Berenstein, David; Pinansky, Samuel
2007-05-01
This paper discusses the minimal quiver gauge theory embedding of the standard model that could arise from brane world type string theory constructions. It is based on the low energy effective field theory of D branes in the perturbative regime. The model differs from the standard model by the addition of one extra massive gauge boson, and contains only one additional parameter to the standard model: the mass of this new particle. The coupling of this new particle to the standard model is uniquely determined by input from the standard model and consistency conditions of perturbative string theory. We also study some aspects of the phenomenology of this model and bounds on its possible observation at the Large Hadron Collider.
Marciano, W.J.
1985-01-01
The ''standard'' SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) model of strong and electroweak interactions elegantly incorporates all the proven symmetries and successes of the quark model, quantum electrodynamics, and the Four-Fermi theory. It correctly predicted weak neutral currents as well as the existence and properties of W/sup + -/, Z and gluons. ''Only'' the predicted Higgs scalar boson remains undiscovered. At this time there are no solid experimental results that cannot be accommodated by the standard model (at the 1 or 2 sigma level). Nevertheless, we do anticipate the emergence of new physics, beyond standard model expectations, which will hopefully provide guidance for theoretical advancement. Indeed, hints of some new phenomena may already be starting to appear in the CERN anti pp collider data. Details are discussed. 65 refs.
The standard cosmological model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, D.
2006-06-01
The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SMPP) is an enormously successful description of high-energy physics, driving ever more precise measurements to find "physics beyond the standard model", as well as providing motivation for developing more fundamental ideas that might explain the values of its parameters. Simultaneously, a description of the entire three-dimensional structure of the present-day Universe is being built up painstakingly. Most of the structure is stochastic in nature, being merely the result of the particular realization of the "initial conditions" within our observable Universe patch. However, governing this structure is the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC), which appears to require only about a dozen parameters. Cosmologists are now determining the values of these quantities with increasing precision to search for "physics beyond the standard model", as well as trying to develop an understanding of the more fundamental ideas that might explain the values of its parameters. Although it is natural to see analogies between the two Standard Models, some intrinsic differences also exist, which are discussed here. Nevertheless, a truly fundamental theory will have to explain both the SMPP and SMC, and this must include an appreciation of which elements are deterministic and which are accidental. Considering different levels of stochasticity within cosmology may make it easier to accept that physical parameters in general might have a nondeterministic aspect.
Peskin, M.E.
1997-05-01
These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.
Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab
2010-05-01
'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest - to those who get close enough to listen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Connes, Alain
2008-01-01
The Standard Model is based on the gauge invariance principle with gauge group U(1)×SU(2)×SU(3) and suitable representations for fermions and bosons, which are begging for a conceptual understanding. We propose a purely gravitational explanation: space-time has a fine structure given as a product of a four-dimensional continuum by a finite noncommutative geometry F. The raison d'être for F is to correct the K-theoretic dimension from four to ten (modulo eight). We classify the irreducible finite noncommutative geometries of K-theoretic dimension six and show that the dimension (per generation) is a square of an integer k. Under an additional hypothesis of quaternion linearity, the geometry which reproduces the Standard Model is singled out (and one gets k=4) with the correct quantum numbers for all fields. The spectral action applied to the product M×F delivers the full Standard Model, with neutrino mixing, coupled to gravity, and makes predictions (the number of generations is still an input).
Marciano, W.J.
1994-03-01
In these lectures, my aim is to provide a survey of the standard model with emphasis on its renormalizability and electroweak radiative corrections. Since this is a school, I will try to be somewhat pedagogical by providing examples of loop calculations. In that way, I hope to illustrate some of the commonly employed tools of particle physics. With those goals in mind, I have organized my presentations as follows: In Section 2, renormalization is discussed from an applied perspective. The technique of dimensional regularization is described and used to define running couplings and masses. The utility of the renormalization group for computing leading logs is illustrated for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. In Section 3 electroweak radiative corrections are discussed. Standard model predictions are surveyed and used to constrain the top quark mass. The S, T, and U parameters are introduced and employed to probe for ``new physics``. The effect of Z{prime} bosons on low energy phenomenology is described. In Section 4, a detailed illustration of electroweak radiative corrections is given for atomic parity violation. Finally, in Section 5, I conclude with an outlook for the future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espin, Johnny; Krasnov, Kirill
2015-06-01
It is known, though not commonly, that one can describe fermions using a second order in derivatives Lagrangian instead of the first order Dirac one. In this description the propagator is scalar, and the complexity is shifted to the vertex, which contains a derivative operator. In this paper we rewrite the Lagrangian of the fermionic sector of the Standard Model in such second order form. The new Lagrangian is extremely compact, and is obtained from the usual first order Lagrangian by integrating out all primed (or dotted) 2-component spinors. It thus contains just half of the 2-component spinors that appear in the usual Lagrangian, which suggests a new perspective on unification. We sketch a natural in this framework SU (2) × SU (4) ⊂ SO (9) unified theory.
Phenomenology beyond the standard model
Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab
2005-03-01
An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.
Bellantoni, L.
2009-11-01
There are many recent results from searches for fundamental new physics using the TeVatron, the SLAC b-factory and HERA. This talk quickly reviewed searches for pair-produced stop, for gauge-mediated SUSY breaking, for Higgs bosons in the MSSM and NMSSM models, for leptoquarks, and v-hadrons. There is a SUSY model which accommodates the recent astrophysical experimental results that suggest that dark matter annihilation is occurring in the center of our galaxy, and a relevant experimental result. Finally, model-independent searches at D0, CDF, and H1 are discussed.
Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper describes the development of standard and reference atmosphere models along with the history of their origin and use since the mid 19th century. The first "Standard Atmospheres" were established by international agreement in the 1920's. Later some countries, notably the United States, also developed and published "Standard Atmospheres". The term "Reference Atmospheres" is used to identify atmosphere models for specific geographical locations. Range Reference Atmosphere Models developed first during the 1960's are examples of these descriptions of the atmosphere. This paper discusses the various models, scopes, applications and limitations relative to use in aerospace industry activities.
Dynamics of the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donoghue, John F.; Golowich, Eugene; Holstein, Barry R.
2014-04-01
Preface; 1. Inputs to the Standard Model; 2. Interactions of the Standard Model; 3. Symmetries and anomalies; 4. Introduction to effective field theory; 5. Charged leptons; 6. Neutrinos; 7. Effective field theory for low energy QCD; 8. Weak interactions of Kaons; 9. Mass mixing and CP violation; 10. The Nc-1 expansion; 11. Phenomenological models; 12. Baryon properties; 13. Hadron spectroscopy; 14. Weak interactions of heavy quarks; 15. The Higgs boson; 16. The electroweak sector; Appendixes; References; Index.
MODeLeR: A Virtual Constructivist Learning Environment and Methodology for Object-Oriented Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coffey, John W.; Koonce, Robert
2008-01-01
This article contains a description of the organization and method of use of an active learning environment named MODeLeR, (Multimedia Object Design Learning Resource), a tool designed to facilitate the learning of concepts pertaining to object modeling with the Unified Modeling Language (UML). MODeLeR was created to provide an authentic,…
Colorado Model Content Standards: Science
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado Department of Education, 2007
2007-01-01
The Colorado Model Content Standards for Science specify what all students should know and be able to do in science as a result of their school studies. Specific expectations are given for students completing grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Five standards outline the essential level of science knowledge and skills needed by Colorado citizens to…
UPWT check standard model test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
Installation of the check standard model in test section 2 of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). Testing was conducted as part of a Data Quality Control assessment in the Research Facilities Branch/Aerodynamics Aerothermodynamics Acoustics Competency.
Dynamics of the standard model
Donoghue, J.F.; Golowich, E.; Holstein, B.R.
1992-01-01
Given the remarkable successes of the standard model, it is appropriate that books in the field no longer dwell on the development of our current understanding of high-energy physics but rather present the world as we now know it. Dynamics of the Standard Model by Donoghue, Golowich, and Holstein takes just this approach. Instead of showing the confusion of the 60s and 70s, the authors present the enlightenment of the 80s. They start by describing the basic features and structure of the standard model and then concentrate on the techniques whereby the model can be applied to the physical world, connecting the theory to the experimental results that are the source of its success. Because they do not dwell on ancient (pre-1980) history, the authors of this book are able to go into much more depth in describing how the model can be tied to experiment, and much of the information presented has been accessible previously only in journal articles in a highly technical form. Though all of the authors are card-carrying theorists they go out of their way to stress applications and phenomenology and to show the reader how real-life calculations of use to experimentalists are done and can be applied to physical situations: what assumptions are made in doing them and how well they work. This is of great value both to the experimentalist seeking a deeper understanding of how the standard model can be connected to data and to the theorist wanting to see how detailed the phenomenological predictions of the standard model are and how well the model works. Furthermore, the authors constantly go beyond the lowest-order predictions of the standard model to discuss the corrections to it, as well as higher-order processes, some of which are now experimentally accessible and others of which will take well into the decade to uncover.
The standard model and colliders
Hinchliffe, I.
1987-03-01
Some topics in the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions are discussed, as well as how these topics are relevant for the high energy colliders which will become operational in the next few years. The radiative corrections in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model are discussed, stressing how these corrections may be measured at LEP and the SLC. CP violation is discussed briefly, followed by a discussion of the Higgs boson and the searches which are relevant to hadron colliders are then discussed. Some of the problems which the standard model does not solve are discussed, and the energy ranges accessible to the new colliders are indicated. (LEW)
CoLeMo: A Collaborative Learning Environment for UML Modelling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Weiqin; Pedersen, Roger Heggernes; Pettersen, Oystein
2006-01-01
This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a distributed collaborative UML modelling environment, CoLeMo. CoLeMo is designed for students studying UML modelling. It can also be used as a platform for collaborative design of software. We conducted formative evaluations and a summative evaluation to improve the environment and…
The New Minimal Standard Model
Davoudiasl, Hooman; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li, Tianjun; Murayama, Hitoshi
2005-01-13
We construct the New Minimal Standard Model that incorporates the new discoveries of physics beyond the Minimal Standard Model (MSM): Dark Energy, non-baryonic Dark Matter, neutrino masses, as well as baryon asymmetry and cosmic inflation, adopting the principle of minimal particle content and the most general renormalizable Lagrangian. We base the model purely on empirical facts rather than aesthetics. We need only six new degrees of freedom beyond the MSM. It is free from excessive flavor-changing effects, CP violation, too-rapid proton decay, problems with electroweak precision data, and unwanted cosmological relics. Any model of physics beyond the MSM should be measured against the phenomenological success of this model.
Standard model of knowledge representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Wensheng
2016-03-01
Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.
Marciano, W.J.
1989-05-01
In these lectures, my aim is to present a status report on the standard model and some key tests of electroweak unification. Within that context, I also discuss how and where hints of new physics may emerge. To accomplish those goals, I have organized my presentation as follows. I survey the standard model parameters with particular emphasis on the gauge coupling constants and vector boson masses. Examples of new physics appendages are also commented on. In addition, I have included an appendix on dimensional regularization and a simple example which employs that technique. I focus on weak charged current phenomenology. Precision tests of the standard model are described and up-to-date values for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix parameters are presented. Constraints implied by those tests for a 4th generation, extra Z' bosons, and compositeness are discussed. An overview of the physics of tau decays is also included. I discuss weak neutral current phenomenology and the extraction of sin/sup 2//theta/W from experiment. The results presented there are based on a global analysis of all existing data. I have chosen to concentrate that discussion on radiative corrections, the effect of a heavy top quark mass, implications for grand unified theories (GUTS), extra Z' gauge bosons, and atomic parity violation. The potential for further experimental progress is also commented on. Finally, I depart from the narrowest version of the standard model and discuss effects of neutrino masses, mixings, and electromagnetic moments. 32 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs
Model Standards Advance the Profession
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Journal of Staff Development, 2011
2011-01-01
Leadership by teachers is essential to serving the needs of students, schools, and the teaching profession. To that end, the Teacher Leadership Exploratory Consortium has developed Teacher Leader Model Standards to codify, promote, and support teacher leadership as a vehicle to transform schools for the needs of the 21st century. The Teacher…
Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russo, Dane M.
2010-01-01
Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milton, Kimball A.; Kantowski, Ronald; Samuel, Mark A.
1991-07-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Electroweak Symmetry-Breaking Effects at Colliders * Precision Tests of the Electroweak Theory * Hadron Colliders: B Factories for Now and the Future * The MSW Effect as the Solution to the Solar Neutrino Problem * New Physics Effects from String Models * Strings and Large N QCD * Searching for Millicharged Particles * Recent Results from CLEO * Standard Model Investigations at ALEPH * Z0 Couplings to Hadrons and Charged Leptons * Is Chiral Symmetry Restored at High Temperatures? * Fermion Masses out of Radiative Corrections * Extra Z and Atomic Parity Violation * Lepton Number and Supersymmetry * The Mass Generation in the Standard Electroweak Theory * GRANDE: A Neutrino Telescope for Arkansas * Neutrino and Gravitational Radiation Observations from Supernovae * Supersymmetric Contributions to the Neutrino Magnetic Moment * Observables from p overline {p} rightarrow {W^+X} rightarrow {e^+vX} Beyond Leading Order * Random Walks on p-adic Numbers * Solar Neutrino Puzzle and Physics Beyond the Standard Model * The SFT: A Super Fixed Target Beauty Facility at the SSC * Non-Standard Stellar Evolution * Analogous Behavior in the Quantum Hall Effect, Anyon Superconductivity, and the Standard Model * Gauge Boson Dynamics * Rare Decays and CP Asymmetries in Charged B Decays * Total Hadronic Cross-section in e+e- Annihilation at the Four-loop Level of Perturbative QCD * Neutrino Oscillations and Solar Neutrinos * Canonical Quantization of Axial Gauges: Perturbative and Non-perturbative Implications * Large Technicolor Effect at Z0 * Finite Size Scaling for Heavy Mesons in the Continuum * Are There Electroweak Skyrmions? * Testing the Flipped String * Virasoro Constructions from Twisted Kac-Moody Algebras * Electroweak Symmetry Breaking by Fourth Generation Quark and Lepton Condensates * Novel Extension of the Standard Model * O * Interpreting Precision Measurements * Rare K Decays: Present Status and
Gaillard, M.K.
1989-05-01
The field of elementary particle, or high energy, physics seeks to identify the most elementary constituents of nature and to study the forces that govern their interactions. Increasing the energy of a probe in a laboratory experiment increases its power as an effective microscope for discerning increasingly smaller structures of matter. Thus we have learned that matter is composed of molecules that are in turn composed of atoms, that the atom consists of a nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons, and that the atomic nucleus is a collection of protons and neutrons. The more powerful probes provided by high energy particle accelerators have taught us that a nucleon is itself made of objects called quarks. The forces among quarks and electrons are understood within a general theoretical framework called the ''standard model,'' that accounts for all interactions observed in high energy laboratory experiments to date. These are commonly categorized as the ''strong,'' ''weak'' and ''electromagnetic'' interactions. In this lecture I will describe the standard model, and point out some of its limitations. Probing for deeper structures in quarks and electrons defines the present frontier of particle physics. I will discuss some speculative ideas about extensions of the standard model and/or yet more fundamental forces that may underlie our present picture. 11 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gunion, John F.; Han, Tao; Ohnemus, James
1995-08-01
The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Organizing and Advisory Committees * PLENARY SESSIONS * Looking Beyond the Standard Model from LEP1 and LEP2 * Virtual Effects of Physics Beyond the Standard Model * Extended Gauge Sectors * CLEO's Views Beyond the Standard Model * On Estimating Perturbative Coefficients in Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Physics * Perturbative Corrections to Inclusive Heavy Hadron Decay * Some Recent Developments in Sphalerons * Searching for New Matter Particles at Future Colliders * Issues in Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking * Present Status of Fermilab Collider Accelerator Upgrades * The Extraordinary Scientific Opportunities from Upgrading Fermilab's Luminosity ≥ 1033 cm-2 sec-1 * Applications of Effective Lagrangians * Collider Phenomenology for Strongly Interacting Electroweak Sector * Physics of Self-Interacting Electroweak Bosons * Particle Physics at a TeV-Scale e+e- Linear Collider * Physics at γγ and eγ Colliders * Challenges for Non-Minimal Higgs Searchers at Future Colliders * Physics Potential and Development of μ+μ- Colliders * Beyond Standard Quantum Chromodynamics * Extracting Predictions from Supergravity/Superstrings for the Effective Theory Below the Planck Scale * Non-Universal SUSY Breaking, Hierarchy and Squark Degeneracy * Supersymmetric Phenomenology in the Light of Grand Unification * A Survey of Phenomenological Constraints on Supergravity Models * Precision Tests of the MSSM * The Search for Supersymmetry * Neutrino Physics * Neutrino Mass: Oscillations and Hot Dark Matter * Dark Matter and Large-Scale Structure * Electroweak Baryogenesis * Progress in Searches for Non-Baryonic Dark Matter * Big Bang Nucleosynthesis * Flavor Tests of Quark-Lepton * Where are We Coming from? What are We? Where are We Going? * Summary, Perspectives * PARALLEL SESSIONS * SUSY Phenomenology I * Is Rb Telling us that Superpartners will soon be Discovered? * Dark Matter in Constrained Minimal
Gaillard, M.K.
1983-04-01
Focussing on the standard electroweak model, we examine physics issues which may be addressed with the help of intense beams of strange particles. I have collected miscellany of issues, starting with some philosophical remarks on how things stand and where we should go from here. I will then focus on a case study: the decay K/sup +/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/ + nothing observable, which provides a nice illustration of the type of physics that can be probed through rare decays. Other topics I will mention are CP violation in K-decays, hyperon and anti-hyperon physics, and a few random comments on other relevant phenomena.
Standard for Models and Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steele, Martin J.
2016-01-01
This NASA Technical Standard establishes uniform practices in modeling and simulation to ensure essential requirements are applied to the design, development, and use of models and simulations (MS), while ensuring acceptance criteria are defined by the program project and approved by the responsible Technical Authority. It also provides an approved set of requirements, recommendations, and criteria with which MS may be developed, accepted, and used in support of NASA activities. As the MS disciplines employed and application areas involved are broad, the common aspects of MS across all NASA activities are addressed. The discipline-specific details of a given MS should be obtained from relevant recommended practices. The primary purpose is to reduce the risks associated with MS-influenced decisions by ensuring the complete communication of the credibility of MS results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Steve
2000-10-01
Dans cette these nous presentons une nouvelle methode non perturbative pour le calcul des proprietes d'un systeme de fermions. Notre methode generalise l'approximation auto-coherente a deux particules proposee par Vilk et Tremblay pour le modele de Hubbard repulsif. Notre methode peut s'appliquer a l'etude du comportement pre-critique lorsque la symetrie du parametre d'ordre est suffisamment elevee. Nous appliquons la methode au probleme du pseudogap dans le modele de Hubbard attractif. Nos resultats montrent un excellent accord avec les donnees Monte Carlo pour de petits systemes. Nous observons que le regime ou apparait le pseudogap dans le poids spectral a une particule est un regime classique renormalise caracterise par une frequence caracteristique des fluctuations supraconductrices inferieure a la temperature. Une autre caracteristique est la faible densite de superfluide de cette phase demontrant que nous ne sommes pas en presence de paires preformees. Les resultats obtenus semblent montrer que la haute symetrie du parametre d'ordre et la bidimensionalite du systeme etudie elargissent le domaine de temperature pour lequel le regime pseudogap est observe. Nous argumentons que ce resultat est transposable aux supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique ou le pseudogap apparait a des' temperatures beaucoup plus grandes que la temperature critique. La forte symetrie dans ces systemes pourraient etre reliee a la theorie SO(5) de Zhang. En annexe, nous demontrons un resultat tout recent qui permettrait d'assurer l'auto-coherence entre les proprietes a une et a deux particules par l'ajout d'une dynamique au vertex irreductible. Cet ajout laisse entrevoir la possibilite d'etendre la methode au cas d'une forte interaction.
Experiments beyond the standard model
Perl, M.L.
1984-09-01
This paper is based upon lectures in which I have described and explored the ways in which experimenters can try to find answers, or at least clues toward answers, to some of the fundamental questions of elementary particle physics. All of these experimental techniques and directions have been discussed fully in other papers, for example: searches for heavy charged leptons, tests of quantum chromodynamics, searches for Higgs particles, searches for particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, searches for particles predicted by technicolor theories, searches for proton decay, searches for neutrino oscillations, monopole searches, studies of low transfer momentum hadron physics at very high energies, and elementary particle studies using cosmic rays. Each of these subjects requires several lectures by itself to do justice to the large amount of experimental work and theoretical thought which has been devoted to these subjects. My approach in these tutorial lectures is to describe general ways to experiment beyond the standard model. I will use some of the topics listed to illustrate these general ways. Also, in these lectures I present some dreams and challenges about new techniques in experimental particle physics and accelerator technology, I call these Experimental Needs. 92 references.
Beyond the cosmological standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joyce, Austin; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, Mark
2015-03-01
After a decade and a half of research motivated by the accelerating universe, theory and experiment have reached a certain level of maturity. The development of theoretical models beyond Λ or smooth dark energy, often called modified gravity, has led to broader insights into a path forward, and a host of observational and experimental tests have been developed. In this review we present the current state of the field and describe a framework for anticipating developments in the next decade. We identify the guiding principles for rigorous and consistent modifications of the standard model, and discuss the prospects for empirical tests. We begin by reviewing recent attempts to consistently modify Einstein gravity in the infrared, focusing on the notion that additional degrees of freedom introduced by the modification must "screen" themselves from local tests of gravity. We categorize screening mechanisms into three broad classes: mechanisms which become active in regions of high Newtonian potential, those in which first derivatives of the field become important, and those for which second derivatives of the field are important. Examples of the first class, such as f(R) gravity, employ the familiar chameleon or symmetron mechanisms, whereas examples of the last class are galileon and massive gravity theories, employing the Vainshtein mechanism. In each case, we describe the theories as effective theories and discuss prospects for completion in a more fundamental theory. We describe experimental tests of each class of theories, summarizing laboratory and solar system tests and describing in some detail astrophysical and cosmological tests. Finally, we discuss prospects for future tests which will be sensitive to different signatures of new physics in the gravitational sector. The review is structured so that those parts that are more relevant to theorists vs. observers/experimentalists are clearly indicated, in the hope that this will serve as a useful reference for
From Interactive Open Learner Modelling to Intelligent Mentoring: STyLE-OLM and Beyond
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dimitrova, Vania; Brna, Paul
2016-01-01
STyLE-OLM (Dimitrova 2003 "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education," 13, 35-78) presented a framework for interactive open learner modelling which entails the development of the means by which learners can "inspect," "discuss" and "alter" the learner model that has been jointly…
Nuclear Physics and the New Standard Model
Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.
2010-08-04
Nuclear physics studies of fundamental symmetries and neutrino properties have played a vital role in the development and confirmation of the Standard Model of fundamental interactions. With the advent of the CERN Large Hadron Collider, experiments at the high energy frontier promise exciting discoveries about the larger framework in which the Standard Model lies. In this talk, I discuss the complementary opportunities for probing the 'new Standard Model' with nuclear physics experiments at the low-energy high precision frontier.
Conductivite dans le modele de Hubbard bi-dimensionnel a faible couplage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Dominic
Le modele de Hubbard bi-dimensionnel (2D) est souvent considere comme le modele minimal pour les supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique a base d'oxyde de cuivre (SCHT). Sur un reseau carre, ce modele possede les phases qui sont communes a tous les SCHT, la phase antiferromagnetique, la phase supraconductrice et la phase dite du pseudogap. Il n'a pas de solution exacte, toutefois, plusieurs methodes approximatives permettent d'etudier ses proprietes de facon numerique. Les proprietes optiques et de transport sont bien connues dans les SCHT et sont donc de bonne candidates pour valider un modele theorique et aider a comprendre mieux la physique de ces materiaux. La presente these porte sur le calcul de ces proprietes pour le modele de Hubbard 2D a couplage faible ou intermediaire. La methode de calcul utilisee est l'approche auto-coherente a deux particules (ACDP), qui est non-perturbative et inclue l'effet des fluctuations de spin et de charge a toutes les longueurs d'onde. La derivation complete de l'expression de la conductivite dans l'approche ACDP est presentee. Cette expression contient ce qu'on appelle les corrections de vertex, qui tiennent compte des correlations entre quasi-particules. Pour rendre possible le calcul numerique de ces corrections, des algorithmes utilisant, entre autres, des transformees de Fourier rapides et des splines cubiques sont developpes. Les calculs sont faits pour le reseau carre avec sauts aux plus proches voisins autour du point critique antiferromagnetique. Aux dopages plus faibles que le point critique, la conductivite optique presente une bosse dans l'infrarouge moyen a basse temperature, tel qu'observe dans plusieurs SCHT. Dans la resistivite en fonction de la temperature, on trouve un comportement isolant dans le pseudogap lorsque les corrections de vertex sont negligees et metallique lorsqu'elles sont prises en compte. Pres du point critique, la resistivite est lineaire en T a basse temperature et devient
Le modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel a faible couplage: Thermodynamique et phenomenes critiques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Sebastien
Une etude systematique du modele de Hubbard en deux dimensions a faible couplage a l'aide de la theorie Auto-Coherente a Deux Particules (ACDP) dans le diagramme temperature-dopage-interaction-sauts permet de mettre en evidence l'influence des fluctuations magnetiques sur les proprietes thermodynamiques du systeme electronique sur reseau. Le regime classique renormalise a temperature finie pres du dopage nul est marque par la grandeur de la longueur de correlation de spin comparee a la longueur thermique de de Broglie et est caracterisee par un accroissement drastique de la longueur de correlation de spin. Cette croissance exponentielle a dopage nul marque la presence d'un pic de chaleur specifique en fonction de la temperature a basse temperature. Une temperature de crossover est alors associee a la temperature a laquelle la longueur de correlation de spin est egale a la longueur thermique de de Broglie. C'est a cette temperature caracteristique, ou est observee l'ouverture du pseudogap dans le poids spectral, que se situe le maximum du pic de chaleur specifique. La presence de ce pic a des consequences sur l'evolution du potentiel chimique avec le dopage lorsque l'uniformite thermodynamique est respectee. Les contraintes imposees par les lois de la thermodynamique font en sorte que l'evolution du potentiel chimique avec le dopage est non triviale. On demontre entre autres que le potentiel chimique est proportionnel a la double occupation qui est reliee au moment local. Par ailleurs, une derivation de la fonction de mise a l'echelle de la susceptibilite de spin a frequence nulle au voisinage d'un point critique marque sans equivoque la presence d'un point critique quantique en dopage pour une valeur donnee de l'interaction. Ce point critique, associe a une transition de phase magnetique en fonction du dopage a temperature nulle, induit un comportement non trivial sur les proprietes physiques du systeme a temperature finie. L'approche quantitative ACDP permet de
Modeling in the Common Core State Standards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tam, Kai Chung
2011-01-01
The inclusion of modeling and applications into the mathematics curriculum has proven to be a challenging task over the last fifty years. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) has made mathematical modeling both one of its Standards for Mathematical Practice and one of its Conceptual Categories. This article discusses the need for mathematical…
Krajewski diagrams and the standard model
Stephan, Christoph A.
2009-04-15
This paper provides a complete list of Krajewski diagrams representing the standard model of particle physics. We will give the possible representations of the algebra and the anomaly free lifts which provide the representation of the standard model gauge group on the fermionic Hilbert space. The algebra representations following from the Krajewski diagrams are not complete in the sense that the corresponding spectral triples do not necessarily obey to the axiom of Poincare duality. This defect may be repaired by adding new particles to the model, i.e., by building models beyond the standard model. The aim of this list of finite spectral triples (up to Poincare duality) is therefore to provide a basis for model building beyond the standard model.
Beyond the supersymmetric standard model
Hall, L.J.
1988-02-01
The possibility of baryon number violation at the weak scale and an alternative primordial nucleosynthesis scheme arising from the decay of gravitations are discussed. The minimal low energy supergravity model is defined and a few of its features are described. Renormalization group scaling and flavor physics are mentioned.
SCaLeM: A Framework for Characterizing and Analyzing Execution Models
Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Vishnu, Abhinav; Barker, Kevin J.; Hoisie, Adolfy
2014-10-13
As scalable parallel systems evolve towards more complex nodes with many-core architectures and larger trans-petascale & upcoming exascale deployments, there is a need to understand, characterize and quantify the underlying execution models being used on such systems. Execution models are a conceptual layer between applications & algorithms and the underlying parallel hardware and systems software on which those applications run. This paper presents the SCaLeM (Synchronization, Concurrency, Locality, Memory) framework for characterizing and execution models. SCaLeM consists of three basic elements: attributes, compositions and mapping of these compositions to abstract parallel systems. The fundamental Synchronization, Concurrency, Locality and Memory attributes are used to characterize each execution model, while the combinations of those attributes in the form of compositions are used to describe the primitive operations of the execution model. The mapping of the execution model’s primitive operations described by compositions, to an underlying abstract parallel system can be evaluated quantitatively to determine its effectiveness. Finally, SCaLeM also enables the representation and analysis of applications in terms of execution models, for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of such mapping.
Standardized Tests and Froebel's Original Kindergarten Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeynes, William H.
2006-01-01
The author argues that American educators rely on standardized tests at too early an age when administered in kindergarten, particularly given the original intent of kindergarten as envisioned by its founder, Friedrich Froebel. The author examines the current use of standardized tests in kindergarten and the Froebel model, including his emphasis…
Less minimal supersymmetric standard model
de Gouvea, Andre; Friedland, Alexander; Murayama, Hitoshi
1998-03-28
Most of the phenomenological studies of supersymmetry have been carried out using the so-called minimal supergravity scenario, where one assumes a universal scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear coupling at M{sub GUT}. Even though this is a useful simplifying assumption for phenomenological analyses, it is rather too restrictive to accommodate a large variety of phenomenological possibilities. It predicts, among other things, that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is an almost pure B-ino, and that the {mu}-parameter is larger than the masses of the SU(2){sub L} and U(1){sub Y} gauginos. We extend the minimal supergravity framework by introducing one extra parameter: the Fayet'Iliopoulos D-term for the hypercharge U(1), D{sub Y}. Allowing for this extra parameter, we find a much more diverse phenomenology, where the LSP is {tilde {nu}}{sub {tau}}, {tilde {tau}} or a neutralino with a large higgsino content. We discuss the relevance of the different possibilities to collider signatures. The same type of extension can be done to models with the gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. We argue that it is not wise to impose cosmological constraints on the parameter space.
An alternative to the standard model
Baek, Seungwon; Ko, Pyungwon; Park, Wan-Il
2014-06-24
We present an extension of the standard model to dark sector with an unbroken local dark U(1){sub X} symmetry. Including various singlet portal interactions provided by the standard model Higgs, right-handed neutrinos and kinetic mixing, we show that the model can address most of phenomenological issues (inflation, neutrino mass and mixing, baryon number asymmetry, dark matter, direct/indirect dark matter searches, some scale scale puzzles of the standard collisionless cold dark matter, vacuum stability of the standard model Higgs potential, dark radiation) and be regarded as an alternative to the standard model. The Higgs signal strength is equal to one as in the standard model for unbroken U(1){sub X} case with a scalar dark matter, but it could be less than one independent of decay channels if the dark matter is a dark sector fermion or if U(1){sub X} is spontaneously broken, because of a mixing with a new neutral scalar boson in the models.
Towards LHC physics with nonlocal Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Tirthabir; Okada, Nobuchika
2015-09-01
We take a few steps towards constructing a string-inspired nonlocal extension of the Standard Model. We start by illustrating how quantum loop calculations can be performed in nonlocal scalar field theory. In particular, we show the potential to address the hierarchy problem in the nonlocal framework. Next, we construct a nonlocal abelian gauge model and derive modifications of the gauge interaction vertex and field propagators. We apply the modifications to a toy version of the nonlocal Standard Model and investigate collider phenomenology. We find the lower bound on the scale of nonlocality from the 8 TeV LHC data to be 2.5-3 TeV.
Exploring the Standard Model of Particles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johansson, K. E.; Watkins, P. M.
2013-01-01
With the recent discovery of a new particle at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the Higgs boson could be about to be discovered. This paper provides a brief summary of the standard model of particle physics and the importance of the Higgs boson and field in that model for non-specialists. The role of Feynman diagrams in making predictions for…
Supersymmetric standard model spectra from RCFT orientifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dijkstra, T. P. T.; Huiszoon, L. R.; Schellekens, A. N.
2005-03-01
We present supersymmetric, tadpole-free d=4,N=1 orientifold vacua with a three family chiral fermion spectrum that is identical to that of the standard model. Starting with all simple current orientifolds of all Gepner models we perform a systematic search for such spectra. We consider several variations of the standard four-stack intersecting brane realization of the standard model, with all quarks and leptons realized as bifundamentals and perturbatively exact baryon and lepton number symmetries, and with a U(1 vector boson that does not acquire a mass from Green-Schwarz terms. The number of supersymmetric Higgs pairs H+H is left free. In order to cancel all tadpoles, we allow a "hidden" gauge group, which must be chirally decoupled from the standard model. We also allow for non-chiral mirror-pairs of quarks and leptons, non-chiral exotics and (possibly chiral) hidden, standard model singlet matter, as well as a massless B-L vector boson. All of these less desirable features are absent in some cases, although not simultaneously. In particular, we found cases with massless Chan-Paton gauge bosons generating nothing more than SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1). We obtain almost 180 000 rationally distinct solutions (not counting hidden sector degrees of freedom), and present distributions of various quantities. We analyse the tree level gauge couplings, and find a large range of values, remarkably centered around the unification point.
Neutrino in standard model and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilenky, S. M.
2015-07-01
After discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN the Standard Model acquired a status of the theory of the elementary particles in the electroweak range (up to about 300 GeV). What general conclusions can be inferred from the Standard Model? It looks that the Standard Model teaches us that in the framework of such general principles as local gauge symmetry, unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions and Brout-Englert-Higgs spontaneous breaking of the electroweak symmetry nature chooses the simplest possibilities. Two-component left-handed massless neutrino fields play crucial role in the determination of the charged current structure of the Standard Model. The absence of the right-handed neutrino fields in the Standard Model is the simplest, most economical possibility. In such a scenario Majorana mass term is the only possibility for neutrinos to be massive and mixed. Such mass term is generated by the lepton-number violating Weinberg effective Lagrangian. In this approach three Majorana neutrino masses are suppressed with respect to the masses of other fundamental fermions by the ratio of the electroweak scale and a scale of a lepton-number violating physics. The discovery of the neutrinoless double β-decay and absence of transitions of flavor neutrinos into sterile states would be evidence in favor of the minimal scenario we advocate here.
SOFA 2015: Authoritative Tools & Standard Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohenkerk, Catherine
2015-08-01
The International Astronomical Union's Standards of Fundamental Astronomy (SOFA) service has the responsibility of establishing and maintaining an accessible and authoritative set of algorithms and procedures that implement standard models used in fundamental astronomy. This poster not only gives a summary of usage and available algorithms, but also highlights tools for astrometry and galactic coordinates, which have been added since the last IAU General Assembly.
Standard Model as a Double Field Theory.
Choi, Kang-Sin; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2015-10-23
We show that, without any extra physical degree introduced, the standard model can be readily reformulated as a double field theory. Consequently, the standard model can couple to an arbitrary stringy gravitational background in an O(4,4) T-duality covariant manner and manifest two independent local Lorentz symmetries, Spin(1,3)×Spin(3,1). While the diagonal gauge fixing of the twofold spin groups leads to the conventional formulation on the flat Minkowskian background, the enhanced symmetry makes the standard model more rigid, and also stringy, than it appeared. The CP violating θ term may no longer be allowed by the symmetry, and hence the strong CP problem can be solved. There are now stronger constraints imposed on the possible higher order corrections. We speculate that the quarks and the leptons may belong to the two different spin classes. PMID:26551099
Standard Model as a Double Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Kang-Sin; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2015-10-01
We show that, without any extra physical degree introduced, the standard model can be readily reformulated as a double field theory. Consequently, the standard model can couple to an arbitrary stringy gravitational background in an O (4 ,4 ) T -duality covariant manner and manifest two independent local Lorentz symmetries, Spin(1 ,3 )×Spin(3 ,1 ) . While the diagonal gauge fixing of the twofold spin groups leads to the conventional formulation on the flat Minkowskian background, the enhanced symmetry makes the standard model more rigid, and also stringy, than it appeared. The C P violating θ term may no longer be allowed by the symmetry, and hence the strong C P problem can be solved. There are now stronger constraints imposed on the possible higher order corrections. We speculate that the quarks and the leptons may belong to the two different spin classes.
Berenstein, David; Jejjala, Vishnu; Leigh, Robert G
2002-02-18
We present a consistent string theory model which produces a simple extension of the standard model, consisting of a D3-brane at a simple orbifold singularity. We envision this as a local singularity within a warped compactification. The phenomenology of the model has some novel features. We note that, for the model to be viable, the scale of stringy physics must be in the multi-TeV range. There are natural hierarchies in the fermion spectrum and there are several possible experimental signatures of the model. PMID:11863881
New Physics Beyond the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Haiying
In this thesis we discuss several extensons of the standard model, with an emphasis on the hierarchy problem. The hierachy problem related to the Higgs boson mass is a strong indication of new physics beyond the Standard Model. In the literature, several mechanisms, e.g. , supersymmetry (SUSY), the little Higgs and extra dimensions, are proposed to explain why the Higgs mass can be stabilized to the electroweak scale. In the Standard Model, the largest quadratically divergent contribution to the Higgs mass-squared comes from the top quark loop. We consider a few novel possibilities on how this contribution is cancelled. In the standard SUSY scenario, the quadratic divergence from the fermion loops is cancelled by the scalar superpartners and the SUSY breaking scale determines the masses of the scalars. We propose a new SUSY model, where the superpartner of the top quark is spin-1 rather than spin-0. In little Higgs theories, the Higgs field is realized as a psudo goldstone boson in a nonlinear sigma model. The smallness of its mass is protected by the global symmetry. As a variation, we put the little Higgs into an extra dimensional model where the quadratically divergent top loop contribution to the Higgs mass is cancelled by an uncolored heavy "top quirk" charged under a different SU(3) gauge group. Finally, we consider a supersymmetric warped extra dimensional model where the superpartners have continuum mass spectra. We use the holographic boundary action to study how a mass gap can arise to separate the zero modes from continuum modes. Such extensions of the Standard Model have novel signatures at the Large Hadron Collider.
Models of the Primordial Standard Clock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Wang, Yi
2015-02-01
Oscillating massive fields in the primordial universe can be used as Standard Clocks. The ticks of these oscillations induce features in the density perturbations, which directly record the time evolution of the scale factor of the primordial universe, thus if detected, provide a direct evidence for the inflation scenario or the alternatives. In this paper, we construct a full inflationary model of primordial Standard Clock and study its predictions on the density perturbations. This model provides a full realization of several key features proposed previously. We compare the theoretical predictions from inflation and alternative scenarios with the Planck 2013 temperature data on Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), and identify a statistically marginal but interesting candidate. We discuss how future CMB temperature and polarization data, non-Gaussianity analysis and Large Scale Structure data may be used to further test or constrain the Standard Clock signals.
Inclusive Standard Model Higgs searches with ATLAS
Polci, Francesco
2008-11-23
The update of the discovery potential for a Standard Model Higgs boson through the inclusive searches H{yields}{gamma}{gamma}, H{yields}ZZ* and H{yields}WW with the ATLAS detector is reported. The analysis are based on the most recent available simulations of signal, backgrounds as well as the detector response.
Inflation in the standard cosmological model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uzan, Jean-Philippe
2015-12-01
The inflationary paradigm is now part of the standard cosmological model as a description of its primordial phase. While its original motivation was to solve the standard problems of the hot big bang model, it was soon understood that it offers a natural theory for the origin of the large-scale structure of the universe. Most models rely on a slow-rolling scalar field and enjoy very generic predictions. Besides, all the matter of the universe is produced by the decay of the inflaton field at the end of inflation during a phase of reheating. These predictions can be (and are) tested from their imprint of the large-scale structure and in particular the cosmic microwave background. Inflation stands as a window in physics where both general relativity and quantum field theory are at work and which can be observationally studied. It connects cosmology with high-energy physics. Today most models are constructed within extensions of the standard model, such as supersymmetry or string theory. Inflation also disrupts our vision of the universe, in particular with the ideas of chaotic inflation and eternal inflation that tend to promote the image of a very inhomogeneous universe with fractal structure on a large scale. This idea is also at the heart of further speculations, such as the multiverse. This introduction summarizes the connections between inflation and the hot big bang model and details the basics of its dynamics and predictions. xml:lang="fr"
Standard Model Higgs Searches at the Tevatron
Knoepfel, Kyle J.
2012-06-01
We present results from the search for a standard model Higgs boson using data corresponding up to 10 fb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collision data produced by the Fermilab Tevatron at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data were recorded by the CDF and D0 detectors between March 2001 and September of 2011. A broad excess is observed between 105 < m{sub H} < 145 GeV/c{sup 2} with a global significance of 2.2 standard deviations relative to the background-only hypothesis.
Supersymmetric standard model from the heterotic string.
Buchmüller, Wilfried; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Lebedev, Oleg; Ratz, Michael
2006-03-31
We present a [FORMULA: SEE TEXT] orbifold compactification of the E8xE8 heterotic string which leads to the (supersymmetric) standard model gauge group and matter content. The quarks and leptons appear as three 16-plets of SO(10), whereas the Higgs fields do not form complete SO(10) multiplets. The model has large vacuum degeneracy. For generic vacua, no exotic states appear at low energies and the model is consistent with gauge coupling unification. The top quark Yukawa coupling arises from gauge interactions and is of the order of the gauge couplings, whereas the other Yukawa couplings are suppressed. PMID:16605895
Supersymmetric Standard Model from the Heterotic String
Buchmueller, Wilfried; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Lebedev, Oleg; Ratz, Michael
2006-03-31
We present a Z{sub 6} orbifold compactification of the E{sub 8}xE{sub 8} heterotic string which leads to the (supersymmetric) standard model gauge group and matter content. The quarks and leptons appear as three 16-plets of SO(10), whereas the Higgs fields do not form complete SO(10) multiplets. The model has large vacuum degeneracy. For generic vacua, no exotic states appear at low energies and the model is consistent with gauge coupling unification. The top quark Yukawa coupling arises from gauge interactions and is of the order of the gauge couplings, whereas the other Yukawa couplings are suppressed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rostad, John
1997-01-01
Describes the production of news broadcasts on video by a high school class in Le Center, Minnesota. Topics include software for Apple computers, equipment used, student responsibilities, class curriculum, group work, communication among the production crew, administrative and staff support, and future improvements. (LRW)
Electroweak standard model with very special relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alfaro, Jorge; González, Pablo; Ávila, Ricardo
2015-05-01
The very special relativity electroweak Standard Model (VSR EW SM) is a theory with SU (2 )L×U (1 )R symmetry, with the same number of leptons and gauge fields as in the usual Weinberg-Salam model. No new particles are introduced. The model is renormalizable and unitarity is preserved. However, photons obtain mass and the massive bosons obtain different masses for different polarizations. Besides, neutrino masses are generated. A VSR-invariant term will produce neutrino oscillations and new processes are allowed. In particular, we compute the rate of the decays μ →e +γ . All these processes, which are forbidden in the electroweak Standard Model, put stringent bounds on the parameters of our model and measure the violation of Lorentz invariance. We investigate the canonical quantization of this nonlocal model. Second quantization is carried out, and we obtain a well-defined particle content. Additionally, we do a counting of the degrees of freedom associated with the gauge bosons involved in this work, after spontaneous symmetry breaking has been realized. Violations of Lorentz invariance have been predicted by several theories of quantum gravity [J. Alfaro, H. Morales-Tecotl, and L. F. Urrutia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2318 (2000); Phys. Rev. D 65, 103509 (2002)]. It is a remarkable possibility that the low-energy effects of Lorentz violation induced by quantum gravity could be contained in the nonlocal terms of the VSR EW SM.
Standard model fermions and K (E10)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann
2015-07-01
In recent work [1] it was shown how to rectify Gell-Mann's proposal for identifying the 48 quarks and leptons of the Standard Model with the 48 spin-1/2 fermions of maximal SO(8) gauged supergravity remaining after the removal of eight Goldstinos, by deforming the residual U(1) symmetry at the SU(3) × U(1) stationary point of N = 8 supergravity, so as to also achieve agreement of the electric charge assignments. In this Letter we show that the required deformation, while not in SU(8), does belong to K (E10), the 'maximal compact' subgroup of E10 which is a possible candidate symmetry underlying M theory. The incorporation of infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody symmetries of hyperbolic type, apparently unavoidable for the present scheme to work, opens up completely new perspectives on embedding Standard Model physics into a Planck scale theory of quantum gravity.
The Standard Model of Nuclear Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Detmold, William
2015-04-01
At its core, nuclear physics, which describes the properties and interactions of hadrons, such as protons and neutrons, and atomic nuclei, arises from the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the complexities of nuclei result in severe computational difficulties that have historically prevented the calculation of central quantities in nuclear physics directly from this underlying theory. The availability of petascale (and prospect of exascale) high performance computing is changing this situation by enabling us to extend the numerical techniques of lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD), applied successfully in particle physics, to the more intricate dynamics of nuclear physics. In this talk, I will discuss this revolution and the emerging understanding of hadrons and nuclei within the Standard Model.
Imperfect mirror copies of the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berryman, Jeffrey M.; de Gouvêa, André; Hernández, Daniel; Kelly, Kevin J.
2016-08-01
Inspired by the standard model of particle physics, we discuss a mechanism for constructing chiral, anomaly-free gauge theories. The gauge symmetries and particle content of such theories are identified using subgroups and complex representations of simple anomaly-free Lie groups, such as S O (10 ) or E6. We explore, using mostly S O (10 ) and the 16 representation, several of these "imperfect copies" of the standard model, including U (1 )N theories, S U (5 )⊗U (1 ) theories, S U (4 )⊗U (1 )2 theories with 4-plets and 6-plets, and chiral S U (3 )⊗S U (2 )⊗U (1 ) . A few general properties of such theories are discussed, as is how they might shed light on nonzero neutrino masses, the dark matter puzzle, and other phenomenologically relevant questions.
Anomalous Abelian symmetry in the standard model
Ramond, P.
1995-12-31
The observed hierarchy of quark and lepton masses can be parametrized by nonrenormalizable operators with dimensions determined by an anomalous Abelian family symmetry, a gauge extension to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Such an Abelian symmetry is generic to compactified superstring theories, with its anomalies compensated by the Green-Schwarz mechanism. If we assume these two symmetries to be the same, we find the electroweak mixing angle to be sin {sup 2}{theta}{sub {omega}} = 3/8 at the string scale, just by setting the ratio of the product of down quark to charged lepton masses equal to one at the string scale. This assumes no GUT structure. The generality of the result suggests a superstring origin for the standard model. We generalize our analysis to massive neutrinos, and mixings in the lepton sector.
Temperature dependence of standard model CP violation.
Brauner, Tomáš; Taanila, Olli; Tranberg, Anders; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2012-01-27
We analyze the temperature dependence of CP violation effects in the standard model by determining the effective action of its bosonic fields, obtained after integrating out the fermions from the theory and performing a covariant gradient expansion. We find nonvanishing CP violating terms starting at the sixth order of the expansion, albeit only in the C-odd-P-even sector, with coefficients that depend on quark masses, Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements, temperature and the magnitude of the Higgs field. The CP violating effects are observed to decrease rapidly with temperature, which has important implications for the generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the early Universe. Our results suggest that the cold electroweak baryogenesis scenario may be viable within the standard model, provided the electroweak transition temperature is at most of order 1 GeV. PMID:22400822
Renormalization Group in the Standard Model
Kielanowski, P.; Juarez W, S. R.
2007-11-27
We discuss two applications of the renormalization group method in the Standard Model. In the first one we present some theorems about the running of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and show that the evolution depends on one function of energy only. In the second one we discuss the properties of the running of the Higgs potential and derive the limits for the Higgs mass.
Gravitational corrections to standard model vacuum decay
Isidori, Gino; Rychkov, Vyacheslav S.; Strumia, Alessandro; Tetradis, Nikolaos
2008-01-15
We refine and update the metastability constraint on the standard model (SM) top and Higgs masses by analytically including gravitational corrections to the vacuum decay rate. Present best-fit ranges of the top and Higgs masses mostly lie in the narrow metastable region. Furthermore, we show that the SM potential can be fine-tuned in order to be made suitable for inflation. However, SM inflation results in a power spectrum of cosmological perturbations not consistent with observations.
Beyond the standard model in many directions
Chris Quigg
2004-04-28
These four lectures constitute a gentle introduction to what may lie beyond the standard model of quarks and leptons interacting through SU(3){sub c} {direct_product} SU(2){sub L} {direct_product} U(1){sub Y} gauge bosons, prepared for an audience of graduate students in experimental particle physics. In the first lecture, I introduce a novel graphical representation of the particles and interactions, the double simplex, to elicit questions that motivate our interest in physics beyond the standard model, without recourse to equations and formalism. Lecture 2 is devoted to a short review of the current status of the standard model, especially the electroweak theory, which serves as the point of departure for our explorations. The third lecture is concerned with unified theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. In the fourth lecture, I survey some attempts to extend and complete the electroweak theory, emphasizing some of the promise and challenges of supersymmetry. A short concluding section looks forward.
Indoorgml - a Standard for Indoor Spatial Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ki-Joune
2016-06-01
With recent progress of mobile devices and indoor positioning technologies, it becomes possible to provide location-based services in indoor space as well as outdoor space. It is in a seamless way between indoor and outdoor spaces or in an independent way only for indoor space. However, we cannot simply apply spatial models developed for outdoor space to indoor space due to their differences. For example, coordinate reference systems are employed to indicate a specific position in outdoor space, while the location in indoor space is rather specified by cell number such as room number. Unlike outdoor space, the distance between two points in indoor space is not determined by the length of the straight line but the constraints given by indoor components such as walls, stairs, and doors. For this reason, we need to establish a new framework for indoor space from fundamental theoretical basis, indoor spatial data models, and information systems to store, manage, and analyse indoor spatial data. In order to provide this framework, an international standard, called IndoorGML has been developed and published by OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium). This standard is based on a cellular notion of space, which considers an indoor space as a set of non-overlapping cells. It consists of two types of modules; core module and extension module. While core module consists of four basic conceptual and implementation modeling components (geometric model for cell, topology between cells, semantic model of cell, and multi-layered space model), extension modules may be defined on the top of the core module to support an application area. As the first version of the standard, we provide an extension for indoor navigation.
