Science.gov

Sample records for le porc sus

  1. [Structural recovering in Andean successional forests from Porce (Antioquia, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Yepes, Adriana P; del Valle, Jorge I; Jaramillo, Sandra L; Orrego, Sergio A

    2010-03-01

    Places subjected to natural or human disturbance can recover forest through an ecological process called secondary succession. Tropical succession is affected by factors such as disturbances, distance from original forest, surface configuration and local climate. These factors determine the composition of species and the time trend of the succession itself. We studied succession in soils used for cattle ranching over various decades in the Porce Region of Colombia (Andean Colombian forests). A set of twenty five permanent plots was measured, including nine plots (20 x 50 m) in primary forests and sixteen (20 x 25 m) in secondary forests. All trees with diameter > or =1.0 cm were measured. We analyzed stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and species richness, in a successional process of ca. 43 years, and in primary forests. The secondary forests' age was estimated in previous studies, using radiocarbon dating, aerial photographs and a high-resolution satellite image analysis (7 to >43 years). In total, 1,143 and 1,766 stems were measured in primary and secondary forests, respectively. Basal area (5.7 to 85.4 m2 ha(-1)), above-ground biomass (19.1 to 1,011.5 t ha(-1)) and species richness (4 to 69) directly increased with site age, while steam density decreased (3,180 to 590). Diametric distributions were "J-inverted" for primary forests and even-aged size-class structures for secondary forests. Three species of palms were abundant and exclusive in old secondary forests and primary forests: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria and Oenocarpus bataua. These palms happened in cohorts after forest disturbances. Secondary forest structure was 40% in more than 43 years of forest succession and indicate that many factors are interacting and affecting the forests succession in the area (e.g. agriculture, cattle ranching, mining, etc.). PMID:20411733

  2. Photoactive protochlorophyllide-enzyme complexes reconstituted with PORA, PORB and PORC proteins of A. thaliana: fluorescence and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michał; Stecka, Anna; Strzałka, Wojciech; Kruk, Jerzy; Strzałka, Kazimierz; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Photoactive Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes were reconstituted using protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and recombinant light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins, His₆-PORA, His₆-PORB and His₆-PORC, from Arabidopsis thaliana. We did not observe any differences in the kinetics of the protochlorophyllide photoreduction at room temperature among the PORA, PORB and PORC proteins. In contrast, the PORC protein showed lower yield of Chlide formation than PORA and PORB when preincubated in the dark for 30 min and then illuminated for a short time. The most significant observation was that reconstituted Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes showed fluorescence maxima at 77 K similar to those observed for highly aggregated Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes in prolamellar bodies (PLBs) in vivo. Homology models of PORA, PORB and PORC of Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to compare predicted structures of POR isoforms. There were only slight structural differences, mainly in the organisation of helices and loops, but not in the shape of whole molecules. This is the first comparative analysis of all POR isoforms functioning at different stages of A. thaliana development. PMID:25659137

  3. Photoactive Protochlorophyllide-Enzyme Complexes Reconstituted with PORA, PORB and PORC Proteins of A. thaliana: Fluorescence and Catalytic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Gabruk, Michał; Stecka, Anna; Strzałka, Wojciech; Kruk, Jerzy; Strzałka, Kazimierz; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Photoactive Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes were reconstituted using protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and recombinant light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins, His₆-PORA, His₆-PORB and His₆-PORC, from Arabidopsis thaliana. We did not observe any differences in the kinetics of the protochlorophyllide photoreduction at room temperature among the PORA, PORB and PORC proteins. In contrast, the PORC protein showed lower yield of Chlide formation than PORA and PORB when preincubated in the dark for 30 min and then illuminated for a short time. The most significant observation was that reconstituted Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes showed fluorescence maxima at 77 K similar to those observed for highly aggregated Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes in prolamellar bodies (PLBs) in vivo. Homology models of PORA, PORB and PORC of Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to compare predicted structures of POR isoforms. There were only slight structural differences, mainly in the organisation of helices and loops, but not in the shape of whole molecules. This is the first comparative analysis of all POR isoforms functioning at different stages of A. thaliana development. PMID:25659137

  4. SUCROSE SYNTHASE (SUS) OLIGOMERIZATION IS REGULATED BY SUCROSE LEVELS WITHIN PLANT CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) is an important plant metabolic enzyme as it cleaves sucrose in the cytoplasm of plant cells. There are three known isoforms of SUS within Zea mays: SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2 (formerly SUS3). It is thought that SUS is predominantly a hetero-tetramer composed of the three isoform...

  5. Le Indeterminacy in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David William

    The standard treatment of object pronouns in Latin American Spanish assigns a direct-object function to "lo" and "la" and an indirect-object function to "le." This study challenges this descriptive attribution in light of the contradictory and refractory evidence in Spanish morphosyntax. It is suggested that more detailed research, especially…

  6. Le Figaro. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Linda

    These instructional materials are designed for students with some French reading skills and vocabulary in late beginning or early intermediate senior high school French. The objectives are to introduce students to a French newspaper, "Le Figaro," and develop reading skills for skimming, gathering specific information, and relying on cognates. The…

  7. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  8. NEP facilities (LeRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrone, Robert H.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Electric Propulsion Research Building (no. 16) the Electric Power Laboratory (BLDG. 301); the Tank 6 Vacuum Facility; and test facilities for electric propulsion and LeRC.

  9. Le bégaiement

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Hector R.; Stoeckle, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Fournir une mise à jour sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental. Qualité des données Une recherche d’études récentes ou non portant sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental a été effectuée dans les bases de données MEDLINE et Cochrane. La plupart des recommandations s’appuient sur des études de petite envergure, des données probantes de qualité limitée ou des consensus. Message principal Le bégaiement est un trouble d’élocution fréquent chez les personnes de tous âges, il altère la fluidité verbale normale et l’enchaînement du discours. Le bégaiement a été lié à des différences de l’anatomie, du fonctionnement et de la régulation dopaminergique du cerveau qui seraient de source génétique. Il importe de poser le diagnostic avec attention et de faire les recommandations qui conviennent chez les enfants, car de plus en plus, le consensus veut que l’intervention précoce par un traitement d’orthophonie soit cruciale chez les enfants bègues. Chez les adultes, le bégaiement est lié à une morbidité psychosociale substantielle, dont l’anxiété sociale et une piètre qualité de vie. Les traitements pharmacologiques ont soulevé l’intérêt depuis quelques années, mais les données cliniques sont limitées. Le traitement des enfants et des adultes repose sur l’orthophonie. Conclusion De plus en plus de recherches ont tenté de lever le voile sur la physiopathologie du bégaiement. La meilleure solution pour les enfants et les adultes bègues demeure la recommandation à un traitement d’orthophonie.

  10. Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    The title of this lecture abstracts only a part of it : the importance in astrophysics of the study of non-LTE situations has become considerable, as well in the stellar atmospheres as, still more, in the study of fortuitous coincidences as a mechanism of formation of emission line nebular spectra, or of molecular interstellar « masers ». Another part of this talk underlines the role of Kastler in his time, and describes his warm personality through his public reactions in front of the nuclear armement, of the Viet-Nam and Algerian wars, of the problems of political refugees... Kastler was a great scientist ; he was also a courageous humanist. 1976 : Les accords nucléaires du Brésil : allocution d'ouverture (19 mars). Colloque sur le sujet ci-dessus. 1976 : La promotion de la culture dans le nouvel ordre économique international, allocution à l'occasion d'une table ronde sur ce thème par l'UNESCO (23-27 juin 1976) ; « Sciences et Techniques », octobre 1976. 1979 : La bête immonde (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Matin », 20 mars. 1979 : Appel à nos ministres (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 13 décembre. 1979 : Le flou, le ténébreux, l'irrationnel (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 14 septembre. 1980 : Education à la paix, Préface, in : Publ. UNESCO. 1981 : Le vrai danger, « Le Monde », 6 août 1981. 1982 : Nucléaire civil et militaire, « Le Monde », 1er juin 1982. 1982 : Les scientifiques face à la perspective d'holocauste nucléaire (texte inédit). Le titre de cette communication en résume seulement une partie : l'importance prise en astrophysique par l'analyse des situations hors ETL est devenue considérable, qu'il s'agisse des atmosphères stellaires, ou plus encore, des coïncidences fortuites de la formation des spectres d'émission nébulaires, ou des « masers » moléculaires interstellaires. Une autre partie de cet exposé souligne lele de Kastler dans son époque, et décrit sa personnalité généreuse à travers ses r

  11. 2014 Higher Education Summit/SUS Data Workshop Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Information Resource Management--State University System of Florida (IRM-SUS) is the primary collector and provider of data concerning state universities that is used to make sound education policy decisions. The office provides technical assistance to those using the information, state and federal reporting support, those supplying information,…

  12. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Et si la lumière au bout du tunnel du LHC était cosmique ? En d?autres termes, qu?est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l?Univers ? Car la montée en énergie des accélérateurs de particules nous permet de mieux appréhender l?univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l?Univers ? La matière noire est-elle détectable au LHC ? L?énergie noire ? Pourquoi l?antimatière accumulée au CERN est-elle si rare dans l?Univers ? Et si le CERN a bâti sa réputation sur l?exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui opèrent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l?évolution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d?années, notre compréhension de l?univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l?appréhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement liées : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester expérimentalement cette vision unifiée ? Tout public, entrée libre / Réservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  13. Le Planetaire (Around the World)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebouillet, Andre; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This section, "Le Planetaire," contains an interview with Anne Slack on the American Association of Teachers of French and contemporary French culture, a review of a dictionary of familiar French for students, dates to remember, events of interest to French teachers and a general bibliography. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  14. In re LePage.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Court Decision: 18 Pacific Reporter, 3d Series 1177; 2001 Mar 8 (date of decision). The Supreme Court of Wyoming held that the state Department of Health was not authorized to inquire about the sincerity of a mother's religious beliefs when determining whether her daughter was exempt from a public school immunization requirement. Susan LePage submitted a request to the Department of Health seeking to exempt her daughter from receiving the hepatitis B vaccination. The Department of Health inquired into the sincerity of LePage's religious beliefs against vaccination and determined that her objections were of a personal or philosophical nature and not on religious grounds. The Department of Health denied LePage's request. The Supreme Court of Wyoming held that state law requires the Department of Health to grant an exemption upon the submission of a written objection and does not allow the Department of Health to make an inquiry into the sincerity of the requestor's religious beliefs. The court balanced a valid state interest in protecting schoolchildren from disease with the relatively low number of requests for exemption and its confidence in parents to make decisions in the best interest of their children's physical and spiritual health. Since there was no justification within the statute to allow a religious inquiry, the court held that the Department of Health had exceeded its authority with LePage. Furthermore, state law did not require a religious waiver to exempt a child from this particular vaccine. The lower court's holding was reversed. PMID:16479706

  15. Le Fevre [Le Fèvre; LeFebvre], Jean (1652-1706)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Lisieux, France, became an associate of JEAN PICARD and PHILIPPE DE LA HIRE, became a member of the Académie des Sciences and worked on rather routine work calculating ephemeredes, and surveying. Le Fevre accused La Hire of stealing his tables after Philippe de La Hire published Tabulae Astronomicae in 1687. In 1701, resentful at not having been named official publisher of ephemerides to ...

  16. Portevin-Le chatelier effect

    PubMed

    Franklin; Mertens; Marder

    2000-12-01

    Aluminum subjected to smooth mechanical loading does not often deform in a correspondingly smooth manner. Typically it deforms inhomogeneously through the propagation of deformation fronts that slowly traverse the sample. These are called Portevin-Le Chatelier fronts; what determines their velocity has been somewhat mysterious. We present a phenomenological theory for deformation fronts that centers on a nonlocal rate dependence of the flow stress. In a one-dimensional idealization the equations can be solved exactly, and compared directly with experiment. Many significant features of deformation fronts are captured, including a well-known transition from hopping to continuous front motion. The phenomenology's predictions are confirmed by our experiments. PMID:11138118

  17. Exome Capture with Heterologous Enrichment in Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Guiatti, Denis; Pomari, Elena; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro; Stefanon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of new protein-coding DNA variants related to carcass traits is very important for the Italian pig industry, which requires heavy pigs with higher thickness of subcutaneous fat for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) productions. Exome capture techniques offer the opportunity to focus on the regions of DNA potentially related to the gene and protein expression. In this research a human commercial target enrichment kit was used to evaluate its performances for pig exome capture and for the identification of DNA variants suitable for comparative analysis. Two pools of 30 pigs each, crosses of Italian Duroc X Large White (DU) and Commercial hybrid X Large White (HY), were used and NGS libraries were prepared with the SureSelectXT Target Enrichment System for Illumina Paired-End Sequencing Library (Agilent). A total of 140.2 M and 162.5 M of raw reads were generated for DU and HY, respectively. Average coverage of all the exonic regions for Sus scrofa (ENSEMBL Sus_scrofa.Sscrofa10.2.73.gtf) was 89.33X for DU and 97.56X for HY; and 35% of aligned bases uniquely mapped to off-target regions. Comparison of sequencing data with the Sscrofa10.2 reference genome, after applying hard filtering criteria, revealed a total of 232,530 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of which 20.6% mapped in exonic regions and 49.5% within intronic regions. The comparison of allele frequencies of 213 randomly selected SNVs from exome sequencing and the same SNVs analyzed with a Sequenom MassARRAY® system confirms that this “human-on-pig” approach offers new potentiality for the identification of DNA variants in protein-coding genes. PMID:26431395

  18. Exome Capture with Heterologous Enrichment in Pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Guiatti, Denis; Pomari, Elena; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro; Stefanon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of new protein-coding DNA variants related to carcass traits is very important for the Italian pig industry, which requires heavy pigs with higher thickness of subcutaneous fat for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) productions. Exome capture techniques offer the opportunity to focus on the regions of DNA potentially related to the gene and protein expression. In this research a human commercial target enrichment kit was used to evaluate its performances for pig exome capture and for the identification of DNA variants suitable for comparative analysis. Two pools of 30 pigs each, crosses of Italian Duroc X Large White (DU) and Commercial hybrid X Large White (HY), were used and NGS libraries were prepared with the SureSelectXT Target Enrichment System for Illumina Paired-End Sequencing Library (Agilent). A total of 140.2 M and 162.5 M of raw reads were generated for DU and HY, respectively. Average coverage of all the exonic regions for Sus scrofa (ENSEMBL Sus_scrofa.Sscrofa10.2.73.gtf) was 89.33X for DU and 97.56X for HY; and 35% of aligned bases uniquely mapped to off-target regions. Comparison of sequencing data with the Sscrofa10.2 reference genome, after applying hard filtering criteria, revealed a total of 232,530 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of which 20.6% mapped in exonic regions and 49.5% within intronic regions. The comparison of allele frequencies of 213 randomly selected SNVs from exome sequencing and the same SNVs analyzed with a Sequenom MassARRAY® system confirms that this "human-on-pig" approach offers new potentiality for the identification of DNA variants in protein-coding genes. PMID:26431395

  19. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2008-09-01

    Fragmentation et astéroïdes binaires; Astéroïde géocroiseur triple; Rosetta sort de son hibernation; Messenger; Transit lunaire vu par Deep Impact; Titan; Phobos; Phoenix; Einstein avait raison; Le ballet des taches rouges; Le poids des lentilles;

  20. Alloimmunisation fœto-maternelle Rhésus grave à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Zineb, Benkerroum; Boutaina, Lachiri; Ikram, Lazrak; Driss, Moussaoui Rahali; Mohammed, Dehayni

    2015-01-01

    L'incompatibilité fœto-maternelle Rhésus peut être à l'origine d'un syndrome hémolytique dont l'expression clinique est l′anémie fœtale éventuellement compliquée par une anasarque fœto-placentaire ou à l'extrême une mort fœtale in utéro. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un cas d'allo immunisation Rhésus à 34 SA ayant aboutit un hydrops foetalis, l'extraction fœtale par césarienne en vue d'une exsanguino-transfusion a été réalisée, mais le nouveau né est décédé au cours de l'exsanguino-transfusion. Le dépistage des femmes à risque et l'utilisation d'Immunoglobulines anti D ont permis une réduction importante de l′incidence des accidents d'incompatibilité. La mesure du pic systolique de vélocité dans l'artère cérébrale moyenne a bouleversé la surveillance et la prise en charge prénatale des anémies fœtales secondaires à une allo-immunisation Rhésus. Son utilisation dans la surveillance des cas d'allo-immunisation Rhésus permettrait ainsi de réserver les procédures invasives (cordocentèse) comme geste thérapeutique qui permet la transfusion fœtale in utéro. Grâce à une collaboration multidisciplinaire cohérente, l'extraction fœtale peut être programmée, ce qui permet une prise en charge adéquate et rigoureuse, même des nouveaux nés avec atteinte sévère. PMID:26889318

  1. An intronic RNA structure modulates expression of the mRNA biogenesis factor Sus1

    PubMed Central

    AbuQattam, Ali; Gallego, José; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in chromatin remodeling and mRNA biogenesis. Unlike most yeast genes, the SUS1 pre-mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two introns and is alternatively spliced, retaining one or both introns in response to changes in environmental conditions. SUS1 splicing may allow the cell to control Sus1 expression, but the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unknown. Using in silico analyses together with NMR spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and UV thermal denaturation experiments, we show that the downstream intron (I2) of SUS1 forms a weakly stable, 37-nucleotide stem–loop structure containing the branch site near its apical loop and the 3′ splice site after the stem terminus. A cellular assay revealed that two of four mutants containing altered I2 structures had significantly impaired SUS1 expression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that all mutants accumulated unspliced SUS1 pre-mRNA and/or induced distorted levels of fully spliced mRNA relative to wild type. Concomitantly, Sus1 cellular functions in histone H2B deubiquitination and mRNA export were affected in I2 hairpin mutants that inhibited splicing. This work demonstrates that I2 structure is relevant for SUS1 expression, and that this effect is likely exerted through modulation of splicing. PMID:26546116

  2. Le syndrome d'apert

    PubMed Central

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome d'Apert est une affection congénitale rare, caractérisée par une sténose cranio-faciale associée à une syndactylie des mains et des pieds. Sa prise en charge doit être précoce et multidisciplinaire. Sa gravité réside dans la coexistence de plusieurs malformations avec un risque d'hypertension intracrânienne chronique responsable d'une cécité et d'une débilité mentale. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation à travers laquelle ils illustrent les aspects cliniques et évolutifs ainsi que les difficultés thérapeutiques de cette affection. PMID:23565313

  3. Intraday LeBaron effects

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Simone; Corsi, Fulvio; Renò, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation at intraday level between serial correlation and volatility of the Standard and Poor (S&P) 500 stock index futures returns. At daily and weekly levels, serial correlation and volatility forecasts have been found to be negatively correlated (LeBaron effect). After finding a significant attenuation of the original effect over time, we show that a similar but more pronounced effect holds by using intraday measures, by such as realized volatility and variance ratio. We also test the impact of unexpected volatility, defined as the part of volatility which cannot be forecasted, on the presence of intraday serial correlation in the time series by employing a model for realized volatility based on the heterogeneous market hypothesis. We find that intraday serial correlation is negatively correlated to volatility forecasts, whereas it is positively correlated to unexpected volatility.

  4. Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.

    1985-08-01

    PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400/sup 0/C to a target fluence of 5 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel.

  5. Serosurvey of leptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Milleson, Michael; Stoddard, Robyn; Bui, Duy M; Galloway, Renee

    2013-06-01

    Leptospira is a global pathogen of emerging public health importance in both developing and industrialized nations and can infect almost all mammalian species, including humans. As suburbanization and the popularity of outdoor recreational activities increases, so do human-wildlife and companion animal-wildlife interfaces. Florida offers a tropical climate favorable for outdoor activities and a semirural landscape that sustains an abundant feral hog population. Because no survey ofleptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida has been published to our knowledge, we sought to establish preliminary seroprevalence ofleptospirosis exposure in feral hogs in Florida. Blood samples were collected opportunistically from 158 male and 166 female feral hogs taken at managed hunts and by permitted trappers in the northern, central, and southern regions of Florida. Samples were then analyzed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody titers to 20 Leptospira serovars representing 17 serogroups. A titer of > 1:100 was considered positive; 33% (107/324 total samples) were positive to at least one serovar, and 46% of those were positive to multiple serovars. Antibodies to L. interrogans serovar Bratislava strain Jez Bratislava (serogroup Australis) was the most common, with 18% (58/324) testing positive for antibodies. These initial data indicate that there is a significant possibility of feral hogs having a larger role in the complex etiology of leptospirosis in Florida than historically estimated and that further investigation is warranted. PMID:23805559

  6. The Sus operon: a model system for starch uptake by the human gut Bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    Foley, Matthew H; Cockburn, Darrell W; Koropatkin, Nicole M

    2016-07-01

    Resident bacteria in the densely populated human intestinal tract must efficiently compete for carbohydrate nutrition. The Bacteroidetes, a dominant bacterial phylum in the mammalian gut, encode a plethora of discrete polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) that are selectively activated to facilitate glycan capture at the cell surface. The most well-studied PUL-encoded glycan-uptake system is the starch utilization system (Sus) of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. The Sus includes the requisite proteins for binding and degrading starch at the surface of the cell preceding oligosaccharide transport across the outer membrane for further depolymerization to glucose in the periplasm. All mammalian gut Bacteroidetes possess analogous Sus-like systems that target numerous diverse glycans. In this review, we discuss what is known about the eight Sus proteins of B. thetaiotaomicron that define the Sus-like paradigm of nutrient acquisition that is exclusive to the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes. We emphasize the well-characterized outer membrane proteins SusDEF and the α-amylase SusG, each of which have unique structural features that allow them to interact with starch on the cell surface. Despite the apparent redundancy in starch-binding sites among these proteins, each has a distinct role during starch catabolism. Additionally, we consider what is known about how these proteins dynamically interact and cooperate in the membrane and propose a model for the formation of the Sus outer membrane complex. PMID:27137179

  7. ViSUS: Visualization Streams for Ultimate Scalability

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, V

    2005-02-14

    In this project we developed a suite of progressive visualization algorithms and a data-streaming infrastructure that enable interactive exploration of scientific datasets of unprecedented size. The methodology aims to globally optimize the data flow in a pipeline of processing modules. Each module reads a multi-resolution representation of the input while producing a multi-resolution representation of the output. The use of multi-resolution representations provides the necessary flexibility to trade speed for accuracy in the visualization process. Maximum coherency and minimum delay in the data-flow is achieved by extensive use of progressive algorithms that continuously map local geometric updates of the input stream into immediate updates of the output stream. We implemented a prototype software infrastructure that demonstrated the flexibility and scalability of this approach by allowing large data visualization on single desktop computers, on PC clusters, and on heterogeneous computing resources distributed over a wide area network. When processing terabytes of scientific data, we have achieved an effective increase in visualization performance of several orders of magnitude in two major settings: (i) interactive visualization on desktop workstations of large datasets that cannot be stored locally; (ii) real-time monitoring of a large scientific simulation with negligible impact on the computing resources available. The ViSUS streaming infrastructure enabled the real-time execution and visualization of the two LLNL simulation codes (Miranda and Raptor) run at Supercomputing 2004 on Blue Gene/L at its presentation as the fastest supercomputer in the world. In addition to SC04, we have run live demonstrations at the IEEE VIS conference and at invited talks at the DOE MICS office, DOE computer graphics forum, UC Riverside, and the University of Maryland. In all cases we have shown the capability to stream and visualize interactively data stored remotely at the San

  8. LeSTIG1, an extracellular binding partner for the pollen receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2, promotes pollen tube growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihua; Kelley, Dior; Ezcurra, Inés; Cotter, Robyn; McCormick, Sheila

    2004-08-01

    As pollen tubes grow through the pistil they are thought to perceive and respond to diverse signals. The tomato pollen-specific receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2 might participate in signaling during pollen tube growth. We previously showed that the extracellular domain of LePRK2 interacts with a pollen protein, LAT52, before but not after pollen germination. To determine whether LePRK2 might have different binding partner(s) after pollen germination, we characterized two more proteins that, like LAT52, were identified in yeast two-hybrid screens using the extracellular domains of LePRK1 and LePRK2 as baits. We show that LeSHY, a leucine-rich repeat protein from pollen, and LeSTIG1, a small cysteine-rich protein from pistil, can bind the extracellular domains of both LePRK1 and LePRK2 in vitro. In vitro binding assays with the extracellular domain of LePRK2 suggested that LeSTIG1 could displace binding of LAT52, consistent with the idea that LePRK1 and LePRK2 might interact with different ligands at different stages of pollen tube growth. Exogenous LeSTIG1 promotes pollen tube growth in vitro. The interaction of these pollen kinases with LeSTIG1 supports the notion that LePRK1 and LePRK2 are involved in mediating pollen-pistil interactions. PMID:15255864

  9. Jan Potocki et le "Gothic Novel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finne, Jacques

    1970-01-01

    Establishes a parallel between the supernatural and fantastic qualities of Le Comte Jan Potocki's literary works, and the English gothic novels by comparing the elements of terror, mysterious atmosphere, and the supernatural beings involved. (DS)

  10. [Analysis of the progressivity of Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) financing].

    PubMed

    Ugá, Maria Alicia Domínguez; Santos, Isabela Soares

    2006-08-01

    This article analyzes the level of progressivity in taxes financing the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). Distribution of the tax burden financing the SUS was calculated using micro-data from the Household Budgets Survey, 2002-2003. The Kakwani index, which shows a tax system's level of progressivity, was calculated. The Kakwani index of public financing was -0.008, and SUS financing was nearly proportional to income. From a social justice perspective this is highly undesirable in a society like Brazil, with a Gini index of 0.57. The system should be clearly progressive in order to counterbalance the country's extreme income concentration. PMID:16832531

  11. Entrevue avec le Dr Charley Zeanah

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Le Dr Charles Zeanah est titulaire de la chaire de psychiatrie Mary K. Sellars-Polchow, professeur de pédiatrie clinique et vice-président de la pédopsychiatrie au département de psychiatrie et des sciences du comportement de la faculté de médecine de l’Université Tulane, à la Nouvelle-Orléans. Il est également directeur général de l’institut de la santé mentale des nourrissons et des jeunes enfants de Tulane. Il est récipiendaire de nombreux prix, notamment le prix de prévention Irving Phillips (AACAP), la mention élogieuse présidentielle pour sa recherche et son leadership exceptionnels en santé mentale des nourrissons (American Orthopsychiatric Association), le prix d’excellence clinique Sarah Haley Memorial (International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies), le prix de recherche en pédopsychiatrie Blanche F. Ittelson (APA), et le prix Serge Lebovici Award soulignant les contributions internationales à la santé mentale des nourrissons (World Association for Infant Mental Health). Le Dr Zeanah est fellow distingué de l’AACAP, fellow distingué de l’APA et membre du conseil d’administration de Zero to Three. Il est l’éditeur scientifique de Handbook of Infant Mental Health (3e édition) qui est considéré comme étant le manuel de pointe et la référence de base du domaine de la santé mentale des nourrissons.

