer, J

    2004-01-01

    The synaptic delivery of GluR4-containing AMPA receptors during in vitro classical conditioning of a neural correlate of an eyeblink response was examined by fluorescence imaging of punctate staining for glutamate receptor subunits and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. There was a significant increase in GluR4-containing AMPA receptors to synaptic sites after conditioning as determined by colocalization of GluR4 subunit puncta with synaptophysin. Moreover, the trafficking of these receptor subunits requires NMDA receptor activation as it was blocked by D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP-5). In contrast, colocalization of NR1 subunits with synaptophysin was stable regardless of whether the preparations had undergone conditioning or had been treated by AP-5. The enhanced colocalization of GluR4 and synaptophysin was accompanied by an increase in both the total number and size of puncta for both proteins, suggesting greater synthesis and aggregation during conditioning. Western blot analysis confirmed upregulation of synaptophysin and GluR4 following conditioning. These data support the hypothesis that GluR4-containing AMPA receptors are delivered to synaptic sites during conditioning. Further, they suggest coordinate presynaptic and postsynaptic modifications during in vitro classical conditioning. PMID:15350635

  8. Presence of a putative steroidal allosteric site on glycoprotein hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mario; Dimida, Antonio; Ferrarini, Eleonora; Silvano, Elena; De Marco, Giuseppina; Agretti, Patrizia; Aloisi, Gabriella; Simoncini, Tommaso; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Tonacchera, Massimo; Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto

    2009-11-25

    In a previous work we found that the insecticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), inhibits the accumulation of cAMP as induced by the bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) in cells transfected with the TSH receptor. In this work, we demonstrate that the DDT molecular analogues, diethylstilbestrol and quercetine, are more potent inhibitors of the TSH receptor activity than DDT itself. The notion that all these compounds interfere with nuclear estrogen receptors, as either agonists (DDT and diethylstilbestrol) or antagonists (quercetin), prompted us to test the ability of the steroid hormone 17-beta-estradiol to inhibit the TSH receptor activity. We found that estrogen exposure causes a modest but significant inhibition of the bTSH induced cAMP accumulation both in transfected CHO-TSH receptor and Fischer Rat Thyroid Low Serum 5% (FRTL-5) cells. When applied to CHO cells transfected with the luteinizing hormone receptor, 17-beta-estradiol proved capable of inhibiting the hCG induced cAMP accumulation at a concentration as low as 10nM, though the effect was not greater than 35%. The effect of 17-beta-estradiol was not estrogen receptors mediated, as co-transfection of the estrogen receptor alpha and beta subunits with LH receptor caused cAMP to increase above the level attained by the sole hCG stimulation, and not to decrease it as expected. These data suggest the presence of a steroidal-like allosteric binding site on glycoprotein hormone receptors. PMID:19766106

  9. Analogs of WIN 62,577 define a second allosteric site on muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Lazareno, S; Popham, A; Birdsall, N J M

    2002-12-01

    WIN 51,708 (17-beta-hydroxy-17-alpha-ethynyl-5-alpha-androstano[3,2-b]pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole) and WIN 62,577 (17-beta-hydroxy- 17-alpha-ethynyl-delta(4)-androstano[3,2-b]pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole) are potent and centrally active antagonists at rat, but not human, NK(1) receptors. The interactions of these compounds and some analogs with [(3)H]N-methyl scopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) and unlabeled acetylcholine (ACh) at M(1)-M(4) muscarinic receptors have been studied using equilibrium and nonequilibrium radioligand binding methods. The results are consistent with the predictions of the allosteric ternary complex model. The WIN compounds have log affinities for the unliganded receptor in the range 5 to 6.7, and exhibit positive, negative, or neutral cooperativity with [(3)H]NMS and ACh, depending on the receptor subtype and nature of the interacting ligands. WIN 62,577 is an allosteric enhancer of ACh affinity at M(3) receptors. Although interacting allosterically, WIN 62,577 and WIN 51,708 do not affect [(3)H]NMS dissociation from M(3) receptors. Certain analogs have higher affinities than WIN 62,577, and truncated forms of WIN 62,577, including steroids, also act allosterically. One analog, 17-beta-hydroxy-17-alpha-Delta(4)-androstano[3,2-b]pyrido[2,3-b]indole (PG987), has the unique effect of speeding [(3)H]NMS dissociation; its largest effect, 2.5-fold, is at M(3) receptors. The interaction between PG987 and other allosteric agents on [(3)H]NMS dissociation from M(3) receptors indicate that PG987 binds reversibly to a site distinct from that to which gallamine and strychnine bind: in contrast, PG987 seems to bind to the same site on M(3) receptors as KT5720, staurosporine, and WIN 51,708. Therefore, in addition to the allosteric site that binds strychnine (and probably chloromethyl brucine, another allosteric enhancer) there is a second, nonoverlapping, pharmacologically distinct allosteric site on M(3) receptors that also supports positive cooperativity with

  10. Metal binding 'finger' structures in the glucocorticoid receptor defined by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Severne, Y; Wieland, S; Schaffner, W; Rusconi, S

    1988-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor and the other members of the steroid receptor super-family share a highly conserved, cysteine-rich region which coincides with the DNA binding/transactivating domain. It has been postulated that this region is folded into two 'zinc finger' structures, similar to those originally reported for the transcription factor TFIIIA. The first potential finger domain contains four conserved cysteines and one conserved histidine, while the second contains five conserved cysteines. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have analysed the consequences of altering the proposed finger-like structures. Our results show that most of the mutations affecting the conserved cysteines result in a total loss of glucocorticoid receptor function. In one important exception, however, a conserved cysteine (Cys500) is dispensable for glucocorticoid receptor activity and therefore cannot be involved in complexing a metal ion to form a finger structure. Moreover, the replacement of either Cys476 or Cys482 by His residues maintains partial in vivo activity of the glucocorticoid receptor, while their exchange for an alanine or serine residue, respectively, eliminates receptor function. These results support, at a genetic level, the involvement of cysteines of the glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding domain in metal ion complexation and define the candidate residues involved in such coordination. Images PMID:3191912

  11. Two Affinity Sites of the Cannabinoid Subtype 2 Receptor Identified by a Novel Homogeneous Binding Assay.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Rabal, Obdulia; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Zamarbide, Marta; Navarro, Gemma; Sánchez-Arias, Juan A; de Miguel, Irene; Lanciego, José L; Oyarzabal, Julen; Franco, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    Endocannabinoids act on G protein-coupled receptors that are considered potential targets for a variety of diseases. There are two different cannabinoid receptor types: ligands for cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2Rs) show more promise than those for cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) because they lack psychotropic actions. However, the complex pharmacology of these receptors, coupled with the lipophilic nature of ligands, is delaying the translational success of medications targeting the endocannabinoid system. We here report the discovery and synthesis of a fluorophore-conjugated CB2R-selective compound, CM-157 (3-[[4-[2-tert-butyl-1-(tetrahydropyran-4-ylmethyl)benzimidazol-5-yl]sulfonyl-2-pyridyl]oxy]propan-1-amine), which was useful for pharmacological characterization of CB2R by using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. This methodology does not require radiolabeled compounds and may be undertaken in homogeneous conditions and in living cells (i.e., without the need to isolate receptor-containing membranes). The affinity of the labeled compound was similar to that of the unlabeled molecule. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays disclosed a previously unreported second affinity site and showed conformational changes in CB2R forming receptor heteromers with G protein-coupled receptor GPR55, a receptor for l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol. The populations displaying subnanomolar and nanomolar affinities were undisclosed in competitive assays using a well known cannabinoid receptor ligand, AM630 (1-[2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethyl]-2-methyl-3-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-6-iodoindole), and TH-chrysenediol, not previously tested on binding to cannabinoid receptors. Variations in binding parameters upon formation of dimers with GPR55 may reflect decreases in binding sites or alterations of the quaternary structure of the macromolecular G protein-coupled receptor complexes. In summary, the homogeneous binding assay described here may

  12. GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR REGULATION IN THE RAT EMBRYO: A POTENTIAL SITE FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glucocorticoid receptor regulation in the rat embryo: a potential site for developmental toxicity?

    Ghosh B, Wood CR, Held GA, Abbott BD, Lau C.

    National Research Council, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA.

  13. Synthetic approaches to site selective deuterium incorporation in a novel CRTh2 receptor antagonist clinical candidate.

    PubMed

    Sandham, David A; Page, Christopher J

    2014-03-01

    Selection of acidic or basic reaction conditions, combined with appropriate temperatures, allowed for site selective direct incorporation of deuterium at multiple positions in the 7-azaindole-3-acetic acid CRTh2 receptor antagonist clinical candidate NVP-QAV680. PMID:24452929

  14. Receptor sites involved in posttranslational transport of apocytochrome c into mitochondria: specificity, affinity, and number of sites.

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, B; Koehler, H; Neupert, W

    1983-01-01

    Assembly of cytochrome c involves a series of steps: synthesis of apocytochrome c on free ribosomes, specific binding of apocytochrome c to the mitochondrial surface, transfer across the outer membrane, covalent addition of protoheme, refolding of the polypeptide chain, and association of holocytochrome c with its functional sites at the inner membrane. The binding step of apocytochrome c to Neurospora crassa mitochondria was studied by inhibiting the subsequent transfer steps with the heme analogue deuterohemin. The binding sites are highly specific for mitochondrial apocytochromes c. Bound labeled Neurospora apocytochrome c was competitively displaced by unlabeled apocytochrome c from various species. These exhibited different abilities for displacement. Apocytochrome c from Paracoccus denitrificans, the amino-terminal (heme-binding) fragment of Neurospora apocytochrome c, and Neurospora holocytochrome c did not recognize the binding sites. Polylysine did not interfere with apocytochrome c binding. Apocytochrome c is reversibly bound. The binding sites are present in limited number. High-affinity binding sites were present at about 90 pmol/mg of mitochondrial protein. They displayed an association constant of 2.2 X 10(7) M-1. Apocytochrome c was imported into mitochondria and converted to holocytochrome c directly from the binding sites when inhibition by deuterohemin was relieved. We conclude that the apocytochrome c binding sites on mitochondria represent receptors that function in the recognition and import of this precursor by mitochondria. PMID:6308663

  15. Studies of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in mussels: comparison between a polluted and a nonpolluted site.

    PubMed

    Betti, Laura; Giannaccini, Gino; Nigro, Marco; Dianda, Sabina; Gremigni, Vittorio; Lucacchini, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in soft tissue membranes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from both polluted and nonpolluted seawater populations, using a radioligand specific for this receptor, [3H]PK11195. Mussels were dissected into four body parts--mantle, gills, digestive gland, and muscles-to determine the distribution of tissue-specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs). The specific binding was saturable and reversible. A statistically significant increase (muscle, 537% and mantle, 201%, as absolute percentages) in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) was found in mussels from the polluted site, compared with mussels from the nonpolluted site. By contrast, the value of the dissociation constant (K(d)) at equilibrium does not show a statistically significant variation between the two groups. In competitive experiments of the compounds clonazepam, flumazenil, flunitrazepam, Ro5-4864, PK11195, and protoporphyrin IX, only PK11195 and protoporphyrin IX displaced [3H]PK11195 specifically bound to soft tissue membranes, revealing that the binding sites of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors of mussels have pharmacological properties comparable to those of low vertebrates such as trout. M. galloprovincialis was also tested as an indicator of heavy metal exposure, and metal accumulation in the digestive gland was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The contents of Pb, Mn, and Zn in mussels collected off the polluted site were higher than those in mussels from the nonpolluted site. These data suggest that PBRs are present in the soft tissues of the mussel M. galloprovincialis. Here we report preliminary evidence of biochemical alterations in mussels from the polluted site. PMID:12547633

  16. Diazepam-bound GABAA receptor models identify new benzodiazepine binding-site ligands

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Lars; de Graaf, Chris; Sieghart, Werner; Varagic, Zdravko; Mörzinger, Martina; de Esch, Iwan J P; Ecker, Gerhard F; Ernst, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Benzodiazepines exert their anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle-relaxant and sedative-hypnotic properties by allosterically enhancing the action of GABA at GABAA receptors via their benzodiazepine-binding site. Although these drugs have been used clinically since 1960, the molecular basis of this interaction is still not known. By using multiple homology models and an un biased docking protocol, we identified a binding hypothesis for the diazepam-bound structure of the benzodiazepine site, which was confirmed by experimental evidence. Moreover, two independent virtual screening approaches based on this structure identified known benzodiazepine-site ligands from different structural classes and predicted potential new ligands for this site. Receptor-binding assays and electrophysiological studies on recombinant receptors confirmed these predictions and thus identified new chemotypes for the benzodiazepine-binding site. Our results support the validity of the diazepam-bound structure of the benzodiazepine-binding pocket, demonstrate its suitability for drug discovery and pave the way for structure-based drug design. PMID:22446838

  17. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution.

  18. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM

    PubMed Central

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution. PMID:26561004

  19. Receptor binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor are expressed by brown adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Bacay, A.C.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Mantyh, P.W. )

    1988-09-01

    To explore the possibility that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is involved in thermoregulation we used quantitative receptor autoradiography and homogenate receptor binding assays to identify ANF bindings sites in neonatal rat and sheep brown adipose tissue, respectively. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography were were able to localize high levels of specific binding sites for {sup 125}I-rat ANF in neonatal rat brown adipose tissue. Homogenate binding assays on sheep brown fat demonstrated that the radioligand was binding to the membrane fraction and that the specific binding was not due to a lipophilic interaction between {sup 125}I-rat ANF and brown fat. Specific binding of {sup 125}I-rat ANF to the membranes of brown fat cells was inhibited by unlabeled rat ANF with a Ki of 8.0 x 10(-9) M, but not by unrelated peptides. These studies demonstrate that brown fat cells express high levels of ANF receptor binding sites in neonatal rat and sheep and suggest that ANF may play a role in thermoregulation.

  20. Molecular evidence for dual pyrethroid-receptor sites on a mosquito sodium channel

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Yoshiko; Satar, Gul; Hu, Zhaonong; Nauen, Ralf; He, Sheng Yang; Zhorov, Boris S.; Dong, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used as one of the most effective control measures in the global fight against agricultural arthropod pests and mosquito-borne diseases, including malaria and dengue. They exert toxic effects by altering the function of voltage-gated sodium channels, which are essential for proper electrical signaling in the nervous system. A major threat to the sustained use of pyrethroids for vector control is the emergence of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids worldwide. Here, we report the successful expression of a sodium channel, AaNav1–1, from Aedes aegypti in Xenopus oocytes, and the functional examination of nine sodium channel mutations that are associated with pyrethroid resistance in various Ae. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae populations around the world. Our analysis shows that five of the nine mutations reduce AaNav1–1 sensitivity to pyrethroids. Computer modeling and further mutational analysis revealed a surprising finding: Although two of the five confirmed mutations map to a previously proposed pyrethroid-receptor site in the house fly sodium channel, the other three mutations are mapped to a second receptor site. Discovery of this second putative receptor site provides a dual-receptor paradigm that could explain much of the molecular mechanisms of pyrethroid action and resistance as well as the high selectivity of pyrethroids on insect vs. mammalian sodium channels. Results from this study could impact future prediction and monitoring of pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes and other arthropod pests and disease vectors. PMID:23821746

  1. In vivo brain dopaminergic receptor site mapping using /sup 75/Se-labeled pergolide analogs: the effects of various dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, A.

    1986-01-01

    Perogolide mesylate is a new synthetic ergoline derivative which is reported to possess agonistic activity at central dopamine receptor sites in the brain. The authors have synthesized a (/sup 75/Se)-radiolabeled pergolide mesylate derivative, (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate, which, after i.v. administration to mature male rats, showed a time course differentiation in the uptake of this radiolabeled compound in isolated peripheral and central (brain) tissues that are known to be rich in dopamine receptor sites. Further studies were conducted in which the animals were preexposed to the dopamine receptor agonist SKF-38393, as well as the dopamine receptor antagonists (+)-butaclamol, (-)-butaclamol, (+/-)-butaclamol and (-)-chloroethylnorapomorphine, to substantiate the specific peripheral and central localization patterns of (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate. Further investigations were also conducted in which the animals received an i.v. administration of N-isopropyl-l-123-p-iodoamphetamine ((/sup 123/I)-iodoamphetamine). However, (/sup 123/I)-iodoamphetamine did not demonstrate a specific affinity for any type of receptor site in the brain. These investigations further substantiated the fact that (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate does cross the blood-brain barrier is quickly localized at specific dopamine receptor sites in the intact rat brain and that this localization pattern can be affected by preexposure to different dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists. Therefore, these investigations provided further evidence that (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate and other radiolabeled ergoline analogs might be useful as brain dopamine receptor localization radiopharmaceuticals.

  2. The Sigma-2 Receptor and Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 are Different Binding Sites Derived From Independent Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Uyen B.; Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Chu, Ming-Liang; Yang, Huan; Schulman, Amanda; Mesangeau, Christophe; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Guo, Lian-Wang; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-2 receptor (S2R) is a potential therapeutic target for cancer and neuronal diseases. However, the identity of the S2R has remained a matter of debate. Historically, the S2R has been defined as (1) a binding site with high affinity to 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and haloperidol but not to the selective sigma-1 receptor ligand (+)-pentazocine, and (2) a protein of 18–21 kDa, as shown by specific photolabeling with [3H]-Azido-DTG and [125I]-iodoazido-fenpropimorph ([125I]-IAF). Recently, the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a 25 kDa protein, was reported to be the S2R (Nature Communications, 2011, 2:380). To confirm this identification, we created PGRMC1 knockout NSC34 cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We found that in NSC34 cells devoid of or overexpressing PGRMC1, the maximum [3H]-DTG binding to the S2R (Bmax) as well as the DTG-protectable [125I]-IAF photolabeling of the S2R were similar to those of wild-type control cells. Furthermore, the affinities of DTG and haloperidol for PGRMC1 (KI = 472 μM and 350 μM, respectively), as determined in competition with [3H]-progesterone, were more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than those reported for the S2R (20–80 nM). These results clarify that PGRMC1 and the S2R are distinct binding sites expressed by different genes. PMID:26870805

  3. Progesterone receptor induces bcl-x expression through intragenic binding sites favoring RNA polymerase II elongation.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Paola Y; Nacht, A Silvina; Alló, Mariano; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Ballaré, Cecilia; Soronellas, Daniel; Castellano, Giancarlo; Zaurin, Roser; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Beato, Miguel; Vicent, Guillermo P; Pecci, Adali

    2013-07-01

    Steroid receptors were classically described for regulating transcription by binding to target gene promoters. However, genome-wide studies reveal that steroid receptors-binding sites are mainly located at intragenic regions. To determine the role of these sites, we examined the effect of progestins on the transcription of the bcl-x gene, where only intragenic progesterone receptor-binding sites (PRbs) were identified. We found that in response to hormone treatment, the PR is recruited to these sites along with two histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and GCN5, leading to an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation and to the binding of the SWI/SNF complex. Concomitant, a more relaxed chromatin was detected along bcl-x gene mainly in the regions surrounding the intragenic PRbs. PR also mediated the recruitment of the positive elongation factor pTEFb, favoring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation activity. Together these events promoted the re-distribution of the active Pol II toward the 3'-end of the gene and a decrease in the ratio between proximal and distal transcription. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which PR regulates gene expression by facilitating the proper passage of the polymerase along hormone-dependent genes. PMID:23640331

  4. Progesterone receptor induces bcl-x expression through intragenic binding sites favoring RNA polymerase II elongation

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, Paola Y.; Nacht, A. Silvina; Alló, Mariano; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Ballaré, Cecilia; Soronellas, Daniel; Castellano, Giancarlo; Zaurin, Roser; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.; Beato, Miguel; Vicent, Guillermo P.; Pecci, Adali

    2013-01-01

    Steroid receptors were classically described for regulating transcription by binding to target gene promoters. However, genome-wide studies reveal that steroid receptors-binding sites are mainly located at intragenic regions. To determine the role of these sites, we examined the effect of progestins on the transcription of the bcl-x gene, where only intragenic progesterone receptor-binding sites (PRbs) were identified. We found that in response to hormone treatment, the PR is recruited to these sites along with two histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and GCN5, leading to an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation and to the binding of the SWI/SNF complex. Concomitant, a more relaxed chromatin was detected along bcl-x gene mainly in the regions surrounding the intragenic PRbs. PR also mediated the recruitment of the positive elongation factor pTEFb, favoring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation activity. Together these events promoted the re-distribution of the active Pol II toward the 3′-end of the gene and a decrease in the ratio between proximal and distal transcription. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which PR regulates gene expression by facilitating the proper passage of the polymerase along hormone-dependent genes. PMID:23640331

  5. Counting Bungarotoxin Binding Sites of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Mammalian Cells with High Signal/Noise Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Simonson, Paul D.; DeBerg, Hannah A.; Ge, Pinghua; Alexander, John K.; Jeyifous, Okunola; Green, William N.; Selvin, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are some of the most studied synaptic proteins; however, many questions remain that can only be answered using single molecule approaches. Here we report our results from single α7 and neuromuscular junction type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mammalian cell membranes. By labeling the receptors with fluorophore-labeled bungarotoxin, we can image individual receptors and count the number of bungarotoxin-binding sites in receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Our results indicate that there are two bungarotoxin-binding sites in neuromuscular junction receptors, as expected, and five in α7 receptors, clarifying previous uncertainty. This demonstrates a valuable technique for counting subunits in membrane-bound proteins at the single molecule level, with nonspecialized optics and with higher signal/noise ratios than previous fluorescent protein-based techniques. PMID:21081055

  6. Miniaturizing VEGF: Peptides mimicking the discontinuous VEGF receptor-binding site modulate the angiogenic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Lucia; Finetti, Federica; Diana, Donatella; di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Romanelli, Alessandra; Fattorusso, Roberto; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D’Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2016-08-01

    The angiogenic properties of VEGF are mediated through the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR2. The VEGF/VEGFR interface is constituted by a discontinuous binding region distributed on both VEGF monomers. We attempted to reproduce this discontinuous binding site by covalently linking into a single molecular entity two VEGF segments involved in receptor recognition. We designed and synthesized by chemical ligation a set of peptides differing in length and flexibility of the molecular linker joining the two VEGF segments. The biological activity of the peptides was characterized in vitro and in vivo showing a VEGF-like activity. The most biologically active mini-VEGF was further analyzed by NMR to determine the atomic details of its interaction with the receptor.

  7. Miniaturizing VEGF: Peptides mimicking the discontinuous VEGF receptor-binding site modulate the angiogenic response

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Lucia; Finetti, Federica; Diana, Donatella; Di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Romanelli, Alessandra; Fattorusso, Roberto; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D’Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The angiogenic properties of VEGF are mediated through the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR2. The VEGF/VEGFR interface is constituted by a discontinuous binding region distributed on both VEGF monomers. We attempted to reproduce this discontinuous binding site by covalently linking into a single molecular entity two VEGF segments involved in receptor recognition. We designed and synthesized by chemical ligation a set of peptides differing in length and flexibility of the molecular linker joining the two VEGF segments. The biological activity of the peptides was characterized in vitro and in vivo showing a VEGF-like activity. The most biologically active mini-VEGF was further analyzed by NMR to determine the atomic details of its interaction with the receptor. PMID:27498819

  8. Miniaturizing VEGF: Peptides mimicking the discontinuous VEGF receptor-binding site modulate the angiogenic response.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Lucia; Finetti, Federica; Diana, Donatella; Di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Romanelli, Alessandra; Fattorusso, Roberto; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D'Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The angiogenic properties of VEGF are mediated through the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR2. The VEGF/VEGFR interface is constituted by a discontinuous binding region distributed on both VEGF monomers. We attempted to reproduce this discontinuous binding site by covalently linking into a single molecular entity two VEGF segments involved in receptor recognition. We designed and synthesized by chemical ligation a set of peptides differing in length and flexibility of the molecular linker joining the two VEGF segments. The biological activity of the peptides was characterized in vitro and in vivo showing a VEGF-like activity. The most biologically active mini-VEGF was further analyzed by NMR to determine the atomic details of its interaction with the receptor. PMID:27498819

  9. Site-specific basicities regulate molecular recognition in receptor binding: in silico docking of thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gergő; Baska, Ferenc; Schretner, András; Rácz, Akos; Noszál, Béla

    2013-09-01

    Interactions between thyroid hormone α and β receptors and the eight protonation microspecies of each of the main thyroid hormones (thyroxine, liothyronine, and reverse liothyronine) were investigated and quantitated by molecular modeling. Flexible docking of the various protonation forms of thyroid hormones and high-affinity thyromimetics to the two thyroid receptors was carried out. In this method the role of the ionization state of each basic site could be studied in the composite process of molecular recognition. Our results quantitate at the molecular level how the ionization state and the charge distribution influence the protein binding. The anionic form of the carboxyl group (i.e., carboxylate site) is essential for protein binding, whereas the protonated form of amino group worsens the binding. The protonation state of the phenolate plays a less important role in the receptor affinity; its protonation, however, alters the electron density and the concomitant stacking propensity of the aromatic rings, resulting in a different binding score. The combined results of docking and microspeciation studies show that microspecies with the highest concentration at the pH of blood are not the strongest binding ones. The calculated binding free energy values can be well interpreted in terms of the interactions between the actual sites of the microspecies and the receptor amino acids. Our docking results were validated and compared with biological data from the literature. Since the thyroid hormone receptors influence several physiologic functions, such as metabolic rate, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and heart frequency, our binding results provide a molecular basis for drug design and development in related therapeutic indications. PMID:23907234

  10. Structure, oligosaccharide structures, and posttranslationally modified sites of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Poulter, L; Earnest, J P; Stroud, R M; Burlingame, A L

    1989-01-01

    Using mass spectrometry, we have examined the transmembrane topography of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, a five-subunit glycosylated protein complex that forms a gated ion channel in the neuromuscular junction. The primary sequences of the four polypeptide chains making up the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica contain many possible sites for glycosylation or phosphorylation. We have used liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry to identify posttranslationally modified residues and to determine the intact oligosaccharide structures of the carbohydrate present on the acetylcholine receptor. Asparagine-143 of the alpha subunit (in consensus numbering) is shown to be glycosylated with high-mannose oligosaccharide. Asparagine-453 of the gamma subunit is not glycosylated, a fact that bears on the question of the orientations of putative transmembranous helices M3, MA, and M4. The structures of the six major acetylcholine receptor oligosaccharides are determined: the major components (70%) are of the high-mannose type, with bi-, tri-, and tetraantennary complex oligosaccharides making up approximately equal to 22 mol% of the total carbohydrate. This application of a multichannel array detector mass spectrometer provided a breakthrough in sensitivity that allowed us to identify the site of attachment of, and the sequence of, oligosaccharides on a 300-kDa membrane protein from only 5 pmol of the isolated oligosaccharide. Images PMID:2771948

  11. In vivo receptor binding of opioid drugs at the mu site.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, J S; Holford, N H; Sadée, W

    1985-06-01

    The in vivo receptor binding of a series of opioid drugs was investigated in intact rats after s.c. administration of [3H]etorphine tracer, which selectively binds to mu sites in vivo. Receptor binding was determined by a membrane filtration assay immediately after sacrifice of the animals and brain homogenization. Coadministration of unlabeled opioid drugs together with tracer led to a dose-dependent decrease of in vivo tracer binding. Estimates of the doses required to occupy 50% of the mu sites in vivo established the following potency rank order: diprenorphine, naloxone, buprenorphine, etorphine, levallorphan, cyclazocine, sufentanil, nalorphine, ethylketocyclazocine, ketocyclazocine, pentazocine, morphine. In vivo-in vitro differences among the relative receptor binding potencies were only partially accounted for by differences in their access to the brain and the regulatory effects of Na+ and GTP, which are expected to reduce agonist affinities in vivo. The relationship among mu receptor occupancy in vivo and pharmacological effects of the opioid drugs is described. PMID:2989495

  12. In vivo receptor binding of opioid drugs at the mu site

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, J.S.; Holford, N.H.; Sadee, W.

    1985-06-01

    The in vivo receptor binding of a series of opioid drugs was investigated in intact rats after s.c. administration of (/sup 3/H)etorphine tracer, which selectively binds to mu sites in vivo. Receptor binding was determined by a membrane filtration assay immediately after sacrifice of the animals and brain homogenization. Coadministration of unlabeled opioid drugs together with tracer led to a dose-dependent decrease of in vivo tracer binding. Estimates of the doses required to occupy 50% of the mu sites in vivo established the following potency rank order: diprenorphine, naloxone, buprenorphine, etorphine, levallorphan, cyclazocine, sufentanil, nalorphine, ethylketocyclazocine, ketocyclazocine, pentazocine, morphine. In vivo-in vitro differences among the relative receptor binding potencies were only partially accounted for by differences in their access to the brain and the regulatory effects of Na+ and GTP, which are expected to reduce agonist affinities in vivo. The relationship among mu receptor occupancy in vivo and pharmacological effects of the opioid drugs is described.

  13. Structures of Receptor Complexes of a North American H7N2 Influenza Hemagglutinin with a Loop Deletion in the Receptor Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hua; Chen, Li-Mei; Carney, Paul J.; Donis, Ruben O.; Stevens, James

    2012-02-21

    Human infections with subtype H7 avian influenza viruses have been reported as early as 1979. In 1996, a genetically stable 24-nucleotide deletion emerged in North American H7 influenza virus hemagglutinins, resulting in an eight amino acid deletion in the receptor-binding site. The continuous circulation of these viruses in live bird markets, as well as its documented ability to infect humans, raises the question of how these viruses achieve structural stability and functionality. Here we report a detailed molecular analysis of the receptor binding site of the North American lineage subtype H7N2 virus A/New York/107/2003 (NY107), including complexes with an avian receptor analog (3'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine, 3'SLN) and two human receptor analogs (6'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine, 6'SLN; sialyllacto-N-tetraose b, LSTb). Structural results suggest a novel mechanism by which residues Arg220 and Arg229 (H3 numbering) are used to compensate for the deletion of the 220-loop and form interactions with the receptor analogs. Glycan microarray results reveal that NY107 maintains an avian-type ({alpha}2-3) receptor binding profile, with only moderate binding to human-type ({alpha}2-6) receptor. Thus despite its dramatically altered receptor binding site, this HA maintains functionality and confirms a need for continued influenza virus surveillance of avian and other animal reservoirs to define their zoonotic potential.

  14. Differences in the sites of phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.F.; Takayama, S.; Kahn, C.R.

    1985-08-05

    Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor was studied in intact well differentiated hepatoma cells (Fao) and in a solubilized and partially purified receptor preparation obtained from these cells by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin agarose. Tryptic peptides containing the phosphorylation sites of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor were analyzed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Phosphoamino acid content of these peptides was determined by acid hydrolysis and high voltage electrophoresis. Separation of the phosphopeptides from unstimulated Fao cells revealed one major and two minor phosphoserine-containing peptides and a single minor phosphothreonine-containing peptide. Insulin (10(-7) M) increased the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor 3- to 4-fold in the intact Fao cell. After insulin stimulation, two phosphotyrosine-containing peptides were identified. Tyrosine phosphorylation reached a steady state within 20 s after the addition of insulin and remained nearly constant for 1 h. Under our experimental conditions, no significant change in the amount of (TSP)phosphoserine or (TSP)phosphothreonine associated with the beta-subunit was found during the initial response of cells to insulin. When the insulin receptor was extracted from the Fao cells and incubated in vitro with (gamma-TSP)ATP and MnS , very little phosphorylation occurred in the absence of insulin.

  15. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Kenny, Paul J.; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. PMID:25869137

  16. Molecular environment of the phencyclidine binding site in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Palma, A.L.; Wang, H.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Phencyclidine is a highly specific noncompetitive inhibitor of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In a novel approach to study this site, a spin-labeled analogue of phencyclidine, 4-phenyl-4-(1-piperidinyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (PPT) was synthesized. The binding of PPT inhibits 86Rb flux (IC50 = 6.6 microM), and (3H)phencyclidine binding to both resting and desensitized acetylcholine receptor (IC50 = 17 microM and 0.22 microM, respectively). From an indirect Hill plot of the inhibition of (3H)phencyclidine binding by PPT, a Hill coefficient of approximately one was obtained in the presence of carbamylcholine and 0.8 in alpha-bungarotoxin-treated preparations. Taken together, these results indicate that PPT mimics phencyclidine in its ability to bind to the noncompetitive inhibitor site and is functionally active in blocking ion flux across the acetylcholine receptor channel. Analysis of the electron spin resonance signal of the bound PPT suggests that the environment surrounding the probe within the ion channel is hydrophobic, with a hydrophobicity parameter of 1.09. A dielectric constant for the binding site was estimated to be in the range of 2-3 units.

  17. Two disparate ligand binding sites in the human P2Y1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Zhang, Kaihua; Kiselev, Evgeny; Crane, Steven; Wang, Jiang; Paoletta, Silvia; Yi, Cuiying; Ma, Limin; Zhang, Wenru; Han, Gye Won; Liu, Hong; Cherezov, Vadim; Katritch, Vsevolod; Jiang, Hualiang; Stevens, Raymond C.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Beili

    2015-01-01

    In response to adenosine 5′-diphosphate, the P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) facilitates platelet aggregation, and thus serves as an important antithrombotic drug target. Here we report the crystal structures of the human P2Y1R in complex with a nucleotide antagonist MRS2500 at 2.7Å resolution, and with a non-nucleotide antagonist BPTU at 2.2Å resolution. The structures reveal two distinct ligand binding sites, providing atomic details of P2Y1R’s unique ligand binding modes. MRS2500 recognizes a binding site within the seven transmembrane bundle of P2Y1R, which, however, is different in shape and location from the nucleotide binding site in previously determined P2Y12R structure. BPTU binds to an allosteric pocket on the external receptor interface with the lipid bilayer, making it the first structurally characterized selective G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand located entirely outside of the helical bundle. These high-resolution insights into P2Y1R should enable discovery of new orthosteric and allosteric antithrombotic drugs with reduced adverse effects. PMID:25822790

  18. Interaction of Mycoplasma pneumoniae with human lung fibroblasts: role of receptor sites.

    PubMed Central

    Gabridge, M G; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1979-01-01

    The biochemical nature of the neuraminidase-sensitive Mycoplasma pneumoniae receptor site on human lung fibroblast cells was studied. Purified, mixed sialoglycolipid (ganglioside) preparations from human and bovine tissues did not bind to M. pneumoniae organisms and block their subsequent attachment to fibroblasts. Fibroblasts incubated for 24 h in sialoglycolipid solutions to increase the ganglioside content of their membranes did not show increased pathogen attachment when later incubated with mycoplasmas. HeLa cells grown in the presence of sodium butyrate to increase GM3 ganglioside levels likewise did not have significantly increased uptake of M. pneumoniae organisms. Treatment of fibroblasts with enzymes indicated that the mycoplasma receptor site is trypsin and papain resistant but Pronase sensitive. Pronase digests of fibroblast membranes contained a product(s) which combined with M. pneumoniae cellls and cosedimented with them during centrifugation. Glycoproteins, purified from fibroblast membranes by a lithium diiodosalicylate solubilization technique, similarly bound to M. pneumoniae organisms. Collectively, these data suggest that the major component of the M. pneumoniae receptor site is a sialoglycoprotein with little or no lipid. PMID:113349

  19. Cleavage Site Localization Differentially Controls Interleukin-6 Receptor Proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17

    PubMed Central

    Riethmueller, Steffen; Ehlers, Johanna C.; Lokau, Juliane; Düsterhöft, Stefan; Knittler, Katharina; Dombrowsky, Gregor; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rabe, Björn; Rose-John, Stefan; Garbers, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of the Interleukin-6 Receptor (IL-6R) leads to the release of the IL-6R ectodomain. Binding of the cytokine IL-6 to the soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) results in an agonistic IL-6/sIL-6R complex, which activates cells via gp130 irrespective of whether the cells express the IL-6R itself. This signaling pathway has been termed trans-signaling and is thought to mainly account for the pro-inflammatory properties of IL-6. A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17 are the major proteases that cleave the IL-6R. We have previously shown that deletion of a ten amino acid long stretch within the stalk region including the cleavage site prevents ADAM17-mediated cleavage, whereas the receptor retained its full biological activity. In the present study, we show that deletion of a triple serine (3S) motif (Ser-359 to Ser-361) adjacent to the cleavage site is sufficient to prevent IL-6R cleavage by ADAM17, but not ADAM10. We find that the impaired shedding is caused by the reduced distance between the cleavage site and the plasma membrane. Positioning of the cleavage site in greater distance towards the plasma membrane abrogates ADAM17-mediated shedding and reveals a novel cleavage site of ADAM10. Our findings underline functional differences in IL-6R proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17. PMID:27151651

  20. Mapping functional group free energy patterns at protein occluded sites: nuclear receptors and G-protein coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Lakkaraju, Sirish Kaushik; Yu, Wenbo; Raman, E Prabhu; Hershfeld, Alena V; Fang, Lei; Deshpande, Deepak A; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2015-03-23

    Occluded ligand-binding pockets (LBP) such as those found in nuclear receptors (NR) and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) represent a significant opportunity and challenge for computer-aided drug design. To determine free energies maps of functional groups of these LBPs, a Grand-Canonical Monte Carlo/Molecular Dynamics (GCMC/MD) strategy is combined with the Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) methodology. SILCS-GCMC/MD is shown to map functional group affinity patterns that recapitulate locations of functional groups across diverse classes of ligands in the LBPs of the androgen (AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated-γ (PPARγ) NRs and the metabotropic glutamate (mGluR) and β2-adreneric (β2AR) GPCRs. Inclusion of protein flexibility identifies regions of the binding pockets not accessible in crystal conformations and allows for better quantitative estimates of relative ligand binding affinities in all the proteins tested. Differences in functional group requirements of the active and inactive states of the β2AR LBP were used in virtual screening to identify high efficacy agonists targeting β2AR in Airway Smooth Muscle (ASM) cells. Seven of the 15 selected ligands were found to effect ASM relaxation representing a 46% hit rate. Hence, the method will be of use for the rational design of ligands in the context of chemical biology and the development of therapeutic agents. PMID:25692383

  1. Mapping Functional Group Free Energy Patterns at Protein Occluded Sites: Nuclear Receptors and G-Protein Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Occluded ligand-binding pockets (LBP) such as those found in nuclear receptors (NR) and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) represent a significant opportunity and challenge for computer-aided drug design. To determine free energies maps of functional groups of these LBPs, a Grand-Canonical Monte Carlo/Molecular Dynamics (GCMC/MD) strategy is combined with the Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) methodology. SILCS-GCMC/MD is shown to map functional group affinity patterns that recapitulate locations of functional groups across diverse classes of ligands in the LBPs of the androgen (AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated-γ (PPARγ) NRs and the metabotropic glutamate (mGluR) and β2-adreneric (β2AR) GPCRs. Inclusion of protein flexibility identifies regions of the binding pockets not accessible in crystal conformations and allows for better quantitative estimates of relative ligand binding affinities in all the proteins tested. Differences in functional group requirements of the active and inactive states of the β2AR LBP were used in virtual screening to identify high efficacy agonists targeting β2AR in Airway Smooth Muscle (ASM) cells. Seven of the 15 selected ligands were found to effect ASM relaxation representing a 46% hit rate. Hence, the method will be of use for the rational design of ligands in the context of chemical biology and the development of therapeutic agents. PMID:25692383

  2. Identification of a new site in the S1 ligand binding region of the NMDA receptor NR2A subunit involved in receptor activation by glutamate.

    PubMed

    Lummis, Sarah C R; Fletcher, Elizabeth J; Green, Tim

    2002-03-01

    Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors requires the binding of both glutamate and glycine to independent sites on the receptor. These ligands bind to NR2 and NR1 subunits respectively. Ligand binding residues are located in two non-contiguous domains, S1 and S2, which have been implicated in glutamate binding in other ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits. To further define the amino acids through which glutamate activates the receptor, we generated single-site mutations to the NR2A subunit, and expressed them with wild type NR1 in HEK 293 cells. Using calcium imaging and whole cell patch clamp we determined glutamate and glycine potencies. Of the eight residues mutated we identified five (E413, K484, A508, G685 and G688), whose mutation leads to a large reduction (from 4- to 1000-fold) in glutamate potency, consistent with a role for these residues in receptor activation by glutamate. The potency of glycine was largely unchanged by these mutations. Thus our results extend the knowledge base of residues involved in NMDA receptor function and identifies a new site in S1, in the region of A508, that has a role in receptor activation by glutamate. PMID:11955515

  3. Distribution of cholecystokinin receptor binding sites in the human brain: an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Dietl, M.M.; Probst, A.; Palacios, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding sites were localized by in vitro autoradiography in human postmortem brain materials from 12 patients without reported neurological diseases using (125I)Bolton-Hunter CCK octapeptide (BHCCK-8) as a ligand. The pharmacological characteristics of BHCCK-8 binding to mounted tissue sections were comparable to those previously reported in the rat. CCK-8 being the most potent displacer, followed by caerulein, CCK-4, and gastrin I. The distribution of BHCCK-8 binding sites was heterogeneous. These sites were highly concentrated in a limited number of gray matter areas and nuclei. The highest binding densities were seen in the glomerular and external plexiform layers of the olfactory bulb. BHCCK-8 binding sites were also enriched in the neocortex, where they presented a laminar distribution with low levels in lamina I, moderate concentration in laminae II to IV, high density in lamina V, and low levels in lamina VI. A different laminar distribution was seen in the visual cortex, where a low receptor density was observed in lamina IV but higher density in laminae II and VI. In the basal ganglia the nucleus accumbens, caudatus, and the putamen presented moderate to high densities of binding sites, while the globus pallidus lacked sites of BHCCK-8 binding. In the limbic system the only area presenting moderate to high density was the amygdaloid complex, particularly in the granular nucleus, while most of the thalamic nuclei were extremely poor or lacked BHCCK-8 binding. The hippocampal formation showed low (CA1-3) to moderate (subiculum) densities. Midbrain areas generally disclosed very low levels of BHCCK-8 binding sites. The pontine gray and the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis showed a relatively high density of CCK-8 receptor specific binding.

  4. In Search of Novel Drug Target Sites on Estrogen Receptors Using RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Daiying; Chatakonda, Vamsee-Krishna; Kourtidis, Antonis; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a well-validated drug target for a majority of breast cancers. But the target sites on this receptor are far from exhaustively defined. Almost all ER antagonists in clinical use function by binding to the ligand-binding pocket to occlude agonist access. Resistance to this type of drugs may develop over time, not caused by the change of ERα itself, but by changes in ER associated proteins. This observation is fueling the development of reagents that downregulate ER activity through novel binding sites. However, it is challenging to find general ER antagonists that act independently from other known ER ligands. In this report, we describe the utility of RNA aptamers in the search for new drug target sites on ERα. We have identified three high affinity aptamers and characterized one of them in detail. This aptamer interacted with ERα in a way not affected by the presence or absence of either the steroidal ligands or the estrogen response DNA elements, and effectively inhibited ER-mediated transcriptional activation in a breast cancer cell line. Serving as a novel drug lead, it may also be used to guide the rational chemical synthesis of small molecule drugs or to perform screens of small molecule libraries for those that are able to displace the aptamer from its binding site. PMID:24588102

  5. Identification of ginsenoside interaction sites in 5-HT3A receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Sang-Mok; Jeong, Sang Min; Yoon, In-Soo; Lee, Joon-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hye; Pyo, Mi Kyung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Byoung-Cheol; Park, Chul-Seung; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2007-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg(3) (Rg(3)), one of the active components of Panax ginseng, non-competitively inhibits 5-HT(3A) receptor channel activity on extracellular side of the cell. Here, we sought to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying Rg(3)-induced 5-HT(3A) receptor regulation. We used the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique to investigate the effect of Rg(3) on 5-HT-mediated ion currents (I(5-HT)) in Xenopus oocytes expressing wild-type or 5-HT(3A) receptors harboring mutations in the gating pore region of transmembrane domain 2 (TM2). In oocytes expressing wild-type 5-HT(3A) receptors, Rg(3) dose-dependently inhibited peak I(5-HT) with an IC(50) of 27.6+/-4.3microM. Mutations V291A, F292A, and I295A in TM2 greatly attenuated or abolished the Rg(3)-induced inhibition of peak I(5-HT). Mutation V291A but not F292A and I295A induced constitutively active ion currents with decrease of current decay rate. Rg(3) accelerated the rate of current decay with dose-dependent manner in the presence of 5-HT. Rg(3) and TMB-8, an open channel blocker, dose-dependently inhibited constitutively active ion currents. The IC(50) values of constitutively active ion currents in V291A mutant receptor were 72.4+/-23.1 and 6.5+/-0.7microM for Rg(3) and TMB-8, respectively. Diltiazem did not prevent Rg(3)-induced inhibition of constitutively active ion currents in occlusion experiments. These results indicate that Rg(3) inhibits 5-HT(3A) receptor channel activity through interactions with residues V291, F292, and I295 in the channel gating region of TM2 and further demonstrate that Rg(3) regulates 5-HT(3A) receptor channel activity in the open state at different site(s) from those of TMB-8 and diltiazem. PMID:17257631

  6. Theoretical study of mexiletine and its interaction with cationic and anionic receptor sites.

    PubMed

    Remko, M; Smiesko, M; Benová, A

    1999-10-30

    Theoretical methods are applied to study the antiarrhythmic (AA) mexiletine (1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane). The AM1 method is used to construct a three-centre binding model for this drug. This model consists of an amine nitrogen atom that is protonated to a higher degree at physiological pH, flat hydrophobic regions of aromatic rings and additional functional groups with lone electron pairs of oxygen. Based on these ideas, a model for the binding of mexiletine at the transmembrane protein was constructed. An ab initio SCF method was used to study the two-component mexiletine-receptor binding site composed of acetate (Glu-, Asp-) and protonated methylamine (Lys+, Arg+). The binding of mexiletine to the receptor may be understood by considering a two-step process of recognition and binding of AA to its receptor. Within this model the mexiletine cation is recognised in the first step and bonded to the negatively-charged part of the receptor. In a subsequent step, the interaction between the amide oxygen and cationic amine group of the membrane protein may follow. PMID:10575733

  7. Pairwise detection of site-specific receptor phosphorylations using single-molecule blotting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Lock; Kim, Daehyung; Lee, Seongsil; Kim, Su-Jeong; Noh, Jung Eun; Kim, Joung-Hun; Chae, Young Chan; Lee, Jong-Bong; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) at the plasma membrane (PM) determine the signal transduction efficacy alone and in combination. However, current approaches to identify PTMs provide ensemble results, inherently overlooking combinatorial PTMs in a single polypeptide molecule. Here, we describe a single-molecule blotting (SiMBlot) assay that combines biotinylation of cell surface receptors with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. This method enables quantitative measurement of the phosphorylation status of individual membrane receptor molecules and colocalization analysis of multiple immunofluorescence signals to directly visualize pairwise site-specific phosphorylation patterns at the single-molecule level. Strikingly, application of SiMBlot to study ligand-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation, which is widely thought to be multi-phosphorylated, reveals that EGFR on cell membranes is hardly multi-phosphorylated, unlike in vitro autophosphorylated EGFR. Therefore, we expect SiMBlot to aid understanding of vast combinatorial PTM patterns, which are concealed in ensemble methods, and to broaden knowledge of RTK signaling. PMID:27009355

  8. Characterization of the Binding Site of Aspartame in the Human Sweet Taste Receptor.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Emeline L; Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Mezei, Mihaly; Hecht, Elizabeth; Quijada, Jeniffer; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman; Max, Marianna

    2015-10-01

    The sweet taste receptor, a heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor comprised of T1R2 and T1R3, binds sugars, small molecule sweeteners, and sweet proteins to multiple binding sites. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame binds in the Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) of T1R2. We developed homology models of the open and closed forms of human T1R2 and human T1R3 VFTMs and their dimers and then docked aspartame into the closed form of T1R2's VFTM. To test and refine the predictions of our model, we mutated various T1R2 VFTM residues, assayed activity of the mutants and identified 11 critical residues (S40, Y103, D142, S144, S165, S168, Y215, D278, E302, D307, and R383) in and proximal to the binding pocket of the sweet taste receptor that are important for ligand recognition and activity of aspartame. Furthermore, we propose that binding is dependent on 2 water molecules situated in the ligand pocket that bridge 2 carbonyl groups of aspartame to residues D142 and L279. These results shed light on the activation mechanism and how signal transmission arising from the extracellular domain of the T1R2 monomer of the sweet receptor leads to the perception of sweet taste. PMID:26377607

  9. Rpn1 provides adjacent receptor sites for substrate binding and deubiquitination by the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan; Chen, Xiang; Elsasser, Suzanne; Stocks, Bradley B.; Tian, Geng; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Shi, Yanhong; Zhang, Naixia; de Poot, Stefanie A. H.; Tuebing, Fabian; Sun, Shuangwu; Vannoy, Jacob; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Engen, John R.; Finley, Daniel; Walters, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    Structured Abstract INTRODUCTION The ubiquitin-proteasome system comprises hundreds of distinct pathways of degradation, which converge at the step of ubiquitin recognition by the proteasome. Five proteasomal ubiquitin receptors have been identified, two that are intrinsic to the proteasome (Rpn10 and Rpn13) and three reversibly associated proteasomal ubiquitin receptors (Rad23, Dsk2, and Ddi1). RATIONALE We found that the five known proteasomal ubiquitin receptors of yeast are collectively nonessential for ubiquitin recognition by the proteasome. We therefore screened for additional ubiquitin receptors in the proteasome and identified subunit Rpn1 as a candidate. We used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterize the structure of the binding site within Rpn1, which we term the T1 site. Mutational analysis of this site showed its functional importance within the context of intact proteasomes. T1 binds both ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like (UBL) proteins, in particular the substrate-delivering shuttle factor Rad23. A second site within the Rpn1 toroid, T2, recognizes the UBL domain of deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp6, as determined by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analysis and validated by amino acid substitution and functional assays. The Rpn1 toroid thus serves a critical scaffolding role within the proteasome, helping to assemble multiple proteasome cofactors as well as substrates. RESULTS Our results indicate that proteasome subunit Rpn1 can recognize both ubiquitin and UBL domains of substrate shuttling factors that themselves bind ubiquitin and function as reversibly-associated proteasomal ubiquitin receptors. Recognition is mediated by the T1 site within the Rpn1 toroid, which supports proteasome function in vivo. We found that the capacity of T1 to recognize both ubiquitin and UBL proteins was shared with Rpn10 and Rpn13. The surprising multiplicity of ubiquitin-recognition domains within the proteasome may promote enhanced

  10. Overlapping binding sites drive allosteric agonism and positive cooperativity in type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Xavier; Malhaire, Fanny; Scholler, Pauline; Rodrigo, Jordi; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Patricia; Llebaria, Amadeu; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Giraldo, Jesús; Goudet, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Type 4 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu4) receptors are emerging targets for the treatment of various disorders. Accordingly, numerous mGlu4-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been identified, some of which also display agonist activity. To identify the structural bases for their allosteric action, we explored the relationship between the binding pockets of mGlu4 PAMs with different chemical scaffolds and their functional properties. By use of innovative mGlu4 biosensors and second-messenger assays, we show that all PAMs enhance agonist action on the receptor through different degrees of allosteric agonism and positive cooperativity. For example, whereas VU0155041 and VU0415374 display equivalent efficacies [log(τ(B)) = 1.15 ± 0.38 and 1.25 ± 0.44, respectively], they increase the ability of L-AP4 to stabilize the active conformation of the receptor by 4 and 39 times, respectively. Modeling and docking studies identify 2 overlapping binding pockets as follows: a first site homologous to the pocket of natural agonists of class A GPCRs linked to allosteric agonism and a second one pointing toward a site topographically homologous to the Na(+) binding pocket of class A GPCRs, occupied by PAMs exhibiting the strongest cooperativity. These results reveal that intrinsic efficacy and cooperativity of mGlu4 PAMs are correlated with their binding mode, and vice versa, integrating structural and functional knowledge from different GPCR classes. PMID:25342125

  11. Homology modeling and antagonist binding site study of the human histamine H2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Qi, Tao; Wei, Jing

    2012-11-01

    On the basis of the high resolution crystal structures of bovine rhodopsin, human beta2-adrenergic receptor and human A(2a) adenosine receptor, three-dimensional structure of the human histamine H2 receptor (HHR2) was developed by homology modeling. Results of the evaluations suggest that a high quality homology model for HHR2 has been obtained. Three antagonists, cimetidine, ranitidine and nizatidine, were applied to binding site study with this model through molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations. One aspartic acid, Asp98 in transmembrane domain 7 (TM3), has been identified as major contributors to ligand binding by H-bond interactions. Asn159 in TM4 and Asp186 in TM5 are of great importance in stabilizing HHR2- antagonist complexes. Two hydrophobic sites especially two residues, Val99 in TM3 and Phe254 in TM6, were identified to be essential for their strong hydrophobic interactions with antagonists. The findings reported here are in agreement with available experimental mutagenesis data. This study should be very helpful for a better understanding of the action mode of the antagonist and for guiding further drug design and mutagenesis studies. PMID:22779803

  12. Proximity effect of magnetic permalloy nanoelements used to induce AMR changes in magnetic biosensor nanowires at specific receptor sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Iain; Ding, An; Xu, Yongbing

    2015-08-01

    We present simulated, substrate bound, permalloy nanowires with receptor sites for magnetic, aqueously suspended nanoelements that are able to induce an anisotropic magnetoresistive effect in nanowire circuits. The permalloy nanoelements were also simulated to determine the remanent spin configuration and were designed to be bound by antibody mediated interactions with biological ligands at the receptor sites in order to act as a biosensor. All results were simulated using micromagnetic simulations by the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF). The simulations revealed that anisotropic magnetoresistive changes were induced at the bridging sections between adjacent nanowires, next to the receptor sites, which connect the two adjacent nanowires. The electrical resistance across the nanowires reduced after the inclusion of the nanoelements at the receptor sites. We therefore conclude that this nanowire configuration is useful for an inexpensive diagnostic biosensor.

  13. Activation of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site.

    PubMed

    Lansdell, Stuart J; Sathyaprakash, Chaitra; Doward, Anne; Millar, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    In common with other members of the Cys-loop family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) are activated by the binding of a neurotransmitter to an extracellular orthosteric site, located at the interface of two adjacent receptor subunits. In addition, a variety of compounds have been identified that modulate agonist-evoked responses of 5-HT3Rs, and other Cys-loop receptors, by binding to distinct allosteric sites. In this study, we examined the pharmacological effects of a group of monoterpene compounds on recombinant 5-HT3Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Two phenolic monoterpenes (carvacrol and thymol) display allosteric agonist activity on human homomeric 5-HT3ARs (64 ± 7% and 80 ± 4% of the maximum response evoked by the endogenous orthosteric agonist 5-HT, respectively). In addition, at lower concentrations, where agonist effects are less apparent, carvacrol and thymol act as potentiators of responses evoked by submaximal concentrations of 5-HT. By contrast, carvacrol and thymol have no agonist or potentiating activity on the closely related mouse 5-HT3ARs. Using subunit chimeras containing regions of the human and mouse 5-HT3A subunits, and by use of site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified transmembrane amino acids that either abolish the agonist activity of carvacrol and thymol on human 5-HT3ARs or are able to confer this property on mouse 5-HT3ARs. By contrast, these mutations have no significant effect on orthosteric activation of 5-HT3ARs by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT3ARs can be activated by the binding of ligands to an allosteric transmembrane site, a conclusion that is supported by computer docking studies. PMID:25338672

  14. Targeting Alternative Sites on the Androgen Receptor to Treat Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lallous, Nada; Dalal, Kush; Cherkasov, Artem; Rennie, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent, metastatic prostate cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer-death in men. The androgen receptor (AR) is a modular, ligand-inducible transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes that can drive the progression of this disease, and as a consequence, this receptor is a key therapeutic target for controlling prostate cancer. The current drugs designed to directly inhibit the AR are called anti-androgens, and all act by competing with androgens for binding to the androgen/ligand binding site. Unfortunately, with the inevitable progression of the cancer to castration resistance, many of these drugs become ineffective. However, there are numerous other regulatory sites on this protein that have not been exploited therapeutically. The regulation of AR activity involves a cascade of complex interactions with numerous chaperones, co-factors and co-regulatory proteins, leading ultimately to direct binding of AR dimers to specific DNA androgen response elements within the promoter and enhancers of androgen-regulated genes. As part of the family of nuclear receptors, the AR is organized into modular structural and functional domains with specialized roles in facilitating their inter-molecular interactions. These regions of the AR present attractive, yet largely unexploited, drug target sites for reducing or eliminating androgen signaling in prostate cancers. The design of small molecule inhibitors targeting these specific AR domains is only now being realized and is the culmination of decades of work, including crystallographic and biochemistry approaches to map the shape and accessibility of the AR surfaces and cavities. Here, we review the structure of the AR protein and describe recent advancements in inhibiting its activity with small molecules specifically designed to target areas distinct from the receptor’s androgen binding site. It is anticipated that these new classes of anti-AR drugs will provide an additional arsenal to treat

  15. Species differences in chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide insecticide binding sites in the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Qi, Suzhen; Casida, John E

    2013-11-01

    Anthranilic and phthalic diamides exemplified by chlorantraniliprole (Chlo) or cyantraniliprole (Cyan) and flubendiamide (Flu), respectively, are the newest major chemotype of insecticides with outstanding potency, little or no cross resistance with other classes and low mammalian toxicity. They are activators of the ryanodine (Ry) receptor (RyR)-Ca(2+) channel, based on Ca(2+) flux and electrophysiology investigations. The goal of this study is to define species differences in the degree and mechanisms of diamide selective action by radioligand specific binding studies at the [(3)H]Ry, [(3)H]Chlo and [(3)H]Flu sites. The [(3)H]Ry site is observed in muscle of lobster, rabbit and four insect species (Musca domestica, Apis mellifera, Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon) whereas the [(3)H]Chlo site is evident in the four insects and the [(3)H]Flu site in only the two lepidoptera (Agrotis and Heliothis). [(3)H]Ry binding is significantly stimulated by Chlo, Cyan and Flu with the insects (except Flu with Musca) but not the lobster and rabbit. [(3)H]Chlo binding is stimulated by Ry and Flu in Musca and Apis but not in the lepidoptera, while Flu and Cyan are inhibitory. [(3)H]Flu binding is strongly inhibited by Chlo and Cyan in Agrotis and Heliothis. [(3)H]Chlo and [(3)H]Flu binding are not dependent on added Ca(2+) or ATP in Heliothis and Agrotis whereas the other radioligand-receptor combinations are usually enhanced by Ca(2+) and ATP. More generally, there are species differences in the Ry, Chlo and Flu binding sites of the RyR that may confer selective toxicity and determine target site cross resistance mechanisms. PMID:24267693

  16. Electrophysiological evidence for acidic, basic, and neutral amino acid olfactory receptor sites in the catfish.

    PubMed

    Caprio, J; Byrd, R P

    1984-09-01

    Electrophysiological experiments indicate that olfactory receptors of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, contain different receptor sites for the acidic (A), basic (B), and neutral amino acids; further, at least two partially interacting neutral sites exist, one for the hydrophilic neutral amino acids containing short side chains (SCN), and the second for the hydrophobic amino acids containing long side chains (LCN). The extent of cross-adaptation was determined by comparing the electro-olfactogram (EOG) responses to 20 "test" amino acids during continuous bathing of the olfactory mucosa with water only (control) to those during each of the eight "adapting" amino acid regimes. Both the adapting and test amino acids were adjusted in concentrations to provide approximately equal response magnitudes in the unadapted state. Under all eight adapting regimes, the test EOG responses were reduced from those obtained in the unadapted state, but substantial quantitative differences resulted, depending upon the molecular structure of the adapting stimulus. Analyses of the patterns of EOG responses to the test stimuli identified and characterized the respective "transduction processes," a term used to describe membrane events initiated by a particular subset of amino acid stimuli that are intricately linked to the origin of the olfactory receptor potential. Only when the stimulus compounds interact with different transduction processes are the stimuli assumed to bind to different membrane "sites." Four relatively independent L-alpha-amino acid transduction processes (and thus at least four binding sites) identified in this report include: (a) the A process for aspartic and glutamic acids; (b) the B process for arginine and lysine; (c) the SCN process for glycine, alanine, serine, glutamine, and possibly cysteine; (d) the LCN process for methionine, ethionine, valine, norvaline, leucine, norleucine, glutamic acid-gamma-methyl ester, histidine, phenylalanine, and also

  17. How the mongoose can fight the snake: the binding site of the mongoose acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Barchan, D; Kachalsky, S; Neumann, D; Vogel, Z; Ovadia, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1992-01-01

    The ligand binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) is within a short peptide from the alpha subunit that includes the tandem cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193. To elucidate the molecular basis of the binding properties of the AcChoR, we chose to study nonclassical muscle AcChoRs from animals that are resistant to alpha-neurotoxins. We have previously reported that the resistance of snake AcChoR to alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX) may be accounted for by several major substitutions in the ligand binding site of the receptor. In the present study, we have analyzed the binding site of AcChoR from the mongoose, which is also resistant to alpha-neurotoxins. It was shown that mongoose AcChoR does not bind alpha-BTX in vivo or in vitro. cDNA fragments of the alpha subunit of mongoose AcChoR corresponding to codons 122-205 and including the presumed ligand binding site were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein fragments of the mongoose, as well as of snake receptors, do not bind alpha-BTX. The mongoose fragment is highly homologous (greater than 90%) to the respective mouse fragment. Out of the seven amino acid differences between the mongoose and mouse in this region, five cluster in the presumed ligand binding site, close to cysteines 192 and 193. These changes are at positions 187 (Trp----Asn), 189 (Phe----Thr), 191 (Ser----Ala), 194 (Pro----Leu), and 197 (Pro----His). The mongoose like the snake AcChoR has a potential glycosylation site in the binding site domain. Sequence comparison between species suggests that substitutions at positions 187, 189, and 194 are important in determining the resistance of mongoose and snake AcChoR to alpha-BTX. In addition, it was shown that amino acid residues that had been reported to be necessary for acetylcholine binding are conserved in the toxin-resistant animals as well. Images PMID:1380164

  18. How the mongoose can fight the snake: the binding site of the mongoose acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Barchan, D; Kachalsky, S; Neumann, D; Vogel, Z; Ovadia, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1992-08-15

    The ligand binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) is within a short peptide from the alpha subunit that includes the tandem cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193. To elucidate the molecular basis of the binding properties of the AcChoR, we chose to study nonclassical muscle AcChoRs from animals that are resistant to alpha-neurotoxins. We have previously reported that the resistance of snake AcChoR to alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX) may be accounted for by several major substitutions in the ligand binding site of the receptor. In the present study, we have analyzed the binding site of AcChoR from the mongoose, which is also resistant to alpha-neurotoxins. It was shown that mongoose AcChoR does not bind alpha-BTX in vivo or in vitro. cDNA fragments of the alpha subunit of mongoose AcChoR corresponding to codons 122-205 and including the presumed ligand binding site were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein fragments of the mongoose, as well as of snake receptors, do not bind alpha-BTX. The mongoose fragment is highly homologous (greater than 90%) to the respective mouse fragment. Out of the seven amino acid differences between the mongoose and mouse in this region, five cluster in the presumed ligand binding site, close to cysteines 192 and 193. These changes are at positions 187 (Trp----Asn), 189 (Phe----Thr), 191 (Ser----Ala), 194 (Pro----Leu), and 197 (Pro----His). The mongoose like the snake AcChoR has a potential glycosylation site in the binding site domain. Sequence comparison between species suggests that substitutions at positions 187, 189, and 194 are important in determining the resistance of mongoose and snake AcChoR to alpha-BTX. In addition, it was shown that amino acid residues that had been reported to be necessary for acetylcholine binding are conserved in the toxin-resistant animals as well. PMID:1380164

  19. Possible intermolecular interaction between quinolones and biphenylacetic acid inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor sites.