Beyond standard model calculations with Sherpa
Höche, Stefan; Kuttimalai, Silvan; Schumann, Steffen; Siegert, Frank
2015-03-24
We present a fully automated framework as part of the Sherpa event generator for the computation of tree-level cross sections in beyond Standard Model scenarios, making use of model information given in the Universal FeynRules Output format. Elementary vertices are implemented into C++ code automatically and provided to the matrix-element generator Comix at runtime. Widths and branching ratios for unstable particles are computed from the same building blocks. The corresponding decays are simulated with spin correlations. Parton showers, QED radiation and hadronization are added by Sherpa, providing a full simulation of arbitrary BSM processes at the hadron level.
Extended spin symmetry and the standard model
Besprosvany, J.; Romero, R.
2010-12-23
We review unification ideas and explain the spin-extended model in this context. Its consideration is also motivated by the standard-model puzzles. With the aim of constructing a common description of discrete degrees of freedom, as spin and gauge quantum numbers, the model departs from q-bits and generalized Hilbert spaces. Physical requirements reduce the space to one that is represented by matrices. The classification of the representations is performed through Clifford algebras, with its generators associated with Lorentz and scalar symmetries. We study a reduced space with up to two spinor elements within a matrix direct product. At given dimension, the demand that Lorentz symmetry be maintained, determines the scalar symmetries, which connect to vector-and-chiral gauge-interacting fields; we review the standard-model information in each dimension. We obtain fermions and bosons, with matter fields in the fundamental representation, radiation fields in the adjoint, and scalar particles with the Higgs quantum numbers. We relate the fields' representation in such spaces to the quantum-field-theory one, and the Lagrangian. The model provides a coupling-constant definition.
Toward a midisuperspace quantization of LeMaitre-Tolman-Bondi collapse models
Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis; Singh, T. P.
2001-05-15
LeMaitre-Tolman-Bondi models of spherical dust collapse have been used and continue to be used extensively to study various stellar collapse scenarios. It is by now well known that these models lead to the formation of black holes and naked singularities from regular initial data. The final outcome of the collapse, particularly in the event of naked singularity formation, depends very heavily on quantum effects during the final stages. These quantum effects cannot generally be treated semiclassically as quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field are expected to dominate before the final state is reached. We present a canonical reduction of LeMaitre-Tolman-Bondi space-times describing the marginally bound collapse of inhomogeneous dust, in which the physical radius R, the proper time of the collapsing dust {tau}, and the mass function F are the canonical coordinates R(r), {tau}(r) and F(r) on the phase space. Dirac's constraint quantization leads to a simple functional (Wheeler-DeWitt) equation. The equation is solved and the solution can be employed to study some of the effects of quantum gravity during gravitational collapse with different initial conditions.
Batell, Brian; Sword, Daniel; Gherghetta, Tony
2008-12-01
We explore the possibility of modeling electroweak physics in a warped extra dimension with a soft wall. The infrared boundary is replaced with a smoothly varying dilaton field that provides a dynamical spacetime cutoff. We analyze gravity, gauge fields, and fermions in the soft-wall background and obtain a discrete spectrum of Kaluza-Klein states which can exhibit linear Regge-like behavior. Bulk Yukawa interactions give rise to nonconstant fermion mass terms, leading to fermion localization in the soft-wall background and a possible explanation of the standard model flavor structure. Furthermore we construct electroweak models with custodial symmetry, where the gauge symmetry is broken with a bulk Higgs condensate. The electroweak constraints are not as stringent as in hard-wall models, allowing Kaluza-Klein masses of order the TeV scale.
Experimentally testing the standard cosmological model
Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )
1990-11-01
The standard model of cosmology, the big bang, is now being tested and confirmed to remarkable accuracy. Recent high precision measurements relate to the microwave background; and big bang nucleosynthesis. This paper focuses on the latter since that relates more directly to high energy experiments. In particular, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard cosmology scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved light element observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. alternate nucleosynthesis scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, {Omega}{sub b}, remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the standard model conclusion that {Omega}{sub b} {approximately} 0.06. This latter point is the deriving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming {Omega}{sub total} = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since {Omega}{sub visible} < {Omega}{sub b}. Recent accelerator constraints on non-baryonic matter are discussed, showing that any massive cold dark matter candidate must now have a mass M{sub x} {approx gt} 20 GeV and an interaction weaker than the Z{sup 0} coupling to a neutrino. It is also noted that recent hints regarding the solar neutrino experiments coupled with the see-saw model for {nu}-masses may imply that the {nu}{sub {tau}} is a good hot dark matter candidate. 73 refs., 5 figs.
42 CFR 403.210 - NAIC model standards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NAIC model standards. 403.210 Section 403.210... model standards. (a) NAIC model standards means the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) “Model Regulation to Implement the Individual Accident and Insurance Minimum Standards Act”...
42 CFR 403.210 - NAIC model standards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NAIC model standards. 403.210 Section 403.210... model standards. (a) NAIC model standards means the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) “Model Regulation to Implement the Individual Accident and Insurance Minimum Standards Act”...
42 CFR 403.210 - NAIC model standards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NAIC model standards. 403.210 Section 403.210... model standards. (a) NAIC model standards means the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) “Model Regulation to Implement the Individual Accident and Insurance Minimum Standards Act”...
42 CFR 403.210 - NAIC model standards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NAIC model standards. 403.210 Section 403.210... model standards. (a) NAIC model standards means the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) “Model Regulation to Implement the Individual Accident and Insurance Minimum Standards Act”...
A Global View Beyond the Standard Model
Not Available
2008-01-20
By 1973, the theoretical foundations of the Standard Model of fundamental interactions had been completed. In the decades that followed, new particles and phenomena predicted by the Standard Model were discovered in a dramatic series of experiments at laboratories around the world. This began with the discovery of the charm quark at SLAC and Brookhaven, predicted by Glashow, Illiopoulos and Maiani from flavor properties of the SM. The W and Z bosons were produced directly in experiments at CERN, and signals of energetic gluons were observed at DESY. Experiments eventually found a full third generation of fermions, culminating with the discovery of the top quark and tau neutrino at Fermilab. During this same period, major theoretical advances made it possible to push the accuracy of Standard Model predictions. This allowed compelling tests of the SM at the level of radiative corrections, and to test the predictions of QCD in the confining domain. Thus experiments confirmed the quantum dynamics of the SM, and validated the CKM picture of flavor mixing and CP violation. While this process took a long time, and may have appeared frustrating to many to just achieve the confirmation of the 'standard' theory, the outcome of these 30-odd years is now a cornerstone of our understanding of the natural world, occupying a deserved place next to Maxwell's electromagnetism, to relativity, and to quantum mechanics. The timescale and size of this enterprise, at the same time, gives us a benchmark for the magnitude of the efforts that may be required to go beyond the Standard Model to the next level of fundamental understanding. New ideas and theories have been put forward in the attempt to understand great questions left unanswered by the Standard Model. These theories attempt to explain why nature needs both gravitational and gauge interactions, and why their energy scales are so different. They address the possible origins of matter-antimatter asymmetry, of particle masses, and
Statistical model with a standard Γ distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban; Kaski, Kimmo
2004-07-01
We study a statistical model consisting of N basic units which interact with each other by exchanging a physical entity, according to a given microscopic random law, depending on a parameter λ . We focus on the equilibrium or stationary distribution of the entity exchanged and verify through numerical fitting of the simulation data that the final form of the equilibrium distribution is that of a standard Gamma distribution. The model can be interpreted as a simple closed economy in which economic agents trade money and a saving criterion is fixed by the saving propensity λ . Alternatively, from the nature of the equilibrium distribution, we show that the model can also be interpreted as a perfect gas at an effective temperature T(λ) , where particles exchange energy in a space with an effective dimension D(λ) .
The Hypergeometrical Universe: Cosmology and Standard Model
Pereira, Marco A.
2010-12-22
This paper presents a simple and purely geometrical Grand Unification Theory. Quantum Gravity, Electrostatic and Magnetic interactions are shown in a unified framework. Newton's, Gauss' and Biot-Savart's Laws are derived from first principles. Unification symmetry is defined for all the existing forces. This alternative model does not require Strong and Electroweak forces. A 4D Shock -Wave Hyperspherical topology is proposed for the Universe which together with a Quantum Lagrangian Principle and a Dilator based model for matter result in a quantized stepwise expansion for the whole Universe along a radial direction within a 4D spatial manifold. The Hypergeometrical Standard Model for matter, Universe Topology and a new Law of Gravitation are presented.
Esen, Alparslan; Isik, Kubilay; Saglam, Haci; Ozdemir, Yusuf Bugra; Dolanmaz, Dogan
2016-09-01
We compared the stability of three different titanium plate-and-screw fixation systems after Le Fort I osteotomy in polyurethane models of unilateral clefts. Thirty-six models were divided into 3 groups. In the first group, we adapted standard Plates 1mm thick with 2.0mm screws and placed them bilaterally on the zygomatic buttress and the piriform rim. In the second group, we did the same and added Plates 0.6mm thick with 1.6mm screws between the standard 2mm miniplates on both sides. In the last group, we placed Plates 1.4mm thick with 2.0mm screws bilaterally on the maxillary zygomatic buttress and piriform rim. Each group was tested in the inferosuperior (IS) and anteroposterior (AP) directions with a servo-hydraulic testing unit. In the IS direction, displacement values were not significantly different up to 80N, but between 80 and 210N, those in the 2×1.4mm group were better. In the AP direction, displacement values were not significantly different up to 40N, but between 40 and 180N, they were better in the standard with 1.6×0.6mm group and the 2×1.4mm group. When normal biting forces (90 - 260N) in the postoperative period are considered, the greatest resistance to occlusal loads was seen in the 2×1.4mm group. In the others, the biomechanical properties were better in the AP direction. PMID:27182011
Search for the standard model Higgs boson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miguel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Dennis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Manneli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Techini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration
1993-08-01
Using a data sample corresponding to about 1 233 000 hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP, the reaction e+e- → HZ∗ has been used to search for the standard model Higgs boson, in association with missing energy when Z∗ → v v¯, or with a pair of energetic leptons when Z∗ → e+e-or μ +μ -. No signal was found and, at the 95% confidence level, mH exceeds 58.4 GeV/ c2.
Probing beyond the Standard Model with Muons
Hisano, Junji
2008-02-21
Muon's Properties are the most precisely studied among unstable particles. After discovery of muons in 40's, the studies of muons contributed to construction and establishment of the standard model in the particle physics. Now we are going to LHC era, however, precision frontier is still important in the particle physics. In this article, we review roles of muon physics in the particle physics. Muon g-2, lepton flavor violation (LFV) in muon decay, and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muon are mainly discussed.
Beyond the standard model with the LHC.
Ellis, John
2007-07-19
Whether or not the Large Hadron Collider reveals the long-awaited Higgs particle, it is likely to lead to discoveries that add to, or challenge, the standard model of particle physics. Data produced will be pored over for any evidence of supersymmetric partners for the existing denizens of the particle 'zoo' and for the curled-up extra dimensions demanded by string theory. There might also be clues as to why matter dominates over antimatter in the Universe, and as to the nature of the Universe's dark matter. PMID:17637660
Physics Beyond the Standard Model at Colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matchev, Konstantin
These lectures introduce the modern machinery used in searches and studies of new physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) at colliders. The first lecture provides an overview of the main simulation tools used in high energy physics, including automated parton-level calculators, general purpose event generators, detector simulators, etc. The second lecture is a brief introduction to low energy supersymmetry (SUSY) as a representative BSM paradigm. The third lecture discusses the main collider signatures of SUSY and methods for measuring the masses of new particles in events with missing energy.
Twisted spectral geometry for the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinetti, Pierre
2015-07-01
In noncommutative geometry, the spectral triple of a manifold does not generate bosonic fields, for fluctuations of the Dirac operator vanish. A Connes-Moscovici twist forces the commutative algebra to be multiplied by matrices. Keeping the space of spinors untouched, twisted-fluctuations then yield perturbations of the spin connection. Applied to the spectral triple of the Standard Model, a similar twist yields the scalar field needed to stabilize the vacuum and to make the computation of the Higgs mass compatible with its experimental value.
Beyond the standard model with the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, John
2007-07-01
Whether or not the Large Hadron Collider reveals the long-awaited Higgs particle, it is likely to lead to discoveries that add to, or challenge, the standard model of particle physics. Data produced will be pored over for any evidence of supersymmetric partners for the existing denizens of the particle 'zoo' and for the curled-up extra dimensions demanded by string theory. There might also be clues as to why matter dominates over antimatter in the Universe, and as to the nature of the Universe's dark matter.
Phenomenology of the utilitarian supersymmetric standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraser, Sean; Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Popov, Oleg; Zakeri, Mohammadreza
2016-08-01
We study the 2010 specific version of the 2002 proposed U(1)X extension of the supersymmetric standard model, which has no μ term and conserves baryon number and lepton number separately and automatically. We consider in detail the scalar sector as well as the extra ZX gauge boson, and their interactions with the necessary extra color-triplet particles of this model, which behave as leptoquarks. We show how the diphoton excess at 750 GeV, recently observed at the LHC, may be explained within this context. We identify a new fermion dark-matter candidate and discuss its properties. An important byproduct of this study is the discovery of relaxed supersymmetric constraints on the Higgs boson's mass of 125 GeV.
Higgs inflation from standard model criticality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Oda, Kin-ya; Park, Seong Chan
2015-03-01
The observed Higgs mass MH=125.9 ±0.4 GeV leads to the criticality of the standard model, that is, the Higgs potential becomes flat around the scale 1 017 - 18 GeV for the top mass 171.3 GeV. Earlier we proposed a Higgs inflation scenario in which this criticality plays a crucial role. In this paper, we investigate the detailed cosmological predictions of this scenario in light of the latest Planck and BICEP2 results. We also consider the Higgs portal scalar dark matter model, and compute the Higgs one-loop effective potential with the two-loop renormalization group improvement. We find a constraint on the coupling between the Higgs boson and dark matter which depends on the inflationary parameters.
Can the superstring inspire the standard model?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, John; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Olive, Keith A.
1988-02-01
We discuss general features of models in which the E 8 × E' 8 heterotic superstring is compactified on a specific Calabi-Yau manifold. The gauge group of rank-6 in four dimensions is supposed to be broken down at an intermediate scale mI to the standard model group SU(3) C × SU(2) L × U(1) Y, as a result of two neutral scalar fields acquiring large vacuum expectations (vev's) in one of many flat directions of the effective potential. We find that it is difficult to generate such an intermediate scale by radiative symmetry breaking, whilst such models have prima facie problems with baryon decay mediated by massive particles and with non-perturbative behaviour of the gauge couplings, unless mI ≳ 10 16 GeV. Rapid baryon decay mediated by light particles, large neutrino masses, other ΔL ≠ 0 processes and flavour-changing neutral currents are generic features of these models. We illustrate these observations with explicit calculations in a number of different models given by vev's in different flat directions.
Sphaleron rate in the minimal standard model.
D'Onofrio, Michela; Rummukainen, Kari; Tranberg, Anders
2014-10-01
We use large-scale lattice simulations to compute the rate of baryon number violating processes (the sphaleron rate), the Higgs field expectation value, and the critical temperature in the standard model across the electroweak phase transition temperature. While there is no true phase transition between the high-temperature symmetric phase and the low-temperature broken phase, the crossover is sharp and located at temperature T(c) = (159.5 ± 1.5) GeV. The sphaleron rate in the symmetric phase (T>T(c)) is Γ/T(4) = (18 ± 3)α(W)(5), and in the broken phase in the physically interesting temperature range 130 GeV < T < T(c) it can be parametrized as log(Γ/T(4)) = (0.83 ± 0.01)T/GeV-(147.7 ± 1.9). The freeze-out temperature in the early Universe, where the Hubble rate wins over the baryon number violation rate, is T* = (131.7 ± 2.3) GeV. These values, beyond being intrinsic properties of the standard model, are relevant for, e.g., low-scale leptogenesis scenarios. PMID:25325629
Scenarios of physics beyond the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fok, Ricky
This dissertation discusses three topics on scenarios beyond the Standard Model. Topic one is the effects from a fourth generation of quarks and leptons on electroweak baryogenesis in the early universe. The Standard Model is incapable of electroweak baryogenesis due to an insufficiently strong enough electroweak phase transition (EWPT) as well as insufficient CP violation. We show that the presence of heavy fourth generation fermions solves the first problem but requires additional bosons to be included to stabilize the electroweak vacuum. Introducing supersymmetric partners of the heavy fermions, we find that the EWPT can be made strong enough and new sources of CP violation are present. Topic two relates to the lepton avor problem in supersymmetry. In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the off-diagonal elements in the slepton mass matrix must be suppressed at the 10-3 level to avoid experimental bounds from lepton avor changing processes. This dissertation shows that an enlarged R-parity can alleviate the lepton avor problem. An analysis of all sensitive parameters was performed in the mass range below 1 TeV, and we find that slepton maximal mixing is possible without violating bounds from the lepton avor changing processes: mu → egamma; mu → e conversion, and mu → 3e. Topic three is the collider phenomenology of quirky dark matter. In this model, quirks are particles that are gauged under the electroweak group, as well as a dark" color SU(2) group. The hadronization scale of this color group is well below the quirk masses. As a result, the dark color strings never break. Quirk and anti-quirk pairs can be produced at the LHC. Once produced, they immediately form a bound state of high angular momentum. The quirk pair rapidly shed angular momentum by emitting soft radiation before they annihilate into observable signals. This dissertation presents the decay branching ratios of quirkonia where quirks obtain their masses through electroweak
Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Agricultural Education. Bulletin No. 9003.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fortier, John D.; Albrecht, Bryan D.; Grady, Susan M.; Gagnon, Dean P.; Wendt, Sharon, W.
These model academic standards for agricultural education in Wisconsin represent the work of a task force of educators, parents, and business people with input from the public. The introductory section of this bulletin defines the academic standards and discusses developing the standards, using the standards, relating the standards to all…
Sequestering the standard model vacuum energy.
Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio
2014-03-01
We propose a very simple reformulation of general relativity, which completely sequesters from gravity all of the vacuum energy from a matter sector, including all loop corrections and renders all contributions from phase transitions automatically small. The idea is to make the dimensional parameters in the matter sector functionals of the 4-volume element of the Universe. For them to be nonzero, the Universe should be finite in spacetime. If this matter is the standard model of particle physics, our mechanism prevents any of its vacuum energy, classical or quantum, from sourcing the curvature of the Universe. The mechanism is consistent with the large hierarchy between the Planck scale, electroweak scale, and curvature scale, and early Universe cosmology, including inflation. Consequences of our proposal are that the vacuum curvature of an old and large universe is not zero, but very small, that w(DE) ≃ -1 is a transient, and that the Universe will collapse in the future. PMID:24655240
Beyond the standard model of particle physics.
Virdee, T S
2016-08-28
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its experiments were conceived to tackle open questions in particle physics. The mechanism of the generation of mass of fundamental particles has been elucidated with the discovery of the Higgs boson. It is clear that the standard model is not the final theory. The open questions still awaiting clues or answers, from the LHC and other experiments, include: What is the composition of dark matter and of dark energy? Why is there more matter than anti-matter? Are there more space dimensions than the familiar three? What is the path to the unification of all the fundamental forces? This talk will discuss the status of, and prospects for, the search for new particles, symmetries and forces in order to address the open questions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'. PMID:27458261
Standard model with partial gauge invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chkareuli, J. L.; Kepuladze, Z.
2012-03-01
We argue that an exact gauge invariance may disable some generic features of the Standard Model which could otherwise manifest themselves at high energies. One of them might be related to the spontaneous Lorentz invariance violation (SLIV), which could provide an alternative dynamical approach to QED and Yang-Mills theories with photon and non-Abelian gauge fields appearing as massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons. To see some key features of the new physics expected we propose partial rather than exact gauge invariance in an extended SM framework. This principle applied, in some minimal form, to the weak hypercharge gauge field B μ and its interactions, leads to SLIV with B field components appearing as the massless Nambu-Goldstone modes, and provides a number of distinctive Lorentz breaking effects. Being naturally suppressed at low energies they may become detectable in high energy physics and astrophysics. Some of the most interesting SLIV processes are considered in significant detail.
The Standard Solar Model and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turck-Chièze, S.
2016-01-01
The Standard Solar Model (SSM) is an important reference in Astrophysics as the Sun stays today the most observed star. This model is used to predict the internal observables like neutrino fluxes and oscillation frequencies and consequently to validate its assumptions for its generalization to other stars. The model outputs result from the resolution of the classical stellar equations and the knowledge of fundamental physics like nuclear reaction rates, screening, photon interaction, plasma physics. The plasma conditions remained unmeasurable in laboratory for long due to the high temperature and high density conditions of the solar interior. Today, neutrino detections and helioseismology aboard SoHO have largely revealed the solar interior, in particular the nuclear solar core so one can estimate the reliability of SSM and also its coherence with the different indicators and between them. This has been possible thanks to a Seismic Solar Model (SeSM) which takes into account in addition the observed sound speed profile. Seismology quantifies also some internal dynamical processes that need to be properly introduced in the description of stars. This review describes the different steps of building of the SSM, its predictions and the comparisons with observations. It discusses the accuracy of such model compared to the accuracy of the SeSM. The noticed differences and observational constraints put some limits on other possible processes like dark matter, magnetic field or waves and determine the directions of progress for the near future that will come from precise emitted neutrino fluxes. High density laser facilities promise also unprecedented checks of energy transfer by photons and nuclear reaction rates.
Geometrical Standard Model Enhancements to the Standard Model of Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickland, Ken; Duvernois, Michael
2011-10-01
The Standard Model (SM) is the triumph of our age. As experimentation at the LHC tracks particles for the Higgs phenomena, theoreticians and experimentalist struggle to close in on a cohesive theory. Both suffer greatly as expectation waivers those who seek to move beyond the SM and those who cannot do without. When it seems like there are no more good ideas enter Rate Change Graph Technology (RCGT). From the science of the rate change graph, a Geometrical Standard Model (GSM) is available for comprehensive modeling, giving rich new sources of data and pathways to those ultimate answers we punish ourselves to achieve. As a new addition to science, GSM is a tool that provides a structured discovery and analysis environment. By eliminating value and size, RCGT operates with the rules of RCGT mechanics creating solutions derived from geometry. The GSM rate change graph could be the ultimate validation of the Standard Model yet. In its own right, GSM is created from geometrical intersections and comes with RCGT mechanics, yet parallels the SM to offer critical enhancements. The Higgs Objects along with a host of new objects are introduced to the SM and their positions revealed in this proposed modification to the SM.
Standard Model thermodynamics across the electroweak crossover
Laine, M.; Meyer, M.
2015-07-22
Even though the Standard Model with a Higgs mass m{sub \\tiny H}=125 GeV possesses no bulk phase transition, its thermodynamics still experiences a “soft point” at temperatures around T=160 GeV, with a deviation from ideal gas thermodynamics. Such a deviation may have an effect on precision computations of weakly interacting dark matter relic abundances if their mass is in the few TeV range, or on leptogenesis scenarios operating in this temperature range. By making use of results from lattice simulations based on a dimensionally reduced effective field theory, we estimate the relevant thermodynamic functions across the crossover. The results are tabulated in a numerical form permitting for their insertion as a background equation of state into cosmological particle production/decoupling codes. We find that Higgs dynamics induces a non-trivial “structure” visible e.g. in the heat capacity, but that in general the largest radiative corrections originate from QCD effects, reducing the energy density by a couple of percent from the free value even at T>160 GeV.
Experimental tests of the standard model.
Nodulman, L.
1998-11-11
The title implies an impossibly broad field, as the Standard Model includes the fermion matter states, as well as the forces and fields of SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). For practical purposes, I will confine myself to electroweak unification, as discussed in the lectures of M. Herrero. Quarks and mixing were discussed in the lectures of R. Aleksan, and leptons and mixing were discussed in the lectures of K. Nakamura. I will essentially assume universality, that is flavor independence, rather than discussing tests of it. I will not pursue tests of QED beyond noting the consistency and precision of measurements of {alpha}{sub EM} in various processes including the Lamb shift, the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) of the electron, and the quantum Hall effect. The fantastic precision and agreement of these predictions and measurements is something that convinces people that there may be something to this science enterprise. Also impressive is the success of the ''Universal Fermi Interaction'' description of beta decay processes, or in more modern parlance, weak charged current interactions. With one coupling constant G{sub F}, most precisely determined in muon decay, a huge number of nuclear instabilities are described. The slightly slow rate for neutron beta decay was one of the initial pieces of evidence for Cabbibo mixing, now generalized so that all charged current decays of any flavor are covered.
Augmented standard model and the simplest scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan
2015-11-01
The experimental discovery of the Higgs particle in 2012 by the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration at CERN ushers in a new era of particle physics. On the basis of these data, scalar quarks and scalar leptons are added to each generation of quarks and leptons. The resulting augmented standard model has fermion-boson symmetry for each of three generations, but only one Higgs doublet giving masses to all the elementary particles. A specific special case, the simplest scenario, is studied in detail. In this case, there are twenty six quadratic divergences, and all these divergences are cancelled provided that one single relation between the masses is satisfied. This mass relation contains a great deal of information, and in particular determines the masses of all the right-handed scalar quarks and scalar leptons, while gives relations for the masses of the left-handed ones. An alternative procedure is also given with a different starting point and less reliance on the experimental data. The result is of course the same.
Geometrical basis for the Standard Model
Potter, F. )
1994-02-01
The robust character of the Standard Model is confirmed. Examination of its geometrical basis in three equivalent internal symmetry spaces - the unitary plane C[sup 2], the quaternion space Q, and the real space R[sup 4] - as well as the real space R[sup 3] uncovers mathematical properties that predict the physical properties of leptons and quarks. The finite rotational subgroups of the gauge group SU(2)[sub L] [times] U(1)[sub Y] generate exactly three lepton families and four quark families and reveal how quarks and leptons are related. Among the physical properties explained are the mass ratios of the six leptons and eight quarks, the origin of the left-handed preference by the weak interaction, the geometrical source of color symmetry, and the zero neutrino masses. The (u,d) and (c,s) quark families team together to satisfy the triangle anomaly cancellation with the electron family, while the other families pair one-to-one for cancellation. The spontaneously broken symmetry is discrete and needs no Higgs mechanism. Predictions include all massless neutrinos, the top quark at 160 GeV/c[sup 2], the b[prime] quark at 80 GeV/c[sup 2], and the t[prime] quark at 2600 GeV/c[sup 2].
D -oscillons in the standard model extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa, R. A. C.; da Rocha, Roldão; de Souza Dutra, A.
2015-06-01
In this work we investigate the consequences of the Lorentz symmetry violation on extremely long-lived, time-dependent, and spatially localized field configurations, named oscillons. This is accomplished for two interacting scalar field theories in (D +1 ) dimensions in the context of the so-called standard model extension. We show that D -dimensional scalar field lumps can present a typical size Rmin≪RKK , where RKK is the extent of extra dimensions in Kaluza-Klein theories. The size Rmin is shown to strongly depend upon the terms that control the LV of the theory. This implies either contraction or dilation of the average radius Rmin, and a new rule for its composition, likewise. Moreover, we show that the spatial dimensions for existence of oscillating lumps have an upper limit, opening new possibilities to probe the existence of D -dimensional oscillons at TeV energy scale. In addition, in a cosmological scenario with Lorentz symmetry breaking, we show that in the early Universe with an extremely high energy density and a strong LV, the typical size Rmin was highly dilated. As the Universe had expanded and cooled down, it then passed through a phase transition toward a Lorentz symmetry, wherein Rmin tends to be compact.
Colorado Model Content Standards for Geography.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
The geography standards for Colorado schools offer suggestions for geography education that prepare students to cope with the complexities of contemporary life. The standards give students a firm grasp of the place and terrain that surrounds them; the patterns of human development around the world; and the interactions of peoples, places, and…
Models of Teaching: Connecting Student Learning with Standards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dell'Olio, Jeanine M.; Donk, Tony
2007-01-01
"Models of Teaching: Connecting Student Learning with Standards" features classic and contemporary models of teaching appropriate to elementary and secondary settings. Authors Jeanine M. Dell'Olio and Tony Donk use detailed case studies to discuss 10 models of teaching and demonstrate how the models can incorporate state content standards and…
Beyond the Standard Model with supersymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sessolo, Enrico Maria
We introduce recent research topics in beyond the Standard Model particle physics with Supersymmetry. In the first part we implement a new, extended approach to placing bounds on trilinear R-parity violating couplings. We focus on a limited set of leptonic and semi-leptonic processes involving neutrinos, combining multidimensional plotting and cross-checking constraints from different experiments. This allows us to explore new regions of parameter space and to relax a number of bounds given in the literature. We look for qualitatively different results compared to those obtained previously using the assumption that a single coupling dominates the R-parity violating contributions to a process. In the second part we investigate the prospects for indirect detection of fermion WIMPless dark matter at the neutrino telescopes IceCube and DeepCore. The dark matter annihilating in the Sun is a hidden sector Majorana fermion that couples through Yukawa couplings to a connector particle and a visible sector particle, and it exhibits only spin-dependent scattering with nuclei via couplings to first generation quarks. We consider cases where the annihilation products are taus, staus, or sneutrinos of the three generations. To evaluate the muon fluxes incident at the detector, we propagate the neutrino spectra through the solar medium and to the Earth and account for the effects of neutrino oscillations, energy losses due to neutral- and charged-current interactions, and tau regeneration. We find that for the stau and sneutrino channels, a 5 yr sigma detection of dark matter lighter than about 300~GeV is possible at IceCube for large Yukawa couplings or for dark matter and connector particles with similar masses. The tau channel offers far better detection prospects. However, due to its lower energy threshold and better muon background rejection capability, DeepCore is able to detect signals in all annihilation channels and for a wider range of dark matter masses.
Selective experimental review of the Standard Model
Bloom, E.D.
1985-02-01
Before disussing experimental comparisons with the Standard Model, (S-M) it is probably wise to define more completely what is commonly meant by this popular term. This model is a gauge theory of SU(3)/sub f/ x SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) with 18 parameters. The parameters are ..cap alpha../sub s/, ..cap alpha../sub qed/, theta/sub W/, M/sub W/ (M/sub Z/ = M/sub W//cos theta/sub W/, and thus is not an independent parameter), M/sub Higgs/; the lepton masses, M/sub e/, M..mu.., M/sub r/; the quark masses, M/sub d/, M/sub s/, M/sub b/, and M/sub u/, M/sub c/, M/sub t/; and finally, the quark mixing angles, theta/sub 1/, theta/sub 2/, theta/sub 3/, and the CP violating phase delta. The latter four parameters appear in the quark mixing matrix for the Kobayashi-Maskawa and Maiani forms. Clearly, the present S-M covers an enormous range of physics topics, and the author can only lightly cover a few such topics in this report. The measurement of R/sub hadron/ is fundamental as a test of the running coupling constant ..cap alpha../sub s/ in QCD. The author will discuss a selection of recent precision measurements of R/sub hadron/, as well as some other techniques for measuring ..cap alpha../sub s/. QCD also requires the self interaction of gluons. The search for the three gluon vertex may be practically realized in the clear identification of gluonic mesons. The author will present a limited review of recent progress in the attempt to untangle such mesons from the plethora q anti q states of the same quantum numbers which exist in the same mass range. The electroweak interactions provide some of the strongest evidence supporting the S-M that exists. Given the recent progress in this subfield, and particularly with the discovery of the W and Z bosons at CERN, many recent reviews obviate the need for further discussion in this report. In attempting to validate a theory, one frequently searches for new phenomena which would clearly invalidate it. 49 references, 28 figures.
Neutrinos: in and out of the standard model
Parke, Stephen; /Fermilab
2006-07-01
The particle physics Standard Model has been tremendously successful in predicting the outcome of a large number of experiments. In this model Neutrinos are massless. Yet recent evidence points to the fact that neutrinos are massive particles with tiny masses compared to the other particles in the Standard Model. These tiny masses allow the neutrinos to change flavor and oscillate. In this series of Lectures, I will review the properties of Neutrinos In the Standard Model and then discuss the physics of Neutrinos Beyond the Standard Model. Topics to be covered include Neutrino Flavor Transformations and Oscillations, Majorana versus Dirac Neutrino Masses, the Seesaw Mechanism and Leptogenesis.
The Standard Solar Model versus Experimental Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manuel, O.
2000-12-01
The standard solar model (ssm) assumes the that Sun formed as a homogeneous body, its interior consists mostly of hydrogen, and its radiant energy comes from H-fusion in its core. Two sets of measurements indicate the ssm is wrong: 1. Analyses of material in the planetary system show that - (a) Fe, O, Ni, Si, Mg, S and Ca have high nuclear stability and comprise 98+% of ordinary meteorites that formed at the birth of the solar system; (b) the cores of inner planets formed in a central region consisting mostly of heavy elements like Fe, Ni and S; (c) the outer planets formed mostly from elements like H, He and C; and (d) isotopic heterogeneities accompanied these chemical gradients in debris of the supernova that exploded here 5 billion years ago to produce the solar system (See Origin of the Elements at http://www.umr.edu/õm/). 2. Analyses of material coming from the Sun show that - (a) there are not enough neutrinos for H-fusion to be its main source of energy; (b) light-weight isotopes (mass =L) of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the solar wind are enriched relative to heavy isotopes (mass = H) by a factor, f, where log f = 4.56 log [H/L] -- - Eq. (1); (c) solar flares by-pass 3.4 of these 9-stages of diffusion and deplete the light-weight isotopes of He, Ne, Mg and Ar by a factor, f*, where log f* = -1.7 log [H/L] --- Eq. (2); (d) proton-capture on N-14 increased N-15 in the solar wind over geologic time; and (e) solar flares dredge up nitrogen with less N-15 from this H-fusion reaction. Each observation above is unexplained by ssm. After correcting photospheric abundances for diffusion [Observation 2(b)], the most abundant elements in the bulk sun are Fe, Ni, O, Si, S, Mg and Ca, the same elements that comprise ordinary meteorites [Observation 1(a)]. The probability that Eq. (1) would randomly select these elements from the photosphere, i.e., the likelihood for a meaningless agreement between observations 2(b) and 1(a), is < 2.0E(-33). Thus, ssm does not describe the
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani
2014-01-01
Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…
Primordial lithium and the standard model(s)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Demarque, Pierre; Kawaler, Steven D.; Romanelli, Paul; Krauss, Lawrence M.
1989-01-01
The results of new theoretical work on surface Li-7 and Li-6 evolution in the oldest halo stars are presented, along with a new and refined analysis of the predicted primordial Li abundance resulting from big-bang nucleosynthesis. This makes it possible to determine the constraints which can be imposed on cosmology using primordial Li and both standard big-bang and stellar-evolution models. This leads to limits on the baryon density today of 0.0044-0.025 (where the Hubble constant is 100h km/sec Mpc) and imposes limitations on alternative nucleosynthesis scenarios.
42 CFR 403.210 - NAIC model standards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NAIC model standards. 403.210 Section 403.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General Provisions § 403.210 NAIC model standards. (a) NAIC model...
Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards and Development Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niess, Margaret L.; Ronau, Robert N.; Shafer, Kathryn G.; Driskell, Shannon O.; Harper, Suzanne R.; Johnston, Christopher; Browning, Christine; Ozgun-Koca, S. Asli; Kersaint, Gladis
2009-01-01
What knowledge is needed to teach mathematics with digital technologies? The overarching construct, called technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK), has been proposed as the interconnection and intersection of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge. Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards offer guidelines for thinking about this…
Particle Physics Primer: Explaining the Standard Model of Matter.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vondracek, Mark
2002-01-01
Describes the Standard Model, a basic model of the universe that describes electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force radioactivity, and the strong nuclear force responsible for holding particles within the nucleus together. (YDS)
Creating Better School-Age Care Jobs: Model Work Standards.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haack, Peggy
Built on the premise that good school-age care jobs are the cornerstone of high-quality services for school-age youth and their families, this guide presents model work standards for school-age care providers. The guide begins with a description of the strengths and challenges of the school-age care profession. The model work standards are…
Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement
Conover, D.R.
1994-08-01
This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foster, David William
The standard treatment of object pronouns in Latin American Spanish assigns a direct-object function to "lo" and "la" and an indirect-object function to "le." This study challenges this descriptive attribution in light of the contradictory and refractory evidence in Spanish morphosyntax. It is suggested that more detailed research, especially…
Big bang nucleosynthesis - The standard model and alternatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, David N.
1991-01-01
The standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation of the big bang cosmological model is reviewed, and alternate models are discussed. The standard model is shown to agree with the light element abundances for He-4, H-2, He-3, and Li-7 that are available. Improved observational data from recent LEP collider and SLC results are discussed. The data agree with the standard model in terms of the number of neutrinos, and provide improved information regarding neutron lifetimes. Alternate models are reviewed which describe different scenarios for decaying matter or quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities. The baryonic density relative to the critical density in the alternate models is similar to that of the standard model when they are made to fit the abundances. This reinforces the conclusion that the baryonic density relative to critical density is about 0.06, and also reinforces the need for both nonbaryonic dark matter and dark baryonic matter.
Improved time-domain accuracy standards for model gravitational waveforms
Lindblom, Lee; Baker, John G.
2010-10-15
Model gravitational waveforms must be accurate enough to be useful for detection of signals and measurement of their parameters, so appropriate accuracy standards are needed. Yet these standards should not be unnecessarily restrictive, making them impractical for the numerical and analytical modelers to meet. The work of Lindblom, Owen, and Brown [Phys. Rev. D 78, 124020 (2008)] is extended by deriving new waveform accuracy standards which are significantly less restrictive while still ensuring the quality needed for gravitational-wave data analysis. These new standards are formulated as bounds on certain norms of the time-domain waveform errors, which makes it possible to enforce them in situations where frequency-domain errors may be difficult or impossible to estimate reliably. These standards are less restrictive by about a factor of 20 than the previously published time-domain standards for detection, and up to a factor of 60 for measurement. These new standards should therefore be much easier to use effectively.
Issues in standard model symmetry breaking
Golden, M.
1988-04-01
This work discusses the symmetry breaking sector of the SU(2) x U(1) electroweak model. The first two chapters discuss Higgs masses in two simple Higgs models. The author proves low-enery theorems for the symmetry breaking sector: The threshold behavior of gauge-boson scattering is completely determined, whenever the symmetry breaking sector meets certain simple conditions. The author uses these theorems to derive event rates for the superconducting super collider (SSC). The author shows that the SSC may be able to determine whether the interactions of the symmetry breaking sector are strong or weak. 54 refs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka
2015-01-01
The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…
Physics Beyond the Standard Model: Supersymmetry
Nojiri, M.M.; Plehn, T.; Polesello, G.; Alexander, John M.; Allanach, B.C.; Barr, Alan J.; Benakli, K.; Boudjema, F.; Freitas, A.; Gwenlan, C.; Jager, S.; /CERN /LPSC, Grenoble
2008-02-01
This collection of studies on new physics at the LHC constitutes the report of the supersymmetry working group at the Workshop 'Physics at TeV Colliders', Les Houches, France, 2007. They cover the wide spectrum of phenomenology in the LHC era, from alternative models and signatures to the extraction of relevant observables, the study of the MSSM parameter space and finally to the interplay of LHC observations with additional data expected on a similar time scale. The special feature of this collection is that while not each of the studies is explicitly performed together by theoretical and experimental LHC physicists, all of them were inspired by and discussed in this particular environment.
Comparison of cosmological models using standard rulers and candles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiao-Lei; Cao, Shuo; Zheng, Xiao-Gang; Li, Song; Biesiada, Marek
2016-05-01
In this paper, we used standard rulers and standard candles (separately and jointly) to explore five popular dark energy models under the assumption of the spatial flatness of the Universe. As standard rulers, we used a data set comprised of 118 galactic scale strong lensing systems (individual standard rulers if properly calibrated for the mass density profile) combined with BAO diagnostics (statistical standard ruler). Type Ia supernovae served as standard candles. Unlike most previous statistical studies involving strong lensing systems, we relaxed the assumption of a singular isothermal sphere (SIS) in favor of its generalization: the power-law mass density profile. Therefore, along with cosmological model parameters, we fitted the power law index and its first derivative with respect to the redshift (thus allowing for mass density profile evolution). It turned out that the best fitted γ parameters are in agreement with each other, irrespective of the cosmological model considered. This demonstrates that galactic strong lensing systems may provide a complementary probe to test the properties of dark energy. The fits for cosmological model parameters which we obtained are in agreement with alternative studies performed by other researchers. Because standard rulers and standard candles have different parameter degeneracies, a combination of standard rulers and standard candles gives much more restrictive results for cosmological parameters. Finally, we attempted an analysis based on model selection using information theoretic criteria (AIC and BIC). Our results support the claim that the cosmological constant model is still best and there is no (at least statistical) reason to prefer any other more complex model.
Theory of Time beyond the standard model
Poliakov, Eugene S.
2008-05-29
A frame of non-uniform time is discussed. A concept of 'flow of time' is presented. The principle of time relativity in analogy with Galilean principle of relativity is set. Equivalence principle is set to state that the outcome of non-uniform time in an inertial frame of reference is equivalent to the outcome of a fictitious gravity force external to the frame of reference. Thus it is flow of time that causes gravity rather than mass. The latter is compared to experimental data achieving precision of up to 0.0003%. It is shown that the law of energy conservation is inapplicable to the frames of non-uniform time. A theoretical model of a physical entity (point mass, photon) travelling in the field of non-uniform time is considered. A generalized law that allows the flow of time to replace classical energy conservation is introduced on the basis of the experiment of Pound and Rebka. It is shown that linear dependence of flow of time on spatial coordinate conforms the inverse square law of universal gravitation and Keplerian mechanics. Momentum is shown to still be conserved.
The standard data model approach to patient record transfer.
Canfield, K.; Silva, M.; Petrucci, K.
1994-01-01
This paper develops an approach to electronic data exchange of patient records from Ambulatory Encounter Systems (AESs). This approach assumes that the AES is based upon a standard data model. The data modeling standard used here is IDEFIX for Entity/Relationship (E/R) modeling. Each site that uses a relational database implementation of this standard data model (or a subset of it) can exchange very detailed patient data with other such sites using industry standard tools and without excessive programming efforts. This design is detailed below for a demonstration project between the research-oriented geriatric clinic at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center (BVAMC) and the Laboratory for Healthcare Informatics (LHI) at the University of Maryland. PMID:7949973
Enhancements to ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Prototype Building Models
Goel, Supriya; Athalye, Rahul A.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Philip R.; Mendon, Vrushali V.
2014-04-16
This report focuses on enhancements to prototype building models used to determine the energy impact of various versions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. Since the last publication of the prototype building models, PNNL has made numerous enhancements to the original prototype models compliant with the 2004, 2007, and 2010 editions of Standard 90.1. Those enhancements are described here and were made for several reasons: (1) to change or improve prototype design assumptions; (2) to improve the simulation accuracy; (3) to improve the simulation infrastructure; and (4) to add additional detail to the models needed to capture certain energy impacts from Standard 90.1 improvements. These enhancements impact simulated prototype energy use, and consequently impact the savings estimated from edition to edition of Standard 90.1.
CP violation and electroweak baryogenesis in the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brauner, Tomáš
2014-04-01
One of the major unresolved problems in current physics is understanding the origin of the observed asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the Universe. It has become a common lore to claim that the Standard Model of particle physics cannot produce sufficient asymmetry to explain the observation. Our results suggest that this conclusion can be alleviated in the so-called cold electroweak baryogenesis scenario. On the Standard Model side, we continue the program initiated by Smit eight years ago; one derives the effective CP-violating action for the Standard Model bosons and uses the resulting effective theory in numerical simulations. We address a disagreement between two previous computations performed effectively at zero temperature, and demonstrate that it is very important to include temperature effects properly. Our conclusion is that the cold electroweak baryogenesis scenario within the Standard Model is tightly constrained, yet producing enough baryon asymmetry using just known physics still seems possible.
A Repository for Beyond-the-Standard-Model Tools
Skands, P.; Richardson, P.; Allanach, B.C.; Baer, H.; Belanger, G.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellwanger, U.; Freitas, A.; Ghodbane, N.; Goujdami, D.; Hahn, T.; Heinemeyer, S.; Kneur, J.-L.; Landsberg, G.; Lee, J.S.; Muhlleitner, M.; Ohl, T.; Perez, E.; Peskin, M.; Pilaftsis, A.; Plehn, T.
2005-05-01
To aid phenomenological studies of Beyond-the-Standard-Model (BSM) physics scenarios, a web repository for BSM calculational tools has been created. We here present brief overviews of the relevant codes, ordered by topic as well as by alphabet.
NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Philosophy and Requirements Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blattnig, Steve R.; Luckring, James M.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Sylvester, Andre J.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Zang, Thomas A.
2013-01-01
Following the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report, the NASA Administrator chartered an executive team (known as the Diaz Team) to identify those CAIB report elements with NASA-wide applicability and to develop corrective measures to address each element. One such measure was the development of a standard for the development, documentation, and operation of models and simulations. This report describes the philosophy and requirements overview of the resulting NASA Standard for Models and Simulations.
NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Philosophy and Requirements Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blattnig, St3eve R.; Luckring, James M.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Sylvester, Andre J.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Zang, Thomas A.
2009-01-01
Following the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report, the NASA Administrator chartered an executive team (known as the Diaz Team) to identify those CAIB report elements with NASA-wide applicability and to develop corrective measures to address each element. One such measure was the development of a standard for the development, documentation, and operation of models and simulations. This report describes the philosophy and requirements overview of the resulting NASA Standard for Models and Simulations.
Sustainable model building the role of standards and biological semantics.
Krause, Falko; Schulz, Marvin; Swainston, Neil; Liebermeister, Wolfram
2011-01-01
Systems biology models can be reused within new simulation scenarios, as parts of more complex models or as sources of biochemical knowledge. Reusability does not come by itself but has to be ensured while creating a model. Most important, models should be designed to remain valid in different contexts-for example, for different experimental conditions-and be published in a standardized and well-documented form. Creating reusable models is worthwhile, but it requires some efforts when a model is developed, implemented, documented, and published. Minimum requirements for published systems biology models have been formulated by the MIRIAM initiative. Main criteria are completeness of information and documentation, availability of machine-readable models in standard formats, and semantic annotations connecting the model elements with entries in biological Web resources. In this chapter, we discuss the assumptions behind bottom-up modeling; present important standards like MIRIAM, the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), and the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN); and describe software tools and services for handling semantic annotations. Finally, we show how standards can facilitate the construction of large metabolic network models. PMID:21943907
Animal Models of Tourette Syndrome-From Proliferation to Standardization.
Yael, Dorin; Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar
2016-01-01
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and associated with multiple comorbid symptoms. Over the last decade, the accumulation of findings from TS patients and the emergence of new technologies have led to the development of novel animal models with high construct validity. In addition, animal models which were previously associated with other disorders were recently attributed to TS. The proliferation of TS animal models has accelerated TS research and provided a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the disorder. This newfound success generates novel challenges, since the conclusions that can be drawn from TS animal model studies are constrained by the considerable variation across models. Typically, each animal model examines a specific subset of deficits and centers on one field of research (physiology/genetics/pharmacology/etc.). Moreover, different studies do not use a standard lexicon to characterize different properties of the model. These factors hinder the evaluation of individual model validity as well as the comparison across models, leading to a formation of a fuzzy, segregated landscape of TS pathophysiology. Here, we call for a standardization process in the study of TS animal models as the next logical step. We believe that a generation of standard examination criteria will improve the utility of these models and enable their consolidation into a general framework. This should lead to a better understanding of these models and their relationship to TS, thereby improving the research of the mechanism underlying this disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. PMID:27065791
Animal Models of Tourette Syndrome—From Proliferation to Standardization
Yael, Dorin; Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar
2016-01-01
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and associated with multiple comorbid symptoms. Over the last decade, the accumulation of findings from TS patients and the emergence of new technologies have led to the development of novel animal models with high construct validity. In addition, animal models which were previously associated with other disorders were recently attributed to TS. The proliferation of TS animal models has accelerated TS research and provided a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the disorder. This newfound success generates novel challenges, since the conclusions that can be drawn from TS animal model studies are constrained by the considerable variation across models. Typically, each animal model examines a specific subset of deficits and centers on one field of research (physiology/genetics/pharmacology/etc.). Moreover, different studies do not use a standard lexicon to characterize different properties of the model. These factors hinder the evaluation of individual model validity as well as the comparison across models, leading to a formation of a fuzzy, segregated landscape of TS pathophysiology. Here, we call for a standardization process in the study of TS animal models as the next logical step. We believe that a generation of standard examination criteria will improve the utility of these models and enable their consolidation into a general framework. This should lead to a better understanding of these models and their relationship to TS, thereby improving the research of the mechanism underlying this disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. PMID:27065791
The standard model and beyond in noncommutative geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schelp, Richard Charles
2000-11-01
Noncommutative geometry and the formulation of the standard model within it is reviewed. The phrasing within noncommutative geometry of a model of particle physics based on S(U(2) × U(3)) is attempted and found to be incompatible with the mathematical structure. Noncommutative geometry versions of unified theories based on SU(15) and SU(16) are found not to yield the necessary spontaneous symmetry breaking. An extension of the standard model which includes right-handed neutrinos (and no additional fermions) is shown to be compatible with Poincaré duality only if the number of right- handed neutrinos is not equal to three.
A Standard Kinematic Model for Flight Simulation at NASA Ames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfarland, R. E.