  12. Identification and Characterization of the Sucrose Synthase 2 Gene (Sus2) in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Volpicella, Mariateresa; Fanizza, Immacolata; Leoni, Claudia; Gadaleta, Agata; Nigro, Domenica; Gattulli, Bruno; Mangini, Giacomo; Blanco, Antonio; Ceci, Luigi R.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase (SUS), which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for SUS in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo) is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur, and 5-BIL42). The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modeling approaches. The combined results of sucrose synthase 2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield. PMID:27014292

  13. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2014-06-01

    Future lune ? - L'âge de la Lune - Des volcans actifs sur Vénus - Un lac dans le cratère Gusev ? - Météorites et atmosphère martiennes - L’hexagone de Saturne - Pluton - Exo-Terre - Bêta Pictoris b - Cérès et Vesta depuis Mars - Naine froide - Parallaxes par Hubble - L2 Puppis et le sort du Soleil - Supernova et lentille gravitationnelle - Champ magnétique galactique - L’objet de Sakurai - Fermi et la matière noire - Lentille naine

  14. 23. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (19211925), SHOWING OPERATING MACHINERY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (1921-1925), SHOWING OPERATING MACHINERY, DOWSTREAM GATES, UPSTREAM SIDE - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  15. 20. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (19211925), SHOWING UPSTREAM GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (1921-1925), SHOWING UPSTREAM GATES, DOWNSTREAM SIDE AND SOUTH LOCKWALL - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  16. 30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING EAST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  17. 29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING WEST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  18. Mutations in the su(s) gene affect RNA processing in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, P K; Chien, A J; Corces, V G; Green, M M

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the effect of mutations in the suppressor of sable [su(s)] gene on P element-induced yellow alleles. Two independent mutations tested, y76d28 and y1#7, contain a 1.1-kilobase (kb) P element inserted in the 5' transcribed untranslated portion of the yellow gene. Sequences responsible for the y1#7 mutation are inserted in the same transcriptional orientation as yellow and cannot be processed by splicing, and this mutation is not suppressed by su(s) mutations. P element sequences are located in a transcriptional orientation opposite to that of the yellow gene in y76d28; these sequences can be spliced from a composite P element-yellow mRNA, resulting in low accumulation of a functional 1.9-kb yellow transcript. The levels of both the putative precursor P element-yellow RNA and the 1.9-kb yellow transcript increase in y76d28 su(s) flies, suggesting that mutations in su(s) do not affect the efficiency of splicing of the P element sequences. Analysis of y76d28 cDNAs isolated from flies carrying a wild-type or mutant su(s) gene demonstrates that the choice of splice junctions to process P element sequences is unchanged in these different backgrounds, suggesting that mutations in su(s) do not affect the selection of donor and acceptor splice sites. We propose that the su(s) protein functions to control the stability of unprocessed RNA during the splicing reaction. Images PMID:1714588

  19. Restart function of the LE-5 engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Kunio; Koyari, Yukio; Yanagawa, Koji; Katsuta, Hideaki; Taniguchi, Hirofumi; Torii, Yoshihiro

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the restart function of the LE-5 (Liquid Engine-5). The development of a de/anti-ice system and a sufficient pump precooling system was key in establishing this function. To ensure high reliability, a contingency device was also adopted. The functions were proved through actual flights.

  20. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs "vouloir,""pouvoir," and "venir,"…

  1. Le Francais Moderne: Part I, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Moderne: Part 1" focus on the development of vocabulary and mastery of grammatical structures. The formation of the passe compose with "avoir," object pronouns, the present tense of regular "-ir" verbs, and the irregular verbs…

  2. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  3. A Colorful Demonstration of Le Chbtelier's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Last, Arthur M.; Slade, Peter W.

    1997-01-01

    Le Chbtelier's Principle states that, when a system at equilibrium is subjected to stress, the system will respond in such a way as to minimize the effect of the stress. Describes a lecture demonstration that illustrates shifts in the position of equilibrium caused by a variety of factors. The equilibrium mixture contains iron (III) and…

  4. Type-1 chain histo-blood group antigens (Le(a), monosialosyl-Le(a), disialosyl-Le(a), Le(b), and H) in normal and malignant human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Ravn, V; Mandel, U; Svenstrup, B; Dabelsteen, E

    1994-01-01

    Type-1 chain histo-blood group antigens such as the Lewis (Le)a, monosialosyl-Le(a), Le(b) and H antigens show an increased expression in endometrial carcinomas. However, the possibility that these antigens are expressed under genetic or hormonal influence in endometrial carcinomas has not been considered. In the present study, the expression of type-1 chain carbohydrate antigens in normal and malignant endometrium was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and related to both genetic and hormonal factors. The glands of normal, non-secretory endometria expressed, in contrast with surface epithelial cells, Le(a), Le(b), disialosyl-Le(a), and H determinants infrequently. Adenomatous hyperplasias and endometrial carcinomas showed an increased expression of type-1 chain carbohydrates that was qualitatively influenced by the erythrocyte Lewis phenotype and the secretor status. Whereas Le(a+b-) non-secretors mainly accumulated Le(a) antigen, and only limited amounts of Le(b) antigen, Le(a-b+) secretors expressed H, Le(b) and Le(a) antigens. The expression of type-1 chain antigens showed no association with the serum-oestrogen level or to the hormone-receptor status. Thus the Lewis secretor status has a qualitative influence on the increased expression of type-1 chain antigens, which, however, seem to be unrelated to hormonal factors. Our findings suggest an increased activity of the Se-gene-defined or a closely related fucosyl-transferase in neoplastic endometrial epithelial cells. PMID:8032530

  5. Polarization-controlled optical ring cavity (PORC) tunable pulse stretcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Andrew P.; Kiefer, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    A new concept and a theoretical approach for modeling a tunable polarization-controlled optical ring cavity pulse stretcher is demonstrated. The technique discussed herein permits highly simplified and flexible tuning of the temporal shape of nanosecond duration pulses. Using half-wave plates positioned extra- and intracavity, transmission to reflection ratios across both input faces of a polarization beam splitter can easily be controlled. The resulting models indicate a further reduction in peak intensity of 30%, with respect to conventional dielectric beam splitting optical ring cavities, when configured under equivalent and optimized cavity settings.

  6. Le syndrome d’alcoolisme foetal

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    L’alcool est un tératogène physique et comportemental. Le syndrome d’alcoolisme foetal (SAF) est un trouble courant mais encore sous-diagnostiqué découlant de la consommation d’alcool par la mère pendant la grossesse. Bien qu’il puisse être prévenu, le SAF est également invalidant. Même si le SAF est présent dans tous les groupes socioéconomiques du Canada, sa prévalence est élevée dans certaines communautés inuites et des Premières nations du Canada. Le présent énoncé porte sur la prévention, le diagnostic, le dépistage précoce et la prise en charge du SAF par les professionnels de la santé. La prévention du SAF doit s’effectuer à deux échelons. La prévention primaire consiste à éliminer le SAF par une formation en classe ou dans la collectivité et à inciter les femmes à éviter de consommer de l’alcool avant la conception et pendant la grossesse. La prévention secondaire consiste à repérer les femmes qui boivent pendant leur grossesse et à réduire leur consommation. Le présent énoncé décrit plusieurs stratégies de dépistage, dont la stratégie T-ACE (tolérance-agacement, réduction, éveil). Les dispensateurs de soins devraient recommander l’abstinence dès la première visite prénatale. Un envoi rapide en consultation en vue de traiter l’alcoolisme est recommandé pour les femmes enceintes incapables d’arrêter de boire. Le présent énoncé décrit le diagnostic de SAF, de SAF partiel ou atypique, d’anomalies congénitales et de troubles neurodéveloppementaux reliés à l’alcool. En cas d’exposition à l’alcool in utero, un diagnostic de SAF devrait être envisagé en présence d’un retard de croissance courant ou antérieur, de certaines anomalies faciales touchant la lèvre supérieure et les yeux et d’anomalies neurodéveloppementales. Ces caractéristiques sont mieux quantifiées au moyen d’une méthode diagnostique à quatre chiffres. Des stratégies de dépistage précoce des

  7. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2013-06-01

    Une binaire remarquable; Collision de galaxies; La nébuleuse planétaire C1295; ALMA (suite); Couple massif; Astéroïdes lointains; L’eau de Jupiter; Occultation par Pluton; Super-Terres; Première image d’une planète massive autour d’une étoile double; Tempête au pôle de Saturne

  8. Les Troubles Respiratoires Chez Le Brule

    PubMed Central

    Fassi Fihri, J.; Ezzoubi, M.; Boukind, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A travers une revue de la littérature, cet article se propose d'exposer les particularités des troubles respiratoires chez le brûlé. Ces troubles sont liés à un mécanisme direct, lorsque l'arbre respiratoire est lésé par le transfert d'énergie thermique du à la brûlure et/ou par un mécanisme indirect, lorsque la fonction respiratoire et ventilatoire du poumon est perturbée par les phénomènes loco-régionaux ou généraux du brûlé. Ces troubles respiratoires sont aggravés par l'inhalation des gaz contenus dans la fumée d'incendie. Le diagnostic de ces troubles est clinique et paraclinique. Il doit être précoce et continu. Les patients nécessitent de différents moyens thérapeutiques tels que l'oxygénothérapie, la libération des voies respiratoires, l'amélioration de la mécanique ventilatoire et de la fonction respiratoire, l'antibiothérapie ou la chirurgie des séquelles. Cette prise en charge doit nécessairement être multidisciplinaire. PMID:21991224

  9. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  10. 2013 Higher Education Summit/SUS Data Workshop Proceedings. Session: IRM Data Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Information Resource Management--State University System of Florida (IRM-SUS) is the primary collector and provider of data concerning state universities that is used to make sound education policy decisions. The office provides technical assistance to those using the information, state and federal reporting support, those supplying information,…

  11. Development of nanostructured SUS316L-2%TiC with superior tensile properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Tsuchida, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Terasawa, M.; Yamasaki, T.; Kawai, M.

    2015-11-01

    Structural materials used in radiation environments require radiation tolerance and sufficient mechanical properties in the controlled state. In order to offer SUS316L austenitic stainless steel with the assumed requirements, nanostructured SUS316L with TiC addition of 2% (SUS316L-2TiC) that is capable of exhibiting enhanced tensile ductility and flow strength sufficient for structural applications was fabricated by advanced powder metallurgical methods. The methods include MA (Mechanical Alloying), HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), GSMM (Grain boundary Sliding Microstructural Modification) for ductility enhancement, cold rolling at temperatures below Md (the temperature where the martensite phase occurs by plastic deformation) for phase transformation from austenite to martensite and heat treatment for reverse transformation from martensite to austenite. It is shown that the developed SUS316L-2TiC exhibits ultrafine grains with sizes of 90-270 nm, accompanied by TiC precipitates with 20-50 nm in grain interior and 70-110 nm at grain boundaries, yield strengths of 1850 to 900 MPa, tensile strengths of 1920 to 1100 MPa and uniform elongations of 0.6-21%, respectively, depending on the heat treatment temperature after rolling at -196 °C.

  12. Absence of bovine tuberculosis in feral swine (Sus scrofa) from the Southern Texas border region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-ranging wildlife, like feral swine (Sus scrofa), harbor a variety of diseases that are infectious to livestock and could negatively impact agricultural production. Information is lacking regarding the exposure and infection rates for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis; bTB), and many othe...

  13. Le déficit immunitaire humoral: mieux le connaître pour mieux le prendre en charge

    PubMed Central

    El Bakkouri, Jalila; Aadam, Zahra; Ailal, Fatima; Alj, Hanane Salih; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Les déficits immunitaires humoraux (DIH) sont des maladies hétérogènes allant des formes asymptomatiques rencontrés lors des déficits sélectifs en immunoglobulines A (IgA) et en sous-classes d'IgG aux formes graves des agammaglobulinémies congénitales. Les patients atteints de DIH présentent souvent des infections ORL ou des voies respiratoires récidivantes ou sévères. Ces patients peuvent présenter un certain nombre de complications non infectieuses, telles que des manifestations auto-immunes et des entéropathies, qui pourraient être le seul symptôme clinique révélateur. Les formes sévères des DIH sont facilement diagnostiquées grâce au dosage des IgG totaux, des IgA et des IgM. La thérapie substitutive par les immunoglobulines reste le traitement de choix chez ces patients. PMID:25489366

  14. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of RcSUS1, a Cytosolic Sucrose Synthase Phosphorylated in Vivo at Serine 11 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds*

    PubMed Central

    Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M.; Mullen, Robert T.; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of 32Pi from [γ-32P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes. PMID:25313400

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of European wild boar, Sus scrofa scrofa.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Di; Yang, Xiao-Tian; Yang, En

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the European wild boar, Sus scrofa scrofa for the first time. The genome is found to be 16,770 bp in length and has a base composition of A (34.63%), G (13.38%), C (26.21%), and T (25.78%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (60.41%) was higher than G + C (39.59%). Similar to other pigs, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were located on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence provided here would add a new genetic resource and new study on the evolution of the genus Sus. PMID:25693697

  16. Effect of Pulse Current on the Tensile Deformation of SUS304 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Wang, Shen; Zhao, Shuangjun; Ding, Wei; Chen, Jun; Wu, Guohong

    2015-12-01

    The effect of pulse current on the mechanical properties of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless steel was studied by tension test with and without air-cooling under different current densities. The microstructural variations at different conditions were also studied by SEM, TEM, and Feritscope. A negative effect on the plasticity was observed when current pulse was applied without air-cooling. But when Joule heating resulting from current pulse was excluded by air-cooling, the elongation of SUS304 stainless steel was increased to 72.4% at a current density of 2.95 A/mm2, which is 23.3% higher than that tested without pulse current at room temperature. Pulse current can decrease the dislocation density and dislocation pile-ups. Furthermore, EP effect from pulse current can accelerate martensitic transformation and enhance TRIP effect. The mechanism of current-induced martensitic transformation was discussed from Gibbs free energy change.

  17. Lele de l’omalizumab dans le traitement de l’asthme allergique grave

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Kenneth R; Cartier, André; Hébert, Jacques; McIvor, R Andrew; Schellenberg, R Robert

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXTE : Un nouveau traitement anti-immunoglobuline E (anti-IgE) contre l’asthme, l’omalizumab, a été approuvé au Canada. OBJECTIF : Passer en revue les données fondamentales et cliniques sur l’omalizumab et examiner lele possible de ce médicament dans la prise en charge de l’asthme au Canada. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans MEDLINE afin de repérer les études menées de 1960 à 2006 sur l’omalizumab. La recherche a également porté sur les résumés de réunions scientifiques récentes dans le domaine des maladies respiratoires et des allergies; par ailleurs, toute donnée non publiée a été demandée au fabricant. Après avoir revu et résumé les données, un comité mixte constitué de spécialistes des maladies respiratoires et des allergies a rédigé un ensemble de recommandations relatives à l’utilisation de l’omalizumab. RÉSULTATS : L’omalizumab est un anticorps monoclonal humanisé qui se lie au domaine C epsilon 3 de la molécule d’IgE pour former des complexes immuns solubles qui sont éliminés par le système réticulo-endothélial. L’administration d’injections sous-cutanées espacées de deux ou de quatre semaines à la dose recommandée entraîne une diminution rapide des taux d’IgE circulantes libres. Lors de deux essais cliniques de phase III menés auprès de 1 405 adultes et adolescents atteints d’asthme modéré à grave qui recevaient des doses moyennes stables de corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI), l’omalizumab a diminué les taux d’exacerbation par rapport au placebo et a été associé à une amélioration des symptômes ainsi qu’à une épargne plus importante des corticostéroïdes. Dans un essai mené auprès de 419 patients atteints d’asthme grave non maîtrisé malgré l’utilisation de doses élevées de CSI et de la prise concomitante d’agonistes bêta-2 à action prolongée, les exacerbations graves étaient de 50 % moins fréquentes chez

  18. SUS in nuclear medicine in Brazil: analysis and comparison of data provided by Datasus and CNEN*

    PubMed Central

    Pozzo, Lorena; Coura Filho, George; Osso Júnior, João Alberto; Squair, Peterson Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient access to nuclear medicine procedures by means of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), analyzing the correspondence between data provided by this system and those from Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (National Commission of Nuclear Energy). Materials and Methods Data provided by Datasus regarding number of scintillation chambers, outpatient procedures performed from 2008 to 2012, administrative responsibility for such procedures, type of service providers and outsourced services were retrieved and evaluated. Also, such data were compared with those from institutions certified by CNEN. Results The present study demonstrated that the system still lacks maturity in terms of correct data input, particularly regarding equipment available. It was possible to list the most common procedures and check the growth of the specialty along the study period. Private centers are responsible for most of the procedures covered and reimbursed by SUS. However, many healthcare facilities are not certified by CNEN. Conclusion Datasus provides relevant data for analysis as done in the present study, although some issues still require attention. The present study has quantitatively depicted the Brazilian reality regarding access to nuclear medicine procedures offered by/for SUS. PMID:25741070

  19. [Evaluation of emergency services of the hospitals from the QualiSUS program].

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Gisele Oliveira; de Oliveira, Sergio Pacheco; de Seta, Marismary Horsth

    2009-01-01

    The aid lent by the emergency services is the object of this paper, which aims to assess the emergency service of the QualiSUS program. The study is descriptive with the application of a questionnaire to the responsible of the emergency services in eight hospitals. The emergency services were always overcrowded, and the causes pointed were the low resolutivity of basic attention and the precariousness of the hospital network. Contributing to this there is the primary care decreased resolutivity and the precariousness of the hospital network. Six hospitals do not manage the emergency service. The entrance system is not organized and only three hospitals work with risk classification. All of them refer difficulties with internal and external services. The hardest pathologies to refer to other services are the chronicles, neurological and social. The professionals do not have specific qualification and the precariousness job contracts do not contribute neither for the professional's fixation nor for his qualification. Clinical protocols are used by one service. It was noticed the influence of the QualiSUS in the hospitals. The failure of the health services network interferes with the emergency patient's profile. The investment of the QualiSUS cannot be restrained to the hospital. Emergency should be more integrated to the system and hospital. The qualification of human resources is indispensable as well as the bed's regulation. PMID:19851601

  20. [The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) is universal, but quotas are the norm].

    PubMed

    Viegas, Selma Maria da Fonseca; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the Unified Health System (SUS), health actions and services constitute a social right to be guaranteed by the State and managed under the responsibility of three autonomous spheres of government. This is a holistic multiple case study with a qualitative approach based on the assumptions of Comprehensive Everyday Sociology, which originated from a PhD thesis. It sought to understand the construction of comprehensive health practices in the daily work of family health teams and managers of the cities in Vale do Jequitinhonha - Minas Gerais, Brazil. The individuals studied were professionals from the Family Health Teams, support staff and managers with a total of 48 participants. In order to reveal the construction of the whole, the data show that "SUS is universal, but quotas are the norm." Bearing in mind its limitations, it is difficult to ensure that SUS is a right for all. Thus, regulation is essential to order, guide, define and optimize the use of resources available for comprehensive care and also guarantee public access to actions and services in a timely and equitable manner. PMID:23338508

  1. Intracranial subdural hygroma after Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William L; Lee, Michael; MacIntosh, Robert Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Various intra- and postoperative complications have been well-documented after Le Fort I osteotomies; however, an intracranial subdural hygroma has not yet been reported in oral and maxillofacial studies. We report a unique case of an intracranial subdural hygroma requiring neurosurgical intervention after Le Fort I advancement. PMID:25631863

  2. The Use of Le by L1 Chinese Speakers and the Acquisition of Le by L2 Chinese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredeche, Chi Chen

    2011-01-01

    The perfective marker V-"le" is claimed to be one of the most problematic items in the acquisition of L2 Chinese, perhaps because no unified and comprehensive treatment of it exists in the literature. Although much has been written on this topic, the semantic and pragmatic functions of V-"le" have remained elusive. While linguists and grammarians…

  3. Energy levels, wavelengths, and radiative transition probabilities for the Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 45

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Zhang; Qiren Zhu; Shoufu Pan )

    1992-11-01

    The investigation by Z.-Q Zhang et al. (Acta Optica Sinica 11, 193, 1991) shows that it is possible to realize soft X-ray lasing in the water window 23.3-43.8 [Angstrom] with the Na-like recombination scheme, which requires a lower pumping power at a high-power laser facility than that with other schemes. The fine-structure levels with n [le] 15 and l [le] 6 in Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 45 and the probabilities for radiative transitions between these levels are calculated using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock approach. The calculations show that the wavelengths of the anticipated laser transitions 6 f-4d and 6g-4f in the Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 43 and 5f-4d and 5g-4f in the Na-like ions with 40 [le] Z [le] 45 lie in the region of the water window.

  4. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  5. Point defect processes in neutron irradiated Ni, Fe-15Cr-16Ni and Ti-added modified SUS316SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiki, M.; Yoshiie, T.; Sato, K.; Xu, Q.

    2013-05-01

    The defect structures in Ni, Fe-15Cr-16Ni and Ti-added modified SUS316SS (modified SUS316) were examined after neutron irradiation below 0.3 dpa by the Japan Materials Testing Reactor and Belgian Reactor 2 to compare their defect structural evolution. The growth behaviour of interstitial-type dislocation loops (I-loops), stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) and voids was found to be quite different among these specimens. I-loops developed at lower temperatures in Ni than in Fe-15Cr-16Ni and modified SUS316, and more swelling occurred in Ni than in Fe-15Cr-16Ni. Finally, there were no voids in modified SUS316. These results were analysed in terms of the I-loop energy. A large discrepancy was found between the analytical results and experimental observations for Ni and modified SUS316, which suggests the formation of unfaulted I-loops directly from collision cascades. The growth of SFTs was detected in Fe-15Cr-16Ni and modified SUS316, and can be explained by a change in the dislocation bias of SFTs resulting from the absorption of alloying elements.

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in South Korean wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooseog; Yoon, Hachung; Kim, Yong Kwan; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Kim, Do-Soon; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite and a commonly encountered pathogen in humans and animals. The wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus) is considered a good indicator when monitoring environmental contamination by T. gondii. We surveyed the prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in wild boars from South Korea. Blood samples were collected from 426 wild boars captured in eight provinces of South Korea during the hunting seasons in 2008-12. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in samples from 152 of boars, indicating an overall antibody prevalence of 36% (95% confidence interval=31-40%). PMID:25014905

  7. A Serosurvey for Brucellosis in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pilo, Cristian; Addis, Giuseppe; Deidda, Manuela; Tedde, Maria Tania; Liciardi, Manuele

    2015-10-01

    Porcine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella suis and hosted by pigs (Sus scrofa). Both domestic pigs and wild boars are affected. We measured the prevalence of antibody to Brucella spp. in wild boars in Sardinia, Italy. During 1 November 2009 to 31 January 2010, we collected 570 serum samples from legally hunted wild boars and tested them using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sex and age class of the sampled wild boars were also recorded. Thirty-five samples were positive for an apparent antibody prevalence of 6.1%. Antibody prevalences did not differ between sexes or among age classes. PMID:26267463

  8. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Sandu black pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Sandu black pig is one of the native breed in Guizhou province in China. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Sandu black pig is 16,741 bp. Mitochondrial genome contains a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. This is the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence about Sandu black pig. The mitochondrial genome data of Sandu black pig presented is useful novel markers for further studying the population genetics of sus scrofa. PMID:25259459

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to porcine parvovirus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Roić, Besi; Cajavec, Stanislav; Toncić, Josip; Madić, Josip; Lipej, Zoran; Jemersić, Lorena; Lojkić, Mirko; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cac, Zeljko; Sostarić, Branko

    2005-10-01

    Serologic evidence of exposure to porcine parvovirus (PPV) in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Croatia was investigated. Serum samples from 219 wild boars captured during 2003 from 12 different locations in the Republic of Croatia were tested by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antibodies to PPV were detected in 91 (41.6%) of tested samples and positive results were detected in wild boar from all sample locations. Adults had a significantly higher prevalence (70%) than juveniles (31%; P < 0.01). Our results indicate that wild boar populations throughout the Republic of Croatia are exposed to PPV. PMID:16456171

  10. Les Hemorragies Gastroduodenales de Stress Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ababou, K.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Ihrai, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les Auteurs rapportent trois observations d'hémorragies gastroduodénales de stress chez le brûlé grave. Ils rappellent l'importance des mesures thérapeutiques qui doivent être prises chez le brûlé grave, comme le traitement du choc, du sepsis, des plaies et de la douleur, la nutrition entérale précoce et l'oxygénothérapie. Tout cela permet de réduire les facteurs de risque de survenue d'une hémorragie gastroduodénale de stress. PMID:21991137

  11. Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Jonathan; Gasparis, Epameinondas; Eden, Ammon H.; Kazman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Specification and [visual] modelling languages are expected to combine strong abstraction mechanisms with rigour, scalability, and parsimony. LePUS3 is a visual, object-oriented design description language axiomatized in a decidable subset of the first-order predicate logic. We demonstrate how LePUS3 is used to formally specify a structural design pattern and prove ( verify ) whether any JavaTM 1.4 program satisfies that specification. We also show how LePUS3 specifications (charts) are composed and how they are verified fully automatically in the Two-Tier Programming Toolkit.

  12. Impact de la varicocèle sur le volume testiculaire et les paramètres spermatiques

    PubMed Central

    Benazzouz, Mohamed Hicham; Essatara, Younes; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La varicocèle est une pathologie masculine fréquente dont l'incidence est encore plus importante dans dans la population des hommes infertiles. Si ses mécanismes sont à ce jour incomplètement expliqués il semble acquis que la varicocèle peut être associée a une dysfonction testiculaire avec diminution du volume testiculaire et de la concentration en spermatozoïde de l’éjaculat. Méthodes Dans un premier temps nous exposons les résultats d'une étude rétrospective sur 5 ans (de Mars 2009 à Mars 2014), réalisée au service d'urologie A de l'hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat et ayant comme objectif d’évaluer l'impact de la varicocèle palpable sur le volume testiculaire et les paramètres spermatiques. Tous les patients inclus dans notre étude avaient une varicocèle palpable. Dans un deuxième temps, et à travers une revue de la littérature nous discutons l'impact du traitement de la varicocèle sur la fertilité. Résultats 39 patients ont été inclus dans notre étude. L’âge moyen était de 29,71 ans et la varicocèle siégeait dans 89,74% des cas du coté gauche. Une atrophie testiculaire homolatérale à la varicocèle était retrouvée dans 7% des cas alors que des anomalies du spermogramme se voyaient dans 69,23% des cas. Conclusion L'impact de la varicocèle sur l'altération des paramètres spermatiques a été clairement établi bien que sa physio pathogénie ne soit pas bien élucidée. Le traitement chirurgical de la varicocèle semble indiqué chez les hommes infertiles présentant une varicocèle clinique et une altération significative du sperme. PMID:25918574

  13. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus-and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

  14. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2013-11-01

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus- and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

  15. The Use of Genomics in Conservation Management of the Endangered Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons)

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Mirte; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Madsen, Ole; Schaftenaar, Willem; Ryder, Oliver A.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The list of threatened and endangered species is growing rapidly, due to various anthropogenic causes. Many endangered species are present in captivity and actively managed in breeding programs in which often little is known about the founder individuals. Recent developments in genetic research techniques have made it possible to sequence and study whole genomes. In this study we used the critically endangered Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) as a case study to test the use of genomic information as a tool in conservation management. Two captive populations of S. cebifrons exist, which originated from two different Philippine islands. We found some evidence for a recent split between the two island populations; however all individuals that were sequenced show a similar demographic history. Evidence for both past and recent inbreeding indicated that the founders were at least to some extent related. Together with this, the low level of nucleotide diversity compared to other Sus species potentially poses a threat to the viability of the captive populations. In conclusion, genomic techniques answered some important questions about this critically endangered mammal and can be a valuable toolset to inform future conservation management in other species as well. PMID:27069913

  16. The Use of Genomics in Conservation Management of the Endangered Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons).

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Rascha J M; Bosse, Mirte; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Madsen, Ole; Schaftenaar, Willem; Ryder, Oliver A; Groenen, Martien A M; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The list of threatened and endangered species is growing rapidly, due to various anthropogenic causes. Many endangered species are present in captivity and actively managed in breeding programs in which often little is known about the founder individuals. Recent developments in genetic research techniques have made it possible to sequence and study whole genomes. In this study we used the critically endangered Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) as a case study to test the use of genomic information as a tool in conservation management. Two captive populations of S. cebifrons exist, which originated from two different Philippine islands. We found some evidence for a recent split between the two island populations; however all individuals that were sequenced show a similar demographic history. Evidence for both past and recent inbreeding indicated that the founders were at least to some extent related. Together with this, the low level of nucleotide diversity compared to other Sus species potentially poses a threat to the viability of the captive populations. In conclusion, genomic techniques answered some important questions about this critically endangered mammal and can be a valuable toolset to inform future conservation management in other species as well. PMID:27069913

  17. Comparison of two codon optimization strategies enhancing recombinant Sus scrofa lysozyme production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Cai, G; Wu, D; Lu, J

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme has played an important role in animal feed additive industry, food additive industry and biological engineering. For improving expression efficiency of recombinant lysozyme from Sus scrofa, two genes respectively designed by the most used codon optimization strategies, "one amino acid one codon" and "codon randomization", were synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris X—33. At shaking flask level, Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL) under two conditions had a highest activity of 153.33±10.41 and 538.33±15.18 U/mL after a 5 days induction of 1% methanol, with secreted protein concentration 80.03±1.94 and 239.60±4.16 mg/L, respectively. Compared with the original SSL gene, the expression of optimized SSL gene by the second strategy showed a 2.6 fold higher level, while the first method had no obvious improvement in production. In total secreted protein, the proportions of recombinant SSL encoded by the original gene, first method optimized gene and the second—strategy optimized one were 75.06±0.25%, 74.56±0.14% and 79.00±0.14%, respectively, with the same molecular weight about 18 kDa, optimum acidity pH 6.0 and optimum temperature 35degC. PMID:26025401

  18. Development status of LE-7 fuel turbopump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Nagao, R.; Ohta, T.; Warashina, S.; Watanabe, H.; Oguchi, H.

