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Sample records for lead-acid batteries

  1. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  2. Lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1983-09-20

    A light weight lead-acid battery is disclosed having a positive terminal and a negative terminal and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive and negative bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  3. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  4. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  5. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  6. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

  7. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A sealed, low maintenance battery (10, 100) is formed of a casing (14, 102) having a sealed lid (12, 104) enclosing cell compartments (22, 110) formed by walls (24, 132). The cells comprise a stack (26) of horizontally disposed negative active plates (30) and positive active plates (28) interspersed with porous, resilient separator sheets (30). Each plate has a set of evenly spaced tigs (40, 41) disposed on one side thereof; like polarity tigs being disposed on one side and opposite polarity tigs on the other. Columns of tigs are electrically and mechanically joined by vertical bus bars (46). The bus bars contain outwardly projecting arms (56) of opposite polarity which are electrically joined at each partition wall (24) to electrically connect the cells in series. The stack is compressed by biasing means such as resilient pad (58) attached to the lid or by joining the tigs (52) to the post (48) at a distance less than the thickness of the mat (124). The end bus bars (46) are joined to straps (60, 62) which connect to the terminals (16, 18). The negative plates contain more capacity than the positive plates and the starved electrolyte imbibed in the separator sheets permits pressurized operation during which oxygen diffuses through the separator sheet to the negative plate where it recombines. Excess pressure is relieved through the vent and pressure relief valve (20).

  8. Lead-acid battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead-acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). The avoiding of positive plate reversal to prevent reduction of the tin oxide is accomplished by (a) employing an oversized positive plate and pre-charging it; (b) by pre-discharging the negative plate; and/or (c) by placing a circuit breaker (26) in combination with the plates (16, 18) and terminals (22, 24) to remove the load when the voltage of the positive plate falls below a pre-selected level.

  9. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  10. Rigid separator lead acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cannone, A.G.; Salkind, A.J.; Stempin, J.L.; Wexell, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acid cells assembled with extruded separators displayed relatively uniform capacity and voltage parameters through 100{sup +} cycles of charge/discharge. This contrasts to failure of control cells with glass mat separators after 60 cycles. The mullite/alumina separators with 50, 60, and 70% porosity separators appear suitable for both flooded and sealed lead acid cell applications. The advantages of the rigid ceramic separators over fiber mat materials are in the uniformity of capacity and voltage, the ease of cell assembly, and the probability that firm stacking pressure on the active material will yield greater cycle life, especially at elevated temperatures.

  11. High power bipolar lead-acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with interest in advanced energy storage systems, is involved in the development of a unique lead acid battery design. This battery utilizes the same combination of lead and lead dioxide active materials present in the automobile starting battery. However, it can provide 2 to 10 times the power while minimizing volume and weight. The typical starting battery is described as a monopolar type using one current collector for both the positive and negative plate of adjacent cells. Specific power as high as 2.5 kW/kg was projected for 30 second periods with as many as 2000 recharge cycles.

  12. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  13. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Baker, Frederick S.; Armstrong, Beth L.

    2011-09-13

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  14. Developments in lead/acid stationary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosking, Don

    1993-05-01

    Valve-regulated designs of the lead/acid system are securing significant shares of the markets for stationary batteries. This paper discusses the major problems that have been encountered with the introduction of valve-generated technology. Areas that have provided particular difficulties include: (1) acid leakage (container-cover, post-seal and vent leaks); (2) adverse effects of ripple current; (3) variations in float voltage, and (4) initial value of recharge current.

  15. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Holden, L. S.; May, G. J.; Newnham, R. H.; Peters, K.

    Given the growing importance of valve-regulated lead/acid technology in many existing and emerging market areas, an expert panel was assembled at the Sixth Asian Battery Conference to answer questions from delegates on various technical and operational aspects of such batteries. Key issues included: advantantages; performance and reliability; thermal runaway; and failure modes. The interaction between the audience and the panel was both vigorous and informative. Overwhelmingly, it was agreed that valve-regulated technology has come of age and offers a dynamic solution to many of the world's energy-storage requirements and opportunities.