1975-01-01
A standard kinematic model for aircraft simulation exists at NASA-Ames on a variety of computer systems, one of which is used to control the flight simulator for advanced aircraft (FSAA). The derivation of the kinematic model is given and various mathematical relationships are presented as a guide. These include descriptions of standardized simulation subsystems such as the atmospheric turbulence model and the generalized six-degrees-of-freedom trim routine, as well as an introduction to the emulative batch-processing system which enables this facility to optimize its real-time environment.
Non-standard models and the sociology of cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Corredoira, Martín
2014-05-01
I review some theoretical ideas in cosmology different from the standard "Big Bang": the quasi-steady state model, the plasma cosmology model, non-cosmological redshifts, alternatives to non-baryonic dark matter and/or dark energy, and others. Cosmologists do not usually work within the framework of alternative cosmologies because they feel that these are not at present as competitive as the standard model. Certainly, they are not so developed, and they are not so developed because cosmologists do not work on them. It is a vicious circle. The fact that most cosmologists do not pay them any attention and only dedicate their research time to the standard model is to a great extent due to a sociological phenomenon (the "snowball effect" or "groupthink"). We might well wonder whether cosmology, our knowledge of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other fields of physics or a predominant ideology.
Conformal Loop quantization of gravity coupled to the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullin, Jorge; Gambini, Rodolfo
2016-03-01
We consider a local conformal invariant coupling of the standard model to gravity free of any dimensional parameter. The theory is formulated in order to have a quantized version that admits a spin network description at the kinematical level like that of loop quantum gravity. The Gauss constraint, the diffeomorphism constraint and the conformal constraint are automatically satisfied and the standard inner product of the spin-network basis still holds. The resulting theory has resemblances with the Bars-Steinhardt-Turok local conformal theory, except it admits a canonical quantization in terms of loops. By considering a gauge fixed version of the theory we show that the Standard model coupled to gravity is recovered and the Higgs boson acquires mass. This in turn induces via the standard mechanism masses for massive bosons, baryons and leptons.
Higgs phenomenology in the standard model and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Field, Bryan Jonathan
2005-07-01
The way in which the electroweak symmetry is broken in nature is currently unknown. The electroweak symmetry is theoretically broken in the Standard Model by the Higgs mechanism which generates masses for the particle content and introduces a single scalar to the particle spectrum, the Higgs boson. This particle has not yet been observed and the value of it mass is a free parameter in the Standard Model. The observation of one (or more) Higgs bosons would confirm our understanding of the Standard Model. In this thesis, we study the phenomenology of the Standard Model Higgs boson and compare its production observables to those of the Pseudoscalar Higgs boson and the lightest scalar Higgs boson of the Minimally Supersymmetric Standard Model. We study the production at both the Fermilab Tevatron and the future CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In the first part of the thesis, we present the results of our calculations in the framework of perturbative QCD. In the second part, we present our resummed calculations.
Explore Physics Beyond the Standard Model with GLAST
Lionetto, A. M.
2007-07-12
We give an overview of the possibility of GLAST to explore theories beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Among the wide taxonomy we will focus in particular on low scale supersymmetry and theories with extra space-time dimensions. These theories give a suitable dark matter candidate whose interactions and composition can be studied using a gamma ray probe. We show the possibility of GLAST to disentangle such exotic signals from a standard production background.
Models, standards and structures of nursing documentation in European countries.
Thoroddsen, Asta; Saranto, Kaija; Ehrenberg, Anna; Sermeus, Walter
2009-01-01
The use of standardized nursing languages varies between and even within different European countries. Standardization of a nursing language is a demanding process which requires substantial methodological and technological knowledge as well as cultural experience in terminology development work. A survey was carried out to describe the current state of art of the use of models, standards and structures in nursing documentation. A web-based questionnaire was targeted to members of the Association for Common European Nursing Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes (ACENDIO). Replies were received from 17 countries in Europe. Results show that the nursing process is the model most often used to structure nursing documentation in Europe. Many standardized nursing terminologies are used in Europe but general use in nursing is still lacking which makes access to nursing data an obstacle. In more than 60% of the institutions in the countries that replied were nursing data not stored and could therefore not be retrieved. These results should be a major concern to nurses in Europe. This relates to the lack of use of standards in use of nursing terminologies and information systems. Standardization activities in existing and evolving networks in Europe, as well as in other parts of the world, need to be enhanced. As a European platform, ACENDIO can play a role in these standardization activities and should develop its role accordingly. PMID:19592859
NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Credibility Assessment Scale
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Babula, Maria; Bertch, William J.; Green, Lawrence L.; Hale, Joseph P.; Mosier, Gary E.; Steele, Martin J.; Woods, Jody
2009-01-01
As one of its many responses to the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA decided to develop a formal standard for models and simulations (M&S). Work commenced in May 2005. An interim version was issued in late 2006. This interim version underwent considerable revision following an extensive Agency-wide review in 2007 along with some additional revisions as a result of the review by the NASA Engineering Management Board (EMB) in the first half of 2008. Issuance of the revised, permanent version, hereafter referred to as the M&S Standard or just the Standard, occurred in July 2008. Bertch, Zang and Steeleiv provided a summary review of the development process of this standard up through the start of the review by the EMB. A thorough recount of the entire development process, major issues, key decisions, and all review processes are available in Ref. v. This is the second of a pair of papers providing a summary of the final version of the Standard. Its focus is the Credibility Assessment Scale, a key feature of the Standard, including an example of its application to a real-world M&S problem for the James Webb Space Telescope. The companion paper summarizes the overall philosophy of the Standard and an overview of the requirements. Verbatim quotes from the Standard are integrated into the text of this paper, and are indicated by quotation marks.
Prediction of Standard Enthalpy of Formation by a QSPR Model
Vatani, Ali; Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Gharagheizi, Farhad
2007-01-01
The standard enthalpy of formation of 1115 compounds from all chemical groups, were predicted using genetic algorithm-based multivariate linear regression (GA-MLR). The obtained multivariate linear five descriptors model by GA-MLR has correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9830). All molecular descriptors which have entered in this model are calculated from chemical structure of any molecule. As a result, application of this model for any compound is easy and accurate.
Peer Review of NRC Standardized Plant Analysis Risk Models
Anthony Koonce; James Knudsen; Robert Buell
2011-03-01
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) Models underwent a Peer Review using ASME PRA standard (Addendum C) as endorsed by NRC in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.200. The review was performed by a mix of industry probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) experts and NRC PRA experts. Representative SPAR models, one PWR and one BWR, were reviewed against Capability Category I of the ASME PRA standard. Capability Category I was selected as the basis for review due to the specific uses/applications of the SPAR models. The BWR SPAR model was reviewed against 331 ASME PRA Standard Supporting Requirements; however, based on the Capability Category I level of review and the absence of internal flooding and containment performance (LERF) logic only 216 requirements were determined to be applicable. Based on the review, the BWR SPAR model met 139 of the 216 supporting requirements. The review also generated 200 findings or suggestions. Of these 200 findings and suggestions 142 were findings and 58 were suggestions. The PWR SPAR model was also evaluated against the same 331 ASME PRA Standard Supporting Requirements. Of these requirements only 215 were deemed appropriate for the review (for the same reason as noted for the BWR). The PWR review determined that 125 of the 215 supporting requirements met Capability Category I or greater. The review identified 101 findings or suggestions (76 findings and 25 suggestions). These findings or suggestions were developed to identify areas where SPAR models could be enhanced. A process to prioritize and incorporate the findings/suggestions supporting requirements into the SPAR models is being developed. The prioritization process focuses on those findings that will enhance the accuracy, completeness and usability of the SPAR models.
Test of a Power Transfer Model for Standardized Electrofishing
Miranda, L.E.; Dolan, C.R.
2003-01-01
Standardization of electrofishing in waters with differing conductivities is critical when monitoring temporal and spatial differences in fish assemblages. We tested a model that can help improve the consistency of electrofishing by allowing control over the amount of power that is transferred to the fish. The primary objective was to verify, under controlled laboratory conditions, whether the model adequately described fish immobilization responses elicited with various electrical settings over a range of water conductivities. We found that the model accurately described empirical observations over conductivities ranging from 12 to 1,030 ??S/cm for DC and various pulsed-DC settings. Because the model requires knowledge of a fish's effective conductivity, an attribute that is likely to vary according to species, size, temperature, and other variables, a second objective was to gather available estimates of the effective conductivity of fish to examine the magnitude of variation and to assess whether in practical applications a standard effective conductivity value for fish may be assumed. We found that applying a standard fish effective conductivity of 115 ??S/cm introduced relatively little error into the estimation of the peak power density required to immobilize fish with electrofishing. However, this standard was derived from few estimates of fish effective conductivity and a limited number of species; more estimates are needed to validate our working standard.
Non-standard Hubbard models in optical lattices: a review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Omjyoti; Gajda, Mariusz; Hauke, Philipp; Lewenstein, Maciej; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören; Malomed, Boris A.; Sowiński, Tomasz; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2015-06-01
Originally, the Hubbard model was derived for describing the behavior of strongly correlated electrons in solids. However, for over a decade now, variations of it have also routinely been implemented with ultracold atoms in optical lattices, allowing their study in a clean, essentially defect-free environment. Here, we review some of the vast literature on this subject, with a focus on more recent non-standard forms of the Hubbard model. After giving an introduction to standard (fermionic and bosonic) Hubbard models, we discuss briefly common models for mixtures, as well as the so-called extended Bose-Hubbard models, that include interactions between neighboring sites, next-neighbor sites, and so on. The main part of the review discusses the importance of additional terms appearing when refining the tight-binding approximation for the original physical Hamiltonian. Even when restricting the models to the lowest Bloch band is justified, the standard approach neglects the density-induced tunneling (which has the same origin as the usual on-site interaction). The importance of these contributions is discussed for both contact and dipolar interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, the effects related to higher Bloch bands also become important even for deep optical lattices. Different approaches that aim at incorporating these effects, mainly via dressing the basis, Wannier functions with interactions, leading to effective, density-dependent Hubbard-type models, are reviewed. We discuss also examples of Hubbard-like models that explicitly involve higher p orbitals, as well as models that dynamically couple spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Finally, we review mean-field nonlinear Schrödinger models of the Salerno type that share with the non-standard Hubbard models nonlinear coupling between the adjacent sites. In that part, discrete solitons are the main subject of consideration. We conclude by listing some open problems, to be addressed in the future.
Non-standard Hubbard models in optical lattices: a review.
Dutta, Omjyoti; Gajda, Mariusz; Hauke, Philipp; Lewenstein, Maciej; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören; Malomed, Boris A; Sowiński, Tomasz; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2015-06-01
Originally, the Hubbard model was derived for describing the behavior of strongly correlated electrons in solids. However, for over a decade now, variations of it have also routinely been implemented with ultracold atoms in optical lattices, allowing their study in a clean, essentially defect-free environment. Here, we review some of the vast literature on this subject, with a focus on more recent non-standard forms of the Hubbard model. After giving an introduction to standard (fermionic and bosonic) Hubbard models, we discuss briefly common models for mixtures, as well as the so-called extended Bose-Hubbard models, that include interactions between neighboring sites, next-neighbor sites, and so on. The main part of the review discusses the importance of additional terms appearing when refining the tight-binding approximation for the original physical Hamiltonian. Even when restricting the models to the lowest Bloch band is justified, the standard approach neglects the density-induced tunneling (which has the same origin as the usual on-site interaction). The importance of these contributions is discussed for both contact and dipolar interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, the effects related to higher Bloch bands also become important even for deep optical lattices. Different approaches that aim at incorporating these effects, mainly via dressing the basis, Wannier functions with interactions, leading to effective, density-dependent Hubbard-type models, are reviewed. We discuss also examples of Hubbard-like models that explicitly involve higher p orbitals, as well as models that dynamically couple spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Finally, we review mean-field nonlinear Schrödinger models of the Salerno type that share with the non-standard Hubbard models nonlinear coupling between the adjacent sites. In that part, discrete solitons are the main subject of consideration. We conclude by listing some open problems, to be addressed in the future
Loop Corrections to Standard Model fields in inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xingang; Wang, Yi; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi
2016-08-01
We calculate 1-loop corrections to the Schwinger-Keldysh propagators of Standard-Model-like fields of spin-0, 1/2, and 1, with all renormalizable interactions during inflation. We pay special attention to the late-time divergences of loop corrections, and show that the divergences can be resummed into finite results in the late-time limit using dynamical renormalization group method. This is our first step toward studying both the Standard Model and new physics in the primordial universe.
Heavy-lepton production in the minimal supersymmetric standard model
Cieza Montalvo, J.E. ); Eboli, O.J.P.; Novaes, S.F. )
1992-07-01
We study the production of a charged-heavy-lepton pair considering the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We show that the cross section for the process {ital pp}{r arrow}{ital gg}{r arrow}{ital l}{sup +}{ital l{minus}} is enhanced for large values of the ratio between the two-Higgs-doublet vacuum expectation values, in comparison with the standard model result. The gluon fusion mechansim is the most important contribution to the lepton pair production for {ital M}{sub {ital l}}{gt}50 GeV.
Status of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Format Standard
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.
2008-01-01
The current draft AIAA Standard for flight simulation models represents an on-going effort to improve the productivity of practitioners of the art of digital flight simulation (one of the original digital computer applications). This initial release provides the capability for the efficient representation and exchange of an aerodynamic model in full fidelity; the DAVE-ML format can be easily imported (with development of site-specific import tools) in an unambiguous way with automatic verification. An attractive feature of the standard is the ability to coexist with existing legacy software or tools. The draft Standard is currently limited in scope to static elements of dynamic flight simulations; however, these static elements represent the bulk of typical flight simulation mathematical models. It is already seeing application within U.S. and Australian government agencies in an effort to improve productivity and reduce model rehosting overhead. An existing tool allows import of DAVE-ML models into a popular simulation modeling and analysis tool, and other community-contributed tools and libraries can simplify the use of DAVE-ML compliant models at compile- or run-time of high-fidelity flight simulation.
Search for the standard model Higgs boson in $l\
Li, Dikai
2013-01-01
Humans have always attempted to understand the mystery of Nature, and more recently physicists have established theories to describe the observed phenomena. The most recent theory is a gauge quantum field theory framework, called Standard Model (SM), which proposes a model comprised of elementary matter particles and interaction particles which are fundamental force carriers in the most unified way. The Standard Model contains the internal symmetries of the unitary product group SU(3)_{c} ⓍSU(2)_{L} Ⓧ U(1)_{Y} , describes the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions; the model also describes how quarks interact with each other through all of these three interactions, how leptons interact with each other through electromagnetic and weak forces, and how force carriers mediate the fundamental interactions.
Precision tests of quantum chromodynamics and the standard model
Brodsky, S.J.; Lu, H.J.
1995-06-01
The authors discuss three topics relevant to testing the Standard Model to high precision: commensurate scale relations, which relate observables to each other in perturbation theory without renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity, the relationship of compositeness to anomalous moments, and new methods for measuring the anomalous magnetic and quadrupole moments of the W and Z.
An Exercise in Modelling Using the US Standard Atmosphere
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LoPresto, Michael C.; Jacobs, Diane A.
2007-01-01
In this exercise the US Standard Atmosphere is used as "data" that a student is asked to model by deriving equations to reproduce it with the help of spreadsheet and graphing software. The exercise can be used as a laboratory or an independent study for a student of introductory physics to provide an introduction to scientific research methods…
Home Economics Education Career Path Guide and Model Curriculum Standards.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
California State Univ., Northridge.
This curriculum guide developed in California and organized in 10 chapters, provides a home economics education career path guide and model curriculum standards for high school home economics programs. The first chapter contains information on the following: home economics education in California, home economics careers for the future, home…
Radiative breaking of conformal symmetry in the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbuzov, A. B.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Pavlov, A. E.; Pervushin, V. N.; Zakharov, A. F.
2016-02-01
Radiative mechanism of conformal symmetry breaking in a comformal-invariant version of the Standard Model is considered. The Coleman-Weinberg mechanism of dimensional transmutation in this system gives rise to finite vacuum expectation values and, consequently, masses of scalar and spinor fields. A natural bootstrap between the energy scales of the top quark and Higgs boson is suggested.
Teacher Leader Model Standards: Implications for Preparation, Policy, and Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berg, Jill Harrison; Carver, Cynthia L.; Mangin, Melinda M.
2014-01-01
Teacher leadership is increasingly recognized as a resource for instructional improvement. Consequently, teacher leader initiatives have expanded rapidly despite limited knowledge about how to prepare and support teacher leaders. In this context, the "Teacher Leader Model Standards" represent an important development in the field. In…
View of a five inch standard Mark III model 1 ...
View of a five inch standard Mark III model 1 #39, manufactured in 1916 at the naval gun factory waterveliet, NY; this is the only gun remaining on olympia dating from the period when it was in commission; note ammunition lift at left side of photograph. (p36) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Calpas, Betty Constante
2010-06-11
The organization of this thesis consists of three main ideas: the first presents the theoretical framework and experimental, as well as objects used in the analysis and the second relates to the various work tasks of service that I performed on the calorimeter, and the third is the search for the Higgs boson in the channel ZH → e^{+}e^{-}b$\\bar{b}$. Thus, this thesis has the following structure: Chapter 1 is an introduction to the standard model of particle physics and the Higgs mechanism; Chapter 2 is an overview of the complex and the acceleration of the Tevatron at Fermilab DØ detector; Chapter 3 is an introduction to physical objects used in this thesis; Chapter 4 presents the study made on correcting the energy measured in the calorimeter; Chapter 5 describes the study of certification of electrons in the calorimeter; Chapter 6 describes the study of certification of electrons in the intercryostat region of calorimeter; Chapter 7 Detailed analysis on the search for Higgs production in the channel ZH → e^{+}e^{-}b$\\bar{b}$; and Chapter 8 presents the final results of the calculations of upper limits to the production cross section of the Higgs boson on a range of low masses.
Superconducting self propulsion requires beyond the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nassikas, A. A.
2012-09-01
The standard model implies the energy and momentum conservation law and the Higgs boson existence. Thus, the violation of the conservation law implies the violation of the standard model and its implications. Object of this paper is to describe the experimental verification of a self-propulsive force created by means of a superconducting device. This device is a converging nozzle made of a superconductor like YBCO and two permanent magnets, acting as a self-propulsion mechanism with direction towards the converging area. This device is activated when it is immersed within a coolant as the liquid Nitrogen. The force is measured through the slope of a pendulum created by the device mentioned hanged by means of a string from a constant point. This self propulsion violates the conservation law and requires beyond the standard model. Through logic analysis and by means of a theorem, stating the contradictory nature of communication, we can reach the minimum contradictions physics; according to this physics space-time is quantumstochastic and matter itself; there are (g)-mass and (em)-charge space-time which interact-communicate through photons [(g) or (em) particles with zero rest mass]. A quick explanation, of the experiment mentioned, is given by means of the minimum contradictions physics; this physics can imply the neutron synthesis which has been experimentally verified and explained via Hadronic Mechanics by R. M. Santilli. Since, according to this, quantum space time is matter itself there is not need for Higgs-implied by standard model-to exist; mass is a property of quantum space time itself. According to the CERN discovery there is a Higgs-like boson; according to this paper there is not the standard model Higgs boson.
GIS-based RUSLE modelling of Leça River Basin, Northern Portugal, in two different grid scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petan, S.; Barbosa, J. L. P.; Mikoš, M.; Pinto, F. T.
2009-04-01
Soil erosion is the mechanical degradation caused by the natural forces and it is also influenced by human activities. The biggest threats are the related loss of fertile soil for food production and disturbances of aquatic ecosystems which could unbalance the environment in a wider range. Thus, precise predictions of the soil erosion processes are of a major importance for preventing any kind of environmental degradations. Spatial GIS modelling and erosion maps greatly support the policymaking for land planning and environmental management. Leça River Basin, with a surface of 187 km2, is located in the Northern part of Portugal and it was chosen for testing RUSLE methodology for soil loss prediction and identifying areas with high potential erosion. The model involves daily rainfall data for rainfall erosivity estimation, topographic data for slope length and steepness factor calculation, soil type data, CORINE land cover and land use data. The raster layer model was structured in two different scales: with a grid cell size of 10 and 30 meters. The similarities and differences between the model results of both scales were evaluated.
Bianco, Simone; Corsi, Fulvio; Renò, Roberto
2009-01-01
We study the relation at intraday level between serial correlation and volatility of the Standard and Poor (S&P) 500 stock index futures returns. At daily and weekly levels, serial correlation and volatility forecasts have been found to be negatively correlated (LeBaron effect). After finding a significant attenuation of the original effect over time, we show that a similar but more pronounced effect holds by using intraday measures, by such as realized volatility and variance ratio. We also test the impact of unexpected volatility, defined as the part of volatility which cannot be forecasted, on the presence of intraday serial correlation in the time series by employing a model for realized volatility based on the heterogeneous market hypothesis. We find that intraday serial correlation is negatively correlated to volatility forecasts, whereas it is positively correlated to unexpected volatility.
Progress Toward a Format Standard for Flight Dynamics Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.
2006-01-01
In the beginning, there was FORTRAN, and it was... not so good. But it was universal, and all flight simulator equations of motion were coded with it. Then came ACSL, C, Ada, C++, C#, Java, FORTRAN-90, Matlab/Simulink, and a number of other programming languages. Since the halcyon punch card days of 1968, models of aircraft flight dynamics have proliferated in training devices, desktop engineering and development computers, and control design textbooks. With the rise of industry teaming and increased reliance on simulation for procurement decisions, aircraft and missile simulation models are created, updated, and exchanged with increasing frequency. However, there is no real lingua franca to facilitate the exchange of models from one simulation user to another. The current state-of-the-art is such that several staff-months if not staff-years are required to 'rehost' each release of a flight dynamics model from one simulation environment to another one. If a standard data package or exchange format were to be universally adopted, the cost and time of sharing and updating aerodynamics, control laws, mass and inertia, and other flight dynamic components of the equations of motion of an aircraft or spacecraft simulation could be drastically reduced. A 2002 paper estimated over $ 6 million in savings could be realized for one military aircraft type alone. This paper describes the efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) to develop a standard flight dynamic model exchange standard based on XML and HDF-5 data formats.
Using geodetic VLBI to test Standard-Model Extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hees, Aurélien; Lambert, Sébastien; Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe
2016-04-01
The modeling of the relativistic delay in geodetic techniques is primordial to get accurate geodetic products. And geodetic techniques can also be used to measure the relativistic delay and get constraints on parameters describing the relativity theory. The effective field theory framework called the Standard-Model Extension (SME) has been developed in order to systematically parametrize hypothetical violations of Lorentz symmetry (in the Standard Model and in the gravitational sector). In terms of light deflexion by a massive body like the Sun, one can expect a dependence in the elongation angle different from GR. In this communication, we use geodetic VLBI observations of quasars made in the frame of the permanent geodetic VLBI monitoring program to constrain the first SME coefficient. Our results do not show any deviation from GR and they improve current constraints on both GR and SME parameters.
Higgs decays in gauge extensions of the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunk, Don; Hubisz, Jay; Jain, Bithika
2014-02-01
We explore the phenomenology of virtual spin-1 contributions to the h→γγ and h→Zγ decay rates in gauge extensions of the standard model. We consider generic Lorentz and gauge-invariant vector self-interactions, which can have nontrivial structure after diagonalizing the quadratic part of the action. Such features are phenomenologically relevant in models where the electroweak gauge bosons mix with additional spin-1 fields, such as occurs in little Higgs models, extra dimensional models, strongly coupled variants of electroweak symmetry breaking, and other gauge extensions of the standard model. In models where nonrenormalizable operators mix field strengths of gauge groups, the one-loop Higgs decay amplitudes can be logarithmically divergent, and we provide power counting for the size of the relevant counterterm. We provide an example calculation in a four-site moose model that contains degrees of freedom that model the effects of vector and axial-vector resonances arising from TeV scale strong dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaafsma, A. W.; Fuentes, J. D.; Gillespie, T. J.; Whitfield, G. H.; Ellis, C. R.
1993-03-01
A model for egg hatching of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was tested at several locations in Ontario, Canada, during the 1989 and 1990 seasons. The model required soil temperatures as input and was tested using measured and modelled data. Modelled soil temperatures at 5 and 10 cm depths were obtained from empirically and physically based models. The physically based model provided better estimates of soil temperatues, but both models slightly underestimated the temperatures. Predicted egg hatching, using measured and modelled soil temperature at 5 and 10 cm depths for all locations, compared reasonably well with the observations of egg hatching. When using modelled soil temperatures, the egg developmental model performed better using soil temperatures from the physically based model. However, both soil temperature models provided sufficiently accurate temperature values for use in the egg developmental model. Unlike the empirically based model, the physically based model was not site-specific and its application to larger areas appeared feasible.
Towards realistic standard model from D-brane configurations
Leontaris, G. K.; Tracas, N. D.; Korakianitis, O.; Vlachos, N. D.
2007-12-01
Effective low energy models arising in the context of D-brane configurations with standard model (SM) gauge symmetry extended by several gauged Abelian factors are discussed. The models are classified according to their hypercharge embeddings consistent with the SM spectrum hypercharge assignment. Particular cases are analyzed according to their perspectives and viability as low energy effective field theory candidates. The resulting string scale is determined by means of a two-loop renormalization group calculation. Their implications in Yukawa couplings, neutrinos and flavor changing processes are also presented.
Galactic chemical evolution and nucleocosmochronology - Standard model with terminated infall
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clayton, D. D.
1984-01-01
Some exactly soluble families of models for the chemical evolution of the Galaxy are presented. The parameters considered include gas mass, the age-metallicity relation, the star mass vs. metallicity, the age distribution, and the mean age of dwarfs. A short BASIC program for calculating these parameters is given. The calculation of metallicity gradients, nuclear cosmochronology, and extinct radioactivities is addressed. An especially simple, mathematically linear model is recommended as a standard model of galaxies with truncated infall due to its internal consistency and compact display of the physical effects of the parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.
2015-12-01
A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near
Beyond standard model physics at current and future colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhen
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a multinational experiment which began running in 2009, is highly expected to discover new physics that will help us understand the nature of the universe and begin to find solutions to many of the unsolved puzzles of particle physics. For over 40 years the Standard Model has been the accepted theory of elementary particle physics, except for one unconfirmed component, the Higgs boson. The experiments at the LHC have recently discovered this Standard-Model-like Higgs boson. This discovery is one of the most exciting achievements in elementary particle physics. Yet, a profound question remains: Is this rather light, weakly-coupled boson nothing but a Standard Model Higgs or a first manifestation of a deeper theory? Also, the recent discoveries of neutrino mass and mixing, experimental evidences of dark matter and dark energy, matter-antimatter asymmetry, indicate that our understanding of fundamental physics is currently incomplete. For the next decade and more, the LHC and future colliders will be at the cutting-edge of particle physics discoveries and will shed light on many of these unanswered questions. There are many promising beyond-Standard-Model theories that may help solve the central puzzles of particle physics. To fill the gaps in our knowledge, we need to know how these theories will manifest themselves in controlled experiments, such as high energy colliders. I discuss how we can probe fundamental physics at current and future colliders directly through searches for new phenomena such as resonances, rare Higgs decays, exotic displaced signatures, and indirectly through precision measurements on Higgs in this work. I explore beyond standard model physics effects from different perspectives, including explicit models such as supersymmetry, generic models in terms of resonances, as well as effective field theory approach in terms of higher dimensional operators. This work provides a generic and broad overview of the physics
E-health stakeholders experiences with clinical modelling and standardizations.
Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Elberg, Pia Britt; Højen, Anne Randorff
2015-01-01
Stakeholders in e-health such as governance officials, health IT-implementers and vendors have to co-operate to achieve the goal of a future-proof interoperable e-health infrastructure. Co-operation requires knowledge on the responsibility and competences of stakeholder groups. To increase awareness on clinical modeling and standardization we conducted a workshop for Danish and a few Norwegian e-health stakeholders' and made them discuss their views on different aspects of clinical modeling using a theoretical model as a point of departure. Based on the model, we traced stakeholders' experiences. Our results showed there was a tendency that stakeholders were more familiar with e-health requirements than with design methods, clinical information models and clinical terminology as they are described in the scientific literature. The workshop made it possible for stakeholders to discuss their roles and expectations to each other. PMID:25991150
Beyond the Standard Model Physics with Lattice Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinaldi, Enrico
2016-03-01
Lattice simulations of gauge theories are a powerful tool to investigate strongly interacting systems like Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD). In recent years, the expertise gathered from lattice QCD studies has been used to explore new extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics that include strong dynamics. This change of gear in lattice field theories is related to the growing experimental search for new physics, from accelerator facilites like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to dark matter detectors like LUX or ADMX. In my presentation I will explore different plausible scenarios for physics beyond the standard model where strong dynamics play a dominant role and can be tackled by numerical lattice simulations. The importance of lattice field theories is highlighted in the context of dark matter searches and the search for new resonances at the LHC. Acknowledge the support of the DOE under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL).
Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model
Not Available
2011-11-11
This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2007 are new combinations of results on the W-boson mass and width and the mass of the top quark.
Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model
The , ALEPH, CDF, D0, ...
2009-12-11
This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moeller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2008 are new combinations of results on the W-boson mass and the mass of the top quark.
Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model
None, None
2009-11-01
This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moeller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2008 are new combinations of results on the W-boson mass and the mass of the top quark.
Precision electroweak measurements and constraints on the Standard Model
Not Available
2010-12-01
This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results obtained at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moeller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2009 are new combinations of results on the width of the W boson and the mass of the top quark.
Standard Model Physics Results from Atlas and Cms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dordevic, Milos
2015-06-01
The most recent results of Standard Model physics studies in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV center-of-mass energy based on data recorded by ATLAS and CMS detectors during the LHC Run I are reviewed. This overview includes studies of vector boson production cross section and properties, results on V+jets production with light and heavy flavours, latest VBS and VBF results, measurement of diboson production with an emphasis on ATGC and AQGC searches, as well as results on inclusive jet cross sections with strong coupling constant measurement and PDF constraints. The outlined results are compared to the prediction of the Standard Model.
Search for Beyond the Standard Model Physics at D0
Kraus, James
2011-08-01
The standard model (SM) of particle physics has been remarkably successful at predicting the outcomes of particle physics experiments, but there are reasons to expect new physics at the electroweak scale. Over the last several years, there have been a number of searches for beyond the standard model (BSM) physics at D0. Here, we limit our focus to three: searches for diphoton events with large missing transverse energy (E{sub T}), searches for leptonic jets and E{sub T}, and searches for single vector-like quarks. We have discussed three recent searches at D0. There are many more, including limits on heavy neutral gauge boson in the ee channel, a search for scalar top quarks, a search for quirks, and limits on a new resonance decaying to WW or WZ.
Challenges to the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis.
Steigman, G
1993-01-01
Big Bang nucleosynthesis provides a unique probe of the early evolution of the Universe and a crucial test of the consistency of the standard hot Big Bang cosmological model. Although the primordial abundances of 2H, 3He, 4He, and 7Li inferred from current observational data are in agreement with those predicted by Big Bang nucleosynthesis, recent analysis has severely restricted the consistent range for the nucleon-to-photon ratio: 3.7 standard model and suggest that no new light particles may be allowed (N(BBN)nu
Constraints on standard and non-standard early universe models from CMB B-mode polarization
Ma, Yin-Zhe; Brown, Michael L.; Zhao, Wen E-mail: Wen.Zhao@astro.cf.ac.uk
2010-10-01
We investigate the observational signatures of three models of the early Universe in the B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. In addition to the standard single field inflationary model, we also consider the constraints obtainable on the loop quantum cosmology model (from Loop Quantum Gravity) and on cosmic strings, expected to be copiously produced during the latter stages of Brane inflation. We first examine the observational features of the three models, and then use current B-mode polarization data from the BICEP and QUaD experiments to constrain their parameters. We also examine the detectability of the primordial B-mode signal predicted by these models and forecast the parameter constraints achievable with future CMB polarization experiments. We find that: (a) since B-mode polarization measurements are mostly unaffected by parameter degeneracies, they provide the cleanest probe of these early Universe models; (b) using the BICEP and QUaD data we obtain the following parameter constraints: r = 0.02{sup +0.31}{sub −0.26} (1σ for the tensor-to-scalar ratio in the single field inflationary model); m < 1.36 × 10{sup −8}M{sub pl} and k{sub *} < 2.43 × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −1} (1σ for the mass and scale parameters in the loop quantum cosmology model); and Gμ < 5.77 × 10{sup −7} (1σ for the cosmic string tension); (c) future CMB observations (both satellite missions and forthcoming sub-orbital experiments) will provide much more rigorous tests of these early Universe models.
Development of a standard documentation protocol for communicating exposure models.
Ciffroy, P; Altenpohl, A; Fait, G; Fransman, W; Paini, A; Radovnikovic, A; Simon-Cornu, M; Suciu, N; Verdonck, F
2016-10-15
An important step in building a computational model is its documentation; a comprehensive and structured documentation can improve the model applicability and transparency in science/research and for regulatory purposes. This is particularly crucial and challenging for environmental and/or human exposure models that aim to establish quantitative relationships between personal exposure levels and their determinants. Exposure models simulate the transport and fate of a contaminant from the source to the receptor and may involve a large set of entities (e.g. all the media the contaminants may pass though). Such complex models are difficult to be described in a comprehensive, unambiguous and accessible way. Bad communication of assumptions, theory, structure and/or parameterization can lead to lack of confidence by the user and it may be source of errors. The goal of this paper is to propose a standard documentation protocol (SDP) for exposure models, i.e. a generic format and a standard structure by which all exposure models could be documented. For this purpose, a CEN (European Committee for Standardisation) workshop was set up with objective to agree on minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be provided on exposure models documentation along with guidelines for the structure and presentation of the information. The resulting CEN workshop agreement (CWA) was expected to facilitate a more rigorous formulation of exposure models description and the understanding by users. This paper intends to describe the process followed for defining the SDP, the standardisation approach, as well as the main components of the SDP resulting from a wide consultation of interested stakeholders. The main outcome is a CEN CWA which establishes terms and definitions for exposure models and their elements, specifies minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be documented, and proposes a structure for communicating the documentation to different
Aspects of Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Xiaochuan
This dissertation describes a few aspects of particles beyond the Standard Model, with a focus on the remaining questions after the discovery of a Standard Model-like Higgs boson. In specific, three topics are discussed in sequence: neutrino mass and baryon asymmetry, naturalness problem of Higgs mass, and placing constraints on theoretical models from precision measurements. First, the consequence of the neutrino mass anarchy on cosmology is studied. Attentions are paid in particular to the total mass of neutrinos and baryon asymmetry through leptogenesis. With the assumption of independence among mass matrix entries in addition to the basis independence, Gaussian measure is the only choice. On top of Gaussian measure, a simple approximate U(1) flavor symmetry makes leptogenesis highly successful. Correlations between the baryon asymmetry and the light-neutrino quantities are investigated. Also discussed are possible implications of recently suggested large total mass of neutrinos by the SDSS/BOSS data. Second, the Higgs mass implies fine-tuning for minimal theories of weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Non-decoupling effects can boost the Higgs mass when new states interact with the Higgs, but new sources of SUSY breaking that accompany such extensions threaten naturalness. I will show that two singlets with a Dirac mass can increase the Higgs mass while maintaining naturalness in the presence of large SUSY breaking in the singlet sector. The modified Higgs phenomenology of this scenario, termed "Dirac NMSSM", is also studied. Finally, the sensitivities of future precision measurements in probing physics beyond the Standard Model are studied. A practical three-step procedure is presented for using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. A detailed explanation is
Beyond-standard-model tensor interaction and hadron phenomenology
Courtoy, Aurore; Baessler, Stefan; Gonzalez-Alonso, Martin; Liuti, Simonetta
2015-10-15
Here, we evaluate the impact of recent developments in hadron phenomenology on extracting possible fundamental tensor interactions beyond the standard model. We show that a novel class of observables, including the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions, and the transversity parton distribution function can contribute to the constraints on this quantity. Experimental extractions of the tensor hadronic matrix elements, if sufficiently precise, will provide a, so far, absent testing ground for lattice QCD calculations.
Beyond-Standard-Model Tensor Interaction and Hadron Phenomenology.
Courtoy, Aurore; Baeßler, Stefan; González-Alonso, Martín; Liuti, Simonetta
2015-10-16
We evaluate the impact of recent developments in hadron phenomenology on extracting possible fundamental tensor interactions beyond the standard model. We show that a novel class of observables, including the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions, and the transversity parton distribution function can contribute to the constraints on this quantity. Experimental extractions of the tensor hadronic matrix elements, if sufficiently precise, will provide a, so far, absent testing ground for lattice QCD calculations. PMID:26550868
Standard model parameters and the search for new physics
Marciano, W.J.
1988-04-01
In these lectures, my aim is to present an up-to-date status report on the standard model and some key tests of electroweak unification. Within that context, I also discuss how and where hints of new physics may emerge. To accomplish those goals, I have organized my presentation as follows: I discuss the standard model parameters with particular emphasis on the gauge coupling constants and vector boson masses. Examples of new physics appendages are also briefly commented on. In addition, because these lectures are intended for students and thus somewhat pedagogical, I have included an appendix on dimensional regularization and a simple computational example that employs that technique. Next, I focus on weak charged current phenomenology. Precision tests of the standard model are described and up-to-date values for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix parameters are presented. Constraints implied by those tests for a 4th generation, supersymmetry, extra Z/prime/ bosons, and compositeness are also discussed. I discuss weak neutral current phenomenology and the extraction of sin/sup 2/ /theta//sub W/ from experiment. The results presented there are based on a recently completed global analysis of all existing data. I have chosen to concentrate that discussion on radiative corrections, the effect of a heavy top quark mass, and implications for grand unified theories (GUTS). The potential for further experimental progress is also commented on. I depart from the narrowest version of the standard model and discuss effects of neutrino masses and mixings. I have chosen to concentrate on oscillations, the Mikheyev-Smirnov- Wolfenstein (MSW) effect, and electromagnetic properties of neutrinos. On the latter topic, I will describe some recent work on resonant spin-flavor precession. Finally, I conclude with a prospectus on hopes for the future. 76 refs.
Charged Neutrinos and Atoms in the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takasugi, E.; Tanaka, M.
1992-03-01
The possibility of the charge quantization in the standard model is examined in the absence of the ``generation as copies'' rule. It is shown that neutrinos and atoms can have mini-charges, while neutron is neutral. If a triplet Higgs boson is introduced, neutrinos have masses. Two neutrinos form a Konopinski-Mahmoud Dirac particle and the other becomes a Majorana particle due to the hidden local anomaly free U(1) symmetry.
Qweak, N → Δ, and physics beyond the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leacock, J.
2014-01-01
The data-taking phase of the Qweak experiment ended in May of 2012 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Qweak aims to measure the weak charge of the proton, Q {/W p }, via parity-violating elastic electron-proton scattering. The expected value of Q {/W p } is fortuitously suppressed, which leads to an increased sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model.
Gravity, CPT, and the standard-model extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tasson, Jay D.
2015-08-01
Exotic atoms provide unique opportunities to search for new physics. The search for CPT and Lorentz violation in the context of the general field-theory based framework of the gravitational Standard-Model Extension (SME) is one such opportunity. This work summarizes the implications of Lorentz and CPT violation for gravitational experiments with antiatoms and atoms containing higher-generation matter as well as recent nongravitational proposals to test CPT and Lorentz symmetry with muons and muonic systems.
Qweak, N --> {Delta}, and physics beyond the standard model
Leacock, John D.
2014-01-01
The data-taking phase of the Qweak experiment ended in May of 2012 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Qweak aims to measure the weak charge of the proton, Q{sub W}{sup p}, via parity-violating elastic electron-proton scattering. The expected value of Q{sub W}{sup p} is fortuitously suppressed, which leads to an increased sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2011
2011-01-01
Wisconsin's adoption of the Common Core State Standards provides an excellent opportunity for Wisconsin school districts and communities to define expectations from birth through preparation for college and work. By aligning the existing Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards with the Wisconsin Common Core State Standards, expectations can be…
Phenomenology of the N = 3 Lee-Wick Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
TerBeek, Russell Henry
With the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012, particle physics has decidedly moved beyond the Standard Model into a new epoch. Though the Standard Model particle content is now completely accounted for, there remain many theoretical issues about the structure of the theory in need of resolution. Among these is the hierarchy problem: since the renormalized Higgs mass receives quadratic corrections from a higher cutoff scale, what keeps the Higgs boson light? Many possible solutions to this problem have been advanced, such as supersymmetry, Randall-Sundrum models, or sub-millimeter corrections to gravity. One such solution has been advanced by the Lee-Wick Standard Model. In this theory, higher-derivative operators are added to the Lagrangian for each Standard Model field, which result in propagators that possess two physical poles and fall off more rapidly in the ultraviolet regime. It can be shown by an auxiliary field transformation that the higher-derivative theory is identical to positing a second, manifestly renormalizable theory in which new fields with opposite-sign kinetic and mass terms are found. These so-called Lee-Wick fields have opposite-sign propagators, and famously cancel off the quadratic divergences that plague the renormalized Higgs mass. The states in the Hilbert space corresponding to Lee-Wick particles have negative norm, and implications for causality and unitarity are examined. This dissertation explores a variant of the theory called the N = 3 Lee-Wick Standard Model. The Lagrangian of this theory features a yet-higher derivative operator, which produces a propagator with three physical poles and possesses even better high-energy behavior than the minimal Lee-Wick theory. An analogous auxiliary field transformation takes this higher-derivative theory into a renormalizable theory with states of alternating positive, negative, and positive norm. The phenomenology of this theory is examined in detail, with particular emphasis on the collider
Impersonating the Standard Model Higgs boson: Alignment without decoupling
Carena, Marcela; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.
2014-04-03
In models with an extended Higgs sector there exists an alignment limit, in which the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mimics the Standard Model Higgs. The alignment limit is commonly associated with the decoupling limit, where all non-standard scalars are significantly heavier than the Z boson. However, alignment can occur irrespective of the mass scale of the rest of the Higgs sector. In this work we discuss the general conditions that lead to “alignment without decoupling”, therefore allowing for the existence of additional non-standard Higgs bosons at the weak scale. The values of tan β for which this happens are derived in terms of the effective Higgs quartic couplings in general two-Higgs-doublet models as well as in supersymmetric theories, including the MSSM and the NMSSM. In addition, we study the information encoded in the variations of the SM Higgs-fermion couplings to explore regions in the m_{A} – tan β parameter space.
Impersonating the Standard Model Higgs boson: Alignment without decoupling
Carena, Marcela; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.
2014-04-03
In models with an extended Higgs sector there exists an alignment limit, in which the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mimics the Standard Model Higgs. The alignment limit is commonly associated with the decoupling limit, where all non-standard scalars are significantly heavier than the Z boson. However, alignment can occur irrespective of the mass scale of the rest of the Higgs sector. In this work we discuss the general conditions that lead to “alignment without decoupling”, therefore allowing for the existence of additional non-standard Higgs bosons at the weak scale. The values of tan β for which this happens are derivedmore » in terms of the effective Higgs quartic couplings in general two-Higgs-doublet models as well as in supersymmetric theories, including the MSSM and the NMSSM. In addition, we study the information encoded in the variations of the SM Higgs-fermion couplings to explore regions in the mA – tan β parameter space.« less
BiGG Models: A platform for integrating, standardizing and sharing genome-scale models
King, Zachary A.; Lu, Justin; Dräger, Andreas; Miller, Philip; Federowicz, Stephen; Lerman, Joshua A.; Ebrahim, Ali; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Lewis, Nathan E.
2016-01-01
Genome-scale metabolic models are mathematically-structured knowledge bases that can be used to predict metabolic pathway usage and growth phenotypes. Furthermore, they can generate and test hypotheses when integrated with experimental data. To maximize the value of these models, centralized repositories of high-quality models must be established, models must adhere to established standards and model components must be linked to relevant databases. Tools for model visualization further enhance their utility. To meet these needs, we present BiGG Models (http://bigg.ucsd.edu), a completely redesigned Biochemical, Genetic and Genomic knowledge base. BiGG Models contains more than 75 high-quality, manually-curated genome-scale metabolic models. On the website, users can browse, search and visualize models. BiGG Models connects genome-scale models to genome annotations and external databases. Reaction and metabolite identifiers have been standardized across models to conform to community standards and enable rapid comparison across models. Furthermore, BiGG Models provides a comprehensive application programming interface for accessing BiGG Models with modeling and analysis tools. As a resource for highly curated, standardized and accessible models of metabolism, BiGG Models will facilitate diverse systems biology studies and support knowledge-based analysis of diverse experimental data. PMID:26476456
BiGG Models: A platform for integrating, standardizing and sharing genome-scale models.
King, Zachary A; Lu, Justin; Dräger, Andreas; Miller, Philip; Federowicz, Stephen; Lerman, Joshua A; Ebrahim, Ali; Palsson, Bernhard O; Lewis, Nathan E
2016-01-01
Genome-scale metabolic models are mathematically-structured knowledge bases that can be used to predict metabolic pathway usage and growth phenotypes. Furthermore, they can generate and test hypotheses when integrated with experimental data. To maximize the value of these models, centralized repositories of high-quality models must be established, models must adhere to established standards and model components must be linked to relevant databases. Tools for model visualization further enhance their utility. To meet these needs, we present BiGG Models (http://bigg.ucsd.edu), a completely redesigned Biochemical, Genetic and Genomic knowledge base. BiGG Models contains more than 75 high-quality, manually-curated genome-scale metabolic models. On the website, users can browse, search and visualize models. BiGG Models connects genome-scale models to genome annotations and external databases. Reaction and metabolite identifiers have been standardized across models to conform to community standards and enable rapid comparison across models. Furthermore, BiGG Models provides a comprehensive application programming interface for accessing BiGG Models with modeling and analysis tools. As a resource for highly curated, standardized and accessible models of metabolism, BiGG Models will facilitate diverse systems biology studies and support knowledge-based analysis of diverse experimental data. PMID:26476456
BiGG Models: A platform for integrating, standardizing and sharing genome-scale models
King, Zachary A.; Lu, Justin; Drager, Andreas; Miller, Philip; Federowicz, Stephen; Lerman, Joshua A.; Ebrahim, Ali; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Lewis, Nathan E.
2015-10-17
In this study, genome-scale metabolic models are mathematically structured knowledge bases that can be used to predict metabolic pathway usage and growth phenotypes. Furthermore, they can generate and test hypotheses when integrated with experimental data. To maximize the value of these models, centralized repositories of high-quality models must be established, models must adhere to established standards and model components must be linked to relevant databases. Tools for model visualization further enhance their utility. To meet these needs, we present BiGG Models (http://bigg.ucsd.edu), a completely redesigned Biochemical, Genetic and Genomic knowledge base. BiGG Models contains more than 75 high-quality, manually-curated genome-scalemore » metabolic models. On the website, users can browse, search and visualize models. BiGG Models connects genome-scale models to genome annotations and external databases. Reaction and metabolite identifiers have been standardized across models to conform to community standards and enable rapid comparison across models. Furthermore, BiGG Models provides a comprehensive application programming interface for accessing BiGG Models with modeling and analysis tools. As a resource for highly curated, standardized and accessible models of metabolism, BiGG Models will facilitate diverse systems biology studies and support knowledge-based analysis of diverse experimental data.« less
BiGG Models: A platform for integrating, standardizing and sharing genome-scale models
King, Zachary A.; Lu, Justin; Drager, Andreas; Miller, Philip; Federowicz, Stephen; Lerman, Joshua A.; Ebrahim, Ali; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Lewis, Nathan E.
2015-10-17
In this study, genome-scale metabolic models are mathematically structured knowledge bases that can be used to predict metabolic pathway usage and growth phenotypes. Furthermore, they can generate and test hypotheses when integrated with experimental data. To maximize the value of these models, centralized repositories of high-quality models must be established, models must adhere to established standards and model components must be linked to relevant databases. Tools for model visualization further enhance their utility. To meet these needs, we present BiGG Models (http://bigg.ucsd.edu), a completely redesigned Biochemical, Genetic and Genomic knowledge base. BiGG Models contains more than 75 high-quality, manually-curated genome-scale metabolic models. On the website, users can browse, search and visualize models. BiGG Models connects genome-scale models to genome annotations and external databases. Reaction and metabolite identifiers have been standardized across models to conform to community standards and enable rapid comparison across models. Furthermore, BiGG Models provides a comprehensive application programming interface for accessing BiGG Models with modeling and analysis tools. As a resource for highly curated, standardized and accessible models of metabolism, BiGG Models will facilitate diverse systems biology studies and support knowledge-based analysis of diverse experimental data.
Modeling micro-electronics drill bit behavior with ABAQUS Standard
Anderson, C.A.; Ricketson, E.
1997-06-01
Modeling of drill bit behavior under applied forces as well as modeling of the drilling process itself can aid in the understanding of the relative importance of the various drill bit process parameters and can eventually lead to improved drill bit designs. In this paper the authors illustrate the application of ABAQUS Standard to the stress and deformation analysis of micro-electronics drill bits that are used in manufacturing printed circuit boards. Effects of varying point geometry, web taper and flute length on the stress and deformation in a drill bit are illustrated.