    The liquid hydrogen turbopump (LH2 T/P) for the LE-7 engine has been developed since 1984. The component PDR was held in June 1988 and the basic troubles occurred at the development test were solved. Next, the component CDR-1 was held in December 1989 in order to feed back the test results of prototype LH2 T/P model to the design of qualification phase T/P. So, the production of these turbopumps was admitted. Recently, the component CDR-2 was held in February 1992 to reflect the counterparts adopted for some troubles (impeller and turbine blade cracks and so on) in long-time engine tests to the design of qualification phase T/P. In the qualification phase, the hydraulic characteristics and strength in the engine operating range were examined at the LH2 T/P component test, and its endurance confirmed at the engine tests. The LH2 turbopump component test was held at NASDA Kakuda and the engine test at Tashiro and Tanegashima. This paper describes the development status of LH2 T/P, containing the design description and the content of some troubles and its counterplans.

  19. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2007-09-01

    Anions interstellaires; S Orionis; Altaîr; Courants stellaires; Etoiles jeunes; 2MASSW J1207334-393254; Alpha Andromède; Etoiles à neutrons (1); LH54-425; AGNs invisibles; Deux supernovae; Les GRBs seon Swift; Peser les trous noirs; Formation de trous noirs; Trou noir; ondes gravitationnelles : Virgo entre dans sa phase d'exploitation scientifique; Amas de galaxies actifs; Amas de galaxies; Galaxies actives d'amas; L'univers statique: le retour; Macho; Exoplanètes; Exoplanètes habitables?; Exoplanètes habitables? (suite); Une année d'un an; Une année de 31 heures; Valse des Jupiters; Disque de HD 15115; Impact majeur; Planètes isolées; Super-Jupiter; Impact et mini-extinction; L'effet Pioneer; Toungouska; Spéléo martienne; Autres lunes dactives; Encelade; Hypérion; Pluton dépassé; Satellites d'Uranus; Titan

  20. Transmaxillary Sinus Approach for Le Fort II Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The Le Fort II osteotomy is a relatively rare operation. The posterior wall osteotomy of the maxillary sinus (MS) is often difficult for Le Fort III. We developed the transmaxillary sinus approach (TSA) for the Le Fort II osteotomy that cuts the posterior wall of the MS directly. This report illustrates this easy-to-use procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy in syndromic craniosynostosis. This procedure was performed in an 18-year-old patient with Apert syndrome and a 15-year-old patient with Pfeiffer syndrome. The thin anterior walls of the MS were removed through an intraoral approach to look inside the MS. Then, the posterior walls were cut by chisel under direct vision using light. The other osteotomy was performed as usual. Distraction osteogenesis with internal and external devices was used in combination. The advantages of TSA are the direct posterior wall osteotomy of the MS with no down fracture and minimal invasiveness to the mucosa of the MS under direct vision. However, the disadvantage is that TSA becomes a blind procedure in a case with no MS or hypoplasia. We developed the TSA for the Le Fort II osteotomy, which could provide direct observation and perform the posterior wall osteotomy of the MS without down fracture. We believe that TSA is an effective surgical procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy. PMID:27014548

  1. Transmaxillary Sinus Approach for Le Fort II Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2016-02-01

    The Le Fort II osteotomy is a relatively rare operation. The posterior wall osteotomy of the maxillary sinus (MS) is often difficult for Le Fort III. We developed the transmaxillary sinus approach (TSA) for the Le Fort II osteotomy that cuts the posterior wall of the MS directly. This report illustrates this easy-to-use procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy in syndromic craniosynostosis. This procedure was performed in an 18-year-old patient with Apert syndrome and a 15-year-old patient with Pfeiffer syndrome. The thin anterior walls of the MS were removed through an intraoral approach to look inside the MS. Then, the posterior walls were cut by chisel under direct vision using light. The other osteotomy was performed as usual. Distraction osteogenesis with internal and external devices was used in combination. The advantages of TSA are the direct posterior wall osteotomy of the MS with no down fracture and minimal invasiveness to the mucosa of the MS under direct vision. However, the disadvantage is that TSA becomes a blind procedure in a case with no MS or hypoplasia. We developed the TSA for the Le Fort II osteotomy, which could provide direct observation and perform the posterior wall osteotomy of the MS without down fracture. We believe that TSA is an effective surgical procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy. PMID:27014548

  2. Three-dimensional Nasolabial Morphologic Alterations Following Le Fort I

    PubMed Central

    DeSesa, Christopher R.; Metzler, Philip; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Le Fort I osteotomy imparts significant changes to the nasolabial region. Past studies have relied on 2-dimensional data and have not delineated differences among various Le Fort I subtypes. The purpose of this study is to 3-dimensionally analyze Le Fort I–induced nasal and lip changes comparing advancement alone versus widening alone [surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME)] versus advancement and widening. We hypothesize that the combination of maxillary advancement with widening will result in the most profound changes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Included Le Fort I patients were grouped as: (1) nonsegmental straight advancement, (2) widening without advancement, and (3) segmental advancement and widening. Pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry (Canfield) were analyzed. Anthropometric landmarks were placed and measured by 2 independent observers. Statistics involved both paired and unpaired t tests (significance = P < 0.05). Results: One hundred eight photogrammetric data sets were analyzed, including 46 single-piece, 26 SAME, and 36 segmental. Significant postoperative nasal changes were observed within each intragroup analysis. The most dramatic changes were seen after segmental Le Fort I with advancement and widening, which included alar base width, alar width, nostril width, and soft triangle angle, all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy results in significant alteration of the nasolabial morphology. This is the first study to 3-dimensionally analyze nasal changes that occur comparing maxillary advancement alone versus widening alone (SAME) versus advancement with widening. These objective data permit improved patient counseling and surgical planning. PMID:27622116

  3. Lactobacillus equigenerosi Strain Le1 Invades Equine Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Marlie; Botes, Marelize; Loos, Ben; Smith, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus equigenerosi strain Le1, a natural inhabitant of the equine gastrointestinal tract, survived pH 3.0 and incubation in the presence of 1.5% (wt/vol) bile salts for at least 2 h. Strain Le1 showed 8% cell surface hydrophobicity, 60% auto-aggregation, and 47% coaggregation with Clostridium difficile C6. Only 1% of the cells adhered to viable buccal epithelial cells and invaded the cells within 20 min after contact. Preincubation of strain Le1 in a buffer containing pronase prevented adhesion to viable epithelial cells. Preincubation in a pepsin buffer delayed invasion from 20 min to 1 h. Strain Le1 did not adhere to nonviable epithelial cells. Administration of L. equigenerosi Le1 (1 × 109 CFU per 50 kg body weight) to healthy horses did not increase white blood cell numbers. Differential white blood cell counts and aspartate aminotransferase levels remained constant. Glucose, lactate, cholesterol, and urea levels remained constant during administration with L. equigenerosi Le1 but decreased during the week after administration. PMID:22504808

  4. Searching the animal psyche with Charles Le Brun.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah R

    2010-07-01

    Around 1670 the French court painter and Academician Charles Le Brun produced a series of drawings featuring naturalistic animal heads, as well as imaginary heads in which he refashioned various nonhuman animal species to make humanoid physiognomies. What were the purpose and significance of these unusual works? I argue that they show Le Brun's interest in what we today would call animal psychology: focusing upon the sensory organs and their connections with the animal's brain, Le Brun studied his animals as conscious protagonists of the natural realm. One source that may have served him in this project was Marin Cureau de La Chambre's De la Connoissance des bestes of 1645, in which the physician argued that animals possess a conscious soul grounded in the senses. However, Le Brun's animal-humans have no clear place in the artist's taxonomy--nor, indeed, in any seventeenth-century understandings of species. It is rather John Locke, at his most skeptical, who offers the best parallel in the realm of natural philosophy to Le Brun's unsettling animal-humans. Probably without meaning to, Le Brun demonstrated through his eerie, boundary-crossing creatures the limits of visual classification. PMID:20853815

  5. Le Point sur la Pharmacologie des Agents Anesthesiques Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Ababou, K.; Benziane, H.; El Jaoudi; Bensghir, M.; Bakali, H.; El Wali, A.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary La pharmacologie des agents anesthésiques chez le brûlé est variable et imprévisible. Dans les premières 48 h, il y a une hypovolémie avec chute du débit cardiaque et des fuites plasmatiques. Après 48 h, il y a une hypervolémie avec augmentation du débit cardiaque, hypermétabolisme et la clearance des médicaments est augmentée. Parmi les facteurs de déséquilibre, on retrouve les variations des protéines plasmatiques. Deux protéines sont importantes chez le brûlé grave : l'albumine et l'alpha 1- glycoprotéine. Leur taux varie beaucoup au cours de l'évolution de la brûlure. Les agents anesthésiques dont la liaison avec ces deux protéines est prédominante verront leur pharmacocinétique modifiée. L'anesthésiste-réanimateur du service des brûlés va maîtriser ces notions pharmacologiques pour utiliser à bon escient les agents anesthésiques. PMID:21991108

  6. Synthesis of a BSA-Le(x) glycoconjugate and recognition of Le(x) analogues by the anti-Le(x) monoclonal antibody SH1: the identification of a non-cross reactive analogue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jo-Wen; Asnani, Ari; Auzanneau, France-Isabelle

    2010-10-15

    A Le(x) trisaccharide functionalized with a cysteamine arm was prepared and this synthesis provided additional information on the reactivity of N-acetylglucosamine O-4 acceptors when they are glycosylated with trichloroacetimidate donors activated with excess BF(3)·OEt(2). In turn, this trisaccharide was conjugated to BSA lysine side chains through a squarate-mediated coupling. This BSA-Le(x) glycoconjugate displayed 35 Le(x) haptens per BSA molecule. The relative affinity of the anti-Le(x) monoclonal antibody SH1 for the Le(x) antigen and analogues of Le(x) in which the D-glucosamine, L-fucose or D-galactose residues were replaced with D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-glucose, respectively, was measured by competitive ELISA experiments. While all analogues were weaker inhibitors than the Le(x) antigen, only the analogue of Le(x) in which the galactose residue was replaced by a glucose unit showed no binding to the SH1 mAb. To confirm that the reduced or loss of recognition of the Le(x) analogues by the anti-Le(x) mAb SH1 did not result from different conformations adopted by the analogues when compared to the native Le(x) antigen, we assessed the conformational behavior of all trisaccharides by a combination of stochastic searches and NMR experiments. Our results showed that, indeed, the analogues adopted the same stacked conformation as that identified for the Le(x) antigen. The identification of a trisaccharide analogue that does not cross-react with Le(x) but still retains the same conformation as Le(x) constitutes the first step to the design of a safe anti-cancer vaccine based on the dimeric Le(x) tumor associated carbohydrate antigen. PMID:20843695

  7. Cell proliferation in the seminiferous and epididymal epithelia of Sus domesticus.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Mañas, C M; Beltrán-Frutos, E; Ferrer, C; Seco-Rovira, V; Pinart, E; Briz, M D; Bonet, S; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2014-03-15

    It is important to understand the proliferative activity of the different structures of the male reproductive apparatus in livestock species, such as Sus domesticus, to ensure reproductive efficiency. The main aims of this study were (a) to evaluate the proliferative activity of the spermatogonia in the different stages of the seminiferous cycle and (b) to study the cell proliferation in the epididymal epithelium in each region, identifying the different cells involved. For this, the testes and epididymis of three healthy, sexually mature Sus domesticus boars were used. The organs were processed for light microscopy, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The cells immunostaining positively and negatively for proliferating cell nuclear antigen were counted and several parameters and indexes were calculated to evaluate the proliferation in both epithelia, taking into account the stage of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, and, in the case of the epididymal epithelium, the different regions and cells are the same. Finally, a contrast analysis of equality between pairs of means was carried out followed by a least significant differences test, in which differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. In the seminiferous epithelium, the greatest total number of spermatogonia and proliferating spermatogonia was observed in the postmeiotic stages (mainly VII and VIII). The proliferation index of the spermatogonia increased from the meiotic to postmeiotic stages. As regards the epididymal epithelium, the total proliferation index was higher in the caput. In each region, the clear and principal cells showed the highest proliferation index with respect to the total number of cells counted, whereas the proliferation index of each cell with respect to the same type was higher in the clear cells, followed by the narrow and principal cells. In conclusion, the proliferative activity of spermatogonia in the seminiferous

  8. Un exemple de transfert de technologie dans le domaine des polymères conducteurs : le projet ``HYRA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parneix, J. P.; Miane, J. L.; Colin, T.; Ruffie, G.; Mege, J.

    1998-06-01

    The HYRA project is a response to the restructuration of local companies : these are purveyors of high technology military and spatial especially in the radars business. Furthermore, the development of mobile communications needs devices and materials in the millimeter range (from 20 to 100Ghz). The aim of the HYRA project is the development of materials with specific properties - particularly conducting materials - in the millimeter wave range. The results obtained on thermoplastic/conducting polymer composites are presented. Le projet HYRA répond à des préoccupations régionales liées à des restructurations industrielles : les industries régionales fournissant les marchés militaires et spatiaux disposent de techniques très performantes mais coûteuses, en particulier dans le domaine des radars. Par ailleurs le développement des communications mobiles a besoin de dispositifs et de matériaux dans tout le domaine millimétrique (de 20 à 100 Ghz). Le projet HYRA a pour but le développement de matériaux à propriétés spécifiques - en particulier conducteurs - dans ce domaine de fréquence. Les résultats obtenus sur des composites thermoplastiques/polymères conducteurs sont présentés.

  9. Transitions de phase dans le oxyde de yttrium vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, Benoit

    Dans le mémoire qui suit, les ordres structural, magnétiques et orbital dans le YVO3 sont étudiés avec l'aide de la diffraction des rayons X,de la spectroscopie Raman et de la technique de la cavité résonnante hyperfréquence. L'objectif premier consiste à observer l'évolution de ces ordres en fonction de la température. Le mémoire met ensuite en évidence le couplage entre les différents ordres cohabitants dans le YVO3 . Les mesures effectuées par la diffraction des rayons X permettent de mesurer le caractère polycrystallin des échantillons du YVO 3. Une comparaison de nos mesures avec des mesures de diffraction des rayons X faites sur la poudre de YVO3 indique la faible présence de maclage. Les mesures effectuées avec la technique de résonnance hyperfréquence permettent de suivre l'évolution de la constante diélectrique en fonction de la température. Les changements impliquant l'ordre orbital se manifestent de manière évidente dans la constante diélectrique à 200 K et à 77 K. La transition diélectrique détectée à 77 K est une transition de premier ordre. Un couplage entre les propriétés diélectriques et magnétiques est observable à la température de Néel à 114 K. L'effet d'un champ magnétique fixe sur la température de transition de l'ordre orbital survenant à 77 K est également remarquable. Cela indique un couplage magnétodiélectrique démontrant ainsi le caractère multiferroïque du YVO 3. Finalement, l'observation d'un mécanisme de relaxation pouvant être modélisé par le modèle d'Havriliak-Negami est observé en dessous de 77 K. En utilisant le modèle d'Arrhénius et le modèle d'Havriliak-Negami, on peut caractériser le mécanisme avec son énergie d'activation et son temps de relaxation. Les mesures effectuées en spectroscopie Raman permettent de suivre l'évolution de la structure du YVO3 en fonction de la température. Les deux changements structuraux survenant à 200 K et 77 K sont observés. Le

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of bearded pig, Sus barbatus, and comparative mitochondrial genomics of Cetartiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-Chuan; Xu, Bao-Hua; Liu, Hong-Chen

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of bearded pig, Sus barbatus, with the total length of 16,480 bp, is determined for the first time. This mitogenome harbors 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and one control region (D-loop). The overall base composition is A (34.80%), C (26.07%), G (13.12%), and T (26.01%), so the slight A-T bias (60.81%) was detected. Most of the genes are distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. To obtain the phylogenetic relationship of the Cetartiodactyla, 11 mitochondrial genomes were used for phylogenetic analysis. The mitochondrial genome of S. barbatus presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the population genetics. PMID:26104157

  11. [The Citizen Constitution and the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2013-10-01

    This article, celebrating the 25th anniversary of Brazil's 1988 Constitution, aims to review the country's social policy development, discuss political projects, and analyze challenges for the sustainability of the Unified National Health System (SUS). Based on public policymaking studies, the article revisits the origins of liberal social policy, focused on social assistance, and analyzes the hegemony of U.S. policies targeting poverty and their repercussions for universal policies. After identifying the formulation of political projects in Brazil's democratic transition, it discusses their implications during the various Administrations since 1988, along with the difficulties faced by the National Health System. The article concludes that the political forces occupying government in the last two decades have failed to present a project for the country on the same level as those who drafted the Citizen Constitution. PMID:24127081

  12. Congenital toxoplasmosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and identification of the Toxoplasma gondii types involved.

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Gómez-Gordo, Luis; Saugar, José María; Frontera, Eva; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Reina, David; Serrano, Francisco Javier; Fuentes, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis has been little described in wild animals. We report a case of vertical transmission in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Necropsy and histopathologic examination of a pregnant female and her three fetuses revealed all to have lesions compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Nested polymerase chain reaction B1 gene detected Toxoplasma gondii in maternal (heart and diaphragm) and fetal (central nervous system, retina, optic nerve, heart, lung, tongue, and diaphragm) samples. The mother had a mixed infection of T. gondii types I and III. One fetus with type III infection developed no malformations, but the others-one with type I infection and one infected by types I and III-showed bilateral ocular agenesis, prognathism, and agenesis of the nasal cartilage. These results suggest the pathogenicity of the various T. gondii types may differ in wild boars. PMID:24502733

  13. First reports of Trichinella pseudospiralis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) of Italy.

    PubMed

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bardasi, Lia; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Spaggiari, Brunella; Maioli, Giulia; Conedera, Gabriella; Vio, Denis; Londero, Mauro; Marucci, Gianluca; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Pozio, Edoardo; Capelli, Gioia

    2011-06-10

    Trichinella pseudospiralis is a non-encapsulated species infecting both mammals and birds. In Italy, this parasite was reported only in two night-birds of prey of Central Italy. In January 2010, Trichinella larvae were detected in three wild boars (Sus scrofa) of two regions of Northern Italy by enzymatic digestion. The parasites were identified as T. pseudospiralis by multiplex-PCR. The first infected wild boar was hunted in the Emilia Romagna region and the other two infected wild boars were bred outdoors in a small family farm of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region. These new epidemiological data reinforce the role of the wild boar as the main reservoir of T. pseudospiralis in Europe. PMID:21296503

  14. Lead and cadmium in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Mulero, Rocío; Cano-Manuel, Javier; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Pérez, Jesús M; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón; Fandos, Paulino; Granados, José E; Romero, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate Pb and Cd levels in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (SNNS) (southern Spain). Heavy metal concentrations in livers, kidneys and bones from 111 animals were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Bones and kidneys were the most Pb- and Cd-contaminated tissues, respectively; Cd concentrations were 5.6 times higher in kidneys than in livers. This is the first biomonitoring study of these pollutants in wild boar tissues in the SNNS, and findings indicate that this population is chronically exposed to these heavy metals. The detected Pb and Cd concentrations were lower than those found in many studies performed in Europe on the same species. PMID:27178294

  15. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. PMID:25979683

  16. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis mixed infection in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) of Germany.

    PubMed

    Nöckler, K; Reckinger, S; Pozio, E

    2006-04-30

    A wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the island Usedom in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (north-east Germany) was detected as Trichinella-positive during routine meat inspection. Encapsulated and non-encapsulated larvae were detected in the muscle tissue by trichinoscopy. In the diaphragm, 922 larvae per g were detected by artificial digestion. Muscle larvae displayed two different sizes of about 700 and 1100 microm. By a multiplex PCR analysis, larvae with a large size were identified as Trichinella spiralis, whereas those of a smaller size were identified as Trichinella pseudospiralis. This is the first finding of a mixed infection of T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis in a naturally infected animal and it supports the tendency of more frequent detection of the non-encapsulated species T. pseudospiralis in Europe. PMID:16513281

  17. Surface reaction and bulk diffusion of tritium in SUS-316 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugisaki, M.; Furuya, H.; Ueki, H.; Ejima, S.

    1985-08-01

    Diffusivities of tritium in SUS-316 stainless steel were measured by a gas-absorption method in the temperature range from 603 to 853 K. The measurements were carried out on clean and modified surfaces, which were carefully prepared by well characterized treatments. The diffusion behavior of the clean surface is successfully described by a simple diffusion equation and the bulk diffusion coefficient of tritium was determined as D(cm 2/s) = 4.2 × 10 2 exp( {-64}/{( {RT}/{kJ}) }) . The diffusion process for the modified surface was not explained by a simple diffusion equation but by a diffusion equation having an induction period. The microscopic explanation of the induction period is given.

  18. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Pedersen, Kerri; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-08-15

    The protozoon Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids (Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from 29 states of the USA were tested for N. caninum antibodies, using the N. caninum agglutination test (NAT). Of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, with a range of titers of 1:25 (cut-off) (n=153), 1:200 (1), 1:400 (1), 1:800 (3) and 1:3200 (1). Results indicate widespread exposure of feral swine to N. caninum infection across the USA. PMID:27514880

  19. Lele de métrologie de SOLEIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idir, M.; Brochet, S.; Delmotte, A.; Lagarde, B.; Mercere, P.; Moreno, T.; Polack, F.; Thomasset, M.

    2006-12-01

    Lele de METROLOGIE de SOLEIL a pour objet de créer sur le synchrotron SOLEIL, une plateforme constituée : - une ligne de lumière utilisant le rayonnement synchrotron (métrologie dite à la longueur d'onde) - d'un laboratoire de métrologie associé (métrologie dite ll classique gg ) Ces deux types de Métrologie sont l'une et l'autre indispensables pour soutenir l'activité de recherche instrumentale en optique X et X-UV. Ce projet de pôle de METROLOGIE ne répondra pas seulement aux besoins des groupes chargés de l'équipement du synchrotron SOLEIL en optiques et détecteurs mais aussi pour préparer, tester et mettre au point les postes expérimentaux, ce qui concerne déjà une large communauté d'utilisateurs. Il sera aussi largement ouvert, dès sa mise en service, à l'ensemble de la communauté scientifique concernée par l'instrumentation X et XUV en Ile de France, en France, voire même en Europe si la demande continue de croître plus vite que l'offre dans ce domaine. Ligne de lumière Métrologie à la longueur d'onde La ligne de lumière sera équipée de plusieurs stations permettant de mesurer, dans la plus grande partie du spectre couvert par le synchrotron, les paramètres photométriques qui caractérisent les éléments optiques, tels que : la réflectivité de surfaces, l'efficacité de diffraction des réseaux, la diffusion des surfaces ou l'efficacité des détecteurs X et X-UV et la calibration absolue. Cette installation pourra servir également à développer des instruments et des diagnostics nécessaires à la caractérisation des faisceaux de rayons X (intensité, taille, degré de cohérence, polarisation etc.) Métrologie Classique La métrologie des surfaces optiques est devenue une nécessité critique pour les laboratoires et les industries qui utilisent les photons X et X-UV (synchrotrons, centres laser, etc. .). En effet, les progrès de calcul et de conception des systèmes optiques pour ces longueurs d'onde (optiques

  20. Expression of blood group antigens H-2, Le(y), and sialylated-Le(a) in human colorectal carcinoma. An immunohistochemical study using double-labeling techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, H. S.; Malecha, M. J.; Bass, C.; Fagel, P. L.; Steplewski, Z.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, double-labeling immunohistochemistry was used to gain insight into the coexpression or interrelationship between blood group antigens (BGA) that are differentiation antigens in the normal colon, and BGA that are sequential moieties in the same synthetic pathway. Paired-wise Sialylated-Le(a)/Le(y) and H-2/Le(y) was studied. The Sialylated-Le(a) and Le(y) are synthesized from type 1 and type 2 backbones, respectively. In the normal colon, the Le(y) and Sialylated-Le(a) are expressed by cells at the base and surface of the crypt, respectively, representing undifferentiated and differentiated enterocytes. The H-2 is considered oncofetal in nature, and is considered to be the immediate precursor in the synthesis of Le(y). In individual cancers. Sialylated-Lea and Le(y) were detected in different cancer cells within the same malignant glands, separately in different glands, and in different subcellular compartments of the same cell. Both H-2 and Le(y) were coexpressed in the same individual cells in 92% of cancers expressing both these BGA. In 50% of the cancers, the H-2 and Le(y) also were expressed separately in different malignant glands within individual tumors. These findings indicate that, in colorectal cancers, differentiation antigens (Sialylated Le(a) and Le(y)) are expressed by different individual cells within the same malignant gland somewhat, recapitulating the normal colon crypt. Antigens of different backbones occasionally may be expressed in the same cells but within different subcellular compartments. Precursor accumulation is common in cancers, and antigens in the same synthetic pathway are coexpressed in the same cell. The expression of H-2 and Le(y) in different glands (lack of coexpression) may be explained possibly by aberrant synthesis of Le(y) by an alternate pathway. Images Figure 1 PMID:1987759

  1. Trigeminocardiac reflex and haemodynamic changes during Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kiani, M T; Tajik, G; Ajami, M; Fazli, H; Kharazifard, M J; Mesgarzadeh, A

    2016-05-01

    The Le Fort I osteotomy is performed under general anaesthesia and specific haemodynamic conditions, i.e. hypotensive general anaesthesia. This study assessed the incidence of the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during the different stages of the Le Fort I osteotomy. Forty-seven patients requiring a Le Fort I osteotomy were included. General anaesthesia was induced. In terms of haemodynamic changes, each patient's oxygen saturation (SpO2), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored by SADAAT Monitoring System and recorded during the different stages of osteotomy: before the induction of anaesthesia, before osteotomy cuts, after finishing the right pterygoid plate osteotomy, after finishing the left pterygoid plate osteotomy, and after performing down-fracture of the maxilla. No significant alteration in haemodynamic values was seen at the different stages of Le Fort I osteotomy. One patient showed arrhythmia with non-sinus junction rhythm after sinus bradycardia and two premature atrial contractions in the down-fracture stage, which led to the abrupt cessation of the procedure by the surgeon. This study showed no significant alterations in haemodynamic values during the different stages of Le Fort I osteotomy. Halting the procedure momentarily was sufficient to allow spontaneous normalization of the HR, blood pressure, and dysrhythmia. PMID:26794400

  2. Le lipome para testiculaire: à propos d'un cas rare

    PubMed Central

    Lasri, Abdelouahed; Lamchahab, Hamza; Lahyani, Mounir; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2015-01-01

    Les tumeurs para testiculaires sont des tumeurs rares et complexes qui ont une symptomatologie insidieuse et pauvre. Les formes bénignes représentent 70%. Le lipome para testiculaire étant le type le plus fréquent. L'examen clinique est peu spécifique. L'examen échographique est la pierre angulaire pour assoir le diagnostic. Le traitement chirurgical s'impose en cas de tumeur symptomatique, l'histologie étant habituellement typique permet la confirmation diagnostique. Le pronostic est bon malgré d’éventuelles récidives. PMID:26175802

  3. Pterygoid Plate Fractures: Not Limited to Le Fort Fractures.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravi K; Alsheik, Nila H; Afifi, Ahmed M; Gentry, Lindell R