  16. Relativity and the lead-acid battery.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev; Blomqvist, Andreas; Larsson, Peter; Pyykkö, Pekka; Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk

    2011-01-01

    The energies of the solid reactants in the lead-acid battery are calculated ab initio using two different basis sets at nonrelativistic, scalar-relativistic, and fully relativistic levels, and using several exchange-correlation potentials. The average calculated standard voltage is 2.13 V, compared with the experimental value of 2.11 V. All calculations agree in that 1.7-1.8 V of this standard voltage arise from relativistic effects, mainly from PbO2 but also from PbSO4. PMID:21231773

  17. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, D.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries with gelled electrolyte appeared as a niche market during the 1950s. During the 1970s, when glass-fiber felts became available as a further method to immobilize the electrolyte, the market for VRLA batteries expanded rapidly. The immobilized electrolyte offers a number of obvious advantages including the internal oxygen cycle which accommodates the overcharging current without chemical change within the cell. It also suppresses acid stratification and thus opens new fields of application. VRLA batteries, however, cannot be made completely sealed, but require a valve for gas escape, since hydrogen evolution and grid corrosion are unavoidable secondary reactions. These reactions result in water loss, and also must be balanced in order to ensure proper charging of both electrodes. Both secondary reactions have significant activation energies, and can reduce the service life of VRLA batteries, operated at elevated temperature. This effect can be aggravated by the comparatively high heat generation caused by the internal oxygen cycle during overcharging. Temperature control of VRLA batteries, therefore, is important in many applications.

  18. Failure modes of lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culpin, B.; Rand, D. A. J.

    The delivery and storage of electrical energy in lead/acid batteries via the conversion of lead dioxide and lead to, and from, lead sulphate is deceptively simple. In fact, battery performance depends upon the cell design, the materials of construction, a complex interplay between the multitudinous parameters involved in plate preparation, the chemical composition/structure of the active materials, and the duty/conditions of battery operation. It is not surprising, therefore, that the factors responsible for the degradation of battery performance, and eventual failure, are many and varied. Apart from occasional field surveys of automotive batteries in the U.S.A., comprehensive failure analyses of units removed from service are rarely published. In general, the information is kept proprietary, or appears as a post mortem report that is subsidiary to some other topic of interest. By contrast, the literature abounds with detailed laboratory investigations of phenomena that are likely to contribute, wholly or in part, to the demise of batteries. In broad terms, this review draws together the fragmented and scattered data presently available on the failure mechanisms of lead/acid batteries in order to provide a platform for further exploration of the phenomena, and for the planning of remedial strategies. The approach taken is to classify, first, the different lead/acid technologies in terms of required duty (i.e., float, cycling and automotive applications), unit design (i.e., flat or tubular plate, flooded or immobilized electrolyte), and grid alloy (i.e., leadantimony or leadcalcium system). A distinction is then made between catastrophic failure, as characterized by a sudden inability of the battery to function, and progressive failure, as demonstrated by some more subtle deviation from optimum performance. Catastrophic failure is attributed to incorrect cell design, poor manufacturing practice, abuse, or misuse. These problems are obvious and, accordingly

  19. Closure device for lead-acid batteries

    DOEpatents

    Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1983-01-01

    A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

  20. Computer aided design of a bipolar lead/acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Wen-Hong

    Statistical design of experiments, coupled with the proprietary mathematical lead/acid model of Johnson Controls, Inc., were used to derive the design of a very high power bipolar lead/acid battery for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The effects of some battery component factors and discharge rate on the battery performance, predicted by the lead/acid model, were evaluated. The strategy to derive the optimum battery design, the roles of each battery component, limitations of the system, and the directions to improve the battery performance are discussed.

  1. Recent developments in lead-acid battery technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, K.

    1987-12-01

    Japan ranks second to the US in the free world in battery manufacturing. This is a result of the rapid growth in production volume resulting from quick acceleration of equipment investment and manpower reduction to meet the market demand. It has also gotten closer to the development activities to open new markets for battery applications, since the lead-acid battery industry has been bolstered and has benefited from the explosion in demand and production within recent years. Keeping pace with a wide diversity of customized requirements, a demanding schedule has been started in order to promote high-energy-density lead-acid battery development. This article reviews the battery situation in Japan in sections devoted to the following: automotive lead-acid batteries; industrial lead-acid batteries; electric-vehicle batteries; and load-leveling batteries. 9 references, 7 figures, 10 tables.