    PubMed

    Akahane, K; Kimura, Y; Tsutomi, Y; Hayakawa, I

    1994-10-01

    The combination of some new quinolone antibacterial agents with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA), a metabolite of fenbufen, is known to specifically induce functional blockade of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The mechanisms of these drug interactions were further examined. Scatchard analysis of [3H]muscimol binding to rat brain plasma membranes in the presence of enoxacin and BPAA revealed that a significant decrease in the number of muscimol binding sites was produced without affecting the affinity of binding to the receptors. In the presence of norfloxacin, BPAA inhibited muscimol binding the most potently of the six BPAA-related compounds tested. Fenbufen and 9,10-dihydro-gamma-oxo-2-phenanthrenebutyric acid also inhibited the binding, and 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid and methyl 4-biphenylacetate inhibited it slightly, but 3-benzoylpropionic acid exhibited no competitive inhibition. Accordingly, hybrid molecules of norfloxacin and BPAA were synthesized for stereochemical analysis of these drug interactions. A hybrid with a -CONH(CH2)3- chain between norfloxacin and BPAA (flexible structure) inhibited muscimol binding, and intracisternal injection of this hybrid caused clonic convulsions in mice more potently than the combination of norfloxacin and BPAA did. In contrast, a hybrid linked by -CONH- (stretched structure) showed almost no such inhibitory effect. 1H NMR analysis indicated the presence of intramolecular attraction at the quinoline ring of the hybrid exhibiting the antagonistic activity. These results suggest the possibility that quinolones and BPAA interact with the GABA receptor at nearby sites and that the binding affinity of quinolones to the GABA receptors is largely enhanced by the intermolecular interaction with BPAA. PMID:7840564

  20. Possible intermolecular interaction between quinolones and biphenylacetic acid inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor sites.

    PubMed Central

    Akahane, K; Kimura, Y; Tsutomi, Y; Hayakawa, I

    1994-01-01

    The combination of some new quinolone antibacterial agents with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA), a metabolite of fenbufen, is known to specifically induce functional blockade of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The mechanisms of these drug interactions were further examined. Scatchard analysis of [3H]muscimol binding to rat brain plasma membranes in the presence of enoxacin and BPAA revealed that a significant decrease in the number of muscimol binding sites was produced without affecting the affinity of binding to the receptors. In the presence of norfloxacin, BPAA inhibited muscimol binding the most potently of the six BPAA-related compounds tested. Fenbufen and 9,10-dihydro-gamma-oxo-2-phenanthrenebutyric acid also inhibited the binding, and 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid and methyl 4-biphenylacetate inhibited it slightly, but 3-benzoylpropionic acid exhibited no competitive inhibition. Accordingly, hybrid molecules of norfloxacin and BPAA were synthesized for stereochemical analysis of these drug interactions. A hybrid with a -CONH(CH2)3- chain between norfloxacin and BPAA (flexible structure) inhibited muscimol binding, and intracisternal injection of this hybrid caused clonic convulsions in mice more potently than the combination of norfloxacin and BPAA did. In contrast, a hybrid linked by -CONH- (stretched structure) showed almost no such inhibitory effect. 1H NMR analysis indicated the presence of intramolecular attraction at the quinoline ring of the hybrid exhibiting the antagonistic activity. These results suggest the possibility that quinolones and BPAA interact with the GABA receptor at nearby sites and that the binding affinity of quinolones to the GABA receptors is largely enhanced by the intermolecular interaction with BPAA. PMID:7840564

  1. Pinpointing retrovirus entry sites in cells expressing alternatively spliced receptor isoforms by single virus imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of viruses enter host cells via endocytosis. Current knowledge of viral entry pathways is largely based upon infectivity measurements following genetic and/or pharmacological interventions that disrupt vesicular trafficking and maturation. Imaging of single virus entry in living cells provides a powerful means to delineate viral trafficking pathways and entry sites under physiological conditions. Results Here, we visualized single avian retrovirus co-trafficking with markers for early (Rab5) and late (Rab7) endosomes, acidification of endosomal lumen and the resulting viral fusion measured by the viral content release into the cytoplasm. Virus-carrying vesicles either merged with the existing Rab5-positive early endosomes or slowly accumulated Rab5. The Rab5 recruitment to virus-carrying endosomes correlated with acidification of their lumen. Viral fusion occurred either in early (Rab5-positive) or intermediate (Rab5- and Rab7-positive) compartments. Interestingly, different isoforms of the cognate receptor directed virus entry from distinct endosomes. In cells expressing the transmembrane receptor, viruses preferentially entered and fused with slowly maturing early endosomes prior to accumulation of Rab7. By comparison, in cells expressing the GPI-anchored receptor, viruses entered both slowly and quickly maturing endosomes and fused with early (Rab5-positive) and intermediate (Rab5- and Rab7-positive) compartments. Conclusions Since the rate of low pH-triggered fusion was independent of the receptor isoform, we concluded that the sites of virus entry are determined by the kinetic competition between endosome maturation and viral fusion. Our findings demonstrate the ability of this retrovirus to enter cells via alternative endocytic pathways and establish infection by releasing its content from distinct endosomal compartments. PMID:24935247

  2. Heterosubtypic antibody recognition of the influenza virus hemagglutinin receptor binding site enhanced by avidity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Peter S.; Yoshida, Reiko; Ekiert, Damian C.; Sakai, Naoki; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Takada, Ayato; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Continual and rapid mutation of seasonal influenza viruses by antigenic drift necessitates the almost annual reformulation of flu vaccines, which may offer little protection if the match to the dominant circulating strain is poor. S139/1 is a cross-reactive antibody that neutralizes multiple HA strains and subtypes, including those from H1N1 and H3N2 viruses that currently infect humans. The crystal structure of the S139/1 Fab in complex with the HA from the A/Victoria/3/1975 (H3N2) virus reveals that the antibody targets highly conserved residues in the receptor binding site and contacts antigenic sites A, B, and D. Binding and plaque reduction assays show that the monovalent Fab alone can protect against H3 strains, but the enhanced avidity from binding of bivalent IgG increases the breadth of neutralization to additional strains from the H1, H2, H13, and H16 subtypes. Thus, antibodies making relatively low affinity Fab interactions with the receptor binding site can have significant antiviral activity when enhanced by avidity through bivalent interactions of the IgG, thereby extending the breadth of binding and neutralization to highly divergent influenza virus strains and subtypes. PMID:23027945

  3. Immune adherence in renal glomeruli. Complement receptor sites on glomerular capillary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, P. M.; Oberley, T. D.; Barber, T. A.; Beacom, A.; Koehler, C.

    1977-01-01

    Several very recent reports have indicated the presence of receptor sites for the third component of complement in human but not other vertebrate renal glomeruli. The present study constitutes a demonstration that the glomerular capillary epithelial cell bears this receptor, detectable with either EAC complexes (EAC1423b) or fluores ceinated zymosan-C3 (ZC3b) complexes, Fresh, unfixed frozen sections of normal or diseased human kidneys, mechanically isolated human glomeruli, dissociated glomerular cells, and glomeruli and golmerular cells maintained in tissue culture were examined with various EAC complexes or ZC3b and examined by phase light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, or transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Clearly, by scanning electron microscopy it was determined that glomerular capillary epithelial cells bind the immune-adherence EAC indicator cells. Because glomeruli or glomerular epithelial cells did not bind E, EA, EACI, EAC14, or EAC142 but did bind EAC1423b or ZC3b, it is concluded that C3b (activated bound fragment of the third component of complement) is responsible for the immune-adherence reaction in glomeruli. Preliminary examination of diseased renal biopsies indicates that sclerotic glomeruli, focal segmental sclerotic or proliferative glomerular capillary lesions, and proliferative epithelial crescents are immune-adherence negative. Furthermore, a clear or consistent inverse relationship between glomerular capillary deposits of C3 which presumably might block epithelial C3 receptor sites, and immune-adherence reactivity with EAC in vitro was not as evident in this study as reported previously by other investigators. Nevertheless, it is still attractive to conceive that glomerular C3 receptor sites might be responsible for binding of antigen-antibody-complement complexes and formation of immune-complex deposits, at least on the epimembranous (subepithelial) surface of glomerular capillary walls. Inability to demonstrate this

  4. QM/MM model of the mouse olfactory receptor MOR244-3 validated by site-directed mutagenesis experiments.

    PubMed

    Sekharan, Sivakumar; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Zhuang, Hanyi; Block, Eric; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Zhang, Ruina; Wei, Jennifer N; Pan, Yi; Batista, Victor S

    2014-09-01

    Understanding structure/function relationships of olfactory receptors is challenging due to the lack of x-ray structural models. Here, we introduce a QM/MM model of the mouse olfactory receptor MOR244-3, responsive to organosulfur odorants such as (methylthio)methanethiol. The binding site consists of a copper ion bound to the heteroatoms of amino-acid residues H105, C109, and N202. The model is consistent with site-directed mutagenesis experiments and biochemical measurements of the receptor activation, and thus provides a valuable framework for further studies of the sense of smell at the molecular level. PMID:25185561

  5. QM/MM Model of the Mouse Olfactory Receptor MOR244-3 Validated by Site-Directed Mutagenesis Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sekharan, Sivakumar; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Zhuang, Hanyi; Block, Eric; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Zhang, Ruina; Wei, Jennifer N.; Pan, Yi; Batista, Victor S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding structure/function relationships of olfactory receptors is challenging due to the lack of x-ray structural models. Here, we introduce a QM/MM model of the mouse olfactory receptor MOR244-3, responsive to organosulfur odorants such as (methylthio)methanethiol. The binding site consists of a copper ion bound to the heteroatoms of amino-acid residues H105, C109, and N202. The model is consistent with site-directed mutagenesis experiments and biochemical measurements of the receptor activation, and thus provides a valuable framework for further studies of the sense of smell at the molecular level. PMID:25185561

  6. Amiloride and GMQ Allosteric Modulation of the GABA-A ρ1 Receptor: Influences of the Intersubunit Site

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Amiloride, a diuretic used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, and 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ) are guanidine compounds that modulate acid-sensing ion channels. Both compounds have demonstrated affinity for a variety of membrane proteins, including members of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels, such as the heteromeric GABA-A αβγ receptors. The actions of these guanidine compounds on the homomeric GABA-A ρ1 receptor remains unclear, especially in light of how many GABA-A αβγ receptor modulators have different effects in the GABA-A ρ1 receptors. We sought to characterize the influence of amiloride and GMQ on the human GABA-A ρ1 receptors using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. The diuretic amiloride potentiated the human GABA-A ρ1 GABA-mediated current, whereas GMQ antagonized the receptor. Furthermore, a GABA-A second transmembrane domain site, the intersubunit site, responsible for allosteric modulation in the heteromeric GABA-A receptors mediated amiloride’s positive allosteric actions. In contrast, the mutation did not remove GMQ antagonism but only changed the guanidine compound’s potency within the human GABA-A ρ1 receptor. Through modeling and introduction of point mutations, we propose that the GABA-A ρ1 intersubunit site plays a role in mediating the allosteric effects of amiloride and GMQ. PMID:25829529

  7. (-)-Reboxetine inhibits muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by interacting with luminal and non-luminal sites.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ortells, Marcelo O; Feuerbach, Dominik

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of (-)-reboxetine, a non-tricyclic norepinephrine selective reuptake inhibitor, with muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was studied by functional and structural approaches. The results established that (-)-reboxetine: (a) inhibits (±)-epibatidine-induced Ca(2+) influx in human (h) muscle embryonic (hα1β1γδ) and adult (hα1β1εδ) AChRs in a non-competitive manner and with potencies IC50=3.86±0.49 and 1.92±0.48 μM, respectively, (b) binds to the [(3)H]TCP site with ~13-fold higher affinity when the Torpedo AChR is in the desensitized state compared to the resting state, (c) enhances [(3)H]cytisine binding to the resting but activatableTorpedo AChR but not to the desensitized AChR, suggesting desensitizing properties, (d) overlaps the PCP luminal site located between rings 6' and 13' in the Torpedo but not human muscle AChRs. In silico mutation results indicate that ring 9' is the minimum structural component for (-)-reboxetine binding, and (e) interacts to non-luminal sites located within the transmembrane segments from the Torpedo AChR γ subunit, and at the α1/ε transmembrane interface from the adult muscle AChR. In conclusion, (-)-reboxetine non-competitively inhibits muscle AChRs by binding to the TCP luminal site and by inducing receptor desensitization (maybe by interacting with non-luminal sites), a mechanism that is shared by tricyclic antidepressants. PMID:23917086

  8. Identification of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmi, S.M.; Mishra, R.K.

    1989-02-15

    The existence of specific alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites has been shown in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SH5Y) cells using direct radioligand binding. (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, exhibited high affinity, saturable binding to both Y-79 and SH-SY5Y cell membranes. The binding of alpha 1 specific antagonist, (/sup 3/H)Prazocine, was not detectable in either cell type. Competition studies with antagonists yielded pharmacological characteristics typical of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors: rauwolscine greater than yohimbine greater than phentolamine greater than prazocine. Based on the affinity constants of prazocine and oxymetazoline, it appears that Y-79 cells contain alpha 2A receptor, whereas SH-SY5Y cells probably represent a mixture of alpha 2A and alpha 2B receptors. alpha 2-agonists clonidine and (-)epinephrine inhibition curves yielded high and low affinity states of the receptor in SH-SY5Y cells. Gpp(NH)p and sodium ions reduced the proportion of high affinity sites of alpha 2 receptors. These two neuronal cell lines of human origin would prove useful in elucidating the action and regulation of human alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and their interaction with other receptor systems.

  9. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Binds to a Site in the Rat Growth Hormone Promoter Required for Induction by Thyroid Hormone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Ronald J.; Brent, Gregory A.; Warne, Robert L.; Reed Larsen, P.; Moore, David D.

    1987-08-01

    Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. We have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. We show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor.

  10. [DNA bend sites in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor alpha gene].

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, K; Sakuma, Y

    1998-12-01

    DNA bend sites in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor a gene were determined by the circular permutation assay. Among a total of five sites (ERB -4 to -1, and ERB + 1) mapped in the 3 kb region, three matched with the positions of the predicted periodicity while the other two did not. Most of the sites were accompanied by the short poly (dA)-poly (dT) tracts including the potential bend core sequence A2N8A2N8A2 (A/A/A). Fine mapping of the ERB-2 site indicated that this A/A/A and the immediate franking sequences contained motifs for the estrogen response element. This region had a higher affinity for the nuclear scaffold and was included in the core region of the nucleosome structure. However, binding of the nuclear factor(s) to the motifs and disruption of nucleosome structure occurred without ATP. These results suggest that a class of periodic bent DNA could act as a site of multiple interactions among the nuclear scaffold, core histones and nuclear factors. PMID:9893449

  11. Internalized insulin-receptor complexes are unidirectionally translocated to chloroquine-sensitive degradative sites. Dependence on metabolic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Berhanu, P.

    1988-04-25

    Insulin receptors on the surface of isolated rat adipocytes were photoaffinity labeled at 12 degrees C with the iodinated photoreactive insulin analogue, 125I-B2 (2-nitro-4-azidophenylacetyl)-des-PheB1-insulin, and the pathways in the intracellular processing of the labeled receptors were studied at 37 degrees C. During 37 degrees C incubations, the labeled 440-kDa insulin receptors were continuously internalized (as assessed by trypsin inaccessibility) and degraded such that up to 50% of the initially labeled receptors were lost by 120 min. Metabolic poisons (0.125-0.75 mM 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and 1-10 mM NaF), which led to dose-dependent depletion of adipocyte ATP pools, inhibited receptor loss, and caused up to 3-fold increase in intracellular receptor accumulation. This effect was due to inhibition of intracellular receptor degradation, and there was no apparent effect of the metabolic poisons on initial internalization of the receptors. Following maximal intracellular accumulation of labeled insulin receptors in the presence of NaF or DNP, removal of these agents resulted in a subsequent, time-dependent degradation of the accumulated receptors. However, when the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine (0.2 mM), was added immediately following removal of the metabolic poisons, further degradation of the intracellularly accumulated receptors was prevented, suggesting that the chloroquine-sensitive degradation of insulin receptors occurs distal to the site of inhibition by NaF or DNP. To confirm this, maximal intracellular accumulation of labeled receptors was first allowed to occur in the presence of chloroquine and the cells were then washed and reincubated in chloroquine-free media in the absence or presence of NaF or DNP. Under these conditions, degradation of the intracellularly accumulated receptors continued to occur, and NaF or DNP failed to block the degradation.

  12. Potassium channel receptor site for the inactivation gate and quaternary amine inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming; Morais-Cabral, João H.; Mann, Sabine; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2001-06-01

    Many voltage-dependent K+ channels open when the membrane is depolarized and then rapidly close by a process called inactivation. Neurons use inactivating K+ channels to modulate their firing frequency. In Shaker-type K+ channels, the inactivation gate, which is responsible for the closing of the channel, is formed by the channel's cytoplasmic amino terminus. Here we show that the central cavity and inner pore of the K+ channel form the receptor site for both the inactivation gate and small-molecule inhibitors. We propose that inactivation occurs by a sequential reaction in which the gate binds initially to the cytoplasmic channel surface and then enters the pore as an extended peptide. This mechanism accounts for the functional properties of K+ channel inactivation and indicates that the cavity may be the site of action for certain drugs that alter cation channel function.

  13. Specificity of the Antibody Receptor Site to D-Lysergamide: Model of a Physiological Receptor for Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

    PubMed Central

    Vunakis, Helen Van; Farrow, John T.; Gjika, Hilda B.; Levine, Lawrence

    1971-01-01

    Antibodies to D-lysergic acid have been produced in rabbits and guinea pigs and a radioimmunoassay for the hapten was developed. The specificity of this lysergamide-antilysergamide reaction was determined by competitive binding with unlabeled lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psychotomimetic drugs, neurotransmitters, and other compounds with diverse structures. LSD and several related ergot alkaloids were potent competitors, three to seven times more potent than lysergic acid itself. The N,N-dimethyl derivatives of several compounds, including tryptamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, 4-hydroxytryptamine, 5-methoxytryptamine, tyramine, and mescaline, were only about ten times less effective than lysergic acid, even though these compounds lack some of the ring systems of lysergic acid. The pattern of inhibition by related compounds with various substituents suggests that the antibody receptor site recognizes structural features resembling the LSD molecule. In particular, the aromatic nucleus and the dimethylated ethylamine side chain in phenylethylamine and tryptamine derivatives may assume in solution a conformation resembling ring A and the methylated nitrogen in ring C of LSD. Among the tryptamine derivatives, a large percentage of the most potent competitors are also psychotomimetic compounds. PMID:5283939

  14. Effects of neonatal methylmercury exposure on adrenergic-receptor binding sites in peripheral tissues of the developing rat

    SciTech Connect

    Slotkin, T.A.; Kavlock, R.J.; Cowdery, T.; Orband, L.; Bartolome, M.

    1986-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to methylmercury produces changes in patterns of tissue growth and function, in part, due to alterations in adrenergic neuronal input. To explore the mechanisms by which these changes come about, newborn rats were exposed to methylmercury (1 or 2.5 mg/kg/day) throughout the preweaning stage and the ontogeny of adrenergic receptor binding sites evaluated in liver, kidney, heart and lung, using (/sup 3/H)prazosin (alpha 1-receptors), (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine (alpha 2-receptors) and (/sup 125/I)pindolol (beta-receptors). In the kidney, methylmercury caused decreases in beta- and alpha 1-receptor binding and increases in alpha 2-binding, and the alterations persisted into adulthood; previous work has shown that beta-receptor-mediated responses are generally enhanced in methylmercury-exposed pups, and the down-regulation of beta-receptor binding thus probably represents a compensatory action secondary to alterations in post-receptor coupling mechanisms. The effects of methylmercury on hepatic adrenergic receptors were different from those seen in the kidney, with substantial elevations in beta- and alpha-receptor binding apparent in the preweaning stage; this agrees also with the differences in effects of the mercurial on trophic reactivity and growth in the two tissues.

  15. Identification and Pharmacological Characterization of Multiple Allosteric Binding Sites on the Free Fatty Acid 1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Daniel C.-H.; Guo, Qi; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Jane; Nguyen, Kathy; Chen, Michael; Tran, Thanh; Dransfield, Paul J.; Brown, Sean P.; Houze, Jonathan; Vimolratana, Marc; Jiao, Xian Yun; Wang, Yingcai; Birdsall, Nigel J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of FFA1 (GPR40), a member of G protein-coupling receptor family A, is mediated by medium- and long-chain fatty acids and leads to amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting a potential role for free fatty acid 1 (FFA1) as a target for type 2 diabetes. It was assumed previously that there is a single binding site for fatty acids and synthetic FFA1 agonists. However, using members of two chemical series of partial and full agonists that have been identified, radioligand binding interaction studies revealed that the full agonists do not bind to the same site as the partial agonists but exhibit positive heterotropic cooperativity. Analysis of functional data reveals positive functional cooperativity between the full agonists and partial agonists in various functional assays (in vitro and ex vivo) and also in vivo. Furthermore, the endogenous fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) shows negative or neutral cooperativity with members of both series of agonists in binding assays but displays positive cooperativity in functional assays. Another synthetic agonist is allosteric with members of both agonist series, but apparently competitive with DHA. Therefore, there appear to be three allosterically linked binding sites on FFA1 with agonists specific for each of these sites. Activation of free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFAR1) by each of these agonists is differentially affected by mutations of two arginine residues, previously found to be important for FFAR1 binding and activation. These ligands with their high potencies and strong positive functional cooperativity with endogenous fatty acids, demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, have the potential to deliver therapeutic benefits. PMID:22859723

  16. Identification and pharmacological characterization of multiple allosteric binding sites on the free fatty acid 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daniel C-H; Guo, Qi; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Jane; Nguyen, Kathy; Chen, Michael; Tran, Thanh; Dransfield, Paul J; Brown, Sean P; Houze, Jonathan; Vimolratana, Marc; Jiao, Xian Yun; Wang, Yingcai; Birdsall, Nigel J M; Swaminath, Gayathri

    2012-11-01

    Activation of FFA1 (GPR40), a member of G protein-coupling receptor family A, is mediated by medium- and long-chain fatty acids and leads to amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting a potential role for free fatty acid 1 (FFA1) as a target for type 2 diabetes. It was assumed previously that there is a single binding site for fatty acids and synthetic FFA1 agonists. However, using members of two chemical series of partial and full agonists that have been identified, radioligand binding interaction studies revealed that the full agonists do not bind to the same site as the partial agonists but exhibit positive heterotropic cooperativity. Analysis of functional data reveals positive functional cooperativity between the full agonists and partial agonists in various functional assays (in vitro and ex vivo) and also in vivo. Furthermore, the endogenous fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) shows negative or neutral cooperativity with members of both series of agonists in binding assays but displays positive cooperativity in functional assays. Another synthetic agonist is allosteric with members of both agonist series, but apparently competitive with DHA. Therefore, there appear to be three allosterically linked binding sites on FFA1 with agonists specific for each of these sites. Activation of free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFAR1) by each of these agonists is differentially affected by mutations of two arginine residues, previously found to be important for FFAR1 binding and activation. These ligands with their high potencies and strong positive functional cooperativity with endogenous fatty acids, demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, have the potential to deliver therapeutic benefits. PMID:22859723

  17. Phosphorylation of IGFBP-1 at discrete sites elicits variable effects on IGF-I receptor autophosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Abu Shehab, Majida; Iosef, Cristiana; Wildgruber, Robert; Sardana, Girish; Gupta, Madhulika B

    2013-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that hypoxia and leucine deprivation cause hyperphosphorylation of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) at discrete sites that markedly enhanced IGF-I affinity and inhibited IGF-I-stimulated cell growth. In this study we investigated the functional role of these phosphorylation sites using mutagenesis. We created three IGFBP-1 mutants in which individual serine (S119/S169/S98) residues were substituted with alanine and S101A was recreated for comparison. The wild-type (WT) and mutant IGFBP-1 were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and IGFBP-1 in cell media was isolated using isoelectric-focusing-free-flow electrophoresis. BIACore analysis indicated that the changes in IGF-I affinity for S98A and S169A were moderate, whereas S119A greatly reduced the affinity of IGFBP-1 for IGF-I (100-fold, P < .0001). Similar results were obtained with S101A. The IGF-I affinity changes of the mutants were reflected in their ability to inhibit IGF-I-induced receptor autophosphorylation. Employing receptor-stimulation assay using IGF-IR-overexpressing P6 cells, we found that WT-IGFBP-1 inhibited IGF-IRβ autophosphorylation (~2-fold, P < .001), possibly attributable to sequestration of IGF-I. Relative to WT, S98A and S169A mutants did not inhibit receptor autophosphorylation. S119A, on the other hand, greatly stimulated the receptor (2.3-fold, P < .05). The data with S101A matched S119A. In summary, we show that phosphorylation at S98 and S169 resulted in milder changes in IGF-I action; nonetheless most dramatic inhibitory effects on the biological activity of IGF-I were due to IGFBP-1 phosphorylation at S119. Our results provide novel demonstration that IGFBP-1 phosphorylation at S119 can enhance affinity for IGF-I possibly through stabilization of the IGF-IGFBP-1 complex. These data also propose that the synergistic interaction of distinct phosphorylation sites may be important in eliciting more pronounced effects on IGF-I affinity that needs further

  18. The thrombin receptor extracellular domain contains sites crucial for peptide ligand-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahou, W F; Coller, B S; Potter, C L; Norton, K J; Kutok, J L; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha

  19. S100A1 and Calmodulin Compete for the Same Binding Site on Ryanodine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nathan T.; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Varney, Kristen M.; Zimmer, Danna B.; Schneider, Martin F.; Weber, David J.

    2008-01-01

    In heart and skeletal muscle an S100 protein family member, S100A1, binds to the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and promotes Ca2+ release. Using competition binding assays, we further characterized this system in skeletal muscle and showed that Ca2+-S100A1 competes with Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) for the same binding site on RyR1. In addition, the NMR structure was determined for Ca2+-S100A1 bound to a peptide derived from this CaM/S100A1 binding domain, a region conserved in RyR1 and RyR2 and termed RyRP12 (residues 3616-3627 in human RyR1). Examination of the S100A1-RyRP12 complex revealed residues of the helical RyRP12 peptide (Lys-3616, Trp-3620, Lys-3622, Leu-3623, Leu-3624, and Lys-3626) that are involved in favorable hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with Ca2+-S100A1. These same residues were shown previously to be important for RyR1 binding to Ca2+-CaM. A model for regulating muscle contraction is presented in which Ca2+-S100A1 and Ca2+-CaM compete directly for the same binding site on the ryanodine receptor. PMID:18650434

  20. Cross-neutralizing human anti-poliovirus antibodies bind the recognition site for cellular receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhaochun; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Hansen, Bryan T.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Bidzhieva, Bella; Makiya, Michelle; Agulto, Liane; Purcell, Robert H.; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Most structural information about poliovirus interaction with neutralizing antibodies was obtained in the 1980s in studies of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Recently we have isolated a number of human/chimpanzee anti-poliovirus antibodies and demonstrated that one of them, MAb A12, could neutralize polioviruses of both serotypes 1 and 2. This communication presents data on isolation of an additional cross-neutralizing antibody (F12) and identification of a previously unknown epitope on the surface of poliovirus virions. Epitope mapping was performed by sequencing of antibody-resistant mutants and by cryo-EM of complexes of virions with Fab fragments. The results have demonstrated that both cross-neutralizing antibodies bind the site located at the bottom of the canyon surrounding the fivefold axis of symmetry that was previously shown to interact with cellular poliovirus receptor CD155. However, the same antibody binds to serotypes 1 and 2 through different specific interactions. It was also shown to interact with type 3 poliovirus, albeit with about 10-fold lower affinity, insufficient for effective neutralization. Antibody interaction with the binding site of the cellular receptor may explain its broad reactivity and suggest that further screening or antibody engineering could lead to a universal antibody capable of neutralizing all three serotypes of poliovirus. PMID:24277851

  1. Acid potentiation of the capsaicin receptor determined by a key extracellular site.

    PubMed

    Jordt, S E; Tominaga, M; Julius, D

    2000-07-01

    The capsaicin (vanilloid) receptor, VR1, is a sensory neuron-specific ion channel that serves as a polymodal detector of pain-producing chemical and physical stimuli. The response of VR1 to capsaicin or noxious heat is dynamically potentiated by extracellular protons within a pH range encountered during tissue acidosis, such as that associated with arthritis, infarction, tumor growth, and other forms of injury. A molecular determinant for this important physiological activity was localized to an extracellular Glu residue (E600) in the region linking the fifth transmembrane domain with the putative pore-forming region of the channel. We suggest that this residue serves as a key regulatory site of the receptor by setting sensitivity to other noxious stimuli in response to changes in extracellular proton concentration. We also demonstrate that protons, vanilloids, and heat promote channel opening through distinct pathways, because mutations at a second site (E648) selectively abrogate proton-evoked channel activation without diminishing responses to other noxious stimuli. Our findings provide molecular evidence for stimulus-specific steps in VR1 activation and offer strategies for the development of novel analgesic agents. PMID:10859346

  2. Mapping of the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Safran, A; Gershoni, J M; Fuchs, S

    1986-01-01

    Synthetic peptides and their respective antibodies have been used in order to map the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. By using antibodies to a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 169-181 of the alpha subunit, we demonstrate that this sequence is included within the 18-kDa toxin binding fragment previously reported. Furthermore, the 18-kDa fragment was also found to bind a monoclonal antibody (5.5) directed against the cholinergic binding site. Sequential proteolysis of the acetylcholine receptor with trypsin, prior to Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion, resulted in a 15-kDa toxin binding fragment that is included within the 18-kDa fragment but is shorter than it only at its carboxyl terminus. This 15-kDa fragment therefore initiates beyond Asp-152 and terminates in the region of Arg-313/Lys-314. In addition, experiments are reported that indicate that in the intact acetylcholine receptor, Cys-128 and/or Cys-142 are not crosslinked by disulfide bridges with any of the cysteines (at positions 192, 193, and 222) that reside in the 15-kDa toxin binding fragment. Finally, the synthetic dodecapeptide Lys-His-Trp-Val-Tyr-Tyr-Thr-Cys-Cys-Pro-Asp-Thr, which is present in the 15-kDa fragment (corresponding to residues 185-196 of the alpha subunit) was shown to bind alpha-bungarotoxin directly. This binding was completely inhibited by competition with d-tubocurarine. Images PMID:3458258

  3. Mapping of the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Safran, A; Gershoni, J M; Fuchs, S

    1986-05-01

    Synthetic peptides and their respective antibodies have been used in order to map the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site within the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. By using antibodies to a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 169-181 of the alpha subunit, we demonstrate that this sequence is included within the 18-kDa toxin binding fragment previously reported. Furthermore, the 18-kDa fragment was also found to bind a monoclonal antibody (5.5) directed against the cholinergic binding site. Sequential proteolysis of the acetylcholine receptor with trypsin, prior to Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion, resulted in a 15-kDa toxin binding fragment that is included within the 18-kDa fragment but is shorter than it only at its carboxyl terminus. This 15-kDa fragment therefore initiates beyond Asp-152 and terminates in the region of Arg-313/Lys-314. In addition, experiments are reported that indicate that in the intact acetylcholine receptor, Cys-128 and/or Cys-142 are not crosslinked by disulfide bridges with any of the cysteines (at positions 192, 193, and 222) that reside in the 15-kDa toxin binding fragment. Finally, the synthetic dodecapeptide Lys-His-Trp-Val-Tyr-Tyr-Thr-Cys-Cys-Pro-Asp-Thr, which is present in the 15-kDa fragment (corresponding to residues 185-196 of the alpha subunit) was shown to bind alpha-bungarotoxin directly. This binding was completely inhibited by competition with d-tubocurarine. PMID:3458258

  4. Computational Analysis of the Ligand Binding Site of the Extracellular ATP Receptor, DORN1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cuong The; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Cao, Yangrong; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary

    2016-01-01

    DORN1 (also known as P2K1) is a plant receptor for extracellular ATP, which belongs to a large gene family of legume-type (L-type) lectin receptor kinases. Extracellular ATP binds to DORN1 with strong affinity through its lectin domain, and the binding triggers a variety of intracellular activities in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information on the tertiary structure of the ligand binding site of DORN1is lacking, which hampers efforts to fully elucidate the mechanism of receptor action. Available data of the crystal structures from more than 50 L-type lectins enable us to perform an in silico study of molecular interaction between DORN1 and ATP. In this study, we employed a computational approach to develop a tertiary structure model of the DORN1 lectin domain. A blind docking analysis demonstrated that ATP binds to a cavity made by four loops (defined as loops A B, C and D) of the DORN1 lectin domain with high affinity. In silico target docking of ATP to the DORN1 binding site predicted interaction with 12 residues, located on the four loops, via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The ATP binding pocket is structurally similar in location to the carbohydrate binding pocket of the canonical L-type lectins. However, four of the residues predicted to interact with ATP are not conserved between DORN1 and the other carbohydrate-binding lectins, suggesting that diversifying selection acting on these key residues may have led to the ATP binding activity of DORN1. The in silico model was validated by in vitro ATP binding assays using the purified extracellular lectin domain of wild-type DORN1, as well as mutated DORN1 lacking key ATP binding residues. PMID:27583834

  5. Coarse-grained molecular simulation of epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase multi-site self-phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Koland, John G

    2014-01-01

    Upon the ligand-dependent dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity of one receptor monomer is activated, and the dimeric receptor undergoes self-phosphorylation at any of eight candidate phosphorylation sites (P-sites) in either of the two C-terminal (CT) domains. While the structures of the extracellular ligand binding and intracellular PTK domains are known, that of the ∼225-amino acid CT domain is not, presumably because it is disordered. Receptor phosphorylation on CT domain P-sites is critical in signaling because of the binding of specific signaling effector molecules to individual phosphorylated P-sites. To investigate how the combination of conventional substrate recognition and the unique topological factors involved in the CT domain self-phosphorylation reaction lead to selectivity in P-site phosphorylation, we performed coarse-grained molecular simulations of the P-site/catalytic site binding reactions that precede EGFR self-phosphorylation events. Our results indicate that self-phosphorylation of the dimeric EGFR, although generally believed to occur in trans, may well occur with a similar efficiency in cis, with the P-sites of both receptor monomers being phosphorylated to a similar extent. An exception was the case of the most kinase-proximal P-site-992, the catalytic site binding of which occurred exclusively in cis via an intramolecular reaction. We discovered that the in cis interaction of P-site-992 with the catalytic site was facilitated by a cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the PTK domain that allows the short CT domain sequence tethering P-site-992 to the PTK core to reach the catalytic site. Our work provides several new mechanistic insights into the EGFR self-phosphorylation reaction, and demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained molecular simulation approaches for investigating the complexities of self-phosphorylation in molecules such as EGFR

  6. Interaction of tryptamine and ergoline compounds with threonine 196 in the ligand binding site of the 5-hydroxytryptamine6 receptor.

    PubMed

    Boess, F G; Monsma, F J; Meyer, V; Zwingelstein, C; Sleight, A J

    1997-09-01

    We examined the ligand-binding site of the 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor using site-directed mutagenesis. Interactions with residues in two characteristic positions of trans-membrane region V are important for ligand binding in several bioamine receptors. In the 5-HT6 receptor, one of these residues is a threonine (Thr196), whereas in most other mammalian 5-HT receptors, the corresponding residue is alanine. After transient expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, we determined the effects of the mutation T196A on [3H]d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) binding and adenylyl cyclase stimulation. This mutation produced a receptor with a 10-fold reduced affinity for [3H]LSD and a 6-fold reduced affinity for 5-HT. The potency of both LSD and 5-HT for stimulation of adenylyl cyclase was also reduced by 18- and 7-fold, respectively. The affinity of other N1-unsubstituted ergolines (e.g., ergotamine, lisuride) was reduced 10-30 fold, whereas the affinity of N1-methylated ergolines (e.g., metergoline, methysergide, mesulergine) and other ligands, such as methiothepine, clozapine, ritanserin, amitriptyline, and mainserin, changed very little or increased. This indicates that in wild-type 5-HT6 receptor, Thr196 interacts with the N1 of N1-unsubstituted ergolines and tryptamines, probably forming a hydrogen bond. Based on molecular modeling, a serine residue in transmembrane region IV of the 5-HT2A receptor has previously been proposed to interact with the N1-position of 5-HT. When the corresponding residue of the 5-HT6 receptor (Ala154) was converted to serine, no change in the affinity of twelve 5-HT6 receptor ligands or in the potency of 5-HT and LSD could be detected, suggesting that this position does not contribute to the ligand binding site of the 5-HT6 receptor. PMID:9284367

  7. Procaine rapidly inactivates acetylcholine receptors from Torpedo and competes with agonist for inhibition sites

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S.A.; Miller, K.W. )

    1989-02-21

    The relationship between the high-affinity procaine channel inhibition site and the agonist self-inhibition site on acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) from Torpedo electroplaque was investigated by using rapid {sup 86}Rb{sup +} quenched-flux assays at 4 {degree}C in native AChR-rich vesicles on which 50-60% of ACh activation sites were blocked with {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX). In the presence of channel-activating acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations alone, AChR undergoes one phase of inactivation in under a second. Addition of procaine produces two-phase inactivation similar to that seen with self-inhibiting ACh concentrations rapid inactivation complete in 30-75 ms is followed by fast desensitization at the same k{sub d} observed without procaine. The dependence of k{sub r} on (procaine) is consistent with a bimolecular association between procaine and its AChR site. Inhibition of AChR function by mixtures of procaine plus self-inhibiting concentrations of ACh or suberyldicholine was studied by reducing the level of {alpha}-BTX block in vesicles. The data support a mechanism where procaine binds preferentially to the open-channel AChR state, since no procaine-induced inactivation is observed without agonist and k{sub r}'s dependence on (ACh) in channel-activating range closely parallels that of {sup 86}Rb{sup +} flux response to ACh.

  8. High-affinity cannabinoid binding site in brain: A possible marijuana receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which delta{sup 9} tetrahydrocannabinol (delta{sup 9}THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana or hashish, produces its potent psychological and physiological effects is unknown. To find receptor binding sites for THC, we designed a water-soluble analog for use as a radioligand. 5{prime}-Trimethylammonium-delta{sup 8}THC (TMA) is a positively charged analog of delta-{sup 8}THC modified on the 5{prime} carbon, a portion of the molecule not important for its psychoactivity. We have studied the binding of ({sup 3}H)-5{prime}-trimethylammonium-delta-{sup 8}THC (({sup 3}H)TMA) to rat neuronal membranes. ({sup 3}H)TMA binds saturably and reversibly to brain membranes with high affinity to apparently one class of sites. Highest binding site density occurs in brain, but several peripheral organs also display specific binding. Detergent solubilizes the sites without affecting their pharmacologial properties. Molecular sieve chromatography reveals a bimodal peak of ({sup 3}H)TMA binding activity of approximately 60,000 daltons apparent molecular weight.

  9. Computational prediction of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) binding sites in cyanobacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Minli; Su, Zhengchang

    2009-01-01

    Background Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), also known as catabolite gene activator protein (CAP), is an important transcriptional regulator widely distributed in many bacteria. The biological processes under the regulation of CRP are highly diverse among different groups of bacterial species. Elucidation of CRP regulons in cyanobacteria will further our understanding of the physiology and ecology of this important group of microorganisms. Previously, CRP has been experimentally studied in only two cyanobacterial strains: Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120; therefore, a systematic genome-scale study of the potential CRP target genes and binding sites in cyanobacterial genomes is urgently needed. Results We have predicted and analyzed the CRP binding sites and regulons in 12 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes using a highly effective cis-regulatory binding site scanning algorithm. Our results show that cyanobacterial CRP binding sites are very similar to those in E. coli; however, the regulons are very different from that of E. coli. Furthermore, CRP regulons in different cyanobacterial species/ecotypes are also highly diversified, ranging from photosynthesis, carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation, to chemotaxis and signal transduction. In addition, our prediction indicates that crp genes in modern cyanobacteria are likely inherited from a common ancestral gene in their last common ancestor, and have adapted various cellular functions in different environments, while some cyanobacteria lost their crp genes as well as CRP binding sites during the course of evolution. Conclusion The CRP regulons in cyanobacteria are highly diversified, probably as a result of divergent evolution to adapt to various ecological niches. Cyanobacterial CRPs may function as lineage-specific regulators participating in various cellular processes, and are important in some lineages. However, they are dispensable in some other lineages. The loss of CRPs in these species

  10. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each of the two toxin-binding sites of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Dowding, A.J.; Hall, Z.W.

    1987-10-06

    The authors have isolated and characterized 12 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block the binding of ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin (..cap alpha..-BuTx) to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of Torpedo californica. Two of the mAbs block ..cap alpha..-BuTx binding completely; the other 10 inhibit only about 50% of the binding. The mAbs that partially inhibit ..cap alpha..-BuTx binding can be divided into two groups by examination of the additive effect of pairs of mAbs on toxin binding, and by analysis of competition between mAbs for binding to the AChR. These two groups of mAbs, which we have termed A and B, appear to recognize different toxin-binding sites on the same receptor. A and B mAbs were used to determine the kinetic and pharmacological properties of the two sites. The site recognized by A mAbs binds ..cap alpha..-BuTx with a forward rate constant of 0.98 x 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, d-tubocurarine (dTC) with a K/sub D/ of (6.8 +/- 0.3) x 10/sup -8/ M, and pancuronium with a K/sub D/ of (1.9 +/- 1.0) x 10/sup -9/ M. The site recognized by B mAbs binds ..cap alpha..-BuTx with a forward rate constant of 9.3 x 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, dTC with a K/sub D/ of (4.6 +/- 0.3) x 10/sup -6/ M, and pancurionium with a K/sub D/ of (9.3 +/- 0.8) x 10/sup -6/ M. Binding of A and B mAbs to the AChR was variably inhibited by nicotinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists, and by ..cap alpha..-conotoxin. The observed pattern of inhibition is consistent with the relative affinity of the two sites for antagonists as given above but also indicates that the mAbs recognize a diversity of epitopes within each site.

  11. ACE-Asia: Size Resolved Sampling of Aerosols on the Ronald H Brown and US Western Receptor Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Cruz, M. P.; Cliff, S. S.; Perry, K. D.; Cahill, T. A.; Bates, T. S.

    2001-12-01

    The ACE (Aerosol Characterization Experiment)-Asia project was pre-dominantly performed during the spring of 2001. In addition to the core Asian sampling sites, we sampled at 4 Western US receptor sites. The receptor sites include, Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, Crater Lake Oregon, Adak Island, Alaska and Rattlesnake Mountain, Washington. A small subset of sites (Rattlesnake Mtn., MLO, and Asian sites) continued during a 6-week intensive summer study. For the spring study, an 8-stage DRUM impactor also sampled aboard the NOAA ship RV Ronald H Brown, and mix of 8- and 3-DRUM impactors were used at the western US receptor sites. The impactors are capable of size-segregated, time-resolved aerosol collection. The size categories for the 8-DRUM are inlet-5.00, 5.00-2.50, 2.50-1.15, 1.15-0.75, 0.75-0.56, 0.56-0.34, 0.34-.026, 0.26-.09 microns and 3-DRUM: 2.50-1.10, 1.10-0.34, 0.34-0.12 microns. These samples were analyzed in 6 hour time bites using synchrotron-XRF for quantitative composition for elements sodium through uranium, when present. A major dust event occurring around April 13 was detected at all receptor sites. Comparisons of key elemental ratios and conservative tracers will be presented.

  12. Differential regulation of AMPA receptor subunit trafficking by palmitoylation of two distinct sites.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takashi; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Huganir, Richard L

    2005-09-01

    Modification of AMPA receptor function is a major mechanism for the regulation of synaptic transmission and underlies several forms of synaptic plasticity. Post-translational palmitoylation is a reversible modification that regulates localization of many proteins. Here, we report that palmitoylation of the AMPA receptor regulates receptor trafficking. All AMPA receptor subunits are palmitoylated on two cysteine residues in their transmembrane domain (TMD) 2 and in their C-terminal region. Palmitoylation on TMD 2 is upregulated by the palmitoyl acyl transferase GODZ and leads to an accumulation of the receptor in the Golgi and a reduction of receptor surface expression. C-terminal palmitoylation decreases interaction of the AMPA receptor with the 4.1N protein and regulates AMPA- and NMDA-induced AMPA receptor internalization. Moreover, depalmitoylation of the receptor is regulated by activation of glutamate receptors. These data suggest that regulated palmitoylation of AMPA receptor subunits modulates receptor trafficking and may be important for synaptic plasticity. PMID:16129400

  13. Novel Benzodiazepine Photoaffinity Probe Stereoselectively Labels a Site Deep Within the Membrane-spanning Domain of the Cholecystokinin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hadac, Elizabeth M.; Dawson, Eric S.; Darrow, James W.; Sugg, Elizabeth E.; Lybrand, Terry P.; Miller, Laurence J.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the molecular basis of drug action provides opportunities for refinement of drug properties and for development of more potent and selective molecules that act at the same biological target. In this work, we have identified the active enantiomers in racemic mixtures of structurally related benzophenone derivatives of 1,5-benzodiazepines, representing both antagonist and agonist ligands of the type A cholecystokinin receptor. The parent compounds of the 1,5-benzodiazepine CCK receptor photoaffinity ligands were originally prepared in an effort to develop orally active drugs. The enantiomeric compounds reported in this study selectively photoaffinity-labeled the CCK receptor, resulting in the identification of a site of attachment for the photolabile moiety of the antagonist probe deep within the receptor’s membrane-spanning region at Leu88, a residue within transmembrane segment two. In contrast, the agonist probe labeled a region including extracellular loop one and a portion of transmembrane segment three. The antagonist covalent attachment site to the receptor served as a guide in the construction of theoretical three-dimensional molecular models for the antagonist-receptor complex. These models provided a means for visualization of physically plausible ligand-receptor interactions in the context of all currently available biological data that address small molecule interactions with the CCK receptor. Our approach, featuring the use of novel photolabile compounds targeting the membrane-spanning receptor domain to probe the binding site region, introduces powerful tools and a strategy for direct and selective investigation of non-peptidyl ligand binding to peptide receptors. PMID:16451051

  14. Homology modeling, binding site identification and docking study of human angiotensin II type I (Ang II-AT1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Vivek K; Ghate, Manjunath; Patel, Kinjal; Qureshi, Gulamnizami; Shah, Surmil

    2015-08-01

    Ang II-AT1 receptors play an important role in mediating virtually all of the physiological actions of Ang II. Several drugs (SARTANs) are available, which can block the AT1 receptor effectively and lower the blood pressure in the patients with hypertension. Currently, there is no experimental Ang II-AT1 structure available; therefore, in this study we modeled Ang II-AT1 receptor structure using homology modeling followed by identification and characterization of binding sites and thereby assessing druggability of the receptor. Homology models were constructed using MODELLER and I-TASSER server, refined and validated using PROCHECK in which 96.9% of 318 residues were present in the favoured regions of the Ramachandran plots. Various Ang II-AT1 receptor antagonist drugs are available in the market as antihypertensive drug, so we have performed docking study with the binding site prediction algorithms to predict different binding pockets on the modeled proteins. The identification of 3D structures and binding sites for various known drugs will guide us for the structure-based drug design of novel compounds as Ang II-AT1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:26349961

  15. Site-specific effects of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug lysine clonixinate on rat brain opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Ortí, E; Coirini, H; Pico, J C

    1999-04-01

    In addition to effects in the periphery through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, several lines of evidence suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) act in the central nervous system. The possibility that the central action of NSAIDs involves regulation of opioid receptors was investigated by quantitative autoradiography of mu, delta, and kappa sites in rat brain slices. Increased (p < 0.05) labeling of mu receptors was observed in thalamic nuclei, gyrus dentate, and layers of the parietal cortex of rats treated for 10 days with lysine clonixinate. Labeling of delta receptors was lower in the lateral septum, and kappa sites decreased in thalamic nuclei. These effects were not mediated through direct interaction with opioid-binding sites, since receptor-binding assays using rat brain membranes confirmed that clonixinate up to 1 x 10(-4) mol/l does not inhibit mu, delta, and kappa receptor specific binding. Central effects of NSAIDs might, therefore, involve interaction with the opioid receptor system through indirect mechanisms. PMID:10077738

  16. Sequences flanking the core-binding site modulate glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Schöne, Stefanie; Jurk, Marcel; Helabad, Mahdi Bagherpoor; Dror, Iris; Lebars, Isabelle; Kieffer, Bruno; Imhof, Petra; Rohs, Remo; Vingron, Martin; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2016-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds as a homodimer to genomic response elements, which have particular sequence and shape characteristics. Here we show that the nucleotides directly flanking the core-binding site, differ depending on the strength of GR-dependent activation of nearby genes. Our study indicates that these flanking nucleotides change the three-dimensional structure of the DNA-binding site, the DNA-binding domain of GR and the quaternary structure of the dimeric complex. Functional studies in a defined genomic context show that sequence-induced changes in GR activity cannot be explained by differences in GR occupancy. Rather, mutating the dimerization interface mitigates DNA-induced changes in both activity and structure, arguing for a role of DNA-induced structural changes in modulating GR activity. Together, our study shows that DNA sequence identity of genomic binding sites modulates GR activity downstream of binding, which may play a role in achieving regulatory specificity towards individual target genes. PMID:27581526

  17. Analysis of digitalis genin receptor site in Na,K-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, K.; McParland, R.; Becker, R.; From, A.; Fullerton, D.S.

    1987-05-01

    Na,K-ATPase is believed to be the receptor for digitalis glycosides, with binding site located in the ..cap alpha..-subunit. To identify this binding site, the enzyme was covalently labeled with a photoactive probe localized in C17 side group of the cardenolide ((/sup 3/H)24-azidodigitoxoside). /sup 3/H-labeled ..cap alpha..-subunit was purified, and subjected to trypsin digestion. Fractions containing /sup 3/H-labeled material were pooled. Amino acid sequence analysis of this material suggested the presence of two peptides (residues 68-146; residues 263-342). Additional studies have employed purification of the /sup 3/H-labeled material by chromatography on Sepharose-6B, and CNBr cleavage followed by chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Amino acid sequence analysis of the purified /sup 3/H-labeled peptide thus isolated indicated sequence containing amino acid residues 263-342. These data suggest that this is the peptide containing the digitalis genin binding site, and rule out such a role for the other peptide (amino acids 68 - 146). Preliminary data also hint that binding of the /sup 3/H-probe occurs at the leu residue in the sequence glu tyr thr try leu glu .. present in the peptide containing residues 263 - 342.

  18. LIBSA – A Method for the Determination of Ligand-Binding Preference to Allosteric Sites on Receptor Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of receptor flexibility into computational drug discovery through the relaxed complex scheme is well suited for screening against a single binding site. In the absence of a known pocket or if there are multiple potential binding sites, it may be necessary to do docking against the entire surface of the target (global docking). However no suitable and easy-to-use tool is currently available to rank global docking results based on the preference of a ligand for a given binding site. We have developed a protocol, termed LIBSA for LIgand Binding Specificity Analysis, that analyzes multiple docked poses against a single or ensemble of receptor conformations and returns a metric for the relative binding to a specific region of interest. By using novel filtering algorithms and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the relative ligand-binding frequency at different pockets can be calculated and compared quantitatively. Ligands can then be triaged by their tendency to bind to a site instead of ranking by affinity alone. The method thus facilitates screening libraries of ligand cores against a large library of receptor conformations without prior knowledge of specific pockets, which is especially useful to search for hits that selectively target a particular site. We demonstrate the utility of LIBSA by showing that it correctly identifies known ligand binding sites and predicts the relative preference of a set of related ligands for different pockets on the same receptor. PMID:24437606

  19. The peptide agonist-binding site of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor based on site-directed mutagenesis and knowledge-based modelling

    PubMed Central

    Dods, Rachel L.; Donnelly, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36)amide (GLP-1) plays a central role in regulating blood sugar levels and its receptor, GLP-1R, is a target for anti-diabetic agents such as the peptide agonist drugs exenatide and liraglutide. In order to understand the molecular nature of the peptide–receptor interaction, we used site-directed mutagenesis and pharmacological profiling to highlight nine sites as being important for peptide agonist binding and/or activation. Using a knowledge-based approach, we constructed a 3D model of agonist-bound GLP-1R, basing the conformation of the N-terminal region on that of the receptor-bound NMR structure of the related peptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating protein (PACAP21). The relative position of the extracellular to the transmembrane (TM) domain, as well as the molecular details of the agonist-binding site itself, were found to be different from the model that was published alongside the crystal structure of the TM domain of the glucagon receptor, but were nevertheless more compatible with published mutagenesis data. Furthermore, the NMR-determined structure of a high-potency cyclic conformationally-constrained 11-residue analogue of GLP-1 was also docked into the receptor-binding site. Despite having a different main chain conformation to that seen in the PACAP21 structure, four conserved residues (equivalent to His-7, Glu-9, Ser-14 and Asp-15 in GLP-1) could be structurally aligned and made similar interactions with the receptor as their equivalents in the GLP-1-docked model, suggesting the basis of a pharmacophore for GLP-1R peptide agonists. In this way, the model not only explains current mutagenesis and molecular pharmacological data but also provides a basis for further experimental design. PMID:26598711

  20. Identification of the estrogen receptor Cd-binding sites by chemical modification.

    PubMed

    Nesatyy, Victor J; Rutishauser, Barbara V; Eggen, Rik I L; Suter, Marc J-F

    2005-07-01

    The widely reported interactions of the estrogen receptor (ER) with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) present in the environment gave raise to public concern and led to a number of screening and testing initiatives on the international level. Recent studies indicated that certain heavy metals, including cadmium, can mimic the effects of the endogenous estrogen receptor agonist 17beta-estradiol, and lead to estrogen receptor activation. Previous studies of the chimeric proteins, which incorporate the ligand-binding domain of the human ER, identified Cys 381, Cys 447, Glu 523, His 524 and Asp 538 as possible sites of interactions with cadmium. In the present study we utilized the rainbow trout ER ligand-binding domain fused to glutathione-S-transferase, and used Cd-shielding against various types of chemical modification of the fusion protein to study non-covalent interactions between the ER and Cd. The distribution of exposed and shielded residues allowed to identify amino acid residues involved in the interaction. Our data indicated preferential protection of Cys groups by cadmium, suggesting their involvement in the interaction. This supports data found in the literature on the strong binding affinity of the thiol group towards metals. However, not all Cys in the fusion protein sequence were protected against chemical modification, illustrating the importance of their chemical environment. In general, the location of rtER-LBD Cys residues implicated in Cd interactions did not confirm assignments made by alanine-scanning mutagenesis for the hER, probably due to differences in experimental setup and fusion proteins used. The involvement of other functional groups such as carboxylic acids in the Cd interactions, though not confirmed, can not be completely ruled out due to the general limitations of the chemical modification approach discussed in detail. Suggestions for an improved experimental setup were made. PMID:15965534

  1. Identification of four novel phosphorylation sites in estrogen receptor α: impact on receptor-dependent gene expression and phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptor α (ERα) phosphorylation is important for estrogen-dependent transcription of ER-dependent genes, ligand-independent receptor activation and endocrine therapy response in breast cancer. However ERα phosphorylation at the previously identified sites does not fully account for these receptor functions. To determine if additional ERα phosphorylation sites exist, COS-1 cells expressing human ERα were labeled with [32P]H3PO4 in vivo and ERα tryptic phosphopeptides were isolated to identify phosphorylation sites. Results Previously uncharacterized phosphorylation sites at serines 46/47, 282, 294, and 559 were identified by manual Edman degradation and phosphoamino acid analysis and confirmed by mutagenesis and phospho-specific antibodies. Antibodies detected phosphorylation of endogenous ERα in MCF-7, MCF-7-LCC2, and Ishikawa cancer cell lines by immunoblot. Mutation of Ser-282 and Ser-559 to alanine (S282A, S559A) resulted in ligand independent activation of ERα as determined by both ERE-driven reporter gene assays and endogenous pS2 gene expression in transiently transfected HeLa cells. Mutation of Ser-46/47 or Ser-294 to alanine markedly reduced estradiol dependent reporter activation. Additionally protein kinase CK2 was identified as a kinase that phosphorylated ERα at S282 and S559 using motif analysis, in vitro kinase assays, and incubation of cells with CK2 kinase inhibitor. Conclusion These novel ERα phosphorylation sites represent new means for modulation of ERα activity. S559 represents the first phosphorylation site identified in the extreme C-terminus (F domain) of a steroid receptor. PMID:20043841

  2. Single-Channel Current Through Nicotinic Receptor Produced by Closure of Binding Site C-Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hailong; Cheng, Xiaolin; McCammon, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the initial coupling of agonist binding to channel gating of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor using targeted molecular-dynamics (TMD) simulation. After TMD simulation to accelerate closure of the C-loops at the agonist binding sites, the region of the pore that passes through the cell membrane expands. To determine whether the structural changes in the pore result in ion conduction, we used a coarse-grained ion conduction simulator, Biology Boltzmann transport Monte Carlo, and applied it to two structural frames taken before and after TMD simulation. The structural model before TMD simulation represents the channel in the proposed resting state, whereas the model after TMD simulation represents the channel in the proposed active state. Under external voltage biases, the channel in the active state was permeable to cations. Our simulated ion conductance approaches that obtained experimentally and recapitulates several functional properties characteristic of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Thus, closure of the C-loop triggers a structural change in the channel sufficient to account for the open channel current. This approach of applying Biology Boltzmann transport Monte Carlo simulation can be used to further investigate the binding to gating transduction mechanism and the structural bases for ion selection and translocation.