    2015-09-01

    Pterygoid plate fractures are often described in the setting of Le Fort fractures. The goal of this study was to define other craniofacial fracture patterns causing injury to the pterygoid plates. A retrospective review of computed tomography (CT) scans obtained on craniofacial trauma patients over a 5-year period revealed 209 patients with pterygoid plate fractures. Pterygoid plate fractures in 78 patients (37.3%) were unrelated to Le Fort fractures. Common causes included sphenotemporal buttress fractures in 26 patients (33.3%), temporal bone fractures in 18 patients (23.1%), zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures in 17 patients (21.8%), and displaced mandible fractures in 14 patients (17.9%). These findings indicate that approximately one third of pterygoid plate fractures do not result from Le Fort pattern injuries and that the craniofacial surgeon should have a broad differential for causes of pterygoid plate fractures when reviewing trauma imaging. PMID:26147022

  4. Le zona ophtalmique: une dermatose rare chez l'enfant

    PubMed Central

    Zakia, Douhi; Meziane, Marieme; Salim, Gallouj; Zahra, Mernissi Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Le zona est dû a une réactivation du virus varicelle-zona (VZV) qui reste quiescent dans les ganglions sensitifs dorsaux après la varicelle. Le zona de l'enfant est rare et particulièrement la forme ophtalmique, qui peut être responsable de complications oculaires graves nécessitant une prise en charge adéquate et précoce. Il est parfois associé à des douleurs post-zostériennes dont le traitement est difficile. L'aciclovir per os administré dans les 72 heures après l’éruption a prouvé son efficacité dans la prévention des complications oculaires. Nous en rapportant un nouveaux cas chez un garçon immunocompétent de 9 ans, sans notion de varicelle antérieure. PMID:26955408

  5. An Analysis of Recent Enrollment, Discipline and Graduation Trends among Females and Underrepresented Minorities at SUS Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore; Borman, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    Increased numbers of minority students as well as increased numbers of Florida high school graduates entering higher education in Florida have influenced Florida SUS [State University System] enrollment and graduation characteristics. This study of 510,952 undergraduate students shows that between the years 1996 and 2003, the number of entering…

  6. Establishing a DNA identification system for pigs (Sus scrofa) using a multiplex STR amplification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Lee, James Chun-I; Hsiao, Chung-Ting; Lin, Der-Yuh; Linacre, Adrian; Tsai, Li-Chin

    2014-03-01

    In this study we establish a novel STR multiplex using 13 tetra-nucleotide STRs and the amelogenin marker for the forensic identification of pigs. The genotypes and allele frequency were generated based on 341 samples from 11 pig breeds in Taiwan. Genetic variation was tested including Na, Ne, Ho, He, F-statistics, PIC, Pm and PE for each STR locus and for each breed. Based upon the 341 samples in this study, the CPm and CPEtrio of the 13 STR loci were 1.31 E-11 and 0.9996 respectively. The CPItrio based on ten family sets ranged from 4.012 E+4 to 4.332 E+6 for paternity test. Validation of the multiplex included: determining the sensitivity of the test, where reproducible full DNA profiles were obtained using an initial template of between 0.25 and 1 ng; a comprehensive range of tissue types generated the same genotype; and the specificity was confirmed as no DNA full profile was generated for any species other than Sus scrofa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the European domestic breeds clustered separately from the Asian breeds, as expected, and their hybrids formed unique clades respectively between the clades of Asian and European breeds. Eleven test samples, acting as unknown samples, matched all expected breeds. We demonstrate that this novel 14-plex PCR system is valuable in pig individualization, parentage testing, breed assessment, phylogenetic study and forensic applications. PMID:24528574

  7. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig. PMID:21719838

  8. The effects of continuous application of the TASER X26 waveform on Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David M; Murray, W Bosseau; Kennett, Mary J; Hughes, Edward L; Werner, Jacob R

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated and evaluated the safety margins of the continuous long duration (up to 30 min) effect of the TASER X26 waveform, using a Sus scrofa model. Long duration continuous stimulus has not been evaluated on humans or human surrogates prior to this study. Swine were used as models due to similarities with humans in their skin and cardiovascular systems. Very long duration was used to determine both exposure dose and possible adverse physiological effects of dose. The trial began with an application of 10 min, and subsequent animals received increasing exposure time up to a survived maximum duration of 30 min. At the onset of this work, it was hypothesized that there would be a time limit after which most animals would not survive consistent with increased dose response. However, this hypothesis was not supported by the experimental results. All animals (10 of 10) survived up to 3 min. Seven of the 10 animals survived up to a 10-min exposure and 3 of 5 animals with a 30-min target exposure survived the full exposure. Surviving animals were recovered and observed for 24 h, with no postrecovery deaths. This suggests that swine (based on physiology) will not experience a fatal event when exposed to the TASER X26 for a continuous 3 min. Conclusions regarding longer duration (10-30 min) are not as certain due to the small sample sizes at these time intervals. PMID:23489132

  9. Neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (Canis latrans) and feral swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah; Blizzard, Emily; Bazan, Luis; Whitley, Pat

    2013-10-01

    Limited information exists on Neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. This coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. We examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (Canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (Sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. Eighteen percent of coyotes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-21.8) and 15.8% of feral swine (95% CI = 12.5-19.2) had been exposed to N. caninum, and this is the first report of exposure in US feral swine populations. Analyses suggest that the parasite is present throughout the environment and that exposure is not temporally or spatially linked to antibody-positive coyotes. Antibody-positive feral swine were found in an area where the only definitive host is domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), indicating that wild canids are not required to maintain the parasite in the environment. PMID:24502735

  10. Prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Portugal: risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale-Gonçalves, H M; Cabral, J A; Faria, M C; Nunes-Pereira, M; Faria, A S; Veloso, O; Vieira, M L; Paiva-Cardoso, Md N

    2015-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by infection with pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. The wild boar (Sus scrofa), an important hunting species in Europe, seems to play a significant role in the epidemiological cycle of leptospirosis. A total of 101 serum samples from wild boar hunted in Northern Portugal were analysed for leptospiral antibodies detection by microscopic agglutination test. Sera were collected during hunting seasons (2011-2013) and tested with 17 different pathogenic serovars of Leptospira. Antibodies against nine serovars were detected in 66 (65·4%) of these sera. Serovars Tarassovi and Altodouro exhibited the highest seroreactivity rates (23·8% and 16·8%, respectively), followed by Autumnalis (7·9%) and Bratislava (6·9%). Age and district of origin were found to be risk factors for the presence of leptospiral antibodies in contrast to gender. From a One Health perspective, this study revealed that wild boar should be considered as a potential source of leptospirosis dissemination for humans and animal species (domestic and wild) in shared environments, particularly in the Trás-os-Montes region. PMID:25519057

  11. Decision making and senior management: the implementation of change projects covering clinical management in SUS hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, José Márcio da Cunha; Gomes, Romeu

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses the decision making process for senior management in public hospitals that are a part of the National Health Service in Brazil (hereafter SUS) in relation to projects aimed at changing clinical management. The methodological design of this study is qualitative in nature taking a hermeneutics-dialectics perspective in terms of results. Hospital directors noted that clinical management projects changed the state of hospitals through: improving their organizations, mobilizing their staff in order to increase a sense of order and systemizing actions and available resources. Technical rationality was the principal basis used in the decision making process for managers. Due to the reality of many hospitals having fragmented organizations, this fact impeded the use of aspects related to rationality, such as economic and financial factors in the decision making process. The incremental model and general politics also play a role in this area. We concluded that the decision making process embraces a large array of factors including rational aspects such as the use of management techniques and the ability to analyze, interpret and summarize. It also incorporates subjective elements such as how to select values and dealing with people's working experiences. We recognized that management problems are wide in scope, ambiguous, complex and do not come with a lot of structure in practice. PMID:27557021

  12. Genome sequencing reveals fine scale diversification and reticulation history during speciation in Sus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elucidating the process of speciation requires an in-depth understanding of the evolutionary history of the species in question. Studies that rely upon a limited number of genetic loci do not always reveal actual evolutionary history, and often confuse inferences related to phylogeny and speciation. Whole-genome data, however, can overcome this issue by providing a nearly unbiased window into the patterns and processes of speciation. In order to reveal the complexity of the speciation process, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 10 wild pigs, representing morphologically or geographically well-defined species and subspecies of the genus Sus from insular and mainland Southeast Asia, and one African common warthog. Results Our data highlight the importance of past cyclical climatic fluctuations in facilitating the dispersal and isolation of populations, thus leading to the diversification of suids in one of the most species-rich regions of the world. Moreover, admixture analyses revealed extensive, intra- and inter-specific gene-flow that explains previous conflicting results obtained from a limited number of loci. We show that these multiple episodes of gene-flow resulted from both natural and human-mediated dispersal. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the importance of past climatic fluctuations and human mediated translocations in driving and complicating the process of speciation in island Southeast Asia. This case study demonstrates that genomics is a powerful tool to decipher the evolutionary history of a genus, and reveals the complexity of the process of speciation. PMID:24070215

  13. Functional Cues in the Development of Osseous Tooth Support in the Pig, Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Popowics, T.; Yeh, K.; Rafferty, K.; Herring, S.

    2009-01-01

    Alveolar bone supports teeth during chewing through a ligamentous interface with tooth roots. Although tooth loads are presumed to direct the development and adaptation of these tissues, strain distribution in the alveolar bone at different stages of tooth eruption and periodontal development is unknown. This study investigates the biomechanical effects of tooth loading on developing alveolar bone as a tooth erupts into occlusion. Mandibular segments from miniature pigs, Sus scrofa, containing M1 either erupting or in functional occlusion, were loaded in compression. Simultaneous recordings were made from rosette strain gages affixed to the lingual alveolar bone and the M2 crypt. Overall, specimens with erupting M1's were more deformable than specimens with occluding M1's (mean stiffness of 246 vs. 944 Mpa, respectively, p=0.004). The major difference in alveolar strain between the two stages was in orientation. The vertically applied compressive loads were more directly reflected in the alveolar bone strains of erupting M1's, than those of occluding M1's, presumably because of the mediation of a more mature periodontal ligament (PDL) in the latter. The PDL interface between occluding teeth and alveolar bone is likely to stiffen the system, allowing transmission of occlusal loads. Alveolar strains may provide a stimulus for bone growth in the alveolar process and crest. PMID:19501361

  14. Serologic survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Juricová, Z; Hubálek, Z

    2009-10-01

    Sera of 642 wild boars (Sus scrofa) shot by hunters in ten administrative regions of the Czech Republic during 1995-2000, were tested by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) for the presence of anti-Borrelia IgG. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) were detected in serum samples from all 10 regions, and overall seroprevalence rate was 12.8%. Titres of antibodies ranged from 1:80 to 1:640. Borrelia antibodies were most frequent in the animals from three administrative regions of the Czech Republic: Moravskoslezsky (25.0%), Pardubicky (25.0%) and Královehradecky (24.1%), followed by the regions Plzen sky (16.7%), Olomoucky (13.3%), Jihomoravsky (12.8%), Vysoc ina (11.1%), Jihoc esky (11.1%), Zlínsky (10.3%), and Liberecky (8.9%). Seasonal seroprevalence rate increased in March and April, the peak was in May. The results suggest frequent exposure of wild boars to ixodid ticks infected with Bb, predominantly in rural and forested regions. The study also reviews the importance of wild boar in Lyme borreliosis (LB) ecology. Wild boar serology may provide another means of surveillance of endemic areas of LB. PMID:18973452

  15. [The contemporary relationship between work, qualification and recognition: repercussions on the Unified Health System (SUS) workers].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Monica; Chinelli, Filippina

    2013-06-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between work, qualification and recognition as it occurs in the field of health today, specifically considering the employability of technical workers in the Unified Health System, the way they perceive the employment relationship with respect to their self-esteem regarding their subjectivities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the subject is treated in the wider context of ongoing changes in the workplace, which are associated with intensification, flexibility and precariousness of labor relations, with repercussions on the specific aspects mentioned. An attempt is made to establish a critical dialogue with the analytical aspect that emphasizes daily work as a privileged forum for overcoming the contradictions that characterize the field of work and education in the SUS nowadays. The text emphasizes the following issues: analysis of the relationship between work and education from the perspective of the concept of skill; the broadening of the meaning of health work; and a critical evaluation of policies that end up making the workers liable for the quality of services rendered. PMID:23752526

  16. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Fatigue Damage for SUS316 by Using Electromagnetic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, M.; Tsuchida, Y.; Yakushiji, T.; Enokizono, M.

    2009-03-01

    There are some fatigue damage estimation methods for an austenitic stainless steel that uses martensitic transformation. For instance, those are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method using the differential pick-up coil, and so on. We are researching also those two methods in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relationship between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. In addition, the excitation method can be easily used at the job site because the special magnetizer is unnecessary. But, these methods have some disadvantages shown as follows. For instance, the former needs a special magnetizer and the latter's output signal is small. On the other hand, it is well known that the inductance of a pancake type coil put on the metallic specimen changes according to the electromagnetic properties of the metallic specimen. In this paper, the assessment method of fatigue of an austenitic stainless steel (SUS316) that uses the change by fatigue of the inductance of the pancake type coil measured with the LCR meter is shown. In addition, the fatigue evaluation performance of this method is described.

  17. Estimation of Fatigue Damage for AN Austenitic Stainless Steel (SUS304) Using a Pancake Type Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, M.; Tsuchida, Y.; Nagato, S.; Yakushiji, T.; Enokizono, M.

    2008-02-01

    There are some fatigue damage estimation methods of an austenitic stainless steel that uses martensitic transformation. For instance, those are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method, and so on. Those two methods are researched also in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relationship between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. However, this method has the disadvantage to need a special magnetizer. Then, this method cannot be easily used at the job site such as the factory. On the other hand, as the special magnetizer is unnecessary, the excitation method can be easily used at the job site. But, this method has some disadvantages shown as follows. For instance, the output signal of this method is small. And the surface state of the specimen strongly influences the noise component of the output signal. It is well known that the inductance of a pancake type coil put on the metallic specimen changes according to the electromagnetic properties of the metallic specimen. In this paper, the method of evaluation of fatigue damage of an austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) by using a change of an inductance of a pancake type coil is shown. In addition, the fatigue evaluation performance of this method is described.

  18. Experimental taphonomy: post-mortem microstructural modifications in Sus scrofa domesticus bone.

    PubMed

    Kontopoulos, Ioannis; Nystrom, Pia; White, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Bone is a highly specialised form of hard and rigid connective tissue whose histological structure undergoes post-mortem modifications. In taphonomic research, histological examination of bone thin sections is used to investigate these post-mortem microstructural changes in skeletal tissues. In this study, diagenetic modifications in pig skeletal remains (Sus scrofa domesticus) which were exposed to different taphonomic conditions as part of a long-term, real-time experiment were examined under light microscope (i.e. plain and cross polarized light). This experiment demonstrated that macroscopic appearance and microscopic preservation of bone may significantly differ. Early microbial attack was identified as enlarged osteocyte lacunae that later coalesce to constitute larger foci. Additionally, microscopic preservation of different skeletal elements varied intra-individually, while within bone differential preservation (i.e. proximal versus distal ends) was also observed. However, no specific patterns of early histological attack (e.g. endosteal and periosteal destruction) and no clear relationship between histological preservation and proximity to the abdominal area were detected. Lastly, the presence and composition of protective textiles had a clear effect on bone preservation. This research project, therefore, provided important evidence for the better understanding of the diagenetic processes that occur within bones whilst buried or exposed on the ground surface. PMID:27368073

  19. Digestible energy content of pasture species in growing European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.).

    PubMed

    Quijada, R P; Bitsch, N I; Hodgkinson, S M

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the apparent energy digestibility of six pasture species frequently grazed by European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) and to estimate the digestible energy (DE) consumption from pasture by grazing wild boar. Seven diets were prepared; a base diet (BD) which did not contain any pasture species, diets D1 to D5 which included 75% of the BD and 25% of the dried pasture species Lolium perenne (D1), Festuca arundinacea (D2), Agrostis capillaris (D3), Bromus staminius (D4) or Trifolium repens (D5) and D6 which contained 85% BD and 15% dried Plantago lanceolata. Seven purebred European wild boar (initial liveweight 24.4 ± 0.8 kg, average ± SEM) were given access to the diets following a Latin Square design. The animals received each diet for eight days, with faecal sampling on days 6, 7 and 8. The total apparent DE consumption from pasture by grazing wild boar was estimated using previously collected pasture consumption data from wild boar. The digestibility coefficients and DE contents of the pasture species ranged from 0.29 to 0.65, and 5.8 to 12.6 MJ/kg DM respectively, with L. perenne and P. lanceolata having the greatest digestibility coefficients and DE contents. The wild boar were estimated to satisfy between 52% and 142% of their maintenance energy requirements through pasture consumption. Grazing wild boar are able to utilise an important proportion of the energy present in pasture species. PMID:21575078

  20. Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Baroch, John A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed in the United States. In 2011 and 2012, serum samples and tonsils were recovered from 162 and 37 feral swine, respectively, in the US to evaluate exposure to important swine endemic pathogens. Antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were found in 2.5% and 25.3% of tested sera, respectively. Positive serological reactions against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have been detected in 19.7% and 69.7% of animals. More than 15% of animals presented antibodies against these 2 pathogens simultaneously. Most animals were also seropositive for Lawsonia intracellularis. Feral swine can also be involved in transmission of zoonotic agents. Almost 50% of animals possessed antibodies against Salmonella. In addition, 94.4% of animals were carriers of Streptococcus suis in their tonsils. In conclusion, feral swine may be considered as a potential reservoir for different endemic diseases in domestic pigs, as well as for important zoonotic agents. PMID:25673913

  1. Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens.

    PubMed

    Baroch, John A; Gagnon, Carl A; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed in the United States. In 2011 and 2012, serum samples and tonsils were recovered from 162 and 37 feral swine, respectively, in the US to evaluate exposure to important swine endemic pathogens. Antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were found in 2.5% and 25.3% of tested sera, respectively. Positive serological reactions against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have been detected in 19.7% and 69.7% of animals. More than 15% of animals presented antibodies against these 2 pathogens simultaneously. Most animals were also seropositive for Lawsonia intracellularis. Feral swine can also be involved in transmission of zoonotic agents. Almost 50% of animals possessed antibodies against Salmonella. In addition, 94.4% of animals were carriers of Streptococcus suis in their tonsils. In conclusion, feral swine may be considered as a potential reservoir for different endemic diseases in domestic pigs, as well as for important zoonotic agents. PMID:25673913

  2. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    PubMed

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the treatments. The measured ecological diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener, HꞋ; Simpson, D; and richness, S) of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene profiles also revealed differences between the treatments, with bacterial and fungal community dominance recorded in the presence of S. scrofa domesticus and grass trimming decomposition, respectively. In contrast, no statistically significant difference in evenness (p>0.05) was observed between the treatments. PMID:26654074

  3. Technological incorporation in the Unified Health System (SUS): the problem and ensuing challenges.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2014-12-01

    Technological incorporation is a central topic among the concerns regarding health care systems. This paper discusses the role of technology dynamics in health systems' cost increases, suggesting two different approaches - a 'pragmatic-economic' approach and a 'rational-defensive' approach - as guidelines to explain the reasons for this centrality. The paper shows how judicialization results from this situation and discusses two doctrinal views - 'reserve for contingencies' and 'rational use' - as the views that usually guide the debates in the courts and among health policy makers. The paper suggests that the attitude currently prevalent in the Brazilian judiciary system can prejudice the principle of equity by improperly evaluating the principle of integrality. We present a brief genealogy of HTA and a timeline of HTA in Brazil. We also discuss the relevance and the impact of Law 12401/2011, which regulates the principle of integrality in the Unified Health System (SUS) and propose three challenges to the development of HTA actions aiming at technology incorporation in Brazil. Finally, we discuss the entry and the role of private health insurance companies, emphasizing changes in the scenario and in their position. PMID:25388198

  4. Light-absorbing Aerosol Properties in the Kathmandu Valley during SusKat-ABC Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kim, J.; Cho, C.; Jung, J.

    2013-12-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), are major contributors to the atmospheric heating and the reduction of solar radiation reaching at the earth's surface. In this study, we investigate light-absorption and scattering properties of aerosols (i.e., BC mass concentration, aerosol solar-absorption/scattering efficiency) in the Kathmandu valley during Sustainable atmosphere for the Kathmandu valley (SusKat)-ABC campaign, from December 2012 to February 2013. Kathmandu City is among the most polluted cities in the world. However, there are only few past studies that provide basic understanding of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, which is not sufficient for designing effective mitigation measures (e.g., technological, financial, regulatory, legal and political measures, planning strategies). A distinct diurnal variation of BC mass concentration with two high peaks observed during wintertime dry monsoon period. BC mass concentration was found to be maximum around 09:00 and 20:00 local standard time (LST). Increased cars and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to high BC concentration. Low BC concentrations during the daytime can be explain by reduced vehicular movement and cooking activities. Also, the developmements of the boundary layer height and mountain-valley winds in the Kathmandu Valley paly a crucial role in the temproal variation of BC mass concentrations. Detailed radiative effects of light-absorbing aerosols will be presented.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Juema pig Sus scrofa (Suina: Suidae) from southern Gansu.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Yan; Tian, Xiao-Xiao; Chen, Lei-Lei; Pan, Hong-Chun

    2016-09-01

    Juema pig is a kind of rare and special pig which is well adapted to high altitude, cold climate and harsh natural environment. The complete mitochondrial genome of Juema pig Sus scrofa is a circular molecule of 16 532 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 60.7% (T: 26.2%; C: 26.0%; A: 34.5%; G: 13.3%). ND4L gene begins with GTG as start codon, ND2, ND3, and ND5 genes begin with ATA as a start codon, and other nine protein-coding genes start with ATG. Cyt b gene is terminated with AGA as stop codon, ND1 and ND2 genes are terminated with TAG as stop codon, COII, COIII, ND3, and ND4 end with T, while ATP6, ATP8, COI, ND4L, ND5, and ND6 end with TAA. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships from neighbor-joining analyses based on the 13 concatenated PCGs indicated (Tylopoda (Suina (Ruminantia (Hippopotamidae, Cetacea)))). PMID:26359921

  6. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated. PMID:24031689

  7. Ursula LeGuin's Magical World of Earthsea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jan M.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how Ursula LeGuin's Earthsea Trilogy reflects her belief in Taoist philosophy as well as her skill in telling stories of magic and adventure. Notes that the three books can be described as coming-of-age novels in which three separate individuals struggle to become mature, responsible, whole adults. (RS)

  8. Le Dernier Cartoucherie: Refuge and the Performance of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisek, Emine

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the Paris-based theatre company Theatre du Soleil launched "Le Dernier Caravanserail: Odyssees", a collaborative creation based on stories that company members had collected from refugees at the Sangatte refugee camp outside Calais, among other locations. Scenes of moral reasoning dotted the six-hour spectacle, calling to mind the…

  9. LeRC in-house experimental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: LeRC in-house experimental research; combustion concepts; schedule for in-house experiments; lean premixed prevaporized combustion; comparisons of low NO(x) lean premixed/prevaporized data; rich burn/quick quench/lean burn (RQL); RQL combustion; fuel rich catalytic combustion; advanced diagnostics; and ceramic matrix liner test rig.

  10. Restorative Justice Scripts in Ursula K. Le Guin's "Voices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oziewicz, Marek C.

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines restorative justice scripting in "Voices", the second volume of Ursula K. Le Guin's "Annals of the Western Shore." Narrated by a rape-child, "Voices" is the story of an occupied city-state and of how the conquered and the conquerors negotiate a formula for peaceful coexistence. They are able to do so by enacting a restorative…

  11. Decolonizing the Choctaws: Teaching LeAnne Howe's "Shell Shaker"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollrah, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    "Shell Shaker" (2001) by LeAnne Howe (Choctaw) is a novel that gives students an opportunity to learn that the history and culture of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma are alive today. Winner of the Before Columbus Foundation American Book Award in 2002, the novel deals with two parallel stories that converge in the present, one about the eighteenth…

  12. LHC, le Big Bang en éprouvette

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Notre compréhension de l?Univers est en train de changer? Bar des Sciences - Tout public Débat modéré par Marie-Odile Montchicourt, journaliste de France Info. Evenement en vidéoconférence entre le Globe de la science et de l?innovation, le bar le Baloard de Montpellier et la Maison des Métallos à Paris. Intervenants au CERN : Philippe Charpentier et Daniel Froideveaux, physiciens au CERN. Intervenants à Paris : Vincent Bontemps, philosophe et chercheur au CEA ; Jacques Arnould, philosophe, historien des sciences et théologien, Jean-Jacques Beineix, réalisateur, producteur, scénariste de cinéma. Intervenants à Montpellier (LPTA) : André Neveu, physicien théoricien et directeur de recherche au CNRS ; Gilbert Moultaka, physicien théoricien et chargé de recherche au CNRS. Partenariat : CERN, CEA, IN2P3, Université MPL2 (LPTA) Dans le cadre de la Fête de la science 2008

  13. MoLeNET Mobile Learning Conference 2009: Research Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy Parker, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The Mobile Learning Network (MoLeNET) is a unique collaborative approach to encouraging, supporting, expanding and promoting mobile learning, primarily in English post-14 education and training, via supported shared cost mobile learning projects. Collaboration at national level involves participating institutions and the Learning and Skills…

  14. Le syndrome d'embolie graisseuse post traumatique

    PubMed Central

    Berdai, Adnane Mohamed; Shimi, Abdelkarim; Khatouf, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome d'embolie graisseuse est une complication grave des fractures des os longs, il est la conséquence de la dissémination des particules graisseuses dans la microcirculation. L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer le profil épidémiologique, la présentation clinique et paraclinique de ce syndrome et sa prise en charge thérapeutique. Notre étude porte sur 11 cas de syndrome d'embolie graisseuse colligés au service de réanimation A1 au centre hospitalier universitaire Hassan II de Fès, de Janvier 2009 à Juin 2012. Le diagnostic positif est basé sur les critères de Gurd. Les cas collectés se caractérisent par la prédominance du sexe masculin, d'un âge inférieur à 40 ans, présentant une fracture fémorale. Ce syndrome survient souvent dans les 72 heures après le traumatisme. La présentation clinique est dominée par l'hypoxémie et les troubles de conscience. Sur le plan biologique: l'anémie et la thrombopénie sont les manifestations les plus fréquentes. La prise en charge est symptomatique, 63% des patients ont nécessité l'intubation et la ventilation. L’évolution n'est pas toujours bénigne. Nos résultats confirme le polymorphisme de la présentation clinique et paraclinique du syndrome d'embolie graisseuse. Le diagnostic de ce syndrome se base sur des critères cliniques, mais reste essentiellement un diagnostic d’élimination. La prise en charge est symptomatique. La prévention de ce syndrome est essentielle et se base sur une fixation précoce des fractures des os longs. PMID:25452829

  15. Connecting Instructional and Cognitive Aspects of an LE: A Study of the Global Seminar Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelyeva, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    My research problem is based on the lack of unifying conceptual cohesion between the discourses concerning cognitive and instructional aspects of learning environments (LE). I contrast that lack with practical developments of LE studies connected at the level of practical implementation and evaluation. Next, I briefly review the LE boundaries,…

  16. Le traitement familial des enfants et des adolescents anorexiques : Des lignes directrices pour le médecin communautaire

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, S; Pinzon, J; Taddeo, D; Katzman, DK

    2010-01-01

    L’anorexie mentale (AM) est une maladie grave qui met la vie en danger et qui fait généralement son apparition pendant l’adolescence. Les données probantes au sujet du traitement optimal de l’AM chez les enfants et les adolescents sont en croissance, mais il reste beaucoup à apprendre. Même si les démarches thérapeutiques actuelles varient au Canada et ailleurs, les données jusqu’à présent indiquent que le traitement familial (TF) est le plus efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents anorexiques. Un élément essentiel du modèle de TF, c’est que les parents sont investis de la responsabilité de rétablir la santé physique de leur enfant et de s’assurer de la reprise complète de son poids. Le médecin qui comprend les principes fondamentaux et la philosophie du TF peut mettre en place les éléments de cette intervention fondée sur des faits probants auprès des jeunes patients anorexiques et de leur famille.