Non-generic couplings in supersymmetric standard models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Constantin, Andrei; Lukas, Andre
2015-09-01
We study two phases of a heterotic standard model, obtained from a Calabi-Yau compactification of the E8 ×E8 heterotic string, in the context of the associated four-dimensional effective theories. In the first phase we have a standard model gauge group, an MSSM spectrum, four additional U (1) symmetries and singlet fields. In the second phase, obtained from the first by continuing along the singlet directions, three of the additional U (1) symmetries are spontaneously broken and the remaining one is a B-L symmetry. In this second phase, dimension five operators inducing proton decay are consistent with all symmetries and as such, they are expected to be present. We show that, contrary to this expectation, these operators are forbidden due to the additional U (1) symmetries present in the first phase of the model. We emphasise that such "unexpected" absences of operators, due to symmetry enhancement at specific loci in the moduli space, can be phenomenologically relevant and, in the present case, protect the model from fast proton decay.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merino, Andres; Guerrero-Higueras, Angel Manuel; López, Laura; Gascón, Estibaliz; Sánchez, José Luis; Lorente, José Manuel; Marcos, José Luis; Matía, Pedro; Ortiz de Galisteo, José Pablo; Nafría, David; Fernández-González, Sergio; Weigand, Roberto; Hermida, Lucía; García-Ortega, Eduardo
2014-05-01
The integration of various public and private observation networks into the Observation Network of Castile-León (ONet_CyL), Spain, allows us to monitor the risks in real-time. One of the most frequent risks in this region is severe precipitation. Thus, the data from the network allows us to determine the area where precipitation was registered and also to know the areas with precipitation in real-time. The observation network is managed with a LINUX system. The observation platform makes it possible to consult the observation data in a specific point in the region, or otherwise to see the spatial distribution of the precipitation in a user-defined area and time interval. In this study, we compared several rainfall estimation models, based on satellite data for Castile-León, with precipitation data from the meteorological observation network. The rainfall estimation models obtained from the meteorological satellite data provide us with a precipitation field covering a wide area, although its operational use requires a prior evaluation using ground truth data. The aim is to develop a real-time evaluation tool for rainfall estimation models that allows us to monitor the accuracy of its forecasting. This tool makes it possible to visualise different Skill Scores (Probability of Detection, False Alarm Ratio and others) of each rainfall estimation model in real time, thereby not only allowing us to know the areas where the rainfall models indicate precipitation, but also the validation of the model in real-time for each specific meteorological situation. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Regional Government of Castile-León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2. This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22).
Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid
Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael
2009-09-01
This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.
Right-right-left extension of the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbas, Gauhar
2016-06-01
A right-right-left extension of the Standard Model is proposed. In this model, SM gauge group SU(2)L ⊗U(1)Y is extended to SU(2)L ⊗SU(2)R ⊗SU(2)R‧⊗SU(2) L‧⊗U(1) Y. The gauge symmetries SU(2)R‧, SU(2)L‧ are the mirror counterparts of the SU(2)L and SU(2)R, respectively. Parity is spontaneously broken when the scalar Higgs fields acquire vacuum expectation values (VEVs) in a certain pattern. Parity is restored at the scale of SU(2)L‧. The gauge sector has a unique pattern. The scalar sector of the model is optimum, elegant and unique.
Sterile Neutrinos in Non-Standard Cosmologies and Particle Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osoba, Efunwande
2010-12-01
The discovery of neutrino masses suggests that the Standard Model should be supplemented with new gauge-singlet fermions, often called sterile neutrinos. These sterile neutrinos can shed new light on open questions in cosmology. I will highlight some interesting contributions that sterile neutrinos bring to the understanding of cosmology. In this dissertation, I will show a novel way in which sterile neutrinos could be a dark matter candidate in the form of "Inert-Sterile" neutrinos. In usual particle models, sterile neutrinos can account for the dark matter of the Universe only if they have niasses in the keV range and are warm dark matter. Stringent cosmological and astrophysical bounds, in particular imposed by X-ray observations, apply to them. I will point out that in a particular variation of the Inert Doublet Model, sterile neutrinos can account for the dark matter in the Universe and may be either cold or warm dark matter candidates, even for masses much larger than the keV range. These "Inert-Sterile" neutrinos, produced non-thermally in the early Universe, would be stable and have very small couplings to Standard Model particles, rendering very difficult their detection in either direct or indirect dark matter searches. They could be, in principle, revealed in colliders by discovering other particles in the model. I also show how the existence of the sterile neutrino may force us to rethink the standard cosmology. It is commonly assumed that the cosmological and astrophysical bounds on the mixings of sterile with active neutrinos are much more stringent than those obtained from laboratory measurements. In this dissertation, I show that in scenarios with a very low reheating temperature at the end of (the last episode of) inflation or entropy creation, the abundance of heavy (> 1 MeV) sterile neutrinos becomes largely suppressed with respect to that obtained within the standard framework. Thus, in this case cosmological bounds become much less stringent
The Beyond the standard model working group: Summary report
G. Azuelos et al.
2004-03-18
In this working group we have investigated a number of aspects of searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) at the running or planned TeV-scale colliders. For the most part, we have considered hadron colliders, as they will define particle physics at the energy frontier for the next ten years at least. The variety of models for Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) physics has grown immensely. It is clear that only future experiments can provide the needed direction to clarify the correct theory. Thus, our focus has been on exploring the extent to which hadron colliders can discover and study BSM physics in various models. We have placed special emphasis on scenarios in which the new signal might be difficult to find or of a very unexpected nature. For example, in the context of supersymmetry (SUSY), we have considered: how to make fully precise predictions for the Higgs bosons as well as the superparticles of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) (parts III and IV); MSSM scenarios in which most or all SUSY particles have rather large masses (parts V and VI); the ability to sort out the many parameters of the MSSM using a variety of signals and study channels (part VII); whether the no-lose theorem for MSSM Higgs discovery can be extended to the next-to-minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) in which an additional singlet superfield is added to the minimal collection of superfields, potentially providing a natural explanation of the electroweak value of the parameter {micro} (part VIII); sorting out the effects of CP violation using Higgs plus squark associate production (part IX); the impact of lepton flavor violation of various kinds (part X); experimental possibilities for the gravitino and its sgoldstino partner (part XI); what the implications for SUSY would be if the NuTeV signal for di-muon events were interpreted as a sign of R-parity violation (part XII). Our other main focus was on the phenomenological implications of extra
Object Oriented Design and the Standard Model of particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipovaca, Samir
2007-04-01
Inspired by the computer as both tool and metaphor, a new path emerges toward understanding life, physics, and existence. The path leads throughout all of nature, from the interior of cells to inside black holes. This view of science is based on the idea that information is the ultimate ``substance'' from which all things are made. Exploring this view, we will focus on Object - Oriented (OO) design as one of the most important designs in software development. The OO design views the world as composed of objects with well defined properties. The dynamics is pictured as interactions among objects. Interactions are mediated by messages that objects exchange with each other. This description closely resembles the view of the elementary particles world created by the Standard Model of particle physics. The object model (OM) provides a theoretical foundation upon which the OO design is built. The OM is based on the principles of abstraction, encapsulation, modularity and hierarchy. We will show that the Standard Model of particle physics follows the OM principles.
What is Air? A Standard Model for Combustion Simulations
Cloutman, L D
2001-08-01
Most combustion devices utilize air as the oxidizer. Thus, reactive flow simulations of these devices require the specification of the composition of air as part of the physicochemical input. A mixture of only oxygen and nitrogen often is used, although in reality air is a more complex mixture of somewhat variable composition. We summarize some useful parameters describing a standard model of dry air. Then we consider modifications to include water vapor for creating the desired level of humidity. The ''minor'' constituents of air, especially argon and water vapor, can affect the composition by as much as about 5 percent in the mole fractions.
Quantum corrections in Higgs inflation: the Standard Model case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Damien P.; Mooij, Sander; Postma, Marieke
2016-04-01
We compute the one-loop renormalization group equations for Standard Model Higgs inflation. The calculation is done in the Einstein frame, using a covariant formalism for the multi-field system. All counterterms, and thus the betafunctions, can be extracted from the radiative corrections to the two-point functions; the calculation of higher n-point functions then serves as a consistency check of the approach. We find that the theory is renormalizable in the effective field theory sense in the small, mid and large field regime. In the large field regime our results differ slightly from those found in the literature, due to a different treatment of the Goldstone bosons.
Dark Matter and Color Octets Beyond the Standard Model
Krnjaic, Gordan Zdenko
2012-07-01
Although the Standard Model (SM) of particles and interactions has survived forty years of experimental tests, it does not provide a complete description of nature. From cosmological and astrophysical observations, it is now clear that the majority of matter in the universe is not baryonic and interacts very weakly (if at all) via non-gravitational forces. The SM does not provide a dark matter candidate, so new particles must be introduced. Furthermore, recent Tevatron results suggest that SM predictions for benchmark collider observables are in tension with experimental observations. In this thesis, we will propose extensions to the SM that address each of these issues.
Electroweak baryogenesis in the exceptional supersymmetric standard model
Chao, Wei
2015-08-28
We study electroweak baryogenesis in the E{sub 6} inspired exceptional supersymmetric standard model (E{sub 6}SSM). The relaxation coefficients driven by singlinos and the new gaugino as well as the transport equation of the Higgs supermultiplet number density in the E{sub 6}SSM are calculated. Our numerical simulation shows that both CP-violating source terms from singlinos and the new gaugino can solely give rise to a correct baryon asymmetry of the Universe via the electroweak baryogenesis mechanism.
NONGRAVITATIONAL FORCES ON COMETS: AN EXTENSION OF THE STANDARD MODEL
Aksnes, K.; Mysen, E.
2011-09-15
The accuracy of comet orbit computations is limited by uncertain knowledge of the recoil force due to outgassing from the nuclei. The standard model assumes an exponential dependence of the force on distance from the Sun. This variable force times constants A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and A{sub 3} represents the radial, transverse, and normal components of the net force. Orbit solutions show that the As often vary considerably over a few apparitions of the comets. In this paper, we allow for time variations of the As, and we show that for several comets this improves the orbit accuracy considerably.
Future high precision experiments and new physics beyond Standard Model
Luo, Mingxing.
1993-01-01
High precision (< 1%) electroweak experiments that have been done or are likely to be done in this decade are examined on the basis of Standard Model (SM) predictions of fourteen weak neutral current observables and fifteen W and Z properties to the one-loop level, the implications of the corresponding experimental measurements to various types of possible new physics that enter at the tree or loop level were investigated. Certain experiments appear to have special promise as probes of the new physics considered here.
Future high precision experiments and new physics beyond Standard Model
Luo, Mingxing
1993-04-01
High precision (< 1%) electroweak experiments that have been done or are likely to be done in this decade are examined on the basis of Standard Model (SM) predictions of fourteen weak neutral current observables and fifteen W and Z properties to the one-loop level, the implications of the corresponding experimental measurements to various types of possible new physics that enter at the tree or loop level were investigated. Certain experiments appear to have special promise as probes of the new physics considered here.
Searches for the standard model Higgs at the Tevatron
Kilminster, Ben; /Ohio State U.
2007-05-01
The CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron are currently the only capable of searching for the Standard Model Higgs boson. This article describes their most sensitive searches in the expected Higgs mass range, focusing on advanced methods used to extract the maximal sensitivity from the data. CDF presents newly updated results for H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} and Zh {yields} l{sup +}l{sup -}b{bar b}. D0 presents two new searches for WH {yields} lvb{bar b}. These new analyses use the same 1 fb{sup -1} dataset as previous searches, but with improved techniques resulting in markedly improved sensitivity.
A theorem on the Higgs sector of the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frasca, Marco
2016-06-01
We provide the solution of the classical theory for the Higgs sector of the Standard Model obtaining the exact Green's function for the broken phase. Solving the Dyson-Schwinger equations for the Higgs field we show that the propagator coincides with that of the classical theory confirming the spectrum also at the quantum level. In this way we obtain a proof of triviality using the Källen-Lehman representation. This has as a consequence that higher excited states must exist for the Higgs particle, representing an internal spectrum for it. Higher excited states have exponentially smaller amplitudes and, so, their production rates are significantly depressed.
Searches for the standard model Higgs boson at the Tevatron
Dorigo, Tommaso; /Padua U.
2005-05-01
The CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron have searched for the Standard Model Higgs boson in data collected between 2001 and 2004. Upper limits have been placed on the production cross section times branching ratio to b{bar b} pairs or W{sup +}W{sup -} pairs as a function of the Higgs boson mass. projections indicate that the Tevatron experiments have a chance of discovering a M{sub H} = 115 GeV Higgs with the total dataset foreseen by 2009, or excluding it at 95% C.L. up to a mass of 135 GeV.
Strong CP problem with 10(32) standard model copies.
Dvali, Gia; Farrar, Glennys R
2008-07-01
We show that a recently proposed solution to the hierarchy problem simultaneously solves the strong CP problem, without requiring an axion or any further new physics. Consistency of black hole physics implies a nontrivial relation between the number of particle species and particle masses, so that with approximately 10(32) copies of the standard model, the TeV scale is naturally explained. At the same time, as shown here, this setup predicts a typical expected value of the strong-CP parameter in QCD of theta approximately 10(-9). This strongly motivates a more sensitive measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment. PMID:18764102
Naturalness of CP Violation in the Standard Model
Gibbons, Gary W.; Gielen, Steffen; Pope, C. N.; Turok, Neil
2009-03-27
We construct a natural measure on the space of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices in the standard model, assuming the fermion mass matrices are randomly selected from a distribution which incorporates the observed quark mass hierarchy. This measure allows us to assess the likelihood of Jarlskog's CP violation parameter J taking its observed value J{approx_equal}3x10{sup -5}. We find that the observed value, while well below the mathematically allowed maximum, is in fact typical once the observed quark masses are assumed.
Big bang nucleosynthesis: The standard model and alternatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, David N.
1991-01-01
Big bang nucleosynthesis provides (with the microwave background radiation) one of the two quantitative experimental tests of the big bang cosmological model. This paper reviews the standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation and shows how it fits the light element abundances ranging from He-4 at 24% by mass through H-2 and He-3 at parts in 10(exp 5) down to Li-7 at parts in 10(exp 10). Furthermore, the recent large electron positron (LEP) (and the stanford linear collider (SLC)) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. Alternate scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conlusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, omega(sub b) remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the conclusion that omega(sub b) approximately equals 0.06. This latter point is the driving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming omega(sub total) = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since omega(sub visible) is less than omega(sub b).
Colorado Model Content Standards for Science: Suggested Grade Level Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
This document outlines the content standards for science in the state of Colorado. The document is organized into six standards, each of which is subdivided into a set of guiding questions exemplifying the standard and a series of lists defining what is expected of students at each grade level within the standard. The standards are that students…
Alive and well: A short review about standard solar models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serenelli, Aldo
2016-04-01
Standard solar models (SSMs) provide a reference framework across a number of research fields: solar and stellar models, solar neutrinos, particle physics the most conspicuous among them. The accuracy of the physical description of the global properties of the Sun that SSMs provide has been challenged in the last decade by a number of developments in stellar spectroscopic techniques. Over the same period of time, solar neutrino experiments, and Borexino in particular, have measured the four solar neutrino fluxes from the pp-chains that are associated with 99% of the nuclear energy generated in the Sun. Borexino has also set the most stringent limit on CNO energy generation, only ˜ 40% larger than predicted by SSMs. More recently, and for the first time, radiative opacity experiments have been performed at conditions that closely resemble those at the base of the solar convective envelope. In this article, we review these developments and discuss the current status of SSMs, including its intrinsic limitations.
Modeling the wet bulb globe temperature using standard meteorological measurements.
Liljegren, J. C.; Carhart, R. A.; Lawday, P.; Tschopp, S.; Sharp, R.; Decision and Information Sciences
2008-10-01
The U.S. Army has a need for continuous, accurate estimates of the wet bulb globe temperature to protect soldiers and civilian workers from heat-related injuries, including those involved in the storage and destruction of aging chemical munitions at depots across the United States. At these depots, workers must don protective clothing that increases their risk of heat-related injury. Because of the difficulty in making continuous, accurate measurements of wet bulb globe temperature outdoors, the authors have developed a model of the wet bulb globe temperature that relies only on standard meteorological data available at each storage depot for input. The model is composed of separate submodels of the natural wet bulb and globe temperatures that are based on fundamental principles of heat and mass transfer, has no site-dependent parameters, and achieves an accuracy of better than 1 C based on comparisons with wet bulb globe temperature measurements at all depots.
Z' boson detection in the minimal quiver standard model
Berenstein, D.; Martinez, R.; Ochoa, F.; Pinansky, S.
2009-05-01
We undertake a phenomenological study of the extra neutral Z' boson in the minimal quiver standard model and discuss limits on the model's parameters from previous precision electroweak experiments, as well as detection prospects at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. We find that masses lower than around 700 GeV are excluded by the Z-pole data from the CERN LEP collider, and below 620 GeV by experimental data from di-electron events at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We also find that at a mass of 1 TeV the LHC cross section would show a small peak in the di-lepton and top pair channel.
Electro symmetry breaking and beyond the standard model
Barklow, T.; Dawson, S.; Haber, H.E.; Siegrist, J.
1995-05-01
The development of the Standard Model of particle physics is a remarkable success story. Its many facets have been tested at present day accelerators; no significant unambiguous deviations have yet been found. In some cases, the model has been verified at an accuracy of better than one part in a thousand. This state of affairs presents our field with a challenge. Where do we go from here? What is our vision for future developments in particle physics? Are particle physicists` recent successes a signal of the field`s impending demise, or do real long-term prospects exist for further progress? We assert that the long-term health and intellectual vitality of particle physics depends crucially on the development of a new generation of particle colliders that push the energy frontier by an order of magnitude beyond present capabilities. In this report, we address the scientific issues underlying this assertion.
How to use the Standard Model effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henning, Brian; Lu, Xiaochuan; Murayama, Hitoshi
2016-01-01
We present a practical three-step procedure of using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on a given UV model. We give a detailed explanation for calculating the effective action up to one-loop order in a manifestly gauge covariant fashion. This covariant derivative expansion method dramatically simplifies the process of matching a UV model with the SM EFT, and also makes available a universal formalism that is easy to use for a variety of UV models. A few general aspects of RG running effects and choosing operator bases are discussed. Finally, we provide mapping results between the bosonic sector of the SM EFT and a complete set of precision electroweak and Higgs observables to which present and near future experiments are sensitive. Many results and tools which should prove useful to those wishing to use the SM EFT are detailed in several appendices.
Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ping, Chia Swee
2015-04-01
The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the `tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.
Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model
Ping, Chia Swee
2015-04-24
The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.
Long-term archiving and data access: modelling and standardization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoc, Claude; Levoir, Thierry; Nonon-Latapie, Michel
1996-01-01
This paper reports on the multiple difficulties inherent in the long-term archiving of digital data, and in particular on the different possible causes of definitive data loss. It defines the basic principles which must be respected when creating long-term archives. Such principles concern both the archival systems and the data. The archival systems should have two primary qualities: independence of architecture with respect to technological evolution, and generic-ness, i.e., the capability of ensuring identical service for heterogeneous data. These characteristics are implicit in the Reference Model for Archival Services, currently being designed within an ISO-CCSDS framework. A system prototype has been developed at the French Space Agency (CNES) in conformance with these principles, and its main characteristics will be discussed in this paper. Moreover, the data archived should be capable of abstract representation regardless of the technology used, and should, to the extent that it is possible, be organized, structured and described with the help of existing standards. The immediate advantage of standardization is illustrated by several concrete examples. Both the positive facets and the limitations of this approach are analyzed. The advantages of developing an object-oriented data model within this contxt are then examined.
Supersymmetry and String Theory: Beyond the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dine, Michael
2007-01-01
The past decade has witnessed dramatic developments in the field of theoretical physics. This book is a comprehensive introduction to these recent developments. It contains a review of the Standard Model, covering non-perturbative topics, and a discussion of grand unified theories and magnetic monopoles. It introduces the basics of supersymmetry and its phenomenology, and includes dynamics, dynamical supersymmetry breaking, and electric-magnetic duality. The book then covers general relativity and the big bang theory, and the basic issues in inflationary cosmologies before discussing the spectra of known string theories and the features of their interactions. The book also includes brief introductions to technicolor, large extra dimensions, and the Randall-Sundrum theory of warped spaces. This will be of great interest to graduates and researchers in the fields of particle theory, string theory, astrophysics and cosmology. The book contains several problems, and password protected solutions will be available to lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521858410. Provides reader with tools to confront limitations of the Standard Model Includes several exercises and problems Solutions are available to lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521858410
Gravitational mass-shift effect in the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazinski, P. O.
2012-02-01
The gravitational mass-shift effect is investigated in the framework of the standard model with the energy cutoff regularization both for stationary and nonstationary backgrounds at the one-loop level. The problem of singularity of the effective potential of the Higgs field on the horizon of a black hole, which was reported earlier, is resolved. The equations characterizing the properties of a vacuum state are derived and solved in a certain approximation for the Schwarzschild black hole. The gravitational mass-shift effect is completely described in this case. The behavior of masses of the massive particles of the standard model depends on the value of the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime. If the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime is less than 263.6 GeV then a mass of any massive particle approaching a gravitating object grows. If the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime is greater than or equal to 278.2 GeV, the masses of all the massive particles decrease in a strong gravitational field. The Higgs boson masses lying between these two values prove to lead to instability, at least at the one-loop level, and so they are excluded. It turns out that the vacuum possesses the same properties as an ultrarelativistic fluid in a certain approximation. The expression for the entropy and enthalpy densities and the pressure of this fluid are obtained. The sound speed in this fluid is also derived.
Standard model on a domain-wall brane?
Davies, Rhys; George, Damien P.; Volkas, Raymond R.
2008-06-15
We propose a 4+1-dimensional action that is a candidate for realizing a standard-model-like effective theory for fields dynamically localized to a domain-wall brane. Our construction is in part based on the conjecture that the Dvali-Shifman mechanism for dynamically localizing gauge bosons to a domain wall works correctly in 4+1-d. Assuming this to be so, we require the gauge symmetry to be SU(5) in the bulk, spontaneously breaking to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) inside the domain wall, thus dynamically localizing the standard-model gauge bosons provided that the SU(5) theory in the bulk exhibits confinement. The wall is created jointly by a real singlet-Higgs field {eta} configured as a kink, and an SU(5) adjoint-Higgs field {chi} that takes nonzero values inside the wall. Chiral 3+1-dimensional quarks and leptons are confined and split along the bulk direction via their Yukawa couplings to {eta} and {chi}. The Higgs doublet and its color triplet SU(5) partner are similarly localized and split. The splittings can suppress colored-Higgs-induced proton decay and, because of the different localization profiles, the usual SU(5) mass relation m{sub e}=m{sub d} does not arise. Localized gravity is generated via the Randall-Sundrum alternative to compactification.
Symmetries for standard model alignment in multi-Higgs doublet models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilaftsis, Apostolos
2016-04-01
We derive the complete set of continuous maximal symmetries for standard model (SM) alignment that may occur in the tree-level scalar potential of multi-Higgs doublet models, with n >2 Higgs doublets. Our results generalize the symmetries of SM alignment, without decoupling of large mass scales or fine-tuning, previously obtained in the context of two-Higgs doublet models.
Comparison of standard ruler and standard candle constraints on dark energy models
Lazkoz, R; Nesseris, S; Perivolaropoulos, L E-mail: snesseris@grads.uoi.gr
2008-07-15
We compare the dark energy model constraints obtained by using recent standard ruler data (baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) at z = 0.2 and 0.35 and cosmic microwave background (CMB) shift parameters R and l{sub a}) with the corresponding constraints obtained by using recent type Ia supernovae (SnIa) standard candle data (ESSENCE+SNLS+HST from astro-ph/0701510). We find that, even though both classes of data are consistent with {Lambda}CDM (CDM: cold dark matter) at the 2{sigma} level, there is a systematic difference between the two classes of data. In particular, we find that for practically all values of the parameters ({Omega}{sub 0m},{Omega}{sub b}) in the 2{sigma} range of the three-year WMAP data (WMAP3) best fit, {Lambda}CDM is significantly more consistent with the SnIa data than with the CMB+BAO data. For example for ({Omega}{sub 0m},{Omega}{sub b}) = (0.24,0.042) corresponding to the best fit values of WMAP3, the dark energy equation of state parameterization w(z) = w{sub 0}+w{sub 1}(z/1+z) best fit is at a 0.5{sigma} distance from {Lambda}CDM (w{sub 0} = -1,w{sub 1} = 0) using the SnIa data and 1.7{sigma} away from {Lambda}CDM using the CMB+BAO data. There is a similar trend in the earlier data (SNLS versus CMB+BAO at z = 0.35). This trend is such that the standard ruler CMB+BAO data show a mild preference for crossing of the phantom divide line w = -1, while the recent SnIa data favor {Lambda}CDM. Despite this mild difference in trends, we find no statistically significant evidence for violation of the cosmic distance duality relation {eta} {identical_to} d{sub L}(z)/d{sub A}(z)(1+z){sup 2}=1. For example, using a prior of {Omega}{sub 0m} = 0.24, we find {eta} = 0.95 {+-} 0.025 in the redshift range 0
Chiral supersymmetric Standard Model spectra from orientifolds of Gepner models [rapid communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dijkstra, T. P. T.; Huiszoon, L. R.; Schellekens, A. N.
2005-03-01
We construct d = 4, N = 1 orientifolds of Gepner models with just the chiral spectrum of the Standard Model. We consider all simple current modular invariants of c = 9 tensor products of N = 2 minimal models. For some very specific tensor combinations, and very specific modular invariants and orientifold projections, we find a large number of such spectra. We allow for Standard Model singlet (dark) matter and non-chiral exotics. The Chan-Paton gauge group is either U (3) × Sp (2) × U (1) × U (1) or U (3) × U (2) × U (1) × U (1). In many cases the Standard Model hypercharge U (1) has no coupling to RR 2-forms and hence remains massless; in some of those models the B-L gauge boson does acquire a mass.
Type II Supernovae: Model Light Curves and Standard Candle Relationships
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.
2009-10-01
A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude—from 0.5 to 4.0 × 1051 ergs, with a typical value of ~0.9 × 1051 ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to ~20% using only photometric data.
TYPE II SUPERNOVAE: MODEL LIGHT CURVES AND STANDARD CANDLE RELATIONSHIPS
Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.
2009-10-01
A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude-from 0.5 to 4.0 x 10{sup 51} ergs, with a typical value of approx0.9 x 10{sup 51} ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to approx20% using only photometric data.
Rapid simulation rescaling from standard to modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Lombriser, L.; Li, B.
2015-10-01
We develop and test an algorithm to rescale a simulated dark-matter particle distribution or halo catalogue from a standard gravity model to that of a modified gravity model. This method is based on that of Angulo & White but with some additional ingredients to account for (i) scale-dependent growth of linear density perturbations and (ii) screening mechanisms that are generic features of viable modified gravity models. We attempt to keep the method as general as possible, so that it may plausibly be applied to a wide range of modified theories, although tests against simulations are restricted to a subclass of f (R) models at this stage. We show that rescaling allows the power spectrum of matter to be reproduced at the ˜3 per cent level in both real and redshift space up to k = 0.1h Mpc-1 if we change the box size and alter the particle displacement field; this limit can be extended to k = 1h Mpc-1 if we additionally alter halo internal structure. We simultaneously develop an algorithm that can be applied directly to a halo catalogue, in which case the halo mass function and clustering can be reproduced at the ˜5 per cent level. Finally, we investigate the clustering of halo particle distributions, generated from rescaled halo catalogues, and find that a similar accuracy can be reached.
Application of standards and models in body composition analysis.
Müller, Manfred J; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Geisler, Corinna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja
2016-05-01
The aim of this review is to extend present concepts of body composition and to integrate it into physiology. In vivo body composition analysis (BCA) has a sound theoretical and methodological basis. Present methods used for BCA are reliable and valid. Individual data on body components, organs and tissues are included into different models, e.g. a 2-, 3-, 4- or multi-component model. Today the so-called 4-compartment model as well as whole body MRI (or computed tomography) scans are considered as gold standards of BCA. In practice the use of the appropriate method depends on the question of interest and the accuracy needed to address it. Body composition data are descriptive and used for normative analyses (e.g. generating normal values, centiles and cut offs). Advanced models of BCA go beyond description and normative approaches. The concept of functional body composition (FBC) takes into account the relationships between individual body components, organs and tissues and related metabolic and physical functions. FBC can be further extended to the model of healthy body composition (HBC) based on horizontal (i.e. structural) and vertical (e.g. metabolism and its neuroendocrine control) relationships between individual components as well as between component and body functions using mathematical modelling with a hierarchical multi-level multi-scale approach at the software level. HBC integrates into whole body systems of cardiovascular, respiratory, hepatic and renal functions. To conclude BCA is a prerequisite for detailed phenotyping of individuals providing a sound basis for in depth biomedical research and clinical decision making. PMID:26541411
Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Art and Design Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.
This Wisconsin academic standards guide for art and design explains what is meant by academic standards. The guide declares that academic standards specify what students should know and be able to do; what students might be asked to do to give evidence of standards; how well students must perform; and that content, performance, and proficiency…
Evolution of Climate Science Modelling Language within international standards frameworks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lowe, Dominic; Woolf, Andrew
2010-05-01
The Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML) was originally developed as part of the NERC Data Grid (NDG) project in the UK. It was one of the first Geography Markup Language (GML) application schemas describing complex feature types for the metocean domain. CSML feature types can be used to describe typical climate products such as model runs or atmospheric profiles. CSML has been successfully used within NDG to provide harmonised access to a number of different data sources. For example, meteorological observations held in heterogeneous databases by the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) were served uniformly as CSML features via Web Feature Service. CSML has now been substantially revised to harmonise it with the latest developments in OGC and ISO conceptual modelling for geographic information. In particular, CSML is now aligned with the near-final ISO 19156 Observations & Measurements (O&M) standard. CSML combines the O&M concept of 'sampling features' together with an observation result based on the coverage model (ISO 19123). This general pattern is specialised for particular data types of interest, classified on the basis of sampling geometry and topology. In parallel work, the OGC Met Ocean Domain Working Group has established a conceptual modelling activity. This is a cross-organisational effort aimed at reaching consensus on a common core data model that could be re-used in a number of met-related application areas: operational meteorology, aviation meteorology, climate studies, and the research community. It is significant to note that this group has also identified sampling geometry and topology as a key classification axis for data types. Using the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach as adopted by INSPIRE we demonstrate how the CSML application schema is derived from a formal UML conceptual model based on the ISO TC211 framework. By employing MDA tools which map consistently between UML and GML we
Standards and Guidelines for Numerical Models for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titov, V.; Gonzalez, F.; Kanoglu, U.; Yalciner, A.; Synolakis, C. E.
2006-12-01
An increased number of nations around the workd need to develop tsunami mitigation plans which invariably involve inundation maps for warning guidance and evacuation planning. There is the risk that inundation maps may be produced with older or untested methodology, as there are currently no standards for modeling tools. In the aftermath of the 2004 megatsunami, some models were used to model inundation for Cascadia events with results much larger than sediment records and existing state-of-the-art studies suggest leading to confusion among emergency management. Incorrectly assessing tsunami impact is hazardous, as recent events in 2006 in Tonga, Kythira, Greece and Central Java have suggested (Synolakis and Bernard, 2006). To calculate tsunami currents, forces and runup on coastal structures, and inundation of coastlines one must calculate the evolution of the tsunami wave from the deep ocean to its target site, numerically. No matter what the numerical model, validation (the process of ensuring that the model solves the parent equations of motion accurately) and verification (the process of ensuring that the model used represents geophysical reality appropriately) both are an essential. Validation ensures that the model performs well in a wide range of circumstances and is accomplished through comparison with analytical solutions. Verification ensures that the computational code performs well over a range of geophysical problems. A few analytic solutions have been validated themselves with laboratory data. Even fewer existing numerical models have been both validated with the analytical solutions and verified with both laboratory measurements and field measurements, thus establishing a gold standard for numerical codes for inundation mapping. While there is in principle no absolute certainty that a numerical code that has performed well in all the benchmark tests will also produce correct inundation predictions with any given source motions, validated codes
New extended standard model, dark matters and relativity theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Jae-Kwang
2016-03-01
Three-dimensional quantized space model is newly introduced as the extended standard model. Four three-dimensional quantized spaces with total 12 dimensions are used to explain the universes including ours. Electric (EC), lepton (LC) and color (CC) charges are defined to be the charges of the x1x2x3, x4x5x6 and x7x8x9 warped spaces, respectively. Then, the lepton is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) correlated state which makes 3x3 = 9 leptons and the quark is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) - xk(CC) correlated state which makes 3x3x3 = 27 quarks. The new three bastons with the xi(EC) state are proposed as the dark matters seen in the x1x2x3 space, too. The matter universe question, three generations of the leptons and quarks, dark matter and dark energy, hadronization, the big bang, quantum entanglement, quantum mechanics and general relativity are briefly discussed in terms of this new model. The details can be found in the article titled as ``journey into the universe; three-dimensional quantized spaces, elementary particles and quantum mechanics at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/J_Hwang2''.
Triple neutral gauge boson couplings in noncommutative Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deshpande, N. G.; He, Xiao-Gang
2002-05-01
It has been shown recently that the triple neutral gauge boson couplings are not uniquely determined in noncommutative extension of the Standard Model (NCSM). Depending on specific schemes used, the couplings are different and may even be zero. To distinguish different realizations of the NCSM, additional information either from theoretical or experimental considerations is needed. In this Letter we show that these couplings can be uniquely determined from considerations of unification of electroweak and strong interactions. Using SU(5) as the underlying theory and integrating out the heavy degrees of freedom, we obtain unique non-zero new triple γγγ, γγZ, γZZ, ZZZ, γGG, ZGG and GGG couplings at the leading order in the NCSM. We also briefly discuss experimental implications.
Consistent constraints on the Standard Model Effective Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berthier, Laure; Trott, Michael
2016-02-01
We develop the global constraint picture in the (linear) effective field theory generalisation of the Standard Model, incorporating data from detectors that operated at PEP, PETRA, TRISTAN, SpS, Tevatron, SLAC, LEPI and LEP II, as well as low energy precision data. We fit one hundred and three observables. We develop a theory error metric for this effective field theory, which is required when constraints on parameters at leading order in the power counting are to be pushed to the percent level, or beyond, unless the cut off scale is assumed to be large, Λ ≳ 3 TeV. We more consistently incorporate theoretical errors in this work, avoiding this assumption, and as a direct consequence bounds on some leading parameters are relaxed. We show how an S, T analysis is modified by the theory errors we include as an illustrative example.
Consistent use of the standard model effective potential.
Andreassen, Anders; Frost, William; Schwartz, Matthew D
2014-12-12
The stability of the standard model is determined by the true minimum of the effective Higgs potential. We show that the potential at its minimum when computed by the traditional method is strongly dependent on the gauge parameter. It moreover depends on the scale where the potential is calculated. We provide a consistent method for determining absolute stability independent of both gauge and calculation scale, order by order in perturbation theory. This leads to a revised stability bounds m(h)(pole)>(129.4±2.3) GeV and m(t)(pole)<(171.2±0.3) GeV. We also show how to evaluate the effect of new physics on the stability bound without resorting to unphysical field values. PMID:25541764
Quantum Gravity and Lorentz Invariance Violation in the Standard Model
Alfaro, Jorge
2005-06-10
The most important problem of fundamental physics is the quantization of the gravitational field. A main difficulty is the lack of available experimental tests that discriminate among the theories proposed to quantize gravity. Recently, Lorentz invariance violation by quantum gravity (QG) has been the source of growing interest. However, the predictions depend on an ad hoc hypothesis and too many arbitrary parameters. Here we show that the standard model itself contains tiny Lorentz invariance violation terms coming from QG. All terms depend on one arbitrary parameter {alpha} that sets the scale of QG effects. This parameter can be estimated using data from the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum to be vertical bar {alpha} vertical bar <{approx}10{sup -22}-10{sup -23}.
Standard model cross-over on the lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Onofrio, Michela; Rummukainen, Kari
2016-01-01
With the physical Higgs mass the standard model symmetry restoration phase transition is a smooth cross-over. We study the thermodynamics of the cross-over using numerical lattice Monte Carlo simulations of an effective SU (2 )×U (1 ) gauge+Higgs theory, significantly improving on previously published results. We measure the Higgs field expectation value, thermodynamic quantities like pressure, energy density, speed of sound and heat capacity, and screening masses associated with the Higgs and Z fields. While the cross-over is smooth, it is very well defined with a width of only ˜5 GeV . We measure the cross-over temperature from the maximum of the susceptibility of the Higgs condensate, with the result Tc=159.5 ±1.5 GeV . Outside of the narrow cross-over region the perturbative results agree well with nonperturbative ones.
Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model
Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong
1996-12-31
The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt`s Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
CosPA 2015 and the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pauchy Hwang, W.-Y.
2016-07-01
In this keynote speech, I describe briefly “The Universe”, a journal/newsletter launched by APCosPA Organization, and my lifetime research on the Standard Model of particle physics. In this 21st Century, we should declare that we live in the quantum 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time with the force-fields gauge-group structure SUc(3) × SUL(2) × U(1) × SUf(3) built-in from the very beginning. This background can see the lepton world, of atomic sizes, and offers us the eyes to see other things. It also can see the quark world, of the Fermi sizes, and this fact makes this entire world much more interesting.
Baryon number dissipation at finite temperature in the standard model
Mottola, E. ); Raby, S. . Dept. of Physics); Starkman, G. . Dept. of Astronomy)
1990-01-01
We analyze the phenomenon of baryon number violation at finite temperature in the standard model, and derive the relaxation rate for the baryon density in the high temperature electroweak plasma. The relaxation rate, {gamma} is given in terms of real time correlation functions of the operator E{center dot}B, and is directly proportional to the sphaleron transition rate, {Gamma}: {gamma} {preceq} n{sub f}{Gamma}/T{sup 3}. Hence it is not instanton suppressed, as claimed by Cohen, Dugan and Manohar (CDM). We show explicitly how this result is consistent with the methods of CDM, once it is recognized that a new anomalous commutator is required in their approach. 19 refs., 2 figs.
Combination of Standard Model Higgs searches at CDF
Potamianos, Karolos; /Purdue U. /Fermilab
2010-12-01
We present the latest combination of searches for a standard model (SM) Higgs boson in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV recorded by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using data corresponding to 2.3-5.9 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we perform searches in a number of different production and decay modes and then combine them to improve sensitivity. No excess in data above that expected from backgrounds is observed; therefore, we set upper limits on the production cross section times branching fraction as a function of the SM Higgs boson mass (m{sub H}). The combined observed (expected) limit is 1.9 (1.8) times the SM prediction at m{sub H} =115 GeV/c{sup 2} and 1.0 (1.1) times the SM prediction at m{sub H} = 165 GeV/c{sup 2}.
New phenomena beyond both the standard model and MSSM
Hewett, J.L.
1995-07-01
The Standard Model (SM) is in complete agreement with present experimental data. Nevertheless, it is believed to leave many questions unanswered, and this belief has resulted in numerous attempts to find a more fundamental underlying theory. One key ingredient in the extrapolation of the SM to higher energies is to identify the complete particle spectrum at the electroweak scale. Two popular examples of theories which populate the TeV scale with a plethora of new particles are supersymmetry and technicolor. This has resulted in extensive searches for super- and techni-particles, which have been reported elsewhere at this meeting. In this talk, the author identifies other possible manifestations of new physics, and discusses their implications on hadron collider physics.
Physics Beyond the Standard Model from Molecular Hydrogen Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ubachs, Wim; Salumbides, Edcel John; Bagdonaite, Julija
2015-06-01
The spectrum of molecular hydrogen can be measured in the laboratory to very high precision using advanced laser and molecular beam techniques, as well as frequency-comb based calibration [1,2]. The quantum level structure of this smallest neutral molecule can now be calculated to very high precision, based on a very accurate (10-15 precision) Born-Oppenheimer potential [3] and including subtle non-adiabatic, relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects [4]. Comparison between theory and experiment yields a test of QED, and in fact of the Standard Model of Physics, since the weak, strong and gravitational forces have a negligible effect. Even fifth forces beyond the Standard Model can be searched for [5]. Astronomical observation of molecular hydrogen spectra, using the largest telescopes on Earth and in space, may reveal possible variations of fundamental constants on a cosmological time scale [6]. A study has been performed at a 'look-back' time of 12.5 billion years [7]. In addition the possible dependence of a fundamental constant on a gravitational field has been investigated from observation of molecular hydrogen in the photospheres of white dwarfs [8]. The latter involves a test of the Einsteins equivalence principle. [1] E.J. Salumbides et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143005 (2011). [2] G. Dickenson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 193601 (2013). [3] K. Pachucki, Phys. Rev. A82, 032509 (2010). [4] J. Komasa et al., J. Chem. Theory Comp. 7, 3105 (2011). [5] E.J. Salumbides et al., Phys. Rev. D87, 112008 (2013). [6] F. van Weerdenburg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 180802 (2011). [7] J. Badonaite et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 071301 (2015). [8] J. Bagdonaite et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123002 (2014).
A few possible explanations of physics beyond the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stolarski, Daniel Julian
Weak scale supersymmetry provides elegant solutions to many of the problems of the standard model, but it also generically gives rise to excessive flavor and CP violation. I show that if the mechanism that suppresses the Yukawa couplings also suppresses flavor changing interactions in the supersymmetry breaking parameters, essentially all the low energy flavor and CP constraints can be satisfied. The standard assumption of flavor universality in the supersymmetry breaking sector is not necessary. I also study signatures of this framework at the LHC. The mass splitting among different generations of squarks and sleptons can be much larger than in conventional scenarios, and even the mass ordering can be changed. I find that there is a plausible scenario in which the NLSP is a long-lived right-handed selectron or smuon decaying into the LSP gravitino. This leads to the spectacular signature of monochromatic electrons or muons in a stopper detector, providing strong evidence for the framework. I also present concrete realizations of this framework in higher dimensions. The Higgs fields and the supersymmetry breaking field are localized in the same place in the extra dimension(s). The Yukawa couplings and operators generating the supersymmetry breaking parameters then receive the same suppression factors from the wavefunction profiles of the matter fields, leading to a specific correlation between these two classes of interactions. I construct both unified and non-unified models in this framework, which can be either strongly or weakly coupled at the cutoff scale. I analyze one version in detail, a strongly coupled unified model, which addresses various issues of supersymmetric grand unification. The models presented here provide an explicit example in which the supersymmetry breaking spectrum can be a direct window into the physics of flavor at a very high energy scale. I also study, in an operator analysis, the compatibility between low energy flavor and CP
Structure of relativistic accretion disk with non-standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khesali, A. R.; Salahshoor, K.
2016-07-01
The structure of stationary, axisymmetric advection-dominated accretion disk (ADAF) around rotating black hole, using non-standard model, was examined. In this model, the transport efficiency of the angular momentum α was dependent on the magnetic Prandtl number α ∝ Pm^{δ } . The full relativistic shear stress recently obtained by a new manner, was used. By considering black hole spin and Prandtl number instantaneously, the structure of ADAFs was changed in inner and outer region of the disk. It was discovered that the accretion flow was denser and hotter in the inner region, due to the black hole spin, and in the outer region, due to the presence of Prandtl parameter. Inasmuch as the rotation of the black hole affected the transport efficiency of angular momentum in parts of the disk very close to the even horizon, then in these regions, the viscosity depended on the rotation of black hole. Also, it was discovered that the effect of the black hole spin on the structure of the disk was related to the presence of Prandtl parameter.
Decay of the standard model Higgs field after inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueroa, Daniel G.; García-Bellido, Juan; Torrentí, Francisco
2015-10-01
We study the nonperturbative dynamics of the standard model (SM) after inflation, in the regime where the SM is decoupled from (or weakly coupled to) the inflationary sector. We use classical lattice simulations in an expanding box in (3 +1 ) dimensions, modeling the SM gauge interactions with both global and Abelian-Higgs analogue scenarios. We consider different postinflationary expansion rates. During inflation, the Higgs forms a condensate, which starts oscillating soon after inflation ends. Via nonperturbative effects, the oscillations lead to a fast decay of the Higgs into the SM species, transferring most of the energy into Z and W± bosons. All species are initially excited far away from equilibrium, but their interactions lead them into a stationary stage, with exact equipartition among the different energy components. From there on, the system eventually reaches equilibrium. We have characterized in detail, in the different expansion histories considered, the evolution of the Higgs and of its dominant decay products until equipartition is established. We provide a useful mapping between simulations with different parameters, from which we derive a master formula for the Higgs decay time as a function of the coupling constants, Higgs initial amplitude and postinflationary expansion rate.
Observational consequences of the standard model Higgs inflation variants
Popa, L.A.
2011-10-01
We consider the possibility to observationally differentiate the Standard Model (SM) Higgs driven inflation with non-minimal coupling to gravity from other variants of SM Higgs inflation based on the scalar field theories with non-canonical kinetic term such as Galileon-like kinetic term and kinetic term with non-minimal derivative coupling to the Einstein tensor. In order to ensure consistent results, we study the SM Higgs inflation variants by using the same method, computing the full dynamics of the background and perturbations of the Higgs field during inflation at quantum level. Assuming that all the SM Higgs inflation variants are consistent theories, we use the MCMC technique to derive constraints on the inflationary parameters and the Higgs boson mass from their fit to WMAP7+SN+BAO data set. We conclude that a combination of the SM Higgs mass measurement by the LHC and accurate determination by the PLANCK satellite of the spectral index of curvature perturbations and tensor-to-scalar ratio will enable to distinguish among these models. We also show that the consistency relations of the SM Higgs inflation variants are distinct enough to differentiate among them.
Critical Differences of Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection from Standard Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitta, S.; Wada, T.; Fuchida, T.; Kondoh, K.
2016-09-01
We have clarified the structure of asymmetric magnetic reconnection in detail as the result of the spontaneous evolutionary process. The asymmetry is imposed as ratio k of the magnetic field strength in both sides of the initial current sheet (CS) in the isothermal equilibrium. The MHD simulation is carried out by the HLLD code for the long-term temporal evolution with very high spatial resolution. The resultant structure is drastically different from the symmetric case (e.g., the Petschek model) even for slight asymmetry k = 2. (1) The velocity distribution in the reconnection jet clearly shows a two-layered structure, i.e., the high-speed sub-layer in which the flow is almost field aligned and the acceleration sub-layer. (2) Higher beta side (HBS) plasma is caught in a lower beta side plasmoid. This suggests a new plasma mixing process in the reconnection events. (3) A new large strong fast shock in front of the plasmoid forms in the HBS. This can be a new particle acceleration site in the reconnection system. These critical properties that have not been reported in previous works suggest that we contribute to a better and more detailed knowledge of the reconnection of the standard model for the symmetric magnetic reconnection system.
Higgs phenomenology and new physics beyond the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Bin
The existence of the Higgs boson was predicted in the 1960's. The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been a remarkable triumph of the Standard Model (SM) and particle physics. However, there are still fundamental questions that cannot be answered by the SM. A variety of extensions to the SM have been proposed to explain these mysteries. In this thesis we explore the Higgs boson mass in several extensions to the SM. We first study the impact of vectorlike fermions on the SM Higgs mass bounds. The presence of these fermions significantly modifies the vacuum stability and perturbativity bounds on the mass of the SM Higgs boson. The new vacuum stability bound in this extended SM is estimated to be 117 GeV, to be compared with the SM prediction of about 129 GeV. The non-minimal gravitational coupling xi H †HR between the SM Higgs doublet H and the curvature scalar R opens up a very intriguing scenario for inflationary cosmology. In the presence of this coupling, the effective ultraviolet cutoff scale is given by Lambda ≈ mP/xi, where mP is the reduced Planck mass, and xi > 1 is a dimensionless coupling constant. In type I and type III seesaw extended SM, we investigate the implications of this non-minimal gravitational coupling for the SM Higgs boson mass bounds based on vacuum stability and perturbativity arguments. A lower bound on the Higgs boson mass close to 120 GeV is realized with type III seesaw and xi ˜ 10 - 103. Supersymmetry is by far the most compelling extension of the SM. We consider extensions of the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) in which the observed neutrino masses are generated through a TeV scale inverse seesaw mechanism. The new particles associated with this mechanism can have sizable couplings to the Higgs field which can yield a large contribution to the mass of the lightest CP-even Higgs boson. With this new contribution, a 126 GeV Higgs is possible along with order of 200 Ge
Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Business. Bulletin No. 9004.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.
This document contains standards for the academic content of the Wisconsin K-12 curriculum in the area of business. Developed by task forces of educators, parents, board of education members, and employers and employees, the standards cover content, performance, and proficiency areas. They are cross-referenced to the state standards for English…
Standard model-like D-brane models and gauge couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Uemura, Shohei
2015-08-01
We systematically search intersecting D-brane models, which just realize the Standard Model chiral matter contents and gauge symmetry. We construct new classes of non-supersymmetric Standard Model-like models. We also study the gauge coupling constants of these models. The tree level gauge coupling is a function of the compactification moduli, the string scale, the string coupling and the winding numbers of D-branes. By tuning them, we examine whether the models can explain the experimental values of gauge couplings. As a result, we find that the string scale should be greater than 1014-15 GeV if the compactification scale and the string scale are of the same order.
Dark matter and color octets beyond the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krnjaic, Gordan Z.
Although the Standard Model (SM) of particles and interactions has survived forty years of experimental tests, it does not provide a complete description of nature. From cosmological and astrophysical observations, it is now clear that the majority of matter in the universe is not baryonic and interacts very weakly (if at all) via non-gravitational forces. The SM does not provide a dark matter candidate, so new particles must be introduced. Furthermore, recent Tevatron results suggest that SM predictions for benchmark collider observables are in tension with experimental observations. In this thesis, we will propose extensions to the SM that address each of these issues. Although there is abundant indirect evidence for the existence of dark matter, terrestrial efforts to observe its interactions have yielded conflicting results. We address this situation with a simple model of dark matter that features hydrogen-like bound states that scatter off SM nuclei by undergoing inelastic hyperfine transitions. We explore the available parameter space that results from demanding that DM self-interactions satisfy experimental bounds and ameliorate the tension between positive and null signals at the DAMA and CDMS experiments respectively. However, this simple model does not explain the cosmological abundance of dark matter and also encounters a Landau pole at a low energy scale. We, therefore, extend the field content and gauge group of the dark sector to resolve these issues with a renormalizable UV completion. We also explore the galactic dynamics of unbound dark matter and find that "dark ions" settle into a diffuse isothermal halo that differs from that of the bound states. This suppresses the local dark-ion density and expands the model's viable parameter space. We also consider the > 3σ excess in W plus dijet events recently observed at the Tevatron collider. We show that decays of a color-octet, electroweak-triplet scalar particle ("octo-triplet") can yield the
The pion: an enigma within the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horn, Tanja; Roberts, Craig D.