  3. MHC class II proteins contain a potential binding site for the verotoxin receptor glycolipid CD77.

    PubMed

    George, T; Boyd, B; Price, M; Lingwood, C; Maloney, M

    2001-11-01

    Globotriaosyl ceramide or CD77 functions as a cell surface receptor for toxins of the Shiga toxin/verotoxin family and as a marker for germinal center stage B-cells. The B-cell protein CD19 and the interferon-alpha receptor possess verotoxin-like amino acid sequences in their extracellular domains, and CD77 has been shown to function in CD19-mediated adhesion and interferon-induced growth inhibition. The Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, Daudi, is similar to germinal center B-cells in their expression of CD77, CD19 and MHC class II molecules. Using the multiple sequence alignment program, ClustalW, we have identified a verotoxin-like amino acid sequence on the beta-chain of human and murine MHC class II molecules. Binding of CD77 at this site could modulate the peptide-binding properties of these MHC class II molecules. Using Western blot analysis of whole cell extracts, we found that CD77-positive Daudi cells have higher levels of HLA-D proteins than VT500 cells, a Daudi-derived CD77-deficient mutant cell line. In contrast, MHC class II-mediated adhesion and surface expression are similar in the two cell lines. Therefore, CD77 could play a functional or regulatory role in MHC class II-mediated functions specifically relating to antigen presentation by B-cells to T helper cells. PMID:11838965

  4. Mapping the receptor site for α-scorpion toxins on a Na+ channel voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinti; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Kahn, Roy; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2011-01-01

    The α-scorpions toxins bind to the resting state of Na+ channels and inhibit fast inactivation by interaction with a receptor site formed by domains I and IV. Mutants T1560A, F1610A, and E1613A in domain IV had lower affinities for Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus toxin II (LqhII), and mutant E1613R had ∼73-fold lower affinity. Toxin dissociation was accelerated by depolarization and increased by these mutations, whereas association rates at negative membrane potentials were not changed. These results indicate that Thr1560 in the S1-S2 loop, Phe1610 in the S3 segment, and Glu1613 in the S3-S4 loop in domain IV participate in toxin binding. T393A in the SS2-S6 loop in domain I also had lower affinity for LqhII, indicating that this extracellular loop may form a secondary component of the receptor site. Analysis with the Rosetta-Membrane algorithm resulted in a model of LqhII binding to the voltage sensor in a resting state, in which amino acid residues in an extracellular cleft formed by the S1-S2 and S3-S4 loops in domain IV interact with two faces of the wedge-shaped LqhII molecule. The conserved gating charges in the S4 segment are in an inward position and form ion pairs with negatively charged amino acid residues in the S2 and S3 segments of the voltage sensor. This model defines the structure of the resting state of a voltage sensor of Na+ channels and reveals its mode of interaction with a gating modifier toxin. PMID:21876146

  5. Functional sites involved in modulation of the GABAA receptor channel by the intravenous anesthetics propofol, etomidate and pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Maldifassi, Maria C; Baur, Roland; Sigel, Erwin

    2016-06-01

    GABAA receptors are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and are the target for many clinically important drugs. Among the many modulatory compounds are also the intravenous anesthetics propofol and etomidate, and barbiturates. The mechanism of receptor modulation by these compounds is of mayor relevance. The site of action of these compounds has been located to subunit interfaces in the intra-membrane region of the receptor. In α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors there are five such interfaces, two β+/α- and one each of α+/β-, α+/γ- and γ+/β- subunit interfaces. We have used reporter mutations located in the second trans-membrane region in different subunits to probe the effects of changes at these subunit interfaces on modulation by propofol, etomidate and pentobarbital. We provide evidence for the fact that each of these compounds either modulates through a different set of subunit interfaces or through the same set of subunit interfaces to a different degree. As a GABAA receptor pentamer harbors two β+/α- subunit interfaces, we used concatenated receptors to dissect the contribution of individual interfaces and show that only one of these interfaces is important for receptor modulation by etomidate. PMID:26767954

  6. Identification of thyroid hormone receptor binding sites in developing mouse cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones play an essential role in early vertebrate development as well as other key processes. One of its modes of action is to bind to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) which, in turn, binds to thyroid response elements (TREs) in promoter regions of target genes. The sequence motif for TREs remains largely undefined as does the precise chromosomal location of the TR binding sites. A chromatin immunoprecipitation on microarray (ChIP-chip) experiment was conducted using mouse cerebellum post natal day (PND) 4 and PND15 for the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta 1 to map its binding sites on over 5000 gene promoter regions. We have performed a detailed computational analysis of these data. Results By analysing a recent spike-in study, the optimal normalization and peak identification approaches were determined for our dataset. Application of these techniques led to the identification of 211 ChIP-chip peaks enriched for TR binding in cerebellum samples. ChIP-PCR validation of 25 peaks led to the identification of 16 true positive TREs. Following a detailed literature review to identify all known mouse TREs, a position weight matrix (PWM) was created representing the classic TRE sequence motif. Various classes of promoter regions were investigated for the presence of this PWM, including permuted sequences, randomly selected promoter sequences, and genes known to be regulated by TH. We found that while the occurrence of the TRE motif is strongly correlated with gene regulation by TH for some genes, other TH-regulated genes do not exhibit an increased density of TRE half-site motifs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an increase in the rate of occurrence of the half-site motifs does not always indicate the specific location of the TRE within the promoter region. To account for the fact that TR often operates as a dimer, we introduce a novel dual-threshold PWM scanning approach for identifying TREs with a true positive rate of 0.73 and a false positive

  7. Exploration of the ligand binding site of the human 5-HT4 receptor by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling

    PubMed Central

    Mialet, Jeanne; Dahmoune, Yamina; Lezoualc'h, Frank; Berque-Bestel, Isabelle; Eftekhari, Pierre; Hoebeke, Johan; Sicsic, Sames; Langlois, Michel; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2000-01-01

    Among the five human 5-HT4 (h5-HT4) receptor isoforms, the h5-HT4(a) receptor was studied with a particular emphasis on the molecular interactions involved in ligand binding. For this purpose, we used site-directed mutagenesis of the transmembrane domain. Twelve mutants were constructed with a special focus on the residue P4.53 of helix IV which substitutes in h5-HT4 receptors the highly conserved S residue among the rhodopsin family receptors. The mutated receptors were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells.Ligand binding or competition studies with two h5-HT4 receptor agonists, serotonin and ML10302 and two h5-HT4 receptor antagonists, [3H]-GR113808 and ML10375 were performed on wild type and mutant receptors. Functional activity of the receptors was evaluated by measuring the ability of serotonin to stimulate adenylyl cyclase.Ligand binding experiments revealed that [3H]-GR113808 did not bind to mutants P4.53A, S5.43A, F6.51A, Y7.43A and to double mutant F6.52V/N6.55L. On the other hand mutations D3.32N, S5.43A and Y7.43A appeared to promote a dramatic decrease of h5-HT4(a) receptor functional activity. From these studies, S5.43 and Y7.43 clearly emerged as common anchoring sites to antagonist [3H]-GR113808 and to serotonin.According to these results, we propose ligand-receptor complex models with serotonin and [3H]-GR113808. For serotonin, three interaction points were selected including ionic interaction with D3.32, a stabilizing interaction of this ion pair by Y7.43 and a hydrogen bond with S5.43. [3H]-GR113808 was also docked, based on the same type of interactions with S5.43 and D3.32: the proposed model suggested a possible role of P4.53 in helix IV structure allowing the involvement of a close hydrophobic residue, W4.50, in a hydrophobic pocket for hydrophobic interactions with the indole ring of [3H]-GR113808. PMID:10821780

  8. Glycosylation sites selectively interfere with alpha-toxin binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kreienkamp, H J; Sine, S M; Maeda, R K; Taylor, P

    1994-03-18

    Sequence analysis reveals unique features in the alpha-subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from the alpha-toxin-resistant cobra and mongoose. Included are N-linked glycosylation signals just amino-terminal to the Tyr190, Cys192-Cys193 region of the ligand binding domain, substitution of Trp187 and Phe189 by non-aromatic residues and alteration of the proline sequence Pro194-X-X-Pro197. Glycosylation signals were inserted into the toxin-sensitive mouse alpha-subunit by the mutations F189N and W187N/F189T. The F189N alpha-subunit, when transfected with beta, gamma and delta, showed a 140-fold loss of alpha-bungarotoxin affinity, whereas the W187N/F189T double mutation exhibited a divergence in alpha-toxin affinities at the two sites, one class showing a 600-fold and the other showing an 11-fold reduction. The W187N mutant and the double mutant F189N/S191A lacking the requisite glycosylation signals exhibited little alteration in affinity, as did the P194L and P197H mutations. The glycosylation sites had little or no influence on binding of toxins of intermediate (alpha-conotoxin, 1500 Da) or small mass (lophotoxin, 500 Da) and of the agonist, carbamylcholine. The two sites for the binding of alpha-conotoxin M1 have widely divergent dissociation constants of 2.1 and 14,800 nM. Expression of alpha/gamma- and alpha/delta-subunit pairs indicated that the high and low affinity sites are formed by the alpha/delta and alpha/gamma contacts, respectively. PMID:7907588

  9. Analysis of the binding sites of porcine sialoadhesin receptor with PRRSV.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yibo; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Kadariya, Ishwari; Cheng, Zhangrui; Ren, Yuwei; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Ao; Yang, Liguo; Kong, Dexin; Zhang, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can infect pigs and cause enormous economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Porcine sialoadhesin (pSN) and CD163 have been identified as key viral receptors on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM), a main target cell infected by PRRSV. In this study, the protein structures of amino acids 1-119 from the pSN and cSN (cattle sialoadhesin) N-termini (excluding the 19-amino acid signal peptide) were modeled via homology modeling based on mSN (mouse sialoadhesin) template structures using bioinformatics tools. Subsequently, pSN and cSN homology structures were superposed onto the mSN protein structure to predict the binding sites of pSN. As a validation experiment, the SN N-terminus (including the wild-type and site-directed-mutant-types of pSN and cSN) was cloned and expressed as a SN-GFP chimera protein. The binding activity between SN and PRRSV was confirmed by WB (Western blotting), FAR-WB (far Western blotting), ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and immunofluorescence assay. We found that the S107 amino acid residue in the pSN N-terminal played a crucial role in forming a special cavity, as well as a hydrogen bond for enhancing PRRSV binding during PRRSV infection. S107 may be glycosylated during PRRSV infection and may also be involved in forming the cavity for binding PRRSV along with other sites, including W2, Y44, S45, R97, R105, W106 and V109. Additionally, S107 might also be important for pSN binding with PRRSV. However, the function of these binding sites must be confirmed by further studies. PMID:24351868

  10. Analysis of the Binding Sites of Porcine Sialoadhesin Receptor with PRRSV

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yibo; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Kadariya, Ishwari; Cheng, Zhangrui; Ren, Yuwei; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Ao; Yang, Liguo; Kong, Dexin; Zhang, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can infect pigs and cause enormous economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Porcine sialoadhesin (pSN) and CD163 have been identified as key viral receptors on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM), a main target cell infected by PRRSV. In this study, the protein structures of amino acids 1–119 from the pSN and cSN (cattle sialoadhesin) N-termini (excluding the 19-amino acid signal peptide) were modeled via homology modeling based on mSN (mouse sialoadhesin) template structures using bioinformatics tools. Subsequently, pSN and cSN homology structures were superposed onto the mSN protein structure to predict the binding sites of pSN. As a validation experiment, the SN N-terminus (including the wild-type and site-directed-mutant-types of pSN and cSN) was cloned and expressed as a SN-GFP chimera protein. The binding activity between SN and PRRSV was confirmed by WB (Western blotting), FAR-WB (far Western blotting), ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and immunofluorescence assay. We found that the S107 amino acid residue in the pSN N-terminal played a crucial role in forming a special cavity, as well as a hydrogen bond for enhancing PRRSV binding during PRRSV infection. S107 may be glycosylated during PRRSV infection and may also be involved in forming the cavity for binding PRRSV along with other sites, including W2, Y44, S45, R97, R105, W106 and V109. Additionally, S107 might also be important for pSN binding with PRRSV. However, the function of these binding sites must be confirmed by further studies. PMID:24351868

  11. A Unified Model of the GABAA Receptor Comprising Agonist and Benzodiazepine Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Pernille Louise; Sander, Tommy; Balle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present a full-length α1β2γ2 GABA receptor model optimized for agonists and benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric modulators. We propose binding hypotheses for the agonists GABA, muscimol and THIP and for the allosteric modulator diazepam (DZP). The receptor model is primarily based on the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) from C. elegans and includes additional structural information from the prokaryotic ligand-gated ion channel ELIC in a few regions. Available mutational data of the binding sites are well explained by the model and the proposed ligand binding poses. We suggest a GABA binding mode similar to the binding mode of glutamate in the GluCl X-ray structure. Key interactions are predicted with residues α1R66, β2T202, α1T129, β2E155, β2Y205 and the backbone of β2S156. Muscimol is predicted to bind similarly, however, with minor differences rationalized with quantum mechanical energy calculations. Muscimol key interactions are predicted to be α1R66, β2T202, α1T129, β2E155, β2Y205 and β2F200. Furthermore, we argue that a water molecule could mediate further interactions between muscimol and the backbone of β2S156 and β2Y157. DZP is predicted to bind with interactions comparable to those of the agonists in the orthosteric site. The carbonyl group of DZP is predicted to interact with two threonines α1T206 and γ2T142, similar to the acidic moiety of GABA. The chlorine atom of DZP is placed near the important α1H101 and the N-methyl group near α1Y159, α1T206, and α1Y209. We present a binding mode of DZP in which the pending phenyl moiety of DZP is buried in the binding pocket and thus shielded from solvent exposure. Our full length GABAA receptor is made available as Model S1. PMID:23308109

  12. Negative and positive site-site interactions, and their modulation by pH, insulin analogs, and monoclonal antibodies, are preserved in the purified insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C C; Goldfine, I D; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Y; Gattner, H G; Brandenburg, D; De Meyts, P

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic properties of the insulin receptor were studied in solution after its purification to homogeneity. Dissociation of 125I-labeled insulin at a 1:50 dilution was not first order; unlabeled insulin at physiological concentrations accelerated the dissociation rate with a maximal effect at approximately 17 nM. At higher concentrations, the unlabeled insulin slowed the dissociation rate. Maximal acceleration was seen at pH 8.0. The ability to accelerate the dissociation rate was diminished with [LeuB24]insulin and suppressed with desoctapeptide, [LeuB25], [LeuB24,B25], desalanine-desasparagine, and desheptapeptide insulins, all of which slowed the dissociation at high concentrations. Monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor alpha subunit (MA-5, MA-10, MA-20, and MA-51) all competed for insulin binding to the purified receptor. MA-10 and MA-51 accelerated the dissociation of 125I-labeled insulin, while MA-5 and MA-20 slowed the off rate. Thus, all the aspects of both negatively and positively cooperative site-site interactions previously described in whole cells are present in solubilized purified receptors, demonstrating that these interactions represent intrinsic properties of the receptor molecule, most likely as a result of ligand-induced conformational changes. PMID:3054887

  13. Investigating the Role of Loop C Hydrophilic Residue ‘T244’ in the Binding Site of ρ1 GABAC Receptors via Site Mutation and Partial Agonism

    PubMed Central

    Naffaa, Moawiah M.; Absalom, Nathan; Solomon, V. Raja; Chebib, Mary; Hibbs, David E.; Hanrahan, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    The loop C hydrophilic residue, threonine 244 lines the orthosteric binding site of ρ1 GABAC receptors was studied by point mutation into serine, alanine and cysteine, and tested with GABA, some representative partial agonists and antagonists. Thr244 has a hydroxyl group essential for GABA activity that is constrained by the threonine methyl group, orienting it toward the binding site. Significant decreases in activation effects of the studied ligands at ρ1 T244S mutant receptors, suggests a critical role for this residue. Results of aliphatic and heteroaromatic partial agonists demonstrate different pharmacological effects at ρ1 T244S mutant receptors when co-applied with GABA EC50 responses. ρ1 T244A and ρ1 T244C mutant receptors have minimal sensitivity to GABA at high mM concentrations, whereas, the ρ1 WT partial agonists, β-alanine and MTSEA demonstrate more efficacy and potency, respectively, than GABA at these mutant receptors. This study explores the role of Thr244 in the binding of agonists as an initial step during channel gating by moving loop C towards the ligand. PMID:27244450

  14. Distribution of angiotensin IV binding sites (AT4 receptor) in the human forebrain, midbrain and pons as visualised by in vitro receptor autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Chai, S Y; Bastias, M A; Clune, E F; Matsacos, D J; Mustafa, T; Lee, J H; McDowall, S G; Paxinos, G; Mendelsohn, F A; Albiston, A L

    2000-12-01

    Angiotensin IV and other AT4 receptor agonists, improve memory retention and retrieval in the passive avoidance and swim maze learning paradigms. Angiotensin IV binding sites (also known as the AT4 receptors) are widely distributed in guinea pig and monkey (Macaca fascicularis) brains where high densities of the binding sites have been detected in the hippocampus, neocortex and motor nuclei. However, the distribution of the binding sites in the human brain is not known. We have recently localised the angiotensin IV binding sites (AT4 receptors) in post-mortem human brain using iodinated Nle-angiotensin IV, a higher affinity and more stable analogue of angiotensin IV. This radioligand bound with relatively high affinity and specificity to angiotensin IV binding sites. In competition studies on consecutive sections through the prefrontal cortex and claustrum, angiotensin IV, Nle-angiotensin IV and LVV-hemorphin 7 competed for the binding of 125I[Nle]-angiotensin IV with nanomolar affinities. Angiotensin II and the AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists were ineffective in competing for the binding at concentrations of up to 10 microM. We found high densities of 125I[Nle]-angiotensin IV binding sites throughout the cerebral cortex including the insular, entorhinal, prefrontal and cingulate cortices. Very high densities of the binding sites were observed in the claustrum, choroid plexus, hippocampus and pontine nucleus. Some thalamic nuclei displayed high densities of binding including the anteroprincipal, ventroanterior, anteromedial, medial dorsal and ventrolateral nuclei. The caudate nucleus, putamen, many amygdaloid nuclei and the red nucleus all displayed moderate densities of binding with a higher level detected in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In the hypothalamus, high densities binding sites were found in the ventromedial nucleus with lower levels in the dorsomedial and paraventricular nuclei. The distribution of 125I[Nle]-angiotensin IV binding sites in the

  15. Characterization of the Igf-II Binding Site of the IGF-II/MAN-6-P Receptor Extracellular Domain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmroudi, Farideh

    1995-01-01

    In mammals, insulin-like growth factor II (IGF -II) and glycoproteins bearing the mannose 6-phosphate (Man -6-P) recognition marker bind with high affinity to the same receptor. The functional consequences of IGF-II binding to the receptor at the cell surface are not clear. In these studies, we sought to broaden our understanding of the functional regions of the receptor regarding its IGF -II binding site. The IGF-II binding/cross-linking domain of the IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor was mapped by sequencing receptor fragments covalently attached to IGF-II. Purified rat placental or bovine liver receptors were affinity-labeled, with ^{125}I-IGF-II and digested with endoproteinase Glu-C. Analysis of digests by gel electrophoresis revealed a major radiolabeled band of 18 kDa, which was purified by gel filtration chromatography followed by reverse-phase HPLC and electroblotting. Sequence analysis revealed that, the peptide S(H)VNSXPMF, located within extracellular repeat 10 and beginning with serine 1488 of the bovine receptor, was the best candidate for the IGF-II cross-linked peptide. These data indicated that residues within repeats 10-11 were important for IGF -II binding. To define the location of the IGF-II binding site further, a nested set of six human receptor cDNA constructs was designed to produce epitope-tagged fusion proteins encompassing the region between repeats 8 and 11 of the human IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor extracellular domain. These truncated receptors were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, immunoprecipitated and analyzed for their abilities to bind and cross-link to IGF-II. All of the constructs were capable of binding/cross-linking to IGF-II, except for the 9.0-11 construct. Displacement curve analysis indicated that the truncated receptors were approximately equivalent in IGF-II binding affinity, but were of 5- to 10-fold lower affinity than full-length receptors. Sequencing of the 9.0-11 construct indicated the presence of a point mutation

  16. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-binding sites on the chicken vitellogenin II gene: synergism of steroid hormone action.

    PubMed

    Cato, A C; Heitlinger, E; Ponta, H; Klein-Hitpass, L; Ryffel, G U; Bailly, A; Rauch, C; Milgrom, E

    1988-12-01

    The chicken vitellogenin II gene is transcriptionally activated by estrogens. In transient transfection experiments in human T47D cells that contain receptors for various steroids, we showed estradiol, progestin, and androgen responses of a chimeric chicken vitellogenin II construct. This construct consists of DNA sequences from -626 to -590 upstream of the start of transcription of the chicken vitellogenin gene linked to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter driving the transcription of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Treatment of the transfected T47D cells with a combination of estradiol and the progestin R5020 led to a superinduction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity, showing a synergistic action of these two steroids. This synergism was not observed upon treatment of the transfected cells with estradiol and the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Using point mutations in the vitellogenin gene fragment, we showed in functional and in in vitro DNase I footprinting assays with a purified progesterone receptor that, for the synergistic action of estradiol and R5020 to occur, the progesterone receptor must be bound to the vitellogenin gene fragment. The progesterone receptor-binding site was localized at -610 to -590, close to the consensus sequence (-626 to -613) for estrogen receptor binding and function. We therefore demonstrate here that two different steroid hormones can be functionally synergistic through the interaction of their corresponding receptors with two different binding sites adjacent to one another. PMID:3244357

  17. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-binding sites on the chicken vitellogenin II gene: synergism of steroid hormone action.

    PubMed Central

    Cato, A C; Heitlinger, E; Ponta, H; Klein-Hitpass, L; Ryffel, G U; Bailly, A; Rauch, C; Milgrom, E

    1988-01-01

    The chicken vitellogenin II gene is transcriptionally activated by estrogens. In transient transfection experiments in human T47D cells that contain receptors for various steroids, we showed estradiol, progestin, and androgen responses of a chimeric chicken vitellogenin II construct. This construct consists of DNA sequences from -626 to -590 upstream of the start of transcription of the chicken vitellogenin gene linked to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter driving the transcription of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Treatment of the transfected T47D cells with a combination of estradiol and the progestin R5020 led to a superinduction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity, showing a synergistic action of these two steroids. This synergism was not observed upon treatment of the transfected cells with estradiol and the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Using point mutations in the vitellogenin gene fragment, we showed in functional and in in vitro DNase I footprinting assays with a purified progesterone receptor that, for the synergistic action of estradiol and R5020 to occur, the progesterone receptor must be bound to the vitellogenin gene fragment. The progesterone receptor-binding site was localized at -610 to -590, close to the consensus sequence (-626 to -613) for estrogen receptor binding and function. We therefore demonstrate here that two different steroid hormones can be functionally synergistic through the interaction of their corresponding receptors with two different binding sites adjacent to one another. Images PMID:3244357

  18. Multiplex Detection of Functional G Protein-Coupled Receptors Harboring Site-Specifically Modified Unnatural Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We developed a strategy for identifying positions in G protein-coupled receptors that are amenable to bioorthogonal modification with a peptide epitope tag under cell culturing conditions. We introduced the unnatural amino acid p-azido-l-phenylalanine (azF) into human CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) at site-specific amber codon mutations. We then used strain-promoted azide–alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition to label the azF-CCR5 variants with a FLAG peptide epitope-conjugated aza-dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO) reagent. A microtiter plate-based sandwich fluorophore-linked immunosorbent assay was used to probe simultaneously the FLAG epitope and the receptor using infrared dye-conjugated antibodies so that the extent of DBCO incorporation, corresponding nominally to labeling efficiency, could be quantified ratiometrically. The extent of incorporation of DBCO at the various sites was evaluated in the context of a recent crystal structure of maraviroc-bound CCR5. We observed that labeling efficiency varied dramatically depending on the topological location of the azF in CCR5. Interestingly, position 109 in transmembrane helix 3, located in a hydrophobic cavity on the extracellular side of the receptor, was labeled most efficiently. Because the bioorthogonal labeling and detection strategy described might be used to introduce a variety of different peptide epitopes or fluorophores into engineered expressed receptors, it might prove to be useful for a wide range of applications, including single-molecule detection studies of receptor trafficking and signaling mechanism. PMID:25524496

  19. Power availability at terrestrial receptor sites for laser-power transmission from the satellite power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1982-01-01

    A statistical model was developed for relating the temporal transmission parameters of a laser beam from a solar power satellite to observable meteorological data to determine the influence of weather on power reception at the earth-based receiver. Sites within 100 miles of existing high voltage transmission lines were examined and the model was developed for clear-sky and clouded conditions. The cases of total transmission through clouds at certain wavelengths, no transmission, and partial transmission were calculated for the cloud portion of the model. The study covered cirriform, stratiform, cumiliform, and mixed type clouds and the possibility of boring holes through the clouds with the beam. Utilization of weapons-quality beams for hole boring, was found to yield power availability increases of 9-33%, although no beneficial effects could be predicted in regions of persistent cloud cover. An efficiency of 80% was determined as possible if several receptor sites were available within 200-300 miles of each other, thereby allowing changes of reception point in cases of unacceptable meteorological conditions.

  20. Meta-diamide insecticides acting on distinct sites of RDL GABA receptor from those for conventional noncompetitive antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Toshifumi; Banba, Shinich; Nomura, Michikazu; Hirase, Kangetsu

    2013-04-01

    The RDL GABA receptor is an attractive target of insecticides. Here we demonstrate that meta-diamides [3-benzamido-N-(4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)phenyl)benzamides] are a distinct class of RDL GABA receptor antagonists showing high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura. We also suggest that the mode of action of the meta-diamides is distinct from that of conventional noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs), such as fipronil, picrotoxin, lindane, dieldrin, and α-endosulfan. Using a membrane potential assay, we examined the effects of the meta-diamide 3-benzamido-N-(2-bromo-4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-fluorobenzamide (meta-diamide 7) and NCAs on mutant Drosophila RDL GABA receptors expressed in Drosophila Mel-2 cells. NCAs had little or no inhibitory activity against at least one of the three mutant receptors (A2'S, A2'G, and A2'N), which were reported to confer resistance to NCAs. In contrast, meta-diamide 7 inhibited all three A2' mutant receptors, at levels comparable to its activity with the wild-type receptor. Furthermore, the A2'S·T6'V mutation almost abolished the inhibitory effects of all NCAs. However, meta-diamide 7 inhibited the A2'S・T6'S mutant receptor at the same level as its activity with the wild-type receptor. In contrast, a G336M mutation in the third transmembrane domain of the RDL GABA receptor abolished the inhibitory activities of meta-diamide 7, although the G336M mutation had little effect on the inhibitory activities of conventional NCAs. Molecular modeling studies also suggested that the binding site of meta-diamides was different from those of NCAs. Meta-diamide insecticides are expected to be prominent insecticides effective against A2' mutant RDL GABA receptors with a different mode of action. PMID:23416568

  1. Evidence of positive selection at codon sites localized in extracellular domains of mammalian CC motif chemokine receptor proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background CC chemokine receptor proteins (CCR1 through CCR10) are seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors whose signaling pathways are known for their important roles coordinating immune system responses through targeted trafficking of white blood cells. In addition, some of these receptors have been identified as fusion proteins for viral pathogens: for example, HIV-1 strains utilize CCR5, CCR2 and CCR3 proteins to obtain cellular entry in humans. The extracellular domains of these receptor proteins are involved in ligand-binding specificity as well as pathogen recognition interactions. In mammals, the majority of chemokine receptor genes are clustered together; in humans, seven of the ten genes are clustered in the 3p21-24 chromosome region. Gene conversion events, or exchange of DNA sequence between genes, have been reported in chemokine receptor paralogs in various mammalian lineages, especially between the cytogenetically closely located pairs CCR2/5 and CCR1/3. Datasets of mammalian orthologs for each gene were analyzed separately to minimize the potential confounding impact of analyzing highly similar sequences resulting from gene conversion events. Molecular evolution approaches and the software package Phylogenetic Analyses by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) were utilized to investigate the signature of selection that has acted on the mammalian CC chemokine receptor (CCR) gene family. The results of neutral vs. adaptive evolution (positive selection) hypothesis testing using Site Models are reported. In general, positive selection is defined by a ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous nucleotide changes (dN/dS, or ω) >1. Results Of the ten mammalian CC motif chemokine receptor sequence datasets analyzed, only CCR2 and CCR3 contain amino acid codon sites that exhibit evidence of positive selection using site based hypothesis testing in PAML. Nineteen of the twenty codon sites putatively indentified as likely to be under positive selection code for amino acid

  2. Removal of either N-glycan site from the envelope receptor binding domain of Moloney and Friend but not AKV mouse ecotropic gammaretroviruses alters receptor usage

    SciTech Connect

    Knoper, Ryan C.; Ferrarone, John; Yan Yuhe; Lafont, Bernard A.P.; Kozak, Christine A.

    2009-09-01

    Three N-linked glycosylation sites were removed from the envelope glycoproteins of Friend, Moloney, and AKV mouse ecotropic gammaretroviruses: gs1 and gs2, in the receptor binding domain; and gs8, in a region implicated in post-binding cell fusion. Mutants were tested for their ability to infect rodent cells expressing 4 CAT-1 receptor variants. Three mutants (Mo-gs1, Mo-gs2, and Fr-gs1) infect NIH 3T3 and rat XC cells, but are severely restricted in Mus dunni cells and Lec8, a Chinese hamster cell line susceptible to ecotropic virus. This restriction is reproduced in ferret cells expressing M. dunni dCAT-1, but not in cells expressing NIH 3T3 mCAT-1. Virus binding assays, pseudotype assays, and the use of glycosylation inhibitors further suggest that restriction is primarily due to receptor polymorphism and, in M. dunni cells, to glycosylation of cellular proteins. Virus envelope glycan size or type does not affect infectivity. Thus, host range variation due to N-glycan deletion is receptor variant-specific, cell-specific, virus type-specific, and glycan site-specific.

  3. Plasticity-related binding of GABA and muscarinic receptor sites in piriform cortex of rat: An autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, A.P.; Westrum, L.E. )

    1989-09-01

    This study has used the recently developed in vitro quantitative autoradiographic technique to examine the effects of olfactory bulb (OB) removal on receptor-binding sites in the deafferented piriform cortex (PC) of the rat. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine receptor (GABA-BZR)- and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MChR)-binding sites in layer I of PC were localized using (3H)flunitrazepam and (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate as ligands, respectively. From the resultant autoradiograms the optical densities were measured using a Drexel-DUMAS image analysis system. The densities of BZR and MChR-binding sites were markedly increased in the PC ipsilateral to the lesion as compared to the contralateral side in those subjects that were operated in adulthood (Postnatal Day 100, PN 100). Comparisons between the unoperated and PN 100 operated animals also showed significant increases in the deafferented PC. In the animals operated on the day of birth (PN 0) no significant differences were seen between the operated and the contralateral PC. The difference between the PN 0 deafferented PC and the unoperated controls shows a slight decrease in BZR density in the former group; however, in case of the MChR there is a slight increase on the side of the lesion. These results demonstrate that deafferentation of PC by OB removal appears to modulate both the BZR-binding sites that are coupled with the GABA-A receptor complex and the MChR-binding sites. The results also suggest that possibility of a role for these neurotransmitter receptor-binding sites in plasticity following deafferentation.

  4. Localization of the binding site for the human high-affinity Fc receptor on IgG.

    PubMed

    Duncan, A R; Woof, J M; Partridge, L J; Burton, D R; Winter, G

    1988-04-01

    A major pathway in the clearance of pathogens involves the coating of the pathogen with specific antibodies, and the binding of the antibody Fc region to cell receptors. This can trigger engulfment of the pathogen by phagocytes or lysis by killer cells. By oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis we have engineered a single amino acid change in a mouse IgG2b antibody (Glu 235----Leu) which now enables the antibody to bind to the FcRI (high affinity) receptor on human monocytes with a 100-fold improvement in affinity. This indicates that Leu 235 is a major determinant in the binding of antibody to FcRI and that the receptor may interact directly with the region linking the CH2 domain to the hinge. Tailoring the affinity of antibodies for cell receptors could help dissect their role in clearing pathogen. PMID:2965792

  5. Localization of CGRP receptor components and receptor binding sites in rhesus monkey brainstem: A detailed study using in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence, and autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Gaspar, Renee C; Roberts, Rhonda; Chen, Tsing-Bau; Zeng, Zhizhen; Villarreal, Stephanie; Edvinsson, Lars; Salvatore, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have revealed that certain brainstem areas are activated during migraine attacks. The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is associated with activation of the trigeminovascular system and transmission of nociceptive information and plays a key role in migraine pathophysiology. Therefore, to elucidate the role of CGRP, it is critical to identify the regions within the brainstem that process CGRP signaling. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence were performed to detect mRNA expression and define cellular localization of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), respectively. To define CGRP receptor binding sites, in vitro autoradiography was performed with [(3)H]MK-3207 (a CGRP receptor antagonist). CLR and RAMP1 mRNA and protein expression were detected in the pineal gland, medial mammillary nucleus, median eminence, infundibular stem, periaqueductal gray, area postrema, pontine raphe nucleus, gracile nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, and spinal cord. RAMP1 mRNA expression was also detected in the posterior hypothalamic area, trochlear nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, medial lemniscus, pontine nuclei, vagus nerve, inferior olive, abducens nucleus, and motor trigeminal nucleus; protein coexpression of CLR and RAMP1 was observed in these areas via immunofluorescence. [(3)H]MK-3207 showed high binding densities concordant with mRNA and protein expression. The present study suggests that several regions in the brainstem may be involved in CGRP signaling. Interestingly, we found receptor expression and antagonist binding in some areas that are not protected by the blood-brain barrier, which suggests that drugs inhibiting CGRP signaling may not be able to penetrate the central nervous system to antagonize receptors in these brain regions. PMID:26105175

  6. Toward an Understanding of Agonist Binding to Human Orexin-1 and Orexin-2 Receptors with G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Modeling and Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) Orexin-1 (OX1) and Orexin-2 (OX2) are located predominantly in the brain and are linked to a range of different physiological functions, including the control of feeding, energy metabolism, modulation of neuro-endocrine function, and regulation of the sleep–wake cycle. The natural agonists for OX1 and OX2 are two neuropeptides, Orexin-A and Orexin-B, which have activity at both receptors. Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) has been reported on both the receptors and the peptides and has provided important insight into key features responsible for agonist activity. However, the structural interpretation of how these data are linked together is still lacking. In this work, we produced and used SDM data, homology modeling followed by MD simulation, and ensemble-flexible docking to generate binding poses of the Orexin peptides in the OX receptors to rationalize the SDM data. We also developed a protein pairwise similarity comparing method (ProS) and a GPCR-likeness assessment score (GLAS) to explore the structural data generated within a molecular dynamics simulation and to help distinguish between different GPCR substates. The results demonstrate how these newly developed methods of structural assessment for GPCRs can be used to provide a working model of neuropeptide–Orexin receptor interaction. PMID:24144388

  7. The binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in animal species resistant to alpha-bungarotoxin.

    PubMed

    Barchan, D; Ovadia, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1995-07-18

    The ligand binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is located in the alpha-subunit, within a small fragment containing the tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193. We have been analyzing the binding site domain of AChRs from several animal species exhibiting various degrees of resistance to alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX). Our earlier work on the snake and mongoose AChR, both of which do not bind alpha-BTX, suggested that amino acid substitutions at positions 187, 189, and 194 of the AChR alpha-subunit are important in determining the resistance of these AChRs to alpha-BTX. In the present study, we have examined the correlation between alpha-BTX binding and the structure of the binding site domain of AChR from the hedgehog, shrew, cat, and human. Fragments of the AChR alpha-subunit corresponding to residues 122-205 from these species were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The hedgehog fragment does not bind alpha-BTX, in common with the snake and mongoose AChR, and the human fragment is a partial binder. The shrew and cat fragments bind alpha-BTX to a similar extent as the mouse fragment. The hedgehog and human AChRs have nonaromatic amino acid residues at positions 187 and 189 of the alpha-subunit, as is seen with the "toxin resistant" snake and mongoose, and in contrast with the "toxin binders", which have aromatic residues at these two positions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7619817

  8. Functional analysis of the BRI1 receptor kinase by Thr-for-Ser substitution in a regulatory autophosphorylation site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BRI1 becomes highly phosphorylated in vivo upon perception of the ligand, brassinolide, as a result of autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation by its co-receptor kinase, BAK1. Important autophosphorylation sites include those involved in activation of kinase activity and those that are inhibito...

  9. Binding sites of muscarinic and adrenergic receptors in gastrointestinal tissues of dairy cows suffering from left displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Ontsouka, E C; Niederberger, M; Steiner, A; Bruckmaier, R M; Meylan, M

    2010-12-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine (M) and adrenergic (AR) receptors mediate gastrointestinal motility. Using radioligand binding assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, the densities of binding sites and mRNA levels of M₂, M₃, α₂(AD)- and β₂-AR were compared in muscle tissues from the abomasal fundus, pylorus, duodenum, caecum, and external loop of the spiral colon of eight cows with left displacement of abomasum (LDA), and of eight healthy cows. Specific binding of the [³H]-ligands to each of the four receptors was competitive and saturable. Binding sites of M₂ (all intestinal sites), M₃ (duodenum and caecum), and of α₂(AD)-AR (abomasal fundus) were lower (P < 0.05) in cows with LDA than in healthy cows. The coefficients of correlation between binding sites and mRNA transcripts of receptors were dissimilar in cows with LDA and healthy cows. The decrease in densities of M (intestine) and of α₂(AD)-AR (abomasum) receptors suggests their implication in the impairment of motility associated with or leading to LDA. PMID:19796972

  10. Interest of somatostatin receptors scintigraphy for imaging differentiated thyroid carcinoma tumor sites

    SciTech Connect

    Giammarile, F.; Lumbroso, J.; Schlumberger, M.

    1995-05-01

    Despite the fact that differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is not classified as a neuroendocrine tumor, there is an increasing interest for the use of somatostatin receptors scintigraphy (SRS) in this disease. We evaluated SRS in DTC patients having no or a poor radioiodine uptake at the level of their tumor sites. Nine patients (pts) (7 men, 2 women; aged from 52 to 65 years) were previously treated (surgery of the primary: 9/9pts; followed by cervical radiotherapy: 4/9pts; radioiodine therapy: 8/9pts; surgery or radiotherapy to bone metastases: 2/9 pts) for DTC (papillary form: 6 pts; follicular; 1 pts; insular: 2 pts). They were explored by conventional imaging modalities (CIM) including Tc-99m MDP bone scans. High activity radioiodine scans were obtained 5 days after I-131 therapy. SRS was carried out during thyroxine therapy using Indium-111 pentetreotide (120 MBq) with imaging at 4 and 24 hours after injection (whole body scans and, when necessary, SPECT). Thyroglobulin blood level ranged from 120 to 60,000ng/ml. SRS was positive at the level of all tumor sites in 8/9 pts; radioiodine scans were negative in 4 pts (1pt with an insular DTC, 3 pt with a papillary DTC), slightly positive in 2 pts (papillary DTC), positive only on part of tumor sites in 1 pts (insular DTC), positive in 1 pt (follicular DTC) and not done in 1 pt. SRS demonstrated 3 new tumor sites (1 to bone, 1 to lung and 1 to mediastinal lymph nodes) in 2 pts; in an other pt, SRS clarified out a doubtful Tc-99m bone scan result and led to definitive confirmation of bone metastases. We had only 1 false negative result in 1 pt having pulmonary metastases (slightly positive radioiodine scan) which had been stable in size on CT for 6 years. These results indicate that, when radioiodine scans are ineffective, SRS is a powerful modality for imaging DTC tumor sites.

  11. Familial glucocorticoid resistance caused by a splice site deletion in the human glucocorticoid receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, M.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Encio, I.J.; Stratakis, C.A.; Hurley, D.M.; Accili, D.; Chrousos, G.P. Erasmus Univ. of Rotterdam )

    1993-03-01

    The clinical syndrome of generalized, compensated glucocorticoid resistance is characterized by increased cortisol secretion without clinical evidence of hyper- or hypocortisolism, and manifestations of androgen and/or mineralocorticoid excess. This condition results from partial failure of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to modulate transcription of its target genes. The authors studied the molecular mechanisms of this syndrome in a Dutch kindred, whose affected members had hypercortisolism and approximately half of normal GRs, and whose proband was a young woman with manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Using the polymerase chain reaction to amplify and sequence each of the nine exons of the GR gene [alpha], along with their 5[prime]- and 3[prime]-flanking regions, the authors identified a 4-base deletion at the 3[prime]-boundary of exon 6 in one GR allele ([Delta][sub 4]), which removed a donor splice site in all three affected members studied. In contrast, the sequence of exon 6 in the two unaffected siblings was normal. A single nucleotide substitution causing an amino acid substitution in the amino terminal domain of the GR (asparagine to serine, codon 363) was also discovered in exon 2 of the other allele (G[sub 1220]) in the proband, in one of her affected brothers and in her unaffected sister. This deletion in the glucocorticoid receptor gene was associated with the expression of only one allele and a decrease of GR protein by 50% in affected members of this glucocorticoid resistant family. The mutation identified in exon 2 did not segregate with the disease and appears to be of no functional significance. The presence of the null allele was apparently compensated for by increased cortisol production at the expense of concurrent hyperandrogenism. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Identification of Host Insulin Binding Sites on Schistosoma japonicum Insulin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rachel J.; Toth, Istvan; Liang, Jiening; Mangat, Amanjot; McManus, Donald P.; You, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum insulin receptors (SjIRs) have been identified as encouraging vaccine candidates. Interrupting or blocking the binding between host insulin and the schistosome insulin receptors (IRs) may result in reduced glucose uptake leading to starvation and stunting of worms with a reduction in egg output. To further understand how schistosomes are able to exploit host insulin for development and growth, and whether these parasites and their mammalian hosts compete for the same insulin source, we identified insulin binding sites on the SjIRs. Based on sequence analysis and the predicted antigenic structure of the primary sequences of the SjIRs, we designed nine and eleven peptide analogues from SjIR-1 and SjIR-2, respectively. Using the Octet RED system, we identified analogues derived from SjIR-1 (10) and SjIR-2 (20, 21 and 22) with insulin-binding sequences specific for S. japonicum. Nevertheless, the human insulin receptor (HIR) may compete with the SjIRs in binding human insulin in other positions which are important for HIR binding to insulin. However, no binding occurred between insulin and parasite analogues derived from SjIR-1 (2, 7 and 8) and SjIR-2 (14, 16 and 18) at the same locations as HIR sequences which have been shown to have strong insulin binding affinities. Importantly, we found two analogues (1 and 3), derived from SjIR-1, and two analogues (13 and 15) derived from SjIR-2, were responsible for the major insulin binding affinity in S. japonicum. These peptide analogues were shown to have more than 10 times (in KD value) stronger binding capacity for human insulin compared with peptides derived from the HIR in the same sequence positions. Paradoxically, analogues 1, 3, 13 and 15 do not appear to contain major antigenic determinants which resulted in poor antibody responses to native S. japonicum protein. This argues against their future development as peptide-vaccine candidates. PMID:27441998

  13. EVALUATING THE NMDA-GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR AS A SITE OF ACTION FOR TOLUENE, IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro, toluene disrupts the function of NMDA-glutamate receptors, indicating that effects on NMDA receptor function may contribute to toluene neurotoxicity. NMDA-glutamate receptors are widely present in the visual system and contribute to pattern-elicited visual evoked potent...

  14. The effect of interferon on the receptor sites to rabies virus on mouse neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The binding of rabies virus to mouse neuroblastoma cells (MNA) primed with alpha interferon (IFN-{alpha}), beta interferon (IFN-{beta}), or alpha bungarotoxin (BTX) was examined. A saturable number of receptor sites to rabies virus was calculated by increasing the amount of {sup 3}H-CVS added to a constant number of untreated MNA cells. MNA cells were then exposed to 20 I.U. of IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{beta}, or 1 {mu}g of BTX and assayed to determine if these treatments had an effect on the number of receptor sites to rabies virus. Total amount of {sup 3}H-CVS bound to MNA cells was determined during a three hour incubation period. Cold competition assays using 1,000 fold excess unlabeled CVS were used to determine non-specific binding for each treatment. Specific binding was then calculated by subtracting non-specific binding from the total amount of CVS bound to MNA cells. A similar amount of total viral protein bound to untreated and IFN-{beta}, and BTX treated cells after 180 minutes of incubation. The bound protein varied by only 0.07 {mu}g. However, the amount of specific and non-specific binding varied a great deal between treatments. BTX caused an increase in non-specific and a decrease in specific binding of rabies virus. IFN-{beta} produced variable results in non-specific and specific binding while IFN-{alpha} caused mainly specific binding to occur. The most significant change brought about by IFN-{alpha} was an increase in the rate of viral attachment. At 30 minutes post-infection, IFN-{alpha} treated cells had bound 90% of the total amount of virus bound to untreated cells after 180 minutes. The increased binding rate did not cause a productive infection of rabies virus. No viral production was evident after an incubation period of 48 hours in either IFN-{alpha} or IFN-{beta} treated cells.

  15. Stereoselective L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: evidence for muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Murray, T F; Mpitsos, G J; Siebenaller, J F; Barker, D L

    1985-12-01

    The muscarinic antagonist L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (L-[3H]QNB) binds with a high affinity (Kd = 0.77 nM) to a single population of specific sites (Bmax = 47 fmol/mg of protein) in nervous tissue of the gastropod mollusc, Aplysia. The specific L-[3H]QNB binding is displaced stereoselectively by the enantiomers of benzetimide, dexetimide, and levetimide. The pharmacologically active enantiomer, dexetimide, is more potent than levetimide as an inhibitor of L-[3H]QNB binding. Moreover, the muscarinic cholinergic ligands, scopolamine, atropine, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine are effective inhibitors of the specific L-[3H]QNB binding, whereas nicotinic receptor antagonists, decamethonium and d-tubocurarine, are considerably less effective. These pharmacological characteristics of the L-[3H]QNB-binding site provide evidence for classical muscarinic receptors in Aplysia nervous tissue. The physiological relevance of the dexetimide-displaceable L-[3H]QNB-binding site was supported by the demonstration of the sensitivity of the specific binding to thermal denaturation. Specific binding of L-[3H]QNB was also detected in nervous tissue of another marine gastropod, Pleurobranchaea californica. The characteristics of the Aplysia L-[3H]QNB-binding site are in accordance with studies of numerous vertebrate and invertebrate tissues indicating that the muscarinic cholinergic receptor site has been highly conserved through evolution. PMID:4078624

  16. Stereoselective L-(3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: evidence for muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, T.F.; Mpitsos, G.J.; Siebenaller, J.F.; Barker, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The muscarinic antagonist L-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (L-(/sup 3/H)QNB) binds with a high affinity (Kd = 0.77 nM) to a single population of specific sites (Bmax = 47 fmol/mg of protein) in nervous tissue of the gastropod mollusc, Aplysia. The specific L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding is displaced stereoselectively by the enantiomers of benzetimide, dexetimide, and levetimide. The pharmacologically active enantiomer, dexetimide, is more potent than levetimide as an inhibitor of L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding. Moreover, the muscarinic cholinergic ligands, scopolamine, atropine, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine are effective inhibitors of the specific L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding, whereas nicotinic receptor antagonists, decamethonium and d-tubocurarine, are considerably less effective. These pharmacological characteristics of the L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site provide evidence for classical muscarinic receptors in Aplysia nervous tissue. The physiological relevance of the dexetimide-displaceable L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site was supported by the demonstration of the sensitivity of the specific binding to thermal denaturation. Specific binding of L-(/sup 3/H)QNB was also detected in nervous tissue of another marine gastropod, Pleurobranchaea californica. The characteristics of the Aplysia L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site are in accordance with studies of numerous vertebrate and invertebrate tissues indicating that the muscarinic cholinergic receptor site has been highly conserved through evolution.

  17. Site-specific incorporation of keto amino acids into functional G protein-coupled receptors using unnatural amino acid mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shixin; Köhrer, Caroline; Huber, Thomas; Kazmi, Manija; Sachdev, Pallavi; Yan, Elsa C Y; Bhagat, Aditi; RajBhandary, Uttam L; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2008-01-18

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ubiquitous heptahelical transmembrane proteins involved in a wide variety of signaling pathways. The work described here on application of unnatural amino acid mutagenesis to two GPCRs, the chemokine receptor CCR5 (a major co-receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus) and rhodopsin (the visual photoreceptor), adds a new dimension to studies of GPCRs. We incorporated the unnatural amino acids p-acetyl-L-phenylalanine (Acp) and p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (Bzp) into CCR5 at high efficiency in mammalian cells to produce functional receptors harboring reactive keto groups at three specific positions. We obtained functional mutant CCR5, at levels up to approximately 50% of wild type as judged by immunoblotting, cell surface expression, and ligand-dependent calcium flux. Rhodopsin containing Acp at three different sites was also purified in high yield (0.5-2 microg/10(7) cells) and reacted with fluorescein hydrazide in vitro to produce fluorescently labeled rhodopsin. The incorporation of reactive keto groups such as Acp or Bzp into GPCRs allows their reaction with different reagents to introduce a variety of spectroscopic and other probes. Bzp also provides the possibility of photo-cross-linking to identify precise sites of protein-protein interactions, including GPCR binding to G proteins and arrestins, and for understanding the molecular basis of ligand recognition by chemokine receptors. PMID:17993461

  18. Neutralization of influenza A viruses by insertion of a single antibody loop into the receptor binding site

    PubMed Central

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Kashyap, Arun K.; Steel, John; Rubrum, Adam; Bhabha, Gira; Khayat, Reza; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Dillon, Michael A.; O’Neil, Ryann E.; Faynboym, Aleksandr M.; Horowitz, Michael; Horowitz, Lawrence; Ward, Andrew B.; Palese, Peter; Webby, Richard; Lerner, Richard A.; Bhatt, Ramesh R.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Immune recognition of protein antigens relies upon the combined interaction of multiple antibody loops, which provides a fairly large footprint and constrains the size and shape of protein surfaces that can be targeted. Single protein loops can mediate extremely high affinity binding, but it is unclear whether such a mechanism is available to antibodies. Here we report the isolation and characterization of antibody C05 that neutralizes strains from multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses, including H1, H2, and H3. Crystal and EM structures show that C5 recognizes conserved elements of the receptor binding site on the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein. Recognition of the HA receptor binding site is dominated by a single HCDR3 loop, with minor contacts from HCDR1, and is sufficient to achieve nanomolar binding with a minimal footprint. Thus, binding predominantly with a single loop can allow antibodies to target small, conserved, functional sites on otherwise hypervariable antigens. PMID:22982990

  19. Mutations in the GM1 Binding Site of Simian Virus 40 VP1 Alter Receptor Usage and Cell Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Magaldi, Thomas G.; Buch, Michael H. C.; Murata, Haruhiko; Erickson, Kimberly D.; Neu, Ursula; Garcea, Robert L.; Peden, Keith; Stehle, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Polyomaviruses are nonenveloped viruses with capsids composed primarily of 72 pentamers of the viral VP1 protein, which forms the outer shell of the capsid and binds to cell surface oligosaccharide receptors. Highly conserved VP1 proteins from closely related polyomaviruses recognize different oligosaccharides. To determine whether amino acid changes restricted to the oligosaccharide binding site are sufficient to determine receptor specificity and how changes in receptor usage affect tropism, we studied the primate polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40), which uses the ganglioside GM1 as a receptor that mediates cell binding and entry. Here, we used two sequential genetic screens to isolate and characterize viable SV40 mutants with mutations in the VP1 GM1 binding site. Two of these mutants were completely resistant to GM1 neutralization, were no longer stimulated by incorporation of GM1 into cell membranes, and were unable to bind to GM1 on the cell surface. In addition, these mutant viruses displayed an infection defect in monkey cells with high levels of cell surface GM1. Interestingly, one mutant infected cells with low cell surface GM1 more efficiently than wild-type virus, apparently by utilizing a different ganglioside receptor. Our results indicate that a small number of mutations in the GM1 binding site are sufficient to alter ganglioside usage and change tropism, and they suggest that VP1 divergence is driven primarily by a requirement to accommodate specific receptors. In addition, our results suggest that GM1 binding is required for vacuole formation in permissive monkey CV-1 cells. Further study of these mutants will provide new insight into polyomavirus entry, pathogenesis, and evolution. PMID:22514351

  20. Key Sites for P2X Receptor Function and Multimerization: Overview of Mutagenesis Studies on a Structural Basis

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Ralf; Kless, Achim; Schmalzing, Günther

    2015-01-01

    P2X receptors constitute a seven-member family (P2X1-7) of extracellular ATP-gated cation channels of widespread expression. Because P2X receptors have been implicated in neurological, inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, they constitute promising drug targets. Since the first P2X cDNA sequences became available in 1994, numerous site-directed mutagenesis studies have been conducted to disclose key sites of P2X receptor function and oligomerization. The publication of the 3-Å crystal structures of the zebrafish P2X4 (zfP2X4) receptor in the homotrimeric apo-closed and ATP-bound open states in 2009 and 2012, respectively, has ushered a new era by allowing for the interpretation of the wealth of molecular data in terms of specific three-dimensional models and by paving the way for designing more-decisive experiments. Thanks to these structures, the last five years have provided invaluable insight into our understanding of the structure and function of the P2X receptor class of ligandgated ion channels. In this review, we provide an overview of mutagenesis studies of the pre- and post-crystal structure eras that identified amino acid residues of key importance for ligand binding, channel gating, ion flow, formation of the pore and the channel gate, and desensitization. In addition, the sites that are involved in the trimerization of P2X receptors are reviewed based on mutagenesis studies and interface contacts that were predicted by the zfP2X4 crystal structures. PMID:25439586

  1. A novel modulatory binding site for zinc on the GABAA receptor complex in cultured rat neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, T G

    1992-01-01

    1. The properties of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor-ion channel complexes and the interaction with the transition metal zinc, were studied on rat sympathetic and cerebellar neurones in dissociated culture using patch clamp recording techniques. 2. The antagonism of GABA-induced membrane currents by zinc on sympathetic neurones was subject to developmental influence. Using embryonic sympathetic neurones acutely cultured for 24-72 h, GABA responses were more depressed by zinc when compared to responses evoked on adult neurones cultured for the same period. For neurones developing in vivo, the percentage inhibition of GABA responses produced by zinc in embryonic neurones was estimated to decline by 50% after 48.2 days following birth. 3. Embryonic sympathetic neurones maintained in culture for prolonged periods (40-50 days in vitro, DIV) became less sensitive to zinc when compared to neurones cultured for shorter periods (10-20 DIV). The decrease in the zinc inhibition for neurones maintained in vitro proceeded at an apparent rate of 0.55% per day. 4. Activation of the GABA receptor by muscimol (0.2-2 microM) was also antagonized by zinc (50-100 microM). 5. Lowering the pH of the perfusing Krebs solution did not affect the inhibition of GABA responses by zinc on sympathetic neurones. 6. Modulation of the GABAA receptor by some benzodiazepines, a barbiturate, a steroid based on pregnanolone, or antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxinin, did not interfere with the antagonism exerted by zinc on sympathetic neurones. A novel binding site for zinc on the GABAA receptor is proposed. 7. Analysis of the GABA-activated current noise on sympathetic neurones revealed two kinetic components to the power spectra requiring a double Lorentzian fit. The time constant describing the fast component (tau 2, 2.1 ms) was unaffected by zinc, whereas the slow component time constant (tau 1, 21.7 ms) was slightly reduced to 17.1 ms. 8. The apparent single-channel conductance for

  2. Na+-channel-associated scorpion toxin receptor sites as probes for neuronal evolution in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Berwald-Netter, Y; Martin-Moutot, N; Koulakoff, A; Couraud, F

    1981-02-01

    Purified neurotoxin II of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector (ScTx) has previously been shown to bind specifically to the Na+-ionophore-associated, voltage-sensitive receptor sites of excitable cells. We have conducted binding studies, using high-specific-activity 125I-labeled ScTx, to detect and quantify the Na+-channel receptors on cells of the developing fetal mouse brain. In vivo, the onset of detectable specific binding is at 12 fetal days. The rate of receptor appearance is initially slow but increases sharply as of the 16th day of mouse ontogenesis. The mean number of receptors at 12 and 19 days is 120 and 20,000 per cell, respectively (i.e., 0.5 and 80 per square micrometer). When corrected for the fraction of cell population corresponding to putative neuroblasts and neurons, identified by immunofluorescence as tetanus toxin binding cells, these values are, respectively, 1040 and 33,900 ScTx receptors per tetanus toxin binding cell or 4.2 and 136 per square micrometer. At all stages, the toxin binds to a single class of noninteracting sites; Kd = 0.1-0.5 nM. Similar findings in terms of ScTx-receptor properties and quantitative evolution were obtained in vitro. Specific 125I-labeled ScTx binding the presence of tetanus toxin binding cells. In cultures of central nervous system glia without neurons, only nonspecific low-level ScTx binding was detected. These results suggest that the high-affinity scorpion toxin receptors may be used as quantitative markers of neuronal differentiation. PMID:6262759

  3. Receptor binding sites for substance P in surgical specimens obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, C.R.; Gates, T.S.; Zimmerman, R.P.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Vigna, S.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Kruger, L.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-05-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that tachykinin neuropeptides (substance P (SP), substance K (SK), and neuromedin K (NK)) play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses. To test this hypothesis in a human inflammatory disease, quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to examine possible abnormalities in tachykinin binding sites in surgical specimens from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In all cases, specimens were processed for quantitative receptor autoradiography by using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton-Hunter conjugates of NK, SK, and SP. In colon tissue obtained from ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease patients, very high concentrations of SP receptor binding sites are expressed by arterioles and venules located in the submucosa, muscalairs mucosa, external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, and serosa, in contrast to control patients. These results demonstrate that receptor binding sites for SP, but not SK or NK, are ectopically expressed in high concentrations by cells involved in mediating inflammatory and immune responses. These data suggest that SP may be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease and might provide some insight into the interaction between the nervous system and the regulation of inflammation and the immune response in human inflammatory disease.

  4. A functional glucocorticoid-responsive unit composed of two overlapping inactive receptor-binding sites: evidence for formation of a receptor tetramer.

    PubMed Central

    Garlatti, M; Daheshia, M; Slater, E; Bouguet, J; Hanoune, J; Beato, M; Barouki, R

    1994-01-01

    An unusual glucocorticoid-responsive element (called GRE A) was found to mediate the induction of the cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase gene by glucocorticoids and was bound by the glucocorticoid receptor in a DNase I footprinting assay. GRE A consists of two overlapping GREs, each comprising a conserved half-site and an imperfect half-site. The complete unit was able to confer glucocorticoid inducibility to a heterologous promoter (delta MTV-CAT). Mutation of any of the half-sites, including the imperfect ones, abolished inducibility by the hormone, demonstrating that each of the isolated GREs was inactive. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, purified rat liver glucocorticoid receptor (GR) formed a low-mobility complex with GRE A, presumably containing a GR tetramer. When purified bacterially expressed DBD was used, low-mobility complexes as well as dimer and monomer complexes were formed. In inactive mutated oligonucleotides, no GR tetramer formation was detected. Modification of the imperfect half-sites in order to increase their affinity for GR gave a DNA sequence that bound a GR tetramer in a highly cooperative manner. This activated unit consisting of two overlapping consensus GREs mediated glucocorticoid induction with a higher efficiency than consensus GRE. Images PMID:7969140

  5. Human insulin analogues modified at the B26 site reveal a hormone conformation that is undetected in the receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Žáková, Lenka; Kletvíková, Emília; Lepšík, Martin; Collinsová, Michaela; Watson, Christopher J.; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Jiráček, Jiří; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.

    2014-10-01

    [AsnB26]- and [GlyB26]-insulin mutants attain a B26-turn like fold without assistance of chemical modifications. Their structures match the insulin receptor interface and expand the spectrum of insulin conformations. The structural characterization of the insulin–insulin receptor (IR) interaction still lacks the conformation of the crucial B21–B30 insulin region, which must be different from that in its storage forms to ensure effective receptor binding. Here, it is shown that insulin analogues modified by natural amino acids at the TyrB26 site can represent an active form of this hormone. In particular, [AsnB26]-insulin and [GlyB26]-insulin attain a B26-turn-like conformation that differs from that in all known structures of the native hormone. It also matches the receptor interface, avoiding substantial steric clashes. This indicates that insulin may attain a B26-turn-like conformation upon IR binding. Moreover, there is an unexpected, but significant, binding specificity of the AsnB26 mutant for predominantly the metabolic B isoform of the receptor. As it is correlated with the B26 bend of the B-chain of the hormone, the structures of AsnB26 analogues may provide the first structural insight into the structural origins of differential insulin signalling through insulin receptor A and B isoforms.

  6. The agonist SR 146131 and the antagonist SR 27897 occupy different sites on the human CCK(1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Gouldson, P; Legoux, P; Carillon, C; Delpech, B; Le Fur, G; Ferrara, P; Shire, D

    2000-07-21

    1-[2-(4-(2-Chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl) aminocarbonyl indoyl] acetic acid (SR 27897) is an effective CCK(1) receptor antagonist, while the structurally related molecule 2-[4-(4-chloro-2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-(2-cyclohexyl-ethyl)-thiazol-2-ylcarbamoyl ]-5, 7-dimethyl-indol-1-yl-1-acetic acid (SR 146131) is a highly potent and specific agonist for the same receptor. To discover how the two molecules interact with the human cholecystokinin (CCK) CCK(1) receptor, we have carried out binding and activity studies with 33-point mutated receptors. Only six mutants showed altered [3H]SR 27897 binding properties, Lys(115), Lys(187), Phe(198), Trp(209), Leu(214) and Asn(333). In contrast, numerous mutations throughout the receptor either reduced SR 146131 agonist potency, Phe(97), Gly(122), Phe(198), Trp(209), Ile(229), Asn(333), Arg(336) and Leu(356) or increased it, Tyr(48), Cys(94), Asn(98), Leu(217) and Ser(359). Only mutations of Phe(198), Trp(209) and Asn(333) affected both SR 27897 and SR 146131 binding or activity. The collated information was used to construct molecular models of SR 27897 and SR 146131 bound to the human CCK(1) receptor. The clear difference in the binding sites of SR 27897 and SR 146131 offers a molecular explanation for their contrasting pharmacological characteristics. PMID:10988332

  7. Simple Ligand-Receptor Interaction Descriptor (SILIRID) for alignment-free binding site comparison.

    PubMed

    Chupakhin, Vladimir; Marcou, Gilles; Gaspar, Helena; Varnek, Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    We describe SILIRID (Simple Ligand-Receptor Interaction Descriptor), a novel fixed size descriptor characterizing protein-ligand interactions. SILIRID can be obtained from the binary interaction fingerprints (IFPs) by summing up the bits corresponding to identical amino acids. This results in a vector of 168 integer numbers corresponding to the product of the number of entries (20 amino acids and one cofactor) and 8 interaction types per amino acid (hydrophobic, aromatic face to face, aromatic edge to face, H-bond donated by the protein, H-bond donated by the ligand, ionic bond with protein cation and protein anion, and interaction with metal ion). Efficiency of SILIRID to distinguish different protein binding sites has been examined in similarity search in sc-PDB database, a druggable portion of the Protein Data Bank, using various protein-ligand complexes as queries. The performance of retrieval of structurally and evolutionary related classes of proteins was comparable to that of state-of-the-art approaches (ROC AUC ≈ 0.91). SILIRID can efficiently be used to visualize chemogenomic space covered by sc-PDB using Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM): sc-PDB SILIRID data form clusters corresponding to different protein types. PMID:25210596

  8. A Novel Loop Domain in Superantigens Extends Their T Cell Receptor Recognition Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther,S.; Varma, A.; Moza, B.; Kasper, K.; Wyatt, A.; Zhu, P.; Nur-ur Rahman, A.; Li, Y.; Mariuzza, R.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Superantigens (SAGs) interact with host immune receptors to induce a massive release of inflammatory cytokines that can lead to toxic shock syndrome and death. Bacterial SAGs can be classified into five distinct evolutionary groups. Group V SAGs are characterized by the {alpha}3-{beta}8 loop, a unique {approx}15 amino acid residue extension that is required for optimal T cell activation. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of the group V SAG staphylococcal enterotoxin K (SEK) alone and in complex with the TCR hV{beta}5.1 domain. SEK adopts a unique TCR binding orientation relative to other SAG-TCR complexes, which results in the {alpha}3-{beta}8 loop contacting the apical loop of framework region 4, thereby extending the known TCR recognition site of SAGs. These interactions are absolutely required for TCR binding and T cell activation by SEK, and dictate the TCR V{beta} domain specificity of SEK and other group V SAGs.

  9. A mutational analysis of the acetylcholine receptor channel transmitter binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Akk, G; Zhou, M; Auerbach, A

    1999-01-01

    Mutagenesis and single-channel kinetic analysis were used to investigate the roles of four acetylcholine receptor channel (AChR) residues that are candidates for interacting directly with the agonist. The EC50 of the ACh dose-response curve was increased following alpha-subunit mutations Y93F and Y198F and epsilon-subunit mutations D175N and E184Q. Single-channel kinetic modeling indicates that the increase was caused mainly by a reduced gating equilibrium constant (Theta) in alphaY198F and epsilonD175N, by an increase in the equilibrium dissociation constant for ACh (KD) and a reduction in Theta in alphaY93F, and only by a reduction in KD in epsilonE184Q. This mutation altered the affinity of only one of the two binding sites and was the only mutation that reduced competition by extracellular K+. Additional mutations of epsilonE184 showed that K+ competition was unaltered in epsilonE184D and was virtually eliminated in epsilonE184K, but that neither of these mutations altered the intrinsic affinity for ACh. Thus there is an apparent electrostatic interaction between the epsilonE184 side chain and K+ ( approximately 1.7kBT), but not ACh+. The results are discussed in terms of multisite and induced-fit models of ligand binding to the AChR. PMID:9876135

  10. Structure-based mutagenesis reveals the albumin-binding site of the neonatal Fc receptor

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jan Terje; Dalhus, Bjørn; Cameron, Jason; Daba, Muluneh Bekele; Plumridge, Andrew; Evans, Leslie; Brennan, Stephan O.; Gunnarsen, Kristin Støen; Bjørås, Magnar; Sleep, Darrell; Sandlie, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Albumin is the most abundant protein in blood where it has a pivotal role as a transporter of fatty acids and drugs. Like IgG, albumin has long serum half-life, protected from degradation by pH-dependent recycling mediated by interaction with the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn. Although the FcRn interaction with IgG is well characterized at the atomic level, its interaction with albumin is not. Here we present structure-based modelling of the FcRn–albumin complex, supported by binding analysis of site-specific mutants, providing mechanistic evidence for the presence of pH-sensitive ionic networks at the interaction interface. These networks involve conserved histidines in both FcRn and albumin domain III. Histidines also contribute to intramolecular interactions that stabilize the otherwise flexible loops at both the interacting surfaces. Molecular details of the FcRn–albumin complex may guide the development of novel albumin variants with altered serum half-life as carriers of drugs. PMID:22215085

  11. Identification of co-evolving sites in the ligand binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors using mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatakia, Sarosh N.; Costanzi, Stefano; Chow, Carson C.

    2008-03-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest superfamily of membrane proteins in humans. They are involved in signal transduction in numerous cellular processes and are the most common target for pharmacological intervention via activation or inhibition. Identification of functionally important sites is relevant for better understanding the ligand-receptor interaction and therefore for drug delivery. In a superfamily of proteins, functionally important but co-evolving sites are not easily identified in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA). Using a MSA of trans-membrane (TM) domains of GPCR superfamily, we identify sites which co-evolve, and may therefore be functionally important. Assigning the TM site as a node and the MI of site pairs as an inverse inter-node distance, a MI graph is established. Co-evolving sites are then identified via this graph. Nodes characterized by high connectivity are located within the commonly accepted ligand binding site of GPCRs, suggesting that concerted co-evolution of a number of neighboring residues gave rise to a multitude of subfamilies each recognizing a specific set of ligands. MI and graph analysis may serve as a tool for the identification of topologically conserved binding pockets in the families of evolutionarily related proteins.

  12. Sulfhydryl group(s) in the ligand binding site of the D-1 dopamine receptor: specific protection by agonist and antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, A.; Kassis, S.; Kebabian, J.; Fishman, P.H.