  17. Molecular investigation of Torque teno sus virus in geographically distinct porcine breeding herds of Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), infecting domestic swine and wild boar, is a non-enveloped virus with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. which has been classified into the genera Iotatorquevirus (TTSuV1) and Kappatorquevirus (TTSuV2) of the family Anelloviridae. A molecular study was conducted to detect evidence of a phylogenic relationship between these two porcine TTSuV genogroups from the sera of 244 infected pigs located in 21 subordinate prefectures and/or cities of Sichuan. Results Both genogroups of TTSuV were detected in pig sera collected from all 21 regions examined. Of the 244 samples, virus from either genogroup was detected in 203 (83.2%), while 44 animals (18.0%) were co-infected with viruses of both genogroups. Moreover, TTSuV2 (186/244, 76.2%) was more prevalent than TTSuV1 (61/244, 25%). There was statistically significant difference between the prevalence of genogroups 1 infection alone (9.4%, 23/244) and 2 alone (64.8%, 158/244), and between the prevalence of genogroups 2 (76.2%, 186/244) and both genogroups co-infection (18.0%, 44/244). The untranslated region of the swine TTSuV genome was found to be an adequate molecular marker of the virus for detection and surveillance. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both genogroups 1 and 2 could be further divided into two subtypes, subtype a and b. TTSuV1 subtype b and the two TTSuV2 subtypes are more prevalent in Sichuan Province. Conclusions Our study presents detailed geographical evidence of TTSuV infection in China. PMID:23705989

  18. The Effects of Tooth Extraction on Alveolar Bone Biomechanics in the Miniature Pig, Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, K.; Popowics, T.; Rafferty, K.; Herring, S.; Egbert, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the role of occlusion in the development of biomechanical properties of alveolar bone in the miniature pig, Sus scrofa. The hypothesis tested was that the tissues supporting an occluding tooth would show greater stiffness and less strain than that of a non-occluding tooth. Design Maxillary teeth opposing the erupting lower first molar (M1) were extracted on one side. Occlusion developed on the contralateral side. Serially administered fluorochrome labels tracked bone mineralization apposition rate (MAR). A terminal experiment measured in vivo buccal alveolar bone strain on occluding and non-occluding sides during mastication. Ex vivo alveolar strains during occlusal loading were subsequently measured using a materials testing machine (MTS/Sintech). Whole specimen stiffness and principal strains were calculated. Results MAR tended to be higher on the extraction side during occlusion. In vivo buccal shear strains were higher in the alveolar bone of the occluding side vs. the extraction side (mean of 471με vs. 281με, respectively; p=0.04); however, ex vivo shear strains showed no significant differences between sides. Stiffness differed between extraction and occlusion side specimens, significantly so in the low load range (344 vs. 668MPa, respectively; p=0.04). Conclusions Greater in vivo shear strains may indicate more forceful chews on the occluding side, whereas the similarity in ex vivo bone strain magnitude suggests a similarity in alveolar bone structure and occlusal load transmission regardless of occlusal status. The big overall change in specimen stiffness that was observed was likely attributable to differences in the periodontal ligament rather than alveolar bone. PMID:20580345

  19. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  20. Clean Technique for Prolonged Nonsurvival Cardiothoracic Surgery in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Maia M; Rabkin, David G; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory animal regulations provide little guidance regarding duration of nonsurvival surgery requiring aseptic technique. We hypothesized that swine would experience no sepsis during nonsurvival cardiothoracic surgery accomplished by using clean technique and lasting 8 h or less. Incision sites of 5 male farm pigs (Sus scrofa) were shaved and then cleaned with alcohol and povidone–iodine. The surgeon wore sterile gloves, clean scrubs, and hair bonnet; assistants wore clean scrubs and nonsterile gloves; most instruments were autoclaved. A median sternotomy incision was used for thoracic cavity exposure, and the skull was exposed to allow induction of brain death. Heart rate, body temperature, and blood samples were obtained before surgery (0 h; baseline) and at 2, 4, 5 or 6, and 7 or 8 h thereafter. Statistical analysis by t tests showed that heart rate was unchanged and body temperature increased after the 0-h (baseline) time point. Aerobic blood cultures were negative except for 2 samples that were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. at 4 h. RBC, Hgb, and Hct levels were decreased at 2 and 4 h, but WBC and platelets were unchanged. Other alterations included decreased glucose (at 7 or 8 h), increased BUN (at 5 or 6 h and 7 or 8 h) and creatinine (at 5 or 6 h), decreased Na+ and Ca and increased K+ (most time points), decreased total protein and albumin (most time points), and decreased globulin (at 7 or 8 h). Liver enzymes and bilirubin typically were unchanged, and cholesterol consistently was decreased. Together our results indicate a lack of sepsis for 8 h or less in pigs undergoing cardiothoracic surgery by using clean technique. These findings provide new and specific data regarding the use of aseptic technique during prolonged nonsurvival surgeries. PMID:23562035

  1. Clean technique for prolonged nonsurvival cardiothoracic surgery in swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Chan, Maia M; Rabkin, David G; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory animal regulations provide little guidance regarding duration of nonsurvival surgery requiring aseptic technique. We hypothesized that swine would experience no sepsis during nonsurvival cardiothoracic surgery accomplished by using clean technique and lasting 8 h or less. Incision sites of 5 male farm pigs (Sus scrofa) were shaved and then cleaned with alcohol and povidone-iodine. The surgeon wore sterile gloves, clean scrubs, and hair bonnet; assistants wore clean scrubs and nonsterile gloves; most instruments were autoclaved. A median sternotomy incision was used for thoracic cavity exposure, and the skull was exposed to allow induction of brain death. Heart rate, body temperature, and blood samples were obtained before surgery (0 h; baseline) and at 2, 4, 5 or 6, and 7 or 8 h thereafter. Statistical analysis by t-tests showed that heart rate was unchanged and body temperature increased after the 0-h (baseline) time point. Aerobic blood cultures were negative except for 2 samples that were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. at 4 h. RBC, Hgb, and Hct levels were decreased at 2 and 4 h, but WBC and platelets were unchanged. Other alterations included decreased glucose (at 7 or 8 h), increased BUN (at 5 or 6 h and 7 or 8 h) and creatinine (at 5 or 6 h), decreased Na(+) and Ca and increased K(+) (most time points), decreased total protein and albumin (most time points), and decreased globulin (at 7 or 8 h). Liver enzymes and bilirubin typically were unchanged, and cholesterol consistently was decreased. Together our results indicate a lack of sepsis for 8 h or less in pigs undergoing cardiothoracic surgery by using clean technique. These findings provide new and specific data regarding the use of aseptic technique during prolonged nonsurvival surgeries. PMID:23562035

  2. Genomic Diversity in Pig (Sus scrofa) and its Comparison with Human and other Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyan; Plastow, Graham

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed the current pig (Sus scrofa) genomic diversity within and between sites and compared them with human and other livestock. The current Porcine 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel has an average SNP distance in a range of 30 - 40 kb. Most of genetic variation was distributed within populations, and only a small proportion of them existed between populations. The average heterozygosity was lower in pig than in human and other livestock. Genetic inbreeding coefficient (FIS), population differentiation (FST), and Nei’s genetic distance between populations were much larger in pig than in human and other livestock. Higher average genetic distance existed between European and Asian populations than between European or between Asian populations. Asian breeds harboured much larger variability and higher average heterozygosity than European breeds. The samples of wild boar that have been analyzed displayed more extensive genetic variation than domestic breeds. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) in improved pig breeds extended to 1 - 3 cM, much larger than that in human (~ 30 kb) and cattle (~ 100 kb), but smaller than that in sheep (~ 10 cM). European breeds showed greater LD that decayed more slowly than Asian breeds. We briefly discuss some processes for maintaining genomic diversity in pig, including migration, introgression, selection, and drift. We conclude that, due to the long time of domestication, the pig possesses lower heterozygosity, higher FIS, and larger LD compared with human and cattle. This implies that a smaller effective population size and less informative markers are needed in pig for genome wide association studies. PMID:21966252

  3. Cross-Reactivity of Porcine Immunoglobulin A Antibodies with Fecal Immunoglobulins of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and Other Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang won; Yoo, Sung J.; Sunwoo, Sunyoung; Hyun, Bang hun

    2016-01-01

    Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period. PMID:27340389

  4. The scope of the LeChatelier Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George M., Lady; Quirk, James P.

    2007-07-01

    LeChatelier [Comptes Rendus 99 (1884) 786; Ann. Mines 13 (2) (1888) 157] showed that a physical system's “adjustment” to a disturbance to its equilibrium tended to be smaller as constraints were added to the adjustment process. Samuelson [Foundations of Economic Analysis, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1947] applied this result to economics in the context of the comparative statics of the actions of individual agents characterized as the solutions to optimization problems; and later (1960), extended the application of the Principle to a stable, multi-market equilibrium and the case of all commodities gross substitutes [e.g., L. Metzler, Stability of multiple markets: the hicks conditions. Econometrica 13 (1945) 277-292]. Refinements and alternative routes of derivation have appeared in the literature since then, e.g., Silberberg [The LeChatelier Principle as a corollary to a generalized envelope theorem, J. Econ. Theory 3 (1971) 146-155; A revision of comparative statics methodology in economics, or, how to do comparative statics on the back of an envelope, J. Econ. Theory 7 (1974) 159-172], Milgrom and Roberts [The LeChatelier Principle, Am. Econ. Rev. 86 (1996) 173-179], W. Suen, E. Silberberg, P. Tseng [The LeChatelier Principle: the long and the short of it, Econ. Theory 16 (2000) 471-476], and Chavas [A global analysis of constrained behavior: the LeChatelier Principle ‘in the large’, South. Econ. J. 72 (3) (2006) 627-644]. In this paper, we expand the scope of the Principle in various ways keyed to Samuelson's proposed means of testing comparative statics results (optimization, stability, and qualitative analysis). In the optimization framework, we show that the converse LeChatelier Principle also can be found in constrained optimization problems and for not initially “conjugate” sensitivities. We then show how the Principle and its converse can be found through the qualitative analysis of any linear system. In these terms, the Principle and

  5. Residual stress in the cylindrical drawing cup of SUS304 stainless steel evaluated by split-ring test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang-Hong; Yuan, Dao-He; Xiang, Jun-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Gang; Zhou, Yi-Chun

    2016-02-01

    The residual stresses in the wall of a SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup were evaluated by split-ring tests, and the influences of stamping die parameters on the residual stress were investigated. A new theoretical model of a split-ring test was developed to evaluate the residual stress in a ring, which was verified to be reasonable and reliable by numerical simulations with ABAQUS code and by nanoindentation tests. Seven groups of split-ring tests were completed, and the residual stresses were calculated according to the theoretical model. The split-ring test results showed that the circumferential residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup was very large and did not change with the different die corner radius. The circumferential residual stress first increased with the increase of drawing punch-die clearance, then was almost unchanged when the clearance increased greater than blank thickness 1 mm. Thus, a smaller clearance was suggested to be chosen to reduce the residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel drawing cup.

  6. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  7. Ultrafast intramolecular charge transfer with N-(4-cyanophenyl)carbazole. Evidence for a LE precursor and dual LE + ICT fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Galievsky, Victor A; Druzhinin, Sergey I; Demeter, Attila; Mayer, Peter; Kovalenko, Sergey A; Senyushkina, Tamara A; Zachariasse, Klaas A

    2010-12-01

    The photophysics of N-(4-cyanophenyl)carbazole (NP4CN) was investigated by using absorption and fluorescence spectra, picosecond fluorescence decays, and femtosecond transient absorption. In the nonpolar n-hexane as well as in the polar solvent acetonitrile (MeCN), a locally excited (LE) state is detected, as a precursor for the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state. A LE → ICT reaction time τ(2) at 22 °C of 0.95 ps in ethyl cyanide (EtCN) and 0.32 ps in MeCN is determined from the decay of the LE excited state absorption (ESA) maximum around 620 nm. In the ESA spectrum of NP4CN in n-hexane at a pump-probe delay time of 100 ps, an important contribution of the LE band remains alongside the ICT band, in contrast to what is observed in EtCN and MeCN. This shows that a LE ⇄ ICT equilibrium is established in this solvent and the ICT reaction time of 0.5 ps is equal to the reciprocal of the sum of the forward and backward ICT rate constants 1/(k(a) + k(d)). In the photostationary S(0) → S(n) absorption spectrum of NP4CN in n-hexane and MeCN, an additional CT absorption band appears, absent in the sum of the spectra of its electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) subgroups carbazole and benzonitrile. This CT band is located at an energy of ∼4000 cm(-1) lower than for N-phenylcarbazole (NPC), due to the larger electron affinity of the benzonitrile moiety of NP4CN than the phenyl subunit of NPC. The fluorescence spectrum of NP4CN in n-hexane at 25 °C mainly consists of a structured LE emission, with a small ICT admixture, indicating that a LE → ICT reaction just starts to occur under these conditions. In di-n-pentyl ether (DPeE) and di-n-butyl ether (DBE), a LE emission is found upon cooling at the high-energy edge of the ICT fluorescence band, caused by the onset of dielectric solvent relaxation. This is not the case in more polar solvents, such as diethyl ether (DEE) and MeCN, in which a structureless ICT emission band fully overlaps the strongly quenched LE

  8. Indirect versus direct detection methods of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa), one of the main sources of human trichinellosis, continue to represent a public health problem. The detection of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of wild boar by digestion can prevent the occurrence of clinical trichinellosis in humans. However, the analytical sensitivity of digestion in the detection process is dependent on the quantity of tested muscle. Consequently, large quantities of muscle have to be digested to warrant surveillance programs, or more sensitive tests need to be employed. The use of indirect detection methods, such as the ELISA to detect Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar has limitations due to its low specificity. The aim of the study was to implement serological detection of anti-Trichinella spp. antibodies in meat juices from hunted wild boar for the surveillance of Trichinella spp. infections. Methods Two tests were used, ELISA for the initial screening test, and a specific and sensitive Western blot (Wb) as a confirmatory test. The circulation of anti-Trichinella IgG was determined in hunted wild boar muscle juice samples in 9 provinces of 5 Italian regions. Results From 1,462 muscle fluid samples, 315 (21.5%, 95% C.I. 19.51-23.73) were tested positive by ELISA. The 315 ELISA-positive muscle fluid samples were further tested by Wb and 32 (10.1%, 95% C.I. 7.29-13.99) of these were positive with a final seroprevalence of 2.2% (95% C.I 1.55-3.07; 32/1,462). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected by artificial digestion in muscle tissues of one (0.07%, 95%C.I. 0.01-0.39) out of the 1,462 hunted wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in Wb-negative wild boar. From 2006 to 2012, a prevalence of 0.017% was detected by muscle digestion in wild boar hunted in the whole Italian territory. Conclusions The combined use of both serological methods had a sensitivity 31.4 times higher than that of the digestion (32/1,462 versus 1/1,462), suggesting their potential

  9. LeCroy MQT300A - charge to time converter

    SciTech Connect

    Yamrone, B.; Roberts, K.; Kelly, J.

    1997-12-31

    The MQT300A was developed to offer high resolution (12 bit) and wide dynamic range (18 bit) with reasonable cost, high density and fast conversion time (< 10 {mu}s). The reduced conversion time has allowed its first users the option to choose whether or not to develop a fast clear strategy as part of their trigger system. It can also be used for chamber-mounted applications allowing compact digital data cabling to the remote TDC. The MQT300A is a custom development produced in collaboration with the BELLE collaboration at KEK and the CLEO group at Cornell. In this collaboration Cornell and KEK were partners with LeCroy in both the specification and evaluation of the first prototypes. LeCroy has been responsible for the remainder of the project. The MQT300A is available in LeCroy modules and also as a separate monolithic. The MQT300A was designed to take advantage of the latest generation of multi-hit TDCs, for example the LeCroy 1877S FASTBUS ADC. The 1877S was specifically optimized to improve conversion time and to intelligently minimize the data record size for the MQT300A application. A prototype part was designed and fabricated using a custom bipolar process. Though fully functional it did not meet several important performance specifications. A reiteration with significant redesign of two sections resulted in a part that meets all specifications. The unique encoding algorithm used to provide auto-ranging has had a U.S. patent allowed. The part is now commercially available in production volumes.

  10. Airborne pollen and spores of León (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, Delia; Suarez-Cervera, María; Díaz-González, Tomás; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa María

    1993-06-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of airborne pollen and spores was carried out over 2 years (from September 1987 to August 1989) in the city of León. Slides were prepared daily using a volumetric pollen trap, which was placed on the Faculty of Veterinary Science building (University of León) 12m above ground-level. Fifty-one pollen types were observed; the most important of these were: Cupressaceae during the winter, Pinus and Quercus in spring, and Poaceae, Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae in the summer. The results also showed the existence of a rich mould spore assemblage in the atmosphere. The group of Amerospores ( Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium) as well as Dictyospores ( Alternaria) were the most abundant; Puccinia was common in the air in August. Fluctuations in the total pollen and spores m3 of air were compared with meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall). From the daily sampling of the atmosphere of León, considering the maximum and minimum temperature and duration of rainfall, the start of the pollen grain season was observed generally to coincide with a rise in temperature in the absence of rain.

  11. Le sumatriptan intranasal pour la migraine chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.; Meckler, Garth D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Je vois de plus en plus d’enfants et d’adolescents qui souffrent de céphalées pouvant se classer dans la catégorie des migraines. J’ai fait des lectures sur le sumatriptan par voie intranasale comme thérapie abortive. Est-ce un traitement efficace? Réponse La migraine aiguë chez les enfants et les adolescents est fréquente et difficile à traiter. Le sumatriptan intranasal est une option sûre et généralement efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents. La dose actuellement recommandée est de 20 mg pour les enfants qui pèsent plus de 40 kg et de 10 mg pour ceux dont le poids se situe entre 20 et 39 kg. Il faudrait faire des études de plus grande envergure pour contrecarrer les limitations des échantillons de petite taille et mieux comprendre la faible concentration plasmique et les effets placebo observés dans les études jusqu’à présent.

  12. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle

    PubMed Central

    Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Bougrine, Fethi; Msakni, Issam; Dhaoui-Ghozzi, Amen; Bouziani, Ammar

    2011-01-01

    L’ hydatidose est une anthropo-zoonose due au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extrêmement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportés dans la littérature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s'agissait d'un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales évoluant depuis huit mois. L'examen clinique a mis en évidence une tuméfaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L’échographie testiculaire a objectivé une hernie inguinale droite associée à deux kystes épididymaires bilatéraux. Le patient a été opéré pour cure de son hernie avec découverte en per-opératoire d'un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a été réséqué. L'examen anatomopathologique a conclu à une hydatidose du cordon spermatique. PMID:22384304

  13. Le tetanos chez le grand enfant dans un hôpital pédiatrique à Yaoundé, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Ntoto Njiki Kinkela, Mina; Nguefack, Félicitée; Mbassi Awa, Hubert; Chelo, David; Enyama, Dominique; Mbollo Kobela, Marie; Koki Ndombo, Paul Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Le tétanos est évitable par la vaccination, mais peut survenir en cas d'une immunisation incomplète. Nous avons mené une étude sur les dossiers médicaux des enfants admis pour tétanos entre 2008-2009 au Centre Mère et Enfant de la Fondation Chantal BIYA à Yaoundé. Le but était d'analyser les circonstances de survenue et les manifestations cliniques du tétanos chez le grand enfant, afin de proposer des stratégies de prévention adaptées au contexte camerounais. Le statut vaccinal était inconnu chez un patient, les autres (80%) n'avaient pas reçu de rappel vaccinal. Les portes d'entrée étaient les plaies aux membres, l'une était secondaire à une injection médicamenteuse. Tous ont présenté le tétanos généralisé. Le décès était survenu chez un patient. Le tétanos n'est pas rare chez le grand enfant au Cameroun. Il se dégage ainsi la problématique des rappels vaccinaux. PMID:22514771

  14. SusG: A Unique Cell-Membrane-Associated [alpha]-Amylase from a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Targets Complex Starch Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2010-09-21

    SusG is an {alpha}-amylase and part of a large protein complex on the outer surface of the bacterial cell and plays a major role in carbohydrate acquisition by the animal gut microbiota. Presented here, the atomic structure of SusG has an unusual extended, bilobed structure composed of amylase at one end and an unprecedented internal carbohydrate-binding motif at the other. Structural studies further demonstrate that the carbohydrate-binding motif binds maltooligosaccharide distal to, and on the opposite side of, the amylase catalytic site. SusG has an additional starch-binding site on the amylase domain immediately adjacent to the active cleft. Mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that these two additional starch-binding sites appear to play a role in catabolism of insoluble starch. However, elimination of these sites has only a limited effect, suggesting that they may have a more important role in product exchange with other Sus components.

  15. One-dimensional migration of interstitial clusters in SUS316L and its model alloys at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Y.; Abe, H.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsunaga, T.; Kano, S.; Arai, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Tanaka, N.

    2015-05-01

    For self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in various concentrated alloys, one-dimensional (1D) migration is induced by electron irradiation around 300 K. But at elevated temperatures, the 1D migration frequency decreases to less than one-tenth of that around 300 K in iron-based bcc alloys. In this study, we examined mechanisms of 1D migration at elevated temperatures using in situ observation of SUS316L and its model alloys with high-voltage electron microscopy. First, for elevated temperatures, we examined the effects of annealing and short-term electron irradiation of SIA clusters on their subsequent 1D migration. In annealed SUS316L, 1D migration was suppressed and then recovered by prolonged irradiation at 300 K. In high-purity model alloy Fe-18Cr-13Ni, annealing or irradiation had no effect. Addition of carbon or oxygen to the model alloy suppressed 1D migration after annealing. Manganese and silicon did not suppress 1D migration after annealing but after short-term electron irradiation. The suppression was attributable to the pinning of SIA clusters by segregated solute elements, and the recovery was to the dissolution of the segregation by interatomic mixing under electron irradiation. Next, we examined 1D migration of SIA clusters in SUS316L under continuous electron irradiation at elevated temperatures. The 1D migration frequency at 673 K was proportional to the irradiation intensity. It was as high as half of that at 300 K. We proposed that 1D migration is controlled by the competition of two effects: induction of 1D migration by interatomic mixing and suppression by solute segregation.

  16. Le médicament générique au Maroc: le point de vue du consommateur

    PubMed Central

    Zaoui, Sanaa; Hakkou, Farid; Filali, Houda; Khabal, Youssef; Tazi, Illias; Mahmal, Lahoucine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Le médicament générique est souvent une origine de préjugés négatifs et de méfiance chez les professionnels de santé et les patients. Ceci pourrait être dû à plusieurs facteurs entre autre le manque des connaissances du patient sur ces médicaments. Le but de notre étude était d’évaluer l'information du consommateur sur les médicaments génériques et apprécier leur utilisation de ces médicaments. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale réalisée de Janvier à Mars 2010 auprès de 251 sujets. Un questionnaire comprenant dix questions fermées a été utilisé. Les questions concernaient l’évaluation des connaissances sur les médicaments génériques, les sources d'information, le degré de confiance et d'information des patients sur ces médicaments. Une analyse descriptive simple des différentes variables a été réalisée. Résultats Dans notre étude, 126 sujets (50,2%) ont répondu connaître les médicaments génériques. Parmi eux, 52,3% les utilisaient et 67,4% estimaient qu'ils étaient insuffisamment informés sur ces médicaments. Les cadres supérieurs et les étudiants ont représenté la catégorie qui utilisait le plus les médicaments génériques (respectivement dans 40,9% et 25,7%) et qui était la mieux informée (respectivement dans 61,9% et 23,81%). Le faible coût a été la principale motivation d'utilisation du médicament générique (93,9%). Les médias ont représenté la première source d'information (59,5%). Après sensibilisation, 88,8% des sujets qui ne connaissaient pas le médicament générique ont été favorable à son utilisation. Conclusion Une promotion efficace par une politique d'information soutenue auprès des consommateurs et par des mesures incitatrices à la prescription et à la délivrance du générique par les médecins et les pharmaciens, pourront améliorer l'utilisation de ces médicaments dans notre pays. PMID:24009794

  17. La prévention des infections par le virus respiratoire syncytial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, JL

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infections des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, réduit le taux d’hospitalisation des enfants à haut risque mais est très coûteux. Le présent document de principes remplace les trois précédents documents de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie sur le sujet et est mis à jour principalement pour traiter des récentes modifications aux lignes directrices de l’American Academy of Pediatrics dans le contexte canadien. Il contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations au sujet de l’utilisation du palivizumab chez les enfants à haut risque

  18. New Middle Miocene Bryozoa from Gârbova de Sus (Romania) and their relationship to the sedimentary environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zágoršek, Kamil; Filipescu, Sorin; Holcová, Katarína

    2010-12-01

    The section of Gârbova de Sus contains diverse fossil groups and rich bryozoan assemblages, with 77 species altogether. Several taxa have been recognized as very important in the assemblage and two new taxa are described in detail: Poricella garbovensis sp. nov. and Therenia transylvanica sp. nov. Foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil assemblages were used for biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental interpretations. On the basis of sedimentological features and micropaleontological data, the sequence of paleoenvironments can be subdivided into two intervals indicating slightly different climatic conditions.

  19. The Investigation on Welding Processes for SUS316LN Tubes Used in Superconducting Magnetic System of EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiefeng; Chen, Siyue; Weng, Peide; Gao, Daming

    2005-08-01

    The force flow cooled superconducting cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) is used in both of EAST toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) coils. The conductor consists of multi-stage NbTi superconducting cable and 1.5 mm thick square jacket. The cable is pulled through in a thin wall circular jacket and then compacted to square cross-section conductor. The jacket material is SUS316LN austenitic stainless steel seamless tubes (about 10 m each), which is assembled by butt-welding up to 600 m. The results of the welding procedure investigation and quality assurance procedures carrying out are described in this paper.

  20. Le consentement libre et éclairé aux soins en psychiatrie

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Grainne; Chaimowitz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Le patient a le droit d’être informé sur les soins de santé qui lui sont proposés et de participer activement à la prise de décisions relativement à ces soins. Le respect de la dignité et de l’autonomie de la personne passe par le respect de son droit de prendre des décisions à propos de ses soins psychiatriques, notamment de refuser un traitement, pour autant qu’elle soit apte à prendre des décisions. Il importe que le psychiatre connaisse les fondements éthiques du consentement libre et éclairé et les exigences prévues par le droit en cette matière, y compris la jurisprudence. Le consentement n’est pas immuable, pouvant changer avec le temps, au fil de l’évolution des conditions et des circonstances. Par conséquent, le consentement doit être un processus continu.

  1. Le gingembre contre la nausée et les vomissements de la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Koppula, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Question clinique Le gingembre peut-il traiter la nausée et les vomissements de la grossesse? Résultats Durant le premier trimestre, le gingembre soulagerait la nausée et les vomissements de quelque 4 points sur une échelle de 40 points, ou éliminerait les vomissements chez 1 femme sur 3 au jour 6. L’étude la plus vaste ne laisse croire à aucune hausse des malformations congénitales ou de la mortinatalité, mais les études de moins grande envergure laissent croire le contraire.

  2. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 DETAIL OF WINDOW BREAKING INTO PEDIMENT. - First Congregational Church, 301 Benefit Street, Providence, Providence County, RI

  3. The JPL 'long ephemeris', DE102/LE51

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A number of applications exist in astronomical research for planetary and lunar ephemerides covering an extended length of time. This paper discusses such a set of ephemerides, DE102/LE51, produced at JPL, covering the time 1411 B.C. to 3001 A.D. The ephemerides are dynamically self-consistent, in that the equations of motion were integrated simultaneously. They also represent the most accurately known positions covering such a time span. They have already been used by a number of different users in a variety of different applications.