  2. Study on sources of charging lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the general characteristics of lead acid batteries and two charging methods of these batteries. For charging of lead batteries was used an intelligent power source K 8012 (from Velleman). The power source allows fixing the level of the battery voltage and battery capacity. The intelligent power source uses the joint method (at constant current and, then, at constant voltage) and warning that indicates different situations in the charging process. Other method of charging presented in the paper is at constant voltage using a stabilized power source. In the paper experimental measurements were carried out using data acquisition card SER 10 BIT (from Conrad) for charging/ discharging of a lead acid battery 12V/9Ah (using an intelligent power source) and charging of another high capacity lead acid battery 12V/47Ah/390 A (using a stabilized power source). At the discharging of the lead acid batteries it were used automotive lamps as electric loads.

  3. Development of new sealed bipolar lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.; Rowlette, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    New light weight composite bipolar plates which can withstand the corrosive environment of the lead acid battery have made possible the construction of a sealed bipolar lead acid battery that promises to achieve very high specific power levels and substantially higher energy densities than conventional lead acid batteries. Performance projections based on preliminary experimental results show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  4. Lightweight, High-Energy Lead/Acid Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1991-01-01

    Concept for lead/acid battery calls for woven-grid bipolar electrodes. Stack of bipolar cells form lead/acid battery. Each cell contains pair of folded electrodes, negative on one side of fold, positive on other. In high-voltage configuration, battery has higher specific energy and power. Rugged, longlived, and maintenance-free. Made from readily available, low-cost materials by standard lead/acid production methods, well suited for use in electronic equipment, aircraft, and electric vehicles for industrial and passenger service.

  5. Status of the lead/acid battery industry in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Richard

    Since 1985, the marked appreciation of the Taiwanese currency has exerted a strong influence on the local lead/acid battery industry. In particular, imports of automotive and motorcycle batteries have risen steadily. By contrast, there has been a significant increase in the production of small sealed batteries. The battery industry has recognized the need both to satisfy new environmental requirements and to invest in advanced equipment for battery manufacture.

  6. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  7. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  8. Automotive lead/acid battery separators: a global overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, W.

    This paper describes the present status and the future trends for separators for automotive lead/acid batteries. During the past decade, the design of modern automotive batteries has undergone a fundamental change. Whereas in 1980 almost all batteries used leaf separators, nowadays already two-thirds of the batteries produced worldwide have microporous polyethylene pocket separators. The extent of this conversion is quantified for the geographical regions. The impetus behind the change, as well as the future development trends, are outlined.

  9. Lead-acid battery industry in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Riensubdee, T.

    1988-06-01

    The Thia Automotive Industry experienced a bad period in the last two years, and this has created a chain effect to the battery industry. The battery industry has also suffered from the poor economic condition in 1985-1986, when there was no growth in the total demand. This has created a highly competitive situation in the battery industry. As a result, market price was suppressed during the last three years. Moreover, the raw materials prices have been increasing gradually and steadily. Consequently, the industry was forced to the direction of self sufficiency, and to operate in the most efficient way. It is envisioned that the industry will be geared to the areas of higher technology and productivity improvement. Obsolete machinery will eventually be replaced. Production capacity will be increased to achieve economy of scale to serve both local and export demand.

  10. Abuse tests on sealed lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    LOESCHER,DOUGLAS H.; CRAFTS,CHRIS C.; UNKELHAEUSER,TERRY M.

    2000-03-01

    Abuse tests were conducted on the lead-acid batteries used to power electrical testers used at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant. Batteries were subjected to short circuits, crushes, penetrations, and drops. None of the observed responses would be a threat to nuclear explosive safety in a bay or cell at Pantex. Temperatures, currents, and damage were measured and recorded during the tests.

  11. A sealed bipolar lead acid battery for small electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, J.L.; Harbaugh, D.L.; Drake, E.D.; Boughn, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    Arias Research Associates (ARA) has been developing it`s sealed bipolar lead-acid (SBLA) battery technology since 1990 for eventual application in electric vehicles (EVs). The successful development of small SBLA batteries (up to 48V, 10Ah) for use in small electric vehicles (electric powered bicycles, motor scooters, wheelchairs, etc), is reported together with specifications and preliminary test data. Performance and cost comparisons are made with commercially available sealed lead-acid and nickel-cadmium battery packs for an electric power-assist bicycle.

  12. The LABAT '99 international conference on lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    LABAT'99, the fourth in the series of lead-acid battery conferences held every three years and organized by Professor Pavlov and his Committee from the Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources (Bulgarian Academy of Science) was held in Sofia on 7--10 June, 1999. Many excellent papers were presented over the four days, reporting the latest achievements in the theory, design and technology of lead-acid batteries as well as new findings, elucidating the processes during battery operation. The full texts of 25 selected papers will be included in a special volume of the Journal of Power Sources, dedicated to the Conference.