2016-07-01
Quantum chromodynamics (QCDs) is the strongly interacting part of the Standard Model. It is supposed to describe all of nuclear physics; and yet, almost 50 years after the discovery of gluons and quarks, we are only just beginning to understand how QCD builds the basic bricks for nuclei: neutrons and protons, and the pions that bind them together. QCD is characterised by two emergent phenomena: confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). They have far-reaching consequences, expressed with great force in the character of the pion; and pion properties, in turn, suggest that confinement and DCSB are intimately connected. Indeed, since the pion is both a Nambu–Goldstone boson and a quark–antiquark bound-state, it holds a unique position in nature and, consequently, developing an understanding of its properties is critical to revealing some very basic features of the Standard Model. We describe experimental progress toward meeting this challenge that has been made using electromagnetic probes, highlighting both dramatic improvements in the precision of charged-pion form factor data that have been achieved in the past decade and new results on the neutral-pion transition form factor, both of which challenge existing notions of pion structure. We also provide a theoretical context for these empirical advances, which begins with an explanation of how DCSB works to guarantee that the pion is un-naturally light; but also, nevertheless, ensures that the pion is the best object to study in order to reveal the mechanisms that generate nearly all the mass of hadrons. In canvassing advances in these areas, our discussion unifies many aspects of pion structure and interactions, connecting the charged-pion elastic form factor, the neutral-pion transition form factor and the pion's leading-twist parton distribution amplitude. It also sketches novel ways in which experimental and theoretical studies of the charged-kaon electromagnetic form factor can provide
Higgs Theory and Phenomenology in the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wackeroth, Doreen
2012-03-01
Particle physics has entered an exciting era: The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) performed exceptionally well since its start of operation at an energy of 3.5 TeV per beam in 2010 and is exploring the new energy regime where we hope to find answers to some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics and cosmology. Soon, the LHC may reveal the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking, discover physics beyond the Standard Model, and may even identify a candidate for dark matter. The Standard Model (SM) has been immensely successful in describing electroweak and strong interactions of fundamental particles, surviving all experimental tests since its formulation in the 1970s. Nevertheless, it leaves many questions unanswered, not the least of which concerns the origin of mass. The experimental fact that weak gauge bosons, the W^± and Z^0 bosons, are massive has been accommodated within the SM by spontaneously breaking the electroweak symmetry via the Higgs-Kibble mechanism. As a consequence of this mechanism, the SM requires the existence of a spin-0, neutral, massive particle, the Higgs boson. We know from comparing very precise measurements of properties of SM particles, such as the W and Z bosons, to their SM predictions (which depend on the Higgs boson mass through quantum-loop effects), that the Higgs boson is relatively light. So light, in fact, that it should not escape detection at the LHC, if it exists. The search for the Higgs boson and the measurement of its properties, once discovered, requires excellent theoretical control of predictions for its production and decay processes. Since the very rare Higgs event has to be extracted from a much larger background of processes that do not include a Higgs, these background processes have to be very well understood, as well. I will review recent theoretical advances in providing precise predictions of observables of Higgs production and background processes that are crucial in the search for the SM
Challenging the standard model at the Tevatron collider
Filthaut, Frank; /Nijmegen U.
2011-03-01
Even at a time where the world's eyes are focused on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, which has reached the energy frontier in 2010, many important results are still being obtained from data analyses performed at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. This contribution discusses recent highlights in the areas of B hadron, electroweak, top quark, and Higgs boson physics. The standard model (SM) of particle physics forms the cornerstone of our understanding of elementary particles and their interactions, and many of its aspects have been investigated in great detail. Yet it is generally suspected to be incomplete (e.g. by not allowing for the incorporation of gravity in a field theoretical setting) and un-natural (e.g. the mass of the Higgs boson is not well protected against radiative corrections). In addition, it does not explain the dark matter and dark energy content of the Universe. It is therefore of eminent importance to test the limits of validity of the SM. In the decade since its upgrade to a centre-of-mass energy {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, the Tevatron p{bar p} collider has delivered an integrated luminosity of about 10 fb{sup -1}, up to 9 fb{sup -1} of which are available for analysis by its CDF and D0 collaborations. These large datasets allow for stringent tests of the SM in two areas: direct searches for particles or final states that are not very heavy but that suffer from small production cross sections (e.g. the Higgs boson), and searches for indirect manifestations of beyond-the-standard-model (BSM) effects through virtual effects. The latter searches can often be carried out by precise measurements of otherwise known processes. This contribution describes such tests of the SM carried out by the CDF and D0 collaborations. In particular, recent highlights in the areas of B hadron physics, electroweak physics, top quark physics, and Higgs boson physics are discussed. Recent results of tests of QCD and of direct searches for new phenomena are described in
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marshall, Victor W.; Haldemann, Verena
1995-01-01
Marshall reviews four types of social models of aging: allocation, construction of life course, personality and socialization, and negotiation, concluding that the life course perspective dominates. Haldemann comments (in French) that broader research is needed to question this dominance; Marshall responds that his goal was to describe, not to…
On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model
Miyato, N. Yagi, M.; Scott, B. D.
2015-01-15
Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear.
Is the standard model saved asymptotically by conformal symmetry?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorsky, A.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Tomaras, T. N.
2015-03-01
It is pointed out that the top-quark and Higgs masses and the Higgs VEV with great accuracy satisfy the relations 4 m {/H 2} = 2 m {/T 2} = v 2, which are very special and reminiscent of analogous ones at Argyres-Douglas points with enhanced conformal symmetry. Furthermore, the RG evolution of the corresponding Higgs self-interaction and Yukawa couplings λ(0) = 1/8 and y(0) = 1 leads to the free-field stable point in the pure scalar sector at the Planck scale, also suggesting enhanced conformal symmetry. Thus, it is conceivable that the Standard Model is the low-energy limit of a distinct special theory with (super?) conformal symmetry at the Planck scale. In the context of such a "scenario," one may further speculate that the Higgs particle is the Goldstone boson of (partly) spontaneously broken conformal symmetry. This would simultaneously resolve the hierarchy and Landau pole problems in the scalar sector and would provide a nearly flat potential with two almost degenerate minima at the electroweak and Planck scales.
Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: qualitative features
Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.
2015-07-16
Because of physical processes ranging from microscopic particle collisions to macroscopic hydrodynamic fluctuations, any plasma in thermal equilibrium emits gravitational waves. For the largest wavelengths the emission rate is proportional to the shear viscosity of the plasma. In the Standard Model at T>160 GeV, the shear viscosity is dominated by the most weakly interacting particles, right-handed leptons, and is relatively large. We estimate the order of magnitude of the corresponding spectrum of gravitational waves. Even though at small frequencies (corresponding to the sub-Hz range relevant for planned observatories such as eLISA) this background is tiny compared with that from non-equilibrium sources, the total energy carried by the high-frequency part of the spectrum is non-negligible if the production continues for a long time. We suggest that this may constrain (weakly) the highest temperature of the radiation epoch. Observing the high-frequency part directly sets a very ambitious goal for future generations of GHz-range detectors.
On the fate of the Standard Model at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rose, Luigi Delle; Marzo, Carlo; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-05-01
In this paper we revisit and update the computation of thermal corrections to the stability of the electroweak vacuum in the Standard Model. At zero temperature, we make use of the full two-loop effective potential, improved by three-loop beta functions with two-loop matching conditions. At finite temperature, we include one-loop thermal corrections together with resummation of daisy diagrams. We solve numerically — both at zero and finite temperature — the bounce equation, thus providing an accurate description of the thermal tunneling. Assuming a maximum temperature in the early Universe of the order of 1018 GeV, we find that the instability bound excludes values of the top mass M t ≳ 173 .6 GeV, with M h ≃ 125 GeV and including uncertainties on the strong coupling. We discuss the validity and temperature-dependence of this bound in the early Universe, with a special focus on the reheating phase after inflation.
The minimum supersymmetric standard model on noncommutative geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimojo, Masafumi; Ishihara, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hironobu; Matsukawa, Atsuko; Sato, Hikaru
2015-01-01
We have obtained the supersymmetric extension of a spectral triple that specifies a noncommutative geometry. We assume that the functional space H consists of wave functions of matter fields and their superpartners included in the minimum supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). We introduce the internal fluctuations of the Dirac operator on the finite space as well as on the manifold by elements of the algebra A in the triple. So, we obtain not only the vector supermultiplets that mediate SU(3)⊗ SU(2)⊗ U(1)_Y gauge degrees of freedom but also Higgs supermultiplets that appear in the MSSM from the same standpoint. According to the supersymmetric version of the spectral action principle, we calculate the square of the fluctuated total Dirac operator and verify that the Seeley-DeWitt coefficients give the correct action of the vector and Higgs supermultiplets. We also verify that the relation between the coupling constants of SU(3), SU(2), and U(1)_Y is same as that of SU(5) unification theory.
Higgs data constraints on the minimal supersymmetric standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, Kingman; Lee, Jae Sik; Tseng, Po-Yan
2015-11-01
We perform global fits to the most recent data (after summer 2014) on Higgs boson signal strengths in the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We further impose the existing limits on the masses of charginos, staus, stops, and sbottoms together with the current Higgs mass constraint |MH1-125.5 GeV |<6 GeV . The heavy supersymmetric (SUSY) particles such as squarks enter into the loop factors of the H g g and H γ γ vertices, while other SUSY particles such as sleptons and charginos also enter into that of the H γ γ vertex. We also take into account the possibility of other light particles, such as other Higgs bosons and neutralinos, into which the 125.5 GeV Higgs boson can decay. We use the data from the ATLAS, CMS, and the Tevatron, with existing limits on SUSY particles, to constrain on the relevant SUSY parameters. We obtain allowed regions in the SUSY parameter space of squark, slepton and chargino masses, and the μ parameter. We find that |Δ Sγ/SSMγ|≲0.1 at 68% confidence level when Mχ˜1 ±>300 GeV and Mτ˜1>300 GeV , irrespective of the squarks masses. Furthermore, |Δ Sγ/SSMγ|≲0.03 when Mχ˜1 ±,τ˜1>500 GeV and Mt˜1,b˜ 1≳600 GeV .
Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity
Chou, Ching-Yi; Ita, Eyo; Soo, Chopin
2014-04-15
In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of the Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.
CP violation outside the standard model phenomenology for pedestrians
Lipkin, H.J. ||
1993-09-23
So far the only experimental evidence for CP violation is the 1964 discovery of K{sub L}{yields}2{pi} where the two mass eigenstates produced by neutral meson mixing both decay into the same CP eigenstate. This result is described by two parameters {epsilon} and {epsilon}{prime}. Today {epsilon} {approx} its 1964 value, {epsilon}{prime} data are still inconclusive and there is no new evidence for CP violation. One might expect to observe similar phenomena in other systems and also direct CP violation as charge asymmetries between decays of charge conjugate hadrons H{sup {+-}} {yields} f{sup {+-}}. Why is it so hard to find CP violation? How can B Physics help? Does CP lead beyond the standard model? The author presents a pedestrian symmetry approach which exhibits the difficulties and future possibilities of these two types of CP-violation experiments, neutral meson mixing and direct charge asymmetry: what may work, what doesn`t work and why.
Standard Model with a real singlet scalar and inflation
Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi E-mail: kimmo.i.tuominen@helsinki.fi
2014-08-01
We study the post-inflationary dynamics of the Standard Model Higgs and a real singlet scalar s, coupled together through a renormalizable coupling λ{sub sh}h{sup 2}s{sup 2}, in a Z{sub 2} symmetric model that may explain the observed dark matter abundance and/or the origin of baryon asymmetry. The initial values for the Higgs and s condensates are given by inflationary fluctuations, and we follow their dissipation and relaxation to the low energy vacua. We find that both the lowest order perturbative and the non-perturbative decays are blocked by thermal effects and large background fields and that the condensates decay by two-loop thermal effects. Assuming instant reheating at T=10{sup 16} GeV, the characteristic temperature for the Higgs condensate thermalization is found to be T{sub h} ∼ 10{sup 14} GeV, whereas s thermalizes typically around T{sub s} ∼ 10{sup 6} GeV. By that time, the amplitude of the singlet is driven very close to the vacuum value by the expansion of the universe, unless the portal coupling takes a value λ{sub sh}∼< 10{sup -7} and the singlet s never thermalizes. With these values of the coupling, it is possible to slowly produce a sizeable fraction of the observed dark matter abundance via singlet condensate fragmentation and thermal Higgs scattering. Physics also below the electroweak scale can therefore be affected by the non-vacuum initial conditions generated by inflation.
Flavor democracy in standard models at high energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetič, G.; Kim, C. S.
1993-10-01
It is possible that the standard model (SM) is replaced around some transition energy Λ by a new, possibly Higgsless, "flavor gauge theory" such that the Yukawa (running) parameters of SM at E ˜ Λ show up an (approximate) flavor democracy (FD). We investigate the latter possibility by studying the renormalization group equations for the Yukawa couplings of SM with one and two Higgs doublets, by evolving them from given physical values at low energies ( E ⋍ 1 GeV) to Λ (˜ Λpole) and comparing the resulting fermion masses and CKM matrix elements at E ⋍ Λ for various mtphy and ratios νu/ νd of vacuum expectation values. We find that the minimal SM and the closely related SM with two Higgs doublets (type I) show increasing deviation from FD when energy is increased, but that SM with two Higgs doublets (type II) clearly tends to FD with increasing energy—in both the quark and the leptonic sector (q-q and l- l FD). Furthermore, we find within the type-II model that, for Λpole ≪ ΛPlack, mtphy can be less than 200 GeV in most cases of chosen νu/ νd. Under the assumption that also the corresponding Yukawa couplings in the quark and the leptonic sector at E ⋍ Λ are equal ( l-q FD), we derive estimates of bounds on masses of top quark and tau-neutrino, which are compatible with experimental bounds.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Yuan H.; Schafer, William D.
An empirical study of the Yen (W. Yen, 1997) analytic formula for the standard error of a percent-above-cut [SE(PAC)] was conducted. This formula was derived from variance component information gathered in the context of generalizability theory. SE(PAC)s were estimated by different methods of estimating variance components (e.g., W. Yens…
Judgmental Standard Setting Using a Cognitive Components Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGinty, Dixie; Neel, John H.
A new standard setting approach is introduced, called the cognitive components approach. Like the Angoff method, the cognitive components method generates minimum pass levels (MPLs) for each item. In both approaches, the item MPLs are summed for each judge, then averaged across judges to yield the standard. In the cognitive components approach,…
Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Marketing Education. Bulletin No. 9005.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.
This document contains standards for the academic content of the Wisconsin K-12 curriculum in the area of marketing education. Developed by task forces of educators, parents, board of education members, and employers and employees, the standards cover content, performance, and proficiency areas. The first part of the guide is an introduction that…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Michael
2012-03-01
The Standard Model provides an elegant mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) via the introduction of a scalar Higgs field. However, the Standard Model Higgs mechanism is not the only way to explain EWSB. A class of models, broadly known as Technicolor, postulates the existence of a new strongly-interacting gauge sector at the TeV scale, coupled to the Standard Model through technifermions charged under electroweak. In technicolor, the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry triggers EWSB, with the resulting Goldstone bosons ``eaten'' by the massive W, Z gauge bosons. Because they are strongly-coupled and inherently non-perturbative, numerical lattice gauge theory provides an ideal arena in which technicolor can be explored. The maturation of lattice methods and availability of sufficient computing power has spurred the investigation of technicolor using lattice gauge theory techniques, in particular one variant known as ``walking'' technicolor. A technicolor model that resembles QCD is problematic that it does not satisfy the constraints of precision electro-weak observables, most notably those encapsulated by the Peskin-Takeuchi parameters, as well as the contraints on flavor-changing neutral currents. Walking technicolor is a class of models where the theory is near-conformal, i.e. the gauge coupling runs very slowly (``walks'') over some large range of energy scales. This walking behavior produces a large separation of scales between the natural cut-off for the theory and the EWSB scale, allowing one to naturally generate fermion masses without violating contrainsts on flavor-changing neutral currents. The dynamics of walking theories may also allow it to satisfy the bounds on the Peskin-Takeuchi parameters. We discuss the results of recent lattice calculations that explore the properties of walking technicolor models and the its implications on possible physics beyond the Standard Model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maddox, M.; Rastatter, L.; Hesse, M.
2005-01-01
The disparate nature of space weather model output provides many challenges with regards to the portability and reuse of not only the data itself, but also any tools that are developed for analysis and visualization. We are developing and implementing a comprehensive data format standardization methodology that allows heterogeneous model output data to be stored uniformly in any common science data format. We will discuss our approach to identifying core meta-data elements that can be used to supplement raw model output data, thus creating self-descriptive files. The meta-data should also contain information describing the simulation grid. This will ultimately assists in the development of efficient data access tools capable of extracting data at any given point and time. We will also discuss our experiences standardizing the output of two global magnetospheric models, and how we plan to apply similar procedures when standardizing the output of the solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric models that are also currently hosted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center.
Fourth standard model family neutrino at future linear colliders
Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Sultansoy, S.
2005-09-01
It is known that flavor democracy favors the existence of the fourth standard model (SM) family. In order to give nonzero masses for the first three-family fermions flavor democracy has to be slightly broken. A parametrization for democracy breaking, which gives the correct values for fundamental fermion masses and, at the same time, predicts quark and lepton Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrices in a good agreement with the experimental data, is proposed. The pair productions of the fourth SM family Dirac ({nu}{sub 4}) and Majorana (N{sub 1}) neutrinos at future linear colliders with {radical}(s)=500 GeV, 1 TeV, and 3 TeV are considered. The cross section for the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{nu}{sub 4}{nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}N{sub 1}) and the branching ratios for possible decay modes of the both neutrinos are determined. The decays of the fourth family neutrinos into muon channels ({nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}){yields}{mu}{sup {+-}}W{sup {+-}}) provide cleanest signature at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. Meanwhile, in our parametrization this channel is dominant. W bosons produced in decays of the fourth family neutrinos will be seen in detector as either di-jets or isolated leptons. As an example, we consider the production of 200 GeV mass fourth family neutrinos at {radical}(s)=500 GeV linear colliders by taking into account di-muon plus four jet events as signatures.
Standard Model Gauge Couplings from Gauge-Dilatation Symmetry Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odagiri, Kosuke
2014-09-01
It is well known that the self-energy of the gauge bosons is quadratically divergent in the Standard Model when a simple cutoff is imposed. We demonstrate phenomenologically that the quadratic divergences in fact unify. The unification occurs at a surprisingly low scale, GeV. Suppose now that there is a spontaneously broken rotational symmetry between the space-time coordinates and gauge theoretical phases. The symmetry-breaking pattern is such that the gauge bosons arise as the massless Goldstone bosons, whereas the dilatonic mode acts as the massive (Higgs) boson, whose vacuum expectation value determines the gauge couplings. In this case, the quadratic divergences or the tadpoles of the gauge boson self-energy should indeed unify because these divergences need to be cancelled by a universal dilatonic contribution, assuming dynamical symmetry breaking. If there is dynamical symmetry breaking, we are in principle able to calculate the value of the gauge couplings as well as the scale hierarchy . We perform this calculation by adopting a naive quartic symmetry-breaking potential which unfortunately violates local gauge invariance. Using tadpole-cancellation and dilatonic self-energy conditions, the value of is then found to be approximately GeV in the Feynman gauge and GeV in the Landau gauge. The cancellation of an anomaly in the dilaton self-energy requires that the number of fermionic generations equals three. The symmetry-breaking needs to be driven by some other mass-generating mechanism such as electroweak symmetry breaking. Our estimation for is of the correct order if GeV.
Improved anatomy of ɛ'/ ɛ in the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buras, Andrzej J.; Gorbahn, Martin; Jäger, Sebastian; Jamin, Matthias
2015-11-01
We present a new analysis of the ratio ɛ'/ ɛ within the Standard Model (SM) using a formalism that is manifestly independent of the values of leading ( V - A) ⊗ ( V - A) QCD penguin, and EW penguin hadronic matrix elements of the operators Q 4, Q 9, and Q 10, and applies to the SM as well as extensions with the same operator structure. It is valid under the assumption that the SM exactly describes the data on CP-conserving K → ππ amplitudes. As a result of this and the high precision now available for CKM and quark mass parameters, to high accuracy ɛ' /ɛ depends only on two non-perturbative parameters, B 6 (1/2) and B 8 (3/2) , and perturbatively calculable Wilson coefficients. Within the SM, we are separately able to determine the hadronic matrix element < Q 4>0 from CP-conserving data, significantly more precisely than presently possible with lattice QCD. Employing B 6 (1/2) = 0 .57 ± 0 .19 and B 8 (3/2) = 0 .76 ± 0 .05, extracted from recent results by the RBC-UKQCD collaboration, we obtain ɛ' /ɛ = (1 .9 ± 4 .5) × 10-4, substantially more precise than the recent RBC-UKQCD prediction and 2 .9 σ below the experimental value (16 .6 ± 2 .3) × 10-4, with the error being fully dominated by that on B 6 (1/2) . Even discarding lattice input completely, but employing the recently obtained bound B 6 (1/2) ≤ B 8 (3/2) ≤ 1 from the large- N approach, the SM value is found more than 2 σ below the experimental value. At B 6 (1/2) = B 8 (3/2) = 1, varying all other parameters within one sigma, we find ɛ' /ɛ = (8 .6 ± 3 .2) × 10-4. We present a detailed anatomy of the various SM uncertainties, including all sub-leading hadronic matrix elements, briefly commenting on the possibility of underestimated SM contributions as well as on the impact of our results on new physics models.
Park, Yu Rang; Yoon, Young Jo; Jang, Tae Hun; Seo, Hwa Jeong
2014-01-01
Objectives Extension of the standard model while retaining compliance with it is a challenging issue because there is currently no method for semantically or syntactically verifying an extended data model. A metadata-based extended model, named CCR+, was designed and implemented to achieve interoperability between standard and extended models. Methods Furthermore, a multilayered validation method was devised to validate the standard and extended models. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Community Care Record (CCR) standard was selected to evaluate the CCR+ model; two CCR and one CCR+ XML files were evaluated. Results In total, 188 metadata were extracted from the ASTM CCR standard; these metadata are semantically interconnected and registered in the metadata registry. An extended-data-model-specific validation file was generated from these metadata. This file can be used in a smartphone application (Health Avatar CCR+) as a part of a multilayered validation. The new CCR+ model was successfully evaluated via a patient-centric exchange scenario involving multiple hospitals, with the results supporting both syntactic and semantic interoperability between the standard CCR and extended, CCR+, model. Conclusions A feasible method for delivering an extended model that complies with the standard model is presented herein. There is a great need to extend static standard models such as the ASTM CCR in various domains: the methods presented here represent an important reference for achieving interoperability between standard and extended models. PMID:24627817
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peckham, Scott
2016-04-01
Over the last decade, model coupling frameworks like CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) and ESMF (Earth System Modeling Framework) have developed mechanisms that make it much easier for modelers to connect heterogeneous sets of process models in a plug-and-play manner to create composite "system models". These mechanisms greatly simplify code reuse, but must simultaneously satisfy many different design criteria. They must be able to mediate or compensate for differences between the process models, such as their different programming languages, computational grids, time-stepping schemes, variable names and variable units. However, they must achieve this interoperability in a way that: (1) is noninvasive, requiring only relatively small and isolated changes to the original source code, (2) does not significantly reduce performance, (3) is not time-consuming or confusing for a model developer to implement, (4) can very easily be updated to accommodate new versions of a given process model and (5) does not shift the burden of providing model interoperability to the model developers. In tackling these design challenges, model framework developers have learned that the best solution is to provide each model with a simple, standardized interface, i.e. a set of standardized functions that make the model: (1) fully-controllable by a caller (e.g. a model framework) and (2) self-describing with standardized metadata. Model control functions are separate functions that allow a caller to initialize the model, advance the model's state variables in time and finalize the model. Model description functions allow a caller to retrieve detailed information on the model's input and output variables, its computational grid and its timestepping scheme. If the caller is a modeling framework, it can use the self description functions to learn about each process model in a collection to be coupled and then automatically call framework service components (e.g. regridders
A Journey in Standard Development: The Core Manufacturing Simulation Data (CMSD) Information Model.
Lee, Yung-Tsun Tina
2015-01-01
This report documents a journey "from research to an approved standard" of a NIST-led standard development activity. That standard, Core Manufacturing Simulation Data (CMSD) information model, provides neutral structures for the efficient exchange of manufacturing data in a simulation environment. The model was standardized under the auspices of the international Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO). NIST started the research in 2001 and initiated the standardization effort in 2004. The CMSD standard was published in two SISO Products. In the first Product, the information model was defined in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and published in 2010 as SISO-STD-008-2010. In the second Product, the information model was defined in Extensible Markup Language (XML) and published in 2013 as SISO-STD-008-01-2012. Both SISO-STD-008-2010 and SISO-STD-008-01-2012 are intended to be used together. PMID:26958450
Prototyping an online wetland ecosystem services model using open model sharing standards
Feng, M.; Liu, S.; Euliss, N.H.; Young, Caitlin; Mushet, D.M.
2011-01-01
Great interest currently exists for developing ecosystem models to forecast how ecosystem services may change under alternative land use and climate futures. Ecosystem services are diverse and include supporting services or functions (e.g., primary production, nutrient cycling), provisioning services (e.g., wildlife, groundwater), regulating services (e.g., water purification, floodwater retention), and even cultural services (e.g., ecotourism, cultural heritage). Hence, the knowledge base necessary to quantify ecosystem services is broad and derived from many diverse scientific disciplines. Building the required interdisciplinary models is especially challenging as modelers from different locations and times may develop the disciplinary models needed for ecosystem simulations, and these models must be identified and made accessible to the interdisciplinary simulation. Additional difficulties include inconsistent data structures, formats, and metadata required by geospatial models as well as limitations on computing, storage, and connectivity. Traditional standalone and closed network systems cannot fully support sharing and integrating interdisciplinary geospatial models from variant sources. To address this need, we developed an approach to openly share and access geospatial computational models using distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and open geospatial standards. We included a means to share computational models compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services (WPS) standard to ensure modelers have an efficient and simplified means to publish new models. To demonstrate our approach, we developed five disciplinary models that can be integrated and shared to simulate a few of the ecosystem services (e.g., water storage, waterfowl breeding) that are provided by wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Topics in physics beyond the standard model with strong interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez Sanchez, Catalina
In this thesis we study a few complementary topics related to some of the open questions in the Standard Model (SM). We first consider the scalar spectrum of gauge theories with walking dynamics. The question of whether or not a light pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson associated with the spontaneous breaking of approximate dilatation symmetry appears in these theories has been long withstanding. We derive an effective action for the scalars, including new terms not previously considered in the literature, and obtain solutions for the lightest scalar's momentum-dependent form factor that determines the value of its pole mass. Our results for the lowest-lying state suggest that this scalar is never expected to be light, but it can have some properties that closely resemble the SM Higgs boson. We then propose a new leptonic charge-asymmetry observable well suited for the study of some Beyond the SM (BSM) physics objects at the LHC. New resonances decaying to one or many leptons could constitute the first signs of BSM physics that we observe at the LHC; if these new objects carry QCD charge they may have an associated charge asymmetry in their daughter leptons. Our observable can be used in events with single or multiple leptons in the final state. We discuss this measurement in the context of coloured scalar diquarks, as well as that of top-antitop pairs. We argue that, although a fainter signal is expected relative to other charge asymmetry observables, the low systematic uncertainties keep this particular observable relevant, especially in cases where reconstruction of the parent particle is not a viable strategy. Finally, we propose a simple dark-sector extension to the SM that communicates with ordinary quarks and leptons only through a small kinetic mixing of the dark photon and the photon. The dark sector is assumed to undergo a series of phase transitions such that monopoles and strings arise. These objects form long-lived states that eventually decay and can
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gesner, Edward
A lexical comparison of four native speakers' spontaneous discourse in the Acadian French spoken in a southern Nova Scotia village with standard spoken French is described. This study is part of a larger study of four regional variations on Nova Scotia Acadian French and has as its objectives both linguistic analysis and improvement of standard…
Implementing the Standards: Incorporating Mathematical Modeling into the Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swetz, Frank
1991-01-01
Following a brief historical review of the mechanism of mathematical modeling, examples are included that associate a mathematical model with given data (changes in sea level) and that model a real-life situation (process of parallel parking). Also provided is the rationale for the curricular implementation of mathematical modeling. (JJK)
S. T. Khericha; J. Mitman
2008-05-01
Nuclear plant operating experience and several studies show that the risk from shutdown operation during Modes 4, 5, and 6 at pressurized water reactors and Modes 4 and 5 at boiling water reactors can be significant. This paper describes using the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s full-power Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) model as the starting point for development of risk evaluation models for commercial nuclear power plants. The shutdown models are integrated with their respective internal event at-power SPAR model. This is accomplished by combining the modified system fault trees from the SPAR full-power model with shutdown event tree logic. Preliminary human reliability analysis results indicate that risk is dominated by the operator’s ability to correctly diagnose events and initiate systems.
Massive neutrinos in the standard model and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thalapillil, Arun Madhav
The generation of the fermion mass hierarchy in the standard model of particle physics is a long-standing puzzle. The recent discoveries from neutrino physics suggests that the mixing in the lepton sector is large compared to the quark mixings. To understand this asymmetry between the quark and lepton mixings is an important aim for particle physics. In this regard, two promising approaches from the theoretical side are grand unified theories and family symmetries. In the first part of my thesis we try to understand certain general features of grand unified theories with Abelian family symmetries by taking the simplest SU(5) grand unified theory as a prototype. We construct an SU(5) toy model with U(1) F ⊗Z'2 ⊗Z'' 2⊗Z''' 2 family symmetry that, in a natural way, duplicates the observed mass hierarchy and mixing matrices to lowest approximation. The system for generating the mass hierarchy is through a Froggatt-Nielsen type mechanism. One idea that we use in the model is that the quark and charged lepton sectors are hierarchical with small mixing angles while the light neutrino sector is democratic with larger mixing angles. We also discuss some of the difficulties in incorporating finer details into the model without making further assumptions or adding a large scalar sector. In the second part of my thesis, the interaction of high energy neutrinos with weak gravitational fields is explored. The form of the graviton-neutrino vertex is motivated from Lorentz and gauge invariance and the non-relativistic interpretations of the neutrino gravitational form factors are obtained. We comment on the renormalization conditions, the preservation of the weak equivalence principle and the definition of the neutrino mass radius. We associate the neutrino gravitational form factors with specific angular momentum states. Based on Feynman diagrams, spin-statistics, CP invariance and symmetries of the angular momentum states in the neutrino-graviton vertex, we deduce
Colorado Model Content Standards for Music: Suggested Grade Level Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
The state of Colorado has set forth five content standards for music education in its public schools: (1) students sing or play on instruments a varied repertoire of music, alone or with others; (2) students will read and notate music; (3) students will create music; (4) students will listen to, analyze, evaluate, and describe music; and (5)…
Physical Education Model Curriculum Standards. Grades Nine through Twelve.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
These physical education standards were designed to ensure that each student achieve the following goals: (1) physical activity--students develop interest and proficiency in movement skills and understand the importance of lifelong participation in daily physical activity; (2) physical fitness and wellness--students increase understanding of basic…
Creating Better Family Child Care Jobs: Model Work Standards.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haack, Peggy
Based on the premise that good child care jobs are the cornerstone of high-quality services for children and families, this booklet details workplace standards for family child care providers. The booklet is designed to be used for educating family child care providers, evaluating individual family child care programs, setting goals and measuring…
Addressing Standardized Testing through a Novel Assesment Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schifter, Catherine C.; Carey, Martha
2014-01-01
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation spawned a plethora of standardized testing services for all the high stakes testing required by the law. We argue that one-size-fits all assessments disadvantage students who are English Language Learners, in the USA, as well as students with limited economic resources, special needs, and not reading on…
A novel sialyl LeX expression score as a potential prognostic tool in colorectal cancer
2012-01-01
Background Treatment decisions in colorectal cancer subsequent to surgery are based mainly on the TNM system. There is a need to establish novel prognostic markers based on the molecular characterization of tumor cells. Evidence exists that sialyl LeX expression is correlated with an unfavorable outcome in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to establish a simple sialyl LeX staining score and to determine a potential correlation with the prognosis in a series of advanced colorectal carcinoma patients. Methods In order to implement routine use of sialyl LeX immunohistology, we established a new, easily reproducible score and defined a cutoff which discriminated groups with better or worse outcome, respectively. We then correlated sialyl LeX expression of 215 UICC stage III and IV patients with disease-free and cancer-related survival. Results A five-stage score could be established based on automated immunohistochemical stainings. Using a statistical model, we calculated a cutoff to discriminate between weak and strong staining positivity of sialyl LeX. Patients with strong positive specimens had a worse cancer-related survival (P = 0.004) but no difference was observed for disease-free survival (P = 0.352). Conclusions These results demonstrate a strong correlation between high sialyl LeX-expression in colorectal carcinomas and cancer-related survival. Our highly standardized and easy-to-use staining score is suitable for routine use and hence it could be recommended to evaluate sialyl LeX-expression as part of the standard histopathological analysis of colorectal carcinomas and to validate the score prospectively based on a larger population. PMID:22621806
A Journey in Standard Development: The Core Manufacturing Simulation Data (CMSD) Information Model
Lee, Yung-Tsun Tina
2015-01-01
This report documents a journey “from research to an approved standard” of a NIST-led standard development activity. That standard, Core Manufacturing Simulation Data (CMSD) information model, provides neutral structures for the efficient exchange of manufacturing data in a simulation environment. The model was standardized under the auspices of the international Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO). NIST started the research in 2001 and initiated the standardization effort in 2004. The CMSD standard was published in two SISO Products. In the first Product, the information model was defined in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and published in 2010 as SISO-STD-008-2010. In the second Product, the information model was defined in Extensible Markup Language (XML) and published in 2013 as SISO-STD-008-01-2012. Both SISO-STD-008-2010 and SISO-STD-008-01-2012 are intended to be used together. PMID:26958450
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newton, Jill A.; Kasten, Sarah E.
2013-01-01
The release of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and their adoption across the United States calls for careful attention to the alignment between mathematics standards and assessments. This study investigates 2 models that measure alignment between standards and assessments, the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) and the Webb…
Job Grading Standard for Model Maker, WG-4714.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.
The pamphlet explains the different job requirements for different grades of model maker (WG-14 and WG-15) and contrasts them to the position of premium journeyman. It includes comment on what a model maker is (a nonsupervisory job involved in planning and fabricating complex research and prototype models which are made from a variety of materials…
Plot Scale Factor Models for Standard Orthographic Views
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osakue, Edward E.
2007-01-01
Geometric modeling provides graphic representations of real or abstract objects. Realistic representation requires three dimensional (3D) attributes since natural objects have three principal dimensions. CAD software gives the user the ability to construct realistic 3D models of objects, but often prints of these models must be generated on two…
Accessing Patient Information for Probabilistic Patient Models Using Existing Standards.
Gaebel, Jan; Cypko, Mario A; Lemke, Heinz U
2016-01-01
Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are developed to facilitate physicians' decision making, particularly for complex, oncological diseases. Access to relevant patient specific information from electronic health records (EHR) is limited to the structure and transmission formats in the respective hospital information system. We propose a system-architecture for a standardized access to patient specific information for a CDSS for laryngeal cancer. Following the idea of a CDSS using Bayesian Networks, we developed an architecture concept applying clinical standards. We recommend the application of Arden Syntax for the definition and processing of needed medical knowledge and clinical information, as well as the use of HL7 FHIR to identify the relevant data elements in an EHR to increase the interoperability the CDSS. PMID:27139392
Relating electrophotographic printing model and ISO13660 standard attributes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barney Smith, Elisa H.
2010-01-01
A mathematical model of the electrophotographic printing process has been developed. This model can be used for analysis. From this a print simulation process has been developed to simulate the effects of the model components on toner particle placement. A wide variety of simulated prints are produced from the model's three main inputs, laser spread, charge to toner proportionality factor and toner particle size. While the exact placement of toner particles is a random process, the total effect is not. The effect of each model parameter on the ISO 13660 print quality attributes line width, fill, raggedness and blurriness is described.
Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization
Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc
2015-12-01
Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.
29 CFR 1990.151 - Model standard pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Model standard pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act. 1990.151 Section 1990.151 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION, AND REGULATION OF POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Model Standards...
Higgs boson mass in the Standard Model at two-loop order and beyond
Martin, Stephen P.; Robertson, David G.
2014-10-23
We calculate the mass of the Higgs boson in the standard model in terms of the underlying Lagrangian parameters at complete 2-loop order with leading 3-loop corrections. A computer program implementing the results is provided. The program also computes and minimizes the standard model effective potential in Landau gauge at 2-loop order with leading 3-loop corrections.
Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: A Standardized Model of School-Based Behavioral Intervention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunlap, Glen; Iovannone, Rose; Wilson, Kelly J.; Kincaid, Donald K.; Strain, Phillip
2010-01-01
Although there is a substantial empirical foundation for the basic intervention components of behavior analysis and positive behavior support (PBS), the field still lacks a standardized program model of individualized PBS suitable for widespread application by school personnel. This article provides a description of a standardized PBS model that…
Physical Education Teachers Fidelity to and Perspectives of a Standardized Curricular Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kloeppel, Tiffany; Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges
2014-01-01
Relatively little is known about the use of standardized physical education curricular models and teachers perceptions of and fidelity to such curricula. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers perceptions of and fidelity to a standardized physical education curricular model (i.e., Dynamic Physical Education [DPE]). Participants for this…
Lectures on perturbative QCD, jets and the standard model: collider phenomenology
Ellis, S.D.
1988-01-01
Applications of the Standard Model to the description of physics at hadron colliders are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the use of jets to characterize this physics. The issue of identifying physics beyond the Standard Model is also discussed. 59 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.
The Model Standards Project: Creating Inclusive Systems for LGBT Youth in Out-of-Home Care
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilber, Shannan; Reyes, Carolyn; Marksamer, Jody
2006-01-01
This article describes the Model Standards Project (MSP), a collaboration of Legal Services for Children and the National Center for Lesbian Rights. The MSP developed a set of model professional standards governing the care of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth in out-of-home care. This article provides an overview of the…
Parametrization of flavor mixing in the standard model
Fritzsch, H. |; Xing, Z.
1998-01-01
It is shown that there exist nine different ways to describe the flavor mixing, in terms of three rotation angles and one CP-violating phase, within the standard electroweak theory of six quarks. For the assignment of the complex phase there essentially exists a continuum of possibilities, if one allows the phase to appear in more than four elements of the mixing matrix. If the phase is restricted to four elements, the phase assignment is uniquely defined. If one imposes the constraint that the phase disappears in a natural way in the chiral limit in which the masses of the u and d quarks are turned off, only three of the nine parametrizations are acceptable. In particular the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} parametrization advocated by the Particle Data Group is not permitted. One parametrization, in which the CP-violating phase is restricted to the light quark sector, stands up as the most favorable description of the flavor mixing. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Symmetry Breaking, Unification, and Theories Beyond the Standard Model
Nomura, Yasunori
2009-07-31
A model was constructed in which the supersymmetric fine-tuning problem is solved without extending the Higgs sector at the weak scale. We have demonstrated that the model can avoid all the phenomenological constraints, while avoiding excessive fine-tuning. We have also studied implications of the model on dark matter physics and collider physics. I have proposed in an extremely simple construction for models of gauge mediation. We found that the {mu} problem can be simply and elegantly solved in a class of models where the Higgs fields couple directly to the supersymmetry breaking sector. We proposed a new way of addressing the flavor problem of supersymmetric theories. We have proposed a new framework of constructing theories of grand unification. We constructed a simple and elegant model of dark matter which explains excess flux of electrons/positrons. We constructed a model of dark energy in which evolving quintessence-type dark energy is naturally obtained. We studied if we can find evidence of the multiverse.
2010-01-01
Background The use of structural equation models for the analysis of recursive and simultaneous relationships between phenotypes has become more popular recently. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how these models can be applied in animal breeding to achieve parameterizations of different levels of complexity and, more specifically, to model phenotypic recursion between three calving traits: gestation length (GL), calving difficulty (CD) and stillbirth (SB). All recursive models considered here postulate heterogeneous recursive relationships between GL and liabilities to CD and SB, and between liability to CD and liability to SB, depending on categories of GL phenotype. Methods Four models were compared in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability: 1) standard mixed model (SMM), a model with unstructured (co)variance matrices; 2) recursive mixed model 1 (RMM1), assuming that residual correlations are due to the recursive relationships between phenotypes; 3) RMM2, assuming that correlations between residuals and contemporary groups are due to recursive relationships between phenotypes; and 4) RMM3, postulating that the correlations between genetic effects, contemporary groups and residuals are due to recursive relationships between phenotypes. Results For all the RMM considered, the estimates of the structural coefficients were similar. Results revealed a nonlinear relationship between GL and the liabilities both to CD and to SB, and a linear relationship between the liabilities to CD and SB. Differences in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability of the models considered were negligible, suggesting that RMM3 is plausible. Conclusions The applications examined in this study suggest the plausibility of a nonlinear recursive effect from GL onto CD and SB. Also, the fact that the most restrictive model RMM3, which assumes that the only cause of correlation is phenotypic recursion, performs as well as the others indicates that the phenotypic recursion
Testing the Standard Model with the Primordial Inflation Explorer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kogut, Alan J.
2011-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10A{-3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.
Validation of the NATO-standard ship signature model (SHIPIR)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaitekunas, David A.; Fraedrich, Douglas S.
1999-07-01
An integrated naval infrared target, threat and countermeasure simulator (SHIPIR/NTCS) has been developed. The SHIPIR component of the model has been adopted by both NATO and the US Navy as a common tool for predicting the infrared (IR) signature of naval ships in their background. The US Navy has taken a lead role in further developing and validating SHIPIR for use in the Twenty-First Century Destroyer (DD-21) program. As a result, the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has performed an in-depth validation of SHIPIR. This paper presents an overview of SHIPIR, the model validation methodology developed by NRL, and the results of the NRL validation study. The validation consists of three parts: a review of existing validation information, the design, execution, and analysis of a new panel test experiment, and the comparison of experiment with predictions from the latest version of SHIPIR (v2.5). The results show high levels of accuracy in the radiometric components of the model under clear-sky conditions, but indicate the need for more detailed measurement of solar irradiance and cloud model data for input to the heat transfer and in-band sky radiance sub-models, respectively.
Impact of model uncertainty on soil quality standards for cadmium in rice paddy fields.
Römkens, P F A M; Brus, D J; Guo, H Y; Chu, C L; Chiang, C M; Koopmans, G F
2011-08-01
At present, soil quality standards used for agriculture do not consider the influence of pH and CEC on the uptake of pollutants by crops. A database with 750 selected paired samples of cadmium (Cd) in soil and paddy rice was used to calibrate soil to plant transfer models using the soil metal content, pH, and CEC or soil Cd and Zn extracted by 0.01 M CaCl₂ as explanatory variables. The models were validated against a set of 2300 data points not used in the calibration. These models were then used inversely to derive soil quality standards for Japonica and Indica rice cultivars based on the food quality standards for rice. To account for model uncertainty, strict soil quality standards were derived considering a maximum probability that rice exceeds the food quality standard equal to 10 or 5%. Model derived soil standards based on Aqua Regia ranged from less than 0.3 mg kg⁻¹ for Indica at pH 4.5 to more than 6 mg kg⁻¹ for Japonica-type cultivars in clay soils at pH 7. Based on the CaCl₂ extract, standards ranged from 0.03 mg kg⁻¹ Cd for Indica cultivars to 0.1 mg kg⁻¹ Cd for Japonica cultivars. For both Japonica and Indica-type cultivars, the soil quality standards must be reduced by a factor of 2 to 3 to obtain the strict standards. The strong impact of pH and CEC on soil quality standards implies that it is essential to correct for soil type when deriving national or local standards. Validation on the remaining 2300 samples indicated that both types of models were able to accurately predict (> 92%) whether rice grown on a specific soil will meet the food quality standard used in Taiwan. PMID:21632090
Ex-Nihilo: Obstacles Surrounding Teaching the Standard Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pimbblet, Kevin A.
2002-01-01
The model of the Big Bang is an integral part of the national curricula in England and Wales. Previous work (e.g. Baxter 1989) has shown that pupils often come into education with many and varied prior misconceptions emanating from both internal and external sources. Whilst virtually all of these misconceptions can be remedied, there will remain…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tumthong, Suwut; Piriyasurawong, Pullop; Jeerangsuwan, Namon
2016-01-01
This research proposes a functional competency development model for academic personnel based on international professional qualification standards in computing field and examines the appropriateness of the model. Specifically, the model consists of three key components which are: 1) functional competency development model, 2) blended training…
Singlet extensions of the standard model at LHC Run 2: benchmarks and comparison with the NMSSM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Raul; Mühlleitner, Margarete; Sampaio, Marco O. P.; Santos, Rui
2016-06-01
The Complex singlet extension of the Standard Model (CxSM) is the simplest extension that provides scenarios for Higgs pair production with different masses. The model has two interesting phases: the dark matter phase, with a Standard Model-like Higgs boson, a new scalar and a dark matter candidate; and the broken phase, with all three neutral scalars mixing. In the latter phase Higgs decays into a pair of two different Higgs bosons are possible.
A review of standardized metabolic phenotyping of animal models.
Rozman, Jan; Klingenspor, Martin; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin
2014-10-01
Metabolic phenotyping of genetically modified animals aims to detect new candidate genes and related metabolic pathways that result in dysfunctional energy balance regulation and predispose for diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the technologies available to monitor energy flux (food uptake, bomb calorimetry of feces and food, and indirect calorimetry) and body composition (qNMR, DXA, and MRI) in animal models for human diseases with a special focus on phenotyping methods established in genetically engineered mice. We use an energy flux model to illustrate the principles of energy allocation, describe methodological aspects how to monitor energy balance, and introduce strategies for data analysis and presentation. PMID:25199945
Metabolomics, Standards, and Metabolic Modeling for Synthetic Biology in Plants
Hill, Camilla Beate; Czauderna, Tobias; Klapperstück, Matthias; Roessner, Ute; Schreiber, Falk
2015-01-01
Life on earth depends on dynamic chemical transformations that enable cellular functions, including electron transfer reactions, as well as synthesis and degradation of biomolecules. Biochemical reactions are coordinated in metabolic pathways that interact in a complex way to allow adequate regulation. Biotechnology, food, biofuel, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries are highly interested in metabolic engineering as an enabling technology of synthetic biology to exploit cells for the controlled production of metabolites of interest. These approaches have only recently been extended to plants due to their greater metabolic complexity (such as primary and secondary metabolism) and highly compartmentalized cellular structures and functions (including plant-specific organelles) compared with bacteria and other microorganisms. Technological advances in analytical instrumentation in combination with advances in data analysis and modeling have opened up new approaches to engineer plant metabolic pathways and allow the impact of modifications to be predicted more accurately. In this article, we review challenges in the integration and analysis of large-scale metabolic data, present an overview of current bioinformatics methods for the modeling and visualization of metabolic networks, and discuss approaches for interfacing bioinformatics approaches with metabolic models of cellular processes and flux distributions in order to predict phenotypes derived from specific genetic modifications or subjected to different environmental conditions. PMID:26557642
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wen-Yu; Xiong, Zhao-Hua; Zhou, Si-Hong
2014-06-01
Using the Bs meson wave function extracted from non-leptonic Bs decays, we reevaluate the rare decays Bs → l+l- γ, (l=e, μ) in the Standard Model, including two kinds of contributions from the magnetic-penguin operator with virtual and real photons. We find that contributions to the exclusive decays from the magnetic-penguin operator b → sγ with real photons, which were regarded as negligible in the previous literature, are large and the branching ratios Bs → l+l- γ are enhanced by a factor of almost 2. With the predicted branching ratios of the order of 10-8, it is expected that these radiative dileptonic decays will be detected in LHC-b and B factories in the near future.
e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at very high energy: searching beyond the standard model
Dorfan, J.
1983-04-01
These lectures discuss e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at very high energies with a particular emphasis on searching the standard model which we take to be SU(3)/sub color/..lambda.. SU(2) ..lambda.. U(1). The highest e/sup +/e/sup -/ collision energy exploited to date is at PETRA where data have been taken at 38 GeV. We will consider energies above this to be the very high energy frontier. The lectures will begin with a review of the collision energies which will be available in the upgraded machines of today and the machines planned for tomorrow. Without going into great detail, we will define the essential elements of the standard model. We will remind ourselves that some of these essential elements have not yet been verified and that part of the task of searching beyond the standard model will involve experiments aimed at this verification. For if we find the standard model lacking, then clearly we are forced to find an alternative. So we will investigate how the higher energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions can be used to search for the top quark, the neutral Higgs scalar, provide true verification of the non-Abelian nature of QCD, etc. Having done this we will look at tests of models involving simple extensions of the standard model. Models considered are those without a top quark, those with charged Higgs scalars, with multiple and/or composite vector bosons, with additional generations and possible alternative explanations for the PETRA three jet events which don't require gluon bremsstrahlung. From the simple extensions of the standard model we will move to more radical alternatives, alternatives which have arisen from the unhappiness with the gauge hierarchy problem of the standard model. Technicolor, Supersymmetry and composite models will be discussed. In the final section we will summarize what the future holds in terms of the search beyond the standard model.
New perspectives in physics beyond the standard model
Weiner, Neal Jonathan
2000-09-09
In 1934 Fermi postulated a theory for weak interactions containing a dimensionful coupling with a size of roughly 250 GeV. Only now are we finally exploring this energy regime. What arises is an open question: supersymmetry and large extra dimensions are two possible scenarios. Meanwhile, other experiments will begin providing definitive information into the nature of neutrino masses and CP violation. In this paper, we explore features of possible theoretical scenarios, and study the phenomenological implications of various models addressing the open questions surrounding these issues.