  4. Snow in Castile-León: trends and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, A.; Campos, L.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Sánchez, J. L.; Marcos, J. L.; Guerrero-Higueras, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    The location of Castile and León, inside the Iberian Peninsula, in the Northwestern quadrant, determines, in large measure, the climatic conditions of its territory, granting it very characteristic traits, mostly in the mountainous areas. It is important to note that during a large part of the year, the region is under the influence of Jet Stream, and thus, gives way to very diverse dynamic situations, which turn into different and heterogeneous types of weather. So, in many areas of the region, especially in the most elevated areas, these synoptic and mesoscale situations generate snow precipitation. We should point out that snowfall is one of the principal meteorological risks of Castile and León. Thus, on average, in some mountainous areas there are more than 40 events of snowfall registered annually, with the month of January being the month in which the highest frequency of snowfall appears. The social repercussions of this snowfall are represented in the isolation of places, essentially mountainous, highways being blocked, increase in traffic accidents, etc. As proof of this, it is this type of episode that receives ample coverage by the media, which has a linear relationship with the social perception of risk. As such, the objective of the current work is to analyze the annual trend of days with snow in the different meteorological stations pertaining to AEMET placed in the Community. The period of study is from 1960-2010. Additionally, we have also evaluated trends in annual days of freezing temperature and annual absolute minimum temperature, with the objective of facilitating a meteorological interpretation of the trends obtained on days with snowfall. Finally, the results show that in the majority of stations, a significant negative trend in days with snowfall and annual days with freezing temperatures, and a positive trend in annual absolute minimum temperatures. However, we observed variability in the different regions in the area of study

  5. Le genre Tunga Jarocki, 1838 (Siphonaptera : Tungidae). I – Taxonomie, phylogénie, écologie, rôle pathogène

    PubMed Central

    Beaucournu, J.-C.; Degeilh, B.; Mergey, T.; Muñoz-Leal, S.; González-Acuña, D.

    2012-01-01

    Pour la première fois, les 12 espèces actuellement décrites dans le genre Tunga sont étudiées sur le plan de la taxonomie et de la répartition. Divers aspects de leur biologie et leur rôle pathogène sont également envisagés, et en particulier leur phylogénie, leur chorologie, leur phénologie, leur sexe-ratio et leurs dermecos. PMID:23193514

  6. [Research program for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): the contribution to health management and services in Paraiba State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Celino, Suely Deysny de Matos; Costa, Gabriela Maria Cavalcanti; França, Inácia Sátiro Xavier de; Araújo, Ednaldo Cavalcante de

    2013-01-01

    The shared management in health of the Research Program for the Unified Health System (PPSUS) has the purpose of funding research in priority areas for the health of the Brazilian population. The scope of this qualitative study is to understand the researchers' perception of the contribution of research funded by the PPSUS invitations to bid in the State of Paraiba, for resolving the priority health problems of the Paraiba population, for reducing regional inequalities in health and for bolstering the management of SUS. A documentary survey of the bids and final reports of research and a semi-structured interview with 28 coordinators of these studies was conducted. Triangulation strategy of data was used and subsequently subjected to content analysis, which converged with the categories: solving the health problems; reducing regional inequalities; contribution to management. Paraiba state needs adjustments such that the PPSUS can be fully implemented, ensuring that the knowledge generated can be converted into health policies and actions, since the research funded respond to the health needs of the population and difficulties in SUS management. PMID:23338510

  7. Analysis of 6-pyruvyl tetrahydropterin synthase, a target gene product of su(s) suppressor in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, J.J.; Park, Y.S.; Kim, J.H.; Jacobson, K.B. . Dept. of Microbiology; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    Of the 20 suppressor mutants listed in Drosophila, su(s){sup 2} has been studied for the biochemical characterization of the suppression. In su(s){sup 2} suppression, some mutants at vermilion (v, 1-33.0), sable (s, 1-43.0), speck (sp, 2-107.0), and purple (pr, 2-54.5) are suppressible by mutants at the suppressor of sable (su(s)) locus. There have been many reports of suppression mechanism studies in purple led to purple loci. The biochemical studies in purple led to in vitro demonstration of a su(s){sup +} gene product as a negative effector against suppressed purple PPH{sub 4} synthase, which has been also demonstrated in the gene product of vermilion more recently. Both studies led to a proposal for a posttranslational mechanism in which the su(s){sup +} gene produces a substance that interferes with the function of the target enzymes from the purple and vermilion mutant. In contrast to the transcriptional regulation of the su(s) locus the posttranslational mechanism is based on qualitative differences between wild and suppressed enzyme. Therefore this investigation was to determine if any quantitative or qualitative differences exist between the mutant and wild type target enzymes. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  8. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vitor Laerte; Cerbino Neto, José; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Health surveillance (HS) is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years. PMID:25388192

  9. Characterization of a new bacteriocin from Lactobacillus plantarum LE5 and LE27 isolated from ensiled corn.

    PubMed

    Amortegui, Jairo; Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Rodríguez, Deicy; Carrascal, Ana K; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Melendez, Adelina del P; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2014-04-01

    Bacteriocins are low molecular peptides with antimicrobial activity, which are of great interest as food bio-preservatives and for treating diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we present the characterization of bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum LE5 and LE27 isolated from ensiled corn. Bacteriocins were purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and double dialysis by using 12- and 1-kDa membranes. Bacteriocins showed activity against Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enteroccocus faecalis. Molecular weight was estimated through Tricine-SDS-PAGE and overloading the gel onto Mueller-Hinton agar seeded with L. monocytogenes, showing an inhibition zone between 5 and 10 kDa. NanoLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the identification of UPF0291 protein (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q88VI7), which is also presented in other lactic acid bacteria without assigned function. Ab initio modeling showed it has an α-helix-rich structure and a large positive-charged region. Bacteriocins were stable between 4 and 121 °C and pH 2 and 12, and the activity was inhibited by SDS and proteases. Mode of action assay suggests that the bacteriocin causes of target microorganism. Taken together, these results describe a possible new class IIa bacteriocin produced by L. plantarum, which has a wide stability to physicochemical conditions, and that could be used as an alternative for the control of foodborne diseases. PMID:24532444

  10. MODeLeR: A Virtual Constructivist Learning Environment and Methodology for Object-Oriented Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, John W.; Koonce, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article contains a description of the organization and method of use of an active learning environment named MODeLeR, (Multimedia Object Design Learning Resource), a tool designed to facilitate the learning of concepts pertaining to object modeling with the Unified Modeling Language (UML). MODeLeR was created to provide an authentic,…

  11. Use of Mobile Testing System PeLe for Developing Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of both the mobile testing system PeLe (Norway, HiST) and the enquiry-based learning approach on language skills development in the context of mobile-assisted learning. The research aims to work out a methodological framework of PeLe implementation into the language…

  12. CoLeMo: A Collaborative Learning Environment for UML Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Weiqin; Pedersen, Roger Heggernes; Pettersen, Oystein

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a distributed collaborative UML modelling environment, CoLeMo. CoLeMo is designed for students studying UML modelling. It can also be used as a platform for collaborative design of software. We conducted formative evaluations and a summative evaluation to improve the environment and…

  13. Understanding the recognition of Lewis X by anti-Le(x) monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher J; Auzanneau, France-Isabelle

    2013-10-24

    The recognition of the Le(x) antigen by the anti-Le(x) monoclonal antibody (mAb) SH1 was studied by ELISA using a panel of 4″-modified Le(x) analogues. We confirmed that these analogues maintained the stacked conformation adopted by natural Le(x) antigen using 1D ROESY experiments and measuring intramolecular distances. Our binding studies show that the 4-OH″ of galactose behaves as an H-bond donor to an electronegative amino acid side chain in the SH1 binding site. While removal of this H-bond leads to reduced inhibition, disturbing the hydrophobic α face of the β-galactosyl residue leads to complete loss of binding to SH1. We compared our results to the crystal structure of the Fab fragment of anti-Le(x) mAb 291-2G3-A complexed with Le(x) (PDB entry 1UZ8 ). While no H-bond involving the 4-OH″ was described, hydrophobic interactions between a tryptophan residue and the β-galactoside α face are observed. We conclude that the hydrophobic α face that is uniquely displayed by β-galactosyl residues is essential to the recognition of the Le(x) antigen by anti-Le(x) antibodies. PMID:24059473

  14. Volatile emission of decomposing pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) as an indicator for the postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, Sebastian; Nicke, Sara; Ziegenhagen, Henrik; Schütz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at correlating selected carcass borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with the postmortem interval (PMI). Selected volatiles should 1st be reliably emitted during vertebrate decay, 2nd be emitted at high concentrations, and 3rd show a reproducible quantitative dynamic during the decaying process. Four pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed in a deciduous forest in different seasons and volatiles emitted during the decaying process were sampled. Seventeen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Electrophysiological experiments on the antenna of female Calliphora vicina and additional data of Dermestes maculans were used as an evolutionary tuned information filter to evaluate the 1st criterion. The relative quantitative emission of hexanal, nonanal, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-butanol, and phenol were correlated with the PMI, and the observed stages of decay and the limitations of this model were discussed. PMID:25387588

  15. Seroprevalence of Trichinella sp. in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Chung, Ok-Sik; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lee, Seung-Ha; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seo, Min

    2015-01-01

    A total 7 outbreaks of trichinellosis have occurred in Korea, mostly as a result of consumption of raw wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat. Since only 1 serological survey on wild boars had yet been performed in Korea, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and some species of rodents by artificial digestion and serological examinations in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, the endemic area of trichinellosis. Both the wild boar and rodent muscle samples revealed no Trichinella larvae by direct examination and artificial digestion method. However, serological examinations revealed that 4 wild boar sera samples out of 118 (3.4%) were positive to Trichinella antigen. Although the recovery of Trichinella larvae ended in a failure, it is proved for the first time that the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella has been maintained in wild boars of Gangwon-do, Korea. PMID:25925185

  16. Analysis of the bovine rumen microbiome reveals a diversity of Sus-like polysaccharide utilization loci from the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    Rosewarne, Carly P; Pope, Phillip B; Cheung, Jane L; Morrison, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Several unique Sus-like polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) were identified from bacteria resident in bovine rumen microbiomes through functional screening of a fosmid library. The loci were phylogenetically assigned to the genus Prevotella within the phylum Bacteroidetes. These findings were augmented by a bioinformatic re-evaluation of ruminal Prevotella genomes, revealing additional loci not previously reported in the literature. Analysis of Bacteroidales-affiliated genomes reconstructed from a bovine rumen metagenome in a previous study further expanded the diversity of Sus-like PULs resident in this microbiome. Our findings suggest that Sus-like systems represent an important mechanism for degradation of a range of plant-derived glycans in ruminants. PMID:24448980

  17. Experiment and numerical simulation on cross-die forming of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless using a modified Johnson-Cook model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Ding, Wei; Ye, Liyan; Chen, Jun

    2013-12-01

    True stress-strain curves of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless steel at various strain rates were fitted by a modified Johnson-Cook material model. The effect of blank-holder force on Cross-die forming of SUS304 stainless steel was studied. The forming process was also simulated by the software Marc based on this model. Major strain distribution, thickness distribution and load-displacement were compared between experiment and simulation. The results indicated the modified Johnson-Cook model could well predict the deformation behavior of SUS304 stainless steel. The martensitie volume fraction at different positions of the formed part was in good agreement with what can be expected.

  18. Design of Multidimensional Shinnar-Le Roux RF Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chao; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To generalize the conventional Shinnar-Le Roux (SLR) method for the design of multidimensional RF pulses. Methods Using echo-planar gradients, the multidimensional RF pulse design problem was converted into a series of 1D polynomial design problems. Each of the 1D polynomial design problems was solved efficiently. B0 inhomogeneity compensation and design of spatial-spectral pulses were also considered. Results The proposed method was used to design 2D excitation and refocusing pulses. The results were validated through Bloch equation simulation and experiments on a 3.0 T scanner. Large-tip-angle, equiripple-error, multidimensional excitation was achieved with ripple levels closely matching the design specifications. Conclusion The conventional SLR method can be extended to design multidimensional RF pulses. The proposed method achieves almost equiripple excitation errors, allows easy control of the tradeoff among design parameters, and is computationally efficient. PMID:24578212

  19. An Overview-NASA LeRC Structures Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1997-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center has its genesis dating back to 1943. It has been an independent Division at Lewis since 1979. Its two primary capabilities are performance and life analysis of static and dynamic systems such as those found in aircraft and spacecraft propulsion systems and experimental verification of these analyses. Research is conducted in-house, through university grants and contracts, and through cooperative programs with industry. Our work directly supports NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST), Smart Green Engine, Fast Quiet Engine, High-Temperature Materials and Processing (HiTEMP), Hybrid Hyperspeed Propulsion, Rotorcraft, High-Speed Research (HSR), and Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). A general overview is given discussing these programs and other technologies that are being developed at NASA LeRC.

  20. The NASA-LeRC wind turbine sound prediction code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Since regular operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine began in October 1979 about 10 nearby households have complained of noise from the machine. Development of the NASA-LeRC with turbine sound prediction code began in May 1980 as part of an effort to understand and reduce the noise generated by MOD-1. Tone sound levels predicted with this code are in generally good agreement with measured data taken in the vicinity MOD-1 wind turbine (less than 2 rotor diameters). Comparison in the far field indicates that propagation effects due to terrain and atmospheric conditions may be amplifying the actual sound levels by about 6 dB. Parametric analysis using the code has shown that the predominant contributions to MOD-1 rotor noise are: (1) the velocity deficit in the wake of the support tower; (2) the high rotor speed; and (3) off column operation.

  1. The ERDA/LeRC Photovoltaic Systems Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The ERDA/LeRC Photovoltaic Systems Test Facility (STF) provides a vital support function to the overall ERDA National Solar Photovoltaic Program. It allows preliminary investigation and checkout of components, subsystems, and complete photovoltaic systems before installation in actual service. The STF can also be used to determine optimum system configurations and operating modes. A facility description is presented, taking into account the solar cell array, the energy storage equipment, the power conditioning equipment, electric utility distribution network and loads, and instrumentation and data acquisition systems. Safety procedures which have been set up for maintenance and inspection of the solar array are discussed. Attention is also given to a number of investigations regarding the effect of environmental factors on solar cell array operation.

  2. Neptune's Discovery: Le Verrier, Adams, and the Assignment of Credit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, William

    2011-01-01

    As one of the most significant achievements of 19th century astronomy, the discovery of Neptune has been the subject of a vast literature. A large part of this literature--beginning with the period immediately after the optical discovery in Berlin--has been the obsession with assigning credit to the two men who attempted to calculate the planet's position (and initially this played out against the international rivalry between France and England). Le Verrier and Adams occupied much different positions in the Scientific Establishments of their respective countries; had markedly different personalities; and approached the investigation using different methods. A psychiatrist and historian of astronomy tries to provide some new contexts to the familiar story of the discovery of Neptune, and argues that the personalities of these two men played crucial roles in their approaches to the problem they set themselves and the way others reacted to their stimuli. Adams had features of high-functioning autism, while Le Verrier's domineering, obsessive, orderly personality--though it allowed him to be immensely productive--eventually led to serious difficulties with his peers (and an outright revolt). Though it took extraordinary smarts to calculate the position of Neptune, the discovery required social skills that these men lacked--and thus the process to discovery was more bumbling and adventitious than it might have been. The discovery of Neptune occurred at a moment when astronomy was changing from that of heroic individuals to team collaborations involving multiple experts, and remains an object lesson in the sociological aspects of scientific endeavor.

  3. Dysfonctionnements radio-induits du transport colique chez le rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, A.; Lebrun, F.; Ksas, B.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; MacNaughton, W. K.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptom commonly associated with whole body irradiation is diarrhoea, a still quite obscure phenomenon, which leads to decreased chance of cure of irradiated people. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for dysfunction of intestinal water and electrolyte transport regulation by the enteric nervous system after exposure to ionising radiation. This study shows decreased capacity of enteric nervous system to influence colonic transport 3days after irradiation, correlated to a diminished response to a neurotransmitter: serotonin. Radio-induced diarrhea may result from epithelial structural injury but also from impaired regulatory processes of intestinal transport. L'un des symptômes majeurs d'une irradiation corporelle totale ou abdominale est l'apparition de diarrhées, dont les causes sont encore mal connues, et qui mettent en jeu le pronostique vital de l'individu irradié. Cette étude vise à mettre en évidence l'atteinte de la régulation du transport intestinal d'eau et d'électrolytes par les rayonnements ionisants. On observe une diminution de la capacité du système nerveux entérique à influencer le transport colique 3jours après irradiation, corrélée à une diminution de la réponse épithéliale à un neurotransmetteur : la sérotonine. Les diarrhées radio-induites résulteraient d'une atteinte structurelle de l'épithélium mais également des processus de régulation du transport intestinal.

  4. Overexpression of the tomato pollen receptor kinase LePRK1 rewires pollen tube growth to a blebbling mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tubular growth of a pollen tube cell is crucial for the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. LePRK1 is a pollen-specific and plasma membrane–localized receptor-like kinase from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). LePRK1 interacts with another receptor, LePRK2, and with KINASE PARTNER PROTEIN (KPP...

  5. Les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose praseodyme-cerium-oxyde de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Jacques

    Ce travail etudie les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose supraconducteur a haute temperature critique dope aux electrons Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. La technique utilisee pour sonder ces fluctuations est le transport electrique DC dans le plan ab. Il s'agit, a notre connaissance, de la premiere etude de ce type dans la classe generale des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique dopes aux electrons et, plus particulierement, dans Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. De plus, l'etude est effectuee pour trois regimes de dopage, soit sous-dope x = 0.135, dopage optimal x = 0.15 et surdope x = 0.17. Les echantillons etudies sont des couches minces d'epaisseur plus grande que 100 nm crues par ablation laser. Les mesures electriques DC effectuees dans ce travail sont la resistance en reponse lineaire et les courbes IV en reponse non lineaire en fonction de la temperature. La mise en oeuvre experimentale de ces mesures a necessite une grande attention au filtrage et aux effets de chauffage a haut courant. Nous montrons que, sans cette attention, les donnees experimentales sont toujours erronees dans le regime pertinent pour nos echantillons. Les resultats pour le dopage optimal x = 0.15 sont expliques de facon tres convaincante dans le cadre de fluctuations purement 2D. D'abord, le regime des fluctuations gaussiennes est tres bien decrit par le modele d'Aslamazov-Larkin en deux dimensions. Ensuite, le regime de fluctuations critiques, se trouvant a plus basse temperature que le regime gaussien, est tres bien decrit par la physique 2D de Kosterlitz-Thouless. Dans cette analyse, les deux regimes ont des temperatures critiques coherentes entre elles, ce qui semble confirmer ce scenario 2D. Une analyse des donnees dans le cadre de fluctuations 3D est exploree mais donne des conclusions incoherentes. Les resultats pour les autres dopages sont qualitativement equivalents avec le dopage optimal et permettent donc une explication purement 2D. Par contre, contrairement au dopage optimal

  6. Approximation auto-coherente a deux particules, pseudogap et supraconductivite dans le modele de Hubbard attractif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Steve

    2000-10-01

    Dans cette these nous presentons une nouvelle methode non perturbative pour le calcul des proprietes d'un systeme de fermions. Notre methode generalise l'approximation auto-coherente a deux particules proposee par Vilk et Tremblay pour le modele de Hubbard repulsif. Notre methode peut s'appliquer a l'etude du comportement pre-critique lorsque la symetrie du parametre d'ordre est suffisamment elevee. Nous appliquons la methode au probleme du pseudogap dans le modele de Hubbard attractif. Nos resultats montrent un excellent accord avec les donnees Monte Carlo pour de petits systemes. Nous observons que le regime ou apparait le pseudogap dans le poids spectral a une particule est un regime classique renormalise caracterise par une frequence caracteristique des fluctuations supraconductrices inferieure a la temperature. Une autre caracteristique est la faible densite de superfluide de cette phase demontrant que nous ne sommes pas en presence de paires preformees. Les resultats obtenus semblent montrer que la haute symetrie du parametre d'ordre et la bidimensionalite du systeme etudie elargissent le domaine de temperature pour lequel le regime pseudogap est observe. Nous argumentons que ce resultat est transposable aux supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique ou le pseudogap apparait a des' temperatures beaucoup plus grandes que la temperature critique. La forte symetrie dans ces systemes pourraient etre reliee a la theorie SO(5) de Zhang. En annexe, nous demontrons un resultat tout recent qui permettrait d'assurer l'auto-coherence entre les proprietes a une et a deux particules par l'ajout d'une dynamique au vertex irreductible. Cet ajout laisse entrevoir la possibilite d'etendre la methode au cas d'une forte interaction.

  7. LE135, a retinoid acid receptor antagonist, produces pain through direct activation of TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Yu, Weihua; Hu, Hongzhen

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeRetinoids, through their activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors, regulate diverse cellular processes, and pharmacological intervention in their actions has been successful in the treatment of skin disorders and cancers. Despite the many beneficial effects, administration of retinoids causes irritating side effects with unknown mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that LE135 [4-(7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-5,7,7,10,10-pentamethyl-5H-benzo[e]naphtho[2,3-b][1,4]diazepin-13-yl)benzoic acid], a selective antagonist of RARβ, is a potent activator of the capsaicin (TRPV1) and wasabi (TRPA1) receptors, two critical pain-initiating cation channels. Experimental ApproachWe performed to investigate the excitatory effects of LE135 on TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels expressed in HEK293T cells and in dorsal root ganglia neurons with calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings. We also used site-directed mutagenesis of the channels to determine the structural basis of LE135-induced activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels and behavioural testing to examine if pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of the channels affected LE135-evoked pain-related behaviours. Key ResultsLE135 activated both the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) and the allyl isothiocyanate receptor (TRPA1) heterologously expressed in HEK293T cells and endogenously expressed by sensory nociceptors. Mutations disrupting the capsaicin-binding site attenuated LE135 activation of TRPV1 channels and a single mutation (K170R) eliminated TRPA1 activity evoked by LE135. Intraplantar injection of LE135 evoked pain-related behaviours. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels were involved in LE135-elicited pain-related responses, as shown by pharmacological and genetic ablation studies. Conclusions and ImplicationsThis blocker of retinoid acid signalling also exerted non-genomic effects through activating the pain-initiating TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. PMID:24308840

  8. ¿Cómo puede usted contribuir a la investigación médica? Done su sangre, sus tejidos y otras muestras

    Cancer.gov

    Explica la importancia de la donación de tejidos, responde a posibles preocupaciones y anima a los pacientes a que hablen con sus proveedores de cuidados para la salud acerca de la donación de muestras biológicas.

  9. Investigating Characteristics that Typify Engineering, Computer and Biological Sciences Graduates, the Differences that Occur among and between these Disciplines and the General Population of SUS Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise was to determine whether any of the available demographic or academic variables show distinct trends in three specific discipline areas that differ from those of other areas: (1) Engineering, (2) Computer Sciences, and (3) Biological Sciences. Using data from 39,087 SUS graduates in 2002-03 and of 324,164 science…

  10. Suppressor of sable [Su(s)] and Wdr82 down-regulate RNA from heat-shock-inducible repetitive elements by a mechanism that involves transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Brewer-Jensen, Paul; Wilson, Carrie B; Abernethy, John; Mollison, Lonna; Card, Samantha; Searles, Lillie L

    2016-01-01

    Although RNA polymerase II (Pol II) productively transcribes very long genes in vivo, transcription through extragenic sequences often terminates in the promoter-proximal region and the nascent RNA is degraded. Mechanisms that induce early termination and RNA degradation are not well understood in multicellular organisms. Here, we present evidence that the suppressor of sable [su(s)] regulatory pathway of Drosophila melanogaster plays a role in this process. We previously showed that Su(s) promotes exosome-mediated degradation of transcripts from endogenous repeated elements at an Hsp70 locus (Hsp70-αβ elements). In this report, we identify Wdr82 as a component of this process and show that it works with Su(s) to inhibit Pol II elongation through Hsp70-αβ elements. Furthermore, we show that the unstable transcripts produced during this process are polyadenylated at heterogeneous sites that lack canonical polyadenylation signals. We define two distinct regions that mediate this regulation. These results indicate that the Su(s) pathway promotes RNA degradation and transcription termination through a novel mechanism. PMID:26577379

  11. An Attempt to Identify Comparatively Supportive and Non-Supportive Environments for Underrepresented Minorities and Females in SUS Colleges of Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether consistent differences in enrollment and graduation among different racial/ethnic and sex groups occur at different colleges of Engineering in the Florida State University System (SUS). Analyses were limited to the major institutions (UF, FSU, USF, UCF, FAU, FIU) with the addition of FAMU due to a high…

  12. The wear properties and adhesion strength of the diamond-like carbon film coated on SUS, Ti and Ni-Ti with plasma pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Masuzawa, T; Hirakuri, K K

    2010-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on stainless steel (SUS), titanium (Ti) and nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) substrates using a radiofrequency plasma chemical vapour deposition method. Prior to DLC coating, the substrates were exposed to O2 and N2 plasma to enhance the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the substrate. After the plasma pre-treatment, the chemical composition and the wettability of the substrate surface was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement, respectively. A pull-out test and a ball-on-disc test were carried out to evaluate the adhesion strength and the wear properties of the DLC-coated substrates. The XPS results showed that the N2 and O2 plasma pre-treatment produced nitride and oxide on the substrate surfaces, such as TiO2, TiO, Fe2O3, CrN and TiNO. In the pull-out test, the adhesion strengths of the DLC film to the SUS, Ti and Ni-Ti substrates were improved with the plasma pre-treatment. In the ball-on-disc test, the DLC coated SUS, Ti and Ni-Ti substrates without the plasma pre-treatment showed severe film failure following the test. The DLC coated SUS and Ni-Ti substrates with the N2 plasma pre-treatment showed good wear resistance, compared with that with the O2 plasma pre-treatment. PMID:20448301

  13. Synthesis, characterization, phase diagrams and superconducting and normal state magnetic properties of La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.08) and electrochemically oxidized La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} (0 {le} x {le} 0.33, 0 {le} {delta} {le} 0.12)

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, F.

    1993-08-01

    La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.15) can all be intercalated with oxygen by a novel electrochemical oxidation method. Bulk superconductivity is found with an onset {Tc} {approx} 40 K for the whole range 0.01 {le} x {le} 0.15; for x = 0.25 and 0.33, the electrochemical oxidation did not improve the superconducting properties. The magnetic susceptibility {chi}(T = 50--320 K) data for La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4.11} and La{sub 1.92}Sr{sub 0.08}CuO{sub 4.07} are nearly identical with those of conventionally prepared La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4}, indicating that the hole doping level (p) in the CuO{sub 2} planes of the three compounds is nearly the same. Combined thermogravimetric analysis and iodometric titration experiments indicate that part of the intercalated oxygen has a formal valence close to {minus}1. The maximum doped-hole concentration in the CuO{sub 2} planes that can be achieved from combined Sr-doping and electrochemical oxygen doping for 0 {le} x {le} 0.15 is p {approx} 0.16 holes/formula unit. Oxygen can also intercalate into single crystal La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} through a slow electrochemical oxidation process. The required low current and long time for the charging process reflects that the oxygen intercalation for a single crystal is limited by its small specific surface area and long diffusion distance. The anisotropic superconducting, magnetic and transport properties are summarized and compared with those of polycrystalline La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} as well as of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} and La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} single crystals. The single crystal La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} has a maximum {Tc} {approx} 40 K, which is lower than that ({Tc} {approx} 42--45) of the corresponding polycrystalline samples. The magnetic phase diagram of La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} in the antiferromagnetic (AF) regime (0 {le} x {le} 0.02) has been derived from {sup 139}La NQR studies from 4 to 250 K.

  14. STIL, a peculiar molecule from styles, specifically dephosphorylates the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2 and stimulates pollen tube growth in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: LePRK1 and LePRK2 are two pollen receptor kinases localized to the plasma membrane, where they are present in a high molecular weight complex (LePRK complex). LePRK2 is phosphorylated in mature and germinated pollen, but is dephosphorylated when pollen membranes are incubated with tomato...