  13. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakes, M.; Woortmeijer, R.; Schmal, D.

    Within the framework of the European project bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS), a new production route is being developed for the bipolar lead-acid battery. The performance targets are 500 W kg -1, 30 Wh kg -1 and 100 000 power-assist life cycles (PALCs). The operation voltage of the battery can be, according to the requirements, 12, 36 V or any other voltage. Tests with recently developed 4 and 12 V prototypes, each of 30 Ah capacity have demonstrated that the PALC can be operated using 10 C discharge and 9 C charge peaks. The tests show no overvoltage or undervoltage problems during three successive test periods of 16 h with 8 h rest in between. The temperature stabilizes during these tests at 40-45 °C using a thermal-management system. The bipolar lead acid battery is operated at an initial 50% state-of-charge. During the tests, the individual cell voltages display only very small differences. Tests are now in progress to improve further the battery-management system, which has been developed at the cell level, during the period no PALCs are run in order to improve the hybrid behaviour of the battery. The successful tests show the feasibility of operating the bipolar lead-acid battery in a hybrid mode. The costs of the system are estimated to be much lower than those for nickel-metal-hydride or Li-ion based high-power systems. An additional advantage of the lead-acid system is that recycling of lead-acid batteries is well established.

  14. High-power lead-acid batteries for different applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Rainer

    High-power lead-acid batteries have been used for a rather long time in various applications, especially for uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) and starting of automobiles. Future automotive service requires, in addition to cold-cranking performance, the combination of high-power capability, a very good charge-acceptance, and an excellent cycle-life. Such applications include stop-start, regenerative braking, and soft, mild and full hybrid vehicles. For UPS, there has been a clear tendency to shorter discharge times and higher discharge rates. During the past decades, the specific power of lead-acid batteries has been raised steadily and there is still, room for further improvement. This paper gives an overview of the progress made in the development of high-power lead-acid batteries and focuses on stationary and automotive applications.

  15. Ocular trauma from lead-acid vehicle battery explosions.

    PubMed

    Siebert, S

    1982-02-01

    Ocular trauma caused by lead-acid car battery explosions has been seen in a number of cases presenting to the major teaching hospitals in Adelaide. Injuries range from superficial acid burns to penetrating eye injury and retinal haemorrhage. The cause of the explosions has been ignition of the hydrogen-oxygen gas mixture generated by lead-acid batteries. The risk of explosion is known to battery manufacturing and distributing bodies and methods of avoiding explosions are well known to the industry. It is suggested that efforts should be made to design safe car batteries, and that there is an urgent need to educate the public to the risks involved with the present batteries. PMID:7103864

  16. Lead/acid batteries in systems to improve power quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P.; Butler, P.; Nerbun, W.

    Increasing dependence on computer technology is driving needs for extremely high-quality power to prevent loss of information, material, and workers' time that represent billions of dollars annually. This cost has motivated commercial and Federal research and development of energy storage systems that detect and respond to power-quality failures in milliseconds. Electrochemical batteries are among the storage media under investigation for these systems. Battery energy storage systems that employ either flooded lead/acid or valve-regulated lead/acid battery technologies are becoming commercially available to capture a share of this emerging market. Cooperative research and development between the US Department of Energy and private industry have led to installations of lead/acid-based battery energy storage systems to improve power quality at utility and industrial sites and commercial development of fully integrated, modular battery energy storage system products for power quality. One such system by AC Battery Corporation, called the PQ2000, is installed at a test site at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (San Ramon, CA, USA) and at a customer site at Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Tucker, GA, USA). The PQ2000 employs off-the-shelf power electronics in an integrated methodology to control the factors that affect the performance and service life of production-model, low-maintenance, flooded lead/acid batteries. This system, and other members of this first generation of lead/acid-based energy storage systems, will need to compete vigorously for a share of an expanding, yet very aggressive, power quality market.