    1986-10-21

    An iodinated compound, (/sup 125/I)-8-iodo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepin-7-ol, has been recently reported to be a specific ligand for the D-1 dopamine receptor. Due to its high affinity and specific activity, this ligand was chosen for the biochemical characterization of the D-1 receptor. Alkylation of particulate fractions of rat caudate nucleus by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) caused an inactivation of the D-1 receptor, as measured by diminished binding of the radioligand to the receptor. The inactivation of the receptor sites by NEM was rapid and irreversible, resulting in a 70% net loss of binding sites. On the basis of Scatchard analysis of binding to NEM-treated tissue, the loss in binding sites was due to a net decrease in the receptor number with a 2-fold decrease in the affinity of the receptor for the radioligand. Receptor occupancy by either a D-1 specific agonist or antagonist protected the ligand binding sites from NEM-mediated inactivation. NEM treatment of the receptor in the absence or presence of protective compound abolished the agonist high-affinity state of the receptor as well as membrane adenylate cyclase activity. The above-treated striatal membranes were fused with HeLa membranes and assayed for dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. When the sources of D-1 receptors were from agonist-protected membranes, the receptors retained the ability to functionally couple to the HeLa adenylate cyclase. These results suggest that the D-1 dopamine receptor contains NEM-sensitive sulfhydryl group(s) either at or near the vicinity of the ligand binding sites, which are critical for both receptor binding and function.

  13. Efficacy of anti-insulin-like growth factor I receptor monoclonal antibody cixutumumab in mesothelioma is highly correlated with insulin growth factor-I receptor sites/cell.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Neetu; Zhang, Jingli; Yu, Yunkai; Ho, Mitchell; Merino, Maria; Cao, Liang; Hassan, Raffit

    2012-11-01

    Insulin growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is expressed in mesothelioma and therefore an attractive target for therapy. The antitumor activity of cixutumumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to IGF-IR, in mesothelioma and relationship to IGF-IR expression was investigated using eight early passage tumor cells obtained from patients, nine established cell lines and an in vivo human mesothelioma tumor xenograft model. Although IGF-IR expression at the mRNA and protein level was present in all mesothelioma cells, using a quantitative ELISA immunoassay, there was considerable variability of IGF-IR expression ranging from 1 to 14 ng/mg of lysate. Using flow cytometry, the number of IGF-IR surface receptors varied from ≈ 2,000 to 50,000 sites/cell. Cells expressing >10,000 sites/cell had greater than 10% growth inhibition when treated with cixutumumab (100 μg/ml). Cixutumumab also induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated toxicity (>10% specific lysis) in cell lines, which had >20,000 IGF-IR sites/cell. Treatment with cixutumumab decreased phosphorylation of IGF-IR, Akt and Erk in cell lines, H226 and H28 having 24,000 and 51,000 IGF-IR sites/cell, respectively, but not in the cell line H2052 with 3,000 IGF-IR sites/cell. In vivo, cixutumumab treatment delayed growth of H226 mesothelioma tumor xenografts in mice and improved the overall survival of these mice compared to mice treated with saline (p < 0.004). Our results demonstrate that the antitumor efficacy of cixutumumab including inhibition of IGF-IR downstream signaling is highly correlated with IGF-IR sites/cell. A phase II clinical trial of cixutumumab is currently ongoing for the treatment of patients with mesothelioma. PMID:22323052

  14. Antibodies to synthetic peptides as probes for the binding site on the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Gershoni, J M; Fridkin, M; Fuchs, S

    1985-01-01

    Synthetic peptides and their respective antibodies were used in an attempt to localize and identify the ligand-binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Two peptides of the receptor alpha subunit were synthesized, the first corresponding to the NH2-terminal domain (positions 1-20) and the other, to a segment (residues 126-143) that contains the first two cysteine residues. Specific antipeptide antibodies were elicited in rabbits after immunization with the peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin. The antipeptide antibodies thus obtained cross-reacted with the receptor and bound specifically to its alpha subunit. The antipeptide antibodies were used to test whether the peptide sequences corresponded to the alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX)-binding site. Staphylococcus aureus V8-protease digestion of the isolated receptor alpha subunit generated several fragments. Antipeptide (1-20) and antipeptide (126-143) both bound a 26-kDa fragment, whereas only antipeptide (126-143) bound a 17-kDa fragment. None of these fragments were found to bind alpha-BTX. On the other hand, alpha-BTX bound to an 18-kDa fragment that did not react with either of the antipeptide antibodies. Moreover, the 26-kDa and 17-kDa fragments were also found to contain the endoglycosidase H-susceptible oligosaccharide chain. Our results indicate that the toxin-binding site lies beyond the first possible V8 protease cleavage site after residues 126-143: i.e., Asp-152. This location is in agreement with the possibility that cysteine residues 192 and/or 193 are in close proximity to or contiguous with the ligand-binding site. Images PMID:2582416

  15. Classical androgen receptors in non-classical sites in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Sarkey, Sara; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; DonCarlos, Lydia L.

    2008-01-01

    Androgen receptors are expressed in many different neuronal populations in the central nervous system where they often act as transcription factors in the cell nucleus. However, recent studies have detected androgen receptor immunoreactivity in neuronal and glial processes of the adult rat neocortex, hippocampal formation, and amygdala as well as in the telencephalon of Eastern Fence and green anole lizards. This review discusses previously published findings on extranuclear androgen receptors, as well as new experimental results that begin to establish a possible functional role for androgen receptors in axons within cortical regions. Electron microscopic studies have revealed that androgen receptor immunoreactive processes in the rat brain correspond to axons, dendrites and glial processes. New results show that lesions of the dorsal CA1 region by local administration of ibotenic acid reduce the density of androgen receptor immunoreactive axons in the cerebral cortex and the amygdala, suggesting that these axons may originate in the hippocampus. Androgen receptor immunoreactivity in axons is also decreased by the intracerebroventricular administration of colchicine, suggesting that androgen receptor protein is transported from the perikaryon to the axons by fast axonal transport. Androgen receptors in axons located in the cerebral cortex and amygdala and originating in the hippocampus may play an important role in the rapid behavioral effects of androgens. PMID:18402960

  16. Measles Virus Infects both Polarized Epithelial and Immune Cells by Using Distinctive Receptor-Binding Sites on Its Hemagglutinin▿

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Maino; Takeda, Makoto; Shirogane, Yuta; Hashiguchi, Takao; Ohno, Shinji; Yanagi, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    Measles is one of the most contagious human infectious diseases and remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), also called CD150, is a cellular receptor for measles virus (MV), presumably accounting for its tropism for immune cells and its immunosuppressive properties. On the other hand, pathological studies have shown that MV also infects epithelial cells at a later stage of infection, although its mechanism has so far been unknown. In this study, we show that wild-type MV can infect and produce syncytia in human polarized epithelial cell lines independently of SLAM and CD46 (a receptor for the vaccine strains of MV). Progeny viral particles are released exclusively from the apical surface of these polarized epithelial cell lines. We have also identified amino acid residues on the MV attachment protein that are likely to interact with a putative receptor on epithelial cells. All of these residues have aromatic side chains and may form a receptor-binding pocket located in a different position from the putative SLAM- and CD46-binding sites on the MV attachment protein. Thus, our results indicate that MV has an intrinsic ability to infect both polarized epithelial and immune cells by using distinctive receptor-binding sites on the attachment protein corresponding to each of their respective receptors. The ability of MV to infect polarized epithelial cells and its exclusive release from the apical surface may facilitate its efficient transmission via aerosol droplets, resulting in its highly contagious nature. PMID:18287234

  17. Residues accessible in the binding-site crevice of transmembrane helix 6 of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Nebane, Ntsang M; Hurst, Dow P; Carrasquer, Carl A; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Reggio, Patricia H; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2008-12-30

    We have used the substituted-cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) to map the residues in the sixth membrane-spanning segment of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor that contribute to the surface of the water-accessible binding-site crevice. Using a background of the mutant C2.59S which is relatively insensitive to the methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents, we mutated to cysteine, one at a time, 34 consecutive residues in TMH6 of the CB2 receptor. These mutant receptors were then expressed in HEK293 cells. By incubating HEK293 cells stably transfected with CB2 receptors with the small, charged, hydrophilic, thiol-specific reagent methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium (MTSEA), [(3)H]CP55940 binding was significantly inhibited for six mutant receptors. All six of the mutants that reacted with MTSEA were protected from the reaction when pretreated with the cannabinoid agonist WIN55212-2, suggesting that MTSEA modification occurred within the binding crevice. Therefore, the side chains of the residues at these reactive loci (V6.51, L6.52, L6.54, M6.55, L6.59, and T6.62) are on the water-accessible surface of the binding-site crevice. These residues are extracellular to the TMH6 CWXP hinge motif. The pattern of accessibility is consistent with a alpha-helical conformation for this segment of TMH6. Molecular modeling studies performed in the context of the CB2 model show that V6.51, L6.52, L6.54, M6.55, L6.59, and T6.62 face into the CB2 binding pocket, further confirming our SCAM results. These results are similar to the accessibility patterns determined by SCAM studies of TMH6 in the opioid and dopamine D2 receptors. PMID:19053233

  18. Inter- and Intra-Subunit Butanol/Isoflurane Sites of Action in the Human Glycine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Mandy L.; Gorini, Giorgio; McCracken, Lindsay M.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Harris, R. Adron; Trudell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) mediate inhibitory neurotransmission and are targets for alcohols and anesthetics in brain. GlyR transmembrane (TM) domains contain critical residues for alcohol/anesthetic action: amino acid A288 in TM3 forms crosslinks with TM1 (I229) in the adjacent subunit as well as TM2 (S267) and TM4 (Y406, W407, I409, Y410) in the same subunit. We hypothesized that these residues may participate in intra-subunit and inter-subunit sites of alcohol/anesthetic action. The following double and triple mutants of GLRA1 cDNA (encoding human glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit) were injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes: I229C/A288C, I229C/A288C/C290S, A288C/Y406C, A288C/W407C, A288C/I409C, and A288C/Y410C along with the corresponding single mutants and wild-type GLRA1. Butanol (22 mM) or isoflurane (0.6 mM) potentiation of GlyR-mediated currents before and after application of the cysteine crosslinking agent HgCl2 (10 μM) was measured using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. Crosslinking nearly abolished butanol and isoflurane potentiation in the I229C/A288C and I229C/A288C/C290S mutants but had no effect in single mutants or wild-type. Crosslinking also inhibited butanol and isoflurane potentiation in the TM3-4 mutants (A288C/Y406C, A288C/W407C, A288C/I409C, A288C/Y410C) with no effect in single mutants or wild-type. We extracted proteins from oocytes expressing I229C/288C, A288C/Y410C, or wild-type GlyRs, used mass spectrometry to verify their expression and possible inter-subunit dimerization, plus immunoblotting to investigate the biochemical features of proposed crosslinks. Wild-type GlyR subunits measured about 50 kDa; after crosslinking, the dimeric/monomeric 100:50 kDa band ratio was significantly increased in I229C/288C but not A288C/Y410C mutants or wild-type, providing support for TM1-3 inter-subunit and TM3-4 intra-subunit crosslinking. A GlyR homology model based on the GluCl template provides further evidence for a multi-site model

  19. Inter- and Intra-Subunit Butanol/Isoflurane Sites of Action in the Human Glycine Receptor.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Mandy L; Gorini, Giorgio; McCracken, Lindsay M; Mayfield, R Dayne; Harris, R Adron; Trudell, James R

    2016-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) mediate inhibitory neurotransmission and are targets for alcohols and anesthetics in brain. GlyR transmembrane (TM) domains contain critical residues for alcohol/anesthetic action: amino acid A288 in TM3 forms crosslinks with TM1 (I229) in the adjacent subunit as well as TM2 (S267) and TM4 (Y406, W407, I409, Y410) in the same subunit. We hypothesized that these residues may participate in intra-subunit and inter-subunit sites of alcohol/anesthetic action. The following double and triple mutants of GLRA1 cDNA (encoding human glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit) were injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes: I229C/A288C, I229C/A288C/C290S, A288C/Y406C, A288C/W407C, A288C/I409C, and A288C/Y410C along with the corresponding single mutants and wild-type GLRA1. Butanol (22 mM) or isoflurane (0.6 mM) potentiation of GlyR-mediated currents before and after application of the cysteine crosslinking agent HgCl2 (10 μM) was measured using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. Crosslinking nearly abolished butanol and isoflurane potentiation in the I229C/A288C and I229C/A288C/C290S mutants but had no effect in single mutants or wild-type. Crosslinking also inhibited butanol and isoflurane potentiation in the TM3-4 mutants (A288C/Y406C, A288C/W407C, A288C/I409C, A288C/Y410C) with no effect in single mutants or wild-type. We extracted proteins from oocytes expressing I229C/288C, A288C/Y410C, or wild-type GlyRs, used mass spectrometry to verify their expression and possible inter-subunit dimerization, plus immunoblotting to investigate the biochemical features of proposed crosslinks. Wild-type GlyR subunits measured about 50 kDa; after crosslinking, the dimeric/monomeric 100:50 kDa band ratio was significantly increased in I229C/288C but not A288C/Y410C mutants or wild-type, providing support for TM1-3 inter-subunit and TM3-4 intra-subunit crosslinking. A GlyR homology model based on the GluCl template provides further evidence for a multi-site model

  20. Regulation of MMP-9 by a WIN-binding site in the monocyte-macrophage system independent from cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Wolf, Susanne; Synwoldt, Peggy; Pahl, Andreas; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Ullrich, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The cannabinoid system is known to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Therefore, drugs targeting cannabinoid receptors are considered as candidates for anti-inflammatory and tissue protective therapy. We demonstrated that the prototypical cannabinoid agonist R(+)WIN55,212-2 (WIN) reduced the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in a murine model of cigarette-smoke induced lung inflammation. In experiments using primary cells and cell lines of the monocyte-macrophage-system we found that binding of the cannabinoid-receptor agonist WIN to a stereo-selective, specific binding site in cells of the monocyte-macrophage-system induced a significant down-regulation of MMP-9 secretion and disturbance of intracellular processing, which subsequently down-regulated MMP-9 mRNA expression via a ERK1/2-phosphorylation-dependent pathway. Surprisingly, the anti-inflammatory effect was independent from classical cannabinoid receptors. Our experiments supposed an involvement of TRPV1, but other yet unidentified sites are also possible. We conclude that cannabinoid-induced control of MMP-9 in the monocyte-macrophage system via a cannabinoid-receptor independent pathway represents a general option for tissue protection during inflammation, such as during lung inflammation and other diseases associated with inflammatory tissue damage. PMID:23139770

  1. Regulation of MMP-9 by a WIN-Binding Site in the Monocyte-Macrophage System Independent from Cannabinoid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Wolf, Susanne; Synwoldt, Peggy; Pahl, Andreas; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Ullrich, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The cannabinoid system is known to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Therefore, drugs targeting cannabinoid receptors are considered as candidates for anti-inflammatory and tissue protective therapy. We demonstrated that the prototypical cannabinoid agonist R(+)WIN55,212-2 (WIN) reduced the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in a murine model of cigarette-smoke induced lung inflammation. In experiments using primary cells and cell lines of the monocyte-macrophage-system we found that binding of the cannabinoid-receptor agonist WIN to a stereo-selective, specific binding site in cells of the monocyte-macrophage-system induced a significant down-regulation of MMP-9 secretion and disturbance of intracellular processing, which subsequently down-regulated MMP-9 mRNA expression via a ERK1/2-phosphorylation-dependent pathway. Surprisingly, the anti-inflammatory effect was independent from classical cannabinoid receptors. Our experiments supposed an involvement of TRPV1, but other yet unidentified sites are also possible. We conclude that cannabinoid-induced control of MMP-9 in the monocyte-macrophage system via a cannabinoid-receptor independent pathway represents a general option for tissue protection during inflammation, such as during lung inflammation and other diseases associated with inflammatory tissue damage. PMID:23139770

  2. Functional characterization of ivermectin binding sites in α1β2γ2L GABA(A) receptors

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Mondragon, Argel; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and are therapeutic targets for many indications including sedation, anesthesia and anxiolysis. There is, however, considerable scope for the development of new therapeutics with improved beneficial effects and reduced side-effect profiles. The anthelminthic drug, ivermectin, activates the GABAAR although its binding site is not known. The molecular site of action of ivermectin has, however, been defined by crystallography in the homologous glutamate-gated chloride channel. Resolving the molecular mechanisms of ivermectin binding to α1β2γ2L GABAARs may provide insights into the design of improved therapeutics. Given that ivermectin binds to subunit interfaces, we sought to define (1) which subunit interface sites it binds to, (2) whether these sites are equivalent in terms of ivermectin sensitivity or efficacy, and (3) how many must be occupied for maximal efficacy. Our approach involved precluding ivermectin from binding to particular interfaces by introducing bulky M3 domain 36′F sidechains to the “+” side of those interfaces. We thereby demonstrated that ivermectin produces irreversible channel activation only when it binds to the single γ2L-β2 interface site. When it binds to α1-β2 sites it elicits potentiation of GABA-gated currents but has no irreversible activating effect. Ivermectin cannot bind to the β2-α1 interface site due to its endogenous bulky 36′ methionine. Replacing this with an alanine creates a functional site at this interface, but surprisingly it is inhibitory. Molecular docking simulations reveal that the γ2L-β2 interface forms more contacts with ivermectin than the other interfaces, possibly explaining why ivermectin appears to bind irreversibly at this interface. This study demonstrates unexpectedly stark pharmacological differences among GABAAR ivermectin binding sites. PMID:26441518

  3. Structural characteristics of the recognition site for cholinergic ligands in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from squid optical ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Plyashkevich, Yu.G.; Demushkin, V.P.

    1986-01-20

    The influence of chemical modification on the parameters of the binding of cholinergic ligands by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of squid optical ganglia was investigated. The presence of two subpopulations of recognition sites, differing in the composition of the groups contained in them, was detected. It was established with high probability that subpopulation I contains arginine and tyrosine residues and a carboxyl group while subpopulation II contains an amino group, a thyrosine residue, and a carboxyl group. Moreover, in both subpopulations there is an amino group important only for the binding of tubocurarin. On the basis of the results obtained, a model of the recognition sites for cholinergic ligands of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of squid optical ganglia is proposed.

  4. Nicotinic receptor involvement in regulation of functions of mouse neutrophils from inflammatory site.

    PubMed

    Safronova, Valentina G; Vulfius, Catherine A; Shelukhina, Irina V; Mal'tseva, Valentina N; Berezhnov, Alexey V; Fedotova, Eugeniya I; Miftahova, Regina G; Kryukova, Elena V; Grinevich, Andrey A; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2016-07-01

    Participation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in functioning of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) isolated from inflammatory site of mice and expression of different nAChR subunits were studied. Nicotine and acetylcholine (ACh) modified respiratory burst induced by a chemotactic peptide N-formyl-MLF in neutrophils of male (but not female) mice. Antagonists of nAChRs α-cobratoxin (αCTX), α-conotoxins MII and [A10L]PnIA at concentrations of 0.01-5μM, 0.2μM and 1μM, respectively, eliminated nAChR agonist effects. ACh also affected adhesion of PMNs, this effect was also prevented by αCTX (100nM) and MII (1nM). Neutrophils of female mice after chronic nicotine consumption acquired sensitivity to nAChR agonists. Changes of free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in neutrophils under the action of nAChR ligands were analyzed. In cells with no Ca(2+) oscillations and relatively low resting level of intracellular Ca(2+), nicotine triggered Ca(2+)-spikes, the lag of the response shortened with increasing nicotine concentration. A nicotinic antagonist caramiphen strongly decreased the effect of nicotine. RT-PCR analysis revealed mRNAs of α2, α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, α9, β2, β3, and β4 nAChR subunits. Specific binding of [(125)I]-α-bungarotoxin was demonstrated. Thus in view of the effects and binding characteristics the results obtained suggest a regulatory role of α7, α3β2 or α6* nAChR types in specific functions of PMNs. PMID:26965141

  5. Lung cancer risk assessment at receptor site of a waste-to-energy plant.

    PubMed

    Scungio, Mauro; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2016-10-01

    The toxicity of particulate matter emitted from waste-to-energy plants, is associated to the compounds attached to the particles, several of which have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in the Group 1 carcinogens. In this paper a modified risk-assessment model, deriving from an existing one, was applied to estimate the lung cancer risk related to both ultrafine and coarse particles emitted from an incinerator whose people living nearby are exposed to. To this end, the measured values of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals (As, Cd, Ni) and PCDD/Fs (Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans) emitted from an incinerator placed in Italy were used to calculate the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) at the stack of the plant. The estimated ELCR was then used as input data in a numerical CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model that solves the mass, momentum, turbulence and species transport equations to study the influence of wind speed and chimney height on the ELCR at receptor sites. Furthermore, combining meteorological data (wind speed and direction), and hypothesizing different exposure scenarios on the basis of time-activity patterns of people living nearby the plant, specific risk maps were obtained by evaluating ELCR around the incinerator. Results show that with the increasing of wind speed, the ELCR value downwind at the plant decreases and its point of maximum risk becomes closer to the stack. On the other hand, increasing the stack height decreases the ELCR, moving away from the stack the point of maximum risk. Finally, the risk maps for people living or working nearby the plant have highlighted that the excess risk of lung cancer due to the presence of the incinerator is below the WHO target (1×10(-5)). PMID:27462027

  6. VOC emissions, evolutions and contributions to SOA formation at a receptor site in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, B.; Hu, W. W.; Shao, M.; Wang, M.; Chen, W. T.; Lu, S. H.; Zeng, L. M.; Hu, M.

    2013-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by two online instruments (GC-FID/MS and PTR-MS) at a receptor site on Changdao Island (37.99° N, 120.70° E) in eastern China. Reaction with OH radical dominated chemical losses of most VOC species during the Changdao campaign. A photochemical-age-based parameterization method is used to calculate VOC emission ratios and to quantify the evolution of ambient VOCs. The calculated emission ratios of most hydrocarbons agree well with those obtained from emission inventory data, but determined emission ratios of oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) are significantly higher than those from emission inventory data. The photochemical-age-based parameterization method is also used to investigate primary emissions and secondary formation of organic aerosol. The primary emission ratio of organic aerosol (OA) to CO is determined to be 14.9 μg m-3 ppm-1, and secondary organic aeorosols (SOA) are produced at an enhancement ratio of 18.8 μg m-3 ppm-1 to CO after 50 h of photochemical processing in the atmosphere. SOA formation is significantly higher than the level determined from VOC oxidation under both high-NOx (2.0 μg m-3 ppm-1 CO) and low-NOx conditions (6.5 μg m-3 ppm-1 CO). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and higher alkanes (> C10) account for as high as 17.4% of SOA formation, which suggests semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) may be a large contributor to SOA formation during the Changdao campaign. The SOA formation potential of primary VOC emissions determined from field campaigns in Beijing and Pearl River Delta (PRD) is lower than the measured SOA levels reported in the two regions, indicating SOA formation is also beyond explainable by VOC oxidation in the two city clusters.

  7. Phocid seal leptin: tertiary structure and hydrophobic receptor binding site preservation during distinct leptin gene evolution.

    PubMed

    Hammond, John A; Hauton, Chris; Bennett, Kimberley A; Hall, Ailsa J

    2012-01-01

    The cytokine hormone leptin is a key signalling molecule in many pathways that control physiological functions. Although leptin demonstrates structural conservation in mammals, there is evidence of positive selection in primates, lagomorphs and chiropterans. We previously reported that the leptin genes of the grey and harbour seals (phocids) have significantly diverged from other mammals. Therefore we further investigated the diversification of leptin in phocids, other marine mammals and terrestrial taxa by sequencing the leptin genes of representative species. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that leptin diversification was pronounced within the phocid seals with a high dN/dS ratio of 2.8, indicating positive selection. We found significant evidence of positive selection along the branch leading to the phocids, within the phocid clade, but not over the dataset as a whole. Structural predictions indicate that the individual residues under selection are away from the leptin receptor (LEPR) binding site. Predictions of the surface electrostatic potential indicate that phocid seal leptin is notably different to other mammalian leptins, including the otariids. Cloning the grey seal leptin binding domain of LEPR confirmed that this was structurally conserved. These data, viewed in toto, support a hypothesis that phocid leptin divergence is unlikely to have arisen by random mutation. Based upon these phylogenetic and structural assessments, and considering the comparative physiology and varying life histories among species, we postulate that the unique phocid diving behaviour has produced this selection pressure. The Phocidae includes some of the deepest diving species, yet have the least modified lung structure to cope with pressure and volume changes experienced at depth. Therefore, greater surfactant production is required to facilitate rapid lung re-inflation upon surfacing, while maintaining patent airways. We suggest that this additional surfactant requirement

  8. Identification and functional analysis of tomato BRI1 and BAK1 receptor kinase phosphorylation sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential plant hormones that are perceived at the cell surface by a membrane bound receptor kinase, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1). BRI1 interacts with BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (BAK1) to initiate a signal transduction pathway in which autophosphorylation an...

  9. An arylaminopyridazine derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a selective and competitive antagonist at the GABAA receptor site.

    PubMed Central

    Chambon, J P; Feltz, P; Heaulme, M; Restle, S; Schlichter, R; Biziere, K; Wermuth, C G

    1985-01-01

    In view of finding a new gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor ligand we synthesized an arylaminopyridazine derivative of GABA, SR 95103 [2-(carboxy-3'-propyl)-3-amino-4-methyl-6-phenylpyridazinium chloride]. SR 95103 displaced [3H]GABA from rat brain membranes with an apparent Ki of 2.2 microM and a Hill number near 1.0. SR 95103 (1-100 microM) antagonized the GABA-mediated enhancement of [3H]diazepam binding in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting [3H]diazepam binding per se. SR 95103 competitively antagonized GABA-induced membrane depolarization in rat spinal ganglia. In all these experiments, the potency of SR 95103 was close to that of bicuculline. SR 95103 (100 microM) did not interact with a variety of central receptors--in particular the GABAB, the strychnine, and the glutamate receptors--did not inhibit Na+-dependent synaptosomal GABA uptake, and did not affect GABA-transaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activities. Intraperitoneally administered SR 95103 elicited clonicotonic seizures in mice (ED50 = 180 mg/kg). On the basis of these results it is postulated that St 95103 is a competitive antagonist of GABA at the GABAA receptor site. In addition to being an interesting lead structure for the search of GABA ligands, SR 95103 could also be a useful tool to investigate GABA receptor subtypes because it is freely soluble in water and chemically stable. Images PMID:2984669

  10. Human insulin analogues modified at the B26 site reveal a hormone conformation that is undetected in the receptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Žáková, Lenka; Kletvíková, Emília; Lepšík, Martin; Collinsová, Michaela; Watson, Christopher J.; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Jiráček, Jiří; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.

    2014-01-01

    The structural characterization of the insulin–insulin receptor (IR) interaction still lacks the conformation of the crucial B21–B30 insulin region, which must be different from that in its storage forms to ensure effective receptor binding. Here, it is shown that insulin analogues modified by natural amino acids at the TyrB26 site can represent an active form of this hormone. In particular, [AsnB26]-insulin and [GlyB26]-insulin attain a B26-turn-like conformation that differs from that in all known structures of the native hormone. It also matches the receptor interface, avoiding substantial steric clashes. This indicates that insulin may attain a B26-turn-like conformation upon IR binding. Moreover, there is an unexpected, but significant, binding specificity of the AsnB26 mutant for predominantly the metabolic B isoform of the receptor. As it is correlated with the B26 bend of the B-chain of the hormone, the structures of AsnB26 analogues may provide the first structural insight into the structural origins of differential insulin signalling through insulin receptor A and B isoforms. PMID:25286859

  11. Human insulin analogues modified at the B26 site reveal a hormone conformation that is undetected in the receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Záková, Lenka; Kletvíková, Emília; Lepšík, Martin; Collinsová, Michaela; Watson, Christopher J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Jiráček, Jiří; Brzozowski, Andrzej M

    2014-10-01

    The structural characterization of the insulin-insulin receptor (IR) interaction still lacks the conformation of the crucial B21-B30 insulin region, which must be different from that in its storage forms to ensure effective receptor binding. Here, it is shown that insulin analogues modified by natural amino acids at the TyrB26 site can represent an active form of this hormone. In particular, [AsnB26]-insulin and [GlyB26]-insulin attain a B26-turn-like conformation that differs from that in all known structures of the native hormone. It also matches the receptor interface, avoiding substantial steric clashes. This indicates that insulin may attain a B26-turn-like conformation upon IR binding. Moreover, there is an unexpected, but significant, binding specificity of the AsnB26 mutant for predominantly the metabolic B isoform of the receptor. As it is correlated with the B26 bend of the B-chain of the hormone, the structures of AsnB26 analogues may provide the first structural insight into the structural origins of differential insulin signalling through insulin receptor A and B isoforms. PMID:25286859

  12. Further evidence for the presence of "septide-sensitive" tachykinin binding sites in tissues possessing solely NK(1) tachykinin receptors.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Y; Beaujouan, J C; Saffroy, M; Glowinski, J

    2000-04-13

    Binding experiments performed with [(125)I]-NKA allowed us to demonstrate the presence of "septide-sensitive" specific binding sites on membranes from rat CHO cells transfected with the NK(1) receptor cDNA (CHO-rat-NK1 cells), human astrocytoma U373 MG, or mouse cortical astrocytes, cells which express NK(1) but neither NK(2) nor NK(3) receptors. In all cases, [(125)I]-NKA was specifically bound with high affinity (2 to 5 nM) to a single population of sites. In the three preparations, pharmacological characteristics of [(125)I]-NKA binding sites were notably different from those of classical NK(1) binding sites selectively labelled with [(125)I]-BHSP. Indeed, the endogenous tachykinins NKA, NPK, and NKB and the septide-like compounds such as septide, SP(6-11), ALIE-124, [Apa(9-10)]SP, or [Lys(5)]NKA(4-10) had a much higher affinity for [(125)I]-NKA than [(125)I]-BHSP binding sites. Interestingly, differences were also found in the ratio of B(max) values for [(125)I]-NKA and [(125)I]-BHSP specific bindings from one tissue to another. These latter observations suggest that these two types of NK(1) binding sites are present on distinct NK(1) receptor isoforms (or conformers). Finally, while several tachykinins and tachykinin-related compounds stimulated cAMP formation or increased inositol phosphate accumulation in CHO-rat-NK1 cells, these compounds only increased the accumulation of inositol phosphates in the two other preparations. PMID:10753681

  13. Estrogen regulation of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene is mediated by ERE half sites without direct binding of estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Urvashi; Ganjam, Goutham K; Vasudevan, Nandini; Kondaiah, Paturu

    2005-02-28

    Estrogen is an important steroid hormone that mediates most of its effects on regulation of gene expression by binding to intracellular receptors. The consensus estrogen response element (ERE) is a 13bp palindromic inverted repeat with a three nucleotide spacer. However, several reports suggest that many estrogen target genes are regulated by diverse elements, such as imperfect EREs and ERE half sites (ERE 1/2), which are either the proximal or the distal half of the palindrome. To gain more insight into ERE half site-mediated gene regulation, we used a region from the estrogen-regulated chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) gene promoter that contains ERE half sites. Using moxestrol, an analogue of estrogen and transient transfection of deletion and mutation containing RCP promoter/reporter constructs in chicken hepatoma (LMH2A) cells, we identified an estrogen response unit (ERU) composed of two consensus ERE 1/2 sites and one non-consensus ERE 1/2 site. Mutation of any of these sites within this ERU abolishes moxestrol response. Further, the ERU is able to confer moxestrol responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. Interestingly, RCP promoter is regulated by moxestrol in estrogen responsive human MCF-7 cells, but not in other cell lines such as NIH3T3 and HepG2 despite estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) co transfection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) with promoter regions encompassing the half sites and nuclear extracts from LMH2A cells show the presence of a moxestrol-induced complex that is abolished by a polyclonal anti-ERalpha antibody. Surprisingly, estrogen receptor cannot bind to these promoter elements in isolation. Thus, there appears to be a definite requirement for some other factor(s) in addition to estrogen receptor, for the generation of a suitable response of this promoter to estrogen. Our studies therefore suggest a novel mechanism of gene regulation by estrogen, involving ERE half sites without direct binding of ER to the

  14. Systematic Mapping of Posttranslational Modifications in Human Estrogen Receptor-α with Emphasis on Novel Phosphorylation Sites*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Atsriku, Christian; Britton, David J.; Held, Jason M.; Schilling, Birgit; Scott, Gary K.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Benz, Christopher C.; Baldwin, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    A systematic study of posttranslational modifications of the estrogen receptor isolated from the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line is reported. Proteolysis with multiple enzymes, mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry achieved very high sequence coverage for the full-length 66-kDa endogenous protein from estradiol-treated cell cultures. Nine phosphorylated serine residues were identified, three of which were previously unreported and none of which were previously observed by mass spectrometry by any other laboratory. Two additional modified serine residues were identified in recombinant protein, one previously reported but not observed here in endogenous protein and the other previously unknown. Although major emphasis was placed on identifying new phosphorylation sites, N-terminal loss of methionine accompanied by amino acetylation and a lysine side chain acetylation (or possibly trimethylation) were also detected. The use of both HPLC-ESI and MALDI interfaced to different mass analyzers gave higher sequence coverage and identified more sites than could be achieved by either method alone. The estrogen receptor is critical in the development and progression of breast cancer. One previously unreported phosphorylation site identified here was shown to be strongly dependent on estradiol, confirming its potential significance to breast cancer. Greater knowledge of this array of posttranslational modifications of estrogen receptor, particularly phosphorylation, will increase our understanding of the processes that lead to estradiol-induced activation of this protein and may aid the development of therapeutic strategies for management of hormone-dependent breast cancer. PMID:18984578

  15. The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor requires two distinct agonists to operate. Glycine is assumed to be the endogenous ligand for the NMDA receptor glycine site, but this notion has been challenged by the discovery of high levels of endogenous d-serine in the mammalian forebrain. I have outlined an evolutionary framework for the appearance of a glycine site in animals and the metabolic events leading to high levels of D-serine in brain. Sequence alignments of the glycine-binding regions, along with the scant experimental data available, suggest that the properties of invertebrate NMDA receptor glycine sites are probably different from those in vertebrates. The synthesis of D-serine in brain is due to a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (B(6))-requiring serine racemase in glia. Although it remains unknown when serine racemase first evolved, data concerning the evolution of B(6) enzymes, along with the known occurrences of serine racemases in animals, point to D-serine synthesis arising around the divergence time of arthropods. D-Serine catabolism occurs via the ancient peroxisomal enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), whose ontogenetic expression in the hindbrain of mammals is delayed until the postnatal period and absent from the forebrain. The phylogeny of D-serine metabolism has relevance to our understanding of brain ontogeny, schizophrenia and neurotransmitter dynamics. PMID:15306409

  16. Rapid agonist-induced loss of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin opioid receptor sites in NG108-15, but not SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, R.I.; Lameh, J.; Sadee, W. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites on intact SK-N-SH and NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells, respectively, in culture. Use of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin ({beta}E) as a tracer, together with {beta}E(6-31) to block high-affinity non-opioid binding in both cell lines, permitted the measurement of cell surface {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites. Labeling was at {delta} sites in NG108-15 cells and predominantly at {mu} sites in SK-N-SH cells. Pretreatment with the {mu} and {delta} agonist, DADLE, caused a rapid loss of cell surface {delta} receptor sites in NG108-15 cells, but failed to reduce significantly {mu} receptor density in SK-N-SH cells.

  17. T cells in the human metastatic melanoma microenvironment express site-specific homing receptors and retention integrins.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Elise P; Olson, Walter C; McSkimming, Chantel; Shea, Sofia; Slingluff, Craig L

    2014-02-01

    T-cell infiltration into the metastatic melanoma microenvironment (MME) correlates with improved patient survival. However, diffuse infiltration into tumor occurs in only 8% of melanoma metastases. Little is known about mechanisms governing T-cell infiltration into human melanoma metastases or about how those mechanisms may be altered therapeutically. We hypothesized that T cells in the MME would be enriched for chemokine receptors CCR4, CCR5, CXCR3 and homing receptors relevant to the tissue site. Viably cryopreserved single cell suspensions from nineteen melanoma metastases representing three metastatic sites (tumor-infiltrated lymph node, skin and small bowel) were evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry and compared to benign lymph nodes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Stage IIB-IV melanoma. T cells in the melanoma metastases contained large effector memory populations, high proportions of activated, moderately differentiated cells and few regulatory T cells. Site-specific homing was suggested in bowel, with high expression of CCR9. We neither encounter the anticipated enrichment of integrin α4β7 in bowel, cutaneous leukocyte antigen (CLA) in skin, nor integrin α4β1 or receptor CXCR3 in metastatic sites. Retention integrins αEβ7, α1β1 and α2β1 were significantly elevated in metastases. These data suggest limited tissue site-specific homing to human melanoma metastases, but a significant role for retention integrins in maintaining intratumoral T cells. Our findings also raise the possibility that T-cell homing, infiltration, and retention in melanoma metastases may be increased by increasing expression of ligands for CLA, α4β1 and CXCR3 on intratumoral endothelium. PMID:23873187

  18. Synthesis of GABAA Receptor Agonists and Evaluation of their α-Subunit Selectivity and Orientation in the GABA Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Michaela; Rabe, Holger; Strehle, Axelle; Dieler, Sandra; Debus, Fabian; Dannhardt, Gerd; Akabas, Myles H.; Lüddens, Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    Drugs used to treat various disorders target GABAA receptors. To develop α subunit selective compounds, we synthesized 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol (4-PIOL) derivatives. The 3-isoxazolol moiety was substituted by 1,3,5-oxadiazol-2-one, 1,3,5-oxadiazol-2-thione, and substituted 1,2,4-triazol-3-ol heterocycles with modifications to the basic piperidine substituent as well as substituents without basic nitrogen. Compounds were screened by [3H]muscimol binding and in patch-clamp experiments with heterologously expressed GABAA αiβ3γ2 receptors (i = 1–6). The effects of 5-aminomethyl-3H-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-one 5d were comparable to GABA for all α subunit isoforms. 5-piperidin-4-yl-3H-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-one 5a and 5-piperidin-4-yl-3H- [1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-thione 6a were weak agonists at α3–, α3–, and α5–containing receptors. When coapplied with GABA they were antagonistic inα2–, α4–, and α6–containing receptors and potentiated α3-containing receptors. 6a protected GABA binding site cysteine-substitution mutants α1F64C and α1S68C from reacting with methanethiosulfonate-ethylsulfonate. 6a specifically covalently modified the α1R66C thiol, in the GABA binding site, through its oxadiazolethione sulfur. These results demonstrate the feasibility of synthesizing α subtype selective GABA mimetic drugs. PMID:18651727

  19. A Specific Cholesterol Binding Site Is Established by the 2.8 Å Structure of the Human [beta][subscript 2]-Adrenergic Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Michael A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Griffith, Mark T.; Roth, Christopher B.; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Velasquez, Jeffrey; Kuhn, Peter; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2008-07-08

    The role of cholesterol in eukaryotic membrane protein function has been attributed primarily to an influence on membrane fluidity and curvature. We present the 2.8 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a thermally stabilized human {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor bound to cholesterol and the partial inverse agonist timolol. The receptors pack as monomers in an antiparallel association with two distinct cholesterol molecules bound per receptor, but not in the packing interface, thereby indicating a structurally relevant cholesterol-binding site between helices I, II, III, and IV. Thermal stability analysis using isothermal denaturation confirms that a cholesterol analog significantly enhances the stability of the receptor. A consensus motif is defined that predicts cholesterol binding for 44% of human class A receptors, suggesting that specific sterol binding is important to the structure and stability of other G protein-coupled receptors, and that this site may provide a target for therapeutic discovery.

  20. VOC emissions, evolutions and contributions to SOA formation at a receptor site in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, B.; Hu, W. W.; Shao, M.; Wang, M.; Chen, W. T.; Lu, S. H.; Zeng, L. M.; Hu, M.

    2013-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by two online instruments (GC-FID/MS and PTR-MS) at a receptor site on Changdao Island (37.99° N, 120.70° E) in eastern China. Reaction with OH radical dominated the chemical loss of most VOC species during the Changdao campaign. A photochemical age based parameterization method is used to calculate VOC emission ratios and to quantify the evolution of ambient VOCs. The calculated emission ratios of most hydrocarbons agree well with those obtained from emission inventory, but the emission ratios of oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) are significantly lower than those from emission inventory. The photochemical age based parameterization method is also used to investigate primary emissions and secondary formation of organic aerosol. The primary emission ratio of OA to CO are determined to be 14.9 μg m-3 ppm-1 and SOA are produced at an enhancement ratio of 18.8 μg m-3 ppm-1 to CO after 50 h of photochemical processing in the atmosphere. SOA formation is significantly higher than the level determined from VOC oxidation under both high-NOx (2.0 μg m-3 ppm-1 CO) and low-NOx condition (6.5 μg m-3 ppm-1 CO). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and higher alkanes (>C10) account for as high as 17.4% of SOA formation, which suggests semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) may be a large contributor to SOA formation during the Changdao campaign. SOA formation potential of primary VOC emissions determined from both field campaigns and emission inventory in China are lower than the measured SOA levels reported in Beijing and Pearl River Delta (PRD), indicating SOA formation cannot be explained by VOC oxidation in this regions. SOA budget in China is estimated to be 5.0-13.7 Tg yr-1, with a fraction of at least 2.7 Tg yr-1 from anthropogenic emissions, which are much higher than the previous estimates from regional models.

  1. A Ligand Peptide Motif Selected from a Cancer Patient Is a Receptor-Interacting Site within Human Interleukin-11

    PubMed Central

    Cardó-Vila, Marina; Zurita, Amado J.; Giordano, Ricardo J.; Sun, Jessica; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Anobom, Cristiane D.; Valente, Ana P.; Almeida, Fábio C. L.; Lahdenranta, Johanna; Kolonin, Mikhail G.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a pleiotropic cytokine approved by the FDA against chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. From a combinatorial selection in a cancer patient, we isolated an IL-11-like peptide mapping to domain I of the IL-11 (sequence CGRRAGGSC). Although this motif has ligand attributes, it is not within the previously characterized interacting sites. Here we design and validate in-tandem binding assays, site-directed mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy to show (i) the peptide mimics a receptor-binding site within IL-11, (ii) the binding of CGRRAGGSC to the IL-11Rα is functionally relevant, (iii) Arg4 and Ser8 are the key residues mediating the interaction, and (iv) the IL-11-like motif induces cell proliferation through STAT3 activation. These structural and functional results uncover an as yet unrecognized receptor-binding site in human IL-11. Given that IL-11Rα has been proposed as a target in human cancer, our results provide clues for the rational design of targeted drugs. PMID:18941632

  2. Relationship between Fc receptors, antigen-binding sites on T and B cells, and H-2 complex-associated determinants.

    PubMed

    Basten, A; Miller, J F; Abraham, R

    1975-03-01

    The relationship between H-2 complex-associated determinants, Fc receptors, and specific antigen-recognition sites on T and B cells was examined by binding and functional assays. The Fc receptor was detected by radiolabeled immune complexes or aggregated human IgG. Both these reagents selectively bound to B cells, not to T cells. When spleen cells, from mice primed to several antigens, were exposed to highly substituted radioactive aggregates, their capacity to transfer both a direct and indirect plaque-forming cell response to these antigens was abrogated. Addition of B cells, but not of T cells, restored responsiveness. Complexed Ig binding to Fc receptors was prevented by pretreatment of mixed lymphoid cell populations with antisera directed against membrane components on the same cell (e.g., H-2) and on other cells (e.g., theta). The lack of specificity of inhibition was thought to be due to the formation on cell surfaces of antigen-antibody complexes which would then attach to the Fc receptor during the incubation precedure. Specific blockade of the Fc receptor during the incubation procedure. Specific blockade of the Fc receptor however occurred when B cells were pretreated with the Fab fragments of anti-H-2 antibody. This was demonstrated autoradiographically and by inhibition of aggregate-induced suicide. The blocking activity of ante-H-2 Fab was removed by absorption with spleen cells from thymectomized irradiated mice but not with thymus cells of appropriate specificity. This suggested that the antibodies involved had specificity for determinants on the B-cell membrane distinct from those coded by the K or D end of the H-2 complex, and either absent from, or poorly represented on, thymus cells. Specific antigen-induced suicide of B cells was achieved simply by incubating the cells with radioactive antigen in the cold. T-cell suicide on the other hand required that the 125I-labeled antigen be presented to the T cells at 37 degrees-C on the surface of

  3. Genetically encoded photo-cross-linkers map the binding site of an allosteric drug on a G protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Grunbeck, Amy; Huber, Thomas; Abrol, Ravinder; Trzaskowski, Bartosz; Goddard, William A; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2012-06-15

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are dynamic membrane proteins that bind extracellular molecules to transduce signals. Although GPCRs represent the largest class of therapeutic targets, only a small percentage of their ligand-binding sites are precisely defined. Here we describe the novel application of targeted photo-cross-linking using unnatural amino acids to obtain structural information about the allosteric binding site of a small molecule drug, the CCR5-targeted HIV-1 co-receptor blocker maraviroc. PMID:22455376

  4. Site of action of a pentapeptide agonist at the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. Insight into a small molecule agonist-binding pocket

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Maoqing; Pinon, Delia I.; Miller, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of small molecule agonists for class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has been quite challenging. With proof-of-concept that exenatide, the parenterally administered peptide agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor, is an effective treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus, the development of small molecule agonists could have substantial advantages. We previously reported a lead for small molecule GLP1 receptor agonist development representing the pentapeptide NRTFD. In this work, we have prepared an NRTFD derivative incorporating a photolabile benzoylphenylalanine and used it to define its site of action. This peptide probe was a full agonist with potency similar to NRTFD, which bound specifically and saturably to a single, distinct site within the GLP1 receptor. Peptide mapping using cyanogen bromide and endoproteinase Lys-C cleavage of labeled wild type and M397L mutant receptor constructs identified the site of covalent attachment of NRTFD within the third extracellular loop above the sixth transmembrane segment. This region is the same as that identified using an analogous photolabile probe based on secretin receptor sequences, and has been shown in mutagenesis studies to be important for natural agonist action of several members of this family. While these observations suggest that small molecule ligands can act at a site bordering the third extracellular loop to activate this class B GPCR, the relationship of this site to the site of action of the amino-terminal end of the natural agonist peptide is unclear. PMID:22079758

  5. Pulsed Electron Spin Resonance Resolves the Coordination Site of Cu2+ Ions in α1-Glycine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ruthstein, Sharon; Stone, Katherine M.; Cunningham, Timothy F.; Ji, Ming; Cascio, Michael; Saxena, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we identify the coordination environment of Cu2+ in the human α1-glycine receptor (GlyR). GlyRs are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel superfamily (pLGIC) that mediate fast signaling at synapses. Metal ions like Zn2+ and Cu2+ significantly modulate the activity of pLGICs, and metal ion coordination is essential for proper physiological postsynaptic inhibition by GlyR in vivo. Zn2+ can either potentiate or inhibit GlyR activity depending on its concentration, while Cu2+ is inhibitory. To better understand the molecular basis of the inhibitory effect we have used electron spin resonance to directly examine Cu2+ coordination and stoichiometry. We show that Cu2+ has one binding site per α1 subunit, and that five Cu2+ can be coordinated per GlyR. Cu2+ binds to E192 and H215 in each subunit of GlyR with a 40 μM apparent dissociation constant, consistent with earlier functional measurements. However, the coordination site does not include several residues of the agonist/antagonist binding site that were previously suggested to have roles in Cu2+ coordination by functional measurements. Intriguingly, the E192/H215 site has been proposed as the potentiating Zn2+ site. The opposing modulatory actions of these cations at a shared binding site highlight the sensitive allosteric nature of GlyR. PMID:20959090

  6. Free Energy Landscape of Lipid Interactions with Regulatory Binding Sites on the Transmembrane Domain of the EGF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lipid molecules can bind to specific sites on integral membrane proteins, modulating their structure and function. We have undertaken coarse-grained simulations to calculate free energy profiles for glycolipids and phospholipids interacting with modulatory sites on the transmembrane helix dimer of the EGF receptor within a lipid bilayer environment. We identify lipid interaction sites at each end of the transmembrane domain and compute interaction free energy profiles for lipids with these sites. Interaction free energies ranged from ca. −40 to −4 kJ/mol for different lipid species. Those lipids (glycolipid GM3 and phosphoinositide PIP2) known to modulate EGFR function exhibit the strongest binding to interaction sites on the EGFR, and we are able to reproduce the preference for interaction with GM3 over other glycolipids suggested by experiment. Mutation of amino acid residues essential for EGFR function reduce the binding free energy of these key lipid species. The residues interacting with the lipids in the simulations are in agreement with those suggested by experimental (mutational) studies. This approach provides a generalizable tool for characterizing the interactions of lipids that bind to specific sites on integral membrane proteins. PMID:27109430

  7. Computational Characterization and Prediction of Estrogen Receptor Coactivator Binding Site Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, B J; Kulp, K S; Cosman, M; Lightstone, F C

    2005-08-26

    Many carcinogens have been shown to cause tissue specific tumors in animal models. The mechanism for this specificity has not been fully elucidated and is usually attributed to differences in organ metabolism. For heterocyclic amines, potent carcinogens that are formed in well-done meat, the ability to either bind to the estrogen receptor and activate or inhibit an estrogenic response will have a major impact on carcinogenicity. Here we describe our work with the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and the mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines PhIP, MeIQx, IFP, and the hydroxylated metabolite of PhIP, N2-hydroxy-PhIP. We found that PhIP, in contrast to the other heterocyclic amines, increased cell-proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and activated the hERa receptor. We show mechanistic data supporting this activation both computationally by homology modeling and docking, and by NMR confirmation that PhIP binds with the ligand binding domain (LBD). This binding competes with estradiol (E2) in the native E2 binding cavity of the receptor. We also find that other heterocyclic amines and N2-hydroxy-PhIP inhibit ER activation presumably by binding into another cavity on the LBD. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulations of inhibitory heterocyclic amines reveal a disruption of the surface of the receptor protein involved with protein-protein signaling. We therefore propose that the mechanism for the tissue specific carcinogenicity seen in the rat breast tumors and the presumptive human breast cancer associated with the consumption of well-done meat maybe mediated by this receptor activation.

  8. Separate domains of the insulin receptor contain sites of autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, H.J.; White, M.F.; Khan, C.R.

    1987-04-21

    The authors have studied the structure and function of the solubilized insulin receptor before and after partial proteolytic digestion to define domains in the ..beta..-subunit that undergo autophosphorylation and contain the tyrosine kinase activity. Wheat germ agglutinin purified insulin receptor from Fao cells was digested briefly at 22/sup 0/C with low concentrations of trypsin, staphylococcal V8 protease, or elastase. Autophosphorylation of the ..beta..-subunit was carried out before and after digestion, and the (/sup 32/P)phosphoproteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detected by autoradiography, and analyzed by tryptic peptide mapping by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 85-kDa fragment was not immunoprecipitated by an antibody directed against the C-terminal domain of the ..beta..-subunit (..cap alpha..Pep-1), indicating that this region of the receptor was lost. The 85-kDa fragment contained about half of the (/sup 32/P)phosphate originally found in the ..beta..-subunit, and tryptic peptide mapping showed that two major tryptic phosphopeptides (previously called pY2 and pY3) were removed. Three other tryptic phosphopeptides (pY1, pY1a, and pY4) were found in the 85- and 70-kDa fragments. To determined the structural requirements for kinase activity, the insulin receptor was subjected to tryptic digestion for 30 s-30 min, such that the receptor was composed exclusively of 85- and 70-kDa fragments of the ..beta..-subunit. The 85-kDa fragment exhibited autophosphorylation at pY1, pY1a, and pY4. Both the 85- and 70-kDa fragments phosphorylated tyrosine residues in a synthetic decapeptide that has the sequence of the C-terminal domain of the ..beta..-subunit of human insulin rare in the receptor.

  9. A neurosteroid potentiation site can be moved among GABAA receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Bracamontes, John R; Li, Ping; Akk, Gustav; Steinbach, Joe Henry

    2012-11-15

    Endogenous neurosteroids are among the most potent and efficacious potentiators of activation of GABA(A) receptors. It has been proposed that a conserved glutamine residue in the first membrane-spanning region (TM1 region) of the α subunits is required for binding of potentiating neurosteroids. Mutations of this residue can reduce or remove the ability of steroids to potentiate function. However, it is not known whether potentiation requires that a steroid interact with the α subunit, or not. To examine this question we mutated the homologous residue in the β2 and γ2L subunits to glutamine, and found that these mutations could not confer potentiation by allopregnanolone (3α5αP) when expressed in receptors containing ineffective α1 subunits. However, potentiation is restored when the entire TM1 region from the α1 subunit is transferred to the β2 or γ2L subunit. Mutations in the TM1 region that affect potentiation when made in the α1 subunit have similar effects when made in transferred TM1 region. Further, the effects of 3α5αP on single-channel kinetics are similar for wild-type receptors and receptors with moved TM1 regions. These results support the idea that steroids bind in the transmembrane regions of the receptor. The observations are consistent with previous work indicating that neurosteroid potentiation is mediated by an action that affects the receptor as a whole, rather than an individual subunit or pair of subunits, and in addition demonstrate that the mechanism is independent of the nature of the subunit that interacts with steroid. PMID:22988137

  10. Computer modeling of the neurotoxin binding site of acetylcholine receptor spanning residues 185 through 196

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garduno-Juarez, R.; Shibata, M.; Zielinski, T. J.; Rein, R.

    1987-01-01

    A model of the complex between the acetylcholine receptor and the snake neurotoxin, cobratoxin, was built by molecular model building and energy optimization techniques. The experimentally identified functionally important residues of cobratoxin and the dodecapeptide corresponding to the residues 185-196 of acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit were used to build the model. Both cis and trans conformers of cyclic L-cystine portion of the dodecapeptide were examined. Binding residues independently identified on cobratoxin are shown to interact with the dodecapeptide AChR model.

  11. Lutropins appear to contact two independent sites in the extracellular domain of their receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, M P; Myers, R V; Moyle, W R

    1998-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and bovine lutropin (bLH), a hormone chemically more similar to most mammalian lutropins than hCG, interact with the extracellular domains of their gonadal lutropin receptors (LHRs). These portions of the rat and human LHRs are 85% identical and both receptors bind hCG with high, albeit not identical, affinity. However, at least 1000-fold more bLH is required to inhibit binding of radiolabelled hCG to the human LHR than to the rat LHR, a phenomenon that proved useful for identifying regions of the extracellular domain that contact lutropins. Previous studies using truncated receptors and lutropin/follitropin receptor chimaeras localized most, if not all, high-affinity ligand contacts to the N-terminal three-fifths of the rat LHR extracellular domain. We report here that 10-fold more bLH was needed to inhibit binding of labelled hCG to rat/human LHR chimaeras containing the N-terminal three-fifths of the human LHR extracellular domain than to the rat LHR. Unexpectedly, 100-fold more bLH was required to inhibit binding of labelled hCG to chimaeras containing the C-terminal one-fifth of the human LHR extracellular domain than to the rat LHR. The ability of the C-terminal portion of the human LHR extracellular domain to inhibit bLH binding suggests this region of the receptor also contacts the ligand even though it is not needed for ligand binding. The extracellular domains of all the glycoprotein hormone receptors are thought to be horseshoe-shaped, a consequence of their leucine-rich repeat motifs. Portions of the ligand that become located within the cavity created by the concave surface of the horseshoe would have the opportunity to contact residues in the C-terminal portion of the extracellular domain. Changes to the ligand or receptor that influence this interaction would be expected to alter binding and confound efforts to identify residues in key ligand-receptor contacts. PMID:9794802

  12. Two Distinct Calmodulin Binding Sites in the Third Intracellular Loop and Carboxyl Tail of Angiotensin II (AT1A) Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renwen; Liu, Zhijie; Qu, Youxing; Xu, Ying; Yang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present data that support the presence of two distinct calmodulin binding sites within the angiotensin II receptor (AT1A), at juxtamembrane regions of the N-terminus of the third intracellular loop (i3, amino acids 214–231) and carboxyl tail of the receptor (ct, 302–317). We used bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays to document interactions of calmodulin with the AT1A holo-receptor and GST-fusion protein pull-downs to demonstrate that i3 and ct interact with calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. The former is a 1–12 motif and the latter belongs to 1-5-10 calmodulin binding motif. The apparent Kd of calmodulin for i3 is 177.0±9.1 nM, and for ct is 79.4±7.9 nM as assessed by dansyl-calmodulin fluorescence. Replacement of the tryptophan (W219) for alanine in i3, and phenylalanine (F309 or F313) for alanine in ct reduced their binding affinities for calmodulin, as predicted by computer docking simulations. Exogenously applied calmodulin attenuated interactions between G protein βγ subunits and i3 and ct, somewhat more so for ct than i3. Mutations W219A, F309A, and F313A did not alter Gβγ binding, but reduced the ability of calmodulin to compete with Gβγ, suggesting that calmodulin and Gβγ have overlapping, but not identical, binding requirements for i3 and ct. Calmodulin interference with the Gβγ binding to i3 and ct regions of the AT1A receptor strongly suggests that calmodulin plays critical roles in regulating Gβγ-dependent signaling of the receptor. PMID:23755207

  13. Nematode cys-loop GABA receptors: biological function, pharmacology and sites of action for anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Michael V; Beech, Robin N; Forrester, Sean G

    2012-06-01

    Parasitic nematode infection of humans and livestock is a major problem globally. Attempts to control nematode populations have led to the development of several classes of anthelmintic, which target cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels. Unlike the vertebrate nervous system, the nematode nervous system possesses a large and diversified array of ligand-gated chloride channels that comprise key components of the inhibitory neurotransmission system. In particular, cys-loop GABA receptors have evolved to play many fundamental roles in nematode behaviour such as locomotion. Analysis of the genomes of several free-living and parasitic nematodes suggests that there are several groups of cys-loop GABA receptor subunits that, for the most part, are conserved among nematodes. Despite many similarities with vertebrate cys-loop GABA receptors, those in nematodes are quite distinct in sequence similarity, subunit composition and biological function. With rising anthelmintic resistance in many nematode populations worldwide, GABA receptors should become an area of increased scientific investigation in the development of the next generation of anthelmintics. PMID:22430311

  14. Site-specific circadian expression of leptin and its receptor in human adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circadian variability of circulating leptin levels has been well established over the last decade. However, the circadian behavior of leptin in human adipose tissue remains unknown. This also applies to the soluble leptin receptor. We investigated the ex vivo circadian behavior of leptin and its rec...

  15. Functional Analysis and Phosphorylation Site Mapping of Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The completed genome sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice have revealed very large multi-gene families encoding predicted proteins with an organization of functional domains similar to that of animal receptor kinases, including a putative extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single-pass tran...

  16. Zolpidem is a potent stoichiometry-selective modulator of α1β3 GABAA receptors: evidence of a novel benzodiazepine site in the α1-α1 interface.

    PubMed

    Che Has, Ahmad Tarmizi; Absalom, Nathan; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S; Clarkson, Andrew N; Ahring, Philip K; Chebib, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Zolpidem is not a typical GABAA receptor hypnotic. Unlike benzodiazepines, zolpidem modulates tonic GABA currents in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, exhibits residual effects in mice lacking the benzodiazepine binding site, and improves speech, cognitive and motor function in human patients with severe brain injury. The receptor by which zolpidem mediates these effects is not known. In this study we evaluated binary α1β3 GABAA receptors in either the 3α1:2β3 or 2α1:3β3 subunit stoichiometry, which differ by the existence of either an α1-α1 interface, or a β3-β3 interface, respectively. Both receptor stoichiometries are readily expressed in Xenopus oocytes, distinguished from each other by using GABA, zolpidem, diazepam and Zn(2+). At the 3α1:2β3 receptor, clinically relevant concentrations of zolpidem enhanced GABA in a flumazenil-sensitive manner. The efficacy of diazepam was significantly lower compared to zolpidem. No modulation by either zolpidem or diazepam was detected at the 2α1:3β3 receptor, indicating that the binding site for zolpidem is at the α1-α1 interface, a site mimicking the classical α1-γ2 benzodiazepine site. Activating α1β3 (3α1:2β3) receptors may, in part, mediate the physiological effects of zolpidem observed under distinct physiological and clinical conditions, constituting a potentially attractive drug target. PMID:27346730

  17. Zolpidem is a potent stoichiometry-selective modulator of α1β3 GABAA receptors: evidence of a novel benzodiazepine site in the α1-α1 interface

    PubMed Central

    Che Has, Ahmad Tarmizi; Absalom, Nathan; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S.; Clarkson, Andrew N.; Ahring, Philip K.; Chebib, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Zolpidem is not a typical GABAA receptor hypnotic. Unlike benzodiazepines, zolpidem modulates tonic GABA currents in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, exhibits residual effects in mice lacking the benzodiazepine binding site, and improves speech, cognitive and motor function in human patients with severe brain injury. The receptor by which zolpidem mediates these effects is not known. In this study we evaluated binary α1β3 GABAA receptors in either the 3α1:2β3 or 2α1:3β3 subunit stoichiometry, which differ by the existence of either an α1-α1 interface, or a β3-β3 interface, respectively. Both receptor stoichiometries are readily expressed in Xenopus oocytes, distinguished from each other by using GABA, zolpidem, diazepam and Zn2+. At the 3α1:2β3 receptor, clinically relevant concentrations of zolpidem enhanced GABA in a flumazenil-sensitive manner. The efficacy of diazepam was significantly lower compared to zolpidem. No modulation by either zolpidem or diazepam was detected at the 2α1:3β3 receptor, indicating that the binding site for zolpidem is at the α1-α1 interface, a site mimicking the classical α1-γ2 benzodiazepine site. Activating α1β3 (3α1:2β3) receptors may, in part, mediate the physiological effects of zolpidem observed under distinct physiological and clinical conditions, constituting a potentially attractive drug target. PMID:27346730

  18. The rat adenine receptor: pharmacological characterization and mutagenesis studies to investigate its putative ligand binding site.

    PubMed

    Knospe, Melanie; Müller, Christa E; Rosa, Patrizia; Abdelrahman, Aliaa; von Kügelgen, Ivar; Thimm, Dominik; Schiedel, Anke C

    2013-09-01

    The rat adenine receptor (rAdeR) was the first member of a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by adenine and designated as P0-purine receptors. The present study aimed at gaining insights into structural aspects of ligand binding and function of the rAdeR. We exchanged amino acid residues predicted to be involved in ligand binding (Phe110(3.24), Asn115(3.29), Asn173(4.60), Phe179(45.39), Asn194(5.40), Phe195(5.41), Leu201(5.47), His252(6.54), and Tyr268(7.32)) for alanine and expressed them in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. Membrane preparations subjected to [(3)H]adenine binding studies revealed only minor effects indicating that none of the exchanged amino acids is part of the ligand binding pocket, at least in the inactive state of the receptor. Furthermore, we coexpressed the rAdeR and its mutants with mammalian Gi proteins in Sf9 insect cells to probe receptor activation. Two amino acid residues, Asn194(5.40) and Leu201(5.47), were found to be crucial for activation since their alanine mutants did not respond to adenine. Moreover we showed that-in contrast to most other rhodopsin-like GPCRs-the rAdeR does not contain essential disulfide bonds since preincubation with dithiothreitol neither altered adenine binding in Sf9 cell membranes, nor adenine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells transfected with the rAdeR. To detect rAdeRs by Western blot analysis, we developed a specific antibody. Finally, we were able to show that the extended N-terminal sequence of the rAdeR constitutes a putative signal peptide of unknown function that is cleaved off in the mature receptor. Our results provide important insights into this new, poorly investigated family of purinergic receptors. PMID:23413038

  19. An aprotinin binding site localized in the hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor from calf uterus.