  15. An Overhead Demonstration of Some Descriptive Chemistry of the Halogens and LeChatelier's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a demonstration procedure using controlled reduction potentials to predict observed color changes which are then experimentally verified. Demonstrates the usefulness of this procedure in helping students understand LeChatelier's principle and the solubilit rule "like dissolves like." (CW)

  16. General parameter relations for the Shinnar-Le Roux pulse design algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan J

    2007-06-01

    The magnetization ripple amplitudes from a pulse designed by the Shinnar-Le Roux algorithm are a non-linear function of the Shinnar-Le Roux A and B polynomial ripples. In this paper, the method of Pauly et al. [J. Pauly, P. Le Roux, D. Nishimura, A. Macovski, Parameter relations for the Shinnar-Le Roux selective excitation pulse design algorithm, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 10 (1991) 56-65.] has been extended to derive more general parameter relations. These relations can be used for cases outside the five classes considered by Pauly et al., in particular excitation pulses for flip angles that are not small or 90 degrees. Use of the new relations, together with an iterative procedure to obtain polynomials with the specified ripples from the Parks-McClellan algorithm, are shown to give simulated slice profiles that have the desired ripple amplitudes. PMID:17408999

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 DETAIL OF MANTEL. - John Mason House (Mantel), Weybosset Street (moved to Rhode Island School of Design), Providence, Providence County, RI

  18. 5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards west. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Y Trestle, South side of Monongahela River between Thirty-fourth & Twenty-ninth Streets, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  19. A Multistep Equilibria-Redox-Complexation Demonstration to Illustrate Le Chatelier's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Tomas G.; Mellon, Edward K.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a process that can be used to illustrate a number of chemical principles including Le Chatelier's principle, redox chemistry, equilibria versus steady state situations, and solubility of species. (JRH)

  20. Le volvulus gastrique idiopathique aigu: à propos d'une nouvelle observation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelilah, Mouhsine; Jihad, Anzaoui; Rachid, Bouchentouf

    2013-01-01

    Le volvulus gastrique est une rotation anormale de l'estomac autour de son axe. La forme aiguë constitue une urgence chirurgicale. Le diagnostic est souvent retardé en raison d'une symptomatologie fréquemment non spécifique. Des signes respiratoires tels la dyspnée et le hoquet peuvent révéler cette pathologie. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation de volvulus gastrique aigu chez un adolescent de 17 ans, diagnostiqué par la tomodensitométrie, et confirmé par une intervention chirurgicale. Le traitement est chirurgical et consiste à détordre et fixer l'estomac pour prévenir la récidive. PMID:23503200

  1. Portevin-Le Chatelier effect and Tsallis nonextensive statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliopoulos, A. C.; Nikolaidis, N. S.; Aifantis, E. C.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we estimate Tsallis' entropic index q ≡qstat (stat denotes stationary states) for various stress serration time series of Cu-15%Al alloys corresponding to different deformation temperatures and types (A, B, C) of Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) bands. Tsallis statistical analysis is also conducted on experimental data derived from correlation diagrams focusing on PLC type C bands' spatial organization at the surface of various specimens. The results concerning the stress serrations analysis reveal the non-Gaussian (Tsallis q-Gaussian), nonextensive, sub-additive, character of the underlying dynamics of the PLC type-A bands (q > 1) indicating dynamics at the edge of chaos, with global long range correlations and power law scaling. Similarly, for PLC type B bands, a Tsallis q-Gaussian, non-extensive, super-additive, statistical profile was found with q < 1, while for the PLC type C bands, a near Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) statistical character was verified indicating Gaussian dynamics with short (weak) range correlations. Finally, Tsallis q-index for the spatial data of PLC type C bands was found above unity (q > 1) indicating that type C bands are not randomly nucleated in the specimen (e.g. yielding a Gaussian distribution) but there exist spatial coupling and long range deformation correlations in the PLC type C bands spatial localization.

  2. [Mr. Wang Le-ting: a master of acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xue-Song; Wang, Fan

    2012-11-01

    Mr. WANG Le-ting attaches great importance to accurate differentiation of syndromes, strict selection of acupoints, technique and direction of needle insertion, clear reinforcing and reducing methods after the appearance of needling sensations, proper opportunities of manipulations as well as needle withdrawal techniques, and reasonable application of acupuncture and moxibustion respectively. The above mentioned principles are known as his "5 agreements". He emphasizes that the selection of acupoints should be "in accordance with both the meridians and the accurate location of the points", and "needling sensation is necessary for each point". He holds that the back-shu points of the five-zang organs and Geshu (BL 17) can be adopted for patient with deficiency of qi, blood, yin and yang. In the aspect of acupoint theory, he insists the accurate location of Xuanzhong (GB 39). He also adjusts the locations of Huatuo Jiaji (EX-B 2) points, and finds the location of the new Dubi (ST 35). For easier applications, he divides the functions of acupoints into different schools of qi, blood, cold, heat, deficiency, excess, wind and dampness. And 41 combinations of acupoints are also invented as innovation. He is always strict to his students, instructing and influencing them by his own words and deeds. He is always conscientious and meticulous, which benefit immensely his followers, and remains a lot of precious experiences for the later generations. PMID:23214000

  3. Le Fort's procedure--an option for the aged.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Nilanjana; Sen, Mainak

    2011-03-01

    The changing demographics of the world's population will result in an increasing prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse and consequently a greater demand for healthcare services related to it. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of partial colpocleisis (Le Fort's operation) in a selected group of patients who are: (a) Not desirous of sexual function, (b) very elderly medically fragile, hence not fit for anaesthesia, (c) not fit for prolonged lithotomy position. After careful selection of cases 10 patients were included in the study from August 2005 to March 2006. USG(TVS) and cervical cytology were done to exclude any pathology. Partial colpocleisis was done under local anaesthesia with delayed absorbable sutures which closed the vagina from inside leaving drainage tracts on either side for egress of blood and cervicovaginal secretions postoperatively. A levator plication and high perineorrhaphy was also done. All patients(100%) had symptomatic relief. Only one patient (10%) had postoperative bleeding. Rest all had uneventful recovery. No recurrence of prolapse or SUI has developed till date. Operative time on average was 15 minutes. Hospital stay was 24 hours. Peroperative bleeding was negligible. Partial colpocleisis is an excellent operation for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) for very selective group of patients. The advantage of the procedure lies in its simple technique, permanent cure, symptomatic relief and minimal surgical risk. Hence it can be done as a day care procedure at a very low cost. PMID:22010590

  4. Novel Technique for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Willens, Scott; Cox, David M; Braue, Ernest H; Myers, Todd M; Wegner, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Telemetric monitoring of physiologic parameters in animal models is a critical component of chemical and biologic agent studies. The long-term collection of neurobehavioral and other physiologic data can require larger telemetry devices. Furthermore, such devices must be implanted in a location that is safe, well-tolerated, and functional. Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) present an ideal large animal model for chemical agent studies due to their relatively small size, characterized health status, and ease of training and handling. We report an effective approach to implanting a novel device to measure transthoracic impedance to approximate respiratory tidal volume and rate in Suidae. We tested the approach using 24 male Göttingen minipigs. A ventral midline abdominal incision extending from the umbilicus to the prepuce was followed by a paramedian incision of the parietal peritoneum and dorsal blunt dissection to create a retroperitoneal pocket. The device was anchored inside the pocket to the internal abdominal musculature with 3-0 nonabsorbable suture, biopotential leads were routed through the abdominal musculature, and the pocket was closed with 3-0 absorbable suture. Paired biopotential leads were anchored intermuscularly at the level of the seventh rib midway between spine and sternum bilaterally to provide surrogate data for respiratory function. Postoperative recovery and gross pathology findings at necropsy were used to assess safety and refine the surgical procedure. Results demonstrated that this procedure permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance, without negatively affecting the health and behavior of the animals. PMID:25527027

  5. Effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting of molten multi-component oxides ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Matsuda, Nozomu; Shinozaki, Nobuya; Miyoshi, Noriko; Shiraishi, Takanobu

    2015-02-01

    A study on the effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting behavior of molten multi-component oxides ceramic was performed and aimed to contribute to the further understanding of the application of oxides ceramic in penetration treatment of stainless steel coatings and the deposition of stainless steel cermet coatings. The results show that at 1273 K, different surface pre-treatments (polishing and heating) had an important effect on the wetting behavior. The molten multi-component oxides showed good wettability on both stainless steel substrates, however, the wetting process on the polished substrate was significantly slower than that on the heated substrates. The mechanism of the interfacial reactions was discussed based on the microscopic and thermodynamic analysis, the substrates reacted with oxygen generated from the decomposition of the molten multi-component oxides and oxygen contained in the argon atmosphere, and the oxide film caused the molten multi-component oxides ceramic to spread on the substrates surfaces. For the polished substrate, more time was required for the surface oxidation to reach the surface composition of Heated-S, which resulted in relatively slow spreading and wetting rates. Moreover, the variance of the surface roughness drove the final contact angles to slightly different values following the sequence Polished-S > Heated-S.

  6. [The trajectory of the national policy for the reorientation of professional training in health in the Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Dias, Henrique Sant'anna; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Teixeira, Márcia

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the national policy and its antecedents for reorientation of professional health training implemented after 2003. It highlights landmarks and transformations in the course of policies between 1980 and 2010, elements of continuity and change and the connections between past and current policy initiatives. The study involved a review of the literature on the subject and document analysis supported by theoretical analysis of public policies, particularly historical institutionalism. The results point to four different moments during the trajectory of the policy, marked by changes in the initiatives of reorientation of higher education in health: antecedents; initial experiences; university protagonism; broadening and enhancement. As an element of continuity, there is the permanence of objects in the guiding principles advocated in the policies. The evidence of implementation expresses prospects of enhancement, with diversification of mobilized actors and organizations, and more projects implemented. The accumulated experience suggests structural maturity of the structural bases of action and the main changes relate to the enhancement of decision-making bodies of the SUS and the approximation to the process of decentralization and regionalization of national health policy. PMID:23752528

  7. Survey of Feral Swine ( Sus scrofa ) Infection with the Agent of Chagas Disease ( Trypanosoma cruzi ) in Texas, 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Comeaux, Juliette M; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Lewis, Barbara C; Cummings, Kevin J; Mesenbrink, Brian T; Leland, Bruce R; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    : Feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) are an invasive species and reservoir of numerous zoonotic pathogens in the US, and Texas leads the nation in the estimated population size of feral hogs. Texas also harbors enzootic transmission cycles of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , agent of Chagas disease. Given previous evidence that swine can serve as reservoirs of T. cruzi in Latin America and new evidence of triatomines (kissing bugs) feeding on swine in Texas, we measured the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in feral swine in Texas. From 2013 to 2014, we sampled blood and/or cardiac tissue from 78 feral swine across 14 Texas counties (seven with and seven without prior documentation of kissing bug occurrence) and used PCR and histopathology to detect T. cruzi infection. We determined an overall infection prevalence of 6% (3 of 54) based on PCR evaluation of cardiac tissue, and no blood samples were positive (n=72). All three positive pigs were from counties where kissing bugs are documented. No T. cruzi amastigotes were noted on histopathology (n=54). Sarcocysts were observed in 10 (18%) of the samples, five of which also had mild focal areas of degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Eco-epidemiologic investigations can provide an assessment of contributions of feral hogs to maintenance of T. cruzi across a landscape to help protect human and animal health. PMID:27224214

  8. Honest signaling in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus): vocal allometry and the information content of grunt calls.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Maxime; Wondrak, Marianne; Huber, Ludwig; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-06-15

    The information conveyed in acoustic signals is a central topic in mammal vocal communication research. Body size is one form of information that can be encoded in calls. Acoustic allometry aims to identify the specific acoustic correlates of body size within the vocalizations of a given species, and formants are often a useful acoustic cue in this context. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of acoustic allometry in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus), asking whether formants of grunt vocalizations provide information concerning the caller's body size over time. On four occasions, we recorded grunts from 20 kunekune piglets, measured their vocal tract length by means of radiographs (X-rays) and weighed them. Controlling for effects of age and sex, we found that body weight strongly predicts vocal tract length, which in turn determines formant frequencies. We conclude that grunt formant frequencies could allow domestic pigs to assess a signaler's body size as it grows. Further research using playback experiments is needed to determine the perceptual role of formants in domestic pig communication. PMID:27059064

  9. Honest signaling in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus): vocal allometry and the information content of grunt calls

    PubMed Central

    Wondrak, Marianne; Huber, Ludwig; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The information conveyed in acoustic signals is a central topic in mammal vocal communication research. Body size is one form of information that can be encoded in calls. Acoustic allometry aims to identify the specific acoustic correlates of body size within the vocalizations of a given species, and formants are often a useful acoustic cue in this context. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of acoustic allometry in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus), asking whether formants of grunt vocalizations provide information concerning the caller's body size over time. On four occasions, we recorded grunts from 20 kunekune piglets, measured their vocal tract length by means of radiographs (X-rays) and weighed them. Controlling for effects of age and sex, we found that body weight strongly predicts vocal tract length, which in turn determines formant frequencies. We conclude that grunt formant frequencies could allow domestic pigs to assess a signaler's body size as it grows. Further research using playback experiments is needed to determine the perceptual role of formants in domestic pig communication. PMID:27059064

  10. On the evolutionary consequences of increasing litter size with multiple paternity in wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Gayet, Thibault; Devillard, Sébastien; Gamelon, Marlène; Brandt, Serge; Say, Ludovic; Baubet, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how some species may be able to evolve quickly enough to deal with anthropogenic pressure is of prime interest in evolutionary biology, conservation, and management. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) populations keep growing all over Europe despite increasing hunting pressure. In wild boar populations subject to male-selective harvesting, the initially described polygynous mating system may switch to a promiscuous/polyandrous one. Such a change in the mating system, where potentially more males sire a litter at one reproductive event, may be associated with the retention of high genetic diversity and an increase of litter size. We tested these hypotheses by estimating the number of sires per litter based on a six-year long monitoring of a wild boar population subject to particularly high harvesting pressure. Our results show a high and stable genetic diversity and high rates of multiple paternity compared to other populations, thus depicting a promiscuous/polyandrous mating system in this population. We also show that litter size is positively linked to the number of sires, suggesting that multiple paternity increases fecundity. We finally discuss that multiple paternity may be one of the factors allowing rapid evolution of this population by maintaining both genetic and phenotypic diversity. PMID:27166953

  11. A Taphonomic Study Exploring the Differences in Decomposition Rate and Manner between Frozen and Never Frozen Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2015-05-01

    This research examined differences in decomposition rate and manner of domestic pig subjects (Sus scrofa) in never frozen (control) and previously frozen (experimental) research conditions. Eight control and experimental subjects were placed in an identical outdoor research environment. Daily quantitative and qualitative measurements were collected: abdominal circumference, total body score (TBS), temperature, photographs, descriptive decomposition stages, and visual observations. Field necropsies were performed at accumulated degree days (ADD) between 50 and 300 (Celsius). Paired samples t-tests of ADD to TBS >3.0, TBS >9.5, and TBS >16.0 indicate the rate of decomposition of experimental subjects was significantly slower than controls at both TBS >3 and >9.5 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). A suite of qualitative indicators of predecomposition freezing is also reported. The differences between experimental and control subjects suggest previously frozen subjects should not be used in taphonomic research, as results do not accurately reflect the "normal" taphonomic condition. PMID:25693630

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF PORCINE PARVOVIRUS TYPE 3 AND PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE 2 IN WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA) IN SLOVAKIA.

    PubMed

    Sliz, Ivan; Vlasakova, Michaela; Jackova, Anna; Vilcek, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    As the number of free-living wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) continues to rise in Slovakia, the probability of pathogen transmission between susceptible species increases. We investigated the distribution and genetic characterization of porcine parvovirus type 3 (PPV3), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and their coinfection in wild boars. Among 194 animals tested, 19.1% were positive for PPV3 and 43.8% for PCV2. Similar rates of coinfection with both viruses reaching 11.0% and 11.8% were observed in juvenile and mature wild boars, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 sequences from VP1 and NS1 genomic regions revealed a close genetic relationship among isolates from Slovakia and those sampled worldwide. Prevalence of PCV2 in wild boars was lower than that reported in domestic pigs in Slovakia. The PCV2 variants originating from sylvatic and domestic hosts in Slovakia were grouped in the same clusters, namely PCV2b-1A/1B and PCV2a-2D. PMID:25973618

  13. Mesenteric lymph node granulomatous lesions in naturally infected wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Portugal-Histological, immunohistochemical and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Matos, A C; Andrade, S; Figueira, L; Matos, M; Pires, M A; Coelho, A C; Pinto, M L

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that wildlife reservoirs of mycobacteria are responsible for the maintenance and spreading of the infection to livestock and wildlife counterparts. Recent data report the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis. This study was conducted to evaluate the chronic inflammatory response in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of wild boar with granulomatous lymphadenitis (n=30). Morphological parameters of the lesions were recorded. The expression of CD3 and CD79α molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Molecular genotyping and culture to identify mycobacteria were performed. The lesions consisted mainly of stage III and stage IV granulomas. CD3 and CD79α positive cells were observed in 15 (50%) and in 11 (36.6%) MLN, respectively. In these lesions, higher percentages of T lymphocytes were found and a limited number of animals exhibited a tendency for an increased percentage of B lymphocytes. Our results suggest that there are similar percentages and distribution patterns of CD3 and CD79α in the lesions, regardless of the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), M. bovis or Map-M. bovis co-infection, and confirm that wild boar is both susceptible and could be an important Map and M. bovis wild reservoir in the study area. PMID:27090622

  14. [The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), State Public Policy: its institutionalized and future development and the search for solutions].

    PubMed

    Santos, Nelson Rodrigues Dos

    2013-01-01

    This paper redeems the significance of the health reform movement and the municipal healthcare movement in the context of the 1970s and 1980s, and its social, politic and innovative power in the democratic reconstruction of the day. It then notes that the implementation of the constitutional guidelines, regulated in 1990 by Laws 8080/90 and 8142/90, has been characterized in the last 22 years by four major and mounting obstacles imposed by State policy on all governments: federal underfunding; federal subsidies to the private health plan market; resistance to reform of the State management structure of service provision; and the handing over of administration of public facilities to private entities. The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) included half the population that was once excluded in the public health system, though these obstacles keep the coverage of primary care focused below the poverty line and with poor resolution. The conclusion drawn is that the real policy of the state for healthcare in the past 22 years has prioritized the creation and expansion of the private health plan market for consumer rights, and relegated the effectiveness of constitutional guidelines for civic human rights to second place. PMID:23338517

  15. Encoding of Situations in the Vocal Repertoire of Piglets (Sus scrofa): A Comparison of Discrete and Graded Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel; Policht, Richard; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Šimeček, Petr; Kratinova, Petra; Špinka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions in bioacoustics are whether vocal repertoires of animals are graded or discrete and how the vocal expressions are linked to the context of emission. Here we address these questions in an ungulate species. The vocal repertoire of young domestic pigs, Sus scrofa, was quantitatively described based on 1513 calls recorded in 11 situations. We described the acoustic quality of calls with 8 acoustic parameters. Based on these parameters, the k-means clustering method showed a possibility to distinguish either two or five clusters although the call types are rather blurred than strictly discrete. The division of the vocal repertoire of piglets into two call types has previously been used in many experimental studies into pig acoustic communication and the five call types correspond well to previously published partial repertoires in specific situations. Clear links exist between the type of situation, its putative valence, and the vocal expression in that situation. These links can be described adequately both with a set of quantitative acoustic variables and through categorisation into call types. The information about the situation of emission of the calls is encoded through five call types almost as accurately as through the full quantitative description. PMID:23967251

  16. Pseudorabies Virus and Brucella abortus from an Expanding Wild Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Population in Southern Oklahoma, USA.

    PubMed

    Gaskamp, Joshua A; Gee, Kenneth L; Campbell, Tyler A; Silvy, Nova J; Webb, Stephen L

    2016-04-28

    Wild pigs ( Sus scrofa ) are causing increasing ecologic and economic damage at a global scale. Because wild pigs can carry ≥65 diseases that affect livestock, their widespread expansion threatens native wildlife and livestock. We screened wild pigs from south-central Oklahoma, US for antibodies against Brucella abortus , pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS). These pathogens were chosen because they are part of eradication programs in the US and could have large economic impacts on domestic livestock if transmitted from wild animals. We tested 282 serum samples during spring 2010 (n=149) and 2011 (n=133) and found an overall exposure rate to PRV of 24.1% (n=68); PRV was detected at two of three study sites. Two wild pigs had detectable antibody to B. abortus , and one had detectable antibody to PRRS. On average, 27% of wild pigs within a sounder were positive for PRV antibody, with 44% of the sounders (16/36) having at least one positive individual. These data highlight that wild pigs could carry pathogens that affect domestic livestock. Because the US is free of these pathogens in commercial livestock operations, continued surveillance and vaccination of domestic livestock are needed. Commercial livestock producers at the wildlife-livestock interface may benefit from spatial prioritization of risk zones to facilitate strategic control efforts. PMID:27124329

  17. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Haas, Chloé; Rossi, Sophie; Meier, Roman; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) but has been poorly described in this species. We evaluated the performance of a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in domestic swine when applied to wild boar sera. We tested 96 sera from wild boar in populations without mange history ("truly noninfected") collected in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2014, and 141 sera from free-ranging wild boar presenting mange-like lesions, including 50 live animals captured and sampled multiple times in France between May and August 2006 and three cases submitted to necropsy in Switzerland between April 2010 and February 2014. Mite infestation was confirmed by skin scraping in 20 of them ("truly infected"). We defined sensitivity of the test as the proportion of truly infected that were found ELISA-positive, and specificity as the proportion of truly noninfected that were found negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively. Success of antibody detection increased with the chronicity of lesions, and seroconversion was documented in 19 of 27 wild boar sampled multiple times that were initially negative or doubtful. In conclusion, the evaluated ELISA has been successfully applied to wild boar sera. It appears to be unreliable for early detection in individual animals but may represent a useful tool for population surveys. PMID:26161723

  18. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions. PMID:17516948

  19. Molecular detection of Anaplasma spp. in pangolins (Manis javanica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Fui Xian; Kho, Kai Ling; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Sitam, Frankie Thomas; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-08-30

    Anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. This study describes the identification of a novel species of Anaplasma (Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (Manis javanica) and Anaplasma bovis from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Malaysia. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family Anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of Anaplasma bovis (97.7%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (97.6%). The sequence also aligned closely (99.9%) with that of an Anaplasma spp. (strain AnAj360) detected from Amblyomma javanense ticks. The nearly full length sequence of the 16S rRNA gene derived from two wild boars in this study demonstrated the highest sequence similarity (99.7%) to the A. bovis type strain. Partial 16S rRNA gene fragments of A. bovis were also detected from a small population of Haemaphysalis bispinosa cattle ticks in this study. Our finding suggests a possible spread of two Anaplasma species in the Malaysian wildlife and ticks. The zoonotic potential of the Anaplasma species identified in this study is yet to be determined. PMID:27523941

  20. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs. PMID:25640718

  1. Novel technique for retroperitoneal implantation of telemetry transmitters for physiologic monitoring in Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Willens, Scott; Cox, David M; Braue, Ernest H; Myers, Todd M; Wegner, Matthew D

    2014-12-01

    Telemetric monitoring of physiologic parameters in animal models is a critical component of chemical and biologic agent studies. The long-term collection of neurobehavioral and other physiologic data can require larger telemetry devices. Furthermore, such devices must be implanted in a location that is safe, well-tolerated, and functional. Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) present an ideal large animal model for chemical agent studies due to their relatively small size, characterized health status, and ease of training and handling. We report an effective approach to implanting a novel device to measure transthoracic impedance to approximate respiratory tidal volume and rate in Suidae. We tested the approach using 24 male Göttingen minipigs. A ventral midline abdominal incision extending from the umbilicus to the prepuce was followed by a paramedian incision of the parietal peritoneum and dorsal blunt dissection to create a retroperitoneal pocket. The device was anchored inside the pocket to the internal abdominal musculature with 3-0 nonabsorbable suture, biopotential leads were routed through the abdominal musculature, and the pocket was closed with 3-0 absorbable suture. Paired biopotential leads were anchored intermuscularly at the level of the seventh rib midway between spine and sternum bilaterally to provide surrogate data for respiratory function. Postoperative recovery and gross pathology findings at necropsy were used to assess safety and refine the surgical procedure. Results demonstrated that this procedure permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance, without negatively affecting the health and behavior of the animals. PMID:25527027

  2. Globalisation and global trade influence molecular viral population genetics of Torque Teno Sus Viruses 1 and 2 in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cortey, Martí; Pileri, Emanuela; Segalés, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2012-04-23

    Globalisation, in terms of the rapid and free movement of people, animals and food, has created a new paradigm, increasing the range and rate of distribution of many pathogens. In the present study, Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) have been used as a model to evaluate the effects of global trade on viral heterogeneity, and how the movement of live pigs can affect the distribution and composition of virus populations. Seventeen countries from different parts of the world have been screened for TTSuV1 and TTSuvV2. High levels of genetic diversity have been found as well as two new TTSuV subtypes. A small fraction of this diversity (<5%) was related with spatial structure; however the majority (>50%) was best explained by the exchange of live pigs among countries, pointing to the direct relationship between the movement of hosts and the diversity of their accompanying viruses. Taking TTSuVs as sentinels, this study revealed that the distribution and diversity of comensal microflora in live animals subjected to global trade is shaped by the commercial movements among countries. In the case of TTSuVs, it appears that commercial movements of animals are eroding the genetic composition of the virus populations that may have been present in pig herds since their domestication. PMID:22101091

  3. Spatial distribution of Trichinella britovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis of domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Ludovisi, A; Gómez-Morales, M A; Sréter, T; Pozio, E

    2012-02-10

    Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of raw meat and raw meat-derived products from swine, horse and some game animals infected with nematode worms of the genus Trichinella. Between June 2006 and February 2011, 16 million domestic pigs and 0.22 million wild boars (Sus scrofa) were tested for Trichinella sp. in Hungary. Trichinella infection was not found in any pigs slaughtered for public consumption. Nevertheless, Trichinella spiralis was detected in four backyard pigs when trace back was done following a family outbreak. Trichinella infection was demonstrated in 17 wild boars (0.0077%). Larvae from wild boars were identified as Trichinella britovi (64.7%), T. spiralis (29.4%) and Trichinella pseudospiralis (5.9%). Although the prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in wild boars and domestic pigs is very low, the spatial analysis reveals that the level of risk differs by region in Hungary. Most of the T. britovi infected wild boars (63.6%) were shot in the north-eastern mountain area of Hungary; whereas domestic pigs and wild boars infected with T. spiralis were detected only in the southern counties bordering Croatia and Romania. In the north-western and central counties, the prevalence of Trichinella infection seems to be negligible. PMID:21852037

  4. Facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Abessolo, Stéphanie Abo'o; Angwafo, Fru; Muna, Walinjom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala (Région du Sud) au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée de Février à Mai 2011. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’échantillon était constitué de 315 participants dont 181 (57,46%) hommes et 134 (42,54%) femmes. L’âge moyen était de 24,5±8ans (extrême: 15-45ans). Quarante personnes (40) étaient séropositifs, soit une prévalence de l'infection par le VIH de 12,7%. Cette prévalence augmentait significativement (p = 0) avec le nombre de partenaires occasionnels au cours des douze derniers mois, allant de 2,7% chez ceux n'ayant eu aucun partenaire occasionnel à 21,25% chez ceux ayant plus de trois partenaires occasionnels (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; P = 0,03). le fait d’être âgé entre 20 et 24 ans (RC = 4,88; IC = 1,74-13,67; p = 0), avoir plus de trois partenaires sexuels au cours des douze derniers mois (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; p = 0,03), avoir les rapports sexuels avec les prostitués (RC = 2,86; IC = 1,42-5,76; p = 0), avoir eu le chlamydia (RC = 3,00; IC = 1,07-8,39; p = 0,04), avoir eu la syphilis (RC = 3,35; IC = 1,57-7,14; p = 0), avoir des avantages sociaux lors du premier rapport sexuel (RC = 2,57; IC = 1,03-6,43; p = 0,04) constituaient des potentiels facteurs de risque du VIH. Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de sensibilisation au risque d'infection par le VIH et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles dans le district de santé de Meyomessala PMID:25419299

  5. 'Le roi le veult'.