  17. Technical trends in industrial lead/acid batteries in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Masashi; Tagawa, Yahachiro

    1994-02-01

    Although there have been only a few major technological changes in stationary lead/acid batteries in the past, some rapid and remarkable developments have occurred recently. The latter have included the introduction of catalyst plugs and valve-regulated lead/acid batteries (VRBs). Catalyst plugs have been used to avoid water addition with stationary lead/acid batteries. By virtue of their advantages (i.e., the elements retain electrolyte and equalizing charging and water addition are unnecessary), VRBs are being developed up to a maximum capacity of 3000 Ah. These designs have now captured about 50% of the stationary lead/acid battery market. The VRB technology has excellent characteristics, such as plate construction that can accommodate grid growth, explosion-resistant plugs, good discharge characteristics, and minimal electrolyte stratification. In addition, by utilizing the benefits of VRBs, horizontal and multistoried systems can be assembled, though in early stages of development the construction was only for interchangeability with flooded-electrolyte type batteries.

  18. Prospects for lead-acid batteries in the new millenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razelli, Eugenio

    The European lead-acid battery industry has been adversely affected by the collapse of the telecommunications and information technology expansion of the last several years and by general economic conditions in other sectors. This has had a substantial effect on the industrial battery market, particularly standby batteries, but the automotive business has been less affected. The industry has reacted to these continuing changes by consolidation and specialisation within the different sectors but this alone is insufficient to ensure future success. The industry faces significant challenges to improve efficiencies through better manufacturing systems, but the development of new products for both existing and future applications is the greater priority. Advanced automotive batteries for Powernet applications and for hybrid electric vehicles, new types of standby and traction batteries and improvements to automotive batteries can all be achieved with lead-acid technology. This is a system with enormous potential for further improvement building on current strengths. This is a challenge to which the industry must respond in order to underpin the lead-acid battery as the most important electrical energy storage system.

  19. Progress in polyethylene separators for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, T.; Hirashima, T.

    The types and properties of separators used for lead-acid batteries are reviewed. Attention is focused on the pocket-type polyethylene (PE) separator as this is widely used in present-day automotive batteries, i.e. in low-maintenance batteries with expanded lead-calcium grids. An improved PE separator has been developed by using a PE resin of high molecular weight. The resistance of the separator to attack by hot sulphuric acid is increased by a factor of 1.5. Batteries using the improved separator show a 40% increase in lifetime under the SAE 75 °C life-cycle test.

  20. Maintenance free lead acid batteries with immobilized electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Tuphorn, H.

    1984-10-01

    The reducing of antimony in lead-acid batteries in the last 10 years to optimize the maintenance of the batteries on the other hand was to the detriment of the cycle life. In contrast to antimonyfree batteries in conventional construction the immobilization of the electrolyte by gelatinizing permits the production of sealed batteries with highly improved cycle life, high charge acceptance and deep dischargeability. Moreover those batteries do not have a problem of electrolyte stratification. During charging the O/sub 2/-recombination is approximately 75% depending upon the battery size. Because of the O/sub 2/-recombination in this system a wider range of charging potentials of single cells in the battery takes place, which is characteristic of this system.

  1. Simulation of lead-acid battery using model order reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfahanian, Vahid; Ansari, Amir Babak; Torabi, Farschad

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a reduced order model (ROM) based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method has been applied to the coupled one-dimensional electrochemical transport equations in order to efficiently simulate lead-acid batteries, numerically. The governing equations, including conservation of charge in solid and liquid phases and conservation of species are solved simultaneously. The POD-based method for a lead-acid cell is used to simulate a discharge process to show the capability of the present method. The obtained results show that not only the POD-based ROM of lead-acid battery significantly decreases the computational time but also there is an excellent agreement with the results of previous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models.

  2. Advanced bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakes, Michel; Kleijnen, Christian; Schmal, Dick; ten Have, Peter

    A large size 80 V bipolar lead acid battery was constructed and tested successfully with a drive cycle especially developed for a HEV. The bipolar battery was made using the bipolar plate developed at TNO and an optimised paste developed by Centurion. An empirical model was derived for calculating the Ragone plot from the results from a small size 12 V bipolar lead-acid battery. This resulted in a specific power of 340 W/kg for the 80 V module. The Ragone plot was calculated at t=5 and t=10 s after the discharge started for current densities varying from 0.02 to 1.2 A/cm 2. A further development of the bipolar lead-acid battery will result in a specific power of 500 W/kg or more. From the economic analysis we estimate that the price of this high power battery will be in the order of 500 US$/kWh. This price is substantially lower than for comparable high power battery systems. This makes it an acceptable candidate future for HEV.

  3. High-Performance Positive Paste For Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Wen-Hong

    1992-01-01

    Newly formulated paste for application to positive plates of lead/acid batteries imparts higher discharge currents and higher specific energy. Other disadvantages of paste, designated F2: contains no acid or free lead, no extra curing process required, and paste has high porosity, high surface area, and good strength.