    PubMed

    Nigro, V; Medici, N; Abbondanza, C; Minucci, S; Moncharmont, B; Molinari, A M; Puca, G A

    1990-07-31

    It has been proposed that the estrogen receptor bears proteolytic activity responsible for its own transformation. This activity was inhibited by aprotinin. Incubation of transformed ER with aprotinin modified the proteolytic digestion of the hormone binding subunit by proteinase K. The smallest hormone-binding fragment of the ER, obtained by tryptic digestion, was still able to bind to aprotinin. These results suggest that aprotinin interacts with ER and the hormone-binding domain of ER is endowed with a specific aprotinin-binding site. PMID:1696480

  20. Non-NMDA glutamate receptor occupancy and open probability at a rat cerebellar synapse with single and multiple release sites.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, R A; Cull-Candy, S G; Takahashi, T

    1996-01-01

    that practically all of the non-NMDA receptors were occupied by glutamate at the peak of EPSC. The channel open probability (Po = 0.84 +/- 0.03, n = 5) at these 'saturated' multi-site synapses will therefore equal the open probability of the channel when bound by transmitter (Po,max). 5. Non-stationary fluctuation analysis of EPSCs from 'saturating' multi-site synapses indicated that 170 +/- 40 postsynaptic non-NMDA channels were exposed to transmitter at the peak of the EPSC. The mean conductance of the synaptic channels was 10 +/- 2 pS (n = 5) at 34 degrees C. 6. At synapses with multiple release sites the EPSC decay time became faster when release probability was lowered (by reducing the external [Ca2+]/[Mg2+] ratio), indicating that the transmitter concentration profile depended on release probability. No such speeding of the EPSC decay was observed at single-site synapses. 7. Our results suggest that release of a packet of transmitter from a single release site does not saturate postsynaptic non-NMDA receptors at cerebellar mossy fibre-granule cell synapses. However, at multi-site synapses transmitter released from neighbouring sites can overlap, changing the transmitter concentration profile in the synaptic cleft. We conclude that the level of postsynaptic receptor occupancy can depend on the probability of transmitter release at individual multi-site synapses. Images Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 10 PMID:8814618

  1. Lipid interaction sites on channels, transporters and receptors: Recent insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Hedger, George; Sansom, Mark S P

    2016-10-01

    Lipid molecules are able to selectively interact with specific sites on integral membrane proteins, and modulate their structure and function. Identification and characterization of these sites are of importance for our understanding of the molecular basis of membrane protein function and stability, and may facilitate the design of lipid-like drug molecules. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a powerful tool for the identification of these sites, complementing advances in membrane protein structural biology and biophysics. We describe recent notable biomolecular simulation studies which have identified lipid interaction sites on a range of different membrane proteins. The sites identified in these simulation studies agree well with those identified by complementary experimental techniques. This demonstrates the power of the molecular dynamics approach in the prediction and characterization of lipid interaction sites on integral membrane proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg. PMID:26946244

  2. Site-specific anti-phosphopeptide antibodies: use in assessing insulin receptor serine/threonine phosphorylation state and identification of serine-1327 as a novel site of phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Coghlan, M P; Pillay, T S; Tavaré, J M; Siddle, K

    1994-01-01

    Rabbit antisera were raised against synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to defined or putative sites of insulin receptor serine/threonine phosphorylation (Ser-1305, Ser-1327, Thr-1348). All of these antibodies bound specifically to the immunogenic phosphopeptide but not to the non-phosphorylated form of the peptide or to other phosphopeptides, in a microtitre plate competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anti-PS1327 antibody reacted well with native insulin receptor prepared from phorbol ester-treated transfected CHO.T cells, but showed little reaction with receptor from untreated cells. Anti-PT1348 antibody in crude form reacted substantially with receptor from both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated and untreated cells, but displayed specificity for phosphoreceptor after adsorption to remove antibodies reactive with dephosphopeptide. The ability to discriminate between receptor from cells treated with or without phorbol ester was retained when these antibodies were used to probe denatured receptor on Western blots. Thus anti-PS1327 and anti-PT1348 react with insulin receptor in a site-specific and phosphorylation-state-dependent manner. Anti-PT1348, but not anti-PS1327, also showed increased reactivity with receptor prepared from insulin-treated cells. The third antibody, anti-PS1305, did not react with intact insulin receptor under any conditions. It is concluded that serine 1327 is a major, previously unrecognized, site of phorbol ester-induced receptor phosphorylation, and that anti-phosphopeptide antibodies will be valuable reagents with which to examine the serine/threonine phosphorylation state of receptor extracted from tissues. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7980459

  3. Novel splice site mutation in the growth hormone receptor gene in Turkish patients with Laron-type dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Arman, Ahmet; Ozon, Alev; Isguven, Pinar S; Coker, Ajda; Peker, Ismail; Yordam, Nursen

    2008-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is involved in growth, and fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Interaction of GH with the GH receptor (GHR) is necessary for systemic and local production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) which mediates GH actions. Mutations in the GHR cause severe postnatal growth failure; the disorder is an autosomal recessive genetic disease resulting in GH insensitivity, called Laron syndrome. It is characterized by dwarfism with elevated serum GH and low levels of IGF-I. We analyzed the GHR gene for mutations and polymorphisms in eight patients with Laron-type dwarfism from six families. We found three missense mutations (S40L, V125A, I526L), one nonsense mutation (W157X), and one splice site mutation in the extracellular domain of GHR. Furthermore, G168G and exon 3 deletion polymorphisms were detected in patients with Laron syndrome. The splice site mutation, which is a novel mutation, was located at the donor splice site of exon 2/ intron 2 within GHR. Although this mutation changed the highly conserved donor splice site consensus sequence GT to GGT by insertion of a G residue, the intron splicing between exon 2 and exon 3 was detected in the patient. These results imply that the splicing occurs arthe GT site in intron 2, leaving the extra inserted G residue at the end of exon 2, thus changing the open reading frame of GHR resulting in a premature termination codon in exon 3. PMID:18404972

  4. Allosteric interactions of staurosporine and other indolocarbazoles with N-[methyl-(3)H]scopolamine and acetylcholine at muscarinic receptor subtypes: identification of a second allosteric site.

    PubMed

    Lazareno, S; Popham, A; Birdsall, N J

    2000-07-01

    We have studied the interactions of five indolocarbazoles with N-[methyl-(3)H]scopolamine (NMS) and unlabeled acetylcholine at M(1)-M(4) muscarinic receptors, using equilibrium and nonequilibrium radioligand binding studies. The results are consistent with an allosteric model in which the primary and allosteric ligands bind simultaneously to the receptor and modify each other's affinities. The compounds were generally most active at M(1) receptors. [(3)H]NMS binding was enhanced by staurosporine, KT5720, and KT5823 at M(1) and M(2) receptors, and by K-252a at M(1) receptors. Gö 7874 reduced [(3)H]NMS affinity by up to threefold for all subtypes. A range of cooperative effects with acetylcholine was seen, and, at the M(1) receptor, KT5720 had a log affinity of 6.4 and enhanced acetylcholine affinity by 40%. The compounds inhibited the dissociation of [(3)H]NMS to different extents across the receptor subtypes, with the largest effects at M(1) receptors. In equilibrium binding studies the inhibitory potency of gallamine at M(1) receptors was not affected by KT5720, indicating that these agents bind to two distinct allosteric sites and have neutral cooperativity with each other. In contrast, gallamine and staurosporine had a negatively cooperative or competitive interaction at M(1) receptors. Similarly, the potency and relative effectiveness of KT5720 for inhibiting [(3)H]NMS dissociation from M(1) receptors were not affected by gallamine or brucine, but were affected in a complex manner by staurosporine. These results demonstrate that there are at least two distinct allosteric sites on the M(1) receptor, both of which can support positive cooperativity with acetylcholine. PMID:10860942

  5. The receptor for advanced glycation end products promotes bacterial growth at distant body sites in Staphylococcus aureus skin infection.

    PubMed

    Achouiti, Ahmed; Van't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-09-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) has been implicated in the regulation of skin inflammation. We here sought to study the role of RAGE in host defense during skin infection caused by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, the most common pathogen in this condition. Wild-type (Wt) and RAGE deficient (rage(-/-)) mice were infected subcutaneously with S. aureus and bacterial loads and local inflammation were quantified at regular intervals up to 8 days after infection. While bacterial burdens were similar in both mouse strains at the primary site of infection, rage(-/-) mice had lower bacterial counts in lungs and liver. Skin cytokine and chemokine levels did not differ between groups. In accordance with the skin model, direct intravenous infection with S. aureus was associated with lower bacterial loads in lungs and liver of rage(-/-) mice. Together these data suggest that RAGE does not impact local host defense during S. aureus skin infection, but facilitates bacterial growth at distant body sites. PMID:26086798

  6. Mechanisms for Antagonistic Regulation of AMPA and NMDA-D1 Receptor Complexes at Postsynaptic Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Scheler, Gabriele

    2004-01-01

    From the analysis of these pathways we conclude that postsynaptic processes that regulate synaptic transmission undergo significant cross-talk with respect to glutamatergic and neuromodulatory (dopamine) signals. The main hypothesis is that of a compensatory regulation, a competitive switch between the induction of increased AMPA conductance by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation and reduced expression of PP2A, and increased D1 receptor sensitivity and expression by increased PKA, PP2A and decreased PP-1/calcineurin expression. Both types of plasticity are induced by NMDA receptor activation and increased internal calcium, they require different internal conditions to become expressed. Specifically we propose that AMPA regulation and D1 regulation are inversely coupled;The net result may be a bifurcation of synaptic state into predominantly AMPA or NMDA-D1 synapses. This could have functional consequences: stable connections for AMPA and conditional gating for NMDA-D1 synapses.

  7. Reduced GABAA receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites in the posterior cingulate cortex and fusiform gyrus in autism.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Adrian L; Gibbs, Terrell T; Blatt, Gene J

    2011-03-22

    Individuals with autism display deficits in the social domain including the proper recognition of faces and interpretations of facial expressions. There is an extensive network of brain regions involved in face processing including the fusiform gyrus (FFG) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Functional imaging studies have found that controls have increased activity in the PCC and FFG during face recognition tasks, and the FFG has differential responsiveness in autism when viewing faces. Multiple lines of evidence have suggested that the GABAergic system is disrupted in the brains of individuals with autism and it is likely that altered inhibition within the network influences the ability to perceive emotional expressions. On-the-slide ligand binding autoradiography was used to determine if there were alterations in GABA(A) and/or benzodiazepine binding sites in the brain in autism. Using (3)H-muscimol and (3)H-flunitrazepam we could determine whether the number (B(max)), binding affinity (K(d)), and/or distribution of GABA(A) receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites (BZD) differed from controls in the FFG and PCC. Significant reductions were found in the number of GABA(A) receptors and BZD binding sites in the superficial layers of the PCC and FFG, and in the number of BZD binding sites in the deep layers of the FFG. In addition, the autism group had a higher binding affinity in the superficial layers of the GABA(A) study. Taken together, these findings suggest that the disruption in inhibitory control in the cortex may contribute to the core disturbances of socio-emotional behaviors in autism. PMID:20858465

  8. Molecular Architecture of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I-Binding Site of Ly49 Natural Killer Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Deng,L.; Cho, S.; Malchiodi, E.; Kerzic, M.; Dam, J.; Mariuzza, R.

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a vital role in the detection and destruction of virally infected and tumor cells during innate immune responses. The highly polymorphic Ly49 family of NK receptors regulates NK cell function by sensing major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules on target cells. Despite the determination of two Ly49-MHC-I complex structures, the molecular features of Ly49 receptors that confer specificity for particular MHC-I alleles have not been identified. To understand the functional architecture of Ly49-binding sites, we determined the crystal structures of Ly49C and Ly49G and completed refinement of the Ly49C-H-2Kb complex. This information, combined with mutational analysis of Ly49A, permitted a structure-based classification of Ly49s that we used to dissect the binding site into three distinct regions, each having different roles in MHC recognition. One region, located at the center of the binding site, has a similar structure across the Ly49 family and mediates conserved interactions with MHC-I that contribute most to binding. However, the preference of individual Ly49s for particular MHC-I molecules is governed by two regions that flank the central region and are structurally more variable. One of the flanking regions divides Ly49s into those that recognize both H-2D and H-2K versus only H-2D ligands, whereas the other discriminates among H-2D or H-2K alleles. The modular design of Ly49-binding sites provides a framework for predicting the MHC-binding specificity of Ly49s that have not been characterized experimentally.

  9. Identification of a Binding Site for Unsaturated Fatty Acids in the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nurr1.

    PubMed

    de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S; Giri, Pankaj K; Munoz-Tello, Paola; Brust, Richard; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Shang, Jinsai; Campbell, Sean; Wilson, Henry D; Granados, Juan; Gardner, William J; Creamer, Trevor P; Solt, Laura A; Kojetin, Douglas J

    2016-07-15

    Nurr1/NR4A2 is an orphan nuclear receptor, and currently there are no known natural ligands that bind Nurr1. A recent metabolomics study identified unsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), that interact with the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of a related orphan receptor, Nur77/NR4A1. However, the binding location and whether these ligands bind other NR4A receptors were not defined. Here, we show that unsaturated fatty acids also interact with the Nurr1 LBD, and solution NMR spectroscopy reveals the binding epitope of DHA at its putative ligand-binding pocket. Biochemical assays reveal that DHA-bound Nurr1 interacts with high affinity with a peptide derived from PIASγ, a protein that interacts with Nurr1 in cellular extracts, and DHA also affects cellular Nurr1 transactivation. This work is the first structural report of a natural ligand binding to a canonical NR4A ligand-binding pocket and indicates a natural ligand can bind and affect Nurr1 function. PMID:27128111

  10. Site-specific DOTA/europium-labeling of recombinant human relaxin-3 for receptor-ligand interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Jie; Luo, Xiao; Liu, Ya-Li; Shao, Xiao-Xia; Wade, John D; Bathgate, Ross A D; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2012-08-01

    Relaxin-3 (also known as INSL7) is a recently identified neuropeptide belonging to the insulin/relaxin superfamily. It has putative roles in the regulation of stress responses, food intake, and reproduction by activation of its cognate G-protein-coupled receptor RXFP3. It also binds and activates the relaxin family peptide receptors RXFP1 and RXFP4 in vitro. To obtain a europium-labeled relaxin-3 as tracer for studying the interaction of these receptors with various ligands, in the present work we propose a novel site-specific labeling strategy for the recombinant human relaxin-3 that has been previously prepared in our laboratory. First, the N-terminal 6 × His-tag of the single-chain relaxin-3 precursor was removed by Aeromonas aminopeptidase and all of the primary amines of the resultant peptide were reversibly blocked by citroconic anhydride. Second, the A-chain N-terminus of the blocked peptide was released by endoproteinase Asp-N cleavage that removed the linker peptide between the B- and A-chains. Third, an alkyne moiety was introduced to the newly released A-chain N-terminus by reaction with the highly active primary amine-specific N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Fourth, after removal of the reversible blockage under mild acidic condition, europium-loaded DOTA with an azide moiety was introduced to the two-chain relaxin-3 carrying the alkyne moiety through click chemistry. Using this site-specific labeling strategy, homogeneous monoeuropium-labeled human relaxin-3 could be obtained with good overall yield. In contrast, conventional random labeling resulted in a complex mixture that was poorly resolved because human relaxin-3 has four primary amine moieties that all react with the modification reagent. Both saturation and competition binding assays demonstrated that the DOTA/Eu(3+)-labeled relaxin-3 retained high binding affinity for human RXFP3, RXFP4, and RXFP1 and was therefore a suitable non-radioactive and stable tracer to study the interaction of various

  11. Multiple transmembrane binding sites for p-trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-etomidate, a photoreactive Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Stewart, Deirdre S; Husain, S Shaukat; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2011-06-10

    Photoreactive derivatives of the general anesthetic etomidate have been developed to identify their binding sites in γ-aminobutyric acid, type A and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. One such drug, [(3)H]TDBzl-etomidate (4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]benzyl-[(3)H]1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate), acts as a positive allosteric potentiator of Torpedo nACh receptor (nAChR) and binds to a novel site in the transmembrane domain at the γ-α subunit interface. To extend our understanding of the locations of allosteric modulator binding sites in the nAChR, we now characterize the interactions of a second aryl diazirine etomidate derivative, TFD-etomidate (ethyl-1-(1-(4-(3-trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate). TFD-etomidate inhibited acetylcholine-induced currents with an IC(50) = 4 μM, whereas it inhibited the binding of [(3)H]phencyclidine to the Torpedo nAChR ion channel in the resting and desensitized states with IC(50) values of 2.5 and 0.7 mm, respectively. Similar to [(3)H]TDBzl-etomidate, [(3)H]TFD-etomidate bound to a site at the γ-α subunit interface, photolabeling αM2-10 (αSer-252) and γMet-295 and γMet-299 within γM3, and to a site in the ion channel, photolabeling amino acids within each subunit M2 helix that line the lumen of the ion channel. In addition, [(3)H]TFD-etomidate photolabeled in an agonist-dependent manner amino acids within the δ subunit M2-M3 loop (δIle-288) and the δ subunit transmembrane helix bundle (δPhe-232 and δCys-236 within δM1). The fact that TFD-etomidate does not compete with ion channel blockers at concentrations that inhibit acetylcholine responses indicates that binding to sites at the γ-α subunit interface and/or within δ subunit helix bundle mediates the TFD-etomidate inhibitory effect. These results also suggest that the γ-α subunit interface is a binding site for Torpedo nAChR negative allosteric modulators (TFD-etomidate) and for positive

  12. Insecticidal 3-benzamido-N-phenylbenzamides specifically bind with high affinity to a novel allosteric site in housefly GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Ozoe, Yoshihisa; Kita, Tomo; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Nakao, Toshifumi; Sato, Kazuyuki; Hirase, Kangetsu

    2013-11-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABARs) are an important target for existing insecticides such as fiproles. These insecticides act as noncompetitive antagonists (channel blockers) for insect GABARs by binding to a site within the intrinsic channel of the GABAR. Recently, a novel class of insecticides, 3-benzamido-N-phenylbenzamides (BPBs), was shown to inhibit GABARs by binding to a site distinct from the site for fiproles. We examined the binding site of BPBs in the adult housefly by means of radioligand-binding and electrophysiological experiments. 3-Benzamido-N-(2,6-dimethyl-4-perfluoroisopropylphenyl)-2-fluorobenzamide (BPB 1) (the N-demethyl BPB) was a partial, but potent, inhibitor of [(3)H]4'-ethynyl-4-n-propylbicycloorthobenzoate (GABA channel blocker) binding to housefly head membranes, whereas the 3-(N-methyl)benzamido congener (the N-methyl BPB) had low or little activity. A total of 15 BPB analogs were tested for their abilities to inhibit [(3)H]BPB 1 binding to the head membranes. The N-demethyl analogs, known to be highly effective insecticides, potently inhibited the [(3)H]BPB 1 binding, but the N-methyl analogs did not even though they, too, are considered highly effective. [(3)H]BPB 1 equally bound to the head membranes from wild-type and dieldrin-resistant (rdl mutant) houseflies. GABA allosterically inhibited [(3)H]BPB 1 binding. By contrast, channel blocker-type antagonists enhanced [(3)H]BPB 1 binding to housefly head membranes by increasing the affinity of BPB 1. Antiparasitic macrolides, such as ivermectin B1a, were potent inhibitors of [(3)H]BPB 1 binding. BPB 1 inhibited GABA-induced currents in housefly GABARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes, whereas it failed to inhibit l-glutamate-induced currents in inhibitory l-glutamate receptors. Overall, these findings indicate that BPBs act at a novel allosteric site that is different from the site for channel blocker-type antagonists and that is probably overlapped with the site for macrolides

  13. Elucidation of strain-specific interaction of a GII-4 norovirus with HBGA receptors by site-directed mutagenesis study

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Ming |; Xia Ming; Cao Sheng; Huang Pengwei; Farkas, Tibor |; Meller, Jarek |; Hegde, Rashmi S. |; Li Xuemei; Rao Zihe; Jiang Xi |

    2008-09-30

    Noroviruses interact with histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptors in a strain-specific manner probably detecting subtle structural differences in the carbohydrate receptors. The specific recognition of types A and B antigens by various norovirus strains is a typical example. The only difference between the types A and B antigens is the acetamide linked to the terminal galactose of the A but not to the B antigen. The crystal structure of the P dimer of a GII-4 norovirus (VA387) bound to types A and B trisaccharides has elucidated the A/B binding site on the capsid but did not explain the binding specificity of the two antigens. In this study, using site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified three residues on the VA387 capsid that are sterically close to the acetamide and are required for binding to A but not B antigens, indicating that the acetamide determines the binding specificity between the A and B antigens. Further mutational analysis showed that a nearby open cavity may also be involved in binding specificity to HBGAs. In addition, a systematic mutational analysis of residues in and around the binding interface has identified a group of amino acids that are required for binding but do not have direct contact with the carbohydrate antigens, implying that these residues may be involved in the structural integrity of the receptor binding interface. Taken together, our study provides new insights into the carbohydrate/capsid interactions which are a valuable complement to the atomic structures in understanding the virus/host interaction and in the future design of antiviral agents.

  14. Opioid receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: evidence for distinct morphine (. mu. ) and enkephalin (delta) binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmi, S.M.I.; Mishra, R.K.

    1986-06-13

    Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exhibited a heterogeneous population of ..mu.. and delta types of opioid binding sites. These specific binding sites displayed the characteristic saturability, stereospecificity and reversibility, expected of a receptor. Scatchard analysis of (/sup 3/H)-D-Ala/sup 2/-D-Leu/sup 5/-enkephalin (DADLE) in the presence of 10/sup -5/M D-Pro/sup 4/-morphiceptin (to block the ..mu.. receptors) and the competitive displacement by various highly selective ligands yielded the binding parameters of delta sites which closely resemble those of the delta receptors in brain and mouse neuroblastoma clones. Similarly, the high affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine, together with the higher potency of morphine analogues to displace (/sup 3/H)-naloxone binding established the presence of ..mu.. sites. Guanine nucleotides and NaCl significantly inhibited the association and increased the dissociation of (/sup 3/H)-DADLE binding.

  15. Molecular blueprint of allosteric binding sites in a homologue of the agonist-binding domain of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Spurny, Radovan; Debaveye, Sarah; Farinha, Ana; Veys, Ken; Vos, Ann M.; Gossas, Thomas; Atack, John; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; Danielson, U. Helena; Tresadern, Gary; Ulens, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) belongs to the family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and is involved in fast synaptic signaling. In this study, we take advantage of a recently identified chimera of the extracellular domain of the native α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholine binding protein, termed α7-AChBP. This chimeric receptor was used to conduct an innovative fragment-library screening in combination with X-ray crystallography to identify allosteric binding sites. One allosteric site is surface-exposed and is located near the N-terminal α-helix of the extracellular domain. Ligand binding at this site causes a conformational change of the α-helix as the fragment wedges between the α-helix and a loop homologous to the main immunogenic region of the muscle α1 subunit. A second site is located in the vestibule of the receptor, in a preexisting intrasubunit pocket opposite the agonist binding site and corresponds to a previously identified site involved in positive allosteric modulation of the bacterial homolog ELIC. A third site is located at a pocket right below the agonist binding site. Using electrophysiological recordings on the human α7 nAChR we demonstrate that the identified fragments, which bind at these sites, can modulate receptor activation. This work presents a structural framework for different allosteric binding sites in the α7 nAChR and paves the way for future development of novel allosteric modulators with therapeutic potential. PMID:25918415

  16. Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor interacts with estrogen receptor, binds to estrogen response elements and half-sites, and inhibits estrogen-induced gene expression.

    PubMed

    Klinge, C M; Silver, B F; Driscoll, M D; Sathya, G; Bambara, R A; Hilf, R

    1997-12-12

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (COUP-TF) was identified as a low abundance protein in bovine uterus that co-purified with estrogen receptor (ER) in a ligand-independent manner and was separated from the ER by its lower retention on estrogen response element (ERE)-Sepharose. In gel mobility shift assays, COUP-TF bound as an apparent dimer to ERE and ERE half-sites. COUP-TF bound to an ERE half-site with high affinity, Kd = 1.24 nM. In contrast, ER did not bind a single ERE half-site. None of the class II nuclear receptors analyzed, i.e. retinoic acid receptor, retinoid X receptor, thyroid receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, or vitamin D receptor, were constituents of the COUP-TF.DNA binding complex detected in gel mobility shift assays. Direct interaction of COUP-TF with ER was indicated by GST "pull-down" and co-immunoprecipitation assays. The nature of the ER ligand influenced COUP-TF-ERE half-site binding. When ER was liganded by the antiestrogen 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), COUP-TF-half-site interaction decreased. Conversely, COUP-TF transcribed and translated in vitro enhanced the ERE binding of purified estradiol (E2)-liganded ER but not 4-OHT-liganded ER. Co-transfection of ER-expressing MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with an expression vector for COUP-TFI resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of E2-induced expression of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of three tandem copies of EREc38. The ability of COUP-TF to bind specifically to EREs and half-sites, to interact with ER, and to inhibit E2-induced gene expression suggests COUP-TF regulates ER action by both direct DNA binding competition and through protein-protein interactions. PMID:9395481

  17. Immunoprecipitation of Plasma Membrane Receptor-Like Kinases for Identification of Phosphorylation Sites and Associated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Macho, Alberto P; Zipfel, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are difficult to study for numerous reasons. The surface of membrane proteins is relatively hydrophobic and sometimes very unstable, additionally requiring detergents for their extraction from the membrane. This leads to challenges at all levels, including expression, solubilization, purification, identification of associated proteins, and the identification of post-translational modifications. However, recent advances in immunoprecipitation technology allow to isolate membrane proteins efficiently, facilitating the study of protein-protein interactions, the identification of novel associated proteins, and to identify post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation. Here, we describe an optimized immunoprecipitation protocol for plant plasma membrane receptor-like kinases. PMID:26577786

  18. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. )

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  19. Use of antibodies specific to defined regions of scorpion. cap alpha. -toxin to study its interaction with its receptor site on the sodium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ayeb, M.E.; Bahraoui, E.M.; Granier, C.; Rochat, H.

    1986-10-21

    Five antibody populations selected by immunoaffinity chromatography for the specificity toward various regions of toxin II of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector were used to probe the interaction of this protein with its receptor site on the sodium channel. These studies indicate that two antigenic sites, one located around the disulfide bridge 12-63 and one encompassing residues 50-59, are involved in the molecular mechanisms of toxicity neutralization. Fab fragments specific to the region around disulfide bridge 12-63 inhibit binding of the /sup 125/I-labeled toxin to its receptor site. Also, these two antigenic regions are inaccessible to the antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor site. In contrast, the two other antigenic sites encompassing the only ..cap alpha..-helix region (residues 23-32) and a ..beta..-turn structure (residues 32-35) are accessible to the respective antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor. Together, these data support the recent proposal that a region made of residues that are conserved in the scorpion toxin family is involved in the binding of the toxin to the receptor.

  20. Spatial modeling of receptor species for ecological risk assessment activities on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Karen Frances

    To assist risk assessors on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), a Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed to provide relevant information about specific receptor species that can be used for ecological risk assessment (ERA). Although this GIS is a useful tool, it is limited in that it can only provide information about a species if it was studied in that particular area and does not describe the site-wide spatial distribution or life history of a receptor species, which may be crucial when developing an ecological impact assessment. The GIS was expanded by modeling wildlife species on the SRS to provide information regarding their over-all distribution (probability of being in an area) and habitat utilization. Each model is a stand-alone tool consisting of algorithms that are applied within a GIS and therefore dynamic enough to respond to stochastic events such as natural and anthropogenic habitat disturbances and/or long-term changes such as natural succession. Spatial analyses suggest toxicant exposure and accumulation risk in relation to the species probability of occurrence in the area. This modeling effort provides the tools that are crucial for the Department of Energy to conduct ERA activities for specific contaminants on the SRS. Further, it serves as a template for DOE managed lands and other large government facilities to establish a framework for site-specific ecological impact assessments that use wildlife species as endpoints. Predictive distribution models for the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and wild hog (Sus scrofa ) are used to demonstrate the construction and utilization of these models to: (1) estimate wildlife toxicant exposure, (2) identify possible contaminant vectors, and (3) construct human-based risk assessments from consuming wild game.

  1. Interaction of Fibrin with the VLDL Receptor: Further Characterization and Localization of the Fibrin-Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Sergiy; Medved, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Our recent study revealed that fibrin interacts with the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) on endothelial cells through its βN-domains and this interaction promotes transendothelial migration of leukocytes and thereby inflammation. The major aims of the present study were to further characterize this interaction and localize fibrin-binding site in the VLDL receptor. To localize the fibrin-binding site, we expressed a soluble extracellular portion of this receptor, sVLDLRHT, its N- and C-terminal regions, VLDLR(1–8)HT and des(1–8)VLDLRHT, respectively, and a number of VLDLR fragments containing various combinations of CR-domains, and confirmed their proper folding by fluorescence spectroscopy. Interaction of these fragments with the (β15–66)2 fragment corresponding to a pair of VLDLR-binding βN-domains of fibrin was tested by different methods. Our experiments performed by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance revealed that the VLDLR(1–8)HT fragment containing eight CR-domain of VLDLR and its sub-fragments, VLDLR(1–4)HT and VLDLR(2–4)HT, interact with (β15–66)2 with practically the same affinity as sVLDLRHT while the affinity of VLDLR(2–3)HT was about 2-fold lower. In contrast, des(1–8)VLDLRHT exhibited no binding. Complex formation in solution between the fibrin-binding fragments of VLDLR and (β15–66)2 was detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, formation of a complex between VLDLR(2–4)HT and (β15–66)2 in solution was confirmed by size-exclusion chromatography. Thus, the results obtained indicate that minimal fibrin-binding structures are located within the second and third CR-domains of the VLDL receptor and the presence of the fourth CR-domain is required for the high affinity binding. They also indicate that tryptophan residues of CR-domains are involved in this binding. PMID:26153297

  2. Lactate receptor sites link neurotransmission, neurovascular coupling, and brain energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Knut H; Morland, Cecilie; Puchades, Maja; Holm-Hansen, Signe; Hagelin, Else Marie; Lauritzen, Fredrik; Attramadal, Håvard; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Gjedde, Albert; Bergersen, Linda H

    2014-10-01

    The G-protein-coupled lactate receptor, GPR81 (HCA1), is known to promote lipid storage in adipocytes by downregulating cAMP levels. Here, we show that GPR81 is also present in the mammalian brain, including regions of the cerebral neocortex and hippocampus, where it can be activated by physiological concentrations of lactate and by the specific GPR81 agonist 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate to reduce cAMP. Cerebral GPR81 is concentrated on the synaptic membranes of excitatory synapses, with a postsynaptic predominance. GPR81 is also enriched at the blood-brain-barrier: the GPR81 densities at endothelial cell membranes are about twice the GPR81 density at membranes of perivascular astrocytic processes, but about one-seventh of that on synaptic membranes. There is only a slight signal in perisynaptic processes of astrocytes. In synaptic spines, as well as in adipocytes, GPR81 immunoreactivity is located on subplasmalemmal vesicular organelles, suggesting trafficking of the protein to and from the plasma membrane. The results indicate roles of lactate in brain signaling, including a neuronal glucose and glycogen saving response to the supply of lactate. We propose that lactate, through activation of GPR81 receptors, can act as a volume transmitter that links neuronal activity, cerebral energy metabolism and energy substrate availability. PMID:23696276

  3. The juxtamembrane regions of human receptor tyrosine kinases exhibit conserved interaction sites with anionic lipids

    PubMed Central

    Hedger, George; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Koldsø, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play a critical role in diverse cellular processes and their activity is regulated by lipids in the surrounding membrane, including PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate) in the inner leaflet, and GM3 (monosialodihexosylganglioside) in the outer leaflet. However, the precise details of the interactions at the molecular level remain to be fully characterised. Using a multiscale molecular dynamics simulation approach, we comprehensively characterise anionic lipid interactions with all 58 known human RTKs. Our results demonstrate that the juxtamembrane (JM) regions of RTKs are critical for inducing clustering of anionic lipids, including PIP2, both in simple asymmetric bilayers, and in more complex mixed membranes. Clustering is predominantly driven by interactions between a conserved cluster of basic residues within the first five positions of the JM region, and negatively charged lipid headgroups. This highlights a conserved interaction pattern shared across the human RTK family. In particular predominantly the N-terminal residues of the JM region are involved in the interactions with PIP2, whilst residues within the distal JM region exhibit comparatively less lipid specificity. Our results suggest that JM–lipid interactions play a key role in RTK structure and function, and more generally in the nanoscale organisation of receptor-containing cell membranes. PMID:25779975

  4. An inter-comparison of PM10 source apportionment using PCA and PMF receptor models in three European sites.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Daniela; Amato, F; Pandolfi, M; Alastuey, A; Querol, X; Contini, D

    2016-08-01

    Source apportionment of aerosol is an important approach to investigate aerosol formation and transformation processes as well as to assess appropriate mitigation strategies and to investigate causes of non-compliance with air quality standards (Directive 2008/50/CE). Receptor models (RMs) based on chemical composition of aerosol measured at specific sites are a useful, and widely used, tool to perform source apportionment. However, an analysis of available studies in the scientific literature reveals heterogeneities in the approaches used, in terms of "working variables" such as the number of samples in the dataset and the number of chemical species used as well as in the modeling tools used. In this work, an inter-comparison of PM10 source apportionment results obtained at three European measurement sites is presented, using two receptor models: principal component analysis coupled with multi-linear regression analysis (PCA-MLRA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). The inter-comparison focuses on source identification, quantification of source contribution to PM10, robustness of the results, and how these are influenced by the number of chemical species available in the datasets. Results show very similar component/factor profiles identified by PCA and PMF, with some discrepancies in the number of factors. The PMF model appears to be more suitable to separate secondary sulfate and secondary nitrate with respect to PCA at least in the datasets analyzed. Further, some difficulties have been observed with PCA in separating industrial and heavy oil combustion contributions. Commonly at all sites, the crustal contributions found with PCA were larger than those found with PMF, and the secondary inorganic aerosol contributions found by PCA were lower than those found by PMF. Site-dependent differences were also observed for traffic and marine contributions. The inter-comparison of source apportionment performed on complete datasets (using the full range of

  5. Identification of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Binding Sites and Target Genes Using ChIP-on-Chip in Developing Mouse Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongyan; Yauk, Carole L.; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; You, Seo-Hee; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Lambert, Iain; Wade, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical to normal brain development, but the mechanisms operating in this process are poorly understood. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation to enrich regions of DNA bound to thyroid receptor beta (TRβ) of mouse cerebellum sampled on post natal day 15. Enriched target was hybridized to promoter microarrays (ChIP-on-chip) spanning −8 kb to +2 kb of the transcription start site (TSS) of 5000 genes. We identified 91 genes with TR binding sites. Roughly half of the sites were located in introns, while 30% were located within 1 kb upstream (5′) of the TSS. Of these genes, 83 with known function included genes involved in apoptosis, neurodevelopment, metabolism and signal transduction. Two genes, MBP and CD44, are known to contain TREs, providing validation of the system. This is the first report of TR binding for 81 of these genes. ChIP-on-chip results were confirmed for 10 of the 13 binding fragments using ChIP-PCR. The expression of 4 novel TH target genes was found to be correlated with TH levels in hyper/hypothyroid animals providing further support for TR binding. A TRβ binding site upstream of the coding region of myelin associated glycoprotein was demonstrated to be TH-responsive using a luciferase expression system. Motif searches did not identify any classic binding elements, indicating that not all TR binding sites conform to variations of the classic form. These findings provide mechanistic insight into impaired neurodevelopment resulting from TH deficiency and a rich bioinformatics resource for developing a better understanding of TR binding. PMID:19240802

  6. Escape variants of the XPR1 gammaretrovirus receptor are rare due to reliance on a splice donor site and a short hypervariable loop

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoyu; Martin, Carrie; Bouchard, Christelle; Kozak, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Entry determinants in the XPR1 receptor for the xenotropic/polytropic mouse leukemia viruses (XP-MLVs) lie in its third and fourth putative extracellular loops (ECLs). The critical ECL3 receptor determinant overlies a splice donor and is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrate XPR1 genes; 2 of the 3 rare replacement mutations at this site destroy this receptor determinant. The 13 residue ECL4 is hypervariable, and replacement mutations carrying an intact ECL3 site alter but do not abolish receptor activity, including replacement of the entire loop with that of a jellyfish (Cnidaria) XPR1. Because ECL4 deletions are found in all X-MLV-infected Mus subspecies, we deleted each ECL4 residue to determine if deletion-associated restriction is residue-specific or is effected by loop size. All deletions influence receptor function, although different deletions affect different XP-MLVs. Thus, receptor usage of a constrained splice site and a loop that tolerates mutations severely limits the likelihood of host escape mutations. PMID:25151060

  7. Structure-Based Identification of Novel Ligands Targeting Multiple Sites within a Chemokine-G-Protein-Coupled-Receptor Interface.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emmanuel W; Nevins, Amanda M; Qiao, Zhen; Liu, Yan; Getschman, Anthony E; Vankayala, Sai L; Kemp, M Trent; Peterson, Francis C; Li, Rongshi; Volkman, Brian F; Chen, Yu

    2016-05-12

    CXCL12 is a human chemokine that recognizes the CXCR4 receptor and is involved in immune responses and metastatic cancer. Interactions between CXCL12 and CXCR4 are an important drug target but, like other elongated protein-protein interfaces, present challenges for small molecule ligand discovery due to the relatively shallow and featureless binding surfaces. Calculations using an NMR complex structure revealed a binding hot spot on CXCL12 that normally interacts with the I4/I6 residues from CXCR4. Virtual screening was performed against the NMR model, and subsequent testing has verified the specific binding of multiple docking hits to this site. Together with our previous results targeting two other binding pockets that recognize sulfotyrosine residues (sY12 and sY21) of CXCR4, including a new analog against the sY12 binding site reported herein, we demonstrate that protein-protein interfaces can often possess multiple sites for engineering specific small molecule ligands that provide lead compounds for subsequent optimization by fragment based approaches. PMID:27058821

  8. Cardiac ryanodine receptor: Selectivity for alkaline earth metal cations points to the EF-hand nature of luminal binding sites.

    PubMed

    Gaburjakova, Jana; Gaburjakova, Marta

    2016-06-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the regulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor (RYR2) by luminal Ca(2+) is mediated by luminal binding sites located on the RYR2 channel itself and/or its auxiliary protein, calsequestrin. The localization and structure of RYR2-resident binding sites are not known because of the lack of a high-resolution structure of RYR2 luminal regions. To obtain the first structural insight, we probed the RYR2 luminal face stripped of calsequestrin by alkaline earth metal divalents (M(2+): Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) or Ba(2+)). We show that the RYR2 response to caffeine at the single-channel level is significantly modified by the nature of luminal M(2+). Moreover, we performed competition experiments by varying the concentration of luminal M(2+) (Mg(2+), Sr(2+) or Ba(2+)) from 8mM to 53mM and investigated its ability to compete with 1mM luminal Ca(2+). We demonstrate that all tested M(2+) bind to exactly the same RYR2 luminal binding sites. Their affinities decrease in the order: Ca(2+)>Sr(2+)>Mg(2+)~Ba(2+), showing a strong correlation with the M(2+) affinity of the EF-hand motif. This indicates that the RYR2 luminal binding regions and the EF-hand motif likely share some structural similarities because the structure ties directly to the function. PMID:26849106

  9. Multi-organ Site Metastatic Reactivation Mediated by Non-canonical Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hua; Chakraborty, Goutam; Zhang, Zhanguo; Akalay, Intissar; Gadiya, Mayur; Gao, Yaquan; Sinha, Surajit; Hu, Jian; Jiang, Cizhong; Akram, Muzaffar; Brogi, Edi; Leitinger, Birgit; Giancotti, Filippo G

    2016-06-30

    Genetic screening identifies the atypical tetraspanin TM4SF1 as a strong mediator of metastatic reactivation of breast cancer. Intriguingly, TM4SF1 couples the collagen receptor tyrosine kinase DDR1 to the cortical adaptor syntenin 2 and, hence, to PKCα. The latter kinase phosphorylates and activates JAK2, leading to the activation of STAT3. This non-canonical mechanism of signaling induces the expression of SOX2 and NANOG; sustains the manifestation of cancer stem cell traits; and drives metastatic reactivation in the lung, bone, and brain. Bioinformatic analyses and pathological studies corroborate the clinical relevance of these findings. We conclude that non-canonical DDR1 signaling enables breast cancer cells to exploit the ubiquitous interstitial matrix component collagen I to undergo metastatic reactivation in multiple target organs. PMID:27368100

  10. Maxi-circles, glycosomes, gene transposition, expression sites, transsplicing, transferrin receptors and base J.

    PubMed

    Borst, Piet

    2016-01-01

    This is a personal story of the author of his research on trypanosomatids, covering a period of 1970-2015. Some of the highlights include the discovery of new aspects of kDNA, the mini-circle heterogeneity and the maxi-circle; the glycosome; the discovery of gene transposition as a major mechanism for antigenic variation; trans-splicing as an essential step in the synthesis of all trypanosome mRNAs; Pulsed Field Gradient gels to size-fractionate chromosome-sized DNA molecules of protozoa; the sequence of trypanosome telomeres and their growth and contraction; the first ABC-transporter of trypanosomatids, LtpgpA; the variable transferrin receptor of T. brucei and its role in Fe uptake; and base J, its structure, biosynthesis and function. PMID:27021571

  11. Characterization of Naphthaleneacetic Acid Binding to Receptor Sites on Cellular Membranes of Maize Coleoptile Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Peter M.; Dohrmann, Ulrike; Hertel, Rainer

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of and optimum conditions for saturable (“specific”) binding of [14C]naphthaleneacetic acid to sites located on membranous particles from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles are described. Most, if not all, of the specific binding appears to be due to a single kinetic class of binding sites having a KD of 5 to 7 × 10−7m for naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA). Binding of NAA is insensitive to high monovalent salt concentrations, indicating that binding is not primarily ionic. However, specific binding is inhibited by Mg2+ or Ca2+ above 5 mm. Specific binding is improved by organic acids, especially citrate. Binding is heat-labile and is sensitive to agents that act either on proteins or on lipids. Specific binding is reversibly inactivated by reducing agents such as dithioerythritol; a reducible group, possibly a disulfide group, may be located at the binding site and required for its function. The affinity of the specific binding sites for auxins is modified by an unidentified dialyzable, heat-stable, apparently amphoteric, organic factor (“supernatant factor”) found in maize tissue. PMID:16659851

  12. An autophosphorylation site database for leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a family-wide study to identify and characterize sites of autophosphorylation in 73 representative LRR RLKs of the 223 member LRR RLK family in Arabidopsis thaliana. His-tagged constructs of intact cytoplasmic domains (CDs) for 73 of 223 A. thaliana LRR RLKs were cloned into E. coli BL-...

  13. Synthesis and radioiodination of ergoline derivatives: potential in-vivo dopamine receptor site mapping radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhail, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The need of a dopamine-receptor based radiopharmaceutical for brain imaging is apparent. If such an agent is made available to physicians, it could provide means for detecting brain tumors, and diagnose such mental disorders as parkinsonism, schizophrenia and psychosis. Currently, such agents are yet to be discovered. Procedures were developed to synthesize and label four ergoline derivatives which could potentially exhibit affinity to dopamine receptors. Labelling with /sup 125/I was accomplished in some cases by displacing a suitably positioned leaving group with /sup 125/I-anion, while in other cases iodine exchange procedures were utilized. Formulations of the labeled derivatives were achieved via the formation of their water soluble tartarate salts. Biodistribution studies in mature Sprague-Dawley rats showed that of the four radioactive compounds injected, the highest uptake in the brain and adrenals was achieved with 8 ..beta..-(I-125)-iodomethyl-6-propylergoline. In addition, high target/nontarget ratios were obtained with the above mentioned compound. On the other hand, the least brain and adrenal uptake as well as the lowest target/nontarget ratios were exhibited by 8 ..beta..-(I-125)-(p-iodobenzenesulfonyl)-lysergol presumably due to its in-vivo instability. A comparative biodistribution study for ergoline derivatives and N-isopropyl-(I-123)-p-iodoamphetamine was conducted. The biodistribution studies showed that the brain to blood ratio for the ergoline derivative 8 ..beta..-(I-125)-iodomethyl-6-propylergoline to be very close to that for /sup 125/I-IMP at 1 minute after dose administration. However after 15 minutes the brain/blood ratio of compound XLVI was half the value of /sup 123/I-IMP. Different mechanisms of brain influx and efflux are known to occur with the amphetamine and ergoline derivatives.

  14. Subdomain 2 of the Autotransporter Pet Is the Ligand Site for Recognizing the Pet Receptor on the Epithelial Cell Surface.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia; Serapio-Palacios, Antonio; Nava-Acosta, Raul; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Most autotransporter passenger domains, regardless of their diversity in function, fold or are predicted to fold as right-handed β-helices carrying various loops that are presumed to confer functionality. Our goal here was to identify the subdomain (loop) or amino acid sequence of the Pet passenger domain involved in the receptor binding site on the host cell for Pet endocytosis. Here, we show that d1 and d2 subdomains, as well as the amino acid sequence linking the subdomain d2 and the adjacent β-helix (PDWET), are not required for Pet secretion through the autotransporter system and that none of our deletion mutants altered the predicted long right-handed β-helical structure. Interestingly, Pet lacking the d2 domain (PetΔd2) was unable to bind on the epithelial cell surface, in contrast to Pet lacking d1 (PetΔd1) subdomain or PDWET sequences. Moreover, the purified d1 subdomain, the biggest subdomain (29.8 kDa) containing the serine protease domain, was also unable to bind the cell surface. Thus, d2 sequence (54 residues without the PDWET sequence) was required for Pet binding to eukaryotic cells. In addition, this d2 sequence was also needed for Pet internalization but not for inducing cell damage. In contrast, PetΔd1, which was able to bind and internalize inside the cell, was unable to cause cell damage. Furthermore, unlike Pet, PetΔd2 was unable to bind cytokeratin 8, a Pet receptor. These data indicate that the surface d2 subdomain is essential for the ligand-receptor (Pet-Ck8) interaction for Pet uptake and to start the epithelial cell damage by this toxin. PMID:27113356

  15. The CYP2B2 phenobarbital response unit contains binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, PBX-PREP1, the thyroid hormone receptor beta and the liver X receptor.

    PubMed

    Beaudet, Marie-Josée; Desrochers, Marc; Lachaud, Antoine Amaury; Anderson, Alan

    2005-06-01

    A 163 bp enhancer in the CYP2B2 5' flank confers PB (phenobarbital) inducibility and constitutes a PBRU (PB response unit). The PBRU contains several transcription factor binding sites, including NR1, NR2 and NR3, which are direct repeats separated by 4 bp of the nuclear receptor consensus half-site AGGTCA, as well as an ER (everted repeat) separated by 7 bp (ER-7). Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)-RXR (retinoic X receptor) heterodimers are known to bind to NR1, NR2 and NR3. Electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis using nuclear extracts from livers of untreated or PB-treated rats revealed binding of several other proteins to different PBRU elements. Using supershift analysis and in vitro coupled transcription and translation, the proteins present in four retarded complexes were identified as TRbeta (thyroid hormone receptor beta), LXR (liver X receptor), HNF-4 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4) and heterodimers of PBX-PREP1 (pre-B cell homoeobox-Pbx regulatory protein 1). LXR-RXR heterodimers bound to NR3 and TRbeta bound to NR3, NR1 and ER-7, whereas the PBX-PREP1 site is contained within NR2. The HNF-4 site overlaps with NR1. A mutation described previously, GRE1m1, which decreases PB responsiveness, increased the affinity of this site for HNF-4. The PBRU also contains a site for nuclear factor 1. The PBRU thus contains a plethora of transcription factor binding sites. The profiles of transcription factor binding to NR1 and NR3 were quite similar, although strikingly different from, and more complex than, that of NR2. This parallels the functional differences in conferring PB responsiveness between NR1 and NR3 on the one hand, and NR2 on the other. PMID:15656786

  16. The CYP2B2 phenobarbital response unit contains binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, PBX–PREP1, the thyroid hormone receptor β and the liver X receptor

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    A 163 bp enhancer in the CYP2B2 5′ flank confers PB (phenobarbital) inducibility and constitutes a PBRU (PB response unit). The PBRU contains several transcription factor binding sites, including NR1, NR2 and NR3, which are direct repeats separated by 4 bp of the nuclear receptor consensus half-site AGGTCA, as well as an ER (everted repeat) separated by 7 bp (ER-7). Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)–RXR (retinoic X receptor) heterodimers are known to bind to NR1, NR2 and NR3. Electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis using nuclear extracts from livers of untreated or PB-treated rats revealed binding of several other proteins to different PBRU elements. Using supershift analysis and in vitro coupled transcription and translation, the proteins present in four retarded complexes were identified as TRβ (thyroid hormone receptor β), LXR (liver X receptor), HNF-4 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4) and heterodimers of PBX–PREP1 (pre-B cell homoeobox–Pbx regulatory protein 1). LXR–RXR heterodimers bound to NR3 and TRβ bound to NR3, NR1 and ER-7, whereas the PBX–PREP1 site is contained within NR2. The HNF-4 site overlaps with NR1. A mutation described previously, GRE1m1, which decreases PB responsiveness, increased the affinity of this site for HNF-4. The PBRU also contains a site for nuclear factor 1. The PBRU thus contains a plethora of transcription factor binding sites. The profiles of transcription factor binding to NR1 and NR3 were quite similar, although strikingly different from, and more complex than, that of NR2. This parallels the functional differences in conferring PB responsiveness between NR1 and NR3 on the one hand, and NR2 on the other. PMID:15656786

  17. Mapping the Interaction Sites between AMPA Receptors and TARPs Reveals a Role for the Receptor N-Terminal Domain in Channel Gating

    PubMed Central

    Cais, Ondrej; Herguedas, Beatriz; Krol, Karolina; Cull-Candy, Stuart G.; Farrant, Mark; Greger, Ingo H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast neurotransmission at excitatory synapses. The extent and fidelity of postsynaptic depolarization triggered by AMPAR activation are shaped by AMPAR auxiliary subunits, including the transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs). TARPs profoundly influence gating, an effect thought to be mediated by an interaction with the AMPAR ion channel and ligand binding domain (LBD). Here, we show that the distal N-terminal domain (NTD) contributes to TARP modulation. Alterations in the NTD-LBD linker result in TARP-dependent and TARP-selective changes in AMPAR gating. Using peptide arrays, we identify a TARP interaction region on the NTD and define the path of TARP contacts along the LBD surface. Moreover, we map key binding sites on the TARP itself and show that mutation of these residues mediates gating modulation. Our data reveal a TARP-dependent allosteric role for the AMPAR NTD and suggest that TARP binding triggers a drastic reorganization of the AMPAR complex. PMID:25373908

  18. Evidence that phospholipid turnover is the signal transducing system coupled to serotonin-S2 receptor sites

    SciTech Connect

    de Chaffoy de Courcelles, D.; Leysen, J.E.; De Clerck, F.; Van Belle, H.; Janssen, P.A.

    1985-06-25

    Upon stimulation with serotonin of washed human platelets prelabeled with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate, the authors found an approximately 250% increase in (/sup 32/P)phosphatidic acid (PA) formation, a small decrease in (/sup 32/P)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and a concomitant increase in (/sup 32/P)phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Using (/sup 3/H)arachidonate for prelabeling, (/sup 3/H)diacylglycerol accumulated transiently at 10 s after addition of the agonist, (/sup 3/H)PA increased but to a lower extent compared to /sup 32/P-labeled lipid, and the formation of both (/sup 3/H)polyphosphoinositides increased. The serotonin-induced dose-dependent changes in (/sup 32/P)PA correlate with its effect on the changes in slope of aggregation of platelets. The potency of 13 drugs to antagonize the serotonin-induced PA formation closely corresponds to both their potency to inhibit platelet aggregation and their binding affinity for serotonin-S2 receptor sites. It is suggested that at least part of the signal transducing system following activation of the serotonin-S2 receptors involves phospholipase C catalyzed inositol lipid breakdown yielding diacylglycerol which is subsequently phosphorylated to PA.

  19. Predictions of T-cell receptor- and major histocompatibility complex-binding sites on staphylococcal enterotoxin C1.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, M L; Jablonski, L M; Crum, K K; Hackett, S P; Chi, Y I; Stauffacher, C V; Stevens, D L; Bohach, G A

    1994-01-01

    We have focused on regions of staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 (SEC1) causing immunomodulation. N-terminal deletion mutants lacking residues 6 through 13 induced T-cell proliferation similar to that induced by native toxin. However, mutants with residues deleted between positions 19 and 33, although nonmitogenic themselves, were able to inhibit both SEC1-induced T-cell proliferation and binding of the native toxin to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Presumably, these deletions define a part of SEC1 that interacts with the T-cell receptor. Three synthetic peptides containing residues located in a region analogous to the alpha 5 groove of SEC3 had residual mitogenic activity or blocked T-cell proliferation induced by SEC1 and appear to recognize the same site as SEC1 on a receptor for the toxin, presumably MHC class II. We conclude that isolated portions of the SEC1 molecule can retain residual mitogenic activity but that the entire protein is needed to achieve maximal superantigenic stimulation. Our results, together with the results of other investigators, support a model in which SEC1 binds to an alpha helix of MHC class II through a central groove in the toxin and thereby promotes or stabilizes the interaction between antigen-presenting cells and T cells. Images PMID:8039910

  20. Analysis of the spacer DNA between the cyclic AMP receptor protein binding site and the lac promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Flatow, U; Rajendrakumar, G V; Garges, S

    1996-01-01

    The role of the spacer region DNA between the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) site and the RNA polymerase in the lac promoter was examined. We wanted to determine whether the wild-type DNA sequence of this region was an absolute requirement for CRP activation of lac transcription. The sequence of a 9-bp stretch of the spacer, from -41 to -49 relative to the start of transcription, was randomized, and the effect of randomization on lac expression was investigated in vitro and in vivo. We found that the spacer contains no specific sequence determinants for CRP activation of lac transcription; fewer than 1% of the mutants displayed greater than a 50% decrease in CRP activation of lac transcription. PMID:8636052

  1. Characterization of the ligand binding site of the bovine IgA Fc receptor (bFc alpha R).

    PubMed

    Morton, H Craig; Pleass, Richard J; Woof, Jenny M; Brandtzaeg, Per

    2004-12-24

    Recently, we identified a bovine IgA Fc receptor (bFc alpha R), which shows high homology to the human myeloid Fc alpha R, CD89. IgA binding has previously been shown to depend on several specific residues located in the B-C and F-G loops of the membrane-distal extracellular domain 1 of CD89. To compare the ligand binding properties of these two Fc alpha Rs, we have mapped the IgA binding site of bFc alpha R. We show that, in common with CD89, Tyr-35 in the B-C loop is essential for IgA binding. However, in contrast to earlier observations on CD89, mutation of residues in the F-G loop did not significantly inhibit IgA binding. PMID:15485844

  2. Progesterone receptor gene maps to human chromosome band 11q13, the site of the mammary oncogene int-2

    SciTech Connect

    Law, M.L.; Kao, F.T.; Wei, Q.; Hartz, J.A.; Greene, G.L.; Zarucki-Schulz, T.; Conneely, O.M.; Jones, C.; Puck, T.T.; O'Malley, B.W.; Horwitz, K.B.

    1987-05-01

    Progesterone is involved in the development and progression of breast cancers, and progesterone receptors (PR) are important markers of hormone dependence and disease prognosis. The authors have used a human PR cDNA probe, genomic DNA blotting of a series of Chinese hamster-human cell hybrids, and in situ hybridization to map the human PR gene to chromosome 11, band q13. This band also contains the human homolog of the mouse mammary tumor virus integration site, int-2, which surrounds a protooncogene thought to be involved in the development of murine mammary cancers. That these two genes share the same chromosomal location raises important questions about their possible linkage and about the relationship between the mammary-specific oncogene and the steroid hormone in the development, growth, and hormone dependence of human breast cancers.

  3. Receptor modelling of secondary and carbonaceous particulate matter at a southern UK site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charron, A.; Degrendele, C.; Laongsri, B.; Harrison, R. M.

    2013-02-01

    Complementary approaches have been taken to better understand the sources and their spatial distribution for secondary inorganic (nitrate and sulphate) and secondary organic aerosol sampled at a rural site (Harwell) in the southern United Kingdom. A concentration field map method was applied to 1581 daily samples of chloride, nitrate and sulphate from 2006 to 2010, and 982 samples for organic carbon and elemental carbon from 2007 to 2010. This revealed a rather similar pattern of sources for nitrate, sulphate and secondary organic carbon within western/central Europe, which in the case of nitrate, sulphate, organic carbon and secondary organic carbon, correlated significantly with EMEP emissions maps of NOx, SO2, and VOC respectively. A slightly more southerly source emphasis for secondary organic carbon may reflect the contribution of biogenic sources. Trajectory clusters confirm this pattern of behaviour with a major contribution from mainland European sources. Similar behaviours of, on the one hand, sulphate and organic carbon and, on the other hand, EC and nitrate showed that the former are more subject to regional influence than the latter in agreement with the slower atmospheric formation of sulphate and secondary organic aerosol than for nitrate, and the local/mesoscale influences upon primary EC. However, careful analysis of back trajectories and Concentration Field Maps indicates a strong contribution of mainland European sites to EC concentrations at Harwell. In a separate study, measurements of sulphate, nitrate, elemental and organic carbon were made in 100 simultaneously collected samples at Harwell and at a suburban site in Birmingham (UK). This showed a significant correlation in concentrations between the two sites for all of the secondary constituents, further indicating secondary organic aerosol to be a regional pollutant behaving similarly to sulphate and nitrate.

  4. Conformational memories and the endocannabinoid binding site at the cannabinoid CB1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Barnett-Norris, Judy; Hurst, Dow P; Lynch, Diane L; Guarnieri, Frank; Makriyannis, Alex; Reggio, Patricia H

    2002-08-15

    Endocannabinoid stucture-activity relationships (SAR) indicate that the CB1 receptor recognizes ethanolamides whose fatty acid acyl chains have 20 or 22 carbons, with at least three homoallylic double bonds and saturation in at least the last five carbons of the acyl chain. To probe the molecular basis for these acyl chain requirements, the method of conformational memories (CM) was used to study the conformations available to an n-6 series of ethanolamide fatty acid acyl chain congeners: 22:4, n-6 (K(i) = 34.4 +/- 3.2 nM); 20:4, n-6 (K(i) = 39.2 +/- 5.7 nM); 20:3, n-6 (K(i) = 53.4 +/- 5.5 nM); and 20:2, n-6 (K(i) > 1500 nM). CM studies indicated that each analogue could form both extended and U/J-shaped families of conformers. However, for the low affinity 20:2, n-6 ethanolamide, the higher populated family was the extended conformer family, while for the other analogues in the series, the U/J-shaped family had the higher population. In addition, the 20:2, n-6 ethanolamide U-shaped family was not as tightly curved as were those of the other analogues studied. To quantitate this variation in curvature, the radius of curvature (in the C-3 to C-17 region) of each member of each U/J-shaped family was measured. The average radii of curvature (with their 95% confidence intervals) were found to be 5.8 A (5.3-6.2) for 20:2, n-6; 4.4 A (4.1-4.7) for 20:3, n-6; 4.0 A (3.7-4.2) for 20:4, n-6; and 4.0 A (3.6-4.5) for 22:4, n-6. These results suggest that higher CB1 affinity is associated with endocannabinoids that can form tightly curved structures. Endocannabinoid SAR also indicate that the CB1 receptor does not tolerate large endocannabinoid headgroups; however, it does recognize both polar and nonpolar moieties in the headgroup region. To identify a headgroup orientation that results in high CB1 affinity, a series of dimethyl anandamide analogues (R)-N-(1-methyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(R)-methyl-arachidonamide (K(i) = 7.42 +/- 0.86 nM), (R)-N-(1-methyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(S

  5. Direct identification of a distinct site of interaction between the carboxyl-terminal residue of cholecystokinin and the type A cholecystokinin receptor using photoaffinity labeling.

    PubMed

    Ji, Z; Hadac, E M; Henne, R M; Patel, S A; Lybrand, T P; Miller, L J

    1997-09-26

    Mechanisms of ligand binding and activation of G protein-coupled receptors are particularly important, due to their ubiquitous expression and potential as drug targets. Molecular interactions between ligands and these receptors are best defined for small molecule ligands that bind within the transmembrane helices. Extracellular domains seem to be more important for peptide ligands, based largely on effects of receptor mutagenesis, where interference with binding or activity can reflect allosteric as well as direct effects. We now take the more direct approach of photoaffinity labeling the active site of the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor, using a photolabile analogue of CCK having a blocked amino terminus. This probe, 125I-desaminotyrosyl-Gly-[Nle28,31, pNO2-Phe33]CCK-(26-33), binds specifically, saturably, and with high affinity (Ki = 3.3 nM) and has full agonist activity. This makes likely its being sited in a natural position within the receptor. As substrate, we used CHO-CCK receptor cells overexpressing functional recombinant rat type A CCK receptor. Covalent labeling of the appropriate Mr = 85,000-95,000 plasma membrane glycoprotein with core of Mr = 42,000 was established by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. A single domain adjacent to transmembrane 1 was labeled, as established by cyanogen bromide cleavage and separation by gel and/or high pressure liquid chromatography. The site of interaction was further defined by additional proteolysis with trypsin, with purification of the labeled fragment, followed by manual Edman degradation and radiochemical sequencing. This demonstrated that Trp39 was specifically labeled and likely resides proximate to the carboxyl-terminal pNO2-Phe33 residue of the probe. A model of this ligand-bound receptor has been constructed and will be used to plan future experiments to refine our understanding of this interaction. PMID:9305898

  6. Interactions of orthosteric and allosteric ligands with [3H]dimethyl-W84 at the common allosteric site of muscarinic M2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Tränkle, Christian; Weyand, Oliver; Voigtländer, Uta; Mynett, Anita; Lazareno, Sebastian; Birdsall, Nigel J M; Mohr, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    An optimized assay for the binding of [3H]dimethyl-W84 to its allosteric site on M2 muscarinic receptors has been used to directly measure the affinities of allosteric ligands. Their potencies agree with those deduced indirectly by their modulation of the equilibrium binding and kinetics of [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS) binding to the orthosteric site. The affinities and cooperativities of orthosteric antagonists with [3H]dimethyl-W84 have also been quantitated. These affinities agree with those measured directly in a competition assay using [3H]NMS. All these data are compatible with the predictions of the allosteric ternary complex model. The association and dissociation kinetics of [3H]dimethyl-W84 are rapid but the estimate of its association rate constant is nevertheless comparable with that found for the orthosteric radioligand, [3H]NMS. This is unexpected, given that the allosteric site to which [3H]dimethyl-W84 binds is thought to be located on the external face of the receptor and above the [3H]NMS binding site that is buried within the transmembrane helices. The atypical allosteric ligands tacrine and 4,4'-bis-[(2,6-dichloro-benzyloxy-imino)-methyl]-1,1'-propane-1,3-diyl-bis-pyridinium dibromide (Duo3) inhibit [3H]dimethyl-W84 binding with the same potencies and comparably steep slope factors as found for inhibition of [3H]NMS binding. Tacrine and Duo3 decrease [3H]dimethyl-W84 affinity, not the number of binding sites. It is suggested that these atypical ligands either bind to the two known spatially separated allosteric sites on muscarinic receptors with positive cooperativity or their binding to the common allosteric site modulates receptor-receptor interactions such that homotropic positive cooperativity within a dimer or higher oligomer is generated. PMID:12815174

  7. Identification of novel S-nitrosation sites in soluble guanylyl cyclase, the nitric oxide receptor.

    PubMed

    Beuve, Annie; Wu, Changgong; Cui, Chuanlong; Liu, Tong; Jain, Mohit Raja; Huang, Can; Yan, Lin; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Li, Hong

    2016-04-14

    Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase (sGC) is the main receptor for nitric oxide (NO). NO activates sGC to synthesize cGMP, triggering a plethora of signals. Recently, we discovered that NO covalently modifies select sGC cysteines via a post-translational modification termed S-nitrosation or S-nitrosylation. Earlier characterization was conducted on a purified sGC treated with S-nitrosoglutathione, and identified three S-nitrosated cysteines (SNO-Cys). Here we describe a more biologically relevant mapping of sGC SNO-Cys in cells to better understand the multi-faceted interactions between SNO and sGC. Since SNO-Cys are labile during LC/MS/MS, MS analysis of nitrosation typically occurs after a biotin switch reaction, in which a SNO-Cys is converted to a biotin-Cys. Here we report the identification of ten sGC SNO-Cys in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes using an Orbitrap MS. A majority of the SNO-Cys identified is located at the solvent-exposed surface of the sGC, and half of them in the conserved catalytic domain, suggesting biological significance. These findings provide a solid basis for future studies of the regulations and functions of diverse sGC S-nitrosation events in cells. PMID:26917471

  8. Shisa6 traps AMPA receptors at postsynaptic sites and prevents their desensitization during synaptic activity

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen, Remco V.; Stroeder, Jasper; Coussen, Françoise; Hafner, Anne-Sophie; Petersen, Jennifer D.; Renancio, Cedric; Schmitz, Leanne J. M.; Normand, Elisabeth; Lodder, Johannes C.; Rotaru, Diana C.; Rao-Ruiz, Priyanka; Spijker, Sabine; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Choquet, Daniel; Smit, August B.