    PubMed

    Sholl, W T

    1997-06-14

    Following the fiftieth anniversary of the National Health Service Act 1946, I make the case in this article that professional provision of health care must remain the property of the citizen under common law and must not become a commodity that is bought and sold by third parties, including the state. PMID:9217334

  6. Facteurs déterminants le regret après ligature tubaire

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Houssine; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Samouh, Naïma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La ligature tubaire peut générer regret. Le but de cette étude est d’étudier le vécu après la stérilisation ainsi que le regret et ses facteurs de risque. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective chez 52 femmes stérilisées entre 2004 et 2010. Résultats Vingt cinq (48%) femmes avaient regretté la réalisation de la ligature tubaire. La moyenne d’âge était de 40,5 ans. Le temps consacré aux explications était très court dans tous les cas. Trois quart des femmes n’était pas au courant des complications de la ligature tubaire. Le regret était dû au facteur religieux (23%), aux algies pelviennes (11,5%), au désir d'autres enfants (9,6%) ou à la prise de connaissance d'autres moyens contraceptifs (3,9%). Conclusion Un certains nombre de facteurs de risque de regret de la ligature tubaire sont retrouvés dans la littérature, comme dans notre série, dont l’âge, le désir de procréer, l'information incomplète, le délai de réflexion et le facteur religieux. PMID:25309644

  7. La tuberculose pulmonaire et le tabac: à propos de 100 cas

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouissmi, Hatim; Marc, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Le tabagisme et la tuberculose sont deux enjeux majeurs de santé publique au niveau mondial, en particulier dans les pays émergents. Pour déterminer les particularités cliniques, radiologiques, bactériologiques et thérapeutiques de la tuberculose pulmonaire chez les sujets tabagiques nous avons mené une étude prospective au service de phtisiologie de l'hôpital Moulay Youssef sur une période de 10 mois, portant sur 100 nouveaux cas de tuberculose pulmonaire, répartis en 2 groupes, 50 patients tabagiques: Groupe A et 50 patients non tabagiques: Groupe B. Tous nos patients étaient de sexe masculin, l’âge moyen était de 41 ans ± 12 chez le groupe A et de 36 ans ± 16 chez le groupe B. Le délai de consultation était plus long chez les tabagiques, la médiane était de 60j (30; 98) contre 40j (30; 60), la symptomatologie clinique était variable chez les deux groupes, dominée par les expectorations chez les tabagiques 96% contre 60%. Les lésions radiologiques étaient similaires chez les deux groupes ainsi que la charge bacillaire. Tous les patients ont été mis sous traitement antituberculeux. Après un mois du traitement, la Bacilloscopie était négative chez 50% du groupe A contre 66% chez le groupe B. la régression des lésions radiologiques était similaire chez les deux groupes. Le retard diagnostique et le retard de négativation des frottis sont les principales particularités de la tuberculose pulmonaire du sujet tabagique. Le sevrage tabagique doit faire partie intégrante de la prise en charge des patients atteints de tuberculose. PMID:25821545

  8. [LE cells in synovial fluid: prevalence and diagnostic usefulness in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Białkowska-Puszczewicz, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of LE cells in synovial fluid and their importance for the diagnosis of rheumatic disease. Synovial fluid was obtained from 631 patients: 31 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 337 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 4 with Still's disease, 9 with systemic scleroderma (SS), 27 with the overlap syndrome (RA/SLE), 132 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 57 with Reiter's syndrome, and 34 with psoriatic arthritis (PA). The fluid was centrifuged, precipitate smears were done and were May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained for cytologic assessment. The supernatant was collected for antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing. Physicochemical and serologic properties of the synovial fluid were routinely determined. All synovial fluids demonstrated signs of inflammation. The presence of LE cells was ascertained in five patients with SLE and nine patients with the overlap syndrome. In these cases, LE cells were accompanied by ANA. In addition, hematoxylin bodies were revealed in SLE patients. LE cells were observed in 2.6% of patients with RA but were not accompanied by ANA. Patients with SS, Still's disease, AS, Reiter's syndrome, and PA tested negative for LE cells. It appears from these results that LE cells are rarely present in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatic diseases. In contrast, they occur in more than 40% of patients with the overlap syndrome and may thus be regarded as important for the diagnosis of this condition. PMID:21365954

  9. SCRaMbLE generates designed combinatorial stochastic diversity in synthetic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Wang, Yun; Yang, Kun; Mitchell, Leslie A; Xue, Yaxin; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Tai; Dymond, Jessica S; Kang, Kang; Gong, Jianhui; Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhang, Yongfen; Li, Yingrui; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Bader, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic chromosome rearrangement and modification by loxP-mediated evolution (SCRaMbLE) generates combinatorial genomic diversity through rearrangements at designed recombinase sites. We applied SCRaMbLE to yeast synthetic chromosome arm synIXR (43 recombinase sites) and then used a computational pipeline to infer or unscramble the sequence of recombinations that created the observed genomes. Deep sequencing of 64 synIXR SCRaMbLE strains revealed 156 deletions, 89 inversions, 94 duplications, and 55 additional complex rearrangements; several duplications are consistent with a double rolling circle mechanism. Every SCRaMbLE strain was unique, validating the capability of SCRaMbLE to explore a diverse space of genomes. Rearrangements occurred exclusively at designed loxPsym sites, with no significant evidence for ectopic rearrangements or mutations involving synthetic regions, the 99% nonsynthetic nuclear genome, or the mitochondrial genome. Deletion frequencies identified genes required for viability or fast growth. Replacement of 3' UTR by non-UTR sequence had surprisingly little effect on fitness. SCRaMbLE generates genome diversity in designated regions, reveals fitness constraints, and should scale to simultaneous evolution of multiple synthetic chromosomes. PMID:26566658

  10. SCRaMbLE generates designed combinatorial stochastic diversity in synthetic chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yue; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Wang, Yun; Yang, Kun; Mitchell, Leslie A.; Xue, Yaxin; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Tai; Dymond, Jessica S.; Kang, Kang; Gong, Jianhui; Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhang, Yongfen; Li, Yingrui; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Bader, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic chromosome rearrangement and modification by loxP-mediated evolution (SCRaMbLE) generates combinatorial genomic diversity through rearrangements at designed recombinase sites. We applied SCRaMbLE to yeast synthetic chromosome arm synIXR (43 recombinase sites) and then used a computational pipeline to infer or unscramble the sequence of recombinations that created the observed genomes. Deep sequencing of 64 synIXR SCRaMbLE strains revealed 156 deletions, 89 inversions, 94 duplications, and 55 additional complex rearrangements; several duplications are consistent with a double rolling circle mechanism. Every SCRaMbLE strain was unique, validating the capability of SCRaMbLE to explore a diverse space of genomes. Rearrangements occurred exclusively at designed loxPsym sites, with no significant evidence for ectopic rearrangements or mutations involving synthetic regions, the 99% nonsynthetic nuclear genome, or the mitochondrial genome. Deletion frequencies identified genes required for viability or fast growth. Replacement of 3′ UTR by non-UTR sequence had surprisingly little effect on fitness. SCRaMbLE generates genome diversity in designated regions, reveals fitness constraints, and should scale to simultaneous evolution of multiple synthetic chromosomes. PMID:26566658

  11. Architectural Kansei of ‘Wall’ in The Façade Design by Le Corbusier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendai, Shoichiro

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the modern architect Le Corbusier's architectural Kansei (sensibility) on wall in site environment through the analysis of his façade design, using Œuvres complètes (1910-1965, 8 vols., Les éditions d'architecture, Artemis, Zurich) and Le Corbusier Archives (1982-1984, 32 vols., Garland Publishing, Inc. and Fondation Le Corbusier, New York, London, Paris). At first, I arrange five façade types, according to the explanation by Le Corbusier ; ‘fenêtre en longueur (strip window)’, ‘pan de verre (glass wall)’, ‘brise-soleil (sun-breaker)’, ‘loggia’ and ‘claustra’. Through the analysis of the relationship between these types and the design process of each building, we find that Le Corbusier's façade design includes the affirmation and the negation of the ‘wall’ at the same time. In fact, the nature of façade modification during design process is divers: increase in transparency, decrease in transparency and spatialization of façade. That means, Le Corbusier studied the environmental condition by these façade types, and tried to realize the phenomenal openness. This trial bases on the function of architectural Kansei as correspondence between body and environment beyond the physical design.

  12. Lymphome et grossesse: le point de vue de l'obstétricien, à propos de 2 cas

    PubMed Central

    Amourak, Sarah; Alaoui, Fatimazahra Fdili; Jayi, Sofia; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2014-01-01

    L'association lymphome et grossesse est une situation rare, mais non exceptionnelle, relevant de la coïncidence. Le lymphome vient en 4ème position des cancers rencontrés chez la femme enceinte, La clinique est trompeuse et inconstante, le diagnostic reste histologique et on distingue 2 types: lymphome malin hodgkinien (LMH) et le lymphome malin non hodgkinien (LMNH). Malgré le contexte de véritable urgence hématologique, la décision d'initier ou de différer le traitement est délicate, influencée par le type de lymphome, son extension et sa localisation, la répercussion organique, le degré de maturation f'tale, les risques obstétricaux et les valeurs éthiques, culturelles et religieuses de la patiente. Le traitement consiste essentiellement à une chimiothérapie. Le LH durant la grossesse est relativement moins agressif et d’évolution plus favorable que le LMNH. PMID:25883744

  13. Intrication de deux atomes en utilisant le blocage de Rydberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaëtan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Considérons un système quantique constitué de deux sous-systèmes : on dit qu'il est dans un état intriqué s'il existe des corrélations quantiques entre les états de ces derniers. La compréhension et la mise en œuvre d'états intriqués ont de nombreuses applications (métrologie quantique, étude des systèmes fortement corrélés, traitement quantique de l'information, etc.) et constituent le contexte général de ce travail de thèse. Plus en détail, nous démontrons la réalisation d'un état intriqué de deux atomes neutres piégés indépendamment. Pour cela, nous exploitons le phénomène de blocage de Rydberg : lorsqu'on essaie d'exciter simultanément deux atomes séparés de quelques micromètres vers un état de Rydberg donné, la forte interaction entre atomes de Rydberg peut empêcher cette excitation simultanée. Dans ce cas, seul un des deux atomes est excité et l'on génère ainsi des corrélations quantiques entre les états des deux atomes, c'est-à-dire de l'intrication. Dans notre expérience, deux atomes de 87Rb dans l'état fondamental 5S1/2 sont piégés chacun dans une pince optique microscopique, à une distance relative de 4 micromètres. En réalisant des transitions entre l'état 5S1/2 et l'état de Rydberg 58D3/2 par des transitions à deux photons, nous obtenons un état intriqué des deux atomes dans les sous-niveaux |5S1/2, f = 1, mf = 1> et |5S1/2, f = 2, mf = 2>. Afin de quantifier l'intrication, nous mesurons la fidélité par rapport à l'état-cible en réalisant des transitions Raman entre ces deux sous-niveaux. La fidélité des paires d'atomes présentes à la fin de l'expérience est supérieure à la valeur seuil de 0,5, ce qui prouve la création d'un état intriqué.

  14. Évolution des lignes directrices sur le traitement de la dyslipidémie

    PubMed Central

    John Bosomworth, N.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comprendre comment les nouvelles lignes directrices sur la prise en charge du risque cardiovasculaire publiées par l’American Heart Association et l’American College of Cardiology (AHA-ACC) peuvent être interprétées et utilisées dans le contexte canadien. Sources des données Les lignes directrices de l’AHA-ACC ont été examinées, de même que toutes les références. Des recherches indépendantes dans PubMed ont été effectuées pour inclure l’ajout aux statines d’autres antihyperlipidémiants et l’emploi de calculatrices médicales visant à aider le patient à comprendre. Message principal Les nouvelles lignes directrices de l’AHA-ACC s’appuient sur les meilleures données probantes disponibles actuellement en matière de traitement de la dyslipidémie. Cela inclut le risque cardiovasculaire (CV) sur 10 ans comme seuil thérapeutique au lieu du taux de cholestérol des lipoprotéines de faible densité, de même que l’abandon des cibles thérapeutiques de lipoprotéines de faible densité. On met de plus en plus l’accent sur les interventions alimentaires et l’exercice, avec l’amorce d’un effort pour quantifier l’effet de ces interventions. Les statines constituent la principale intervention pharmacologique, et l’ajout d’autres médicaments pour accentuer la baisse lipidique n’est plus recommandé. En ce qui concerne l’application au Canada, les tables de risque de Framingham sont plus appropriées pour évaluer le risque que les équations de cohortes regroupées utilisées aux États-Unis. Les calculatrices du risque de maladie cardiovasculaire (MCV) devraient contenir de l’information sur l’âge cardiovasculaire et devraient pouvoir illustrer le risque et les interventions de rechange afin d’aider le patient à comprendre et de favoriser la prise de décision éclairée. Conclusion L’attention sur les meilleures données probantes concernant le risque CV peut simplifier le traitement de la

  15. le de l'hydrogène dans le procédé de purification du silicium par plasma thermique inductif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erin, J.; Morvan, D.; Amouroux, J.

    1993-03-01

    The use of the thermal process for purification of silicon led to a material with the chemical purity required for phototovoltaic applications. In this paper, the various properties of ArH2 plasma mixtures are briefly reviewed and the effect of hydrogen percentage in an argon plasma used for melting and purifying silicon is pointed out. Physico-chemical analysis of the purified silicon showed that hydrogen diffused in the material and could passivate crystal defects by formation of stable chemical bonds such as Si-H. La technique de purification du silicium sous plasma thermique permet d'aboutir à un matériau de pureté chimique requise pour l'industrie photovoltaïque. Dans ce travail, nous soulignerons lele de l'hydrogène intervenant dans les propriétés du plasma en rappelant les caractéristiques des plasmas Ar-H2 utilisés pour fondre et purifier le silicium. Les caractéristiques physico-chimiques du silicium purifié montrent que l'hydrogène diffuse dans le matériau et est en mesure de cicatriser les défauts cristallins par formation de liaisons chimiques stables de type Si-H.

  16. Long-term monitoring of 10 selected pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Sierra Nevada National Park, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; López-Olvera, Jorge; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M; Granados, José E

    2014-11-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are increasing in the Iberian Peninsula, and population management must include disease management and control. In this study, the epidemiology of 10 selected pathogens (Aujeszky's disease virus - ADV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus - PRRSV, porcine influenza virus, porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, Leptospira pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp., Salmonella sp. and Mycobacterium bovis) in the wild boar population in Sierra Nevada National Park (SNNP), an open unfenced area, is reported, taking into account wild boar population abundance variation in space and time in an open unfenced environment. A total of 1103 wild boar were sampled in 141 hunting events randomly carried out for sampling in seven hunting seasons (October to February from 2002-2003 to 2009-2010 (except 2007-2008). Prevalence was overall lower than those previously reported for fenced wild boar populations in Spain, but all the pathogens analyzed except PRRSV were considered endemic in the SNNP. ADV, E. rhusiopathiae and total pathogen prevalence were positively correlated to wild boar density. Prevalence in the positive areas was significantly higher in females for ADV, E. rhusiopathiae, L. pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp. and Salmonella sp., and in males for M. bovis. This longitudinal study provides the first data on the health status of the relatively unmanaged and low density wild boar population of SNNP. It is concluded that non-intensively managed wild boar populations are able to maintain the circulation of several pathogens, even in low prevalences and in open unfenced areas with natural density variation both in time and space. PMID:25261921

  17. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km(2) large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172-377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria. PMID:27049756

  18. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth

    PubMed Central

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W.; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km2 large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172–377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria. PMID:27049756

  19. The stress response and exploratory behaviour in Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa): Relations to sex and social rank.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Sarah J J; Martin, Gerard M; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2015-12-01

    According to the coping styles hypothesis, an individual demonstrates an integrated behavioural and physiological response to environmental challenge that is consistent over time and across situations. Individual consistency in behavioural responses to challenge has been documented across the animal kingdom. Comparatively few studies, however, have examined inter-individual variation in the physiological response, namely glucocorticoid and catecholamine levels, the stress hormones secreted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, respectively. Variation in coping styles between individuals may be explained in part by differences in social rank and sex. Using 20 Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) we: (1) investigated the existence of consistent inter-individual variation in exploratory behaviour and the hormonal stress response, and tested for correlations as predicted by the coping styles hypothesis; and (2) evaluated whether inter-individual behavioural and hormonal variation is related to social rank and sex. Salivary stress biomarkers (cortisol, alpha-amylase, chromogranin A) were assessed in the presence and absence of a stressor consisting of social isolation in a crate for 10 min. Principal components analysis on a set of behavioural variables revealed two traits, which we labelled exploratory tendency and neophobia. Neither exploratory tendency nor neophobia predicted the physiological stress response. Subordinate pigs exhibited higher catecholamine levels compared to dominant conspecifics. We observed sex differences in the repeatability of salivary stress markers and reactivity of the stress systems. The results do not provide support for the existence of behavioural-physiological coping styles in pigs. Sex is an important determinant of the physiological stress response and warrants consideration in research addressing behavioural and hormonal variation. PMID:26450148

  20. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    PubMed

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. PMID:27093497

  1. Detection of flavor compounds in longissimus muscle from four hybrid pig breeds of Sus scrofa, Bamei pig, and Large White.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoshun; Sui, Yanan; Chen, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To detect the flavor quality and flavor compounds in raw longissimus muscle from four typical pig breeds: Sus scrofa × Bamei pig named F1 (group A), F1 × F1 (group B), F1 × Bamei pig (group C), and F1 × Large White (group D). The chemical compositions of longissimus muscles from four breeds were examined using headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography mass spectrometry method. Distinct differences for the same flavor compounds of longissimus muscles between different breeds were analyzed. Totally 64 flavor compounds shared in four groups, and 10 flavor compounds with significant difference among four groups (p < 0.05), including allyl butyrate, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, 2,2-dimethyl-3-methyl oxirane, 2-pentylfuran, dodecane, 2,4-decadienal, vinylsilane, 3-methyl-1-butanol, (1-methyldecyl)-benzene, and dipropyl phthalate. Totally, 23-41 flavor compounds did not commonly exist in four groups, such as only as dibutyl isophthalate in group A; 6,10-dimethyl-5-9-undecadien-2 one, bis (2-trimethylsilyl) ethyl ester-malonic acid, heptadecane, 2,4,6-trimethyl pyridine, and diisooctyl adipate in group C alone; and 1,3-dimethylcyclopentanol, 2-octanone, and trimethylsilane in group D alone. While, no specific flavor compounds were identified in group B. All these flavor compounds covered 12 types of hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, hydroxybenzenes, acids, ketones, esters, sulfides, furans, alkenes, and pyrrole. Besides, we analyzed 14 flavor compounds with different flavors combining with previous studies. The flavor compounds in longissimus muscles might be closely related to the breeds, and the hybrid of S. scrofa × Bamei pig had the most flavor compounds in raw longissimus muscle. PMID:25052201

  2. Morphological aspects and physical properties of enamel and dentine of Sus domesticus: A tooth model in laboratory research.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Cardoso, Miquéias André Gomes; Miranda, Mayara Sabrina Luz; Silva, Raira de Brito; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Nogueira, Bárbara Catarina Lima; Nogueira, Brenna Magdalena Lima; de Melo, Sara Elisama Silva; da Costa, Natacha Malu Miranda; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze morphological and physical properties of deciduous teeth of Sus domesticus. Ultrastructural analysis, mineral composition and microhardness of enamel and dentine tissues were performed on 10 skulls of S. domesticus. External anatomic characteristics and the internal anatomy of the teeth were also described. Data regarding microhardness and ultrastructural analysis were subjected to statistical tests. For ultrastructural analysis, we used the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post hoc (p≤0.05) test. In the analysis of microhardness, the difference between the enamel and dentine tissues was analyzed by a Student's t test. Values were expressed as mean with standard error. The results of ultrastructural analysis showed the presence of an enamel prism pattern. A dentinal tubule pattern was also observed, with a larger diameter in the pulp chamber and the cervical third, in comparison to middle and apical thirds. We observed an average microhardness of 259.2kgf/mm(2) for enamel and 55.17kgf/mm(2) for dentine. In porcine enamel and dentine, the chemical elements Ca and P showed the highest concentration. The analysis of internal anatomy revealed the presence of a simple root canal system and the occurrence of main canals in the roots. The observed features are compatible with the functional demand of these animals, following a pattern very similar to that seen in other groups of mammals, which can encourage the development of research using dental elements from the pig as a substitute for human teeth in laboratory research. PMID:26434756

  3. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results). PMID:22247377

  4. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study. PMID:26537041

  5. Tumeur de vessie chez le sujet jeune: à propos de 36 cas

    PubMed Central

    Statoua, Mouad; El Ghanmi, Jihad; Karmouni, Tarik; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Attya, Ahmed Iben

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs de vessie sont rares avant 40 ans et ne représentent que 1 à 4% de l'ensemble de ces tumeurs. Notre étude s'est intéressée au profil épidémiologique, caractère histologique ainsi que le profil évolutif. Nous avons réalisé une étude retrospective sur une durée de 10 ans entre mars 2004 et mars 2014, nous avons traité 850 patients pour tumeur de vessie dont 36 était âgé de moins de 40 ans. Le diagnostic était posé devant des arguments cliniques, radiologiques et endoscopiques, la cystoscopie avec résection tumorale a précisé la nature histologique et son grading ainsi que le degré d'infiltration. 23 patients avaient une tumeur de vessie non infiltrant le muscle et 13 avaient une tumeur infiltrant le muscle. Le taux de récidive global est de l'ordre de 36,4%, 22% pour la tranche d’âge 20-30 ans et 46% pour la tranche d’âge 31-40 ans. Le risque de progression et de décès est respectivement de 8% et de 6,1%. Il ressort que les tumeurs superficielles ont une meilleure évolution chez les sujets de moins de 30 ans. Les tumeurs infiltrantes sont plus fréquentes et souvent évoluées suggérant un potentiel évolutif particulier. Leur pronostic est fonction du stade tumoral, sans corrélation avec l’âge. PMID:26113886

  6. A novel sialyl LeX expression score as a potential prognostic tool in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment decisions in colorectal cancer subsequent to surgery are based mainly on the TNM system. There is a need to establish novel prognostic markers based on the molecular characterization of tumor cells. Evidence exists that sialyl LeX expression is correlated with an unfavorable outcome in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to establish a simple sialyl LeX staining score and to determine a potential correlation with the prognosis in a series of advanced colorectal carcinoma patients. Methods In order to implement routine use of sialyl LeX immunohistology, we established a new, easily reproducible score and defined a cutoff which discriminated groups with better or worse outcome, respectively. We then correlated sialyl LeX expression of 215 UICC stage III and IV patients with disease-free and cancer-related survival. Results A five-stage score could be established based on automated immunohistochemical stainings. Using a statistical model, we calculated a cutoff to discriminate between weak and strong staining positivity of sialyl LeX. Patients with strong positive specimens had a worse cancer-related survival (P = 0.004) but no difference was observed for disease-free survival (P = 0.352). Conclusions These results demonstrate a strong correlation between high sialyl LeX-expression in colorectal carcinomas and cancer-related survival. Our highly standardized and easy-to-use staining score is suitable for routine use and hence it could be recommended to evaluate sialyl LeX-expression as part of the standard histopathological analysis of colorectal carcinomas and to validate the score prospectively based on a larger population. PMID:22621806

  7. Effets du stress familial lié au diabète sur le contrôle glycémique chez les jeunes diabétiques de type 1

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouli, Elina; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Darviri, Christina; Chrousos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectif Examiner la façon dont le stress familial influence le contrôle glycémique chez les patients diabétiques de moins de 18 ans. Sources des données Une recherche des études pertinentes publiées depuis 1990 a été réalisée dans PubMed et Scopus à l'aide des mots-clés suivants en anglais: diabetes type 1, glycemic control, family stress, family conflict et family function. Sélection des études La recension initiale a permis de cerner un total de 1 478 articles. La synthèse finale portrait sur 6 études de cohortes, 3 études transversales et 1 étude qualitative dans lesquelles le stress familial était évalué à l'aide d'instruments de mesure des conflits spécifiquement reliés au diabète et le contrôle glycémique était mesuré en fonction de l'hémoglobine glycosylée. Synthèse Dans la plupart des études, il existait une corrélation négative entre le stress familial et le contrôle glycémique des patients. Le bon fonctionnement familial était fortement relié à un bon contrôle glycémique des patients, tandis que les conflits familiaux étaient associés à un mauvais contrôle glycémique. Les familles dont la situation socioéconomique était défavorisée, celles ayant des adolescents atteints de diabète et les familles monoparentales étaient plus enclines à vivre un stress relié au diabète et étaient, par conséquent, plus susceptibles de connaître un moins bon contrôle glycémique. Conclusion Les interventions psychologiques thérapeutiques et les programmes éducatifs peuvent aider à atténuer le stress familial relié au diabète et amélioreront probablement le contrôle glycémique.

  8. EcoTILLING revealed SNPs in GhSus genes that are associated with fiber- and seed-related traits in upland cotton

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yan-Da; Sun, Jun-Ling; Bu, Su-Hong; Deng, Kang-Sheng; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Du, Xiong-Ming; Zhou, Bao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is the most important textile crop in the world due to its cellulose-enriched fibers. Sucrose synthase genes (Sus) play pivotal roles in cotton fiber and seed development. To mine and pyramid more favorable alleles for cotton molecular breeding, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GhSus family genes were investigated across 277 upland cotton accessions by EcoTILLING. As a result, a total of 24 SNPs in the amplified regions of eight GhSus genes were identified. These SNPs were significantly associated with at least one fiber- or seed-related trait measured in Nanjing, Anyang and Kuche in 2007–2009. Four main-effect quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) and five epistatic QTNs, with 0.76–3.56% of phenotypic variances explained by each QTN (PVE), were found to be associated with yield-related traits; six epistatic QTNs, with the 0.43–3.48% PVE, were found to be associated with fiber quality-related traits; and one main-effect QTN and one epistatic QTN, with the PVE of 1.96% and 2.53%, were found to be associated with seed oil content and protein content, respectively. Therefore, this study provides new information for molecular breeding in cotton. PMID:27385639

  9. Investigation of oxides formed in the corrosion of SUS-304 in high-temperature water through the measurement of evolved hydrogen and radiochemical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Tachikawa, E.; Hoshi, M.; Nakashima, M.; Sagawa, C.; Yonezawa, C.

    1984-04-01

    Corrosion behavior of SUS-304 at 280/sup 0/C in deaerated water has been traced both through measuring H/sub 2/ gas, concomitantly formed with corrosion, and through radiochemical analysis of the corrosion layers. The calculated H/sub 2/ yield based on the reaction, M + x.H/sub 2/O = MO /sub x/ + x.H/sub 2/ (M: iron, chromium, nickel, manganese, and cobalt), agreed reasonably well with the observed H/sub 2/ yields, showing that iron is mainly in a magnetite form and chromium is in a Cr(III) state. More than 85% of the corrosion layers were recovered by repeating ultrasonic cleaning and electrostripping processes. The residual fraction was rich in chromium and dissolved in the subsequent electropolishing process. The total corrosion increases with the reaction time, although the ''inner layer'' tends to stay almost constant at a longer reaction time. In some cases, both neutron irradiated and nonirradiated SUS coexisted. Mutual transfer of the elements from one SUS to the other has been examined.

  10. Pertinence de l'implantation de la filiere granule de bois pour le Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Stephan

    Les spécialistes avancent que le marché mondial de l'énergie en forte demande et en offre limitée nécessitera bientôt toutes les formes d'énergie disponibles. Le granulé de bois est une forme de bioénergie principalement utilisée pour le chauffage des bâtiments et pourrait être davantage considéré dans l'offre énergétique du Québec. Comme le Québec est un territoire où il fait froid et donc susceptible de pouvoir se tourner vers cette forme d'énergie, l'objectif de ce mémoire est d'en analyser les avantages. Pour ce faire, nous commencerons par démontrer la croissance des besoins énergétiques sur les plans national et international et dresser un portrait des différentes formes d'énergies consommées au Québec. Puisque la majorité des Québécois chauffent leurs bâtiments à l'hydroélectricité, nous analyserons à travers le plan d'approvisionnement d'Hydro-Québec le portrait de la production et de la consommation de cette forme d'énergie renouvelable. Cela nous permettra de constater le défi face à la gestion de surplus importants, sauf pendant la période hivernale, et ce faisant, l'obligation de la société d'État d'utiliser davantage ses centrales au gaz ou de se tourner vers l'importation de l'électricité. Dans la même lignée, un regard sera porté sur les perspectives d'utilisation de l'hydroélectricité sur les plans de la production d'aluminium, de l'exportation et de l'utilisation dans l'électrification des transports au Québec. Cette analyse se fera dans l'objectif de s'interroger sur la pertinence d'utiliser cette source d'énergie dans le chauffage plutôt que dans des secteurs plus créateurs de richesse. Nous poserons ensuite l'hypothèse que le granulé de bois pourrait être un bon substitut à une autre forme d'énergie utilisée dans le chauffage, soit le mazout. Avant de dresser un portrait de ce combustible fossile, nous ferons celui de la production et de la consommation de granulés sur les plans r