  4. Durable Bipolar Plates For Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, Thomas J.; Pinsky, Naum

    1990-01-01

    New structure for positive faces of bipolar plates increases longevity of lead/acid batteries. Divides positive-electrode layer into many isolated segments so defects cannot spread across layer. Surfaces treated before assembly to promote adhesion. Ridges on body divide possible electrode into isolated squares, each typically 1 in. on side. Materials supporting electrochemically active components lightweight and resistant to acid.

  5. An empirically based electrosource horizon lead-acid battery model

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Eshani, M.

    1996-09-01

    An empirically based mathematical model of a lead-acid battery for use in the Texas A and M University`s Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) computer simulation is presented. The battery model is intended to overcome intuitive difficulties with currently available models by employing direct relationships between state-of-charge, voltage, and power demand. The model input is the power demand or load. Model outputs include voltage, an instantaneous battery efficiency coefficient and a state-of-charge indicator. A time and current depend voltage hysteresis is employed to ensure correct voltage tracking inherent with the highly transient nature of a hybrid electric drivetrain.

  6. Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bied-Charreton, B.

    The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

  7. Developments in lead-acid batteries: a lead producer's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, P. C.

    Rapid progress is being made in many aspects of materials, design and construction for lead-acid batteries. Much of this work has taken place under the auspices of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). From the general tone of the literature, it seems likely that several of these developments will be adopted in commercial products, and that there will be cross-fertilization between the emerging electric vehicle (EV) battery technology and the starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) battery. Given the impetus for improvement from several different factors, the development process appears to be accelerating. To those not intimately involved in the battery design and specification process, it is not clear which of the possible developments will make it from the laboratory to general commercial adoption. Some of the possible changes in materials, design and construction could have an impact on the recovery, recycling, smelting and refining of lead-acid batteries. Some of the possible developments are outlined and their possible impact is discussed. It is likely that negative effects may be minimized if battery developments are considered from other perspectives, largely based on the overall life-cycle, as early in the design phase of new products as possible. Three strategies for minimizing undesirable effects are advocated: first, improved communication between car manufacturers, battery manufacturers and lead producers second, use of life-cycle analysis (LCA) to identify and optimize all attributes of the product throughout its life-cycle third, concerted and coordinated action to deal with issues important to the industry once trends are identified.

  8. Separators and organics for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, Werner

    This review discusses various interactions between organic compounds, brought into the lead-acid battery via the separator, and their subsequent effect on battery performance. Historically, the interrelationship started with certain 'expander' actions on the lead morphology due to lignins, which leached out of the wooden separators of that time. Synthetic separator materials did not show this effect, but gained acceptance as they were far more stable in the hostile battery environment. The partially hydrophobic character of synthetic separators has been overcome by organic surfactants. Other organic compounds have been found to improve further the stability of separators against oxidation. Special organic molecules, namely aldehydes and ketones, have been identified to retard, or even suppress, the adverse effects of metals such as antimony, and thus prolong the cycle-life of traction batteries in heavy-duty applications or reduce water loss from automotive batteries. Knowledge about these interactions has opened ways to improve separators.

  9. Recovery of discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Asadi, Raziyeh

    The aim of this research is to recover discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries. In this work, the effect of two methods (inverse charge and chemical charge) on the reactivation of sulfated active materials was investigated. At the inverse charge, the battery is deeply discharged and the electrolyte of battery is replaced with a new sulfuric acid solution of 1.28 g cm -3. Then, the battery is inversely charged with constant current method (2 A for the battery with the nominal capacity of 40 Ah) for 24 h. At the final stage, the inversely charged battery is directly charged for 48 h. Through these processes, a discarded battery can recover its capacity to more than 80% of a similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. At the chemical charge method, there are some effective parameters that including ammonium persulfate [(NH 4) 2S 2O 8] concentration, recovery temperature and recovery time. The effect of all parameters was optimized by one at a time method. The sulfated battery is deeply discharged and then, its electrolyte was replaced by a 40% ammonium persulfate solution (as oxidant) at temperature of 50 °C. By adding of oxidant solution, the chemical charging of positive and negative plates was performed for optimum time of 1 h. The chemically charged batteries were charged with constant voltage method (2.66 V for the battery with nominal voltage and nominal capacity of 2 V and 10 Ah, respectively) for 24 h. By performing of these processes, a discarded battery can recovers its capacity to more than 84% of the similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. Discharge and cyclelife behaviors of the recovered batteries were investigated and compared with similar healthy battery. The morphology and structure of plates was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after recovery.