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking and biophysical properties of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in the brain depend on interactions with associated proteins. We identify Shisa6, a single transmembrane protein, as a stable and directly interacting bona fide AMPAR auxiliary subunit. Shisa6 is enriched at hippocampal postsynaptic membranes and co-localizes with AMPARs. The Shisa6 C-terminus harbours a PDZ domain ligand that binds to PSD-95, constraining mobility of AMPARs in the plasma membrane and confining them to postsynaptic densities. Shisa6 expressed in HEK293 cells alters GluA1- and GluA2-mediated currents by prolonging decay times and decreasing the extent of AMPAR desensitization, while slowing the rate of recovery from desensitization. Using gene deletion, we show that Shisa6 increases rise and decay times of hippocampal CA1 miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Shisa6-containing AMPARs show prominent sustained currents, indicating protection from full desensitization. Accordingly, Shisa6 prevents synaptically trapped AMPARs from depression at high-frequency synaptic transmission. PMID:26931375

  9. Shisa6 traps AMPA receptors at postsynaptic sites and prevents their desensitization during synaptic activity.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Remco V; Stroeder, Jasper; Coussen, Françoise; Hafner, Anne-Sophie; Petersen, Jennifer D; Renancio, Cedric; Schmitz, Leanne J M; Normand, Elisabeth; Lodder, Johannes C; Rotaru, Diana C; Rao-Ruiz, Priyanka; Spijker, Sabine; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Choquet, Daniel; Smit, August B

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking and biophysical properties of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in the brain depend on interactions with associated proteins. We identify Shisa6, a single transmembrane protein, as a stable and directly interacting bona fide AMPAR auxiliary subunit. Shisa6 is enriched at hippocampal postsynaptic membranes and co-localizes with AMPARs. The Shisa6 C-terminus harbours a PDZ domain ligand that binds to PSD-95, constraining mobility of AMPARs in the plasma membrane and confining them to postsynaptic densities. Shisa6 expressed in HEK293 cells alters GluA1- and GluA2-mediated currents by prolonging decay times and decreasing the extent of AMPAR desensitization, while slowing the rate of recovery from desensitization. Using gene deletion, we show that Shisa6 increases rise and decay times of hippocampal CA1 miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Shisa6-containing AMPARs show prominent sustained currents, indicating protection from full desensitization. Accordingly, Shisa6 prevents synaptically trapped AMPARs from depression at high-frequency synaptic transmission. PMID:26931375

  10. Reconstitution of a Functional Toll-like Receptor 5 Binding Site in Campylobacter jejuni Flagellin*

    PubMed Central

    de Zoete, Marcel R.; Keestra, A. Marijke; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial flagellin is important for intestinal immune homeostasis. Flagellins from most species activate Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). The principal bacterial food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni escapes TLR5 recognition, probably due to an alternate flagellin subunit structure. We investigated the molecular basis of TLR5 evasion by aiming to reconstitute TLR5 stimulating activity in live C. jejuni. Both native glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) and recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli failed to activate NF-κB in HEK293 cells expressing TLR5. Introduction of multiple defined regions from Salmonella flagellin into C. jejuni FlaA via a recombinatorial approach revealed three regions critical for the activation of human and mouse TLR5, including a β-hairpin structure not previously implicated in TLR5 recognition. Surprisingly, this domain was not required for the activation of chicken TLR5, indicating a selective requirement for the β-hairpin in the recognition of mammalian TLR5. Expression of the active chimeric protein in C. jejuni resulted in secreted glycosylated flagellin that induced a potent TLR5 response. Overall, our results reveal a novel structural requirement for TLR5 recognition of bacterial flagellin and exclude flagellin glycosylation as an additional mechanism of bacterial evasion of the TLR5 response. PMID:20164175

  11. Reconstitution of a functional Toll-like receptor 5 binding site in Campylobacter jejuni flagellin.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Marcel R; Keestra, A Marijke; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2010-04-16

    Bacterial flagellin is important for intestinal immune homeostasis. Flagellins from most species activate Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). The principal bacterial food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni escapes TLR5 recognition, probably due to an alternate flagellin subunit structure. We investigated the molecular basis of TLR5 evasion by aiming to reconstitute TLR5 stimulating activity in live C. jejuni. Both native glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) and recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli failed to activate NF-kappaB in HEK293 cells expressing TLR5. Introduction of multiple defined regions from Salmonella flagellin into C. jejuni FlaA via a recombinatorial approach revealed three regions critical for the activation of human and mouse TLR5, including a beta-hairpin structure not previously implicated in TLR5 recognition. Surprisingly, this domain was not required for the activation of chicken TLR5, indicating a selective requirement for the beta-hairpin in the recognition of mammalian TLR5. Expression of the active chimeric protein in C. jejuni resulted in secreted glycosylated flagellin that induced a potent TLR5 response. Overall, our results reveal a novel structural requirement for TLR5 recognition of bacterial flagellin and exclude flagellin glycosylation as an additional mechanism of bacterial evasion of the TLR5 response. PMID:20164175

  12. Heptapeptide ligands against receptor-binding sites of influenza hemagglutinin toward anti-influenza therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Teruhiko; Onishi, Ai; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Sato, Toshinori

    2016-03-01

    The initial attachment of influenza virus to cells is the binding of hemagglutinin (HA) to the sialyloligosaccharide receptor; therefore, the small molecules that inhibit the sugar-protein interaction are promising as HA inhibitors to prevent the infection. We herein demonstrate that sialic acid-mimic heptapeptides are identified through a selection from a primary library against influenza virus HA. In order to obtain lead peptides, an affinity selection from a phage-displayed random heptapeptide library was performed with the HAs of the H1 and H3 strains, and two kinds of the HA-binding peptides were identified. The binding of the peptides to HAs was inhibited in the presence of sialic acid, and plaque assays indicated that the corresponding N-stearoyl peptide strongly inhibited infections by the A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) strain of the virus. Alanine scanning of the peptides indicated that arginine and proline were responsible for binding. The affinities of several mutant peptides with single-amino-acid substitutions against H3 HA were determined, and corresponding docking studies were performed. A Spearman analysis revealed a correlation between the affinity of the peptides and the docking study. These results provide a practicable method to design of peptide-based HA inhibitors that are promising as anti-influenza drugs. PMID:26833245

  13. The predicted 3D structure of the human D2 dopamine receptor and the binding site and binding affinities for agonists and antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalani, M. Yashar S.; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E.; Trabanino, Rene J.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Kalani, Maziyar A.; Floriano, Wely B.; Tak Kam, Victor Wai; Goddard, William A., III

    2004-03-01

    Dopamine neurotransmitter and its receptors play a critical role in the cell signaling process responsible for information transfer in neurons functioning in the nervous system. Development of improved therapeutics for such disorders as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia would be significantly enhanced with the availability of the 3D structure for the dopamine receptors and of the binding site for dopamine and other agonists and antagonists. We report here the 3D structure of the long isoform of the human D2 dopamine receptor, predicted from primary sequence using first-principles theoretical and computational techniques (i.e., we did not use bioinformatic or experimental 3D structural information in predicting structures). The predicted 3D structure is validated by comparison of the predicted binding site and the relative binding affinities of dopamine, three known dopamine agonists (antiparkinsonian), and seven known antagonists (antipsychotic) in the D2 receptor to experimentally determined values. These structures correctly predict the critical residues for binding dopamine and several antagonists, identified by mutation studies, and give relative binding affinities that correlate well with experiments. The predicted binding site for dopamine and agonists is located between transmembrane (TM) helices 3, 4, 5, and 6, whereas the best antagonists bind to a site involving TM helices 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 with minimal contacts to TM helix 5. We identify characteristic differences between the binding sites of agonists and antagonists.

  14. Design and Synthesis of Photoaffinity Labeling Ligands of the l-Prolyl-l-leucyl-glycinmide Binding Site Involved in the Allosteric Modulation of the Dopamine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Abigail; Mann, Amandeep; Verma, Vaneeta; Thomas, Nancy; Mishra, Ram K.; Johnson, Rodney L.

    2008-01-01

    Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 (PLG), in addition to its endocrine effects, possesses the ability to modulate dopamine D2 receptors within the CNS. However, the precise binding site of PLG is unknown. Potential photoaffinity labeling ligands of the PLG binding site were designed as tools to be used in the identification of the macromolecule that possesses this binding site. Six different photoaffinity labeling ligands were designed and synthesized based upon γ-lactam PLG peptidomimetic 1. The 4-azido-benzoyl and 4-azido-2-hydroxy-benzoyl photoaffinity labeling moieties were placed at opposite ends of PLG peptidomimetic 1 to generate a series of ligands that potentially could be used to map the PLG binding site. All of the compounds that were synthesized possessed activity comparable to or better than PLG in enhancing [3H]N-propylnorapomorphine agonist binding to dopamine receptors. Photoaffinity ligands that were cross-linked to the receptor preparation produced a modulatory effect that was either comparable to or greater than the increase in agonist binding produced by the respective ligands that were not cross-linked to the dopamine receptor. The results indicate that these photoaffinity labeling agents are binding at the same site as PLG and PLG peptidomimetic 1. PMID:16392815

  15. Distinction between high-affinity (/sup 3/H)phencyclidine binding sites and muscarinic receptors in guinea-pig ileum muscle

    SciTech Connect

    El-Fakahany, E.E.; Triggle, D.J.; Eldefrawi, A.T.; Eldefrawi, M.E.

    1984-05-01

    (/sup 3/H)Phencyclidine ((/sup 3/H)PCP) binding was studied in guinea-pig ileum muscle membranes. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)PCP was time dependent, reversible and saturable, with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 154 nM and maximum binding of 12.9 pmol/mg of protein at pH 9. Its pH dependency suggests that the un-ionized PCP is the pharmacologically active form. The binding site was on a protein which was sensitive to heat, proteolytic enzymes and the carboxylic group reagent dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, but insensitive to phospholipase A and C, concanavalin A, dithiothreitol and N-ethylmaleimide. Specific (/sup 3/H)PCP binding was displaced effectively by several PCP analogs and Ca/sup + +/ channel antagonists including verapamil, to which these sites had a high affinity. These high-affinity PCP-binding sites were found at a much higher concentration in the same membrane preparation than muscarinic receptor sites identified by their specific binding of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate. PCP bound to both sites, but with a lower affinity to the muscarinic receptor sites. The PCP and muscarinic receptor sites differed in their sensitivities to pH and drug specifities.

  16. Chemical modification of A1 adenosine receptors in rat brain membranes. Evidence for histidine in different domains of the ligand binding site.

    PubMed

    Klotz, K N; Lohse, M J; Schwabe, U

    1988-11-25

    Chemical modification of amino acid residues was used to probe the ligand recognition site of A1 adenosine receptors from rat brain membranes. The effect of treatment with group-specific reagents on agonist and antagonist radioligand binding was investigated. The histidine-specific reagent diethylpyrocarbonate (DEP) induced a loss of binding of the agonist R-N6-[3H] phenylisopropyladenosine ([3H]PIA), which could be prevented in part by agonists, but not by antagonists. DEP treatment induced also a loss of binding of the antagonist [3H]8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine ([3H]DPCPX). Antagonists protected A1 receptors from this inactivation while agonists did not. This result provided evidence for the existence of at least 2 different histidine residues involved in ligand binding. Consistent with a modification of the binding site, DEP did not alter the affinity of [3H]DPCPX, but reduced receptor number. From the selective protection of [3H] PIA and [3H]DPCPX binding from inactivation, it is concluded that agonists and antagonists occupy different domains at the binding site. Sulfhydryl modifying reagents did not influence antagonist binding, but inhibited agonist binding. This effect is explained by modification of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding protein. Pyridoxal 5-phosphate inactivated both [3H]PIA and [3H]DPCPX binding, but the receptors could not be protected from inactivation by ligands. Therefore, no amino group seems to be located at the ligand binding site. In addition, it was shown that no further amino acids with polar side chains are present. The absence of hydrophilic amino acids from the recognition site of the receptor apart from histidine suggests an explanation for the lack of hydrophilic ligands with high affinity for A1 receptors. PMID:3182861

  17. Receptor modelling of airborne particulate matter in the vicinity of a major steelworks site.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, A M; Beddows, D C S; Calzolai, G; Harrison, Roy M; Lucarelli, F; Nava, S; Shi, Z; Valli, G; Vecchi, R

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the Multilinear Engine (ME-2) receptor model was applied to speciated particulate matter concentration data collected with two different measuring instruments upwind and downwind of a steelworks complex in Port Talbot, South Wales, United Kingdom. Hourly and daily PM samples were collected with Streaker and Partisol samplers, respectively, during a one month sampling campaign between April 18 and May 16, 2012. Daily samples (PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5-10) were analysed for trace metals and water-soluble ions using standard procedures. Hourly samples (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) were assayed for 22 elements by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). PM10 data analysis using ME-2 resolved 6 factors from both datasets identifying different steel processing units including emissions from the blast furnaces (BF), the basic oxygen furnace steelmaking plant (BOS), the coke-making plant, and the sinter plant. Steelworks emissions were the main contributors to PM10 accounting for 45% of the mass when including also secondary aerosol. The blast furnaces were the largest emitter of primary PM10 in the study area, explaining about one-fifth of the mass. Other source contributions to PM10 were from marine aerosol (28%), traffic (16%), and background aerosol (11%). ME-2 analysis was also performed on daily PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 data resolving 7 and 6 factors, respectively. The largest contributions to PM2.5-10 were from marine aerosol (30%) and blast furnace emissions (28%). Secondary components explained one-half of PM2.5 mass. The influence of steelworks sources on ambient particulate matter at Port Talbot was distinguishable for several separate processing sections within the steelworks in all PM fractions. PMID:24875261

  18. Evolution of nuclear retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) phosphorylation sites. Serine gain provides fine-tuned regulation.

    PubMed

    Samarut, Eric; Amal, Ismail; Markov, Gabriel V; Stote, Roland; Dejaegere, Annick; Laudet, Vincent; Rochette-Egly, Cécile

    2011-07-01

    The human nuclear retinoic acid (RA) receptor alpha (hRARα) is a ligand-dependent transcriptional regulator, which is controlled by a phosphorylation cascade. The cascade starts with the RA-induced phosphorylation of a serine residue located in the ligand-binding domain, S(LBD), allowing the recruitment of the cdk7/cyclin H/MAT1 subcomplex of TFIIH through the docking of cyclin H. It ends by the subsequent phosphorylation by cdk7 of an other serine located in the N-terminal domain, S(NTD). Here, we show that this cascade relies on an increase in the flexibility of the domain involved in cyclin H binding, subsequently to the phosphorylation of S(LBD). Owing to the functional importance of RARα in several vertebrate species, we investigated whether the phosphorylation cascade was conserved in zebrafish (Danio rerio), which expresses two RARα genes: RARα-A and RARα-B. We found that in zebrafish RARαs, S(LBD) is absent, whereas S(NTD) is conserved and phosphorylated. Therefore, we analyzed the pattern of conservation of the phosphorylation sites and traced back their evolution. We found that S(LBD) is most often absent outside mammalian RARα and appears late during vertebrate evolution. In contrast, S(NTD) is conserved, indicating that the phosphorylation of this functional site has been under ancient high selection constraint. This suggests that, during evolution, different regulatory circuits control RARα activity. PMID:21297158

  19. (3H) 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid, a high affinity ligand for the NMDA receptor glycine regulatory site

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, S.D.; Baron, B.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors is allosterically linked to a strychnine-insensitive glycine regulatory site. Kynurenic acid and its halogenated derivatives are non-competitive NMDA antagonists acting at the glycine site. The authors have prepared (3H) 5,7-dichlorokyrurenic acid (DCKA) as an antagonist radioligand and have characterized its binding. 3-Bromo-5,7-DCKA was catalytically dehalogenated in the presence of tritium gas and HPLC purified to yield (3H) 5,7-DCKA with a specific activity of 17.6 Ci/mmol. (3H) 5,7-DCKA bound to rat brain synaptosomes with a Kd of 69 {plus minus} 23 nM and Bmax = 14.5 {plus minus} 3.2 pmoles/mg protein. Binding was 65-70% specific at 10 nM (3H) 5,7-DCKA. This ligand is thus more selective and has higher affinity than (3H) glycine, in addition to being an antagonist.

  20. Mapping the agonist binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Orientation requirements for activation by covalent agonist.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D A; Cohen, J B

    2000-04-28

    To characterize the structural requirements for ligand orientation compatible with activation of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), we used Cys mutagenesis in conjunction with sulfhydryl-reactive reagents to tether primary or quaternary amines at defined positions within the agonist binding site of nAChRs containing mutant alpha- or gamma-subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes. 4-(N-Maleimido)benzyltrimethylammonium and 2-aminoethylmethanethiosulfonate acted as irreversible antagonists when tethered at alphaY93C, alphaY198C, or gammaE57C, as well as at alphaN94C (2-aminoethylmethanethiosulfonate only). [2-(Trimethylammonium)-ethyl]-methanethiosulfonate (MTSET), which attaches thiocholine to binding site Cys, also acted as an irreversible antagonist when tethered at alphaY93C, alphaN94C, or gammaE57C. However, MTSET modification of alphaY198C resulted in prolonged activation of the nAChR not reversible by washing but inhibitable by subsequent exposure to non-competitive antagonists. Modification of alphaY198C (or any of the other positions tested) by [(trimethylammonium)methyl]methanethiosulfonate resulted only in irreversible inhibition, while modification of alphaY198C by [3-(trimethylammonium)propyl]methanethiosulfonate resulted in irreversible activation of nAChR, but at lower efficacy than by MTSET. Thus changing the length of the tethering arm by less than 1 A in either direction markedly effects the ability of the covalent trimethylammonium to activate the nAChR, and agonist activation depends on a very selective orientation of the quaternary ammonium within the agonist binding site. PMID:10777557

  1. Identification of a fourth mannose 6-phosphate binding site in the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Linda J; Castonguay, Alicia C; Lasanajak, Yi; Peterson, Francis C; Cummings, Richard D; Smith, David F; Dahms, Nancy M

    2015-01-01

    The 300 kDa cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) plays an essential role in lysosome biogenesis by targeting ∼60 different phosphomannosyl-containing acid hydrolases to the lysosome. This type I membrane glycoprotein has a large extracellular region comprised of 15 homologous domains. Two mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) binding sites have been mapped to domains 3 and 9, whereas domain 5 binds preferentially to the phosphodiester, M6P-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). A structure-based sequence alignment predicts that the C-terminal domain 15 contains three out of the four conserved residues identified as essential for carbohydrate recognition by domains 3, 5 and 9 of the CI-MPR, but lacks two cysteine residues that are predicted to form a disulfide bond. To determine whether domain 15 of the CI-MPR has lectin activity and to probe its carbohydrate-binding specificity, truncated forms of the CI-MPR were tested for binding to acid hydrolases with defined N-glycans in surface plasmon resonance analyses, and used to interrogate a phosphorylated glycan microarray. The results show that a construct encoding domains 14–15 binds both M6P and M6P-GlcNAc with similar affinity (Kd = 13 and 17 μM, respectively). Site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrate the essential role of the conserved Tyr residue in domain 15 for phosphomannosyl binding. A structural model of domain 15 was generated that predicted an Arg residue to be in the binding pocket and mutagenesis studies confirmed its important role in carbohydrate binding. Together, these results show that the CI-MPR contains a fourth carbohydrate-recognition site capable of binding both phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters. PMID:25573276

  2. Functional analysis of the BRI1 receptor kinase by Thr-for-Ser substitution in a regulatory autophosphorylation site

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Man-Ho; Bender, Kyle W.; Kim, Sang Y.; Wu, Xia; Lee, Seulki; Nou, Ill-Sup; Zielinski, Raymond E.; Clouse, Steven D.; Huber, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    BRI1 becomes highly phosphorylated in vivo upon perception of the ligand, brassinolide, as a result of autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation by its co-receptor kinase, BAK1. Important autophosphorylation sites include those involved in activation of kinase activity and those that are inhibitory, such as Ser-891. The inhibitory sites are autophosphorylated after kinase activation has been achieved and are postulated to contribute to deactivation of the kinase. The function of phosphosites is usually tested by substituting a non-phosphorylatable residue or an acidic residue that can act as a phosphomimetic. What has typically not been examined is substitution of a Thr for a Ser phosphosite (or vice versa) but given that Thr and Ser are not equivalent amino acids this type of substitution may represent a new approach to engineer regulatory phosphorylation. In the present study with BRI1, we substituted Thr at the Ser-891 phosphosite to generate the S891T directed mutant. The recombinant Flag-BRI1 (S891T) cytoplasmic domain protein (the S891T protein) was catalytically active and phosphorylation occurred at the engineered Thr-891 site. However, the S891T recombinant protein autophosphorylated more slowly than the wild-type protein during expression in E. coli. As a result, activation of peptide kinase activity (measured in vitro) was delayed as was transphosphorylation of bacterial proteins in situ. Stable transgenic expression of BRI1 (S891T)-Flag in Arabidopsis bri1-5 plants did not fully rescue the brassinosteroid (BR) phenotype indicating that BR signaling was constrained. Our working model is that restricted signaling in the S891T plants occurs as a result of the reduced rate of activation of the mutant BRI1 kinase by autophosphorylation. These results provide the platform for future studies to critically test this new model in vivo and establish Ser-Thr substitutions at phosphosites as an interesting approach to consider with other protein kinases. PMID

  3. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND DIURNAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICLE-BOUND METALS IN SOURCE AND RECEPTOR SITES OF THE LOS ANGELES BASIN. (R827352C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of daily size-fractionated ambient PM10 mass, metals, inorganic ions (nitrate and sulfate) and elemental and organic carbon were conducted at source (Downey) and receptor (Riverside) sites within the Los Angeles Basin. In addition to 24-h concentration m...

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of atmospheric particulate matter from an urban and a rural site in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Heeb, Norbert V.; Hueglin, Christoph; Seiler, Cornelia; Haag, Regula; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is an air-suspended mixture of solid and liquid particles that vary in size, shape, and chemical composition. Long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of fine atmospheric particles is considered to pose a health threat to humans and animals. In this context, it has been hypothesized that toxic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) play an important role. Some PAHs are known to be carcinogenic and it has been shown that carcinogenic effects of PAHs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In this study, PM1 was collected at a rural and an urban traffic site during an intense winter smog period, in which concentration of PM1 often exceeded 50 μg m -3. We applied an in vitro reporter gene assay (DR-CALUX) to detect and quantify PM1-associated chemicals that induce AhR-mediated gene expression. This activity was expressed as CALUX equivalents of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (PM-TCDD-CEQs). In addition, concentrations of PAHs in the PM1 extracts were determined using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Concentrations of PM-TCDD-CEQs ranged from 10 to 85 pg m -3 and from 19 to 87 pg m -3 at the urban and rural site, respectively. By the use of known relative potency factors, the measured concentration of a PAH was converted into a PAH-TCDD-CEQ concentration. ΣPAH-TCDD-CEQ and PM-TCDD-CEQ were highly correlated at both sites ( r2 = 0.90 and 0.69). The calculated ΣPAH-TCDD-CEQs explain between 2% and 20% of the measured PM-TCDD-CEQs. Benzo[ k]fluoranthene was the most important PAH causing approximately 60% of the total ΣPAH-TCDD-CEQ activity. In contrast to NO, CO, PM10, and PM1, the concentration of PM-TCDD-CEQs showed no significant difference between the two sites. No indications were found that road traffic emissions caused elevated concentrations of PM-TCDD-CEQs at the urban traffic site.

  5. Mutagenesis and computational docking studies support the existence of a histamine binding site at the extracellular β3+β3- interface of homooligomeric β3 GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoerbelt, Paul; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Ernst, Margot; Sieghart, Werner; Thomson, Jeffrey L; Hough, Lindsay B; Fleck, Mark W

    2016-09-01

    Histamine is an important neurotransmitter that exerts its physiological actions through H1-4 metabotropic receptors in mammals. It also directly activates ionotropic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) β3 homooligomers and potentiates GABA responses in αβ heterooligomers in vitro, but the respective histamine binding sites in GABAARs are unknown. We hypothesized that histamine binds at the extracellular β+β- interface at a position homologous to the GABA binding site of heterooligomeric GABAARs. To test this, we individually mutated several residues at the putative ligand binding minus side of a rat GABAAR β3 wild type subunit and of a β3 subunit that was made insensitive to trace Zn(2+) inhibition [β3(H267A); called (Z)β3]. (Z)β3, (Z)β3(Y62L), (Z)β3(Q64A), (Z)β3(Q64E), α1(Z)β3, or α1(Z)β3(Y62L) receptors were studied in HEK293T cells using whole cell voltage clamp recording. β3, β3(Y62C), β3(Q64C), β3(N41C), β3(D43C), β3(A45C) or β3(M115C) receptors were examined in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp. Histamine directly activated (Z)β3 and β3 homooligomers and potentiated GABA actions in α1(Z)β3 heterooligomers. Receptors containing (Z)β3(Y62L), β3(Y62C) and β3(D43C) showed markedly reduced histamine potency, but homo- and heterooligomers with (Z)β3(Q64E) exhibited increased potency. The GABAAR αβ(γ) competitive antagonist bicuculline elicited sub-maximal agonist currents through (Z)β3 homooligomers, the potency of which was strongly decreased by (Z)β3(Y62L). Mutations β3(N41C), β3(A45C) and β3(M115C) disturbed receptor expression or assembly. Computational docking into the crystal structure of homooligomeric β3 receptors resulted in a histamine pose highly consistent with the experimental findings, suggesting that histamine activates β3 receptors via a site homologous to the GABA site in αβγ receptors. PMID:27140694

  6. Multi-criteria ranking and receptor modelling of airborne fine particles at three sites in the Pearl River Delta region of China.

    PubMed

    Friend, Adrian J; Ayoko, Godwin A; Guo, Hai

    2011-01-15

    The multi-criteria decision making methods, Preference Ranking Organization METHods for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA), and the two-way Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model were applied to airborne fine particle compositional data collected at three sites in Hong Kong during two monitoring campaigns held from November 2000 to October 2001 and November 2004 to October 2005. PROMETHEE/GAIA indicated that the three sites were worse during the later monitoring campaign, and that the order of the air quality at the sites during each campaign was: rural site>urban site>roadside site. The PMF analysis on the other hand, identified 6 common sources at all of the sites (diesel vehicle, fresh sea salt, secondary sulphate, soil, aged sea salt and oil combustion) which accounted for approximately 68.8±8.7% of the fine particle mass at the sites. In addition, road dust, gasoline vehicle, biomass burning, secondary nitrate, and metal processing were identified at some of the sites. Secondary sulphate was found to be the highest contributor to the fine particle mass at the rural and urban sites with vehicle emission as a high contributor to the roadside site. The PMF results are broadly similar to those obtained in a previous analysis by PCA/APCS. However, the PMF analysis resolved more factors at each site than the PCA/APCS. In addition, the study demonstrated that combined results from multi-criteria decision making analysis and receptor modelling can provide more detailed information that can be used to formulate the scientific basis for mitigating air pollution in the region. PMID:21146196

  7. Identification of two C-terminal autophosphorylation sites in the PDGF beta-receptor: involvement in the interaction with phospholipase C-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Rönnstrand, L; Mori, S; Arridsson, A K; Eriksson, A; Wernstedt, C; Hellman, U; Claesson-Welsh, L; Heldin, C H

    1992-01-01

    Two novel sites of autophosphorylation were localized to the C-terminal tail of the PDGF beta-receptor. To evaluate the importance of these phosphorylation sites, receptor mutants in which Tyr1009, Tyr1021 or both were replaced with phenylalanine residues, were expressed in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells. These mutants were similar to the wild type receptor with regard to protein tyrosine kinase activity and ability to induce mitogenicity in response to PDGF-BB. However, both the Y1009F and Y1021F mutants showed a decreased ability to mediate association with and the tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) compared to the wild type PDGF beta-receptor; in the case of the Y1009F/Y1021F double mutant, no association or phosphorylation of PLC-gamma could be detected. These data show that tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma is dependent on autophosphorylation of the PDGF beta-receptor at Tyr1009 and Tyr1021. Images PMID:1396585

  8. PM over summertime India: Sources and trends investigated using long term measurements and multi-receptor site back trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sachan, Himanshu; Kumar, Devender; Sinha, Baerbel

    2013-04-01

    We apply multi-receptor site residence-time weighted concentration back trajectory analysis to a ten year data set (1991-2003) of PM10 and TSP measurement data from four Indian megacities Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. The dataset was sourced from the published and peer reviewed work of Gupta and Kumar (2006). Sources and trends of PM10 and TSP during the pre-monsoon season (March-June) were investigated. Residence-time weighted concentration maps were derived using 72 hour HYSPLIT back trajectory ensemble calculations. Trajectory runs were started 100 m AGL and the observed PM monthly averages were attributed to all trajectory runs in a month and each trajectory of the ensemble runs with equal probability. For investigating trends the dataset was further subdivided into two groups of four year durations each (1992-1995 and 2000-2003). We found a linear correlation with a slope of 1.0 (R2=0.9) between estimated seasonal average TSP (2000-2003) using our approach and the measured seasonal averages (2006-2007) for Kanpur, Ahmedabad, Pune and Bangalore. A linear fit between predicted and measured PM10 concentration for 19 sites with PM10 observations of at least one seasonal average between 1999-2009 shows a slope of 1.4 (R2=0.4). For the observation period 2000-2003, the Thar Desert and Taklimakan Desert emerged as largest sources for both PM10 (>180 μg/m3 and >200 μg/m3 respectively) and TSP (>650 μg/m3 and >725 μg/m3 respectively). In-situ observation at Bikaner (central Thar Desert) and in Jhunjhunu (semi-arid site at the border of the Thar Desert) indicate that both TSP and PM10 inside the desert source region are underpredicted by a factor of 10 compared to in-situ observations while for the semi arid area bordering the desert PM10 and TSP are underpredicted by a factor of 5 and 3 respectively. This indicates that strong sources are underpredicted by a receptor site centred approach. The entire North-Western Indo-Gangetic Basin (NW-IGB), where crop

  9. Salt bridges overlapping the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor agonist binding site reveal a coincidence detector for G protein-coupled receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Janovick, Jo Ann; Pogozheva, Irina D; Mosberg, Henry I; Conn, P Michael

    2011-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play central roles in most physiological functions, and mutations in them cause heritable diseases. Whereas crystal structures provide details about the structure of GPCRs, there is little information that identifies structural features that permit receptors to pass the cellular quality control system or are involved in transition from the ground state to the ligand-activated state. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), because of its small size among GPCRs, is amenable to molecular biological approaches and to computer modeling. These techniques and interspecies comparisons are used to identify structural features that are important for both intracellular trafficking and GnRHR activation yet distinguish between these processes. Our model features two salt (Arg(38)-Asp(98) and Glu(90)-Lys(121)) and two disulfide (Cys(14)-Cys(200) and Cys(114)-Cys(196)) bridges, all of which are required for the human GnRHR to traffic to the plasma membrane. This study reveals that both constitutive and ligand-induced activation are associated with a "coincidence detector" that occurs when an agonist binds. The observed constitutive activation of receptors lacking Glu(90)-Lys(121), but not Arg(38)-Asp(98) ionic bridge, suggests that the role of the former connection is holding the receptor in the inactive conformation. Both the aromatic ring and hydroxyl group of Tyr(284) and the hydrogen bonding of Ser(217) are important for efficient receptor activation. Our modeling results, supported by the observed influence of Lys(191) from extracellular loop 2 (EL2) and a four-residue motif surrounding this loop on ligand binding and receptor activation, suggest that the positioning of EL2 within the seven-α-helical bundle regulates receptor stability, proper trafficking, and function. PMID:21527534

  10. Salt Bridges Overlapping the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Agonist Binding Site Reveal a Coincidence Detector for G Protein-Coupled Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Janovick, Jo Ann; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Mosberg, Henry I.

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play central roles in most physiological functions, and mutations in them cause heritable diseases. Whereas crystal structures provide details about the structure of GPCRs, there is little information that identifies structural features that permit receptors to pass the cellular quality control system or are involved in transition from the ground state to the ligand-activated state. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), because of its small size among GPCRs, is amenable to molecular biological approaches and to computer modeling. These techniques and interspecies comparisons are used to identify structural features that are important for both intracellular trafficking and GnRHR activation yet distinguish between these processes. Our model features two salt (Arg38-Asp98 and Glu90-Lys121) and two disulfide (Cys14-Cys200 and Cys114-Cys196) bridges, all of which are required for the human GnRHR to traffic to the plasma membrane. This study reveals that both constitutive and ligand-induced activation are associated with a “coincidence detector” that occurs when an agonist binds. The observed constitutive activation of receptors lacking Glu90-Lys121, but not Arg38-Asp98 ionic bridge, suggests that the role of the former connection is holding the receptor in the inactive conformation. Both the aromatic ring and hydroxyl group of Tyr284 and the hydrogen bonding of Ser217 are important for efficient receptor activation. Our modeling results, supported by the observed influence of Lys191 from extracellular loop 2 (EL2) and a four-residue motif surrounding this loop on ligand binding and receptor activation, suggest that the positioning of EL2 within the seven-α-helical bundle regulates receptor stability, proper trafficking, and function. PMID:21527534

  11. The use of anti-IgG monoclonal antibodies in mapping the monocyte receptor site on IgG.

    PubMed

    Partridge, L J; Woof, J M; Jefferis, R; Burton, D R

    1986-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against epitopes on the C gamma 1, C gamma 2, C gamma 3 and C gamma 2-C gamma 3 interface regions of human IgG were used to attempt to localize the monocyte Fc receptor (FcR) binding site. The MAbs have been assayed for their capacity to inhibit the interaction between 125I-labelled IgG (125I-IgG) and human monocytes or human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Two MAbs specific for epitopes on the N-terminal region of the C gamma 2 domain, and one MAb recognizing an epitope in the C gamma 2-C gamma 3 inter-domain region inhibited binding of 125I-IgG to monocyte FcRs. The remaining MAbs, against a C-terminal C gamma 3 domain epitope, another C gamma 2/C gamma 3 region epitope and the G1m(f) allotope on the C gamma 1 domain did not inhibit the interaction. The capacity of the MAbs to bind to their respective epitopes on cell surface FcR-bound IgG was also studied, using indirect radiobinding and immunofluorescence assays. All of the MAbs, except those with C gamma 2 domain specificities, were able to detect FcR-bound IgG under these conditions. The results confirm the role of the C gamma 2 domain in the interaction of IgG with monocytes and demonstrate that epitopes in the C gamma 3 and C gamma 2-C gamma 3 regions are not involved in the binding site. PMID:2434846

  12. Dimensional and chemical characterization of particles at a downwind receptor site of a waste-to-energy plant.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Avino, P; Vanoli, R

    2010-07-01

    In the last years numerous epidemiological studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of particulate matter on human health. In industrialized areas, anthropogenic activities highly contribute to the fine and ultrafine particle concentrations. Then, it is important to characterize the evolution of particle size distribution and chemical composition near these emission points. Waste incineration represents a favorable technique for reducing the waste volume. However, in the past, municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) had a bad reputation due to the emission of toxic combustion byproducts. Consequently, the risk perception of the people living near MWIs is very high even if in Western countries waste incineration has nowadays to be considered a relatively clean process from a technical point of view. The study here presented has an exemplary meaning for developing appropriate management and control strategies for air quality in the surrounding of MWIs and to perform exposure assessment for populations involved. Environment particles were continuously measured through a SMPS/APS system over 12 months. The monitoring site represents a downwind receptor of a typical MWI. Furthermore, elements and organic fractions were measured by means of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and using dichotomous and high volume samplers. Annual mean values of 8.6 x 10(3)+/-3.7 x 10(2)part.cm(-3) and 31.1+/-9.0 microg m(-3) were found for number and mass concentration, typical of a rural site. Most of the elements can be attributed to long-range transport from other natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Finally, the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons present low concentrations with a mean value of 24.6 ng m(-3). PMID:20100651

  13. Dimensional and chemical characterization of particles at a downwind receptor site of a waste-to-energy plant

    SciTech Connect

    Buonanno, G.; Stabile, L.; Avino, P.; Vanoli, R.

    2010-07-15

    In the last years numerous epidemiological studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of particulate matter on human health. In industrialized areas, anthropogenic activities highly contribute to the fine and ultrafine particle concentrations. Then, it is important to characterize the evolution of particle size distribution and chemical composition near these emission points. Waste incineration represents a favorable technique for reducing the waste volume. However, in the past, municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) had a bad reputation due to the emission of toxic combustion byproducts. Consequently, the risk perception of the people living near MWIs is very high even if in Western countries waste incineration has nowadays to be considered a relatively clean process from a technical point of view. The study here presented has an exemplary meaning for developing appropriate management and control strategies for air quality in the surrounding of MWIs and to perform exposure assessment for populations involved. Environment particles were continuously measured through a SMPS/APS system over 12 months. The monitoring site represents a downwind receptor of a typical MWI. Furthermore, elements and organic fractions were measured by means of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and using dichotomous and high volume samplers. Annual mean values of 8.6 x 10{sup 3} +- 3.7 x 10{sup 2} part. cm{sup -3} and 31.1 +- 9.0 mug m{sup -3} were found for number and mass concentration, typical of a rural site. Most of the elements can be attributed to long-range transport from other natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Finally, the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons present low concentrations with a mean value of 24.6 ng m{sup -3}.

  14. Identifying the binding site of novel methyllycaconitine (MLA) analogs at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Quek, Gracia X J; Lin, Diana; Halliday, Jill I; Absalom, Nathan; Ambrus, Joseph I; Thompson, Andrew J; Lochner, Martin; Lummis, Sarah C R; McLeod, Malcolm D; Chebib, Mary

    2010-12-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic transmission. Methyllycaconitine (MLA) is a selective and potent antagonist of the α7 nAChR, and its anthranilate ester side-chain is important for its activity. Here we report the influence of structure on nAChR inhibition for a series of novel MLA analogs, incorporating either an alcohol or anthranilate ester side-chain to an azabicyclic or azatricyclic core against rat α7, α4β2, and α3β4 nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The analogs inhibited ACh (EC(50)) within an IC(50) range of 2.3-26.6 μM. Most displayed noncompetitive antagonism, but the anthranilate ester analogs exerted competitive behavior at the α7 nAChR. At α4β2 nAChRs, inhibition by the azabicyclic alcohol was voltage-dependent suggesting channel block. The channel-lining residues of α4 subunits were mutated to cysteine and the effect of azabicyclic alcohol was evaluated by competition with methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium (MTSEA) and a thiol-reactive probe in the open, closed, and desensitized states of α4β2 nAChRs. The azabicyclic alcohol was found to compete with MTSEA between residues 6' and 13' in a state-dependent manner, but the reactive probe only bonded with 13' in the open state. The data suggest that the 13' position is the dominant binding site. Ligand docking of the azabicyclic alcohol into a (α4)(3)(β2)(2) homology model of the closed channel showed that the ligand can be accommodated at this location. Thus our data reveal distinct pharmacological differences between different nAChR subtypes and also identify a specific binding site for a noncompetitive channel blocker. PMID:22778816

  15. Coronaridine congeners inhibit human α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by interacting with luminal and non-luminal sites.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Feuerbach, Dominik; Jozwiak, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the interaction of coronaridine congeners with human (h) α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), structural and functional approaches were used. The Ca(2+) influx results established that coronaridine congeners noncompetitively inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with the following potency (IC50's in μM) sequence: (-)-ibogamine (0.62±0.23)∼(+)-catharanthine (0.68±0.10)>(-)-ibogaine (0.95±0.10)>(±)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(±)-18-MC] (1.47±0.21)>(-)-voacangine (2.28±0.33)>(±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine (2.62±0.57 μM)∼(±)-18-hydroxycoronaridine (2.81±0.54)>(-)-noribogaine (6.82±0.78). A good linear correlation (r(2)=0.771) between the calculated IC50 values and their polar surface area was found, suggesting that this is an important structural feature for its activity. The radioligand competition results indicate that (±)-18-MC and (-)-ibogaine partially inhibit [(3)H]imipramine binding by an allosteric mechanism. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and in silico mutation results suggest that protonated (-)-18-MC binds to luminal [i.e., β4-Phe255 (phenylalanine/valine ring; position 13'), and α3-Leu250 and β4-Leu251 (leucine ring; position 9')], non-luminal, and intersubunit sites. The pharmacophore model suggests that nitrogens from the ibogamine core as well as methylamino, hydroxyl, and methoxyl moieties at position 18 form hydrogen bonds. Collectively our data indicate that coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs by blocking the ion channel's lumen and probably by additional negative allosteric mechanisms by interacting with a series of non-luminal sites. PMID:26022277

  16. Temporal variability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a receptor site of Puebla -Tlaxcala Valley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla Barrera, Zuhelen; Torres Jardón, Ricardo; Gerardo Ruiz, Luis; Castro, Telma

    2015-04-01

    surface area was 81.9 mm2/m3and the maximum of 176.8 mm2/m3. Peak concentrations occurred at dawn and in the early hours of the morning then decreasing in the morning and evening. Particularly notable was the drop in the concentration of both PAHs and DC between 8 and 10 am , this period is when the vehicular activity peaks as the use of fuels for heating homes is intense. Additionally, this period is when the boundary layer is fully established favoring the accumulation of newly issued pollutants and remnants of the night. The breaking of the layer precisely between 8 am and 9am resulting in a rapid decrease in the concentrations of all pollutants favored the vertical mixing them with cleaner air masses previously located above the boundary layer. Once broken the boundary layer , the new layer grows and pollutants are mixed with air masses that are being transported to other sites which establishes the dominant concentrations and in the day. By 7 pm there is an increase in vehicular traffic and even dominates the regional wind ventilation, a slight increase was observed in the concentrations of CO , NOx and DC.

  17. Cholinergic muscarinic receptors in human fetal brain: ontogeny of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites in corpus striatum, brainstem, and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, B V; Sastry, P S

    1985-12-01

    The ontogeny of muscarinic receptors was studied in human fetal striatum, brainstem, and cerebellum to investigate general principles of synaptogenesis as well as the physiological balance between various chemical synapses during development in a given region of the brain. [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB) binding was assayed in total particulate fraction (TPF) from various parts of brain. In the corpus striatum, QNB binding sites are present at 16 weeks of gestation (average concentration 180 fmol/mg protein of TPF), slowly increase up to 24 weeks (average concentration 217 fmol/mg protein), and rapidly increase during the third trimester to 480 fmol/mg protein of TPF. In contrast, dopaminergic receptors exist as two subpopulations, one with low affinity and the other with high affinity up to the 24th week of gestation; all of them acquire the high-affinity characteristic during the third trimester. In brainstem, the muscarinic receptors show maximum concentration by 16 weeks of age (360 fmol/mg protein of TPF). Subsequently the muscarinic receptor concentration shows a gradual decline in the brainstem. In cerebellum, except for a slight increase at 24 weeks (average concentration 90 fmol/mg protein of TPF), the receptor concentration remained nearly constant at about 60-70 fmol/mg protein of TPF throughout fetal life. This study demonstrates that the ontogeny of muscarinic receptors varies among the different regions, and the patterns observed suggest that receptor formation occurs principally in the third trimester. Also noteworthy is the finding that the QNB binding sites decreased in all regions of the human brain during adult life. PMID:4056800

  18. Catalytic mechanism and novel receptor binding sites of human parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hPIV3 HN).

    PubMed

    Streltsov, Victor A; Pilling, Pat; Barrett, Susan; McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    The human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) has opposing functions of binding sialic acid receptors and cleaving them, facilitating virus release. The crystal structure of hPIV3 HN complexed with the substrate analogue difluorosialic acid (DFSA) revealed that catalysis by HN involves the formation of a covalently linked sialosyl-enzyme intermediate which was trapped along with a transition-state analogue resembling an oxocarbenium ion. This mechanism of enzyme catalysis was also confirmed in the crystal structure of the influenza N9 neuraminidase complexed with DFSA. Additionally, novel secondary receptor binding sites were identified in the hPIV3 HN-DFSA complex including one near the catalytic cavity which upon binding DFSA imposes subtle changes and may help the HN balance the opposing functions. Multiple receptor binding sites may increase avidity to facilitate cell binding and fusion promotion. The secondary receptor binding sites in the paramyxoviruses are so far unique to each virus type. PMID:26364554

  19. Antibody Treatment of Ebola and Sudan Virus Infection via a Uniquely Exposed Epitope within the Glycoprotein Receptor-Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Howell, Katie A; Qiu, Xiangguo; Brannan, Jennifer M; Bryan, Christopher; Davidson, Edgar; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Wec, Anna Z; Shulenin, Sergey; Biggins, Julia E; Douglas, Robin; Enterlein, Sven G; Turner, Hannah L; Pallesen, Jesper; Murin, Charles D; He, Shihua; Kroeker, Andrea; Vu, Hong; Herbert, Andrew S; Fusco, Marnie L; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Lai, Jonathan R; Keck, Zhen-Yong; Foung, Steven K H; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Zeitlin, Larry; Ward, Andrew B; Chandran, Kartik; Doranz, Benjamin J; Kobinger, Gary P; Dye, John M; Aman, M Javad

    2016-05-17

    Previous efforts to identify cross-neutralizing antibodies to the receptor-binding site (RBS) of ebolavirus glycoproteins have been unsuccessful, largely because the RBS is occluded on the viral surface. We report a monoclonal antibody (FVM04) that targets a uniquely exposed epitope within the RBS; cross-neutralizes Ebola (EBOV), Sudan (SUDV), and, to a lesser extent, Bundibugyo viruses; and shows protection against EBOV and SUDV in mice and guinea pigs. The antibody cocktail ZMapp™ is remarkably effective against EBOV (Zaire) but does not cross-neutralize other ebolaviruses. By replacing one of the ZMapp™ components with FVM04, we retained the anti-EBOV efficacy while extending the breadth of protection to SUDV, thereby generating a cross-protective antibody cocktail. In addition, we report several mutations at the base of the ebolavirus glycoprotein that enhance the binding of FVM04 and other cross-reactive antibodies. These findings have important implications for pan-ebolavirus vaccine development and defining broadly protective antibody cocktails. PMID:27160900

  20. A BRET-based homogeneous insulin assay using interacting domains in the primary binding site of the insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Shigeto, Hajime; Ikeda, Takeshi; Kuroda, Akio; Funabashi, Hisakage

    2015-03-01

    A new homogeneous insulin assay requiring no chemical modification of an insulin recognition domain, which can be applied to continuous monitoring of the time-dependent cellular response in vitro, was developed. The carboxy-terminal α-chain (αCT) segment and first leucine-rich-repeat (L1) domain in the primary binding site on the insulin receptor were genetically fused with a bioluminescent protein (Nanoluc, Nluc) and a fluorescent protein (yellow fluorescent protein, YPet) to produce the insulin-sensing probe proteins Nluc-αCT and L1-YPet. The BRET signal was observed on simple mixing of insulin with these protein probes, in a so-called homogeneous assay. The BRET signal was proportional to the insulin concentration, and the lower detection limit was 0.8 μM. Time-dependent insulin secretion from drug-stimulated MIN6 cells was also successfully monitored continuously with the probe proteins. This BRET-based homogeneous insulin assay method is thus expected to be applicable to drug development by high-throughput screening. PMID:25655236

  1. Site-specific influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on atherosclerosis in immune incompetent LDL receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Catherine A; Blachowicz, Lydia; Gupta, Gaorav; Lukens, John; Nissenbaum, Michael; Getz, Godfrey S

    2006-08-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are thought to influence plasma lipid levels, atherosclerosis, and the immune system. In this study, we fed male LDL receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice and immune incompetent LDLR(-/-) RAG2(-/-) mice diets containing predominantly saturated fats (milk fat) or PUFA (safflower oil) to determine if the response to diet was influenced by immune status. Relative to milk fat diet, plasma lipid and VLDL levels in both the LDLR(-/-) and LDLR(-/-) RAG2(-/-) mice fed safflower oil diet were lower, suggesting that the primary effect of PUFA on plasma lipids was not due to its inhibition of the immune system. Neither diet nor immune status influenced hepatic triglyceride production and post-heparin lipase activity, suggesting that the differences in triglyceride levels are due to differences in rates of catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. While both diets promoted atherogenesis, both aortic root and innominate artery atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice was less in safflower oil fed animals. In contrast, a site-specific effect of PUFA was observed in the immune incompetent LDLR(-/-) RAG2(-/-). In these mice, aortic root atherosclerosis, but not innominate artery atherosclerosis, was less in PUFA fed animal. These results suggest that PUFA and the immune system may influence innominate artery atherosclerosis by some overlapping mechanisms. PMID:16280127

  2. Combined stimulation of the glycine and polyamine sites of the NMDA receptor attenuates NMDA blockade-induced learning deficits of rats in a 14-unit T-maze.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R C; Knox, J; Purwin, D A; Spangler, E L; Ingram, D K

    1998-02-01

    The present study examined the effects of multi-site activation of the glycine and polyamine sites of the NMDA receptor on memory formation in rats learning a 14-unit T-maze task. The competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 9 mg/kg), was used to impair learning. The objectives were two-fold: (1) to investigate the effects of independent stimulation of the strychnine-insensitive glycine site or the polyamine site; (2) to investigate the effects of simultaneous activation of these two sites. Male, Fischer-344 rats were pretrained to a criterion of 13 out of 15 shock avoidances in a straight runway, and 24 h later were trained in a 14-unit T-maze that also required shock avoidance. Prior to maze training, rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of saline, saline plus CPP, CPP plus the glycine agonist, D-cycloserine (DCS, 30 or 40 mg/kg), CPP plus the polyamine agonist, spermine (SPM, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg), or CPP plus a combination of DCS (7.5 mg/kg) and SPM (0.625 mg/kg). Individual administration of either DCS or SPM attenuated the CPP-induced maze learning impairment in a dose-dependent manner. However, the combined treatment with both DCS and SPM completely reversed the learning deficit at doses five-fold less than either drug given alone. These findings provide additional evidence that the glycine and polyamine modulatory sites of the NMDA receptor are involved in memory formation. Furthermore, the potent synergistic effect resulting from combined activation of the glycine and polyamine sites would suggest a stronger interaction between these two sites than previously considered, and might provide new therapeutic approaches for enhancing glutamatergic function. PMID:9498733

  3. A novel site contributing to growth-arrest-specific gene 6 binding to its receptors as revealed by a human monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Gas6 (growth-arrest-specific gene 6) is a vitamin K-dependent protein known to activate the Axl family of receptor tyrosine kinases. It is an important regulator of thrombosis and many other biological functions. The C-terminus of Gas6 binds to receptors and consists of two laminin-like globular domains LG1 and LG2. It has been reported that a Ca2+-binding site at the junction of LG1 and LG2 domains and a hydrophobic patch at the LG2 domain are important for receptor binding [Sasaki, Knyazev, Cheburkin, Gohring, Tisi, Ullrich, Timpl and Hohenester (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 44164–44170]. In the present study, we developed a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, named CNTO300, for Gas6. The antibody was generated by immunization of human IgG-expressing transgenic mice with recombinant human Gas6 protein and the anti-Gas6 IgG sequences were rescued from an unstable hybridoma clone. Binding of Gas6 to its receptors was partially inhibited by the CNTO300 antibody in a dose-dependent manner. To characterize further the interaction between Gas6 and this antibody, the binding kinetics of CNTO300 for recombinant Gas6 were compared with independently expressed LG1 and LG2. The CNTO300 antibody showed comparable binding affinity, yet different dependence on Ca2+, to Gas6 and LG1. No binding to LG2 was detected. In the presence of EDTA, binding of the antibody to Gas6 was disrupted, but no significant effect of EDTA on LG1 binding was evident. Further epitope mapping identified a Gas6 peptide sequence recognized by the CNTO300 antibody. This peptide sequence was found to be located at the LG1 domain distant from the Ca2+-binding site and the hydrophobic patch. Co-interaction of Gas6 with its receptor and CNTO300 antibody was detected by BIAcore analysis, suggesting a second receptor-binding site on the LG1 domain. This hypothesis was further supported by direct binding of Gas6 receptors to an independently expressed LG1 domain. Our results revealed, for the first time, a

  4. Sensitivity of different ecotypes and mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana toward the bacterial elicitor flagellin correlates with the presence of receptor-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Z; Gómez-Gómez, L; Boller, T; Felix, G

    2001-12-01

    Flagellin, the main building block of the bacterial flagellum, acts as potent elicitor of defense responses in different plant species. Genetic analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana identified two distinct loci, termed FLS1 and FLS2, that are essential for perception of flagellin-derived elicitors. FLS2 was found to encode a leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptor-like kinase with similarities to Toll-like receptors involved in the innate immune system of mammals and insects. Here we used a radiolabeled derivative of flg22, a synthetic peptide representing the elicitor-active domain of flagellin, to probe the interaction of flagellin with its receptor in A. thaliana. The high affinity binding site detected in intact cells and membrane preparations exhibited specificity for flagellin-derived peptides with biological activity as agonists or antagonists of the elicitor responses. Specific binding activity was measurable in all ecotypes of A. thaliana that show sensitivity to flagellin but was barely detectable in the flagellin-insensitive ecotype Ws-0 affected in FLS1. A strongly impaired binding of flagellin was observed also in several independent flagellin-insensitive mutants isolated from the flagellin-sensitive ecotype La-er. In particular, no binding was found in plants carrying a mutation in the LRR domain of FLS2. These data indicate that the formation of functional receptor-binding sites depends on genes encoded by both loci, FLS1 and FLS2. The tight correlation between the presence of the binding site and elicitor response provides strong evidence that this binding site acts as the physiological receptor of flagellin. PMID:11564731

  5. Studies on the characterization and regulation of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors and (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding sites in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of these studies has been to resolve the anomalous binding characteristics of two alpha adrenergic receptor ligands, (/sup 3/H)WB4101 and (/sup 3/H)prazosin and to study the regulation of the receptors labeled by these compounds after surgical denervation and chronic drug treatments. Preliminary studies indicated that (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding sites, which were believed to represent alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, were increased in number following removal of the fimbrial afferents to the hippocampus. This increase was not due to removal of the adrenergic input into this structure since destruction of the locus coeruleus or the dorsal noradrenergic bundle did not produce the up-regulation. Characterization of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors using (/sup 3/H)prazosin and (/sup 3/H)WB4101 revealed evidence for subtypes of alpha-1 receptors designated alpha-1A and alpha-1B. The nanomolar affinity component of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding is not adrenergic but serotonergic. The serotonergic agonists, serotonin and 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetraline have affinities of 1.5 and 3.0 nM for this site, when studied in the presence of a 30 nM prazosin mask of the alpha-1 component of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding. Fimbria transection or 5,7 dihydroxytryptamine injections produced increases in the Bmax of the nanomolar affinity component of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding in the presence of a prazosin mask. The up-regulated site showed identical serotonergic pharmacology compared to control tissue. Thus, the author concluded that serotonergic denervation of the hippocampus produces the increase in serotonergic binding sites labeled by (/sup 3/H)WB4101.

  6. Alterations in dopamine uptake sites and D1 and D2 receptors in cats symptomatic for and recovered from experimental parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Frohna, P A; Rothblat, D S; Joyce, J N; Schneider, J S

    1995-01-01

    The administration of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to adult cats severely disrupts the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum. Animals display a parkinson-like syndrome, consisting of akinesia, bradykinesia, postural instability, and rigidity, which spontaneously recovers by 4-6 weeks after the last administration of MPTP. In this study we used quantitative receptor autoradiography to examine changes in DA uptake sites and DA receptors in the basal ganglia of normal, and symptomatic and recovered MPTP-treated cats. Consistent with the destruction of the nigrostriatal DA pathway, there was a severe loss of DA uptake sites, labeled with [3H]-mazindol, in the caudate nucleus (64-82%), nucleus accumbens (44%), putamen (63%), and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc, 53%) of symptomatic cats. Following behavioral recovery, there were no significant changes in DA uptake site density. Significant increases of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding to D1 DA receptors were observed in the dorsal caudate (> 24%; P < 0.05) of symptomatic cats and in all regions of the caudate-putamen (> 30%; P < 0.05) of recovered animals. [3H]-SCH 23390 binding in the substantia nigra pars reticulata was half of that in the striatum and showed no changes in symptomatic or recovered animals. No alterations in the binding of [125I]-epidepride to D2 receptors was observed in any region of the striatum in either symptomatic or recovered animals. [125I]-Epidepride binding in the SNc was decreased by > 36% (P < 0.05) following MPTP treatment. These data show that cats made parkinsonian by MPTP exposure have a significant decrease in the number of DA reuptake sites throughout the striatum and that recovery of sensorimotor function in these animals is not correlated with an increase in the number of striatal reuptake sites. Behavioral recovery, however, does seem to be correlated with a general elevation of D1 receptors throughout the striatal complex. The present data also

  7. Mapping the binding site pocket of the serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A receptor. Ser3.36(159) provides a second interaction site for the protonated amine of serotonin but not of lysergic acid diethylamide or bufotenin.

    PubMed

    Almaula, N; Ebersole, B J; Zhang, D; Weinstein, H; Sealfon, S C

    1996-06-21

    Like other amine neurotransmitters that activate G-protein-coupled receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) binds to the 5-HT2A receptor through the interaction of its cationic primary amino group with the conserved Asp3.32(155) in transmembrane helix 3. Computational experiments with a 5-HT2A receptor model suggest that the same functional group of 5-hydroxytryptamine also forms a hydrogen bond with the side chain of Ser3.36(159), which is adjacent in space to Asp3.32(155). However, other 5-HT2A receptor ligands like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), in which the amine nitrogen is embedded in a heterocycle, or N,N-dimethyl 5-HT, in which the side chain is a tertiary amine, are found in the computational simulations to interact with the aspartate but not with the serine, due mainly to steric hindrance. The predicted difference in the interaction of various ligands in the same receptor binding pocket was tested with site-directed mutagenesis of Ser3.36(159) --> Ala and Ser3.36(159) --> Cys. The alanine substitution led to an 18-fold reduction in 5-HT affinity and the cysteine substitution to an intermediate 5-fold decrease. LSD affinity, in contrast, was unaffected by either mutation. N,N-Dimethyl 5-HT affinity was unaffected by the cysteine mutation and had a comparatively small 3-fold decrease in affinity for the alanine mutant. These findings identify a mode of ligand-receptor complexation that involves two receptor side chains interacting with the same functional group of specific serotonergic ligands. This interaction serves to orient the ligands in the binding pocket and may influence the degree of receptor activation. PMID:8663249

  8. Site-Specific N-Glycosylation of the S-Locus Receptor Kinase and Its Role in the Self-Incompatibility Response of the Brassicaceae[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Tantikanjana, Titima; Nishio, Takeshi; Nasrallah, Mikhail E.; Nasrallah, June B.

    2014-01-01

    The S-locus receptor kinase SRK is a highly polymorphic transmembrane kinase of the stigma epidermis. Through allele-specific interaction with its pollen coat-localized ligand, the S-locus cysteine-rich protein SCR, SRK is responsible for recognition and inhibition of self pollen in the self-incompatibility response of the Brassicaceae. The SRK extracellular ligand binding domain contains several potential N-glycosylation sites that exhibit varying degrees of conservation among SRK variants. However, the glycosylation status and functional importance of these sites are currently unclear. We investigated this issue in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana stigmas that express the Arabidopsis lyrata SRKb variant and exhibit an incompatible response toward SCRb-expressing pollen. Analysis of single- and multiple-glycosylation site mutations of SRKb demonstrated that, although five of six potential N-glycosylation sites in SRKb are glycosylated in stigmas, N-glycosylation is not important for SCRb-dependent activation of SRKb. Rather, N-glycosylation functions primarily to ensure the proper and efficient subcellular trafficking of SRK to the plasma membrane. The study provides insight into the function of a receptor that regulates a critical phase of the plant life cycle and represents a valuable addition to the limited information available on the contribution of N-glycosylation to the subcellular trafficking and function of plant receptor kinases. PMID:25480368

  9. Similarities between the Binding Sites of SB-206553 at Serotonin Type 2 and Alpha7 Acetylcholine Nicotinic Receptors: Rationale for Its Polypharmacological Profile

    PubMed Central

    Möller-Acuña, Patricia; Contreras-Riquelme, J. Sebastián; Rojas-Fuentes, Cecilia; Nuñez-Vivanco, Gabriel; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Arias, Hugo R.; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from systems biology indicates that promiscuous drugs, i.e. those that act simultaneously at various protein targets, are clinically better in terms of efficacy, than those that act in a more selective fashion. This has generated a new trend in drug development called polypharmacology. However, the rational design of promiscuous compounds is a difficult task, particularly when the drugs are aimed to act at receptors with diverse structure, function and endogenous ligand. In the present work, using docking and molecular dynamics methodologies, we established the most probable binding sites of SB-206553, a drug originally described as a competitive antagonist of serotonin type 2B/2C metabotropic receptors (5-HT2B/2CRs) and more recently as a positive allosteric modulator of the ionotropic α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). To this end, we employed the crystal structures of the 5-HT2BR and acetylcholine binding protein as templates to build homology models of the 5-HT2CR and α7 nAChR, respectively. Then, using a statistical algorithm, the similarity between these binding sites was determined. Our analysis showed that the most plausible binding sites for SB-206553 at 5-HT2Rs and α7 nAChR are remarkably similar, both in size and chemical nature of the amino acid residues lining these pockets, thus providing a rationale to explain its affinity towards both receptor types. Finally, using a computational tool for multiple binding site alignment, we determined a consensus binding site, which should be useful for the rational design of novel compounds acting simultaneously at these two types of highly different protein targets. PMID:26244344

  10. Similarities between the Binding Sites of SB-206553 at Serotonin Type 2 and Alpha7 Acetylcholine Nicotinic Receptors: Rationale for Its Polypharmacological Profile.