Cosmic strings in hidden sectors: 1. Radiation of standard model particles
Long, Andrew J.; Hyde, Jeffrey M.; Vachaspati, Tanmay E-mail: jmhyde@asu.edu
2014-09-01
In hidden sector models with an extra U(1) gauge group, new fields can interact with the Standard Model only through gauge kinetic mixing and the Higgs portal. After the U(1) is spontaneously broken, these interactions couple the resultant cosmic strings to Standard Model particles. We calculate the spectrum of radiation emitted by these ''dark strings'' in the form of Higgs bosons, Z bosons, and Standard Model fermions assuming that string tension is above the TeV scale. We also calculate the scattering cross sections of Standard Model fermions on dark strings due to the Aharonov-Bohm interaction. These radiation and scattering calculations will be applied in a subsequent paper to study the cosmological evolution and observational signatures of dark strings.
Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson Produced in Association with Top Quarks
Wilson, Jonathan Samuel
2011-01-01
We have performed a search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with top quarks in the lepton plus jets channel. We impose no constraints on the decay of the Higgs boson. We employ ensembles of neural networks to discriminate events containing a Higgs boson from the dominant tt¯background, and set upper bounds on the Higgs production cross section. At a Higgs boson mass mH = 120 GeV/c2 , we expect to exclude a cross section 12.7 times the Standard Model prediction, and we observe an exclusion 27.4 times the Standard Model prediction with 95 % confidence.
Simulations of SSPX Sustainment -- Toward a Standard Model for Spheromaks
Fowler, T K; Hua, D D; Stallard, B W
2001-01-12
SPHERE simulations calibrated to CTX are shown to predict the correct temperature (0.12 KeV) for SSPX sustainment Shot 4624. Agreement with the temperature suggests that the Rechester-Rosenbluth thermal diffusivity included in the SPHERE heat transport equation is essentially correct. Substituting parallel heat loss as suggested by NIMROD calculations gives a temperature four times too low, while omitting Rechester-Rosenbluth transport but retaining ion classical transport gives a temperature that is 50% too high. Less certain is the magnetic buildup equation in SPHERE representing the spheromak load as a resistance adjusted to give the correct magnetic field--as is essential to obtain the correct temperature by ohmic heating. While extrapolation for long pulses using the Shot 4624 resistance does give higher magnetic field and higher temperature, the actual resistance during sustainment is still highly uncertain. In Section 6, we present a new resistance model in rough agreement with Shot 4624, but much work remains to be done. Understanding the spheromak resistance during sustainment is the main theoretical challenge for the model.
Non-standard charged Higgs decay at the LHC in Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh; Huitu, Katri; Niyogi, Saurabh
2016-07-01
We consider next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) which has a gauge singlet superfield. In the scale invariant superpotential we do not have the mass terms and the whole Lagrangian has an additional Z 3 symmetry. This model can have light scalar and/or pseudoscalar allowed by the recent data from LHC and the old data from LEP. We investigate the situation where a relatively light charged Higgs can decay to such a singlet-like pseudoscalar and a W ± boson giving rise to a final state containing τ and/or b-jets and lepton(s). Such decays evade the recent bounds on charged Higgs from the LHC, and according to our PYTHIA-FastJet based simulation can be probed with 10 fb-1 at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 and 14 TeV.
A New Proof of the Expected Frequency Spectrum under the Standard Neutral Model
Hudson, Richard R.
2015-01-01
The sample frequency spectrum is an informative and frequently employed approach for summarizing DNA variation data. Under the standard neutral model the expectation of the sample frequency spectrum has been derived by at least two distinct approaches. One relies on using results from diffusion approximations to the Wright-Fisher Model. The other is based on Pólya urn models that correspond to the standard coalescent model. A new proof of the expected frequency spectrum is presented here. It is a proof by induction and does not require diffusion results and does not require the somewhat complex sums and combinatorics of the derivations based on urn models. PMID:26197064
A New Proof of the Expected Frequency Spectrum under the Standard Neutral Model.
Hudson, Richard R
2015-01-01
The sample frequency spectrum is an informative and frequently employed approach for summarizing DNA variation data. Under the standard neutral model the expectation of the sample frequency spectrum has been derived by at least two distinct approaches. One relies on using results from diffusion approximations to the Wright-Fisher Model. The other is based on Pólya urn models that correspond to the standard coalescent model. A new proof of the expected frequency spectrum is presented here. It is a proof by induction and does not require diffusion results and does not require the somewhat complex sums and combinatorics of the derivations based on urn models. PMID:26197064
Colorado Model Content Standards for Geography, Grades K-8. Suggested Grade Level Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
This guide lists six model content standards for geography education in Colorado elementary schools. Standards cited in the guide are: (1) students know how to use and construct maps, globes, and other geographic tools to locate and derive information about people, places, and environments; (2) students know the physical and human characteristics…
Model Core Teaching Standards: A Resource for State Dialogue. (Draft for Public Comment)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010
2010-01-01
With this document, the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) offers for public dialogue and comment a set of model core teaching standards that outline what teachers should know and be able to do to help all students reach the goal of being college- and career-ready in today's world. These standards are an update of the 1992 Interstate…
Can Cognitive Writing Models Inform the Design of the Common Core State Standards?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayes, John R.; Olinghouse, Natalie G.
2015-01-01
In this article, we compare the Common Core State Standards in Writing to the Hayes cognitive model of writing, adapted to describe the performance of young and developing writers. Based on the comparison, we propose the inclusion of standards for motivation, goal setting, writing strategies, and attention by writers to the text they have just…
Energizing a Large Urban System: Reform through a Standards Driven Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robbins, Stephen B.
This paper describes the District of Columbia Public School System (DCPS); articulates challenges it faced prior to standards based reform; presents strategies for reforming large urban systems' health and physical education (HPE) programs; and notes strategies for incorporating a standards-based performance-driven model. DCPS reading and math…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Career-Vocational Education.
This three-section document contains the model curriculum standards, program framework, and process guide that will assist schools in California in providing career-vocational education programs that are responsive to a world marketplace characterized by constantly changing technology. The standards and frameworks can be implemented to provide a…
Radiation Observations from CREAM & CREDO and Comparison with Standard Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyer, C.; Watson, C.; Truscott, P.; Peerless, C.
1996-12-01
The Cosmic Radiation Environment and Activation Monitor (CREAM) has flown on six Shuttle flights between September 1991 and February 1995, covering the full range of inclinations as well as altitudes between 210 and 550 km. Meanwhile the Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry experiment (CREDO) has operated continuously on UOSAT-3 in 800 km, 98.7 degree orbit since April 1990. Similar detectors were launched on KITSAT-1 (1330 km, 66 degree inclination) in August 1992 and POSAT-l (790 km, 98.7 degree inclination) in September 1993. Since the summer of 1994, CREDO-II versions have been operating on APEX in an eccentric orbit (350x2486 km) at 70 degree inclination, and on STRV in geostationary transfer orbit (298x35953 km, 7 degree inclination). These experiments are designed to measure protons, cosmic rays and accumulated dose. Through the variety of missions employed they have now achieved wide coverage of the magnetosphere as well as a significant portion of a solar cycle. The LEO observations have shown the Westward drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly, new regimes of trapped protons in the region of L=2.6 following solar flare events in March 1991 and October 1992, and an altitude dependence of trapped protons which is at variance with AP8. On STRV the background channel of the Cold Ion Detector serves as a complementary electron detector and shows the extreme time variability of the outer radiation belt, while the total dose is significantly less than AE8 predictions. In addition to the data on trapped radiation, important results are being obtained on the linear energy transfer spectra from cosmic rays. Detailed shielding models of the APEX and STRV spacecraft have been constructed and used to compare the observations of dose and LET spectra with predictions from AE8, AP8 and CREME for a variety of shielding depths. Consistent results on the LET spectra are obtained from APEX and STRV when data are selected by cut-off rigidity. The influence of spacecraft
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vickner, Edward Henry, Jr.
An electronic simulation model was designed, constructed, and then field tested to determine student opinion of its effectiveness as an instructional aid. The model was designated as the Equilibrium System Simulator (ESS). The model was built on the principle of electrical symmetry applied to the Wheatstone bridge and was constructed from readily…
Truong, Quynh A.; Thai, Wai-ee; Wai, Bryan; Cordaro, Kevin; Cheng, Teresa; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Xiong, Guanglei; Cheung, Jim W.; Altman, Robert; Min, James K.; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Barrett, Conor D.; Danik, Stephan
2015-01-01
Background Myocardial scar is a substrate for ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Late enhancement computed tomography (CT) imaging can detect scar, but it remains unclear whether newer late enhancement dual-energy (LE-DECT) acquisition has benefit over standard single-energy late enhancement (LE-CT). Objective We aim to compare late enhancement CT using newer LE-DECT acquisition and single-energy LE-CT acquisitions to pathology and electroanatomical map (EAM) in an experimental chronic myocardial infarction (MI) porcine study. Methods In 8 chronic MI pigs (59±5 kg), we performed dual-source CT, EAM, and pathology. For CT imaging, we performed 3 acquisitions at 10 minutes post-contrast: LE-CT 80 kV, LE-CT 100 kV, and LE-DECT with two post-processing software settings. Results Of the sequences, LE-CT 100 kV provided the best contrast-to-noise ratio (all p≤0.03) and correlation to pathology for scar (ρ=0.88). While LE-DECT overestimated scar (both p=0.02), LE-CT images did not (both p=0.08). On a segment basis (n=136), all CT sequences had high specificity (87–93%) and modest sensitivity (50–67%), with LE-CT 100 kV having the highest specificity of 93% for scar detection compared to pathology and agreement with EAM (κ 0.69). Conclusions Standard single-energy LE-CT, particularly 100kV, matched better to pathology and EAM than dual-energy LE-DECT for scar detection. Larger human trials as well as more technical-based studies that optimize varying different energies with newer hardware and software are warranted. PMID:25977115
A Sandwich-Type Standard Error Estimator of SEM Models with Multivariate Time Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Guangjian; Chow, Sy-Miin; Ong, Anthony D.
2011-01-01
Structural equation models are increasingly used as a modeling tool for multivariate time series data in the social and behavioral sciences. Standard error estimators of SEM models, originally developed for independent data, require modifications to accommodate the fact that time series data are inherently dependent. In this article, we extend a…
40 CFR 86.410-90 - Emission standards for 1990 and later model year motorcycles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... model year motorcycles. 86.410-90 Section 86.410-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.410-90 Emission standards for 1990 and later model year motorcycles. (a)(1) Exhaust emissions from 1990 and later model...
Using the Modification Index and Standardized Expected Parameter Change for Model Modification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whittaker, Tiffany A.
2012-01-01
Model modification is oftentimes conducted after discovering a badly fitting structural equation model. During the modification process, the modification index (MI) and the standardized expected parameter change (SEPC) are 2 statistics that may be used to aid in the selection of parameters to add to a model to improve the fit. The purpose of this…
Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.
Shao, Lijing
2014-03-21
The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity. PMID:24702346
Standard Model Treatment of the Radiative Corrections to Neutron β-Decay
Bunatian, G. G.
2005-01-01
Starting with the Standard Model electroweak Lagrangian, the radiative corrections to neutron β-decay are obtained. Nucleon compositeness is considered by appropriate parameterization of the nucleon weak transition current and electromagnetic form factors. PMID:27308144
From many body wee partons dynamics to perfect fluid: a standard model for heavy ion collisions
Venugopalan, R.
2010-07-22
We discuss a standard model of heavy ion collisions that has emerged both from experimental results of the RHIC program and associated theoretical developments. We comment briefly on the impact of early results of the LHC program on this picture. We consider how this standard model of heavy ion collisions could be solidified or falsified in future experiments at RHIC, the LHC and a future Electro-Ion Collider.
Higgs production cross-section in a Standard Model with four generations at the LHC
Furlan E.; Anastasiou, C.; Buehler, S.; Herzog, F.; Lazopoulos, A.
2011-07-12
We present theoretical predictions for the Higgs boson production cross-section via gluon fusion at the LHC in a Standard Model with four generations. We include QCD corrections through NLO retaining the full dependence on the quark masses, and the NNLO corrections in the heavy quark effective theory approximation. We also include electroweak corrections through three loops. Electroweak and bottom-quark contributions are suppressed in comparison to the Standard Model with three generations.
Neutralino mass bounds in the Next-To-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franke, F.; Fraas, H.; Bartl, A.
1994-09-01
We analyze the experimental data from the search for new particles at LEP 100 and obtain mass bounds for the neutralinos of the Next-To-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM). We find that for tan β ≳ 5.5 a massless neutralino is still possible, while the lower mass bound for the second lightest neutralino corresponds approximately to that for the lightest neutralino in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM).
The model standards project: creating inclusive systems for LGBT youth in out-of-home care.
Wilber, Shannan; Reyes, Carolyn; Marksamer, Jody
2006-01-01
This article describes the Model Standards Project (MSP), a collaboration of Legal Services for Children and the National Center for Lesbian Rights. The MSP developed a set of model professional standards governing the care of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth in out-of-home care. This article provides an overview of the experiences of LGBT youth in state custody, drawing from existing research, as well as the actual experiences of youth who participated in the project or spoke with project staff. It will describe existing professional standards applicable to child welfare and juvenile justice systems, and the need for standards specifically focused on serving LGBT youth. The article concludes with recommendations for implementation of the standards in local jurisdictions. PMID:16846109
Two hundred heterotic standard models on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Lukas, Andre; Palti, Eran
2011-11-01
We construct heterotic standard models by compactifying on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds in the presence of purely Abelian internal gauge fields. A systematic search over complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds with less than six Kähler parameters leads to over 200 such models which we present. Each of these models has precisely the matter spectrum of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, at least one pair of Higgs doublets, the standard model gauge group, and no exotics. For about 100 of these models there are four additional U(1) symmetries which are Green-Schwarz anomalous and, hence, massive. In the remaining cases, three U(1) symmetries are anomalous, while the fourth, massless one can be spontaneously broken by singlet vacuum expectation values. The presence of additional global U(1) symmetries, together with the possibility of switching on singlet vacuum expectation values, leads to a rich phenomenology which is illustrated for a particular example. Our database of standard models, which can be further enlarged by simply extending the computer-based search, allows for a detailed and systematic phenomenological analysis of string standard models, covering issues such as the structure of Yukawa couplings, R-parity violation, proton stability, and neutrino masses.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laija-Rodriguez, Wilda; Grites, Karen; Bouman, Doug; Pohlman, Craig; Goldman, Richard L.
2013-01-01
Current assessments in the schools are based on a deficit model (Epstein, 1998). "The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services" (2010), federal initiatives and mandates, and experts in the field of assessment have highlighted the need for the comprehensive…
The feature-based modeling of standard tooth in a dental prosthetic database.
Song, Ya-Li; Li, Jia; Huang, Tian; Gao, Ping
2005-01-01
This paper presents a feature-based approach that creates standard teeth models in database to provide the topological construction of the model for dental CAD. The approach arises from the basic idea that every tooth has its individual features and can be implemented in three steps. In the first step, the features on teeth are defined according to the oral anatomy. In the second step, Nurbs surfaces are applied so that the forms of standard teeth can be represented via establishing the topological relationship of features. Here, these feature-based surfaces have the capability of being local controlled that guarantees the accuracy of dental design. In the last step, feature curves are presented to describe the topological construction of dental ridges and grooves. Through these curves, the occlusal surface can be changed globally, simplifying dental design. It is finished with the establishment of standard database composed of 28 standard models constructed by feature-based surfaces and feature curves. PMID:17281869
Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P.; Bader, Gary D.; Bergmann, Frank T.; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J.; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novère, Nicolas
2015-01-01
The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE’s aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models. PMID:25759811
Standardization in the field of medical image management: the contribution of the MIMOSA model.
Gibaud, B; Garfagni, H; Aubry, F; Pokropek, A T; Chameroy, V; Bizais, Y; Di Paola, R
1998-02-01
This paper deals with the development of standards in the field of medical imaging and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS's), and notably concerning the interworking between PACS's and hospital information systems (HIS). It explains, in detail, how a conceptual model of the management of medical images, such as the medical image management in an open system architecture (MIMOSA) model, can contribute to the development of standards for medical image management and PACS's. This contribution is twofold: 1) Since the model lists and structures the concepts and resources involved to make the images available to the users when and where they are required, and describes the interactions between PACS components and HIS, the MIMOSA work helps by defining a reference architecture which includes an external description of the various components of a PACS, and a logical structure for assembling them. 2) The model and the implementation of a demonstrator based on this model allow the relevance of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard with respect to image management issues to be assessed, highlighting some current limitations of this standard and proposing extensions. Such a twofold action is necessary in order both to bring solutions, even partial, in the short term, and to allow for the convergence, in the long term, of the standards developed by independent standardization groups in medical informatics (e.g., those within Technical Committee 251 of CEN: Comité Européen de Normalisation). PMID:9617908
A model for predicting the wearout lifetime of the LeRC/Hughes 30-cm mercury ion thruster
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beattie, J. R.
1979-01-01
An investigation of parameters that affect the erosion rates of 30-cm-diameter mercury-ion-thruster components is described. A sputter-erosion model is formulated in terms of the design, operational, and material characteristics of the thruster. The erosion model is applied to the screen electrode, which is assumed to be the life-limiting component of the 30-cm thruster, resulting in a model of wearout lifetime. Results of short-term erosion-rate tests are presented that illustrate the dependence of component wear rates on variables such as discharge voltage, accelerator-grid open-area fraction, ion energy, electrode material, and the partial pressure of facility residual gases such as nitrogen. Test results are compared with wearout rates predicted by the sputter-erosion model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.
2016-01-01
Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…
A Standard-Based Model for Adaptive E-Learning Platform for Mauritian Academic Institutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kanaksabee, P.; Odit, M. P.; Ramdoyal, A.
2011-01-01
The key aim of this paper is to introduce a standard-based model for adaptive e-learning platform for Mauritian academic institutions and to investigate the conditions and tools required to implement this model. The main forces of the system are that it allows collaborative learning, communication among user, and reduce considerable paper work.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finch, W. Holmes; Cassady, Jerrell C.
2014-01-01
In the USA, trends in educational accountability have driven several models attempting to provide quality data for decision making at the national, state, and local levels, regarding the success of schools in meeting standards for competence. Statistical methods to generate data for such decisions have generally included (a) status models that…
School Reform and Standards-Based Education: A Model for English-Language Learners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Echevarria, Jana; Short, Deborah; Powers, Kristin
2006-01-01
The authors examined a model of instruction for English-language learners (ELLs) who were learning academic English while they tried to meet content standards required by the nation's education reform movement. In previous work (J. Echevarria, M. E. Vogt, & D. Short, 2000), the authors developed and validated a model of instruction (Sheltered…
System Dynamics in Distance Education and a Call to Develop a Standard Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaffer, Steven C.
2005-01-01
This paper describes systems dynamics, reviews the literature of uses of systems concepts in distance education (DE), presents a preliminary model, and ends in a call to researchers to contribute to the building of a standard model of DE. (Contains 4 figures.)
The Amazing Electron and it Moments: Most Precise Tests of the Standard Model and Proposed Fixes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabrielse, Gerald
2015-10-01
The Standard Model of particle physics is the great triumph and great frustration of modern physics. It predicts the value of the electron magnetic moment - the most precisely measured property of an elementary particle - to better than a part per trillion. Yet, it cannot explain why a universe made of matter survived the big bang, nor can it yet explain dark matter or dark energy. A number of adjustments to the Standard Model have been proposed. To test these our ACME collaboration recently completed a 12 times more sensitive measurement of the electron's electric dipole moment. The Standard Model predicts a moment too small to measure, while proposed adjustments (e.g. supersymmetric models) generally cannot avoid predicting an electric dipole moment that could be within range of this new measurement sensitivity.
Standardization Process for Space Radiation Models Used for Space System Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Janet; Daly, Eamonn; Brautigam, Donald
2005-01-01
The space system design community has three concerns related to models of the radiation belts and plasma: 1) AP-8 and AE-8 models are not adequate for modern applications; 2) Data that have become available since the creation of AP-8 and AE-8 are not being fully exploited for modeling purposes; 3) When new models are produced, there is no authorizing organization identified to evaluate the models or their datasets for accuracy and robustness. This viewgraph presentation provided an overview of the roadmap adopted by the Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis
2013-10-01
Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.
Assessment of the Draft AIAA S-119 Flight Dynamic Model Exchange Standard
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, E. Bruce; Murri, Daniel G.; Hill, Melissa A.; Jessick, Matthew V.; Penn, John M.; Hasan, David A.; Crues, Edwin Z.; Falck, Robert D.; McCarthy, Thomas G.; Vuong, Nghia; Zimmerman, Curtis
2011-01-01
An assessment of a draft AIAA standard for flight dynamics model exchange, ANSI/AIAA S-119-2011, was conducted on behalf of NASA by a team from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The assessment included adding the capability of importing standard models into real-time simulation facilities at several NASA Centers as well as into analysis simulation tools. All participants were successful at importing two example models into their respective simulation frameworks by using existing software libraries or by writing new import tools. Deficiencies in the libraries and format documentation were identified and fixed; suggestions for improvements to the standard were provided to the AIAA. An innovative tool to generate C code directly from such a model was developed. Performance of the software libraries compared favorably with compiled code. As a result of this assessment, several NASA Centers can now import standard models directly into their simulations. NASA is considering adopting the now-published S-119 standard as an internal recommended practice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finnegan, N. J.; Gran, K. B.
2012-12-01
Catastrophic draining of glacial Lake Agassiz at the end of the Pleistocene triggered a pulse of incision along the Minnesota River, MN, USA, that is currently propagating into tributary channels and elevating channel incision rates far above regional background levels. At the same time, installation of artificial drainage to remove excess soil water (tiling) in tributaries of the Minnesota has resulted in shorter and higher amplitude hydrographs during spring snow melt and storm events. Thus both natural and anthropogenic explanations exist for high sediment loads from tributaries to the Minnesota River, among them the Le Sueur River, which is currently impaired for turbidity under EPA Clean Water Act standards. Here we investigate the transient incision history of the Le Sueur River to aid in the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for sediment in the Le Sueur. Establishing TMDLs for the Le Sueur requires separation of anthropogenic and geologic contributions to current sediment loads. Towards this end, we ran a series of numerical simulations of the excavation of the Le Sueur River valley over the Holocene in order to constrain pre-settlement rates of sediment export. Our approach relies on coupling (with varying strength) a 2D numerical model for river meandering to various 1D numerical models for river incision. Fortuitously, both the initial profile of the Le Sueur (prior to the flood from Lake Agassiz) as well as the timing of the flood itself can be reasonably constrained from LiDAR data and previous Quaternary studies, respectively. Additionally, LiDAR-mapping of discontinuous, unpaired strath terraces combined with OSL and/or 14C dates on 18 strath terrace deposits pin pieces of the long profile of the Le Sueur River in time and space. By minimizing the model misfit for strath terrace ages, the current river elevation long profile, and the width between bluffs along the Le Sueur River valley, we identify a preferred valley excavation history
A Lifecycle Approach to Brokered Data Management for Hydrologic Modeling Data Using Open Standards.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blodgett, D. L.; Booth, N.; Kunicki, T.; Walker, J.
2012-12-01
The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Integrated Data Analytics has formalized an information management-architecture to facilitate hydrologic modeling and subsequent decision support throughout a project's lifecycle. The architecture is based on open standards and open source software to decrease the adoption barrier and to build on existing, community supported software. The components of this system have been developed and evaluated to support data management activities of the interagency Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers and WaterSmart National Water Census. Much of the research and development of this system has been in cooperation with international interoperability experiments conducted within the Open Geospatial Consortium. Community-developed standards and software, implemented to meet the unique requirements of specific disciplines, are used as a system of interoperable, discipline specific, data types and interfaces. This approach has allowed adoption of existing software that satisfies the majority of system requirements. Four major features of the system include: 1) assistance in model parameter and forcing creation from large enterprise data sources; 2) conversion of model results and calibrated parameters to standard formats, making them available via standard web services; 3) tracking a model's processes, inputs, and outputs as a cohesive metadata record, allowing provenance tracking via reference to web services; and 4) generalized decision support tools which rely on a suite of standard data types and interfaces, rather than particular manually curated model-derived datasets. Recent progress made in data and web service standards related to sensor and/or model derived station time series, dynamic web processing, and metadata management are central to this system's function and will be presented briefly along with a functional overview of the applications that make up the system. As the separate
A unification of models for meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies without a gold standard.
Liu, Yulun; Chen, Yong; Chu, Haitao
2015-06-01
Several statistical methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies have been discussed in the presence of a gold standard. However, in practice, the selected reference test may be imperfect due to measurement error, non-existence, invasive nature, or expensive cost of a gold standard. It has been suggested that treating an imperfect reference test as a gold standard can lead to substantial bias in the estimation of diagnostic test accuracy. Recently, two models have been proposed to account for imperfect reference test, namely, a multivariate generalized linear mixed model (MGLMM) and a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model. Both models are very flexible in accounting for heterogeneity in accuracies of tests across studies as well as the dependence between tests. In this article, we show that these two models, although with different formulations, are closely related and are equivalent in the absence of study-level covariates. Furthermore, we provide the exact relations between the parameters of these two models and assumptions under which two models can be reduced to equivalent submodels. On the other hand, we show that some submodels of the MGLMM do not have corresponding equivalent submodels of the HSROC model, and vice versa. With three real examples, we illustrate the cases when fitting the MGLMM and HSROC models leads to equivalent submodels and hence identical inference, and the cases when the inferences from two models are slightly different. Our results generalize the important relations between the bivariate generalized linear mixed model and HSROC model when the reference test is a gold standard. PMID:25358907
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crawford, Linda
These instructional materials are designed for students with some French reading skills and vocabulary in late beginning or early intermediate senior high school French. The objectives are to introduce students to a French newspaper, "Le Figaro," and develop reading skills for skimming, gathering specific information, and relying on cognates. The…
B → K∗ ℓ + ℓ - decays at large recoil in the Standard Model: a theoretical reappraisal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciuchini, Marco; Fedele, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Mishima, Satoshi; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro
2016-06-01
We critically reassess the theoretical uncertainties in the Standard Model calculation of the B → K ∗ ℓ + ℓ - observables, focusing on the low q 2 region. We point out that even optimized observables are affected by sizable uncertainties, since hadronic contributions generated by current-current operators with charm are difficult to estimate, especially for q 2 ˜ 4 m c 2 ≃ 6.8 GeV2. We perform a detailed numerical analysis and present both predictions and results from the fit obtained using most recent data. We find that non-factorizable power corrections of the expected order of magnitude are sufficient to give a good description of current experimental data within the Standard Model. We discuss in detail the q 2 dependence of the corrections and their possible interpretation as shifts of the Standard Model Wilson coefficients.
Exploring the Standard Model with the High Luminosity, Polarized Electron-Ion Collider
Milner, Richard G.
2009-08-04
The Standard Model is only a few decades old and has been successfully confirmed by experiment, particularly at the high energy frontier. This will continue with renewed vigor at the LHC. However, many important elements of the Standard Model remain poorly understood. In particular, the exploration of the strong interaction theory Quantum Chromodynamics is in its infancy. How does the spin-1/2 of the proton arise from the fundamental quark and gluon constituents? Can we understand the new QCD world of virtual quarks and gluons in the nucleon? Using precision measurements can we test the limits of the Standard Model and look for new physics? To address these and other important questions, physicists have developed a concept for a new type of accelerator, namely a high luminosity, polarized electron-ion collider. Here the scientific motivation is summarized and the accelerator concepts are outlined.
Model Validation and Testing: The Methodological Foundation of ASHRAE Standard 140; Preprint
Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.
2006-07-01
Ideally, whole-building energy simulation programs model all aspects of a building that influence energy use and thermal and visual comfort for the occupants. An essential component of the development of such computer simulation models is a rigorous program of validation and testing. This paper describes a methodology to evaluate the accuracy of whole-building energy simulation programs. The methodology is also used to identify and diagnose differences in simulation predictions that may be caused by algorithmic differences, modeling limitations, coding errors, or input errors. The methodology has been adopted by ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140 (ANSI/ASHRAE 2001, 2004), Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. A summary of the method is included in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals (ASHRAE 2005). This paper describes the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140 method of test and its methodological basis. Also discussed are possible future enhancements to Standard 140 and related research recommendations.
a Glance Beyond the Standard Model: Latest Results from the MEG Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dussoni, Simeone
2014-12-01
The MEG experiment started taking data in 2009 looking for the Standard Model suppressed decay μ → e + γ, which, if observed, can reveal Beyond Standard Model physics. It makes use of state-of-the art detectors optimized for operating in conditions of very high intensity, rejecting as much background as possible. The data taking ended August 2013 and an upgrade R&D is started to push the experimental sensitivity. The present upper limit on the decay Branching Ratio (BR) is presented, obtained with the subset of data from 2009 to 2011 run, together with a description of the key features of the upgraded detector.
Neutralinos and Higgs Bosons in the Next-To-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franke, F.
The purpose of this paper is to present a complete and consistent list of the Feynman rules for the vertices of neutralinos and Higgs bosons in the Next-To-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), which does not yet exist in the literature. The Feynman rules are derived from the full expression for the Lagrangian and the mass matrices of the neutralinos and Higgs bosons in the NMSSM. Some crucial differences between the vertex functions of the NMSSM and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) are discussed.
Performance of preproduction model cesium beam frequency standards for spacecraft applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, M. W.
1978-01-01
A cesium beam frequency standards for spaceflight application on Navigation Development Satellites was designed and fabricated and preliminary testing was completed. The cesium standard evolved from an earlier prototype model launched aboard NTS-2 and the engineering development model to be launched aboard NTS satellites during 1979. A number of design innovations, including a hybrid analog/digital integrator and the replacement of analog filters and phase detectors by clocked digital sampling techniques are discussed. Thermal and thermal-vacuum testing was concluded and test data are presented. Stability data for 10 to 10,000 seconds averaging interval, measured under laboratory conditions, are shown.
Blowout Jets: Hinode X-Ray Jets that Don't Fit the Standard Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.
2010-01-01
Nearly half of all H-alpha macrospicules in polar coronal holes appear to be miniature filament eruptions. This suggests that there is a large class of X-ray jets in which the jet-base magnetic arcade undergoes a blowout eruption as in a CME, instead of remaining static as in most solar X-ray jets, the standard jets that fit the model advocated by Shibata. Along with a cartoon depicting the standard model, we present a cartoon depicting the signatures expected of blowout jets in coronal X-ray images. From Hinode/XRT movies and STEREO/EUVI snapshots in polar coronal holes, we present examples of (1) X-ray jets that fit the standard model, and (2) X-ray jets that do not fit the standard model but do have features appropriate for blowout jets. These features are (1) a flare arcade inside the jet-base arcade in addition to the small flare arcade (bright point) outside that standard jets have, (2) a filament of cool (T is approximately 80,000K) plasma that erupts from the core of the jetbase arcade, and (3) an extra jet strand that should not be made by the reconnection for standard jets but could be made by reconnection between the ambient unipolar open field and the opposite-polarity leg of the filament-carrying flux-rope core field of the erupting jet-base arcade. We therefore infer that these non-standard jets are blowout jets, jets made by miniature versions of the sheared-core-arcade eruptions that make CMEs
230Th-234U Model-Ages of Some Uranium Standard Reference Materials
Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D
2009-05-28
The 'age' of a sample of uranium is an important aspect of a nuclear forensic investigation and of the attribution of the material to its source. To the extent that the sample obeys the standard rules of radiochronometry, then the production ages of even very recent material can be determined using the {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U chronometer. These standard rules may be summarized as (a) the daughter/parent ratio at time=zero must be known, and (b) there has been no daughter/parent fractionation since production. For most samples of uranium, the 'ages' determined using this chronometer are semantically 'model-ages' because (a) some assumption of the initial {sup 230}Th content in the sample is required and (b) closed-system behavior is assumed. The uranium standard reference materials originally prepared and distributed by the former US National Bureau of Standards and now distributed by New Brunswick Laboratory as certified reference materials (NBS SRM = NBL CRM) are good candidates for samples where both rules are met. The U isotopic standards have known purification and production dates, and closed-system behavior in the solid form (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) may be assumed with confidence. We present here {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U model-ages for several of these standards, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a multicollector ICP-MS, and compare these ages with their known production history.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Avila, Arturo
2011-01-01
The Standard JPL thermal engineering practice prescribes worst-case methodologies for design. In this process, environmental and key uncertain thermal parameters (e.g., thermal blanket performance, interface conductance, optical properties) are stacked in a worst case fashion to yield the most hot- or cold-biased temperature. Thus, these simulations would represent the upper and lower bounds. This, effectively, represents JPL thermal design margin philosophy. Uncertainty in the margins and the absolute temperatures is usually estimated by sensitivity analyses and/or by comparing the worst-case results with "expected" results. Applicability of the analytical model for specific design purposes along with any temperature requirement violations are documented in peer and project design review material. In 2008, NASA released NASA-STD-7009, Standard for Models and Simulations. The scope of this standard covers the development and maintenance of models, the operation of simulations, the analysis of the results, training, recommended practices, the assessment of the Modeling and Simulation (M&S) credibility, and the reporting of the M&S results. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project thermal control system M&S activity was chosen as a case study determining whether JPL practice is in line with the standard and to identify areas of non-compliance. This paper summarizes the results and makes recommendations regarding the application of this standard to JPL thermal M&S practices.
Standards in Modeling and Simulation: The Next Ten Years MODSIM World Paper 2010
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Andrew J.; Diallo, Saikou; Sherfey, Solomon R.; Tolk, Andreas; Turnitsa, Charles D.; Petty, Mikel; Wiesel, Eric
2011-01-01
The world has moved on since the introduction of the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) standard in the early 1980s. The cold-war maybe over but there is still a requirement to train for and analyze the next generation of threats that face the free world. With the emergence of new and more powerful computer technology and techniques means that modeling and simulation (M&S) has become an important and growing, part in satisfying this requirement. As an industry grows, the benefits from standardization within that industry grow with it. For example, it is difficult to imagine what the USA would be like without the 110 volts standard for domestic electricity supply. This paper contains an overview of the outcomes from a recent workshop to investigate the possible future of M&S standards within the federal government.
Personalized-Detailed Clinical Model for Data Interoperability Among Clinical Standards
Khan, Wajahat Ali; Hussain, Maqbool; Afzal, Muhammad; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Saleem, Muhammad Aamir
2013-01-01
Abstract Objective: Data interoperability among health information exchange (HIE) systems is a major concern for healthcare practitioners to enable provisioning of telemedicine-related services. Heterogeneity exists in these systems not only at the data level but also among different heterogeneous healthcare standards with which these are compliant. The relationship between healthcare organization data and different heterogeneous standards is necessary to achieve the goal of data level interoperability. We propose a personalized-detailed clinical model (P-DCM) approach for the generation of customized mappings that creates the necessary linkage between organization-conformed healthcare standards concepts and clinical model concepts to ensure data interoperability among HIE systems. Materials and Methods: We consider electronic health record (EHR) standards, openEHR, and HL7 CDA instances transformation using P-DCM. P-DCM concepts associated with openEHR and HL7 CDA help in transformation of instances among these standards. We investigated two datasets: (1) data of 100 diabetic patients, including 50 each of type 1 and type 2, from a local hospital in Korea and (2) data of a single Alzheimer's disease patient. P-DCMs were created for both scenarios, which provided the basis for deriving instances for HL7 CDA and openEHR standards. Results: For proof of concept, we present case studies of encounter information for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and monitoring of daily routine activities of an Alzheimer's disease patient. These reflect P-DCM-based customized mappings generation with openEHR and HL7 CDA standards. Customized mappings are generated based on the relationship of P-DCM concepts with CDA and openEHR concepts. Conclusions: The objective of this work is to achieve semantic data interoperability among heterogeneous standards. This would lead to effective utilization of resources and allow timely information exchange among healthcare systems. PMID:23875730
A conceptual ozone dose-response model to develop a standard to protect vegetation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massman, William J.; Musselman, Robert C.; Lefohn, Allen S.
The present air quality standard to protect vegetation from ozone is based on a measured concentration (i.e., exposure) rather than on plant uptake rates (or dose). Proposed exposure-based standards have led to concerns about the appropriateness of chamber studies. There has also been some debate about the importance of the diel phase difference between plant conductance and ozone concentration in assessing the potential for plant damage. In this paper, we use physical reasoning based on (i) plant defenses and (ii) general resistance concepts of dry deposition to derive a suggested general form of a dose-based standard. The dose-based standard is then related to the more traditional exposure-based standard. Although we develop the model in terms of plant injury, we also discuss how the model can be extended to include damage, which historically has been the focus of air quality standards. With this new dose-based approach, we clarify some of the issues concerning chambers and the interaction of the daily cycles of ozone concentration and plant stomatal conductance. We further demonstrate that (i) weighted fluxes can be used as a surrogate for plant defenses, (ii) injury or damage to vegetation is more likely to be correlated with a dose-based index that differentially weights ambient ozone concentration or plant uptake rates than one which does not, (iii) the potential for ozone injury or damage to plants can occur throughout the day, and (iv) when assessing the potential for plant damage, a differentially weighted flux-based standard is likely to be more precise and more discriminating than a cumulative ozone-based exposure index. Finally, because our basic premise relies on plant defensive mechanisms, we outline areas of research that are necessary before a dose-based standard can be implemented.
Geometrically engineering the standard model: Locally unfolding three families out of E{sub 8}
Bourjaily, Jacob L.
2007-08-15
This paper extends and builds upon the results of [J. L. Bourjaily, arXiv:0704.0444.], in which we described how to use the tools of geometrical engineering to deform geometrically engineered grand unified models into ones with lower symmetry. This top-down unfolding has the advantage that the relative positions of singularities giving rise to the many 'low-energy' matter fields are related by only a few parameters which deform the geometry of the unified model. And because the relative positions of singularities are necessary to compute the superpotential, for example, this is a framework in which the arbitrariness of geometrically engineered models can be greatly reduced. In [J. L. Bourjaily, arXiv:0704.0444.], this picture was made concrete for the case of deforming the representations of an SU{sub 5} model into their standard model content. In this paper we continue that discussion to show how a geometrically engineered 16 of SO{sub 10} can be unfolded into the standard model, and how the three families of the standard model uniquely emerge from the unfolding of a single, isolated E{sub 8} singularity.
Standard cosmological evolution in a wide range of f(R) models
Evans, Jonathan D.; Hall, Lisa M. H.; Caillol, Philippe
2008-04-15
Using techniques from singular perturbation theory, we explicitly calculate the cosmological evolution in a class of modified gravity models. By considering both the CDTT and modified CDTT (mCDTT) models, which aims to explain the current acceleration of the universe with a modification of gravity, we show that Einstein evolution can be recovered for most of cosmic history in at least one f(R) model. We show that a standard epoch of matter domination can be obtained in the mCDTT model, providing a sufficiently long epoch to satisfy observations. We note that the additional inverse term will not significantly alter standard evolution until today and that the solution lies well within present constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis. For the CDTT model, we analyze the 'recent radiation epoch' behavior (a{proportional_to}t{sup 1/2}) found by previous authors. We finally generalize our findings to the class of inverse power-law models. Even in this class of models, we expect a standard cosmological evolution, with a sufficient matter domination era, although the sign of the additional term is crucial.
Muon (g-2): A Probe of the Standard Model and Beyond
Roberts, Lee
2008-09-03
Since the experiments of Stern and Gerlach, magnetic moments of 'elementary' particles have been important in our quest to understand subatomic physics. The first 'QED loop calculation' was done by Schwinger to explain the larger than expected hydrogen hyperfine structure. The definitive measurement of the electron's anomalous magnetic moment by Kusch and Foley followed and agreed well with Schwinger's calculation of ae = (alpha/ 2 pi). The muon's anomaly, which is sensitive to a broad range of physics beyond the standard model, will be discussed in a historical context, following the intellectual development of modern physics through the 20th century. Experiment E821 at Brookhaven will be described, as well as possible improvements, which are highly desirable since the present value of the muon anomaly, appears to differ from the standard-model value by 3.4 standard deviations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bizouard, Christian
2012-03-01
Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Alegre, Ana; Sánchez, Francisco; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; Hinz, Hilmar; Serrano, Alberto; Parra, Santiago
2014-08-01
The management and protection of potentially vulnerable species and habitats require the availability of detailed spatial data. However, such data are often not readily available in particular areas that are challenging for sampling by traditional sampling techniques, for example seamounts. Within this study habitat modelling techniques were used to create predictive maps of six species of conservation concern for the Le Danois Bank (El Cachucho Marine Protected Area in the South of the Bay of Biscay). The study used data from ECOMARG multidisciplinary surveys that aimed to create a representative picture of the physical and biological composition of the area. Classical fishing gear (otter trawl and beam trawl) was used to sample benthic communities that inhabit sedimentary areas, and non-destructive visual sampling techniques (ROV and photogrammetric sled) were used to determine the presence of epibenthic macrofauna in complex and vulnerable habitats. Multibeam echosounder data, high-resolution seismic profiles (TOPAS system) and geological data from box-corer were used to characterize the benthic terrain. ArcGIS software was used to produce high-resolution maps (75×75 m2) of such variables in the entire area. The Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) technique was used to process these data and create Habitat Suitability maps for six species of special conservation interest. The model used seven environmental variables (depth, rugosity, aspect, slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) in fine and broad scale and morphosedimentary characteristics) to identify the most suitable habitats for such species and indicates which environmental factors determine their distribution. The six species models performed highly significantly better than random (p<0.0001; Mann-Whitney test) when Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were tested. This indicates that the environmental variables chosen are relevant to distinguish the distribution of these species. The Jackknife test estimated depth
W / Z + heavy flavor production and the standard model Higgs searches at the Tevatron
Choi, S.Y.; /UC, Riverside
2004-08-01
Searches for the Standard Model Higgs in WH and H {yields} WW channels by CDF and D0 collaborations are presented. The preliminary results are based on < 180 pb{sup -1} of data analyzed by each experiment. Important backgrounds to Higgs searches, such as heavy flavor production in association with massive vector bosons (W and Z) are studied in the process.
Existence of standard models of conic fibrations over non-algebraically-closed fields
Avilov, A A
2014-12-31
We prove an analogue of Sarkisov's theorem on the existence of a standard model of a conic fibration over an algebraically closed field of characteristic different from two for three-dimensional conic fibrations over an arbitrary field of characteristic zero with an action of a finite group. Bibliography: 16 titles.
Validation of standardized and structured EHR data in the dual model approach.
Rinner, Christoph; Duftschmid, Georg
2009-01-01
We present a W3C XML Schema-based method to validate standardized EHR data against semantic constraints that build the knowledge layer within the dual model approach. The approach was tested with three EN/ISO13606 archetypes and an HL7 CDA implementation guide for diabetes therapies. PMID:19745278
Neutron Spin Structure Studies and Low-Energy Tests of the Standard Model at JLab
Jager, Kees de
2008-10-13
The most recent results on the spin structure of the neutron from Hall A are presented and discussed. Then, an overview is given of various experiments planned with the 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab to provide sensitive tests of the Standard Model at relatively low energies.
B →K*l+l-: Zeros of angular observables as test of standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Girish; Mahajan, Namit
2016-03-01
We calculate the zeros of angular observables P4' and P5' of the angular distribution of 4-body decay B →K*(→K π )l+l- where LHCb, in its analysis of form-factor independent angular observables, has found deviations from the standard model predictions. In the large recoil region, we obtain relations between the zeros of P4' , P5' and the zero (s^0) of forward-backward asymmetry of lepton pair, AF B. These relations are independent of hadronic uncertainties and depend only on the Wilson coefficients. We also construct a new observable, OTL ,R, whose zero in the standard model coincides with s^0, but in the presence of new physics contributions will show different behavior. Moreover, the profile of the new observable, even within the standard model, is very different from AF B. We point out that precise measurements of these zeros in the near future would provide a crucial test of the standard model and would be useful in distinguishing between different possible new physics contributions to the Wilson coefficients.
The Standard Model and Beyond - Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium on Theoretical Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivetti, A.; Martini, G.
1991-06-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Introduction to the Standard Model and Neutral Currents * Higgs Physics: Theory and Phenomenology * Weak Flavor Physics * Mechanisms of CP Violation in Gauge Theory and the Recent Developments * Chiral Dynamics and Flavor Conserving CP Violation * An Introduction to Supersymmetry and Supersymmetry Phenomenology * e+e- Physics * Titles of Seminars * List of Participants
The One and Two Loops Renormalization Group Equations in the Standard Model
Juarez W, S. Rebeca; Solis R, H. Gabriel; Kielanowski, P.
2006-01-06
In the context of the Standard Model (SM), we compare the analytical and the numerical solutions of the Renormalization Group Equations (RGE) for the relevant couplings to one and two loops. This information will be an important ingredient for the precise evaluation of boundary values on the physical Higgs Mass.
Higgs Decay to Two Photons at One Loop in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory.
Hartmann, Christine; Trott, Michael
2015-11-01
We present the calculation of the CP conserving contributions to Γ(h→γγ), from dimension six operators at one-loop order, in the linear standard model effective field theory. We discuss the impact of these corrections on interpreting current and future experimental bounds on this decay. PMID:26588371
Beyond standard model searches in the MiniBooNE experiment
Katori, Teppei; Conrad, Janet M.
2014-08-05
Tmore » he MiniBooNE experiment has contributed substantially to beyond standard model searches in the neutrino sector. he experiment was originally designed to test the Δm2~1eV2 region of the sterile neutrino hypothesis by observing νe(ν-e) charged current quasielastic signals from a νμ(ν-μ) beam. MiniBooNE observed excesses of νe and ν-e candidate events in neutrino and antineutrino mode, respectively. o date, these excesses have not been explained within the neutrino standard model (νSM); the standard model extended for three massive neutrinos. Confirmation is required by future experiments such as MicroBooNE. MiniBooNE also provided an opportunity for precision studies of Lorentz violation. he results set strict limits for the first time on several parameters of the standard-model extension, the generic formalism for considering Lorentz violation. Most recently, an extension to MiniBooNE running, with a beam tuned in beam-dump mode, is being performed to search for dark sector particles. In addition, this review describes these studies, demonstrating that short baseline neutrino experiments are rich environments in new physics searches.« less
Analogous behavior in the quantum hall effect, anyon superconductivity, and the standard model
Laughlin, R.B. . Dept. of Physics); Libby, S.B. )
1991-07-01
Similarities between physical behavior known to occur, or suspected of occurring, in simple condensed matter systems and behavior postulated by the standard model are identified and discussed. Particular emphasis is given to quantum number fractionalization, spontaneous occurrence of gauge forces, spontaneous violation of P and T, and anomaly cancellation. 46 refs.
Λb→(Λc, p )τ ν decays within standard model and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Rupak
2016-03-01
Deviations from the standard model prediction have been observed in several leptonic and semileptonic B meson decays to τ ν final states mediated via b →u and b →c charged current interactions. The measured value of the ratio of branching ratios Rπl of B-→τ-ντ to B0→π+l-ν decays, where l =(e ,μ ), is larger than the standard model prediction by more than a factor of 2. Similarly, a combined excess of 3.9 σ from the standard model expectation has been reported by HFAG for the values of RD and RD*, where RD ,D* represents the ratio of branching ratios of B →(D ,D*)τ ν to corresponding B →(D ,D*)l ν decays, respectively. Very recently, a hint of lepton flavor violation has been observed in the ratio of branching fractions of B →K e+e- to B →K μ+μ- decays as well. In this context, we employ an effective Lagrangian approach to study the decay branching fractions and the ratio of branching fractions of Λb→Λcl ν and Λb→p l ν decays within the standard model and beyond. We constrain the new physics parameter space using the existing experimental data on RD, RD*, and Rπl. We give predictions for various observables in the context of various new physics scenarios.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst
2014-01-01
This paper gives an overview of research on modelling science competence in German science education. Since the first national German educational standards for physics, chemistry and biology education were released in 2004 research projects dealing with competences have become prominent strands. Most of this research is about the structure of…
78 FR 45447 - Revisions to Modeling, Data, and Analysis Reliability Standard
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-07-29
... Analysis Reliability Standard, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 78 FR 19,152 (Mar. 29, 2013), 142 FERC ] 61... Environmental Policy Act, Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897 (Dec. 17, 1987), FERC Stats. & Regs. Regulations Preambles... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Revisions to Modeling, Data, and Analysis...
Standard pre-main sequence models of low-mass stars
Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Tognelli, E.
2014-05-09
The main characteristics of standard pre-main sequence (PMS) models are described. A discussion of the uncer-tainties affecting the current generation of PMS evolutionary tracks and isochrones is also provided. In particular, the impact of the uncertainties in the adopted equation of state, radiative opacity, nuclear cross sections, and initial chemical abundances are analysed.
Search for a Standard Model Higgs Boson with a Dilepton and Missing Energy Signature
Gerbaudo, Davide
2011-09-01
The subject of this thesis is the search for a standard model Higgs boson decaying to a pair of W bosons that in turn decay leptonically, H → W^{+}W^{-} → $\\bar{ℓ}$vℓ$\\bar{v}$. This search is performed considering events produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV, where two oppositely charged lepton candidates (e^{+}e^{-}, e^{±}μ^{±}, or μ^{+}μ}^{-}), and missing transverse energy, have been reconstructed. The data were collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, and are tested against the standard model predictions computed for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 115-200 GeV. No excess of events over background is observed, and limits on Standard Model Higgs boson production are determined. An interpretation of these limits within the hypothesis of a fourth-generation extension to the standard model is also given. The overall analysis scheme is the same for the three dilepton pairs being considered (e^{+}e^{-}, e^{±}μ^{±}, or μ^{+}μ^{-}); this thesis, however, describes in detail the study of the dimuon final state.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chou, Yeh-Tai; Wang, Wen-Chung
2010-01-01
Dimensionality is an important assumption in item response theory (IRT). Principal component analysis on standardized residuals has been used to check dimensionality, especially under the family of Rasch models. It has been suggested that an eigenvalue greater than 1.5 for the first eigenvalue signifies a violation of unidimensionality when there…
Rejoinder: Evaluating Standard Setting Methods Using Error Models Proposed by Schulz
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reckase, Mark D.
2006-01-01
Schulz (2006) provides a different perspective on standard setting than that provided in Reckase (2006). He also suggests a modification to the bookmark procedure and some alternative models for errors in panelists' judgments than those provided by Reckase. This article provides a response to some of the points made by Schulz and reports some…
Searches for non-standard-model Higgs bosons at the Tevatron
Landsberg, Greg L.; /Brown U.