  10. Testing and evaluation of tubular positive lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R.; Salvador, J.P.

    1995-07-01

    The possibility of using lead-acid batteries in tandem with fuel cells in applications such as submarine propulsion require a strong understanding of the transient behavior of the lead-acid battery. One simple yet accurate method of describing the response at a given state-of-charge is as a resistor-capacitor model. Preliminary testing supports the model`s ability to describe the voltage response to load changes at a given state-of-charge. Furthermore, analysis of the steady state characteristics of the cells supports claims in the literature that the charge transfer resistance is partially a function of the inverse of the current. Once complete, the empirical relationship describing the circuit elements will be a useful tool to monitor the gassing effects during pulse charging.

  11. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries. PMID:2773946

  12. Additive for electrolyte of lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.M.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a lead-acid storage battery containing as an electrolyte for each cell, an aqueous sulfuric acid solution containing an activating amount of an additive comprising a mixture of an iron chelate and a magnesium salt or chelate. The chelates for the iron and magnesium are formed from the chelating agents which form 4 to 6 membered rings with the iron and magnesium and which contain a member of the group consisting of amine groups, phenol groups and aldehyde groups.

  13. High performance positive electrode for a lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Wen-Hong (Inventor); Bullock, Norma K. (Inventor); Petersen, Ralph A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electrode suitable for use as a lead-acid battery plate is formed of a paste composition which enhances the performance of the plate. The paste composition includes a basic lead sulfate, a persulfate and water. The paste may also include lead oxide and fibers. An electrode according to the invention is characterized by good strength in combination with high power density, porosity and surface area.

  14. Stibine/arsine emissions from lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.; Cook, G. M.; Yao, N. P.

    1980-01-01

    Antimonial lead alloys, which also contain some arsenic, have traditionally been used for the fabrication of lead-acid battery electrodes. The possible generation of arsine and stibine during battery operation must be considered in the development of batteries for electric vehicles, utility load-leveling, and solar electricity storage. Research on generation of arsine and stibine is summarized, and exposure limits are given. Published analytical procedures for determination of arsine and stibine and their sensitivities are discussed. The design and testing of a stibine/arsine monitoring field kit are described. A hydrogen-oxygen recombination device can recombine stoichiometric H/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ with about 97% efficiency while scavenging the charge gas of much of the SbH/sub 3/ and AsH/sub 3/; its principles are illustrated. Experiments to estimate exposure of drivers to AsH/sub 3/ and SbH/sub 3/ from lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles are under way. 4 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)

  15. Progress and challenges in bipolar lead-acid battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    1995-05-01

    Bipolar lead-acid batteries have higher power densities than any other aqueous battery system. Predicted specific powers based on models and prototypes range from 800 kW/kg for 100 ms discharge times to 1.6 kW/kg for 10 s. A 48 V automotive bipolar battery could have 2 1/2 times the cold cranking rate of a monopolar 12 V design in the same size. Problems which have precluded the development of commercial bipolar designs include the instability of substrate materials and enhanced side reactions. Design approaches include pseudo-bipolar configurations, as well as true bipolar designs in planar and tubular configurations. Substrate materials used include lead and lead alloys, carbons, conductive ceramics, and tin-oxide-coated glass fibers. These approaches are reviewed and evaluated.

  16. Computer formation of sealed lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, John A.

    The desire of many companies to enter the growing market of valve-regulated batteries (also known as sealed lead/acid) requires a higher level of control in virtually all the stages of manufacture. Formation charging and charge conditioning is a particular case in point. Whether the valve-regulated battery is of the starved-electrolyte or gelled-electrolyte type, the final stages of formation and charge conditioning require careful attention to control the cell voltage. Charge rates that exceed the oxygen-recombination rate will cause excess gassing and thus reduce the available electrolyte. This, in turn, reduces battery life and, in the case of gelled-electrolyte batteries, causes improper cracking of the gell and concomitant reduction in capacity, performance and life. Valve-regulated batteries require charging equipment that can automatically regulate charge/discharge current and voltage. Given the requirement for multiple steps of battery conditioning, computer control provides a totally effective way to control the voltage, current, time, ampere hours and charge/discharge functions without operator assistance.

  17. Manufacturing and operational issues with lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Boden, D. P.; Lakshmi, C. S.; Nelson, R. F.; Prengaman, R. D.