    PubMed

    Möller-Acuña, Patricia; Contreras-Riquelme, J Sebastián; Rojas-Fuentes, Cecilia; Nuñez-Vivanco, Gabriel; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Arias, Hugo R; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from systems biology indicates that promiscuous drugs, i.e. those that act simultaneously at various protein targets, are clinically better in terms of efficacy, than those that act in a more selective fashion. This has generated a new trend in drug development called polypharmacology. However, the rational design of promiscuous compounds is a difficult task, particularly when the drugs are aimed to act at receptors with diverse structure, function and endogenous ligand. In the present work, using docking and molecular dynamics methodologies, we established the most probable binding sites of SB-206553, a drug originally described as a competitive antagonist of serotonin type 2B/2C metabotropic receptors (5-HT2B/2CRs) and more recently as a positive allosteric modulator of the ionotropic α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). To this end, we employed the crystal structures of the 5-HT2BR and acetylcholine binding protein as templates to build homology models of the 5-HT2CR and α7 nAChR, respectively. Then, using a statistical algorithm, the similarity between these binding sites was determined. Our analysis showed that the most plausible binding sites for SB-206553 at 5-HT2Rs and α7 nAChR are remarkably similar, both in size and chemical nature of the amino acid residues lining these pockets, thus providing a rationale to explain its affinity towards both receptor types. Finally, using a computational tool for multiple binding site alignment, we determined a consensus binding site, which should be useful for the rational design of novel compounds acting simultaneously at these two types of highly different protein targets. PMID:26244344

  11. Interaction of pyracetam with specific /sup 3/H-imipramine binding sites and GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex of brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhanets, V.V.; Chakhbra, K.K.; Danchev, N.D.; Malin, K.M.; Rusakov, D.Yu.; Val'dman, A.V.

    1986-06-01

    This paper studies the effect of pyracetam on parameters of specific binding of tritium-imipramine and GABA-activated binding of tritium-flunitrazepam with rat brain membranes. The experimental method is described and it is shown that pyracetam and mebicar in experiments in vivo on normal animals can exert their anxiolytic action without the participation of bensodiazepine receptors. Either the interaction of pyracetam and mebicar with benzodiazeprine receptors has a different interpretation than competition of these compounds with specific binding sites of tritium-flunitrazepam, or in experiments on normal animals in vivo GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex does not accept pyracetam and mebicar, for it contains endogenous inhibitors of GABA-modulating action.

  12. Reversibly bound chloride in the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor hormone-binding domain: Possible allosteric regulation and a conserved structural motif for the chloride-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Haruo; Qiu, Yue; Philo, John S; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Ogata, Craig M; Misono, Kunio S

    2010-01-01

    The binding of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to its receptor requires chloride, and it is chloride concentration dependent. The extracellular domain (ECD) of the ANP receptor (ANPR) contains a chloride near the ANP-binding site, suggesting a possible regulatory role. The bound chloride, however, is completely buried in the polypeptide fold, and its functional role has remained unclear. Here, we have confirmed that chloride is necessary for ANP binding to the recombinant ECD or the full-length ANPR expressed in CHO cells. ECD without chloride (ECD(−)) did not bind ANP. Its binding activity was fully restored by bromide or chloride addition. A new X-ray structure of the bromide-bound ECD is essentially identical to that of the chloride-bound ECD. Furthermore, bromide atoms are localized at the same positions as chloride atoms both in the apo and in the ANP-bound structures, indicating exchangeable and reversible halide binding. Far-UV CD and thermal unfolding data show that ECD(−) largely retains the native structure. Sedimentation equilibrium in the absence of chloride shows that ECD(−) forms a strongly associated dimer, possibly preventing the structural rearrangement of the two monomers that is necessary for ANP binding. The primary and tertiary structures of the chloride-binding site in ANPR are highly conserved among receptor-guanylate cyclases and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The chloride-dependent ANP binding, reversible chloride binding, and the highly conserved chloride-binding site motif suggest a regulatory role for the receptor bound chloride. Chloride-dependent regulation of ANPR may operate in the kidney, modulating ANP-induced natriuresis. PMID:20066666

  13. Reversibly Bound Chloride in the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Hormone Binding Domain: Possible Allosteric Regulation and a Conserved Structural Motif for the Chloride-binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, H.; Qiu, Y; Philo, J; Arakawa, T; Ogata, C; Misono, K

    2010-01-01

    The binding of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to its receptor requires chloride, and it is chloride concentration dependent. The extracellular domain (ECD) of the ANP receptor (ANPR) contains a chloride near the ANP-binding site, suggesting a possible regulatory role. The bound chloride, however, is completely buried in the polypeptide fold, and its functional role has remained unclear. Here, we have confirmed that chloride is necessary for ANP binding to the recombinant ECD or the full-length ANPR expressed in CHO cells. ECD without chloride (ECD(-)) did not bind ANP. Its binding activity was fully restored by bromide or chloride addition. A new X-ray structure of the bromide-bound ECD is essentially identical to that of the chloride-bound ECD. Furthermore, bromide atoms are localized at the same positions as chloride atoms both in the apo and in the ANP-bound structures, indicating exchangeable and reversible halide binding. Far-UV CD and thermal unfolding data show that ECD(-) largely retains the native structure. Sedimentation equilibrium in the absence of chloride shows that ECD(-) forms a strongly associated dimer, possibly preventing the structural rearrangement of the two monomers that is necessary for ANP binding. The primary and tertiary structures of the chloride-binding site in ANPR are highly conserved among receptor-guanylate cyclases and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The chloride-dependent ANP binding, reversible chloride binding, and the highly conserved chloride-binding site motif suggest a regulatory role for the receptor bound chloride. Chloride-dependent regulation of ANPR may operate in the kidney, modulating ANP-induced natriuresis.

  14. Cloning and epitope mapping of Cry11Aa-binding sites in the Cry11Aa-receptor alkaline phosphatase from Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Luisa E; Martinez-Anaya, Claudia; Lira, Erandi; Chen, Jianwu; Evans, Amy; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2009-09-22

    Cry11Aa is the most active Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis toxin against Aedes aegypti larvae. Ae. aegypti alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was previously identified as a Cry11Aa receptor mediating toxicity. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of this Ae. aegypti Cry11Aa-ALP receptor. Of three ALP's cDNA clones, the recombinant produced ALP1 isoform was shown to bind Cry11Aa and P1.BBMV peptide phage that specifically binds the midgut ALP-Cry11Aa receptor. An anti-ALP1 antibody inhibited binding to brush border membrane vesicles and toxicity of Cry11Aa in isolated cultured guts. Two ALP1 Cry11Aa binding regions (R59-G102 and N257-I296) were mapped by characterizing binding of Cry11Aa to nine recombinant overlapping peptides covering the ALP1 sequence. Finally, by using a peptide spot array of Cry11Aa domain III and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the ALP1 R59-G102 region binds Cry11Aa through domain II loop alpha-8 while ALP1 N257-I296 interacts with Cry11Aa through domain III 561RVQSQNSGNN570 located in beta18-beta19. Our results show that Cry11Aa domain II and domain III are involved in the binding with two distinct binding sites in the ALP1 receptor. PMID:19697959

  15. Cloning and Epitope Mapping of Cry11Aa-Binding Sites in the Cry11Aa-Receptor Alkaline Phosphatase from Aedes aegypti†

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Luisa E.; Martinez-Anaya, Claudia; Lira, Erandi; Chen, Jianwu; Evans, Amy; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberón, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Cry11Aa is the most active Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis toxin against Aedes aegypti larvae. Ae. aegypti alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was previously identified as a Cry11Aa receptor mediating toxicity. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of this Ae. aegypti Cry11Aa-ALP receptor. Of three ALP’s cDNA clones, the recombinant produced ALP1 isoform was shown to bind Cry11Aa and P1.BBMV peptide phage that specifically binds the midgut ALP-Cry11Aa receptor. An anti-ALP1 antibody inhibited binding to brush border membrane vesicles and toxicity of Cry11Aa in isolated cultured guts. Two ALP1 Cry11Aa binding regions (R59–G102 and N257–I296) were mapped by characterizing binding of Cry11Aa to nine recombinant overlapping peptides covering the ALP1 sequence. Finally, by using a peptide spot array of Cry11Aa domain III and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the ALP1 R59–G102 region binds Cry11Aa through domain II loop α-8 while ALP1 N257–I296 interacts with Cry11Aa through domain III 561RVQSQNSGNN570 located in β18-β19. Our results show that Cry11Aa domain II and domain III are involved in the binding with two distinct binding sites in the ALP1 receptor. PMID:19697959

  16. Structure of the Fab fragment of the anti-murine EGFR antibody 7A7 and exploration of its receptor binding site.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Ariel; Mackenzie, Jenny; Garrido, Greta; Friemann, Rosmarie; López-Requena, Alejandro; Moreno, Ernesto; Krengel, Ute

    2011-07-01

    The EGF receptor is an important target of cancer immunotherapies. The 7A7 monoclonal antibody has been raised against the murine EGFR, but it cross-reacts with the human receptor. The results from experiments using immune-competent mice can therefore, in principle, be extrapolated to the corresponding scenario in humans. In this work we report the crystal structure of the 7A7 Fab at an effective resolution of 1.4Å. The antibody binding site comprises a deep pocket, located at the interface between the light and heavy chains, with major contributions from CDR loops H1, H2, H3 and L1. Binding experiments show that 7A7 recognizes a site on the EGFR extracellular domain that is not accessible in its most stable conformations, but that becomes exposed upon treatment with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. This suggests a recognition mechanism similar to that proposed for mAb 806. PMID:21592580

  17. Discovery of anxiolytic 2-ferrocenyl-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones exerting GABAA receptor interaction via the benzodiazepine-binding site.

    PubMed

    Pejović, Anka; Denić, Marija S; Stevanović, Dragana; Damljanović, Ivan; Vukićević, Mirjana; Kostova, Kalina; Tavlinova-Kirilova, Maya; Randjelović, Pavle; Stojanović, Nikola M; Bogdanović, Goran A; Blagojević, Polina; D'hooghe, Matthias; Radulović, Niko S; Vukićević, Rastko D

    2014-08-18

    Herein, we report on the synthesis, spectral, crystallographic and electrochemical properties of a small library of N-substituted 2-ferrocenyl-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones, designed as novel GABAA benzodiazepine-binding site ligands. The anxiolytic properties of the title compounds were evaluated in several different in vivo models, whereas the involvement of the GABAA receptor complex in the activity of the most potent compound, 2-ferrocenyl-3-(4-methoxyphenylethyl)-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one, was inferred from experiments with known GABAA-targeting agents. Ligand docking experiments revealed that the high, dose-dependent, anxiolytic activity of the new compounds might be due to their favorable interactions with the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABAA receptor complex. The incorporation of the ferrocene core and fine tuning of the distance between the thiazolidinone core and an additional aromatic ring were judged to be crucial structural requirements for the observed anxiolytic effect. PMID:24950490

  18. The identification of source regions of black carbon at a receptor site off the eastern coast of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qingfeng; Hu, Min; Guo, Song; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Weiwei; Peng, Jianfei; Hu, Wei; Wu, Yusheng; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The black carbon (BC) mass concentration and the particle chemical compositions were continually measured at Changdao Island, which is a regional receptor site off the eastern coast of China. This island is in the transport passage of the continental outflow to the Pacific Ocean when the East Asia monsoon prevails in the winter and spring. The campaign period was for March and April 2011, which corresponded to heating and non-heating periods in northern China. The effect of BC emission source regions on BC measured at Changdao Island between the heating and non-heating periods was determined by integrating the total potential source contribution function (TPSCF) model with the new monthly emission inventory in 2010 and the fire counts retrieved from MODIS during the campaign. BC concentrations were determined to be highest for similar times of day for both the heating and non-heating periods: 4.27 μg m-3 at 8:00 AM and 3.06 μg m-3 at 9:00 AM, respectively. The probable source regions for BC were primarily located in Shandong and Jiangsu provinces (and in other neighboring provinces) for both periods. However, the source regions for the non-heating period extended more to the north and southwest than those of the heating period. TPSCF values were correlated with the emission rates from residential, industry, transportation, and power plants sources in the anthropogenic emission inventory. This correlation provides an indirect and qualitative process to verify the emission inventory. In the heating period, the predominant source was the residential source in the emission inventory, and this source had a significant effect on the BC concentration. The differing peak concentrations between the two periods may be observed because of the increased residential heating during the heating period, which suggested that the measures employed by the government and environmental managers to reduce the emissions of pollutants should be stricter in the identified source regions

  19. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mutation conferring target-site resistance to imidacloprid in Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zewen; Williamson, Martin S; Lansdell, Stuart J; Denholm, Ian; Han, Zhaojun; Millar, Neil S

    2005-06-14

    Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists with potent insecticidal activity. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, imidacloprid has become one of the most extensively used insecticides for both crop protection and animal health applications. As with other classes of insecticides, resistance to neonicotinoids is a significant threat and has been identified in several pest species, including the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, a major rice pest in many parts of Asia. In this study, radioligand binding experiments have been conducted with whole-body membranes prepared from imidacloprid-susceptible and imidacloprid-resistant strains of N. lugens. The results reveal a much higher level of [3H]imidacloprid-specific binding to the susceptible strain than to the resistant strain (16.7 +/- 1.0 and 0.34 +/- 0.21 fmol/mg of protein, respectively). With the aim of understanding the molecular basis of imidacloprid resistance, five nAChR subunits (Nlalpha1-Nlalpha4 and Nlbeta1) have been cloned from N. lugens.A comparison of nAChR subunit genes from imidacloprid-sensitive and imidacloprid-resistant populations has identified a single point mutation at a conserved position (Y151S) in two nAChR subunits, Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha3. A strong correlation between the frequency of the Y151S point mutation and the level of resistance to imidacloprid has been demonstrated by allele-specific PCR. By expression of hybrid nAChRs containing N. lugens alpha and rat beta2 subunits, evidence was obtained that demonstrates that mutation Y151S is responsible for a substantial reduction in specific [3H]imidacloprid binding. This study provides direct evidence for the occurrence of target-site resistance to a neonicotinoid insecticide. PMID:15937112

  20. EVALUATING THE NMDA-GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR AS A SITE OF ACTION FOR TOLUENE USING PATTERN ELICITED VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that toluene disrupts the function of NMDA-glutamate receptors, as well as other channels. This has led to the hypothesis that effects on NMDA receptor function may contribute to toluene neurotoxicity, CNS depression, and altered visual evoked ...

  1. Insect Ryanodine Receptor: Distinct But Coupled Insecticide Binding Sites for [N-C3H3]Chlorantraniliprole, Flubendiamide, and [3H]Ryanodine

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, André K.; Qi, Suzhen; Sarpong, Richmond; Casida, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Radiolabeled anthranilic diamide insecticide [N-C3H3]chlorantraniliprole was synthesized at high specific activity and compared with phthalic diamide insecticide flubendiamide and [3H]ryanodine in radioligand binding studies with house fly muscle membranes to provide the first direct evidence with a native insect ryanodine receptor that the major anthranilic and phthalic diamide insecticides bind at different allosterically coupled sites, i.e. there are three distinct Ca2+-release channel targets for insecticide action. PMID:22856329

  2. SH-I-048A, AN IN VITRO NONSELECTIVE SUPER-AGONIST AT THE BENZODIAZEPINE SITE OF GABAA RECEPTORS: THE APPROXIMATED ACTIVATION OF RECEPTOR SUBTYPES MAY EXPLAIN BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS

    PubMed Central

    Obradović, Aleksandar Lj.; Joksimović, Srđan; Poe, Michael M.; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Varagic, Zdravko; Namjoshi, Ojas; Batinić, Bojan; Radulović, Tamara; Marković, Bojan; Roth, Brian; Sieghart, Werner; Cook, James M.; Savić, Miroslav M.

    2014-01-01

    Enormous progress in understanding the role of four populations of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptors was paralleled by the puzzling findings suggesting that substantial separation of behavioral effects may be accomplished by apparently non-selective modulators. We report on SH-I-048A, a newly-synthesized chiral positive modulator of GABAA receptors characterized by exceptional subnanomolar affinity, high efficacy and non-selectivity. Its influence on behavior was assessed in Wistar rats and contrasted to that obtained with 2 mg/kg diazepam. SH-I-048A reached micromolar concentrations in brain tissue, while the unbound fraction in brain homogenate was around 1.5%. The approximated electrophysiological responses, which estimated free concentrations of SH-I-048A or diazepam are able to elicit, suggested a similarity between the 10 mg/kg dose of the novel ligand and 2 mg/kg diazepam; however, SH-I-048A was relatively more active at α1- and α5-containing GABAA receptors. Behaviorally, SH-I-048A induced sedative, muscle relaxant and ataxic effects, reversed mechanical hyperalgesia 24 hours after injury, while it was devoid of clear anxiolytic actions and did not affect water-maze performance. While lack of clear anxiolytic actions may be connected with an enhanced potentiation at α1-containing GABAA receptors, the observed behavior in the rotarod, water maze and peripheral nerve injury tests was possibly affected by its prominent action at receptors containing the α5 subunit. The current results encourage further innovative approaches aimed at linking in vitro and in vivo data in order to help define fine-tuning mechanisms at four sensitive receptor populations that underlie subtle differences in behavioral profiles of benzodiazepine site ligands. PMID:24472579

  3. Sh-I-048A, an in vitro non-selective super-agonist at the benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors: the approximated activation of receptor subtypes may explain behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Aleksandar Lj; Joksimović, Srđan; Poe, Michael M; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Varagic, Zdravko; Namjoshi, Ojas; Batinić, Bojan; Radulović, Tamara; Marković, Bojan; Roth, Brian L; Sieghart, Werner; Cook, James M; Savić, Miroslav M

    2014-03-20

    Enormous progress in understanding the role of four populations of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptors was paralleled by the puzzling findings suggesting that substantial separation of behavioral effects may be accomplished by apparently non-selective modulators. We report on SH-I-048A, a newly synthesized chiral positive modulator of GABAA receptors characterized by exceptional subnanomolar affinity, high efficacy and non-selectivity. Its influence on behavior was assessed in Wistar rats and contrasted to that obtained with 2mg/kg diazepam. SH-I-048A reached micromolar concentrations in brain tissue, while the unbound fraction in brain homogenate was around 1.5%. The approximated electrophysiological responses, which estimated free concentrations of SH-I-048A or diazepam are able to elicit, suggested a similarity between the 10mg/kg dose of the novel ligand and 2mg/kg diazepam; however, SH-I-048A was relatively more active at α1- and α5-containing GABAA receptors. Behaviorally, SH-I-048A induced sedative, muscle relaxant and ataxic effects, reversed mechanical hyperalgesia 24h after injury, while it was devoid of clear anxiolytic actions and did not affect water-maze performance. While lack of clear anxiolytic actions may be connected with an enhanced potentiation at α1-containing GABAA receptors, the observed behavior in the rotarod, water maze and peripheral nerve injury tests was possibly affected by its prominent action at receptors containing the α5 subunit. The current results encourage further innovative approaches aimed at linking in vitro and in vivo data in order to help define fine-tuning mechanisms at four sensitive receptor populations that underlie subtle differences in behavioral profiles of benzodiazepine site ligands. PMID:24472579

  4. Activating and deactivating mutations in the receptor interaction site of GDF5 cause symphalangism or brachydactyly type A2.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Petra; Schwappacher, Raphaela; Kjaer, Klaus W; Krakow, Deborah; Lehmann, Katarina; Dawson, Katherine; Stricker, Sigmar; Pohl, Jens; Plöger, Frank; Staub, Eike; Nickel, Joachim; Sebald, Walter; Knaus, Petra; Mundlos, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    Here we describe 2 mutations in growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) that alter receptor-binding affinities. They cause brachydactyly type A2 (L441P) and symphalangism (R438L), conditions previously associated with mutations in the GDF5 receptor bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1b (BMPR1B) and the BMP antagonist NOGGIN, respectively. We expressed the mutant proteins in limb bud micromass culture and treated ATDC5 and C2C12 cells with recombinant GDF5. Our results indicated that the L441P mutant is almost inactive. The R438L mutant, in contrast, showed increased biological activity when compared with WT GDF5. Biosensor interaction analyses revealed loss of binding to BMPR1A and BMPR1B ectodomains for the L441P mutant, whereas the R438L mutant showed normal binding to BMPR1B but increased binding to BMPR1A, the receptor normally activated by BMP2. The binding to NOGGIN was normal for both mutants. Thus, the brachydactyly type A2 phenotype (L441P) is caused by inhibition of the ligand-receptor interaction, whereas the symphalangism phenotype (R438L) is caused by a loss of receptor-binding specificity, resulting in a gain of function by the acquisition of BMP2-like properties. The presented experiments have identified some of the main determinants of GDF5 receptor-binding specificity in vivo and open new prospects for generating antagonists and superagonists of GDF5. PMID:16127465

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of Binding Sites and Direct Target Genes of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR2F1/COUP-TFI

    PubMed Central

    Montemayor, Celina; Montemayor, Oscar A.; Ridgeway, Alex; Lin, Feng; Wheeler, David A.; Pletcher, Scott D.; Pereira, Fred A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Identification of bona fide direct nuclear receptor gene targets has been challenging but essential for understanding regulation of organismal physiological processes. Results We describe a methodology to identify transcription factor binding sites and target genes in vivo by intersecting microarray data, computational binding site queries, and evolutionary conservation. We provide detailed experimental validation of each step and, as a proof of principle, utilize the methodology to identify novel direct targets of the orphan nuclear receptor NR2F1 (COUP-TFI). The first step involved validation of microarray gene expression profiles obtained from wild-type and COUP-TFI−/− inner ear tissues. Secondly, we developed a bioinformatic tool to search for COUP-TFI DNA binding sites in genomes, using a classification-type Hidden Markov Model trained with 49 published COUP-TF response elements. We next obtained a ranked list of candidate in vivo direct COUP-TFI targets by integrating the microarray and bioinformatics analyses according to the degree of binding site evolutionary conservation and microarray statistical significance. Lastly, as proof-of-concept, 5 specific genes were validated for direct regulation. For example, the fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7) gene is a direct COUP-TFI target in vivo because: i) we identified 2 conserved COUP-TFI binding sites in the Fabp7 promoter; ii) Fapb7 transcript and protein levels are significantly reduced in COUP-TFI−/− tissues and in MEFs; iii) chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that COUP-TFI is recruited to the Fabp7 promoter in vitro and in vivo and iv) it is associated with active chromatin having increased H3K9 acetylation and enrichment for CBP and SRC-1 binding in the newborn brain. Conclusion We have developed and validated a methodology to identify in vivo direct nuclear receptor target genes. This bioinformatics tool can be modified to scan for response elements of transcription factors

  6. Binding sites for. alpha. -bungarotoxin and the noncompetitive inhibitor phencyclidine on a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the. alpha. -subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly-Roberts, D.L.; Lentz, T.L. )

    1991-07-30

    The binding of the competitive antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-Btx) and the noncompetitive inhibitor phencyclidine (PCP) to a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the {alpha}-subunit of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor has been characterized. {sup 125}I-{alpha}-Btx bound to the 172-227 peptide in a solid-phase assay and was competed by {alpha}-Btx d-tubocurarine and NaCl. In the presence of 0.02% sodium dodecyl sulfate, {sup 125}I-{alpha}-Btx bound to the 56-residue peptide with a K{sub D} of 3.5 nM, as determined by equilibrium saturation binding studies. Because {alpha}Btx binds to a peptide comprising residues 173-204 with the same affinity and does not bind to a peptide comprising residues 205-227, the competitive antagonist and hence agonist binding site lies between residues 173 and 204. After photoaffinity labeling, ({sup 3}H)PCP was bound to the 172-227 peptide. ({sup 3}H)PCP binding was inhibited by chlorpromazine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. It is concluded that a high-affinity binding site for PCP is located between residues 205 and 227, which includes the first 18 residues of transmembrane segment M1, and that a low-affinity site is located in the competitive antagonist binding site between residues 173 and 204. These results show that a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the {alpha} subunit contains three binding sites, one for {alpha}-Btx and two for PCP. Previous studies on the intact receptor indicate high-affinity PCP binding occurs in the receptor channel.

  7. Evaluating Ecological Risk to Invertebrate Receptors from PAHs in Sediments at Hazardous Waste Sites (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In March 2004, ORD's Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) received a request from the Ecological Risk Assessment Forum (ERAF) relating to the evaluation of ecological risk to vertebrate and benthic invertebrate receptors from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds...

  8. Transcriptional regulation of the PXR gene: identification and characterization of a functional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha binding site within the proximal promoter of PXR.

    PubMed

    Aouabdi, Sihem; Gibson, Gordon; Plant, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is widely regarded as a central factor in the body's response to changes in the fluxome, the overall metabolite profile in the body. PXR expression is regulated by a number of chemicals at the transcriptional level; the majority of these chemicals are ligands for PXR and substrates for PXR target genes. However, transcriptional activators of PXR, such as clofibrate, do not seem to be PXR ligands or substrates for its target genes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying both these expected and, more importantly, unexpected transcriptional activations is central to fully understanding the roles of PXR in the human body. We have carried out an in silico analysis of the human PXR proximal promoter, identifying putative protein/DNA interaction sites within the 2 kilobases (kb) 5' to the putative transcription start site. These sites included several for liver-enriched transcription factors, such as the hepatic nuclear factors and CAAT-enhancer binding protein alpha, and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor, commensurate with the high expression of PXR in liver. Furthermore, we identified putative binding sites for a number of ligand-activated transcription factors, suggesting that these factors may regulate PXR gene expression. Further analysis of this regulatory region has shown that transcriptional activation of PXR by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is via a binding site located approximately 1.3 kb upstream of the putative transcription start site, with ablation of this site preventing PPARalpha-mediated activation of PXR gene expression. We present a model of how regulation of PXR gene expression by ligand-activated transcription factors may play a central role in the body's response to xenobiotic exposure. PMID:16243957

  9. Autoradiographic localization of sigma receptor binding sites in guinea pig and rat central nervous system with (+)3H-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach, A.L.; Largent, B.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1986-06-01

    (+)3H-3-PPP ((+)3H-3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)-piperidine) binds with high affinity to brain membranes with a pharmacological profile consistent with that of sigma receptors. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites in brain and spinal cord of both guinea pig and rat has been determined by in vitro autoradiography with binding densities quantitated by computer-assisted densitometry. (+)3H-3-PPP binding to slide-mounted brain sections is saturable and displays high affinity and a pharmacological specificity very similar to sites labeled in homogenates. (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites are heterogeneously distributed. Highest concentrations of binding sites occur in spinal cord, particularly the ventral horn and dorsal root ganglia; the pons-medulla, associated with the cranial nerve and pontine nuclei and throughout the brain stem reticular formation; the cerebellum, over the Purkinje cell layer; the midbrain, particularly the central gray and red nucleus; and hippocampus, over the pyramidal cell layer. Lowest levels are seen in the basal ganglia and parts of the thalamus, while all other areas, including hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, exhibit moderate grain densities. Quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the hippocampus indicate that (+)3H-3-PPP labels hippocampal pyramidal cells and granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Intrastriatal injection of ibotenic acid dramatically reduces (+)3H-3-PPP binding in this area, while injection of 6-hydroxydopamine produces a relatively slight decrease. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites does not correlate with the receptor distribution of any recognized neurotransmitter or neuropeptide, including dopamine. However, there is a notable similarity between the distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP sites and high-affinity binding sites for psychotomimetic opioids, such as the benzomorphan (+)SKF 10,047.

  10. Expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in primary and paired parenchymal recurrent and/or metastatic sites of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Ryosuke; Nimura, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Miyake, Toru; Takeno, Shinsuke; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2014-09-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status has been evaluated at the primary site of gastric cancer when planning trastuzumab therapy against recurrent or metastatic lesions, since tissue sampling is uncommon in recurrent or metastatic lesions. This study retrospectively investigated the concordance of HER2 expression between primary and metastatic/recurrent lesions in order to confirm sensitivity to trastuzumab. The subjects comprised 37 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent tissue biopsy or surgical resection of the primary sites and 49 paired synchronous or metachronous metastatic sites (excluding lymph nodes) at the Fukuoka University Hospital between January, 1998 and September, 2012. All the samples were evaluated for HER2 status at the invasive front by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The HER2 positivity rate of the primary sites was ~16% and the concordance ratio of the IHC results between primary and paired metastatic sites was ~97%. No discordant cases regarding HER2 status were found among metachronous interventions for metastatic lesions. Only one patient exhibited conversion from a HER2-negative status in all the portions of the primary site to a positive status in a metastatic site. In conclusion, a high concordance ratio for HER2 status was observed between primary and paired metastatic lesions. Thus, employing trastuzumab therapy against metastatic or recurrent gastric cancer based on the HER2 status of the primary lesion appears to be an acceptable approach. PMID:25054041

  11. Structure-function relationships of the major neurotoxin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus with a new sodium channel receptor site

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    We have determined that ShN I, a 48-residue type 2 sea anemone toxin, delays the inactivation of the Na channel in lobster olfactory somas. The receptor for ShN I was identified in vesicle preparations of neuronal tissues from both crustaceans and mammals; however, the K{sub D} values for the former is more than 1,000 fold lower for the later. The binding of ({sup 125}I)-ShN I to this receptor was determined to be unaffected by Anemonia sulcata II, depolarization of the membrane, or veratridine. ShN I was unable to displace ({sup 125}I)-Androctonus austrialis Hector II, whereas unlabeled AaH II and As II displaced the labeled scorpion toxin from rat brain synaptosomes. This is the first characterization of a new Na channel receptor site which specifically binds type 2 anemone toxins. To study the interactions that specific amino acid residues of ShN I have with this receptor, we developed a strategy using solid phase peptide synthesis. Prior to the synthesis of analogs to ShN I, we assembled the native ShN I sequence and reoxidized the three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Chemical, physical, and pharmacological characterization of the purified synthetic ShN I showed it to be indistinguishable from the natural toxin.

  12. Sulfated Tyrosines Contribute to the Formation of the C5a Docking Site of the Human C5a Anaphylatoxin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Michael; Schnitzler, Christine E.; Vasilieva, Natalya; Leung, Doris; Kuhn, Jens; Gerard, Craig; Gerard, Norma P.; Choe, Hyeryun

    2001-01-01

    The complement anaphylatoxin C5a and its seven-transmembrane segment (7TMS) receptor play an important role in host defense and in a number of inflammation-associated pathologies. The NH2-terminal domain of the C5a receptor (C5aR/CD88) contributes substantially to its ability to bind C5a. Here we show that the tyrosines at positions 11 and 14 of the C5aR are posttranslationally modified by the addition of sulfate groups. The sulfate moieties of each of these tyrosines are critical to the ability of the C5aR to bind C5a and to mobilize calcium. A C5aR variant lacking these sulfate moieties efficiently mobilized calcium in response to a small peptide agonist, but not to C5a, consistent with a two-site model of ligand association in which the tyrosine-sulfated region of the C5aR mediates the initial docking interaction. A peptide based on the NH2 terminus of the C5aR and sulfated at these two tyrosines, but not its unsulfated analogue or a doubly sulfated control peptide, partially inhibited C5a association with its receptor. These observations clarify structural and mutagenic studies of the C5a/C5aR association and suggest that related 7TMS receptors are also modified by functionally important sulfate groups on their NH2-terminal tyrosines. PMID:11342590

  13. Amino acids of the Torpedo marmorata acetylcholine receptor. cap alpha. subunit labeled by a photoaffinity ligand for the acetylcholine binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, M.; Giraudat, J.; Kotzyba-Hibert, F.; Goeldner, M.; Hirth, C.; Chang, J.Y.; Lazure, C.; Chretien, M.; Changeux, J.P.

    1988-04-05

    The acetylcholine-binding sites on the native, membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata were covalently labeled with the photoaffinity reagent (/sup 3/H)-p-(dimethylamino)-benzenediazonium fluoroborate (DDF) in the presence of phencyclidine by employing an energy-transfer photolysis procedure. The ..cap alpha..-chains isolated from receptor-rich membranes photolabeled in the absence or presence of carbamoylcholine were cleaved with CNBr and the radiolabeled fragments purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Amino acid and/or sequence analysis demonstrated that the ..cap alpha..-chain residues Trp-149, Tyr-190, Cys-192, and Cys-193 and an unidentified residue(s) in the segment ..cap alpha.. 31-105 were all labeled by the photoaffinity reagent in an agonist-protectable manner. The labeled amino acids are located within three distinct regions of the large amino-terminal hydrophilic domain of the ..cap alpha..-subunit primary structure and plausibly lie in proximity to one another at the level of the acetylcholine-binding sites in the native receptor. These findings are in accord with models proposed for the transmembrane topology of the ..cap alpha..-chain that assign the amino-terminal segment ..cap alpha.. 1-210 to the synaptic cleft. Furthermore, the results suggest that the four identified (/sup 3/H)DDF-labeled resides, which are conserved in muscle and neuronal ..cap alpha..-chains but not in the other subunits, may be directly involved in agonist binding.

  14. Development and utilization of a fluorescence-based receptor-binding assay for the site 5 voltage-sensitive sodium channel ligands brevetoxin and ciguatoxin.

    PubMed

    McCall, Jennifer R; Jacocks, Henry M; Niven, Susan C; Poli, Mark A; Baden, Daniel G; Bourdelais, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    Brevetoxins are a family of ladder-frame polyether toxins produced during blooms of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Consumption of fish exposed to K. brevis blooms can lead to the development of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. The toxic effects of brevetoxins are due to activation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) in cell membranes. Binding of toxins has historically been measured using a radioligand competition assay that is fraught with difficulty. In this study, we developed a novel fluorescence-based binding assay for the brevetoxin receptor. Several fluorophores were conjugated to polyether brevetoxin-2 and used as the labeled ligand. Brevetoxin analogs were able to compete for binding with the fluorescent ligands. This assay was qualified against the standard radioligand receptor assay for the brevetoxin receptor. Furthermore, the fluorescence-based assay was used to determine relative concentrations of toxins in raw extracts of K. brevis culture, and to determine ciguatoxin affinity to site 5 of VSSCs. The fluorescence-based assay was quicker, safer, and far less expensive. As such, this assay can be used to replace the current radioligand assay and will be a vital tool for future experiments examining the binding affinity of various ligands for site 5 on sodium channels. PMID:24830141

  15. Constraining the factor analytical solutions obtained from multiple-year receptor modeling of ambient PM2.5 data from five speciation sites in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M.; Su, Yushan; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Rastogi, Ankit K.; Brook, Jeff; Hopke, Philip K.

    2015-05-01

    Rotational ambiguity in factor analyses leads to solutions that are not always consistent with reality. The inherent non-negativity constraints in positive matrix factorization (PMF) help to prevent factor solutions from becoming overly unrealistic, but they are not sufficient to prevent unwanted rotations that could manifest in factors that should have similar compositions varying across multiple sites. The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network operates five fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation sites in Ontario. Data from these sites from 2005 to 2010 were subjected to PMF to obtain factors representing sources of particulate matter. Eight factors were found to be common across these sites. These factors had profiles that varied greatly from one site to the other, suggesting that the PMF solutions were impacted by some rotational ambiguity. New features in the EPA PMF V5 program allow the use of a priori information to impose mathematical constraints that guide the evolution of the factor solutions. These constraints reduce the rotational space. In situations where major emissions sources are known and located in the neighborhood of receptors, or emissions inventories and literature source profiles exist, it is easy to use these profiles to force the factor solutions to conform to the expected signatures. In our case, reported source profiles were neither available nor applicable due to the large spatial span of potential sources and receptor sites. This work describes how such constraints can be generated and used in these complex situations. The fundamental principle explored in this work is the concept of 'stiffness' of PMF solutions to identify the desirable non-rotating factors.

  16. Structure-function studies of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by site-directed mutagenesis in the pore region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyun

    In nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), as in glycine, GABA A, serotonin 5-HT3, and GluCl glutamate receptors, a leucine residue at the approximate midpoint (the 9' position) of the M2 transmembrane domain is conserved across all known subunits. We expressed the embryonic mouse muscle nAChRs with varying numbers (m* s) of subunits (2 αs, 1 β, 1 γ, and 1 δ) mutated at this position in Xenopus oocytes and discovered that mutations to serine (Leu9'Ser) result in a tenfold higher receptor sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh) for each subunit mutated. Moreover, increases of side-chain polarity increase the sensitivity to ACh when other natural and unnatural residues are incorporated into this position. The data also indicated an especially strong interaction between the γ and δ subunits in the pore region, suggesting a specific arrangement of subunits within the pentamer. Detailed single-channel kinetic studies reveal that Leu9'Ser AChRs have (1) longer voltage- relaxation time constants, (2) longer ACh-induced openings and bursts, and (3) more frequent spontaneous openings. These effects increase with m* s. Synthesized postsynaptic currents were produced with a piezoelectric micromanipulator that delivered brief ACh pulses to multi-channel patches. Their decay time constants were, as expected, similar to the channel burst duration. Thus, both longer and more frequent openings contribute to the >=104-fold increase in the receptor sensitivity to ACh from the wild-type receptor to the receptor with m*s=4; and the highly conserved 9' leucine is crucial for the brief synaptic events that are normally observed. We also explored the effects of ligand-binding domain mutations: γD174N and δD180N (aspartic acid (D) to asparagine (N)). Macroscopic dose-response relations revealed that these mutations decrease the receptor's sensitivity to ACh. The combined effect with Leu9'Ser, however, differs from that predicted from a linear or independent sum of effects from

  17. Two Bacillus sphaericus binary toxins share the midgut receptor binding site: implications for resistance of Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo; Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes de; Regis, Lêda; Yuan, Zhiming; Rico, Clara Martinez; Nielsen-LeRoux, Christina

    2004-12-15

    This work demonstrates that Bin1 and Bin2 toxins, produced by Bacillus sphaericus strains IAB59 and 2362, respectively, share a binding site in midgut brush border membranes (BBMF) from Culex pipiens complex larvae. However, a colony selected with strain IAB59, displaying a resistance ratio of only 42-fold to IAB59, but a 162,000-fold resistance to strain 2362, was found to miss receptors for Bin2 in the BBMF. This correlates with results showing that Bin1, produced in strain IAB59, failed to bind specifically to BBMF from other colony highly resistant to strain 2362. Data indicate the loss of the BBMF bound receptor as a general mechanism of resistance to binary toxins in mosquito. PMID:15598531

  18. Radioiodinated rat parathyroid hormone-(1-34) binds to its receptor on rat osteosarcoma cells in a manner consistent with two classes of binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, P.K.; Nickols, G.A.; Nickols, M.A.; McPherson, M.B.; Cooper, C.W. )

    1990-04-01

    Binding of 125I-labeled rat (r) PTH-(1-34) to ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic bone cells and to membranes from these cells was examined. Competitive binding inhibition experiments were performed using unlabeled rPTH-(1-34) with particular emphasis on concentrations of peptide below 1 nM. In intact cells, binding of labeled rPTH-(1-34) was highly specific, and inhibition of binding by unlabeled ligand suggested the presence of two classes of binding sites, one with high affinity and low capacity (KD = 40 pM, approximately 20% of total binding sites) and the other with lower affinity and high capacity (KD = 2 nM, approximately 80% of the sites). Membranes prepared from ROS cells also exhibited a pattern of binding from competitive inhibition curves consistent with two distinct binding sites (KD = 30 pM and 6 nM). In intact ROS cells, cellular cAMP levels increased over the range of 10(-11)-10(-9) M rPTH-(1-34) with an ED50 intermediate between the two KD values (0.25 nM). These data suggest that osteoblastic bone cells possess two distinct classes of membrane receptors for PTH. Since the KD of the higher affinity site more closely approximates circulating concentrations of PTH, binding to this site may have physiologic relevance.

  19. Structure-Based Mutagenesis of the Substrate-Recognition Domain of Nrdp1/FLRF Identifies the Binding Site for the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase ErbB3

    SciTech Connect

    Bouyain,S.; Leahy, D.

    2007-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase neuregulin receptor degrading protein 1 (Nrdp1) mediates the ligand-independent degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor family member ErbB3/HER3. By regulating cellular levels of ErbB3, Nrdp1 influences ErbB3-mediated signaling, which is essential for normal vertebrate development. Nrdp1 belongs to the tripartite or RBCC (RING, B-box, coiled-coil) family of ubiquitin ligases in which the RING domain is responsible for ubiquitin ligation and a variable C-terminal region mediates substrate recognition. We report here the 1.95 A crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of Nrdp1 and show that this domain is sufficient to mediate ErbB3 binding. Furthermore, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to map regions of the Nrdp1 surface that are important for interacting with ErbB3 and mediating its degradation in transfected cells. The ErbB3-binding site localizes to a region of Nrdp1 that is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, in contrast to ErbB3, which is only found in vertebrates. This observation suggests that Nrdp1 uses a common binding site to recognize its targets in different species.

  20. Atmospheric concentrations and gas-particle partitions of pesticides: Comparisons between measured and gas-particle partitioning models from source and receptor sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiki, Mustapha; Poissant, Laurier

    Atmospheric concentrations and gas-particles partition were measured for 83 pesticides including organochlorines (OCs), acid herbicides (AHs), neutral herbicides (NHs) and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Samples have been collected in June 2005 at two sites, located in Québec, named St. Anicet (agricultural area) and Bay St. François wetland (receptor site). The highest vapor concentration was measured for metolachlor which was 23,600 pg m -3 and 12,200 pg m -3 at St. Anicet and Bay St. François (BSF), respectively. In the particulate phase, MCPA exhibited the highest level (323 pg m -3) at St. Anicet. Gas-particle partitions (GPPs) were also investigated and it was expressed as a function of the fraction of chemical in the particulate phase ( ϕ). The highest average of ϕ was observed for the AHs which were MCPB (75%) and MCPA (50%) at BSF and St. Anicet, respectively. Likewise, the GPPs were estimated by several models, namely Junge-Pankow model, KOA model, and polyparameter linear free energy relationships (ppLFERs). The estimated GPPs were compared to the observed ones and data showed a better correlation at BSF (receptor site) than that at St. Anicet. This suggests a kinetic effect on the GPPs of chemicals.

  1. Binding-site mutations in the alpha1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor convert the inhibitory metal ion Cu2+ into a positive modulator.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Tanja; Grudzinska, Joanna; Kuzmin, Dmitry; Betz, Heinrich; Laube, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    The divalent cation copper (Cu2+) has been shown to inhibit chloride currents mediated by the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR). Here, we analyzed Cu2+ inhibition of homo- and hetero-oligomeric GlyRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. No significant differences in Cu2+ inhibitory potency were found between alpha1, alpha2 and alpha3 GlyRs as well as heteromeric alpha1beta receptors. Furthermore, GlyR alpha1 mutations known to reduce inhibition or potentiation of GlyR currents by Zn2+ had no effect on Cu2+ inhibition. However, Cu2+ was found to competitively antagonize glycine binding, suggesting that Cu2+ binds at the agonist-binding site. Mutations within the glycine-binding site of the GlyR alpha1 subunit reduced the inhibitory potency of Cu2+ and led to an up to 4-fold potentiation of glycine-elicited currents by Cu2+. Molecular dynamics simulation suggests this to be due to increased Cu2+ binding energies. Our data show that GlyR binding-site mutations can convert inhibitors of agonist binding into highly effective positive modulators. PMID:18793654

  2. Temporal variability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a receptor site of the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Z. V.; Torres, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    This contribution documents the presence and possible origin of PAHs, their temporal concentration patterns and correlations with other air pollutants in the so-called Puebla-Tlaxcala valley. This valley is located to the east of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and is a very populated region which suffers of air pollution problems. Emission sources of PAHs include open burning, industrial boilers, automobiles and trucks, but vehicle emissions vary significantly depending on the use of: fuel, engine type and catalytic converter. An important emission source in the Puebla-Tlaxcala region is wood burning for cooking. Therefore, it is expected to have contributions of PAHS from this type of sources. PAHs measurements were performed in an air pollution semi-rural receptor site (Chipilo) southwest the City of Puebla, using an aerosol photoelectric sensor (PAS 2000 CE) to measure the concentration of PAHs and a diffuser charger (DC 2000 CE) to evaluate the active surface (DC) of the particles. The measuring period included March and April of 2012 during the ozne season in central Mexico. The use of these two sensors in parallel has been identified as a fingerprint technique to identify different types of particles from several combustion processes and is a useful tool to identify quantitatively the major source of emissions, as well as to describe thephysical and chemical characteristics of the particles. Correlations between PAHs and DC, with NOx and CO, together with an analysis of atmospheric transport may approximate the possible origin of these particles. The coefficient PAHs / DC associated with backward trajectory analysis represents a tool to identify potential areas of emission. The correlation between PAHs and NOx emissions reflects association with diesel combustion, while the correlation between PAHs and CO, the combustion of gasoline. The results show that vehicle emissions are the major source of PAHs with an associated increase in the concentration of

  3. Crystal Structure of an Affinity-matured Prolactin Complexed to Its Dimerized Receptor Reveals the Topology of Hormone Binding Site 2*

    PubMed Central

    Broutin, Isabelle; Jomain, Jean-Baptiste; Tallet, Estelle; van Agthoven, Jan; Raynal, Bertrand; Hoos, Sylviane; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Kelly, Paul A.; Ducruix, Arnaud; England, Patrick; Goffin, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    We report the first crystal structure of a 1:2 hormone·receptor complex that involves prolactin (PRL) as the ligand, at 3.8-Å resolution. Stable ternary complexes were obtained by generating affinity-matured PRL variants harboring an N-terminal tail from ovine placental lactogen, a closely related PRL receptor (PRLR) ligand. This structure allows one to draw up an exhaustive inventory of the residues involved at the PRL·PRLR site 2 interface, consistent with all previously reported site-directed mutagenesis data. We propose, with this description, an interaction model involving three structural components of PRL site 2 (“three-pin plug”): the conserved glycine 129 of helix α3, the hydrogen bond network involving surrounding residues (glycine cavity), and the N terminus. The model provides a molecular basis for the properties of the different PRL analogs designed to date, including PRLR antagonists. Finally, comparison of our 1:2 PRL·PRLR2 structure with those of free PRL and its 1:1 complex indicates that the structure of PRL undergoes significant changes when binding the first, but not the second receptor. This suggests that the second PRLR moiety adapts to the 1:1 complex rather than the opposite. In conclusion, this structure will be a useful guiding tool for further investigations of the molecular mechanisms involved in PRLR dimerization and activation, as well as for the optimization of PRLR antagonists, an emerging class of compounds with high therapeutic potential against breast and prostate cancer. PMID:20053995

  4. Detection of high affinity receptor sites for IL 1. beta. on a human B lymphoblastoid line which fail to recognize IL 1. cap alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J.; Cameron, P.; Sigal, N.H.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    A large number of EBV-transformed human B lines were screened for their ability to bind human pI 6.8 IL 1 (IL 1..beta..) which was labeled to high specific radioactivity with Bolton-Hunter reagent. One of these, designated 2C2, bound (/sup 125/)I-IL 1 in a saturable dose-dependent fashion. Scatchard analysis of direct binding data obtained at equilibrium suggested a single family of receptor sites, at approx. 10,000 sites per cell, with a K/sub d/ = 1.5 +/- 0.2 (+SD) nM. Competition experiments with cold pI 6.8 IL 1 gave a K/sub i/ = 1.0 +/- 0.3 nM. No competition was seen with a 20-fold molar excess of human IL 2, human gamma-INF, or the pI 5.2 and pI 5.4 species of human IL 1. These anionic species of IL 1 have recently been purified to homogeneity by us from monocyte culture supernatants. Amino acid sequence analysis of the pI 5.4 species demonstrates that it is encoded by the recently reported IL 1..cap alpha.. cDNA. Cross linking of pI 6.8 (/sup 125/)I-IL 1 to intact 2C2 cells with increasing amounts of cross linker revealed a single band with a MW congruent to 80,000. Cross-linking was totally abolished by excess unlabeled pI 6.8 IL 1 but not by excess pI 5.4 IL 1. These results show that the receptor for IL 1..beta.. on 2C2 cells is highly specific for one species of human IL 1 and raises the possibility that IL 1..cap alpha.. and IL 1..beta.., though very similar in their biological properties, have separate receptor sites.

  5. A NMDA receptor glycine site partial agonist, GLYX-13, that simultaneously enhances LTP and reduces LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-lei; Sullivan, John A.; Moskal, Joseph R.; Stanton, Patric K.

    2008-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDAR) are a key route for Ca2+ influx into neurons important to both activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and, when uncontrolled, triggering events that cause neuronal degeneration and death. Among regulatory binding sites on the NMDAR complex is a glycine binding site, distinct from the glutamate binding site, which must be co-activated for NMDAR channel opening. We developed a novel glycine site partial agonist, GLYX-13, which is both nootropic and neuroprotective in vivo. Here, we assessed the effects of GLYX-13 on long-term synaptic plasticity and NMDAR transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices in vitro. GLYX-13 simultaneously enhanced the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission, while reducing long-term depression (LTD). GLYX-13 reduced NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons evoked by low-frequency Schaffer collateral stimulation, but enhanced NMDAR currents during high-frequency bursts of activity, and these actions were occluded by a saturating concentration of the glycine site agonist D-serine. Direct two-photon imaging of Schaffer collateral burst-evoked increases in [Ca2+] in individual dendritic spines revealed that GLYX-13 selectively enhanced burst-induced NMDAR-dependent spine Ca2+ influx. Examining the rate of MK-801 block of synaptic versus extrasynaptic NMDAR-gated channels revealed that GLYX-13 selectively enhanced activation of burst-driven extrasynaptic NMDARs, with an action that was blocked by the NR2B-selective NMDAR antagonist ifenprodil. Our data suggest that GLYX-13 may have unique therapeutic potential as a learning and memory enhancer because of its ability to simultaneously enhance LTP and suppress LTD. PMID:18796308

  6. RECEPTOR MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source apportionment (receptor) models are mathematical procedures for identifying and quantifying the sources of ambient air pollutants and their effects at a site (the receptor), primarily on the basis of species concentration measurements at the receptor, and generally without...

  7. Comparison of the autoradiographic binding distribution of [3H]-gabapentin with excitatory amino acid receptor and amino acid uptake site distributions in rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Thurlow, R. J.; Hill, D. R.; Woodruff, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    1. Gabapentin is a novel anticonvulsant with an unknown mechanism of action. Recent homogenate binding studies with [3H]-gabapentin have suggested a structure-activity relationship similar to that shown for the amino acid transport system responsible for the uptake of large neutral amino acids (LNAA). 2. The autoradiographic binding distribution of [3H]-gabapentin in rat brain was compared with the distributions for excitatory amino acid receptor subtypes and the uptake sites for excitatory and large neutral amino acids in consecutive rat brain sections. 3. Densitometric measurement of the autoradiographic images followed by normalisation with respect to the hippocampus CA1 stratum radiatum, was carried out before comparison of each binding distribution with that of [3H]-gabapentin by linear regression analysis. The correlation coefficients observed showed no absolute correlation was observed between the binding distributions of [3H]-gabapentin and those of the excitatory amino acid receptor subtypes. The acidic and large neutral amino acid uptake site distributions demonstrated a much closer correlation to the [3H]-gabapentin binding site distribution. The correlation coefficients for D-[3H]-aspartate, L-[3H]-leucine and L-[3H]-isoleucine binding site distributions were 0.76, 0.90 and 0.88 respectively. 4. Concentration-dependent inhibition by unlabelled gabapentin of autoradiographic binding of L-[3H]-leucine and L-[3H]-isoleucine was observed, with non-specific binding levels being reached at concentrations between 10 and 100 microM. 5. Excitotoxic quinolinic acid lesion studies in rat brain caudate putamen and autoradiography were carried out for the amino acid uptake sites mentioned above. The resulting glial infiltration of the lesioned areas was visualized by autoradiography using the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor specific ligand [3H]-PK11195. A significant decrease in binding density in the lesioned area compared with sham-operated animals was observed

  8. Mapping Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Allosteric Site(s): Critical Molecular Determinant and Signaling Profile of GAT100, a Novel, Potent, and Irreversibly Binding Probe.

    PubMed

    Laprairie, Robert B; Kulkarni, Abhijit R; Kulkarni, Pushkar M; Hurst, Dow P; Lynch, Diane; Reggio, Patricia H; Janero, David R; Pertwee, Roger G; Stevenson, Lesley A; Kelly, Melanie E M; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M; Thakur, Ganesh A

    2016-06-15

    One of the most abundant G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in brain, the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R), is a tractable therapeutic target for treating diverse psychobehavioral and somatic disorders. Adverse on-target effects associated with small-molecule CB1R orthosteric agonists and inverse agonists/antagonists have plagued their translational potential. Allosteric CB1R modulators offer a potentially safer modality through which CB1R signaling may be directed for therapeutic benefit. Rational design of candidate, druglike CB1R allosteric modulators requires greater understanding of the architecture of the CB1R allosteric endodomain(s) and the capacity of CB1R allosteric ligands to tune the receptor's information output. We have recently reported the synthesis of a focused library of rationally designed, covalent analogues of Org27569 and PSNCBAM-1, two prototypic CB1R negative allosteric modulators (NAMs). Among the novel, pharmacologically active CB1R NAMs reported, the isothiocyanate GAT100 emerged as the lead by virtue of its exceptional potency in the [(35)S]GTPγS and β-arrestin signaling assays and its ability to label CB1R as a covalent allosteric probe with significantly reduced inverse agonism in the [(35)S]GTPγS assay as compared to Org27569. We report here a comprehensive functional profiling of GAT100 across an array of important downstream cell-signaling pathways and analysis of its potential orthosteric probe-dependence and signaling bias. The results demonstrate that GAT100 is a NAM of the orthosteric CB1R agonist CP55,940 and the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide for β-arrestin1 recruitment, PLCβ3 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, cAMP accumulation, and CB1R internalization in HEK293A cells overexpressing CB1R and in Neuro2a and STHdh(Q7/Q7) cells endogenously expressing CB1R. Distinctively, GAT100 was a more potent and efficacious CB1R NAM than Org27569 and PSNCBAM-1 in all signaling assays and did not exhibit the inverse

  9. A spinosyn-sensitive Drosophila melanogaster nicotinic acetylcholine receptor identified through chemically induced target site resistance, resistance gene identification, and heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gerald B; Chouinard, Scott W; Cook, Kevin R; Geng, Chaoxian; Gifford, Jim M; Gustafson, Gary D; Hasler, James M; Larrinua, Ignacio M; Letherer, Ted J; Mitchell, Jon C; Pak, William L; Salgado, Vincent L; Sparks, Thomas C; Stilwell, Geoff E

    2010-05-01

    Strains of Drosophila melanogaster with resistance to the insecticides spinosyn A, spinosad, and spinetoram were produced by chemical mutagenesis. These spinosyn-resistant strains were not cross-resistant to other insecticides. The two strains that were initially characterized were subsequently found to have mutations in the gene encoding the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit Dalpha6. Subsequently, additional spinosyn-resistant alleles were generated by chemical mutagenesis and were also found to have mutations in the gene encoding Dalpha6, providing convincing evidence that Dalpha6 is a target site for the spinosyns in D. melanogaster. Although a spinosyn-sensitive receptor could not be generated in Xenopus laevis oocytes simply by expressing Dalpha6 alone, co-expression of Dalpha6 with an additional nAChR subunit, Dalpha5, and the chaperone protein ric-3 resulted in an acetylcholine- and spinosyn-sensitive receptor with the pharmacological properties anticipated for a native nAChR. PMID:19944756

  10. Synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors is regulated by a CaMKII site in the first intracellular loop of GluA1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Isozaki, Kaname; Roche, Katherine W.; Nicoll, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at synapses is essential for excitatory synaptic transmission. However, the mechanisms underlying synaptic targeting of AMPARs remain elusive. We have now used a molecular replacement approach on an AMPAR-null background to investigate the targeting mechanisms necessary for regulating AMPAR trafficking in the hippocampus. Although there is an extensive literature on the role of the GluA1 C-tail in AMPAR trafficking, there is no effect of overexpressing the C-tail on basal transmission. Instead, we found that the first intracellular loop domain (Loop1) of GluA1, a previously overlooked region within AMPARs, is critical for receptor targeting to synapses, but not for delivery of receptors to the plasma membrane. We also identified a CaMKII phosphorylation site (S567) in the GluA1 Loop1, which is phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we show that S567 is a key residue that regulates Loop1-mediated AMPAR trafficking. Thus, our study reveals a unique mechanism for targeting AMPARs to synapses to mediate synaptic transmission. PMID:21135237

  11. Lys39-Lysophosphatidate Carbonyl Oxygen Interaction Locks LPA1 N-terminal Cap to the Orthosteric Site and partners Arg124 During Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Omotuyi, Olaposi I.; Nagai, Jun; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor 1 (LPA1) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptors mediating the biological response to LPA species. Lack of detailed mechanism underlying LPA/LPA1 interaction has hampered the development of specific antagonists. Here, novel N-terminal Lys39 has been identified as a key residue during LPA-type agonist binding and LPA1 activation. Analysis of the molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories showed that LPA-type agonist but not VPC-32183 (antagonist) evolved structures with classical GPCR activation signatures such as reduced cytoplasmic transmembrane (TM) 3/TM6 dynamic network, ruptured ionic lock, and formation of a continuous and highly ordered internal water pathway was also observed. In activated state, LPA-type agonists interact with Arg124 (R3.28), Gln125 (Q3.29), Lys294 (K7.36) and a novel N-terminal Lys39. Site-directed mutagenesis showed complete loss of intracellular calcium mobilization in B103 cells expressing R3.28A and Lys39Ala when treated with LPA-type agonists. Structurally, LPA-type agonist via Carbonyl-oxygen/Lys39 interaction facilitated the formation of a hypothetical N-terminal cap tightly packed over LPA1 heptahelical bundle. This packing may represent a key mechanism to distinguish an apo-receptor from bound LPA1. PMID:26268898

  12. Lys39-Lysophosphatidate Carbonyl Oxygen Interaction Locks LPA1 N-terminal Cap to the Orthosteric Site and partners Arg124 During Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Omotuyi, Olaposi I; Nagai, Jun; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor 1 (LPA1) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptors mediating the biological response to LPA species. Lack of detailed mechanism underlying LPA/LPA1 interaction has hampered the development of specific antagonists. Here, novel N-terminal Lys39 has been identified as a key residue during LPA-type agonist binding and LPA1 activation. Analysis of the molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories showed that LPA-type agonist but not VPC-32183 (antagonist) evolved structures with classical GPCR activation signatures such as reduced cytoplasmic transmembrane (TM) 3/TM6 dynamic network, ruptured ionic lock, and formation of a continuous and highly ordered internal water pathway was also observed. In activated state, LPA-type agonists interact with Arg124 (R3.28), Gln125 (Q3.29), Lys294 (K7.36) and a novel N-terminal Lys39. Site-directed mutagenesis showed complete loss of intracellular calcium mobilization in B103 cells expressing R3.28A and Lys39Ala when treated with LPA-type agonists. Structurally, LPA-type agonist via Carbonyl-oxygen/Lys39 interaction facilitated the formation of a hypothetical N-terminal cap tightly packed over LPA1 heptahelical bundle. This packing may represent a key mechanism to distinguish an apo-receptor from bound LPA1. PMID:26268898

  13. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor and alpha-L-fucosidase are located near a newly identified common virus integration site, Evi11.

    PubMed Central

    Valk, P J; Hol, S; Vankan, Y; Ihle, J N; Askew, D; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; de Both, N J; Löwenberg, B; Delwel, R

    1997-01-01

    A new common region of virus integration, Evi11, has been identified in two retrovirally induced murine myeloid leukemia cell lines, NFS107 and NFS78. By interspecific backcross analysis, it was shown that Evi11 is located at the distal end of mouse chromosome 4, in a region that shows homology with human 1p36. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) and alpha-L-fucosidase (Fuca1) were identified near the integration site by using a novel exon trapping system. Cnr2 is suggested to be the target gene for viral interference in Evi11, since proviruses are integrated in the first intron of Cnr2 and retroviral integrations alter mRNA expression of Cnr2 in NFS107 and NFS78. In addition, proviral integrations were demonstrated within the 3' untranslated region of Cnr2 in five independent newly derived CasBrM-MuLV (mouse murine leukemia virus) tumors, CSL13, CSL14, CSL16, CSL27, and CSL97. The Cnr2 gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor which is normally expressed in hematopoietic tissues. Our data suggest that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor gene might be involved in leukemogenesis as a result of aberrant expression of Cnr2 due to retroviral integration in Evi11. PMID:9261404

  14. Site-specific methylation changes in the glucocorticoid receptor exon 1F promoter in relation to life adversity: systematic review of contributing factors

    PubMed Central

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    There has been recent interest in epigenetics in psychiatry since it offers a means of understanding how stressful life experiences, in interaction with the genotype, result in epigenetic changes that result in altered gene expression, ultimately affecting the risk for mental disorders. Many studies focused on methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor exon 1F promoter following an initial observation that changes in this region could be modulated by the environment. This review examines all published studies that have attempted to measure methylation in this region using different techniques, several tissue types, populations at different behavioral state and stages of development. Methodological issues have been raised with the aim of attempting to understand methylation quantification and site of action. We propose that it is useful to examine whether methylation at specific sites within the promoter region may be particularly relevant to psychiatric vulnerability to stress-related outcomes. PMID:25484853

  15. Tolerance to LSD and DOB induced shaking behaviour: differential adaptations of frontocortical 5-HT(2A) and glutamate receptor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Dieterich, Daniela C; Grecksch, Gisela; Höllt, Volker

    2015-03-15

    Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dimethoxy-bromoamphetamine (DOB), provoke stereotype-like shaking behaviour in rodents, which is hypothesised to engage frontocortical glutamate receptor activation secondary to serotonin2A (5-HT2A) related glutamate release. Challenging this hypothesis, we here investigate whether tolerance to LSD and DOB correlates with frontocortical adaptations of 5-HT2A and/or overall-glutamate binding sites. LSD and DOB (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) induce a ketanserin-sensitive (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30-min pretreatment) increase in shaking behaviour (including head twitches and wet dog shakes), which with repeated application (7× in 4 ds) is undermined by tolerance. Tolerance to DOB, as indexed by DOB-sensitive [(3)H]spiroperidol and DOB induced [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding, is accompanied by a frontocortical decrease in 5-HT2A binding sites and 5-HT2 signalling, respectively; glutamate-sensitive [(3)H]glutamate binding sites, in contrast, remain unchanged. As to LSD, 5-HT2 signalling and 5-HT2A binding, respectively, are not or only marginally affected, yet [(3)H]glutamate binding is significantly decreased. Correlation analysis interrelates tolerance to DOB to the reduced 5-HT2A (r=.80) as well as the unchanged [(3)H]glutamate binding sites (r=.84); tolerance to LSD, as opposed, shares variance with the reduction in [(3)H]glutamate binding sites only (r=.86). Given that DOB and LSD both induce tolerance, one correlating with 5-HT2A, the other with glutamate receptor adaptations, it might be inferred that tolerance can arise at either level. That is, if a hallucinogen (like LSD in our study) fails to induce 5-HT2A (down-)regulation, glutamate receptors (activated postsynaptic to 5-HT2A related glutamate release) might instead adapt and thus prevent further overstimulation of the cortex. PMID:25513973

  16. Experimental attempt to simulate receptor site environment. A 500-MHz 1H nuclear magnetic resonance study of enkephalin amides.