2007-05-01
Search for non-Standard-Model Higgs bosons is one of the major goals of the ongoing Fermilab Tevatron run. Large data sets accumulated by the CDF and D{O} experiments break new grounds in sensitivity. We review recent Tevatron results on searches for Higgs bosons in Minimal Supersymmetric Model in the multi b-jet and {tau}{tau} final states, as well as a search for fermiophobic Higgs in the multiphoton final state.
The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, W. P., Jr.
2010-07-01
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.
Search for the standard model Higgs boson in association with a W boson at D0.
Shaw, Savanna Marie
2013-01-01
I present a search for the standard model Higgs boson, H, produced in association with a W boson in data events containing a charged lepton (electron or muon), missing energy, and two or three jets. The data analysed correspond to 9.7 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity collected at a center-of-momentum energy of √s = 1.96 TeV with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p$\\bar{p}$ collider. This search uses algorithms to identify the signature of bottom quark production and multivariate techniques to improve the purity of H → b$\\bar{b}$ production. We validate our methodology by measuring WZ and ZZ production with Z → b$\\bar{b}$ and find production rates consistent with the standard model prediction. For a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, we determine a 95% C.L. upper limit on the production of a standard model Higgs boson of 4.8 times the standard model Higgs boson production cross section, while the expected limit is 4.7 times the standard model production cross section. I also present a novel method for improving the energy resolution for charged particles within hadronic signatures. This is achieved by replacing the calorimeter energy measurement for charged particles within a hadronic signature with the tracking momentum measurement. This technique leads to a ~ 20% improvement in the jet energy resolution, which yields a ~ 7% improvement in the reconstructed dijet mass width for H → b$\\bar{b}$ events. The improved energy calculation leads to a ~ 5% improvement in our expected 95% C.L. upper limit on the Higgs boson production cross section.
Ecotoxicological models generally have large data requirements and are frequently based on existing information from diverse sources. Standardizing data for toxicological models may be necessary to reduce extraneous variation and to ensure models reflect intrinsic relationships. ...
Song, Mi; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Chen, Yao; Jin, Jing-Wen
2014-07-01
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays suffer from signal instability caused by the gradual fouling of the ion source, vacuum instability, aging of the ion multiplier, etc. To address this issue, in this contribution, an internal standard was added into the mobile phase. The internal standard was therefore ionized and detected together with the analytes of interest by the mass spectrometer to ensure that variations in measurement conditions and/or instrument have similar effects on the signal contributions of both the analytes of interest and the internal standard. Subsequently, based on the unique strategy of adding internal standard in mobile phase, a multiplicative effects model was developed for quantitative LC-MS assays and tested on a proof of concept model system: the determination of amino acids in water by LC-MS. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently mitigate the detrimental effects of continuous signal variation, and achieved quantitative results with average relative predictive error values in the range of 8.0-15.0%, which were much more accurate than the corresponding results of conventional internal standard method based on the peak height ratio and partial least squares method (their average relative predictive error values were as high as 66.3% and 64.8%, respectively). Therefore, it is expected that the proposed method can be developed and extended in quantitative LC-MS analysis of more complex systems. PMID:24840455
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirvis, E.; Iredell, M.
2015-12-01
The operational (OPS) NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) suite, traditionally, consist of a large set of multi- scale HPC models, workflows, scripts, tools and utilities, which are very much depending on the variety of the additional components. Namely, this suite utilizes a unique collection of the in-house developed 20+ shared libraries (NCEPLIBS), certain versions of the 3-rd party libraries (like netcdf, HDF, ESMF, jasper, xml etc.), HPC workflow tool within dedicated (sometimes even vendors' customized) HPC system homogeneous environment. This domain and site specific, accompanied with NCEP's product- driven large scale real-time data operations complicates NCEP collaborative development tremendously by reducing chances to replicate this OPS environment anywhere else. The NOAA/NCEP's Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) missions to develop and improve numerical weather, climate, hydrological and ocean prediction through the partnership with the research community. Realizing said difficulties, lately, EMC has been taken an innovative approach to improve flexibility of the HPC environment by building the elements and a foundation for NCEP OPS functionally equivalent environment (FEE), which can be used to ease the external interface constructs as well. Aiming to reduce turnaround time of the community code enhancements via Research-to-Operations (R2O) cycle, EMC developed and deployed several project sub-set standards that already paved the road to NCEP OPS implementation standards. In this topic we will discuss the EMC FEE for O2R requirements and approaches in collaborative standardization, including NCEPLIBS FEE and models code version control paired with the models' derived customized HPC modules and FEE footprints. We will share NCEP/EMC experience and potential in the refactoring of EMC development processes, legacy codes and in securing model source code quality standards by using combination of the Eclipse IDE, integrated with the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Thomas A.; Luckring, James M.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Green, Lawrence L.; Tripathi, Ram K.
2007-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently issued an interim version of the Standard for Models and Simulations (M&S Standard) [1]. The action to develop the M&S Standard was identified in an internal assessment [2] of agency-wide changes needed in the wake of the Columbia Accident [3]. The primary goal of this standard is to ensure that the credibility of M&S results is properly conveyed to those making decisions affecting human safety or mission success criteria. The secondary goal is to assure that the credibility of the results from models and simulations meets the project requirements (for credibility). This presentation explains the motivation and key aspects of the M&S Standard, with a special focus on the requirements for verification, validation and uncertainty quantification. Some pilot applications of this standard to computational fluid dynamics applications will be provided as illustrations. The authors of this paper are the members of the team that developed the initial three drafts of the standard, the last of which benefited from extensive comments from most of the NASA Centers. The current version (number 4) incorporates modifications made by a team representing 9 of the 10 NASA Centers. A permanent version of the M&S Standard is expected by December 2007. The scope of the M&S Standard is confined to those uses of M&S that support program and project decisions that may affect human safety or mission success criteria. Such decisions occur, in decreasing order of importance, in the operations, the test & evaluation, and the design & analysis phases. Requirements are placed on (1) program and project management, (2) models, (3) simulations and analyses, (4) verification, validation and uncertainty quantification (VV&UQ), (5) recommended practices, (6) training, (7) credibility assessment, and (8) reporting results to decision makers. A key component of (7) and (8) is the use of a Credibility Assessment Scale, some of the details
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaliski, Pamela; Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Morgan, Deanna; Plake, Barbara; Reshetar, Rosemary
2012-01-01
The Many-Facet Rasch (MFR) Model is traditionally used to evaluate the quality of ratings on constructed response assessments; however, it can also be used to evaluate the quality of judgments from panel-based standard setting procedures. The current study illustrates the use of the MFR Model by examining the quality of ratings obtained from a…
Standard model explanations for the NuTeV electroweak measurements
R. H. Bernstein
2003-12-23
The NuTeV Collaboration has measured the electroweak parameters sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} and {rho} in neutrino-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering using a sign-selected beam. The nearly pure {nu} or {bar {nu}} beams that result provide many of the cancellations of systematics associated with the Paschos-Wolfenstein relation. The extracted result for sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}(on-shell) = 1 - M{sub W}{sup 2}/M{sub Z}{sup 2} is three standard deviations from prediction. We discuss Standard Model explanations for the puzzle.
NASA Standard for Models and Simulations (M and S): Development Process and Rationale
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Thomas A.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Green, Lawrence L.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Luckring, James M.; Morison, Joseph H.; Tripathi, Ram K.
2009-01-01
After the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) report. the NASA Administrator at that time chartered an executive team (known as the Diaz Team) to identify the CAIB report elements with Agency-wide applicability, and to develop corrective measures to address each element. This report documents the chronological development and release of an Agency-wide Standard for Models and Simulations (M&S) (NASA Standard 7009) in response to Action #4 from the report, "A Renewed Commitment to Excellence: An Assessment of the NASA Agency-wide Applicability of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report, January 30, 2004".
Ground state phase transition in the Nilsson mean-field plus standard pairing model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Xin; Xu, Haocheng; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Feng; Draayer, Jerry P.
2016-08-01
The ground state phase transition in Nd, Sm, and Gd isotopes is investigated by using the Nilsson mean-field plus standard pairing model based on the exact solutions obtained from the extended Heine-Stieltjes correspondence. The results of the model calculations successfully reproduce the critical phenomena observed experimentally in the odd-even mass differences, odd-even differences of two-neutron separation energy, and the α -decay and double β--decay energies of these isotopes. Since the odd-even effects are the most important signatures of pairing interactions in nuclei, the model calculations yield microscopic insight into the nature of the ground state phase transition manifested by the standard pairing interaction.
Single Top Production at Next-to-Leading Order in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cen
2016-04-01
Single top production processes at hadron colliders provide information on the relation between the top quark and the electroweak sector of the standard model. We compute the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the three main production channels: t -channel, s -channel, and t W associated production, in the standard model including operators up to dimension six. The calculation can be matched to parton shower programs and can therefore be directly used in experimental analyses. The QCD corrections are found to significantly impact the extraction of the current limits on the operators, because both of an improved accuracy and a better precision of the theoretical predictions. In addition, the distributions of some of the key discriminating observables are modified in a nontrivial way, which could change the interpretation of measurements in terms of UV complete models.
Single Top Production at Next-to-Leading Order in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory.
Zhang, Cen
2016-04-22
Single top production processes at hadron colliders provide information on the relation between the top quark and the electroweak sector of the standard model. We compute the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the three main production channels: t-channel, s-channel, and tW associated production, in the standard model including operators up to dimension six. The calculation can be matched to parton shower programs and can therefore be directly used in experimental analyses. The QCD corrections are found to significantly impact the extraction of the current limits on the operators, because both of an improved accuracy and a better precision of the theoretical predictions. In addition, the distributions of some of the key discriminating observables are modified in a nontrivial way, which could change the interpretation of measurements in terms of UV complete models. PMID:27152795
Liu, Yan; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang
2016-12-01
Calibration transfer is essential for practical applications of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy because the measurements of the spectra may be performed on different instruments and the difference between the instruments must be corrected. For most of calibration transfer methods, standard samples are necessary to construct the transfer model using the spectra of the samples measured on two instruments, named as master and slave instrument, respectively. In this work, a method named as linear model correction (LMC) is proposed for calibration transfer without standard samples. The method is based on the fact that, for the samples with similar physical and chemical properties, the spectra measured on different instruments are linearly correlated. The fact makes the coefficients of the linear models constructed by the spectra measured on different instruments are similar in profile. Therefore, by using the constrained optimization method, the coefficients of the master model can be transferred into that of the slave model with a few spectra measured on slave instrument. Two NIR datasets of corn and plant leaf samples measured with different instruments are used to test the performance of the method. The results show that, for both the datasets, the spectra can be correctly predicted using the transferred partial least squares (PLS) models. Because standard samples are not necessary in the method, it may be more useful in practical uses. PMID:27380302
Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Chen, Katherine C.; Baumann, William T.
2016-01-01
To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression in eukaryotes, a variety of mathematical modeling approaches have been employed, ranging from Boolean networks and differential equations to stochastic simulations. Each approach has its own characteristic strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a “standard component” modeling strategy that combines advantageous features of Boolean networks, differential equations and stochastic simulations in a framework that acknowledges the typical sorts of reactions found in protein regulatory networks. Applying this strategy to a comprehensive mechanism of the budding yeast cell cycle, we illustrate the potential value of standard component modeling. The deterministic version of our model reproduces the phenotypic properties of wild-type cells and of 125 mutant strains. The stochastic version of our model reproduces the cell-to-cell variability of wild-type cells and the partial viability of the CLB2-dbΔ clb5Δ mutant strain. Our simulations show that mathematical modeling with “standard components” can capture in quantitative detail many essential properties of cell cycle control in budding yeast. PMID:27187804
Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Chen, Katherine C; Baumann, William T; Tyson, John J
2016-01-01
To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression in eukaryotes, a variety of mathematical modeling approaches have been employed, ranging from Boolean networks and differential equations to stochastic simulations. Each approach has its own characteristic strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a "standard component" modeling strategy that combines advantageous features of Boolean networks, differential equations and stochastic simulations in a framework that acknowledges the typical sorts of reactions found in protein regulatory networks. Applying this strategy to a comprehensive mechanism of the budding yeast cell cycle, we illustrate the potential value of standard component modeling. The deterministic version of our model reproduces the phenotypic properties of wild-type cells and of 125 mutant strains. The stochastic version of our model reproduces the cell-to-cell variability of wild-type cells and the partial viability of the CLB2-dbΔ clb5Δ mutant strain. Our simulations show that mathematical modeling with "standard components" can capture in quantitative detail many essential properties of cell cycle control in budding yeast. PMID:27187804
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolyakov, Mikhail N.; Volobuev, Igor P.
2016-01-01
In this paper we examine, from the purely theoretical point of view and in a model-independent way, the case, when matter, gauge and Higgs fields are allowed to propagate in the bulk of five-dimensional brane world models with compact extra dimension, and the Standard Model fields and their interactions are supposed to be reproduced by the corresponding zero Kaluza-Klein modes. An unexpected result is that in order to avoid possible pathological behavior in the fermion sector, it is necessary to impose constraints on the fermion field Lagrangian. In the case when the fermion zero modes are supposed to be localized at one of the branes, these constraints imply an additional relation between the vacuum profile of the Higgs field and the form of the background metric. Moreover, this relation between the vacuum profile of the Higgs field and the form of the background metric results in the exact reproduction of the gauge boson and fermion sectors of the Standard Model by the corresponding zero mode four-dimensional effective theory in all the physically relevant cases, allowed by the absence of pathologies. Meanwhile, deviations from these conditions can lead either back to pathological behavior in the fermion sector or to a variance between the resulting zero mode four-dimensional effective theory and the Standard Model, which, depending on the model at hand, may, in principle, result in constraints putting the theory out of the reach of the present day experiments.
EPA third-generation air quality modeling system: Models-3 user manual. Standard tutorial
1998-09-01
Models-3 is a flexible software system designed to simplify the development and use of environmental assessment and other decision support tools. It is designed for applications ranging from regulatory and policy analysis to understanding the complex interactions of atmospheric chemistry and physics. The initial version of Models-3 contains a Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system for urban to regional scale air quality simulation of tropospheric ozone, acid deposition, visibility, and fine particles. Models-3 and CMAQ in combination form a powerful third generation air quality modeling and assessment system that enables a user to execute air quality simulation models and visualize their results. Models-3/CMAQ also assists the model developer to assemble, test, and evaluate science process components and their impact on chemistry-transport model predictions by facilitating the interchange of science codes, transparent use of multiple computing platforms, and access of data across the network. The Models-3/CMAQ provides flexibility to change key model specifications such as grid resolution and chemistry mechanism without rewriting the code. Models-3/CMAQ is intended to serve as a community framework for continual advancement and use of environmental assessment tools. This User Manual Tutorial serves as a guide to show the steps necessary to implement an application in Models-3/CMAQ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Callaghan, Sarah; Guilyardi, Eric
2010-05-01
The results of climate models are now of more than purely academic interest: governments and the private sector also have a need to discover the results in order to prepare for and mitigate against the potentially severe impacts of global climate change. Climate modelling is a complex process, which requires accurate and complete metadata (data describing data) in order to identify, assess and use the climate data stored in digital repositories. The EU funded METAFOR project has developed a Common Information Model (CIM) to describe in a standard way climate data and the models and modelling environments that produce this data. To establish the CIM, METAFOR first considered the metadata models developed by many groups engaged in similar efforts in Europe and worldwide (for example the US Earth System Curator), explored fragmentation and gaps as well as duplication of information present in these metadata models, and reviewed current problems in identifying, accessing or using climate data present in existing repositories. The CIM documents the "simulation context and models", i.e. the whys and wherefores and issues associated with any particular simulation. Climate modelling is a complex process with a wide degree of variability between different models and different modelling groups. To accommodate this, the CIM has been designed to be highly generic and flexible. The climate modelling process which is "an activity undertaken using software on computers to produce data" is described as separate UML packages. This fairly generic structure can be paired with more specific "controlled vocabularies" in order to restrict the range of valid CIM instances. METAFOR has been charged by the Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM) via the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP) panel to define and collect model and experiment metadata for CMIP5. To do this, a web-based questionnaire will collect information and metadata from the CMIP5 modelling groups on the details
Rites of passage: requirements and standards for building kinetic models of metabolic phenotypes.
Miskovic, Ljubisa; Tokic, Milenko; Fengos, Georgios; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily
2015-12-01
The overarching ambition of kinetic metabolic modeling is to capture the dynamic behavior of metabolism to such an extent that systems and synthetic biology strategies can reliably be tested in silico. The lack of kinetic data hampers the development of kinetic models, and most of the current models use ad hoc reduced stoichiometry or oversimplified kinetic rate expressions, which may limit their predictive strength. There is a need to introduce the community-level standards that will organize and accelerate the future developments in this area. We introduce here a set of requirements that will ensure the model quality, we examine the current kinetic models with respect to these requirements, and we propose a general workflow for constructing models that satisfy these requirements. PMID:26342586
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Jong, John H. A. L.
1988-01-01
The one-parameter psychometric model known as the Rasch model is described and examined. The basic principles underlying the model and the concepts of unidimensionality, local stochastic independence, and additivity are explained in non-mathematical terms. The requirements of measurement procedures, the measurement of latent traits, the control on…
Boullata, Joseph I; Holcombe, Beverly; Sacks, Gordon; Gervasio, Jane; Adams, Stephen C; Christensen, Michael; Durfee, Sharon; Ayers, Phil; Marshall, Neil; Guenter, Peggi
2016-08-01
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high-alert medication with a complex drug use process. Key steps in the process include the review of each PN prescription followed by the preparation of the formulation. The preparation step includes compounding the PN or activating a standardized commercially available PN product. The verification and review, as well as preparation of this complex therapy, require competency that may be determined by using a standardized process for pharmacists and for pharmacy technicians involved with PN. An American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) standardized model for PN order review and PN preparation competencies is proposed based on a competency framework, the ASPEN-published interdisciplinary core competencies, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines, and is intended for institutions and agencies to use with their staff. PMID:27317615
Leveraging Industry-Standard Metadata to Populate a Semantic Registry Suitable for the Model Web
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Rio, N.; Pennington, D. D.; Benedict, K. K.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Hudspeth, W. B.; Scott, S.; Stewart, A. M.; Grady, C.
2013-12-01
The Earth, Life, and Semantic Web (ELSEWeb) project aims at developing a semantically enabled service-oriented infrastructure that streamlines the flow of geographic, social, and climate data into and across sets of modeling services. The specific models targeted in ELSEWeb serve as part of the University of Kansas' Lifemapper system, which projects species' distributions under different models of climate change. Lifemapper models ingest stacks of geospatial data known as 'scenario layer sets,' which provide information about existing or hypothetical environments from which to predict where species may thrive. Prior to Lifemapper ingestion, users must discover and transform relevant data that will comprise layer sets, requiring analysis of metadata descriptions across a plethora of standards. The ELSEWeb infrastructure aims at alleviating manual discovery by introducing a semantic metadata registry from which semantic web tools can leverage, including the SADI orchestration framework (Wilkinson 2011), which coordinates transformations of input geospatial data into scenario layer sets and exposes the results for potential further analysis. Populating the semantic registry required translating a family of industry-standard metadata descriptions including: OGC getCapabilities, FGDC, and CF standard names into the semantic registry model. This work reports on the construction and characteristics of our semantic registry, which currently describes over 6500 services providing a wide variety of environmental data. Additionally, we report on the SADI services that leverage the registry to (1) identify relevant environment data (2) aggregate data into layer sets, and (3) reshape data to fit Lifemapper requirements. Given this automation, users can explore a vast model space more easily--a principal central to the Model Web (Geller and Melton 2008). ELSEWeb Data Flow Lifemapper Model Result
A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models
Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; Bastiansen, Finn; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Ginot, Vincent; Giske, Jarl; Goss-Custard, John; Grand, Tamara; Heinz, Simone K.; Huse, Geir; Huth, Andreas; Jepsen, Jane U.; Jorgensen, Christian; Mooij, Wolf M.; Muller, Birgit; Pe'er, Guy; Piou, Cyril; Railsback, Steven F.; Robbins, Andrew M.; Robbins, Martha M.; Rossmanith, Eva; Ruger, Nadja; Strand, Espen; Souissi, Sami; Stillman, Richard A.; Vabo, Rune; Visser, Ute; DeAngelis, Donald L.
2006-01-01
Simulation models that describe autonomous individual organisms (individual based models, IBM) or agents (agent-based models, ABM) have become a widely used tool, not only in ecology, but also in many other disciplines dealing with complex systems made up of autonomous entities. However, there is no standard protocol for describing such simulation models, which can make them difficult to understand and to duplicate. This paper presents a proposed standard protocol, ODD, for describing IBMs and ABMs, developed and tested by 28 modellers who cover a wide range of fields within ecology. This protocol consists of three blocks (Overview, Design concepts, and Details), which are subdivided into seven elements: Purpose, State variables and scales, Process overview and scheduling, Design concepts, Initialization, Input, and Submodels. We explain which aspects of a model should be described in each element, and we present an example to illustrate the protocol in use. In addition, 19 examples are available in an Online Appendix. We consider ODD as a first step for establishing a more detailed common format of the description of IBMs and ABMs. Once initiated, the protocol will hopefully evolve as it becomes used by a sufficiently large proportion of modellers.
Direct CP violation in radiative b decays in and beyond the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiers, Ken; Soni, Amarjit; Wu, Guo-Hong
2000-12-01
We consider the partial rate asymmetry in the inclusive decay modes b-->sγ and b-->dγ, concentrating on non-standard models with new charged Higgs interactions. We find that the charged Higgs contribution to the asymmetry for b-->sγ is small in such models due to a universal cancellation mechanism. The asymmetry is therefore difficult to distinguish experimentally from the standard model (SM) value, which is also small. The cancellation mechanism is found to be rendered inoperative in supersymmetry due to the presence of chargino loops. Unlike b-->sγ, the rate asymmetry for b-->dγ in Higgs models can be quite different from its SM value, generally ranging from -20% to +20%. Specific model calculations are performed for the three-Higgs-doublet model and the ``top'' two-Higgs-doublet model to serve as illustrations. We also offer some suggestions that may be helpful to experimentalists in the detection of the inclusive mode b-->dγ.
Standardized 3D Bioprinting of Soft Tissue Models with Human Primary Cells.
Rimann, Markus; Bono, Epifania; Annaheim, Helene; Bleisch, Matthias; Graf-Hausner, Ursula
2016-08-01
Cells grown in 3D are more physiologically relevant than cells cultured in 2D. To use 3D models in substance testing and regenerative medicine, reproducibility and standardization are important. Bioprinting offers not only automated standardizable processes but also the production of complex tissue-like structures in an additive manner. We developed an all-in-one bioprinting solution to produce soft tissue models. The holistic approach included (1) a bioprinter in a sterile environment, (2) a light-induced bioink polymerization unit, (3) a user-friendly software, (4) the capability to print in standard labware for high-throughput screening, (5) cell-compatible inkjet-based printheads, (6) a cell-compatible ready-to-use BioInk, and (7) standard operating procedures. In a proof-of-concept study, skin as a reference soft tissue model was printed. To produce dermal equivalents, primary human dermal fibroblasts were printed in alternating layers with BioInk and cultured for up to 7 weeks. During long-term cultures, the models were remodeled and fully populated with viable and spreaded fibroblasts. Primary human dermal keratinocytes were seeded on top of dermal equivalents, and epidermis-like structures were formed as verified with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostaining. However, a fully stratified epidermis was not achieved. Nevertheless, this is one of the first reports of an integrative bioprinting strategy for industrial routine application. PMID:25609254
Creating Better Child Care Jobs: Model Work Standards for Teaching Staff in Center-Based Child Care.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Center for the Child Care Workforce, Washington, DC.
This document presents model work standards articulating components of the child care center-based work environment that enable teachers to do their jobs well. These standards establish criteria to assess child care work environments and identify areas to improve in order to assure good jobs for adults and good care for children. The standards are…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bermudez, L. E.; Percivall, G.; Idol, T. A.
2015-12-01
Experts in climate modeling, remote sensing of the Earth, and cyber infrastructure must work together in order to make climate predictions available to decision makers. Such experts and decision makers worked together in the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Testbed 11 to address a scenario of population displacement by coastal inundation due to the predicted sea level rise. In a Policy Fact Sheet "Harnessing Climate Data to Boost Ecosystem & Water Resilience", issued by White House Office of Science and Technology (OSTP) in December 2014, OGC committed to increase access to climate change information using open standards. In July 2015, the OGC Testbed 11 Urban Climate Resilience activity delivered on that commitment with open standards based support for climate-change preparedness. Using open standards such as the OGC Web Coverage Service and Web Processing Service and the NetCDF and GMLJP2 encoding standards, Testbed 11 deployed an interoperable high-resolution flood model to bring climate model outputs together with global change assessment models and other remote sensing data for decision support. Methods to confirm model predictions and to allow "what-if-scenarios" included in-situ sensor webs and crowdsourcing. A scenario was in two locations: San Francisco Bay Area and Mozambique. The scenarios demonstrated interoperation and capabilities of open geospatial specifications in supporting data services and processing services. The resultant High Resolution Flood Information System addressed access and control of simulation models and high-resolution data in an open, worldwide, collaborative Web environment. The scenarios examined the feasibility and capability of existing OGC geospatial Web service specifications in supporting the on-demand, dynamic serving of flood information from models with forecasting capacity. Results of this testbed included identification of standards and best practices that help researchers and cities deal with climate-related issues
Baryogenesis in the two doublet and inert singlet extension of the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alanne, Tommi; Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Vaskonen, Ville
2016-08-01
We investigate an extension of the Standard Model containing two Higgs doublets and a singlet scalar field (2HDSM). We show that the model can have a strongly first-order phase transition and give rise to the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe, consistent with all experimental constraints. In particular, the constraints from the electron and neutron electric dipole moments are less constraining here than in pure two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). The two-step, first-order transition in 2HDSM, induced by the singlet field, may lead to strong supercooling and low nucleation temperatures in comparison with the critical temperature, Tn ll Tc, which can significantly alter the usual phase-transition pattern in 2HD models with Tn ≈ Tc. Furthermore, the singlet field can be the dark matter particle. However, in models with a strong first-order transition its abundance is typically but a thousandth of the observed dark matter abundance.
Cai, Longyan; He, Hong S.; Wu, Zhiwei; Lewis, Benard L.; Liang, Yu
2014-01-01
Understanding the fire prediction capabilities of fuel models is vital to forest fire management. Various fuel models have been developed in the Great Xing'an Mountains in Northeast China. However, the performances of these fuel models have not been tested for historical occurrences of wildfires. Consequently, the applicability of these models requires further investigation. Thus, this paper aims to develop standard fuel models. Seven vegetation types were combined into three fuel models according to potential fire behaviors which were clustered using Euclidean distance algorithms. Fuel model parameter sensitivity was analyzed by the Morris screening method. Results showed that the fuel model parameters 1-hour time-lag loading, dead heat content, live heat content, 1-hour time-lag SAV(Surface Area-to-Volume), live shrub SAV, and fuel bed depth have high sensitivity. Two main sensitive fuel parameters: 1-hour time-lag loading and fuel bed depth, were determined as adjustment parameters because of their high spatio-temporal variability. The FARSITE model was then used to test the fire prediction capabilities of the combined fuel models (uncalibrated fuel models). FARSITE was shown to yield an unrealistic prediction of the historical fire. However, the calibrated fuel models significantly improved the capabilities of the fuel models to predict the actual fire with an accuracy of 89%. Validation results also showed that the model can estimate the actual fires with an accuracy exceeding 56% by using the calibrated fuel models. Therefore, these fuel models can be efficiently used to calculate fire behaviors, which can be helpful in forest fire management. PMID:24714164
Cai, Longyan; He, Hong S; Wu, Zhiwei; Lewis, Benard L; Liang, Yu
2014-01-01
Understanding the fire prediction capabilities of fuel models is vital to forest fire management. Various fuel models have been developed in the Great Xing'an Mountains in Northeast China. However, the performances of these fuel models have not been tested for historical occurrences of wildfires. Consequently, the applicability of these models requires further investigation. Thus, this paper aims to develop standard fuel models. Seven vegetation types were combined into three fuel models according to potential fire behaviors which were clustered using Euclidean distance algorithms. Fuel model parameter sensitivity was analyzed by the Morris screening method. Results showed that the fuel model parameters 1-hour time-lag loading, dead heat content, live heat content, 1-hour time-lag SAV(Surface Area-to-Volume), live shrub SAV, and fuel bed depth have high sensitivity. Two main sensitive fuel parameters: 1-hour time-lag loading and fuel bed depth, were determined as adjustment parameters because of their high spatio-temporal variability. The FARSITE model was then used to test the fire prediction capabilities of the combined fuel models (uncalibrated fuel models). FARSITE was shown to yield an unrealistic prediction of the historical fire. However, the calibrated fuel models significantly improved the capabilities of the fuel models to predict the actual fire with an accuracy of 89%. Validation results also showed that the model can estimate the actual fires with an accuracy exceeding 56% by using the calibrated fuel models. Therefore, these fuel models can be efficiently used to calculate fire behaviors, which can be helpful in forest fire management. PMID:24714164
Kairn, T.; Kenny, J.; Crowe, S. B.; Fielding, A. L.; Franich, R. D.; Johnston, P. N.; Knight, R. T.; Langton, C. M.; Schlect, D.; Trapp, J. V.
2010-04-15
Purpose: The component modules in the standard BEAMnrc distribution may appear to be insufficient to model micro-multileaf collimators that have trifaceted leaf ends and complex leaf profiles. This note indicates, however, that accurate Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams defined by a complex collimation device can be completed using BEAMnrc's standard VARMLC component module. Methods: That this simple collimator model can produce spatially and dosimetrically accurate microcollimated fields is illustrated using comparisons with ion chamber and film measurements of the dose deposited by square and irregular fields incident on planar, homogeneous water phantoms. Results: Monte Carlo dose calculations for on-axis and off-axis fields are shown to produce good agreement with experimental values, even on close examination of the penumbrae. Conclusions: The use of a VARMLC model of the micro-multileaf collimator, along with a commissioned model of the associated linear accelerator, is therefore recommended as an alternative to the development or use of in-house or third-party component modules for simulating stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery treatments. Simulation parameters for the VARMLC model are provided which should allow other researchers to adapt and use this model to study clinical stereotactic radiotherapy treatments.
Decays Z → γγ and Z → gg in the Standard Model Extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro-Medina, J.; Novales-Sanchez, H.; Toscano, J. J.; Tututi, E. S.
2015-12-01
The Z → γγ and Z → gg decays are studied in the context of the renormalizable version of the Standard Model Extension. The CPT-odd ψ¯γ5/bψ bilinear interaction, which involves the constant background field bα and which has been a subject of interest in literature, is considered. It is shown that the Z → γγ and Z → gg decays, which are strictly zero in the standard model, can be generated radiatively at the one-loop level. It is found that these decays are gauge invariant and free of ultraviolet divergences, and that the corresponding decay widths only depend on the spatial component of the background field b.
Computing the temperature dependence of effective CP violation in the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brauner, Tomáš; Taanila, Olli; Tranberg, Anders; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2012-11-01
CP violation in the standard model originates from the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix. Upon integrating all fermions out of the theory, its effects are captured by a series of effective nonrenormalizable operators for the bosonic gauge and Higgs fields. We compute the CP-violating part of the effective action to the leading nontrivial, sixth order in the covariant gradient expansion as a function of temperature. In the limit of zero temperature, our result addresses the discrepancy between two independent calculations existing in the literature [1, 2]. We find that CP violation in the standard model is strongly suppressed at high temperature, but that at T ≲ 1GeV it may be relevant for certain scenarios of baryogenesis. We also identify a selected class of operators at the next, eighth order and discuss the convergence of the covariant gradient expansion.
Search for the minimal standard model Higgs boson in e +e - collisions at LEP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akrawy, M. Z.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P. P.; Anderson, K. J.; Armitage, J. C.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Ashton, P.; Azuelos, G.; Baines, J. T. M.; Ball, A. H.; Banks, J.; Barker, G. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Batley, J. R.; Beck, A.; Becker, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Binder, U.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bock, P.; Breuker, H.; Brown, R. M.; Brun, R.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H. J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrin, J. T. M.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Cohen, I.; Collins, W. J.; Conboy, J. E.; Couch, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Debu, P.; Deninno, M. M.; Dieckman, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M. S.; Duchovni, E.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dumas, D. J. P.; Elcombe, P. A.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Farthouat, P.; Fischer, H. M.; Fong, D. G.; French, M. T.; Fukunaga, C.; Gaidot, A.; Ganel, O.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Geddes, N. I.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gensler, S. W.; Gentit, F. X.; Giacomelli, G.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gillies, J. D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Granite, D.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Hagedorn, H.; Hagemann, J.; Hansroul, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harrus, I.; Hart, J.; Hattersley, P. M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Heflin, E.; Hemingway, R. J.; Heuer, R. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Ho, C.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hobson, P. R.; Hochman, D.; Holl, B.; Homer, R. J.; Hou, S. R.; Howarth, C. P.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Humbert, R.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ihssen, H.; Imrie, D. C.; Janissen, L.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jobes, M.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jovanovic, P.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kleinwort, C.; Klem, D. E.; Knop, G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kokott, T. P.; Köpke, L.; Kowalewski, R.; Kreutzmann, H.; Kroll, J.; Kuwano, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lamarche, F.; Larson, W. J.; Layter, J. G.; Le Du, P.; Leblanc, P.; Lee, A. M.; Lehto, M. H.; Lellouch, D.; Lennert, P.; Lessard, L.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lorah, J. M.; Lorazo, B.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Ma, J.; Macbeth, A. A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Maringer, G.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; Maur, U.; McMahon, T. J.; McNutt, J. R.; Meijers, F.; Menszner, D.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Middleton, R. P.; Mikenberg, G.; Mildenberger, J.; Miller, D. J.; Milstene, C.; Minowa, M.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Moss, M. W.; Murphy, P. G.; Murray, W. J.; Nellen, B.; Nguyen, H. H.; Nozaki, M.; O'Dowd, A. J. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neill, B. P.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogg, M.; Oh, H.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Pansart, J. P.; Patrick, G. N.; Pawley, S. J.; Pfister, P.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J. L.; Plane, D. E.; Poli, B.; Pouladdej, A.; Prebys, E.; Pritchard, T. W.; Quast, G.; Raab, J.; Redmond, M. W.; Rees, D. L.; Regimbald, M.; Riles, K.; Roach, C. M.; Robins, S. A.; Rollnik, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossberg, S.; Rossi, A. M.; Routenburg, P.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Sanghera, S.; Sansum, R. A.; Sasaki, M.; Saunders, B. J.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Schappert, W.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schreiber, S.; Schwarz, J.; Shapira, A.; Shen, B. C.; Sherwood, P.; Simon, A.; Singh, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, T. J.; Snow, G. A.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Stier, H. E.; Stroehmer, R.; Strom, D.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Taras, P.; Thackray, N. J.; Tsukamoto, T.; Turner, M. F.; Tysarczyk-Niemeyer, G.; Van den plas, D.; VanDalen, G. J.; Van Kooten, R.; Vasseur, G.; Virtue, C. J.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Krogh, J.; Wagner, A.; Wahl, C.; Walker, J. P.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Weber, M.; Weisz, S.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; Weymann, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter, I.; Winterer, V.-H.; Wood, N. C.; Wotton, S.; Wuensch, B.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yaari, R.; Yang, Y.; Yekutieli, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zeuner, W.; Zorn, G. T.; OPAL Collaboration
1991-01-01
A search for the minimal standard model Higgs boson (H 0) has been performed with data from e +e - collisions in the OPAL detector at LEP. The analysis is based on approximately 8 pb -1 of data taken at centre-of-mass energies between 88.2 and 95.0 GeV. The search concentrated on the reaction e+e-→( e+e-, μ +μ -, voverlinevor τ +τ -) H0, H0→( qoverlineqor τ +τ -) for Higgs boson masses above 25 GeV/ c2. No Higgs boson candidates have been observed. The present study, combined with previous OPAL publications, excludes the existence of a standard model Higgs boson with mass in the range 3< mH 0<44GeV/ c2 at the 95% confidence level.
Mass limits for a standard model Higgs Boson in e+e- collisions at LEP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akrawy, M. Z.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P. P.; Anderson, K. J.; Armitage, J. C.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Ashton, P.; Azuelos, G.; Baines, J. T. M.; Ball, A. H.; Banks, J.; Barker, G. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Batley, J. R.; Bavaria, G.; Beck, F.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bock, P.; Breuker, H.; Brown, R. M.; Brun, R.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H. J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrin, J. T. M.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J. E.; Couch, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Davies, O. W.; Deninno, M. M.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M. S.; Duchesneau, D.; Duchovni, E.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dumas, D.; El Mamouni, H.; Elcombe, P. A.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Farthouat, P.; Fischer, H. M.; Fong, D. G.; French, M. T.; Fukunaga, C.; Gandois, B.; Ganel, O.; Gary, J. W.; Geddes, N. I.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gensler, S. W.; Gentit, F. X.; Giacomelli, G.; Gibson, W. R.; Gillies, J. D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Granite, D.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Grunhaus, J.; Hagedorn, H.; Hagemann, J.; Hansroul, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Hart, J.; Hattersley, P. M.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Heflin, E.; Heintze, J.; Hemingway, R. J.; Heuer, R. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinde, P. S.; Ho, C.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hobson, P. R.; Hochman, D.; Holl, B.; Homer, R. J.; Hou, S. R.; Howarth, C. P.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imori, M.; Imrie, D. C.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jin, E.; Jobes, M.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jovanovic, P.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kleinwort, C.; Klem, D. E.; Knop, G.; Kobayashi, T.; Köpke, L.; Kokott, T. P.; Koshiba, M.; Kowalewski, R.; Kreutzmann, H.; von Krogh, J.; Kroll, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lamarche, F.; Larson, W. J.; Lasota, M. M. B.; Layter, J. G.; Le Du, P.; Leblanc, P.; Lellouch, D.; Lennert, P.; Lessard, L.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lorah, J. M.; Lorazo, B.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Ma, J.; MacBeth, A. A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Maringer, G.; Martin, J. P.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; Maur, U.; McMahon, T. J.; McPherson, A. C.; Meijers, F.; Menszner, D.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Middleton, R. P.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Milstene, C.; Minowa, M.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Moss, M. W.; Muller, A.; Murphy, P. G.; Murray, W. J.; Nellen, B.; Nguyen, H. H.; Nozaki, M.; O'Dowd, A. J. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neill, B.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogg, M.; Oh, H.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Patrick, G. N.; Pawley, S. J.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J. L.; Plane, D. E.; Poli, B.; Possoz, A.; Pouladdej, A.; Pritchard, T. W.; Quast, G.; Raab, J.; Redmond, M. W.; Rees, D. L.; Regimbald, M.; Riles, K.; Roach, C. M.; Roehner, F.; Rollnik, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossi, A. M.; Routenburg, P.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Sanghera, S.; Sansum, R. A.; Sasaki, M.; Saunders, B. J.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Schappert, W.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; von der Schmitt, H.; Schreiber, S.; Schwarz, J.; Shapira, A.; Shen, B. C.; Sherwood, P.; Simon, A.; Siroli, G. P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, T. J.; Snow, G. A.; Spreadbury, E. J.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stier, H. E.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Turner, M. F.; Tysarczyk, G.; van den Plas, D.; Vandalen, G. J.; Virtue, C. J.; Wagner, A.; Wahl, C.; Wang, H.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Waterhouse, J.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Weber, M.; Weisz, S.; Wermes, N.; Weymann, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter, I.; Winterer, V.-H.; Wood, N. C.; Wotton, S.; Wuensch, B.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yaari, R.; Yamashita, H.; Yang, Y.; Yekutieli, G.; Zeuner, W.; Zorn, G. T.; Zylberajch, S.
1990-02-01
A search for the minimal standard model Higgs boson has been performed with data from e+e- collisions in the OPAL detector at LEP. The analysis is based on 825 nb-1 of data taken at centre-of-mass energies between 88.3 and 95.0 GeV. The search concentrated on the reactions e+e--->(e+e- or μ+μ- or vv)H0,H0-->(qq or τ+τ-), for Higgs masses above 3 GeV/c2. No Higgs boson candidates have been observed. The present study excludes the existence of a standard model H0 with mass in the range 3.0<=mH<=19.3 GeV/c2 at the 95% confidence level.
Conceptual Explanation for the Algebra in the Noncommutative Approach to the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Connes, Alain
2007-11-01
The purpose of this Letter is to remove the arbitrariness of the ad hoc choice of the algebra and its representation in the noncommutative approach to the standard model, which was begging for a conceptual explanation. We assume as before that space-time is the product of a four-dimensional manifold by a finite noncommmutative space F. The spectral action is the pure gravitational action for the product space. To remove the above arbitrariness, we classify the irreducible geometries F consistent with imposing reality and chiral conditions on spinors, to avoid the fermion doubling problem, which amounts to have total dimension 10 (in the K-theoretic sense). It gives, almost uniquely, the standard model with all its details, predicting the number of fermions per generation to be 16, their representations and the Higgs breaking mechanism, with very little input.
Lepton number violation in theories with a large number of standard model copies
Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan; Paes, Heinrich
2011-03-01
We examine lepton number violation (LNV) in theories with a saturated black hole bound on a large number of species. Such theories have been advocated recently as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem and an explanation of the smallness of neutrino masses. On the other hand, the violation of the lepton number can be a potential phenomenological problem of this N-copy extension of the standard model as due to the low quantum gravity scale black holes may induce TeV scale LNV operators generating unacceptably large rates of LNV processes. We show, however, that this issue can be avoided by introducing a spontaneously broken U{sub 1(B-L)}. Then, due to the existence of a specific compensation mechanism between contributions of different Majorana neutrino states, LNV processes in the standard model copy become extremely suppressed with rates far beyond experimental reach.
Francium spectroscopy: Towards a low energy test of the standard model
Orozco, L. A.; Simsarian, J. E.; Sprouse, G. D.; Zhao, W. Z.
1997-03-15
An atomic parity non-conservation measurement can test the predictions of the standard model for the electron-quark coupling constants. The measurements, performed at very low energies compared to the Z{sup 0} pole, can be sensitive to physics beyond the standard model. Francium, the heaviest alkali, is a viable candidate for atomic parity violation measurements. The extraction of weak interaction parameters requires a detailed knowledge of the electronic wavefunctions of the atom. Measurements of atomic properties of francium provide data for careful comparisons with ab initio calculations of its atomic structure. The spectroscopy, including energy level location and atomic lifetimes, is carried out using the recently developed techniques of laser cooling and trapping of atoms.
Conceptual Explanation for the Algebra in the Noncommutative Approach to the Standard Model
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Connes, Alain
2007-11-09
The purpose of this Letter is to remove the arbitrariness of the ad hoc choice of the algebra and its representation in the noncommutative approach to the standard model, which was begging for a conceptual explanation. We assume as before that space-time is the product of a four-dimensional manifold by a finite noncommmutative space F. The spectral action is the pure gravitational action for the product space. To remove the above arbitrariness, we classify the irreducible geometries F consistent with imposing reality and chiral conditions on spinors, to avoid the fermion doubling problem, which amounts to have total dimension 10 (in the K-theoretic sense). It gives, almost uniquely, the standard model with all its details, predicting the number of fermions per generation to be 16, their representations and the Higgs breaking mechanism, with very little input.
Search for the standard model Higgs boson in tau lepton final states
Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; et al.
2012-08-01
We present a search for the standard model Higgs boson in final states with an electron or muon and a hadronically decaying tau lepton in association with zero, one, or two or more jets using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 7.3 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis is sensitive to Higgs boson production via gluon gluon fusion, associated vector boson production, and vector boson fusion, and to Higgs boson decays to tau lepton pairs or W boson pairs. Observed (expected) limits are set on the ratio of 95% C.L. upper limits on the cross section times branching ratio, relative to those predicted by the Standard Model, of 14 (22) at a Higgs boson mass of 115 GeV and 7.7 (6.8) at 165 GeV.
Higgs boson decays to γ and invisible particles in the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yi; Gao, Dao-Neng
2014-01-01
Using the Higgs boson mass mh=125 GeV, the radiative Higgs decays h→γνlν¯l with νl=νe, νμ, and ντ are analyzed in the standard model. Our calculation shows that the inclusive width of these processes, i.e., the sum of Γ(h→γνlν¯l) for νl=νe, νμ, ντ, is 1.41 keV, which is about 15% of Γ(h→γγ). Therefore, the observation of these channels in future precise experiments may provide some useful information on the Higgs physics in both the standard model and its possible extensions.
Neutral Higgs boson pair production at the linear collider in the noncommutative standard model
Das, Prasanta Kumar; Prakash, Abhishodh; Mitra, Anupam
2011-03-01
We study the Higgs boson pair production at the linear collider in the noncommutative extension of the standard model using the Seiberg-Witten map of this to the first order of the noncommutative parameter {Theta}{sub {mu}{nu}}. Unlike the standard model (where the process is forbidden) here the Higgs boson pair directly interacts with the photon. We find that the pair production cross section can be quite significant for the noncommutative scale {Lambda} lying in the range 0.5 TeV to 1.0 TeV. Using the experimental (LEP 2, Tevatron, and global electroweak fit) bound on the Higgs mass, we obtain 626 GeV{<=}{Lambda}{<=}974 GeV.
The Higgs Boson as a Window to Beyond the Standard Model
Vega-Morales, Roberto
2013-08-01
The recent discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC with properties resembling those predicted by the Standard Model (SM) gives strong indication that the final missing piece of the SM is now in place. In particular, the mechanism responsible for Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB) and generating masses for the Z and W vector bosons appears to have been established. Even with this amazing discovery there are still many outstanding theoretical and phenomenological questions which suggest that there must be physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). As we investigate in this thesis, the Higgs boson offers the exciting possibility of acting as a window to this new physics through various avenues which are experimentally testable in the coming years. We investigate a subset of these possibilities and begin by discussing them briefly below before a detailed examination in the following chapters.
Status of searches for Higgs and physics beyond the standard model at CDF
Tsybychev, D.; /Florida U.
2004-12-01
This article presents selected experimental results on searches for Higgs and physics beyond the standard model (BSM) at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The results are based on about 350 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, collected during Run II of the Tevatron. No evidence of signal was found and limits on the production cross section of various physics processes BSM are derived.
Mass and mixing angle patterns in the Standard Model and its material Supersymmetric Extension
Ramond, P.
1992-01-01
Using renormalization group techniques, we examine several interesting relations among masses and mixing angles of quarks and lepton in the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Interactions as a functionof scale. We extend the analysis to the minimal Supersymmetric Extension to determine its effect on these mass relations. For a heavy to quark, and minimal supersymmetry, most of these relations, can be made to agree at one unification scale.
The HIGGS Boson Mass at 2 Loops in the Finely Tuned Split Supersymmetric Standard Model
Binger, M
2004-09-08
The mass of the Higgs boson in the finely tuned Split Supersymmetric Standard Model is calculated. All 1 loop threshold effects are included, in addition to the full RG running of the Higgs quartic coupling through 2 loops. The 2 loop corrections are very small, typically less than 1GeV. The 1 loop threshold corrections to the top yukawa coupling and the Higgs mass generally push the Higgs mass down a few GeV.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mack, Robert J.
2007-01-01
Low-boom model pressure signatures are often measured at two or more wind-tunnel facilities. Preliminary measurements are made at small separation distances in a wind tunnel close at hand, and a second set of pressure signatures is measured at larger separation distances in a wind-tunnel facility with a larger test section. In this report, a method for correcting and standardizing the wind-tunnel-measured pressure signatures obtained in different wind tunnel facilities is presented and discussed.
Precision Higgs Boson Physics and Implications for Beyond the Standard Model Physics Theories
Wells, James
2015-06-10
The discovery of the Higgs boson is one of science's most impressive recent achievements. We have taken a leap forward in understanding what is at the heart of elementary particle mass generation. We now have a significant opportunity to develop even deeper understanding of how the fundamental laws of nature are constructed. As such, we need intense focus from the scientific community to put this discovery in its proper context, to realign and narrow our understanding of viable theory based on this positive discovery, and to detail the implications the discovery has for theories that attempt to answer questions beyond what the Standard Model can explain. This project's first main object is to develop a state-of-the-art analysis of precision Higgs boson physics. This is to be done in the tradition of the electroweak precision measurements of the LEP/SLC era. Indeed, the electroweak precision studies of the past are necessary inputs to the full precision Higgs program. Calculations will be presented to the community of Higgs boson observables that detail just how well various couplings of the Higgs boson can be measured, and more. These will be carried out using state-of-the-art theory computations coupled with the new experimental results coming in from the LHC. The project's second main objective is to utilize the results obtained from LHC Higgs boson experiments and the precision analysis, along with the direct search studies at LHC, and discern viable theories of physics beyond the Standard Model that unify physics to a deeper level. Studies will be performed on supersymmetric theories, theories of extra spatial dimensions (and related theories, such as compositeness), and theories that contain hidden sector states uniquely accessible to the Higgs boson. In addition, if data becomes incompatible with the Standard Model's low-energy effective lagrangian, new physics theories will be developed that explain the anomaly and put it into a more unified framework beyond
Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in the $WH \\to \\ell \
Nagai, Yoshikazu; /Tsukuba U.
2010-02-01
We have searched for the Standard Model Higgs boson in the WH {yields} lvbb channel in 1.96 TeV pp collisions at CDF. This search is based on the data collected by March 2009, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.3 fb-1. The W H channel is one of the most promising channels for the Higgs boson search at Tevatron in the low Higgs boson mass region.
Gravity in the Century of Light: The Gravitation Theory of Georges-Louis Le Sage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, James
2006-05-01
Each generation of physicists, or natural philosophers, has sought to place universal gravitation in the context of its own worldview. Often this has entailed an effort to reduce gravitation to something more fundamental. But what is deemed fundamental has, of course, changed with time. Each generation attacked the problem of universal gravitation with the tools of its day and brought to bear the concepts of its own standard model. The most successful eighteenth-century attempt to provide a mechanical explanation of gravity was that of Georges-Louis Le Sage (1724-1803) of Geneva. Le Sage postulated a sea of ultramundane corpuscles, streaming in all directions and characterized by minute mass, great velocity, and complete inelasticity. Mostly these corpuscles just pass through gross bodies such as apples or planets, but a few are absorbed, leading to all the phenomena of attraction. In a voluminous correspondence with nearly all the savants of the day, Le Sage constantly reshaped his arguments for his system in order to appeal to metaphysicians, mechanicians and Newtonians of several varieties. Le Sage's theory is an especially interesting one, for several reasons. First, it serves as the prototype of a dynamical explanation of Newtonian gravity. Second, the theory came quite close to accomplishing its aim. Third, the theory had a long life and attracted comment by the leading physical thinkers of several successive generations, including Laplace, Kelvin, Maxwell and Feynman. Le Sage's theory therefore provides an excellent opportunity for the study of the evolution of attitudes toward physical explanation. The effects of national style in science and generational change take on a new clarity.
Melching, Charles S; Ao, Yaping; Alp, Emre
2013-02-15
The Chicago Waterway System (CWS) is a 113.8 km branching network of navigable waterways controlled by hydraulic structures in which the majority of flow is treated sewage effluent and there are periods of substantial combined sewer overflow. The Illinois Pollution Control Board (IPCB) designated the majority of the CWS as Secondary Contact and Indigenous Aquatic Life Use waters in the 1970s and made small alterations to these designations in 1988. Between 1988 and 2002 substantial improvements in the pollution control and water-quality management facilities were made in the Chicago area. The results of a Use Attainability Analysis led the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) to propose the division of the CWS into two new aquatic life use classes with appropriate dissolved oxygen (DO) standards. To aid the IPCB in their deliberations regarding the appropriate water use classifications and DO standards for the CWS, the DUFLOW model that is capable of simulating hydraulics and water-quality processes under unsteady-flow conditions was used to evaluate integrated strategies of water-quality improvement facilities that could meet the proposed DO standards during representative wet (2001) and dry (2003) years. A total of 28 new supplementary aeration stations with a maximum DO load of 80 or 100 g/s and aerated flow transfers at three locations in the CWS would be needed to achieve the IEPA proposed DO standards 100% of the time for both years. A much simpler and less costly (≈one tenth of the cost) system of facilities would be needed to meet the IEPA proposed DO standards 90% of the time. In theory, the combinations of flow augmentation and new supplemental aeration stations can achieve 100% compliance with the IEPA proposed DO standards, however, 100% compliance will be hard to achieve in practice because of-(1) difficulties in determining when to turn on the aeration stations and (2) localized heavy loads of pollutants during storms that may yield
Standard model of particles and forces in the framework of two-time physics
Bars, Itzhak
2006-10-15
In this paper it will be shown that the standard model in 3+1 dimensions is a gauge fixed version of a 2T physics field theory in 4+2 dimensions, thus establishing that 2T physics provides a correct description of nature from the point of view of 4+2 dimensions. The 2T formulation leads to phenomenological consequences of considerable significance. In particular, the higher structure in 4+2 dimensions prevents the problematic F*F term in QCD. This resolves the strong CP problem without a need for the Peccei-Quinn symmetry or the corresponding elusive axion. Mass generation with the Higgs mechanism is less straightforward in the new formulation of the standard model, but its resolution leads to an appealing deeper physical basis for mass, coupled with phenomena that could be measurable. In addition, there are some brand new mechanisms of mass generation related to the higher dimensions that deserve further study. The technical progress is based on the construction of a new field theoretic version of 2T physics including interactions in an action formalism in d+2 dimensions. The action is invariant under a new type of gauge symmetry which we call 2T-gauge symmetry in field theory. This opens the way for investigations of the standard model directly in 4+2 dimensions, or from the point of view of various embeddings of 3+1 dimensions, by using the duality, holography, symmetry, and unifying features of 2T physics.
Neutrino-Antineutrino Mass Splitting in the Standard Model: Neutrino Oscillation and Baryogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo; Tureanu, Anca
By adding a neutrino mass term to the Standard Model, which is Lorentz and SU(2) × U(1) invariant but nonlocal to evade CPT theorem, it is shown that nonlocality within a distance scale of the Planck length, that may not be fatal to unitarity in generic effective theory, can generate the neutrino-antineutrino mass splitting of the order of observed neutrino mass differences, which is tested in oscillation experiments, and non-negligible baryon asymmetry depending on the estimate of sphaleron dynamics. The one-loop order induced electron-positron mass splitting in the Standard Model is shown to be finite and estimated at ˜ 10-20 eV, well below the experimental bound < 10-2 eV. The induced CPT violation in the K-meson in the Standard Model is expected to be even smaller and well below the experimental bound |m_{K} - m_{bar{K}}| < 0.44 × 10^{-18} GeV.
Fermionic extensions of the Standard Model in light of the Higgs couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bizot, Nicolas; Frigerio, Michele
2016-01-01
As the Higgs boson properties settle, the constraints on the Standard Model extensions tighten. We consider all possible new fermions that can couple to the Higgs, inspecting sets of up to four chiral multiplets. We confront them with direct collider searches, electroweak precision tests, and current knowledge of the Higgs couplings. The focus is on scenarios that may depart from the decoupling limit of very large masses and vanishing mixing, as they offer the best prospects for detection. We identify exotic chiral families that may receive a mass from the Higgs only, still in agreement with the hγγ signal strength. A mixing θ between the Standard Model and non-chiral fermions induces order θ 2 deviations in the Higgs couplings. The mixing can be as large as θ ˜ 0 .5 in case of custodial protection of the Z couplings or accidental cancellation in the oblique parameters. We also notice some intriguing effects for much smaller values of θ, especially in the lepton sector. Our survey includes a number of unconventional pairs of vector-like and Majorana fermions coupled through the Higgs, that may induce order one corrections to the Higgs radiative couplings. We single out the regions of parameters where hγγ and hgg are unaffected, while the hγZ signal strength is significantly modified, turning a few times larger than in the Standard Model in two cases. The second run of the LHC will effectively test most of these scenarios.
Higher order corrections and unification in the minimal supersymmetric standard model: SOFTSUSY3.5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allanach, B. C.; Bednyakov, A.; Ruiz de Austri, R.
2015-04-01
We explore the effects of three-loop minimal supersymmetric standard model renormalisation group equation terms and some leading two-loop threshold corrections on gauge and Yukawa unification: each being one loop higher order than current public spectrum calculators. We also explore the effect of the higher order terms (often 2-3 GeV) on the lightest CP even Higgs mass prediction. We illustrate our results in the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. Neglecting threshold corrections at the grand unified scale, the discrepancy between the unification scale αs and the other two unified gauge couplings changes by 0.1% due to the higher order corrections and the difference between unification scale bottom-tau Yukawa couplings neglecting unification scale threshold corrections changes by up to 1%. The difference between unification scale bottom and top Yukawa couplings changes by a few percent. Differences due to the higher order corrections also give an estimate of the size of theoretical uncertainties in the minimal supersymmetric standard model spectrum. We use these to provide estimates of theoretical uncertainties in predictions of the dark matter relic density (which can be of order one due to its strong dependence on sparticle masses) and the LHC sparticle production cross-section (often around 30%). The additional higher order corrections have been incorporated into SOFTSUSY, and we provide details on how to compile and use the program. We also provide a summary of the approximations used in the higher order corrections.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouwman, R. W.; van Engen, R. E.; Young, K. C.; Veldkamp, W. J. H.; Dance, D. R.
2015-01-01
Slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE) slabs are used to simulate standard model breasts for the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). These phantoms are optimized for the energy spectra used in DM and DBT, which normally have a lower average energy than used in contrast enhanced digital mammography (CEDM). In this study we have investigated whether these phantoms can be used for the evaluation of AGD with the high energy x-ray spectra used in CEDM. For this purpose the calculated values of the incident air kerma for dosimetry phantoms and standard model breasts were compared in a zero degree projection with the use of an anti scatter grid. It was found that the difference in incident air kerma compared to standard model breasts ranges between -10% to +4% for PMMA slabs and between 6% and 15% for PMMA-PE slabs. The estimated systematic error in the measured AGD for both sets of phantoms were considered to be sufficiently small for the evaluation of AGD in quality control procedures for CEDM. However, the systematic error can be substantial if AGD values from different phantoms are compared.
RiverML: Standardizing the Communication of River Model Data (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, S.; Maidment, D. R.; Arctur, D. K.
2013-12-01
RiverML is a proposed language for conveying a description of river channel and floodplain geometry and flow characteristics through the internet in a standardized way. A key goal of the RiverML project is to allow interoperability between all hydraulic and hydrologic models, whether they are industry standard software packages or custom-built research tools. By providing a common transfer format for common model inputs and outputs, RiverML can shorten the development time and enhance the immediate utility of innovative river modeling tools. RiverML will provide descriptions of cross sections and multiple flow lines, allowing the construction of wireframe representations. In addition, RiverML will support descriptions of network connectivity, properties such as roughness coefficients, and time series observations such as water surface elevation and flow rate. The language is constructed in a modular fashion such that the geometry information, network information, and time series observations can be communicated independently of each other, allowing an arbitrary suite of software packages to contribute to a coherently modeled scenario. Funding for the development of RiverML is provided through an NSF grant to CUAHSI HydroShare project, a web-based collaborative environment for sharing data & models. While RiverML is geared toward the transfer of data, HydroShare will serve as a repository for storing water-related data and models of any format, while providing enhanced functionality for standardized formats such as RiverML, WaterML, and shapefiles. RiverML is a joint effort between the CUAHSI HydroShare development team, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Hydrology Domain Working Group, and an international community of data providers, data users, and software developers.
Higgs masses and stability in the standard and the two Higgs doublet models
Juarez W, S. R.; Morales C, D.; Kielanowski, P.
2010-07-29
Within the framework of the standard model (SM) of elementary particles and the two Higgs doublet extension to this model (2DHM), we obtained analytical and numerical solutions for the gauge couplings, the vacuum expectation values (VEV) of the Higgs fields, the quark Yukawa couplings and quark masses, the quartic Higgs couplings, and the running Higgs masses, considering the renormalization group equations. The bounds on the SM Higgs running mass have been fixed, and the region of validity of the SM was determined through it, at the one and two loop approximations, using the triviality and stability conditions for the Higgs quartic coupling {lambda}{sub H}.
Searches for Higgs bosons beyond the Standard Model at the Tevatron
Biscarat, Catherine; /Lancaster U.
2004-08-01
Preliminary results from the CDF and D0 Collaborations on the searches for Higgs bosons beyond the Standard Model at the Run II Tevatron are reviewed. These results are based on datasets corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 100-200 pb{sup -1} collected from proton anti-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. No evidence of signal is observed and limits on Higgs bosons production cross sections times branching ratio, couplings and masses from various models are set.
Unification and Dark Matter in a Minimal Scalar Extension of the Standard Model
Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.
2007-04-25
The six Higgs doublet model is a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) that addresses dark matter and gauge coupling unification. Another Higgs doublet in the 5 representation of a discrete symmetry group, such as S{sub 6}, is added to the SM. The lightest components of the 5-Higgs are neutral, stable and serve as dark matter so long as the discrete symmetry is not broken. Direct and indirect detection signals, as well as collider signatures are discussed. The five-fold multiplicity of the dark matter decreases its mass and typically helps make the dark matter more visible in upcoming experiments.
Imagining the future, or how the Standard Model may survive the attacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
’T Hooft, Gerard
2016-06-01
After the last missing piece, the Higgs particle, has probably been identified, the Standard Model of the subatomic particles appears to be a quite robust structure, that can survive on its own for a long time to come. Most researchers expect considerable modifications and improvements to come in the near future, but it could also be that the Model will stay essentially as it is. This, however, would also require a change in our thinking, and the question remains whether and how it can be reconciled with our desire for our theories to be “natural”.
Testing the Standard Model by precision measurement of the weak charges of quarks
Ross Young; Roger Carlini; Anthony Thomas; Julie Roche
2007-05-01
In a global analysis of the latest parity-violating electron scattering measurements on nuclear targets, we demonstrate a significant improvement in the experimental knowledge of the weak neutral-current lepton-quark interactions at low-energy. The precision of this new result, combined with earlier atomic parity-violation measurements, limits the magnitude of possible contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model - setting a model-independent, lower-bound on the scale of new physics at ~1 TeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benedict, K. K.; Yang, C.; Huang, Q.
2010-12-01
The availability of high-speed research networks such as the US National Lambda Rail and the GÉANT network, scalable on-demand commodity computing resources provided by public and private "cloud" computing systems, and increasing demand for rapid access to the products of environmental models for both research and public policy development contribute to a growing need for the evaluation and development of environmental modeling systems that distribute processing, storage, and data delivery capabilities between network connected systems. In an effort to address the feasibility of developing a standards-based distributed modeling system in which model execution systems are physically separate from data storage and delivery systems, the research project presented in this paper developed a distributed dust forecasting system in which two nested atmospheric dust models are executed at George Mason University (GMU, in Fairfax, VA) while data and model output processing services are hosted at the University of New Mexico (UNM, in Albuquerque, NM). Exchange of model initialization and boundary condition parameters between the servers at UNM and the model execution systems at GMU is accomplished through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Coverage Services (WCS) and Web Feature Services (WFS) while model outputs are pushed from GMU systems back to UNM using a REST web service interface. In addition to OGC and non-OGC web services for exchange between UNM and GMU, the servers at UNM also provide access to the input meteorological model products, intermediate and final dust model outputs, and other products derived from model outputs through OGC WCS, WFS, and OGC Web Map Services (WMS). The performance of the nested versus non-nested models is assessed in this research, with the results of the performance analysis providing the core content of the produced feasibility study. System integration diagram illustrating the storage and service platforms hosted at the Earth Data
Behavioral modeling and simulation of multi-standard RF receivers using MATLAB/SIMULINK
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgado, Alonso; del Río, Rocío; de la Rosa, José M.
2007-05-01
This paper presents a SIMULINK block set for the behavioral modeling and high-level simulation of RF receiver frontends. The toolbox includes a library with the main RF circuit models that are needed to implement wireless transceivers, namely: low noise amplifiers, mixers, oscillators, filters and programmable gain amplifiers. There is also a library including other blocks like the antenna, duplexer filter and switches, required to implement reconfigurable architectures. Behavioral models of building blocks include the main ideal functionality as well as the following non-idealities: thermal noise characterized by the Noise Figure (NF) and the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and nonlinearity expressed by the input-referred 2nd- and 3rd-order intercept points, IIP II and IIP 3, respectively. In addition to these general parameters, some block specific errors have been also included, like oscillator phase noise and mixer offset. These models have been incorporated into the SIMULINK environment making an extensive use of C-coded S-functions and reducing the number of library block elements. This approach reduces the simulation time while keeping high accuracy, what makes the proposed toolbox very appropriate to be combined with an optimizer for the automated high-level synthesis of radio receivers. As an application of the capabilities of the presented toolbox, a multi-standard Direct-Conversion Receiver (DCR) intended for 4G telecom systems is modeled and simulated considering the building-block requirements for the different standards.
Application of TDCR-Geant4 modeling to standardization of 63Ni.
Thiam, C; Bobin, C; Chauvenet, B; Bouchard, J
2012-09-01
As an alternative to the classical TDCR model applied to liquid scintillation (LS) counting, a stochastic approach based on the Geant4 toolkit is presented for the simulation of light emission inside the dedicated three-photomultiplier detection system. To this end, the Geant4 modeling includes a comprehensive description of optical properties associated with each material constituting the optical chamber. The objective is to simulate the propagation of optical photons from their creation in the LS cocktail to the production of photoelectrons in the photomultipliers. First validated for the case of radionuclide standardization based on Cerenkov emission, the scintillation process has been added to a TDCR-Geant4 modeling using the Birks expression in order to account for the light-emission nonlinearity owing to ionization quenching. The scintillation yield of the commercial Ultima Gold LS cocktail has been determined from double-coincidence detection efficiencies obtained for (60)Co and (54)Mn with the 4π(LS)β-γ coincidence method. In this paper, the stochastic TDCR modeling is applied for the case of the standardization of (63)Ni (pure β(-)-emitter; E(max)=66.98 keV) and the activity concentration is compared with the result given by the classical model. PMID:22436447
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, H.; Yuan, F.; Ren, L.; Ma, M.; Kong, H.; Tong, R.
2015-05-01
Drought assessment is essential for coping with frequent droughts nowadays. Owing to the large spatio-temporal variations in hydrometeorology in most regions in China, it is very necessary to use a physically-based hydrological model to produce rational spatial and temporal distributions of hydro-meteorological variables for drought assessment. In this study, the large-scale distributed hydrological model Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) was coupled with a modified standardized runoff index (SRI) for drought assessment in the Weihe River basin, northwest China. The result indicates that the coupled model is capable of reasonably reproducing the spatial distribution of drought occurrence. It reflected the spatial heterogeneity of regional drought and improved the physical mechanism of SRI. This model also has potential for drought forecasting, early warning and mitigation, given that accurate meteorological forcing data are available.
Heavy to light Higgs boson decays at NLO in the singlet extension of the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bojarski, F.; Chalons, G.; López-Val, D.; Robens, T.
2016-02-01
We study the decay of a heavy Higgs boson into a light Higgs pair at one loop in the singlet extension of the Standard Model. To this purpose, we construct several renormalization schemes for the extended Higgs sector of the model. We apply these schemes to calculate the heavy-to-light Higgs decay width Γ H → hh at next-to-leading order electroweak accuracy, and demonstrate that certain prescriptions lead to gauge-dependent results. We comprehensively examine how the NLO predictions depend on the relevant singlet model parameters, with emphasis on the trademark behavior of the quantum effects, and how these change under different renormalization schemes and a variable renormalization scale. Once all present constraints on the model are included, we find mild NLO corrections, typically of few percent, and with small theoretical uncertainties.
Flexible regression models for ROC and risk analysis, with or without a gold standard.
Branscum, Adam J; Johnson, Wesley O; Hanson, Timothy E; Baron, Andre T
2015-12-30
A novel semiparametric regression model is developed for evaluating the covariate-specific accuracy of a continuous medical test or biomarker. Ideally, studies designed to estimate or compare medical test accuracy will use a separate, flawless gold-standard procedure to determine the true disease status of sampled individuals. We treat this as a special case of the more complicated and increasingly common scenario in which disease status is unknown because a gold-standard procedure does not exist or is too costly or invasive for widespread use. To compensate for missing data on disease status, covariate information is used to discriminate between diseased and healthy units. We thus model the probability of disease as a function of 'disease covariates'. In addition, we model test/biomarker outcome data to depend on 'test covariates', which provides researchers the opportunity to quantify the impact of covariates on the accuracy of a medical test. We further model the distributions of test outcomes using flexible semiparametric classes. An important new theoretical result demonstrating model identifiability under mild conditions is presented. The modeling framework can be used to obtain inferences about covariate-specific test accuracy and the probability of disease based on subject-specific disease and test covariate information. The value of the model is illustrated using multiple simulation studies and data on the age-adjusted ability of soluble epidermal growth factor receptor - a ubiquitous serum protein - to serve as a biomarker of lung cancer in men. SAS code for fitting the model is provided. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26239173
Pan Feng; Wang Yin; Guan Xin; Jia Lu; Chen Xiangrong; Draayer, J. P.
2011-06-28
Exact solutions of Nilsson mean-field with various pairing interactions are reviewed. Some even-odd mass differences and moments of inertia of low-lying states for rare earth and actinide nuclei are calculated for the nearest-orbit pairing approximation as well as for the extended pairing model and compared to available experimental data. An exact boson mapping of the standard pairing Hamiltonian is also reported. Under the mapping, fermion pair operators are mapped exactly onto corresponding bosons. The image of the mapping is a Bose-Hubbard model with orbit-dependent hopping.
A simple modelling approach for prediction of standard state real gas entropy of pure materials.
Bagheri, M; Borhani, T N G; Gandomi, A H; Manan, Z A
2014-01-01
The performance of an energy conversion system depends on exergy analysis and entropy generation minimisation. A new simple four-parameter equation is presented in this paper to predict the standard state absolute entropy of real gases (SSTD). The model development and validation were accomplished using the Linear Genetic Programming (LGP) method and a comprehensive dataset of 1727 widely used materials. The proposed model was compared with the results obtained using a three-layer feed forward neural network model (FFNN model). The root-mean-square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (r(2)) of all data obtained for the LGP model were 52.24 J/(mol K) and 0.885, respectively. Several statistical assessments were used to evaluate the predictive power of the model. In addition, this study provides an appropriate understanding of the most important molecular variables for exergy analysis. Compared with the LGP based model, the application of FFNN improved the r(2) to 0.914. The developed model is useful in the design of materials to achieve a desired entropy value. PMID:25158071
Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicholson, Jonathan; Gasparis, Epameinondas; Eden, Ammon H.; Kazman, Rick
2009-01-01
Specification and [visual] modelling languages are expected to combine strong abstraction mechanisms with rigour, scalability, and parsimony. LePUS3 is a visual, object-oriented design description language axiomatized in a decidable subset of the first-order predicate logic. We demonstrate how LePUS3 is used to formally specify a structural design pattern and prove ( verify ) whether any JavaTM 1.4 program satisfies that specification. We also show how LePUS3 specifications (charts) are composed and how they are verified fully automatically in the Two-Tier Programming Toolkit.
1997-10-01
It is widely recognized that cascade models are potentially effective and powerful tools for interpreting and predicting multi-particle observables in heavy ion physics. However, the lack of common standards, documentation, version control, and accessibility have made it difficult to apply objective scientific criteria for evaluating the many physical and algorithmic assumptions or even to reproduce some published results. The first RIKEN Research Center workshop was proposed by Yang Pang to address this problem by establishing open standards for original codes for applications to nuclear collisions at RHIC energies. The aim of this first workshop is: (1) to prepare a WWW depository site for original source codes and detailed documentation with examples; (2) to develop and perform standardized test for the models such as Lorentz invariance, kinetic theory comparisons, and thermodynamic simulations; (3) to publish a compilation of results of the above work in a journal e.g., ``Heavy Ion Physics``; and (4) to establish a policy statement on a set of minimal requirements for inclusion in the OSCAR-WWW depository.
Crop loss assessment for California: modeling losses with different ozone standard scenarios.
Olszyk, D M; Thompson, C R; Poe, M P
1988-01-01
Crop yield losses were estimated for ambient O3 concentrations and for a series of potential O3 air quality standards for California, including the current statewide 1-h oxidant (O3) standard of 0.10 ppm (196 microg m(-3)), 12-h growing season averages, and other models. A model for statewide losses was developed using hourly O3 data for all sites in the State, county crop productivity data, and available O3 concentration-yield loss equations to determine potential yield losses for each crop in each county in California for 1984. Losses were based on comparison to an estimated background filtered air concentration of 0.025 or 0.027 ppm, for 12 or 7 h, respectively. Potential losses due to ambient air in 1984 were estimated at 19% to 25% for dry beans, cotton, grapes, lemons, onions, and oranges. Losses of 5% to 9% were estimated for alfalfa and sweet corn. Losses of 4% or less were estimated for barley, field corn, lettuce, grain sorghum, rice, corn silage, spinach, strawberries, sugar beets, fresh tomatoes, processing tomatoes, and wheat. Implementation of either a modified rollback to meet the current 1 h California O3 standard (0.10 ppm) or a three-month, 12-h growing season average of 0.045 ppm was necessary to produce large reductions in potential crop losses. PMID:15092558
A Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson Produced in Association with a $W$ Boson
Frank, Martin Johannes
2011-05-01
We present a search for a standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a W boson using data collected with the CDF II detector from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. The search is performed in the WH → ℓvb$\\bar{b}$ channel. The two quarks usually fragment into two jets, but sometimes a third jet can be produced via gluon radiation, so we have increased the standard two-jet sample by including events that contain three jets. We reconstruct the Higgs boson using two or three jets depending on the kinematics of the event. We find an improvement in our search sensitivity using the larger sample together with this multijet reconstruction technique. Our data show no evidence of a Higgs boson, so we set 95% confidence level upper limits on the WH production rate. We set limits between 3.36 and 28.7 times the standard model prediction for Higgs boson masses ranging from 100 to 150 GeV/c^{2}.
The Framed Standard Model (I) -- A Physics Case for Framing the Yang-Mills Theory?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Hong-Mo; Tsou, Sheung Tsun
Introducing, in the underlying gauge theory of the Standard Model, the frame vectors in internal space as field variables (framons), in addition to the usual gauge boson and matter fermions fields, one obtains: * the standard Higgs scalar as the framon in the electroweak sector; * a global widetilde{su}(3) symmetry dual to colour to play the role of fermion generations. Renormalization via framon loops changes the orientation in generation space of the vacuum, hence also of the mass matrices of leptons and quarks, thus making them rotate with changing scale μ. From previous work, it is known already that a rotating mass matrix will lead automatically to: * CKM mixing and neutrino oscillations, * hierarchical masses for quarks and leptons, * a solution to the strong-CP problem transforming the theta-angle into a Kobayashi-Maskawa phase. Here in the framed standard model (FSM), the renormalization group equation has some special properties which explain the main qualitative features seen in experiment both for mixing matrices of quarks and leptons, and for their mass spectrum. Quantitative results will be given in Paper II. The present paper ends with some tentative predictions on Higgs decay, and with some speculations on the origin of dark matter...
The framed Standard Model (I) — A physics case for framing the Yang-Mills theory?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Hong-Mo; Tsou, Sheung Tsun
2015-10-01
Introducing, in the underlying gauge theory of the Standard Model, the frame vectors in internal space as field variables (framons), in addition to the usual gauge boson and matter fermions fields, one obtains: the standard Higgs scalar as the framon in the electroweak sector; a global su˜(3) symmetry dual to colour to play the role of fermion generations. Renormalization via framon loops changes the orientation in generation space of the vacuum, hence also of the mass matrices of leptons and quarks, thus making them rotate with changing scale μ. From previous work, it is known already that a rotating mass matrix will lead automatically to: CKM mixing and neutrino oscillations, hierarchical masses for quarks and leptons, a solution to the strong-CP problem transforming the theta-angle into a Kobayashi-Maskawa phase. Here in the framed standard model (FSM), the renormalization group equation has some special properties which explain the main qualitative features seen in experiment both for mixing matrices of quarks and leptons, and for their mass spectrum. Quantitative results will be given in Paper II. The present paper ends with some tentative predictions on Higgs decay, and with some speculations on the origin of dark matter.
V3885 Sagittarius: A Comparison With a Range of Standard Model Accretion Disks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linnell, Albert P.; Godon, Patrick; Hubeny, Ivan; Sion, Edward M; Szkody, Paula; Barrett, Paul E.
2009-01-01
A chi-squared analysis of standard model accretion disk synthetic spectrum fits to combined Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra of V3885 Sagittarius, on an absolute flux basis, selects a model that accurately represents the observed spectral energy distribution. Calculation of the synthetic spectrum requires the following system parameters. The cataclysmic variable secondary star period-mass relation calibrated by Knigge in 2006 and 2007 sets the secondary component mass. A mean white dwarf (WD) mass from the same study, which is consistent with an observationally determined mass ratio, sets the adopted WD mass of 0.7M(solar mass), and the WD radius follows from standard theoretical models. The adopted inclination, i = 65 deg, is a literature consensus, and is subsequently supported by chi-squared analysis. The mass transfer rate is the remaining parameter to set the accretion disk T(sub eff) profile, and the Hipparcos parallax constrains that parameter to mas transfer = (5.0 +/- 2.0) x 10(exp -9) M(solar mass)/yr by a comparison with observed spectra. The fit to the observed spectra adopts the contribution of a 57,000 +/- 5000 K WD. The model thus provides realistic constraints on mass transfer and T(sub eff) for a large mass transfer system above the period gap.
Profumo, S.; Yaguna, C.E.
2004-11-01
We study supersymmetric dark matter in the general flavor diagonal minimal supersymmetric standard model by means of an extensive random scan of its parameter space. We find that, in contrast with the standard minimal supergravity lore, the large majority of viable models features either a Higgsino or a winolike lightest neutralino, and yields a relic abundance well below the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) bound. Among the models with neutralino relic density within the WMAP range, Higgsinolike neutralinos are still dominant, though a sizable fraction of binos is also present. In this latter case, coannihilations are shown to be essential in order to obtain the correct neutralino abundance. We then carry out a statistical analysis and a general discussion of neutralino dark matter direct detection and of indirect neutralino detection at neutrino telescopes and at antimatter search experiments. We point out that current data exclude only a marginal portion of the viable parameter space, and that models whose thermal relic abundance lies in the WMAP range will be significantly probed only at future direct detection experiments. Finally, we emphasize the importance of relic density enhancement mechanisms for indirect detection perspectives, in particular, at future antimatter search experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Signell, R. P.; Camossi, E.
2015-11-01
Work over the last decade has resulted in standardized web-services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by: (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using technology that is free, and that is easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing tools to communicate with web services that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modelers continue producing custom data, but virtually aggregates and standardizes the data using NetCDF Markup Language. The THREDDS Data Server is used for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (Matlab®1) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Ocean Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.1 Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the US Government.
A Simple Mathematical Model for Standard Model of Elementary Particles and Extension Thereof
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Ashok
2016-03-01
An algebraically (and geometrically) simple model representing the masses of the elementary particles in terms of the interaction (strong, weak, electromagnetic) constants is developed, including the Higgs bosons. The predicted Higgs boson mass is identical to that discovered by LHC experimental programs; while possibility of additional Higgs bosons (and their masses) is indicated. The model can be analyzed to explain and resolve many puzzles of particle physics and cosmology including the neutrino masses and mixing; origin of the proton mass and the mass-difference between the proton and the neutron; the big bang and cosmological Inflation; the Hubble expansion; etc. A novel interpretation of the model in terms of quaternion and rotation in the six-dimensional space of the elementary particle interaction-space - or, equivalently, in six-dimensional spacetime - is presented. Interrelations among particle masses are derived theoretically. A new approach for defining the interaction parameters leading to an elegant and symmetrical diagram is delineated. Generalization of the model to include supersymmetry is illustrated without recourse to complex mathematical formulation and free from any ambiguity. This Abstract represents some results of the Author's Independent Theoretical Research in Particle Physics, with possible connection to the Superstring Theory. However, only very elementary mathematics and physics is used in my presentation.
Inohara, Ken; Sumita, Yuka I; Ohbayashi, Naoto; Ino, Shuichi; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Ifukube, Tohru; Taniguchi, Hisashi
2010-07-01
Postoperative head and neck cancer patients suffer from speech disorders, which are the result of changes in their vocal tracts. Making a solid vocal tract model and measuring its transmission characteristics will provide one of the most useful tools to resolve the problem. In binary conversion of X-ray computed tomographic (CT) images for vocal tract reconstruction, nonobjective methods have been used by many researchers. We hypothesized that a standardized vocal tract model could be reconstructed by adopting the Hounsfield number of fat tissue as a criterion for thresholding of binary conversion, because its Hounsfield number is the nearest to air in the human body. The purpose of this study was to establish a new standardized method for binary conversion in reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D) vocal tract models. CT images for postoperative diagnosis were secondarily obtained from a CT scanner. Each patient's minimum settings of Hounsfield number for the buccal fat-pad regions were measured. Thresholds were set every 50 Hounsfield units (HU) from the bottom line of the buccal fat-pad region to -1024 HU, the images were converted into binary values, and were evaluated according to the three-grade system based on anatomically defined criteria. The optimal threshold between tissue and air was determined by nonlinear multiple regression analyses. Each patient's minimum settings of the buccal fat-pad regions were obtained. The optimal threshold was determined to be -165 HU from each patient's minimum settings of the Hounsfield number for the buccal fat-pad regions. To conclude, a method of 3-D standardized vocal tract modeling was established. PMID:19766442
Integrated Standardized Database/Model Management System: Study management concepts and requirements
Baker, R.; Swerdlow, S.; Schultz, R.; Tolchin, R.
1994-02-01
Data-sharing among planners and planning software for utility companies is the motivation for creating the Integrated Standardized Database (ISD) and Model Management System (MMS). The purpose of this document is to define the requirements for the ISD/MMS study management component in a manner that will enhance the use of the ISD. After an analysis period which involved EPRI member utilities across the United States, the study concept was formulated. It is defined in terms of its entities, relationships and its support processes, specifically for implementation as the key component of the MMS. From the study concept definition, requirements are derived. There are unique requirements, such as the necessity to interface with DSManager, EGEAS, IRPManager, MIDAS and UPM and there are standard information systems requirements, such as create, modify, delete and browse data. An initial ordering of the requirements is established, with a section devoted to future enhancements.
Falk, Carl F; Savalei, Victoria
2011-01-01
Popular computer programs print 2 versions of Cronbach's alpha: unstandardized alpha, α(Σ), based on the covariance matrix, and standardized alpha, α(R), based on the correlation matrix. Sources that accurately describe the theoretical distinction between the 2 coefficients are lacking, which can lead to the misconception that the differences between α(R) and α(Σ) are unimportant and to the temptation to report the larger coefficient. We explore the relationship between α(R) and α(Σ) and the reliability of the standardized and unstandardized composite under 3 popular measurement models; we clarify the theoretical meaning of each coefficient and conclude that researchers should choose an appropriate reliability coefficient based on theoretical considerations. We also illustrate that α(R) and α(Σ) estimate the reliability of different composite scores, and in most cases cannot be substituted for one another. PMID:21859284
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hildreth, Bruce L.; Jackson, E. Bruce
2009-01-01
The American Institute of Aeronautics Astronautics (AIAA) Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee is in final preparation of a new standard for the exchange of flight dynamics models. The standard will become an ANSI standard and is under consideration for submission to ISO for acceptance by the international community. The standard has some a spects that should provide benefits to the simulation training community. Use of the new standard by the training simulation community will reduce development, maintenance and technical refresh investment on each device. Furthermore, it will significantly lower the cost of performing model updates to improve fidelity or expand the envelope of the training device. Higher flight fidelity should result in better transfer of training, a direct benefit to the pilots under instruction. Costs of adopting the standard are minimal and should be paid back within the cost of the first use for that training device. The standard achie ves these advantages by making it easier to update the aerodynamic model. It provides a standard format for the model in a custom eXtensible Markup Language (XML) grammar, the Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML). It employs an existing XML grammar, MathML, to describe the aerodynamic model in an input data file, eliminating the requirement for actual software compilation. The major components of the aero model become simply an input data file, and updates are simply new XML input files. It includes naming and axis system conventions to further simplify the exchange of information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meisel, David D.; Szasz, Csilla; Kero, Johan
2008-06-01
The Arecibo UHF radar is able to detect the head-echos of micron-sized meteoroids up to velocities of 75 km/s over a height range of 80 140 km. Because of their small size there are many uncertainties involved in calculating their above atmosphere properties as needed for orbit determination. An ab initio model of meteor ablation has been devised that should work over the mass range 10-16 kg to 10-7 kg, but the faint end of this range cannot be observed by any other method and so direct verification is not possible. On the other hand, the EISCAT UHF radar system detects micrometeors in the high mass part of this range and its observations can be fit to a “standard” ablation model and calibrated to optical observations (Szasz et al. 2007). In this paper, we present a preliminary comparison of the two models, one observationally confirmable. Among the features of the ab initio model that are different from the “standard” model are: (1) uses the experimentally based low pressure vaporization theory of O’Hanlon (A users’s guide to vacuum technology, 2003) for ablation, (2) uses velocity dependent functions fit from experimental data on heat transfer, luminosity and ionization efficiencies measured by Friichtenicht and Becker (NASA Special Publication 319: 53, 1973) for micron sized particles, (3) assumes a density and temperature dependence of the micrometeoroids and ablation product specific heats, (4) assumes a density and size dependent value for the thermal emissivity and (5) uses a unified synthesis of experimental data for the most important meteoroid elements and their oxides through least square fits (as functions of temperature, density, and/or melting point) of the tables of thermodynamic parameters given in Weast (CRC Handbook of Physics and Chemistry, 1984), Gray (American Institute of Physics Handbook, 1972), and Cox (Allen’s Astrophysical Quantities 2000). This utilization of mostly experimentally determined data is the main reason for
Mid-infrared interferometry of Seyfert galaxies: Challenging the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Gonzaga, N.; Jaffe, W.
2016-06-01
Aims: We aim to find torus models that explain the observed high-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) measurements of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our goal is to determine the general properties of the circumnuclear dusty environments. Methods: We used the MIR interferometric data of a sample of AGNs provided by the instrument MIDI/VLTI and followed a statistical approach to compare the observed distribution of the interferometric measurements with the distributions computed from clumpy torus models. We mainly tested whether the diversity of Seyfert galaxies can be described using the Standard Model idea, where differences are solely due to a line-of-sight (LOS) effect. In addition to the LOS effects, we performed different realizations of the same model to include possible variations that are caused by the stochastic nature of the dusty models. Results: We find that our entire sample of AGNs, which contains both Seyfert types, cannot be explained merely by an inclination effect and by including random variations of the clouds. Instead, we find that each subset of Seyfert type can be explained by different models, where the filling factor at the inner radius seems to be the largest difference. For the type 1 objects we find that about two thirds of our objects could also be described using a dusty torus similar to the type 2 objects. For the remaining third, it was not possible to find a good description using models with high filling factors, while we found good fits with models with low filling factors. Conclusions: Within our model assumptions, we did not find one single set of model parameters that could simultaneously explain the MIR data of all 21 AGN with LOS effects and random variations alone. We conclude that at least two distinct cloud configurations are required to model the differences in Seyfert galaxies, with volume-filling factors differing by a factor of about 5-10. A continuous transition between the two types cannot be excluded.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gronewold, A. D.; Ritzenthaler, A.; Fry, L. M.; Anderson, E. J.
2012-12-01
There is a clear need in the water resource and public health management communities to develop and test modeling systems which provide robust predictions of water quality and water quality standard violations, particularly in coastal communities. These predictions have the potential to supplement, or even replace, conventional human health protection strategies which (in the case of controlling public access to beaches, for example) are often based on day-old fecal indicator bacteria monitoring results. Here, we present a coupled modeling system which builds upon recent advancements in watershed-scale hydrological modeling and coastal hydrodynamic modeling, including the evolution of the Huron-Erie Connecting Waterways Forecasting System (HECWFS), developed through a partnership between NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) and the University of Michigan Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research (CILER). Our study is based on applying the modeling system to a popular beach in the metro-Detroit (Michigan, USA) area and implementing a routine shoreline monitoring program to help assess model forecasting skill. This research presents an important stepping stone towards the application of similar modeling systems in frequently-closed beaches throughout the Great Lakes region.
A perturbative approach to the redshift space power spectrum: beyond the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya
2016-08-01
We develop a code to produce the power spectrum in redshift space based on standard perturbation theory (SPT) at 1-loop order. The code can be applied to a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models using a recently proposed numerical method by A.Taruya to find the SPT kernels. This includes Horndeski's theory with a general potential, which accommodates both chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms and provides a non-linear extension of the effective theory of dark energy up to the third order. Focus is on a recent non-linear model of the redshift space power spectrum which has been shown to model the anisotropy very well at relevant scales for the SPT framework, as well as capturing relevant non-linear effects typical of modified gravity theories. We provide consistency checks of the code against established results and elucidate its application within the light of upcoming high precision RSD data.
Special Mixing of the Neutral Higgs Bosons States in the Standard Model with Two Higgs Doublets
Juarez W, S. R.; Morales C, D.
2008-07-02
The Higgs sector of the Standard Model (SM) requires careful investigation in order to look for new physics. In the SM the masses of the physical particles arise, after the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), through its couplings with a single Higgs doublet. In the simplest extension of the SM, called the Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM), a second Higgs doublet is introduced, with a potential dependent on seven parameters, which are related to five Higgs bosons, whose existence is predicted by the model. In this context, we obtain the masses and the physical eigenstates of the new scalar particles: two charged ones (H{sup {+-}}) and three neutral (A{sup 0}), (h{sup 0},H{sup 0}). We explore a particular situation in which very simple relations between the parameters and the masses are satisfied.
Model-Invariant Hybrid Computations of Separated Flows for RCA Standard Test Cases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodruff, Stephen
2016-01-01
NASA's Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) subproject has identified several smooth-body separated flows as standard test cases to emphasize the challenge these flows present for computational methods and their importance to the aerospace community. Results of computations of two of these test cases, the NASA hump and the FAITH experiment, are presented. The computations were performed with the model-invariant hybrid LES-RANS formulation, implemented in the NASA code VULCAN-CFD. The model- invariant formulation employs gradual LES-RANS transitions and compensation for model variation to provide more accurate and efficient hybrid computations. Comparisons revealed that the LES-RANS transitions employed in these computations were sufficiently gradual that the compensating terms were unnecessary. Agreement with experiment was achieved only after reducing the turbulent viscosity to mitigate the effect of numerical dissipation. The stream-wise evolution of peak Reynolds shear stress was employed as a measure of turbulence dynamics in separated flows useful for evaluating computations.
Special Mixing of the Neutral Higgs Bosons States in the Standard Model with Two Higgs Doublets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juárez W., S. R.; Morales C., D.
2008-07-01
The Higgs sector of the Standard Model (SM) requires careful investigation in order to look for new physics. In the SM the masses of the physical particles arise, after the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), through its couplings with a single Higgs doublet. In the simplest extension of the SM, called the Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM), a second Higgs doublet is introduced, with a potential dependent on seven parameters, which are related to five Higgs bosons, whose existence is predicted by the model. In this context, we obtain the masses and the physical eigenstates of the new scalar particles: two charged ones (H±) and three neutral (A0), (h0,H0). We explore a particular situation in which very simple relations between the parameters and the masses are satisfied.
Criticality and the onset of ordering in the standard Vicsek model.
Baglietto, Gabriel; Albano, Ezequiel V; Candia, Julián
2012-12-01
Experimental observations of animal collective behaviour have shown stunning evidence for the emergence of large-scale cooperative phenomena resembling phase transitions in physical systems. Indeed, quantitative studies have found scale-free correlations and critical behaviour consistent with the occurrence of continuous, second-order phase transitions. The standard Vicsek model (SVM), a minimal model of self-propelled particles in which their tendency to align with each other competes with perturbations controlled by a noise term, appears to capture the essential ingredients of critical flocking phenomena. In this paper, we review recent finite-size scaling and dynamical studies of the SVM, which present a full characterization of the continuous phase transition through dynamical and critical exponents. We also present a complex network analysis of SVM flocks and discuss the onset of ordering in connection with XY-like spin models. PMID:24312724
Standard model and supersymmetric flavor puzzles at the CERN Large Hadron Collider
Feng, Jonathan L.; Lester, Christopher G.; Nir, Yosef; Shadmi, Yael
2008-04-01
Can the Large Hadron Collider explain the masses and mixings of the known fermions? A promising possibility is that these masses and mixings are determined by flavor symmetries that also govern new particles that will appear at the LHC. We consider well-motivated examples in supersymmetry with both gravity and gauge mediation. Contrary to spreading belief, new physics need not be minimally flavor violating. We build nonminimally flavor violating models that successfully explain all known lepton masses and mixings, but span a wide range in their predictions for slepton flavor violation. In natural and favorable cases, these models have metastable sleptons and are characterized by fully reconstructible events. We outline many flavor measurements that are then possible and describe their prospects for resolving both the standard model and new physics flavor puzzles at the Large Hadron Collider.
Beyond the Standard Model with noncommutative geometry, strolling towards quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinetti, Pierre
2015-08-01
Noncommutative geometry in its many incarnations appears at the crossroad of many researches in theoretical and mathematical physics: from models of quantum spacetime(with or without breaking of Lorentz symmetry) to loop gravity and string theory, from early considerations on UV-divergenciesin quantum field theory to recent models of gauge theories on noncommutatives pacetime, from Connes description of the standard model of elementary particles to recent Pati-Salam like extensions. We list several of these applications, emphasizing also the original point of view brought by noncommutative geometry on the nature of time. This text serves as an introduction to the volume of proceedings of the parallel session “Noncommutative geometry and quantum gravity”, as a part of the conference “Conceptual and technical challenges in quantum gravity” organized at the University of Rome La Sapienza sin September 2014.
Higgs Boson Production via Gluon Fusion in the Standard Model with four Generations
Li Qiang; Spira, Michael; Gao, Jun; Li Chongsheng
2011-05-01
Higgs bosons can be produced copiously at the LHC via gluon fusion induced by top and bottom quark loops, and can be enhanced strongly if extra heavy quarks exist. We present results for Higgs+zero-, one- and two-jet production at the LHC operating at 7 and 14 TeV collision energy, in both the standard model and the 4th generation model, by evaluating the corresponding heavy quark triangle, box, and pentagon Feynman diagrams. We compare the results by using the effective Higgs-gluon interactions in the limit of heavy quarks with the cross sections including the full mass dependences. NLO effects on Higgs+zero-jet production rate with full mass dependence are presented for the first time consistently in the 4th generation model. Our results improve the theoretical basis for fourth generation effects on the Higgs boson search at the LHC.
Resonant leptogenesis in the minimal B-L extended standard model at TeV
Iso, Satoshi; Orikasa, Yuta; Okada, Nobuchika
2011-05-01
We investigate the resonant leptogenesis scenario in the minimal B-L extended standard model with the B-L symmetry breaking at the TeV scale. Through detailed analysis of the Boltzmann equations, we show how much the resultant baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis is enhanced or suppressed, depending on the model parameters, in particular, the neutrino Dirac-Yukawa couplings and the TeV scale Majorana masses of heavy degenerate neutrinos. In order to consider a realistic case, we impose a simple ansatz for the model parameters and analyze the neutrino oscillation parameters and the baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis as a function of only a single CP phase. We find that for a fixed CP phase all neutrino oscillation data and the observed baryon asymmetry of the present Universe can be simultaneously reproduced.
Scale invariant extension of the standard model with a strongly interacting hidden sector.
Hur, Taeil; Ko, P
2011-04-01
We present a scale invariant extension of the standard model with a new QCD-like strong interaction in the hidden sector. A scale Λ(H) is dynamically generated in the hidden sector by dimensional transmutation, and chiral symmetry breaking occurs in the hidden sector. This scale is transmitted to the SM sector by a real singlet scalar messenger S and can trigger electroweak symmetry breaking. Thus all the mass scales in this model arise from the hidden sector scale Λ(H), which has quantum mechanical origin. Furthermore, the lightest hadrons in the hidden sector are stable by the flavor conservation of the hidden sector strong interaction, and could be the cold dark matter (CDM). We study collider phenomenology, relic density, and direct detection rates of the CDM of this model. PMID:21561182
Ignition-and-Growth Modeling of NASA Standard Detonator and a Linear Shaped Charge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oguz, Sirri
2010-01-01
The main objective of this study is to quantitatively investigate the ignition and shock sensitivity of NASA Standard Detonator (NSD) and the shock wave propagation of a linear shaped charge (LSC) after being shocked by NSD flyer plate. This combined explosive train was modeled as a coupled Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) model with LS-DYNA hydro code. An ignition-and-growth (I&G) reactive model based on unreacted and reacted Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equations of state was used to simulate the shock initiation. Various NSD-to-LSC stand-off distances were analyzed to calculate the shock initiation (or failure to initiate) and detonation wave propagation along the shaped charge. Simulation results were verified by experimental data which included VISAR tests for NSD flyer plate velocity measurement and an aluminum target severance test for LSC performance verification. Parameters used for the analysis were obtained from various published data or by using CHEETAH thermo-chemical code.
Criticality and the onset of ordering in the standard Vicsek model
Baglietto, Gabriel; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Candia, Julián
2012-01-01
Experimental observations of animal collective behaviour have shown stunning evidence for the emergence of large-scale cooperative phenomena resembling phase transitions in physical systems. Indeed, quantitative studies have found scale-free correlations and critical behaviour consistent with the occurrence of continuous, second-order phase transitions. The standard Vicsek model (SVM), a minimal model of self-propelled particles in which their tendency to align with each other competes with perturbations controlled by a noise term, appears to capture the essential ingredients of critical flocking phenomena. In this paper, we review recent finite-size scaling and dynamical studies of the SVM, which present a full characterization of the continuous phase transition through dynamical and critical exponents. We also present a complex network analysis of SVM flocks and discuss the onset of ordering in connection with XY-like spin models. PMID:24312724
Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.,
2014-01-21
A search for the standard model Higgs boson (H) decaying to b b-bar when produced in association with a weak vector boson (V) is reported for the following channels: W(mu nu)H, W(e nu)H, W(tau nu)H, Z(mu mu)H, Z(e e)H, and Z(nu nu)H. The search is performed in data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 5.1 inverse femtobarns at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and up to 18.9 inverse femtobarns at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. An excess of events is observed above the expected background with a local significance of 2.1 standard deviations for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, consistent with the expectation from the production of the standard model Higgs boson. The signal strength corresponding to this excess, relative to that of the standard model Higgs boson, is 1.0 +/- 0.5.
VoICE: A semi-automated pipeline for standardizing vocal analysis across models
Burkett, Zachary D.; Day, Nancy F.; Peñagarikano, Olga; Geschwind, Daniel H.; White, Stephanie A.
2015-01-01
The study of vocal communication in animal models provides key insight to the neurogenetic basis for speech and communication disorders. Current methods for vocal analysis suffer from a lack of standardization, creating ambiguity in cross-laboratory and cross-species comparisons. Here, we present VoICE (Vocal Inventory Clustering Engine), an approach to grouping vocal elements by creating a high dimensionality dataset through scoring spectral similarity between all vocalizations within a recording session. This dataset is then subjected to hierarchical clustering, generating a dendrogram that is pruned into meaningful vocalization “types” by an automated algorithm. When applied to birdsong, a key model for vocal learning, VoICE captures the known deterioration in acoustic properties that follows deafening, including altered sequencing. In a mammalian neurodevelopmental model, we uncover a reduced vocal repertoire of mice lacking the autism susceptibility gene, Cntnap2. VoICE will be useful to the scientific community as it can standardize vocalization analyses across species and laboratories. PMID:26018425