    PubMed

    Temussi, P A; Tancredi, T; Pastore, A; Castiglione-Morelli, M A

    1987-12-01

    The amides of Leu5-enkephalin, Met5-enkephalin, and three analogues, D-Ala2,Leu5-enkephalin, (AcO)Tyr1,Met5-enkephalin, and (AcO)Tyr1,D-Ala2,Met5-enkephalin, have been studied by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy in two different solvent systems: Me2SO-d6 and CDCl3. In the latter solvent the peptides were dissolved as complexes with 18-crown-6-ether, a coronand that binds strongly to the NH3+ groups. The crown ether complexation and the apolar solvent were used to simulate the anionic subsite of the receptor and the hydrophobic environment of the receptor cavity, respectively. The very unusual amide proton chemical shifts and their temperature coefficients suggest the presence of folded conformations in CDCl3 for all peptides, consistent with several models of opioid receptors and with the crystal structure of Leu5-enkephalin. The differences among the proposed cyclic conformations of the five peptides may be correlated, in part, with their different biological activity. All peptides in Me2SO-d6 are characterized by complex mixtures of extended fully solvated conformations. PMID:2827761

  17. Membrane contacts between endosomes and ER provide sites for PTP1B-epidermal growth factor receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Eden, Emily R; White, Ian J; Tsapara, Anna; Futter, Clare E

    2010-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a critical determinator of cell fate. Signalling from this receptor tyrosine kinase is spatially regulated by progression through the endocytic pathway, governing receptor half-life and accessibility to signalling proteins and phosphatases. Endocytosis of EGFR is required for interaction with the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B (ref. 1), which localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), raising the question of how PTP1B comes into contact with endosomal EGFR. We show that EGFR-PTP1B interaction occurs by means of direct membrane contacts between the perimeter membrane of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and the ER. The population of EGFR interacting with PTP1B is the same population that undergo ESCRT-mediated (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) sorting within MVBs, and PTP1B activity promotes the sequestration of EGFR on to MVB internal vesicles. Membrane contacts between endosomes and the ER form in both the presence and absence of stimulation by EGF. Thus membrane contacts between endosomes and the ER may represent a global mechanism for direct interaction between proteins on these two organelles. PMID:20118922

  18. Tryptophan mutations at azi-etomidate photo-incorporation sites on alpha1 or beta2 subunits enhance GABAA receptor gating and reduce etomidate modulation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Deirdre; Desai, Rooma; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Aiping; Forman, Stuart A

    2008-12-01

    The potent general anesthetic etomidate produces its effects by enhancing GABA(A) receptor activation. Its photolabel analog [(3)H]azi-etomidate labels residues within transmembrane domains on alpha and beta subunits: alphaMet236 and betaMet286. We hypothesized that these methionines contribute to etomidate sites formed at alpha-beta subunit interfaces and that increasing side-chain bulk and hydrophobicity at either locus would mimic etomidate binding and block etomidate effects. Channel activity was electrophysiologically quantified in alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2L) receptors with alpha(1)M236W or beta(2)M286W mutations, in both the absence and the presence of etomidate. Measurements included spontaneous activation, GABA EC(50), etomidate agonist potentiation, etomidate direct activation, and rapid macrocurrent kinetics. Both alpha(1)M236W and beta(2)M286W mutations induced spontaneous channel opening, lowered GABA EC(50), increased maximal GABA efficacy, and slowed current deactivation, mimicking effects of etomidate on alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2L) channels. These changes were larger with alpha(1)M236W than with beta(2)M286W. Etomidate (3.2 muM) reduced GABA EC(50) much less in alpha(1)M236Wbeta(2)gamma(2L) receptors (2-fold) than in wild type (23-fold). However, etomidate was more potent and efficacious in directly activating alpha(1)M236Wbeta(2)gamma(2L) compared with wild type. In alpha(1)beta(2)M286Wgamma(2L) receptors, etomidate induced neither agonist-potentiation nor direct channel activation. These results support the hypothesis that alpha(1)Met236 and beta(2)Met286 are within etomidate sites that allosterically link to channel gating. Although alpha(1)M236W produced the larger impact on channel gating, beta(2)M286W produced more profound changes in etomidate sensitivity, suggesting a dominant role in drug binding. Furthermore, quantitative mechanistic analysis demonstrated that wild-type and mutant results are consistent with the presence of only one class of

  19. Synergistic and compensatory effects of two point mutations conferring target-site resistance to fipronil in the insect GABA receptor RDL

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yixi; Meng, Xiangkun; Yang, Yuanxue; Li, Hong; Wang, Xin; Yang, Baojun; Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Chunrui; Millar, Neil S.; Liu, Zewen

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide resistance can arise from a variety of mechanisms, including changes to the target site, but is often associated with substantial fitness costs to insects. Here we describe two resistance-associated target-site mutations that have synergistic and compensatory effects that combine to produce high and persistent levels of resistance to fipronil, an insecticide targeting on γ-aminobytyric acid (GABA) receptors. In Nilaparvata lugens, a major pest of rice crops in many parts of Asia, we have identified a single point mutation (A302S) in the GABA receptor RDL that has been identified previously in other species and which confers low levels of resistance to fipronil (23-fold) in N. lugans. In addition, we have identified a second resistance-associated RDL mutation (R300Q) that, in combination with A302S, is associated with much higher levels of resistance (237-fold). The R300Q mutation has not been detected in the absence of A302S in either laboratory-selected or field populations, presumably due to the high fitness cost associated with this mutation. Significantly, it appears that the A302S mutation is able to compensate for deleterious effects of R300Q mutation on fitness cost. These findings identify a novel resistance mechanism and may have important implications for the spread of insecticide resistance. PMID:27557781

  20. Identification of specific sites in the third intracellular loop and carboxyl terminus of the Bombyx mori pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor crucial for ligand-induced internalization.

    PubMed

    Hull, J J; Lee, J M; Matsumoto, S

    2011-12-01

    Sex pheromone production in most moths is mediated by the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR). Using fluorescent Bombyx mori PBANR (BmPBANR) chimeras to study PBANR regulation, we previously showed that BmPBANR undergoes rapid ligand-induced internalization, that the endocytotic motif resides between residues 358-367 of the BmPBANR C terminus, and that the internalization pathway is clathrin-dependent. Here, we sought to expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying BmPBANR function and regulation by transiently expressing a series of fluorescent BmPBANR chimeric constructs in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and assaying for internalization of a fluorescently labelled ligand. Pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C significantly reduced internalization, suggesting that BmPBANR regulation proceeds via a conventional G-protein-dependent pathway. This was further supported by impaired internalization following site-directed mutagenesis of R263 and R264, two basic residues at the transmembrane 6 intracellular junction that are thought to stabilize G-protein coupling via electrostatic interactions. Ala substitution of S333 and S366, two consensus protein kinase C sites in the C terminus, likewise impaired internalization, as did RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Sf9 protein kinase C. N-terminal truncations of BmPBANR indicate that the first 27 residues are not necessary for cell surface trafficking or receptor functionality. PMID:21955122

  1. A novel phosphorylation site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor GluN2B at S1284 is regulated by Cdk5 in neuronal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Ai, Heng; Peng, Lin; Wang, Jie-jie; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Xiao; Luo, Jian-hong

    2015-09-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are a key player in synaptic and several neurological diseases, such as stroke. Phosphorylation of NMDAR subunits at their cytoplasmic carboxyl termini has been considered to be an important mechanism to regulate the receptor function. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been demonstrated to be responsible for regulating phosphorylation and function of NMDARs. Besides, it is also suggested that Cdk5 is involved in ischemic insult. In the present study, we showed that GluN2B subunit serine 1284 at its cytoplasmic carboxyl termini was regulated by Cdk5 in neuronal ischemia. Interestingly, both oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured hippocampal neurons and transient global ischemia in mice induce dramatic changes in the phosphorylated level of GluN2B at S1284. However, no significant changes in the phosphorylation of this site are found neither in chemical LTP stimulation in cultured hippocampal neurons nor fear conditioning in adult mice. Taken together, our study identified NMDAR GluN2B S1284 as a novel phosphorylation site regulated by Cdk5 with implication in neuronal ischemia. PMID:26093036

  2. Synergistic and compensatory effects of two point mutations conferring target-site resistance to fipronil in the insect GABA receptor RDL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixi; Meng, Xiangkun; Yang, Yuanxue; Li, Hong; Wang, Xin; Yang, Baojun; Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Chunrui; Millar, Neil S; Liu, Zewen

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide resistance can arise from a variety of mechanisms, including changes to the target site, but is often associated with substantial fitness costs to insects. Here we describe two resistance-associated target-site mutations that have synergistic and compensatory effects that combine to produce high and persistent levels of resistance to fipronil, an insecticide targeting on γ-aminobytyric acid (GABA) receptors. In Nilaparvata lugens, a major pest of rice crops in many parts of Asia, we have identified a single point mutation (A302S) in the GABA receptor RDL that has been identified previously in other species and which confers low levels of resistance to fipronil (23-fold) in N. lugans. In addition, we have identified a second resistance-associated RDL mutation (R300Q) that, in combination with A302S, is associated with much higher levels of resistance (237-fold). The R300Q mutation has not been detected in the absence of A302S in either laboratory-selected or field populations, presumably due to the high fitness cost associated with this mutation. Significantly, it appears that the A302S mutation is able to compensate for deleterious effects of R300Q mutation on fitness cost. These findings identify a novel resistance mechanism and may have important implications for the spread of insecticide resistance. PMID:27557781

  3. Identification of a hexapeptide that mimics a conformation-dependent binding site of acetylcholine receptor by use of a phage-epitope library.

    PubMed Central

    Balass, M; Heldman, Y; Cabilly, S; Givol, D; Katchalski-Katzir, E; Fuchs, S

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 5.5 is directed against the ligand-binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The epitope for this antibody is conformation-dependent, and the antibody does not react with synthetic peptides derived from the receptor sequence. We have identified a ligand peptide that mimics this conformation-dependent epitope from a phage-epitope library composed of filamentous phage displaying random hexapeptides. Among 38 positive phage clones, individually selected from the library, 34 positive clones carried the sequence Asp-Leu-Val-Trp-Leu-Leu (DLVWLL), 1 positive clone had the sequence Asp-Ile-Val-Trp-Leu-Leu (DIVWLL), and 3 positive clones expressed the sequence Leu-Ile-Glu-Trp-Leu-Leu (LIEWLL), none of which are significantly homologous with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit sequence. All of these phages bind specifically to mAb 5.5. The synthetic peptide DLVWLL inhibits binding of mAb 5.5 to the related peptide-presenting phage and to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in a concentration-dependent manner; the IC50 value is of the order of 10(-4) M. Bioactivity of the peptide "mimotope" DLVWLL was demonstrated in vivo in hatched chickens by inhibition of the mAb 5.5 effect by the peptide. The neuromuscular block and myasthenia gravis-like symptoms that are induced in chicken by passive transfer of mAb 5.5 were specifically abolished by DLVWLL. This study shows the potential of a random peptide phage-epitope library for selecting a mimotope for an antibody that recognizes a folded form of the protein, where peptides from the linear amino acid sequence of the protein are not applicable. Images Fig. 5 PMID:7504273

  4. A functional variant at miR-34a binding site in toll-like receptor 4 gene alters susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zi-Cheng; Tang, Xian-Mei; Zhao, Ying-Ren; Zheng, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a key role in prompting the innate or immediate response. A growing body of evidence suggests that genetic variants of TLR4 gene were associated with the development of cancers. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of a functional variant (rs1057317) at microRNA-34a (miR-34a) binding site in toll-like receptor 4 gene and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A single center-based case-control study was conducted. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to genotype sequence variants of TLR4 in 426 hepatocellular carcinoma cases and 438 controls. The modification of rs1057317 on the binding of hsa-miR-34a to TLR4 messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured by luciferase activity assay. Individuals carrying the AA genotypes for the rs1057317 were associated significantly with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma comparing with those carrying wild-type homozygous CC genotypes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] by sex and age, from 1.116 to 2.452, P = 0.013). The activity of the reporter vector was lower in the reporter vector carrying C allele than the reporter vector carrying A allele. Furthermore, the expression of TLR4 was detected in the peripheral blood mononucleated cell of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, suggesting that mRNA and protein levels of TLR4 might be associated with SNP rs1057317. Collectively, these results suggested that the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with a functional variant at miR-34a binding site in toll-like receptor 4 gene. miR-34a/TLR4 axis may play an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25179842

  5. Identification of tyrosines 154 and 307 in the extracellular domain and 653 and 766 in the intracellular domain as phosphorylation sites in the heparin-binding fibroblast growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (flg).

    PubMed Central

    Hou, J.; McKeehan, K.; Kan, M.; Carr, S. A.; Huddleston, M. J.; Crabb, J. W.; McKeehan, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    Four tyrosine residues have been identified as phosphorylation sites in the tyrosine kinase isoform of the heparin-binding fibroblast growth factor receptor flg (FGF-R1). Baculoviral-insect cell-derived recombinant FGF-R1 was phosphorylated and fragmented with trypsin while immobilized on heparin-agarose beads. Phosphotyrosine peptides were purified by chromatography on immobilized anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and analyzed by Edman degradation and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Tyrosine residue 653, which is in a homologous spatial position to major autophosphorylation sites in the catalytic domain of the src and insulin receptor kinases, is the major intracellular FGF-R1 phosphorylation site. Residue 766 in the COOH-terminus outside the kinase domain is a secondary site. Tyrosine residues 154 and 307, which are in the extracellular domain of transmembrane receptor isoforms and are in an unusual sequence context for tyrosine phosphorylation, were also phosphorylated. PMID:8443592

  6. Laminar and regional distribution of galanin binding sites in cat and monkey visual cortex determined by in vitro receptor autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Rosier, A.M.; Vandesande, F.; Orban, G.A. )

    1991-03-08

    The distribution of galanin (GAL) binding sites in the visual cortex of cat and monkey was determined by autoradiographic visualization of ({sup 125}I)-GAL binding to tissue sections. Binding conditions were optimized and, as a result, the binding was saturable and specific. In cat visual cortex, GAL binding sites were concentrated in layers I, IVc, V, and VI. Areas 17, 18, and 19 exhibited a similar distribution pattern. In monkey primary visual cortex, the highest density of GAL binding sites was observed in layers II/III, lower IVc, and upper V. Layers IVA and VI contained moderate numbers of GAL binding sites, while layer I and the remaining parts of layer IV displayed the lowest density. In monkey secondary visual cortex, GAL binding sites were mainly concentrated in layers V-VI. Layer IV exhibited a moderate density, while the supragranular layers contained the lowest proportion of GAL binding sites. In both cat and monkey, we found little difference between regions subserving central and those subserving peripheral vision. Similarities in the distribution of GAL and acetylcholine binding sites are discussed.

  7. Synthetic peptides based upon a three-dimensional model for the receptor recognition site of follicle-stimulating hormone exhibit antagonistic or agonistic activity at low concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Hage-van Noort, M; Puijk, W C; Plasman, H H; Kuperus, D; Schaaper, W M; Beekman, N J; Grootegoed, J A; Meloen, R H

    1992-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (follitropin, FSH) belongs to a group of closely related glycoprotein hormones that contain two noncovalently linked dissimilar subunits designated alpha and beta. By using synthetic peptides, several receptor interaction sites in these hormones have been identified; however, the peptides have a reduced potency (lowest effective concentration of 10(-4) to 10(-5) M) relative to the hormone itself (10(-8) to 10(-11) M). This suggests that the peptides represent only a portion of a larger recognition site in the intact hormone that comprises parts of both the beta and the alpha chains. To develop peptides that exhibit FSH-antagonistic activity at low concentrations, we have constructed a three-dimensional model for FSH, which is based on an alignment of both the beta and the alpha chains of glycoprotein hormones with thioredoxin, for which x-ray diffraction data are available. This model resulted in the prediction of a conformational receptor-binding site in FSH, in which (parts of) three earlier proposed binding regions on the FSH molecule [namely, the regions FSH alpha-(34-37), with the amino acid sequence SRAY; FSH beta-(40-43), with the amino acid sequence TRDL; and FSH beta-(87-94), the "determinant loop" with the amino acid sequence CDSDSTDC] are located within 10 A of one another. On the basis of this model, peptides have been synthesized in which two of these binding regions are linked by a synthetic amino acid whose length was derived from the model, Ac-TDSDS-NH-(CH2)5-CO-SRAY-NH2 and Ac-SRAY-NH-(CH2)4-CO-TRDL-NH2. Both peptides inhibited FSH-induced cAMP production in Sertoli cells at 1000-fold lower concentrations (10(-7) M) than the peptides Ac-TRDL-NH2, Ac-SRAY-NH2, or Ac-TDSDS-NH2. In another peptide, Ac-TDSDS-NH-(CH2)5-CO-SRAY-NH-(CH2)4-CO-TRDL-NH2, all three binding regions have been linked. This peptide appeared to be a strong agonist of FSH action, as measured by the ability to stimulate cAMP production, at concentrations

  8. Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A1 Binds a Novel Protein Interaction Site on Anti-apoptotic B Cell Lymphoma Gene 2 Family Proteins.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Paulo H C; Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P; Hishiki, Asami; Sano, Renata; Matsuzawa, Yasuko; Yanagi, Hiroko; Munte, Claudia E; Chen, Ya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M; Kalbitzer, Hans R; Matsuzawa, Shu-Ichi; Reed, John C

    2016-07-01

    B cell lymphoma gene 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins are key regulators of programmed cell death and important targets for drug discovery. Pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins reciprocally modulate their activities in large part through protein interactions involving a motif known as BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3). Nur77 is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family that lacks a BH3 domain but nevertheless binds certain anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bfl-1, and Bcl-B), modulating their effects on apoptosis and autophagy. We used a combination of NMR spectroscopy-based methods, mutagenesis, and functional studies to define the interaction site of a Nur77 peptide on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins and reveal a novel interaction surface. Nur77 binds adjacent to the BH3 peptide-binding crevice, suggesting the possibility of cross-talk between these discrete binding sites. Mutagenesis of residues lining the identified interaction site on Bcl-B negated the interaction with Nur77 protein in cells and prevented Nur77-mediated modulation of apoptosis and autophagy. The findings establish a new protein interaction site with the potential to modulate the apoptosis and autophagy mechanisms governed by Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:27129202

  9. Genomic mapping of cAMP receptor protein (CRPMt) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: relation to transcriptional start sites and the role of CRPMt as a transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Kahramanoglou, Christina; Cortes, Teresa; Matange, Nishad; Hunt, Debbie M.; Visweswariah, Sandhya S.; Young, Douglas B.; Buxton, Roger S.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation identified 191 binding sites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cAMP receptor protein (CRPMt) at endogenous expression levels using a specific α-CRPMt antibody. Under these native conditions an equal distribution between intragenic and intergenic locations was observed. CRPMt binding overlapped a palindromic consensus sequence. Analysis by RNA sequencing revealed widespread changes in transcriptional profile in a mutant strain lacking CRPMt during exponential growth, and in response to nutrient starvation. Differential expression of genes with a CRPMt-binding site represented only a minor portion of this transcriptional reprogramming with ∼19% of those representing transcriptional regulators potentially controlled by CRPMt. The subset of genes that are differentially expressed in the deletion mutant under both culture conditions conformed to a pattern resembling canonical CRP regulation in Escherichia coli, with binding close to the transcriptional start site associated with repression and upstream binding with activation. CRPMt can function as a classical transcription factor in M. tuberculosis, though this occurs at only a subset of CRPMt-binding sites. PMID:24957601

  10. sup 1 H NMR studies of DNA recognition by the glucocorticoid receptor: Complex of the DNA binding domain with a half-site response element

    SciTech Connect

    Remerowski, M.L.; Kellenbach, E.; Boelens, R.; Kaptein, R. ); van der Marel, G.A.; van Boom, J.H. ); Maler, B.A.; Yamamoto, K.R. )

    1991-12-17

    The complex of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) DNA binding domain (DBD) and half-site sequence of the consensus glucocorticoid response element (GRE) has been studied by two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The DNA fragment is a 10 base-pair oligonucleotide, 5{prime}d(GCTGTTCTGC)3{prime}{center dot}5{prime}d-(GCAGAACAGC)3{prime}, containing the stronger binding GRE half-site hexamer, with GC base pairs at each end. The 93-residue GR-DBD contains an 86-residue segment corresponding to residues 440-525 of the rat GR. Eleven NOE cross peaks between the protein and DNA have been identified, and changes in the chemical shift of the DNA protons upon complex formation have been analyzed. Using these protein-DNA contact points, it can be concluded that (1) the 'recognition helix' formed by residues C460-E469 lies in the major groove of the DNA; (2) the GR-DBD is oriented on the GRE half-site such that residues A477-D481, forming the so-called D-loop, are available for protein-protein interaction in the GR-DBD dimer on the intact consensus GRE; and (3) the 5-methyl of the second thymine in the half-site and valine 462 interact, confirming indirect evidence that both play an important role in GR-DBD DNA binding.

  11. Expression of the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by Escherichia coli transformants.

    PubMed Central

    Gershoni, J M

    1987-01-01

    Restriction fragments of DNA derived from a cDNA clone of the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor were subcloned in Escherichia coli by using the trpE fusion vector, pATH2. Transformants expressing the amino acid sequences 166-315 or 166-200 are shown to produce a chimeric protein that bound alpha-bungarotoxin. Moreover, it is shown that sufficient amounts of toxin-binding proteins can be generated by individual colonies of bacteria. This provides a new approach for gene selection via functional expression--i.e., ligand overlays of colony blots. Images PMID:3295881

  12. Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Hötzel, Isidro; Cheevers, William P

    2005-09-01

    The caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna (MVV) viruses are resistant to antibody neutralization, a feature shared with all other lentiviruses. Whether the CAEV gp135 receptor binding site(s) (RBS) in the functional surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) is protected from antibody binding, allowing the virus to resist neutralization, is not known. Two CAEV gp135 regions were identified by extrapolating a gp135 structural model that could affect binding of antibodies to the RBS: the V1 region and a short sequence analogous in position to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 loop B postulated to be located between two major domains of CAEV gp135. Mutation of isoleucine-166 to alanine in the putative loop B of gp135 increased the affinity of soluble gp135 for the CAEV receptor(s) and goat monoclonal antibody (Mab) F7-299 which recognizes an epitope overlapping the gp135 RBS. The I166A mutation also stabilized or exposed the F7-299 epitope in anionic detergent buffers, indicating that the I166A mutation induces conformational changes and stabilizes the RBS of soluble gp135 and enhances Mab F7-299 binding. In contrast, the affinity of a V1 deletion mutant of gp135 for the receptor and Mab F7-299 and its structural stability did not differ from that of the wild-type gp135. However, both the I166A mutation and the V1 deletion of gp135 increased cell-to-cell fusion activity and binding of Mab F7-299 to the oligomeric Env. Therefore, the CAEV gp135 RBS is protected from antibody binding by mechanisms both dependent and independent of Env oligomerization which are disrupted by the V1 deletion and the I166A mutation, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between side-chain beta-branching at amino acid position 166 and binding of Mab F7-299 to oligomeric Env and cell-to-cell fusion, suggesting local secondary structure constraints in the region around isoleucine-166 as one determinant of gp135 RBS exposure and antibody binding. PMID

  13. Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Hoetzel, Isidro . E-mail: ihotzel@gene.com; Cheevers, William P.

    2005-09-01

    The caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna (MVV) viruses are resistant to antibody neutralization, a feature shared with all other lentiviruses. Whether the CAEV gp135 receptor binding site(s) (RBS) in the functional surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) is protected from antibody binding, allowing the virus to resist neutralization, is not known. Two CAEV gp135 regions were identified by extrapolating a gp135 structural model that could affect binding of antibodies to the RBS: the V1 region and a short sequence analogous in position to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 loop B postulated to be located between two major domains of CAEV gp135. Mutation of isoleucine-166 to alanine in the putative loop B of gp135 increased the affinity of soluble gp135 for the CAEV receptor(s) and goat monoclonal antibody (Mab) F7-299 which recognizes an epitope overlapping the gp135 RBS. The I166A mutation also stabilized or exposed the F7-299 epitope in anionic detergent buffers, indicating that the I166A mutation induces conformational changes and stabilizes the RBS of soluble gp135 and enhances Mab F7-299 binding. In contrast, the affinity of a V1 deletion mutant of gp135 for the receptor and Mab F7-299 and its structural stability did not differ from that of the wild-type gp135. However, both the I166A mutation and the V1 deletion of gp135 increased cell-to-cell fusion activity and binding of Mab F7-299 to the oligomeric Env. Therefore, the CAEV gp135 RBS is protected from antibody binding by mechanisms both dependent and independent of Env oligomerization which are disrupted by the V1 deletion and the I166A mutation, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between side-chain {beta}-branching at amino acid position 166 and binding of Mab F7-299 to oligomeric Env and cell-to-cell fusion, suggesting local secondary structure constraints in the region around isoleucine-166 as one determinant of gp135 RBS exposure and antibody binding.

  14. Further characterization of a high affinity thyrotropin binding site on the rat thyrotropin receptor which is an epitope for blocking antibodies from idiopathic myxedema patients but not thyroid stimulating antibodies from Graves' patients.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, S; Ban, T; Akamizu, T; Kohn, L D

    1991-10-31

    Cysteine 390 of the rat thyrotropin (TSH) receptor, when mutated to serine, results in a receptor with a reduced ability of TSH to bind and increase cAMP levels but a preserved ability of thyroid stimulating autoantibodies (TSAbs) from hyperthyroid Graves' patients to increase cAMP levels. The ability of receptor autoantibodies from hypothyroid patients with idiopathic myxedema to inhibit the TSAb activity which is preserved is, however, like TSH binding, significantly reduced. Cysteine 390, together with tyrosine 385, thus appears to be an important determinant in a high affinity TSH binding site which is an epitope for receptor autoantibodies which block TSH or TSAb action and cause hypothyroidism rather than TSAbs which increase cAMP levels and are associated with hyperthyroidism. Threonine 388 and aspartic acid 403 may contribute to this ligand interaction site. PMID:1719963

  15. Site-specific conjugation of a lanthanide chelator and its effects on the chemical synthesis and receptor binding affinity of human relaxin-2 hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Shabanpoor, Fazel; Bathgate, Ross A.D.; Belgi, Alessia; Chan, Linda J.; Nair, Vinojini B.; Wade, John D.; Hossain, Mohammed Akhter

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mono-Eu-DTPA conjugated peptide ligand, Eu-DTPA-(A)-H2, has been developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The choice of a site for incorporation of a chelator is critical. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The labeled peptide retains full activity at the RXFP1 receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is markedly cheaper to produce and easier to use than radioactive probes. -- Abstract: Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a popular chelator agent for enabling the labeling of peptides for their use in structure-activity relationship study and biodistribution analysis. Solid phase peptide synthesis was employed to couple this commercially available chelator at the N-terminus of either the A-chain or B-chain of H2 relaxin. The coupling of the DTPA chelator at the N-terminus of the B-chain and subsequent loading of a lanthanide (europium) ion into the chelator led to a labeled peptide (Eu-DTPA-(B)-H2) in low yield and having very poor water solubility. On the other hand, coupling of the DTPA and loading of Eu at the N-terminus of the A-chain led to a water-soluble peptide (Eu-DTPA-(A)-H2) with a significantly improved final yield. The conjugation of the DTPA chelator at the N-terminus of the A-chain did not have any impact on the secondary structure of the peptide determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). On the other hand, it was not possible to determine the secondary structure of Eu-DTPA-(B)-H2 because of its insolubility in phosphate buffer. The B-chain labeled peptide Eu-DTPA-(B)-H2 required solubilization in DMSO prior to carrying out binding assays, and showed lower affinity for binding to H2 relaxin receptor, RXFP1, compared to the water-soluble A-chain labeled peptide Eu-DTPA-(A)-H2. The mono-Eu-DTPA labeled A-chain peptide, Eu-DTPA-(A)-H2, thus can be used as a valuable probe to study ligand-receptor interactions of therapeutically important H2 relaxin analogs. Our results show that it is critical to

  16. Identifying Barbiturate Binding Sites in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor with [3H]Allyl m-Trifluoromethyldiazirine Mephobarbital, a Photoreactive Barbiturate

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Ayman K.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Chiara, David C.; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Bruzik, Karol S.

    2014-01-01

    At concentrations that produce anesthesia, many barbituric acid derivatives act as positive allosteric modulators of inhibitory GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and inhibitors of excitatory nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent research on [3H]R-mTFD-MPAB ([3H]R-5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyldiazirinylphenyl)barbituric acid), a photoreactive barbiturate that is a potent and stereoselective anesthetic and GABAAR potentiator, has identified a second class of intersubunit binding sites for general anesthetics in the α1β3γ2 GABAAR transmembrane domain. We now characterize mTFD-MPAB interactions with the Torpedo (muscle-type) nAChR. For nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes, S- and R-mTFD-MPAB inhibited ACh-induced currents with IC50 values of 5 and 10 µM, respectively. Racemic mTFD-MPAB enhanced the equilibrium binding of [3H]ACh to nAChR-rich membranes (EC50 = 9 µM) and inhibited binding of the ion channel blocker [3H]tenocyclidine in the nAChR desensitized and resting states with IC50 values of 2 and 170 µM, respectively. Photoaffinity labeling identified two binding sites for [3H]R-mTFD-MPAB in the nAChR transmembrane domain: 1) a site within the ion channel, identified by photolabeling in the nAChR desensitized state of amino acids within the M2 helices of each nAChR subunit; and 2) a site at the γ–α subunit interface, identified by photolabeling of γMet299 within the γM3 helix at similar efficiency in the resting and desensitized states. These results establish that mTFD-MPAB is a potent nAChR inhibitor that binds in the ion channel preferentially in the desensitized state and binds with lower affinity to a site at the γ–α subunit interface where etomidate analogs bind that act as positive and negative nAChR modulators. PMID:24563544

  17. Genome-Wide Identification of In Vivo Binding Sites of GlxR, a Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Type Regulator in Corynebacterium glutamicum▿†

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Koichi; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum GlxR is a cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-type regulator. Although over 200 GlxR-binding sites in the C. glutamicum genome are predicted in silico, studies on the physiological function of GlxR have been hindered by the severe growth defects of a glxR mutant. This study identified the GlxR regulon by chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with microarray (ChIP-chip) analyses. In total, 209 regions were detected as in vivo GlxR-binding sites. In vitro binding assays and promoter-reporter assays demonstrated that GlxR directly activates expression of genes for aerobic respiration, ATP synthesis, and glycolysis and that it is required for expression of genes for cell separation and mechanosensitive channels. GlxR also directly represses a citrate uptake gene in the presence of citrate. Moreover, ChIP-chip analyses showed that GlxR was still able to interact with its target sites in a mutant with a deletion of cyaB, the sole adenylate cyclase gene in the genome, even though binding affinity was markedly decreased. Thus, GlxR is physiologically functional at the relatively low cAMP levels in the cyaB mutant, allowing the cyaB mutant to grow much better than the glxR mutant. PMID:21665967

  18. Distinct phosphorylation sites on the ghrelin receptor, GHSR1a, establish a code that determines the functions of ß-arrestins.

    PubMed

    Bouzo-Lorenzo, Monica; Santo-Zas, Icía; Lodeiro, Maria; Nogueiras, Rubén; Casanueva, Felipe F; Castro, Marian; Pazos, Yolanda; Tobin, Andrew B; Butcher, Adrian J; Camiña, Jesús P

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHSR1a, mediates the biological activities of ghrelin, which includes the secretion of growth hormone, as well as the stimulation of appetite, food intake and maintenance of energy homeostasis. Mapping phosphorylation sites on GHSR1a and knowledge of how these sites control specific functional consequences unlocks new strategies for the development of therapeutic agents targeting individual functions. Herein, we have identified the phosphorylation of different sets of sites within GHSR1a which engender distinct functionality of ß-arrestins. More specifically, the Ser(362), Ser(363) and Thr(366) residues at the carboxyl-terminal tail were primarily responsible for ß-arrestin 1 and 2 binding, internalization and ß-arrestin-mediated proliferation and adipogenesis. The Thr(350) and Ser(349) are not necessary for ß-arrestin recruitment, but are involved in the stabilization of the GHSR1a-ß-arrestin complex in a manner that determines the ultimate cellular consequences of ß-arrestin signaling. We further demonstrated that the mitogenic and adipogenic effect of ghrelin were mainly dependent on the ß-arrestin bound to the phosphorylated GHSR1a. In contrast, the ghrelin function on GH secretion was entirely mediated by G protein signaling. Our data is consistent with the hypothesis that the phosphorylation pattern on the C terminus of GHSR1a determines the signaling and physiological output. PMID:26935831

  19. Distinct phosphorylation sites on the ghrelin receptor, GHSR1a, establish a code that determines the functions of ß-arrestins

    PubMed Central

    Bouzo-Lorenzo, Monica; Santo-Zas, Icía; Lodeiro, Maria; Nogueiras, Rubén; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Castro, Marian; Pazos, Yolanda; Tobin, Andrew B; Butcher, Adrian J.; Camiña, Jesús P.

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHSR1a, mediates the biological activities of ghrelin, which includes the secretion of growth hormone, as well as the stimulation of appetite, food intake and maintenance of energy homeostasis. Mapping phosphorylation sites on GHSR1a and knowledge of how these sites control specific functional consequences unlocks new strategies for the development of therapeutic agents targeting individual functions. Herein, we have identified the phosphorylation of different sets of sites within GHSR1a which engender distinct functionality of ß-arrestins. More specifically, the Ser362, Ser363 and Thr366 residues at the carboxyl-terminal tail were primarily responsible for ß-arrestin 1 and 2 binding, internalization and ß-arrestin-mediated proliferation and adipogenesis. The Thr350 and Ser349 are not necessary for ß-arrestin recruitment, but are involved in the stabilization of the GHSR1a-ß-arrestin complex in a manner that determines the ultimate cellular consequences of ß-arrestin signaling. We further demonstrated that the mitogenic and adipogenic effect of ghrelin were mainly dependent on the ß-arrestin bound to the phosphorylated GHSR1a. In contrast, the ghrelin function on GH secretion was entirely mediated by G protein signaling. Our data is consistent with the hypothesis that the phosphorylation pattern on the C terminus of GHSR1a determines the signaling and physiological output. PMID:26935831

  20. Double mutagenesis of a positive charge cluster in the ligand-binding site of the ferric enterobactin receptor, FepA.

    PubMed

    Newton, S M; Allen, J S; Cao, Z; Qi, Z; Jiang, X; Sprencel, C; Igo, J D; Foster, S B; Payne, M A; Klebba, P E

    1997-04-29

    Siderophores and colicins enter bacterial cells through TonB-dependent outer membrane proteins. Using site-directed substitution mutagenesis, we studied ligand recognition by a prototypic Escherichia coli siderophore receptor, FepA, that binds the iron chelate ferric enterobactin and colicins B and D. These genetic experiments identified a common binding site for two of the three ligands, containing multiple positive charges, within cell surface residues of FepA. Elimination of single residues in this region did not impair the adsorption or transport of ferric enterobactin, but double mutagenesis in the charge cluster identified amino acids (Arg-286 and Arg-316) that participate in siderophore binding and function in FepA-mediated killing by colicins B and D. Ferric enterobactin binding, furthermore, prevented covalent modification of FepA within this domain by either a fluorescent probe or an arginine-specific reagent, corroborating the involvement of this site in ligand recognition. These results identify, for the first time, residues in a TonB-dependent outer membrane protein that participate in ligand binding. They also explain the competition between ferric enterobactin and the colicins on the bacterial cell surface: all three ligands interact with the same arginine residues within FepA during their penetration through the outer membrane. PMID:9114029

  1. Mutation of light-dependent phosphorylation sites of the Drosophila transient receptor potential-like (TRPL) ion channel affects its subcellular localization and stability.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Alexander C; Oberacker, Tina; Pfannstiel, Jens; Weigold, Sebastian; Will, Carina; Huber, Armin

    2013-05-31

    The Drosophila phototransduction cascade terminates in the opening of the ion channel transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL). Contrary to TRP, TRPL undergoes light-dependent subcellular trafficking between rhabdomeric photoreceptor membranes and an intracellular storage compartment, resulting in long term light adaptation. Here, we identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of TRPL that affect TRPL stability and localization. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed a light-dependent change in the TRPL phosphorylation pattern. Mutation of eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites neither affected multimerization of the channels nor the electrophysiological response of flies expressing the mutated channels. However, these mutations resulted in mislocalization and enhanced degradation of TRPL after prolonged dark-adaptation. Mutation of subsets of the eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites also led to a reduction of TRPL content and partial mislocalization in the dark. This suggests that a light-dependent switch in the phosphorylation pattern of the TRPL channel mediates stable expression of TRPL in the rhabdomeres upon prolonged dark-adaptation. PMID:23592784

  2. Mutation of Light-dependent Phosphorylation Sites of the Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential-like (TRPL) Ion Channel Affects Its Subcellular Localization and Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Cerny, Alexander C.; Oberacker, Tina; Pfannstiel, Jens; Weigold, Sebastian; Will, Carina; Huber, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila phototransduction cascade terminates in the opening of the ion channel transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL). Contrary to TRP, TRPL undergoes light-dependent subcellular trafficking between rhabdomeric photoreceptor membranes and an intracellular storage compartment, resulting in long term light adaptation. Here, we identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of TRPL that affect TRPL stability and localization. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed a light-dependent change in the TRPL phosphorylation pattern. Mutation of eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites neither affected multimerization of the channels nor the electrophysiological response of flies expressing the mutated channels. However, these mutations resulted in mislocalization and enhanced degradation of TRPL after prolonged dark-adaptation. Mutation of subsets of the eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites also led to a reduction of TRPL content and partial mislocalization in the dark. This suggests that a light-dependent switch in the phosphorylation pattern of the TRPL channel mediates stable expression of TRPL in the rhabdomeres upon prolonged dark-adaptation. PMID:23592784

  3. Mapping of the acetylcholine binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: ( sup 3 H)nicotine as an agonist photoaffinity label

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, R.E.; Cohen, J.B. )

    1991-07-16

    The agonist ({sup 3}H)nicotine was used as a photoaffinity label for the acetylcholine binding sties on the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). ({sup 3}H)Nicotine binds at equilibrium with K{sub eq} = 0.6 {mu}M to the agonist binding sites. Irradiation with 254-nm light of AChR-rich membranes equilibrated with ({sup 3}H)nicotine resulted in covalent incorporation into the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits, which was inhibited by agonists and competitive antagonists but not by noncompetitive antagonists. Inhibition of labeling by d-tubocurarine demonstrated that the {alpha}-subunit was labeled via both agonist sites but the {gamma}-subunit was labeled only via the site that binds d-tubocurarine with high affinity. Chymotryptic digestion of the {alpha}-subunit confirmed that Try-198 was the principal amino acid labeled by ({sup 3}H)nicotine. This confirmation required a novel radiosequencing strategy employing o-phthalaldehyde ({sup 3}H)Nicotine, which is the first photoaffinity agonist used, labels primarily Tyr-198 in contrast to competitive antagonist affinity labels, which label primarily Tyr-190 and Cys-192/Cys-193.

  4. Indole Glucocorticoid Receptor Antagonists Active in a Model of Dyslipidemia Act via a Unique Association with an Agonist Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Luz, John G; Carson, Matthew W; Condon, Bradley; Clawson, David; Pustilnik, Anna; Kohlman, Daniel T; Barr, Robert J; Bean, James S; Dill, M Joelle; Sindelar, Dana K; Maletic, Milan; Coghlan, Michael J

    2015-08-27

    To further elucidate the structural activity correlation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonism, the crystal structure of the GR ligand-binding domain (GR LBD) complex with a nonsteroidal antagonist, compound 8, was determined. This novel indole sulfonamide shows in vitro activity comparable to known GR antagonists such as mifepristone, and notably, this molecule lowers LDL (-74%) and raises HDL (+73%) in a hamster model of dyslipidemia. This is the first reported crystal structure of the GR LBD bound to a nonsteroidal antagonist, and this article provides additional elements for the design and pharmacology of clinically relevant nonsteroidal GR antagonists that may have greater selectivity and fewer side effects than their steroidal counterparts. PMID:26218343

  5. Methods and results of an evaluation of aquatic receptor risk at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Klima, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has historically released radionuclide chemicals of potential concern into the surrounding environment. The off-site environment was evaluated for Pu{sup 239/240} and Am{sup 241} occurrence. An evaluation of exposure and effects to the aquatic ecology within off-site areas including: Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, Mower Reservoir and portions of Big Dry Creek, Walnut Creek, and Woman Creek was performed for the completion of an Ecological Risk Assessment. Collocated sampling activities were performed for surface water, sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. Results of the analytical data were used to assess ongoing exposure and effects. Data collected to determine effects (chemical content of fish tissue, diversity and density of macroinvertebrate populations) provided some of the necessary information needed to evaluate risk. However, due to conditions of interfering stressor effects, a quantitative evaluation of exposure through modeling techniques was also required to assess risk attributable to chemical of potential concern (COPC) occurrence. This paper presents the methods and results of both the effects and exposure assessment techniques applicable for this site and for the determination of risk.

  6. Characterization of sulpipride-displaceable sup 3 H-YM-09151-2 binding sites in rat frontal cortex and the effects of subchronic treatment with haloperidol on cortical D-2 dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kazawa, Tetsushi; Higuchi, Teruhiko National Institute of Neuroscience, Tokyo ); Mikuni, Masahiko; Takahshi, Kiyohisa ); Arai, Ichiro; Yamauchi, Toshio )

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the pharmacological properties of the sulpiride-displaceable binding sites labeled by {sup 3}H-YM-09151-2 in rat frontal cortex, compared to those in striatum. The IC{sub 50} value of ketanserin was 486 nM, which was apparently different from its affinity for the 5HT-2 receptor. Various dopamine antagonists showed almost the same inhibitory effects for binding site in frontal cortex and striatum. Sulpiride-displaceable {sup 3}H-YM-09151-2 binding sites were considered to be D-2 dopamine receptors. After subchronic treatment with haloperidol, the D-2 receptor density of frontal cortex increased to the same extent as striatum without significant change in apparent affinity.

  7. Dimensions and ion selectivity of recombinant AMPA and kainate receptor channels and their dependence on Q/R site residues.

    PubMed Central

    Burnashev, N; Villarroel, A; Sakmann, B

    1996-01-01

    1. Recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR) subunits (GluR-A or GluR-B) and kainate receptor (KAR) subunit (GluR-6) in their unedited (Q)- and edited (R)-forms were expressed in HEK 293 cells. To estimate the dimensions of the narrow portion of these channels, biionic reversal potentials for organic cations of different mean diameters were determined with Cs+ as the internal reference ion. 2. Homomeric channels assembled from Q-form subunits were cation selective. The relation between the relative permeability and the mean size of different organic cations suggests that the diameter of the narrow portion of Q-form channels is approximately 0.78 nm for AMPAR and 0.75 nm for KAR channels. 3. Homomeric channels assembled from R-form subunits were permeant for anions and cations. When probed with CsC1 gradients the relative chloride permeability (PC1/PCs) was estimated as 0.14 for GluR-B(R) and 0.74 for GluR-6(R)-subunit channels. The permeability versus mean size relation for large cations measured with the weakly permeant F- as anion, indicates that for the R-form KAR channels the apparent pore diameter is close to 0.76 nm. 4. Heteromeric AMPAR and KAR channels co-assembled from Q- and R-form subunits were cation selective. The diameter of the narrow portion of these channels is estimated to be in the range between 0.70 and 0.74 nm. 5. The results indicated that the diameters of the narrow portion of AMPAR and KAR channels of different subunit composition and of widely different ion selectivity are comparable. Therefore, the differences in the anion versus cation selectivity, in Ca2+ permeability and in channel conductance are likely to be determined by the difference in charge density of the channel. PMID:8910205

  8. Site-Directed Mutations and the Polymorphic Variant Ala160Thr in the Human Thromboxane Receptor Uncover a Structural Role for Transmembrane Helix 4

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Raja; Pydi, Sai Prasad; Gleim, Scott; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Hwa, John; Chelikani, Prashen

    2012-01-01

    The human thromboxane A2 receptor (TP), belongs to the prostanoid subfamily of Class A GPCRs and mediates vasoconstriction and promotes thrombosis on binding to thromboxane (TXA2). In Class A GPCRs, transmembrane (TM) helix 4 appears to be a hot spot for non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphic (nsSNP) variants. Interestingly, A160T is a novel nsSNP variant with unknown structure and function. Additionally, within this helix in TP, Ala1604.53 is highly conserved as is Gly1644.57. Here we target Ala1604.53 and Gly1644.57 in the TP for detailed structure-function analysis. Amino acid replacements with smaller residues, A160S and G164A mutants, were tolerated, while bulkier beta-branched replacements, A160T and A160V showed a significant decrease in receptor expression (Bmax). The nsSNP variant A160T displayed significant agonist-independent activity (constitutive activity). Guided by molecular modeling, a series of compensatory mutations were made on TM3, in order to accommodate the bulkier replacements on TM4. The A160V/F115A double mutant showed a moderate increase in expression level compared to either A160V or F115A single mutants. Thermal activity assays showed decrease in receptor stability in the order, wild type>A160S>A160V>A160T>G164A, with G164A being the least stable. Our study reveals that Ala1604.53 and Gly1644.57 in the TP play critical structural roles in packing of TM3 and TM4 helices. Naturally occurring mutations in conjunction with site-directed replacements can serve as powerful tools in assessing the importance of regional helix-helix interactions. PMID:22272267

  9. Site-directed mutations and the polymorphic variant Ala160Thr in the human thromboxane receptor uncover a structural role for transmembrane helix 4.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Raja; Pydi, Sai Prasad; Gleim, Scott; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Hwa, John; Chelikani, Prashen

    2012-01-01

    The human thromboxane A2 receptor (TP), belongs to the prostanoid subfamily of Class A GPCRs and mediates vasoconstriction and promotes thrombosis on binding to thromboxane (TXA2). In Class A GPCRs, transmembrane (TM) helix 4 appears to be a hot spot for non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphic (nsSNP) variants. Interestingly, A160T is a novel nsSNP variant with unknown structure and function. Additionally, within this helix in TP, Ala160(4.53) is highly conserved as is Gly164(4.57). Here we target Ala160(4.53) and Gly164(4.57) in the TP for detailed structure-function analysis. Amino acid replacements with smaller residues, A160S and G164A mutants, were tolerated, while bulkier beta-branched replacements, A160T and A160V showed a significant decrease in receptor expression (Bmax). The nsSNP variant A160T displayed significant agonist-independent activity (constitutive activity). Guided by molecular modeling, a series of compensatory mutations were made on TM3, in order to accommodate the bulkier replacements on TM4. The A160V/F115A double mutant showed a moderate increase in expression level compared to either A160V or F115A single mutants. Thermal activity assays showed decrease in receptor stability in the order, wild type>A160S>A160V>A160T>G164A, with G164A being the least stable. Our study reveals that Ala160(4.53) and Gly164(4.57) in the TP play critical structural roles in packing of TM3 and TM4 helices. Naturally occurring mutations in conjunction with site-directed replacements can serve as powerful tools in assessing the importance of regional helix-helix interactions. PMID:22272267

  10. Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Effects on the binding activity with receptor sites and interactions between subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K W

    1976-01-01

    The reaction of iodoacetic acid with bovine lutropin (luteinizing hormone) at pH 3.0 was specific for methionine residues; it was slow and reached its equilibrium after 12 h at 37 degrees C. The number of modified methionine residues increased proportionately with the amount of the alkylating reagent in the reaction mixture. In the presence of a 20-fold molar excess of iodoacetic acid with respect to methionine, essentially all methionine residues in both subunits of bovine lutropin were carboxymethylated. Studies of various recombinations of modified and native alpha and beta subunits showed that methionine residues in bovine lutropin were not essential for interactions between subunits. Various recombinants were characterized by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and gel filtration of Sephadex G-100. Immunological cross-reactivity by radioimmunoassay of the recombinants of modified alpha and beta subunits was relatively similar to that of the native subunits. However, the biological activity measured by receptor-site binding of the recombinants of alpha and beta chains with a total of three alkylated methionine residues was less than 5% of the activity of native lutropin. It is noteworthy that recombinants of a modified subunit and a native counterpart subunit regenerated 20-30 % of biological activity. These findings suggested that at least 1-2 methionine residues in each subunit are involved in the hormone-receptor interaction for bovine lutropin. Images PLATE 1 PMID:187169

  11. Photolabeling reveals the proximity of the alpha-neurotoxin binding site to the M2 helix of the ion channel in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Machold, J; Utkin, Y; Kirsch, D; Kaufmann, R; Tsetlin, V; Hucho, F

    1995-01-01

    A photoactivatable derivative of neurotoxin II from Naja naja oxiana containing a 125I-labeled p-azidosalicylamidoethyl-1,3'-dithiopropyl label at Lys-25 forms a photo-induced cross-link with the delta subunit of the membrane-bound Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The cross-linked radioactive receptor peptide was isolated by reverse-phase HPLC after tryptic digestion of the labeled delta subunit. The sequence of this peptide, delta-(260-277), and the position of the label at Ala-268 were established by matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization mass spectrometry based on the molecular mass and on post-source decay fragment analysis. With the known dimensions of the AChR molecule, of the photolabel, and of alpha-neurotoxin, finding the cross-link at delta Ala-268 (located in the upper part of the channel-forming transmembrane helix M2) means that the center of the alpha-neurotoxin binding site is situated at least approximately 40 A from the extracellular surface of the AChR, proximal to the channel axis. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7543679

  12. SRC Homology 2 Domain Binding Sites in Insulin, IGF-1 and FGF receptor mediated signaling networks reveal an extensive potential interactome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Specific peptide ligand recognition by modular interaction domains is essential for the fidelity of information flow through the signal transduction networks that control cell behavior in response to extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli. Src homology 2 (SH2) domains recognize distinct phosphotyrosine peptide motifs, but the specific sites that are phosphorylated and the complement of available SH2 domains varies considerably in individual cell types. Such differences are the basis for a wide range of available protein interaction microstates from which signaling can evolve in highly divergent ways. This underlying complexity suggests the need to broadly map the signaling potential of systems as a prerequisite for understanding signaling in specific cell types as well as various pathologies that involve signal transduction such as cancer, developmental defects and metabolic disorders. This report describes interactions between SH2 domains and potential binding partners that comprise initial signaling downstream of activated fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin (Ins), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors. A panel of 50 SH2 domains screened against a set of 192 phosphotyrosine peptides defines an extensive potential interactome while demonstrating the selectivity of individual SH2 domains. The interactions described confirm virtually all previously reported associations while describing a large set of potential novel interactions that imply additional complexity in the signaling networks initiated from activated receptors. This study of pTyr ligand binding by SH2 domains provides valuable insight into the selectivity that underpins complex signaling networks that are assembled using modular protein interaction domains. PMID:22974441

  13. Inactivation of influenza virus haemagglutinin by chlorine dioxide: oxidation of the conserved tryptophan 153 residue in the receptor-binding site.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norio

    2012-12-01

    Airborne influenza virus infection of mice can be prevented by gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)). This study demonstrated that ClO(2) abolished the function of the haemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus (H1N1) in a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent manner. The IC(50) during a 2 min reaction with ClO(2) at 25 °C was 13.7 µM, and the half-life time of HA with 100 µM ClO(2) at 25 °C was 19.5 s. Peptides generated from a tryptic digest of ClO(2)-treated virus were analysed by mass spectrometry. An HA fragment, (150)NLLWLTGK(157) was identified in which the tryptophan residue (W153) was 32 mass units greater than expected. The W153 residue of this peptide, which is derived from the central region of the receptor-binding site of HA, is highly conserved. It was shown that W153 was oxidized to N-formylkynurenine in ClO(2)-treated virus. It was concluded that the inactivation of influenza virus by ClO(2) is caused by oxidation of W153 in HA, thereby abolishing its receptor-binding ability. PMID:22933663

  14. Identification of Tyr-703 and Tyr-936 as the primary association sites for Grb2 and Grb7 in the c-Kit/stem cell factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Thömmes, K; Lennartsson, J; Carlberg, M; Rönnstrand, L

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the presence of two novel in vivo autophosphorylation sites in the c-Kit/stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit/SCFR): Tyr-703 in the kinase insert and Tyr-936 in the C-terminal tail. We furthermore demonstrate that the adapter protein Grb2 is a specific binding partner for both phosphorylated Tyr-703 and phosphorylated Tyr-936, whereas the adapter protein Grb7 binds selectively to phosphorylated Tyr-936. It is shown that the association occurs through the Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of Grb2 and Grb7. Binding of Grb2 to Tyr-703 in the c-Kit/SCFR provides a link to the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. PMID:10377264

  15. Activation of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Decreases On-site Mortality in Crush Syndrome through Insulin Signaling-Na/K-ATPase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bo-Shi; Zhang, En-Hui; Wu, Miao; Guo, Jin-Min; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Xia; Yu, Jian-Guang

    2016-01-01

    On-site mortality in crush syndrome remains high due to lack of effective drugs based on definite diagnosis. Anisodamine (Ani) is widely used in China for treatment of shock, and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) mediates such antishock effect. The present work was designed to test whether activation of α7nAChR with Ani decreased mortality in crush syndrome shortly after decompression. Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice with crush syndrome were injected with Ani (20 mg/kg and 28 mg/kg respectively, i.p.) 30 min before decompression. Survival time, serum potassium, insulin, and glucose levels were observed shortly after decompression. Involvement of α7nAChR was verified with methyllycaconitine (selective α7nAChR antagonist) and PNU282987 (selective α7nAChR agonist), or in α7nAChR knockout mice. Effect of Ani was also appraised in C2C12 myotubes. Ani reduced mortality and serum potassium and enhanced insulin sensitivity shortly after decompression in animals with crush syndrome, and PNU282987 exerted similar effects. Such effects were counteracted by methyllycaconitine or in α7nAChR knockout mice. Mortality and serum potassium in rats with hyperkalemia were also reduced by Ani. Phosphorylation of Na/K-ATPase was enhanced by Ani in C2C12 myotubes. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase on insulin receptor, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and Na/K-ATPase counteracted the effect of Ani on extracellular potassium. These findings demonstrated that activation of α7nAChR could decrease on-site mortality in crush syndrome, at least in part based on the decline of serum potassium through insulin signaling-Na/K-ATPase pathway. PMID:27065867

  16. Saturable binding of /sup 35/S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the sites linked to the GABA receptor and the interaction with gabaergic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.T.; Threlkeld, P.G.; Bymaster, F.P.; Squires, R.F.

    1984-02-27

    /sup 35/S-t-Butylbicyclophosphorothionate (/sup 35/S-TBPS) binds in a concentration-saturable manner to specific sites on membranes from rat cerebral cortex. Using a filtration assay at 25/sup 0/C, in 250 mM NaCl, specific binding of /sup 35/S-TBPS constitutes about 84 to 94 percent of total binding, depending on radioligand concentrations. /sup 35/S-TBPS binding is optimal in the presence of NaCl or NaBr and substantially less in the presence of NaI or NaF. It is sensitive to the treatment with 0.05 percent Triton X-100 but not to repeated freezing and thawing, procedures which increase /sup 3/H-GABA binding. Pharmacological studies show that /sup 35/S-TBPS binding is strongly inhibited by GABA-A receptor agonists (e.g., GABA and muscimol) and by the noncompetitive antagonist, picrotoxin, but not the competitive antagonist, bicuculline. Compounds which enhance binding of radioactive GABA and benzodiazepines, such as the pyrazolopyridines, cartazolate and tracazolate, and a diaryltriazine, LY81067, are also potent inhibitors of /sup 35/S-TBPS binding, with LY81067 being the most effective. The effects of GABA, picrotoxin and LY81067 on the saturable binding of /sup 35/S-TBPS in cortical membranes are compared. The present findings are consistent with the interpretation that /sup 35/S-TBPS bind at or near the picrotoxin-sensitive anion recognition sites of the GABA/benzodiazepine/picrotoxin receptor complex.

  17. Open challenges in structure-based virtual screening: Receptor modeling, target flexibility consideration and active site water molecules description.

    PubMed

    Spyrakis, Francesca; Cavasotto, Claudio N

    2015-10-01

    Structure-based virtual screening is currently an established tool in drug lead discovery projects. Although in the last years the field saw an impressive progress in terms of algorithm development, computational performance, and retrospective and prospective applications in ligand identification, there are still long-standing challenges where further improvement is needed. In this review, we consider the conceptual frame, state-of-the-art and recent developments of three critical "structural" issues in structure-based drug lead discovery: the use of homology modeling to accurately model the binding site when no experimental structures are available, the necessity of accounting for the dynamics of intrinsically flexible systems as proteins, and the importance of considering active site water molecules in lead identification and optimization campaigns. PMID:26271444

  18. Differential α4(+)/(-)β2 Agonist-binding Site Contributions to α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function within and between Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Linda M; Weltzin, Maegan M; Eaton, J Brek; Cooper, John F; Lindstrom, Jon M; Lukas, Ronald J; Whiteaker, Paul

    2016-01-29

    Two α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4β2-nAChR) isoforms exist with (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2 subunit stoichiometries and high versus low agonist sensitivities (HS and LS), respectively. Both isoforms contain a pair of α4(+)/(-)β2 agonist-binding sites. The LS isoform also contains a unique α4(+)/(-)α4 site with lower agonist affinity than the α4(+)/(-)β2 sites. However, the relative roles of the conserved α4(+)/(-)β2 agonist-binding sites in and between the isoforms have not been studied. We used a fully linked subunit concatemeric nAChR approach to express pure populations of HS or LS isoform α4β2*-nAChR. This approach also allowed us to mutate individual subunit interfaces, or combinations thereof, on each isoform background. We used this approach to systematically mutate a triplet of β2 subunit (-)-face E-loop residues to their non-conserved α4 subunit counterparts or vice versa (β2HQT and α4VFL, respectively). Mutant-nAChR constructs (and unmodified controls) were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Acetylcholine concentration-response curves and maximum function were measured using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. Surface expression was measured with (125)I-mAb 295 binding and was used to define function/nAChR. If the α4(+)/(-)β2 sites contribute equally to function, making identical β2HQT substitutions at either site should produce similar functional outcomes. Instead, highly differential outcomes within the HS isoform, and between the two isoforms, were observed. In contrast, α4VFL mutation effects were very similar in all positions of both isoforms. Our results indicate that the identity of subunits neighboring the otherwise equivalent α4(+)/(-)β2 agonist sites modifies their contributions to nAChR activation and that E-loop residues are an important contributor to this neighbor effect. PMID:26644472

  19. Isolating the Epstein-Barr virus gp350/220 binding site on complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21).

    PubMed

    Young, Kendra A; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Holers, V Michael; Hannan, Jonathan P

    2007-12-14

    Complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) is essential for the attachment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to the surface of B-lymphocytes in an interaction mediated by the viral envelope glycoprotein gp350. The heavily glycosylated structure of EBV gp350 has recently been elucidated by x-ray crystallography, and the CR2 binding site on this protein has been characterized. To identify the corresponding gp350 binding site on CR2, we have undertaken a site-directed mutagenesis study targeting regions of CR2 that have previously been implicated in the binding of CR2 to the C3d/C3dg fragments of complement component C3. Wild-type or mutant forms of CR2 were expressed on K562 cells, and the ability of these CR2-expressing cells to bind gp350 was measured using flow cytometry. Mutations directed toward the two N-terminal extracellular domains of CR2 (SCR1-2) reveal that a large contiguous surface of CR2 SCR1-2 is involved in gp350 binding, including a number of positively charged residues (Arg-13, (Arg-28, (Arg-36, Lys-41, Lys-57, Lys-67, and Arg-83). These data appear to complement the CR2 binding site on gp350, which is characterized by a preponderance of negative charge. In addition to identifying the importance of charge in the formation of a CR2-gp350 complex, we also provide evidence that both SCR1 and SCR2 make contact with gp350. Specifically, two anti-CR2 monoclonal antibodies, designated as monoclonal antibodies 171 and 1048 whose primary epitopes are located within SCR2, inhibit binding of wild-type CR2 to EBV gp350; with regard to SCR1, both K562 cells expressing an S15P mutation and recombinant S15P CR2 proteins exhibit diminished gp350 binding. PMID:17925391

  20. Chronic mild stress and antidepressant treatment alter 5-HT1A receptor expression by modifying DNA methylation of a conserved Sp4 site

    PubMed Central

    Le François, Brice; Soo, Jeremy; Millar, Anne M.; Daigle, Mireille; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Leman, Samuel; Minier, Frédéric; Belzung, Catherine; Albert, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A), a critical regulator of the brain serotonergic tone, is implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) where it is often found to be dys-regulated. However, the extent to which stress and antidepressant treatment impact 5-HT1A expression in adults remains unclear. To address this issue, we subjected adult male BALB/c mice to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) to induce a depression-like phenotype that was reversed by chronic treatment with the antidepressant imipramine. In prefrontal cortex (PFC) and midbrain tissue, UCMS increased 5-HT1A RNA and protein levels, changes that are expected to decrease the brain serotonergic activity. The stress-induced increase in 5-HT1A expression was paralleled by a specific increase in DNA methylation of the conserved -681 CpG promoter site, located within a Sp1-like element. We show that the -681 CpG site is recognized and repressed by Sp4, the predominant neuronal Sp1-like factor and that Sp4-induced repression is attenuated by DNA methylation, despite a stress-induced increase in PFC Sp4 levels. These results indicate that adult life stress induces DNA methylation of the conserved promoter site, antagonizing Sp4 repression to increase 5-HT1A expression. Chronic imipramine treatment fully reversed the UCMS-induced increase in methylation of the -681 CpG site in the PFC but not midbrain of stressed animals and also increased 5-HT1A expression in the PFC of control animals. Incomplete reversal by imipramine of stress-induced changes in 5-HT1A methylation and expression indicates a persistence of stress vulnerability, and that sustained reversal of behavioral impairments may require additional pathways. PMID:26188176

  1. Chronic mild stress and antidepressant treatment alter 5-HT1A receptor expression by modifying DNA methylation of a conserved Sp4 site.

    PubMed

    Le François, Brice; Soo, Jeremy; Millar, Anne M; Daigle, Mireille; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Leman, Samuel; Minier, Frédéric; Belzung, Catherine; Albert, Paul R

    2015-10-01

    The serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A), a critical regulato