    An expert panel replies to questions on lead-acid technology and performance asked by delegates to the Ninth Asian Battery Conference. The subjects are as follows. Grid alloys: effects of calcium and tin levels on microstructure, corrosion, mechanical and electrochemical properties; effect of alloy-fabrication process on mechanical strength and corrosion resistance; low dross-make during casting of lead-calcium-tin alloys; future of book-mould casting; effect of increasing levels of silver; stability of continuously processed grids at high temperature. Negative-plate expanders: function of lignosulfonates and barium sulfate; benefits of pre-blended expanders; optimum expander formulations. Valve-regulated batteries: effect of oxygen cycle; optimum methods for float charging; charging and deep-cycle lifetimes; reliability testing.

  18. Aging mechanisms and service life of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    In lead-acid batteries, major aging processes, leading to gradual loss of performance, and eventually to the end of service life, are: Anodic corrosion (of grids, plate-lugs, straps or posts). Positive active mass degradation and loss of adherence to the grid (shedding, sludging). Irreversible formation of lead sulfate in the active mass (crystallization, sulfation). Short-circuits. Loss of water. Aging mechanisms are often inter-dependent. For example, corrosion of the grids will lead to increased resistance to current flow, which will in turn impede proper charge of certain parts of the active mass, resulting in sulfation. Active mass degradation may lead to short-circuits. Sulfation may be the result of a loss of water, and so forth. The rates of the different aging processes strongly depend on the type of use (or misuse) of the battery. Over-charge will lead to accelerated corrosion and also to accelerated loss of water. With increasing depth-of-discharge during cycling, positive active mass degradation is accelerated. Some aging mechanisms are occurring only upon misuse. Short-circuits across the separators, due to the formation of metallic lead dendrites, for example, are usually formed only after (excessively) deep discharge. Stationary batteries, operated under float-charge conditions, will age typically by corrosion of the positive grids. On the other hand, service life of batteries subject to cycling regimes, will typically age by degradation of the structure of the positive active mass. Starter batteries are usually aging by grid corrosion, for instance in normal passenger car use. However, starter batteries of city buses, making frequent stops, may age (prematurely) by positive active mass degradation, because the batteries are subject to numerous shallow discharge cycles. Valve-regulated batteries often fail as a result of negative active mass sulfation, or water loss. For each battery design, and type of use, there is usually a characteristic

  19. Porosity measurements of electrodes used in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferg, E. E.; Loyson, P.; Rust, N.

    A method is presented that determines the porosity of a complete electrode plate used in lead-acid batteries. It requires only elementary equipment and is simple to operate, so that laboratory workers can use it as a routine method during manufacturing to determine the complete electrode's average porosity over a range of electrode sizes and types of both flat plate and tubular configuration. The method makes use of Archimedes' principle and uses glycerol as displacement medium. This allows for the porosity determination of both cured and formed positive and negative electrodes, without the detrimental effect of lead oxidation, which is common when using water as a displacement medium. The study showed that the method of using glycerol as a displacement medium gave on average, good repeatable results for both cured and formed positive and negative electrode plates used in the manufacture of automotive lead-acid batteries. The porosity results of the method were compared to the results obtained using Hg porosimetry, where a statistical paired t-test showed the two techniques to produce comparable results for all types of plates analyzed. The porosity of various plates was compared to the surface area of the respective active material of both positive and negative electrodes. These results showed unusual trends in that, depending on the manufacturing conditions, the surface area of formed positive electrodes could vary significantly from sample to sample of different batches without little change in its respective porosity. The surface area of different formed negative electrodes, however, would only vary slightly with significant changes in their corresponding porosity. The glycerol displacement method was also shown to be suitable to determine the effective porosity of cured and formed positive tubular electrodes.

  20. Oxide for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Lim, O. V.; Haigh, N. P.; Rand, D. A. J.; Manders, J. E.; Rice, D. M.

    In order to meet the increasing demand for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, a new soft lead has been produced by Pasminco Metals. In this material, bismuth is increased to a level that produces a significant improvement in battery cycle life. By contrast, other common impurities, such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, nickel, antimony and tellurium, that are known to be harmful to VRLA batteries are controlled to very low levels. A bismuth (Bi)-bearing oxide has been manufactured (Barton-pot method) from this soft lead and is characterized in terms of phase composition, particle size distribution, BET surface area, and reactivity. An investigation is also made of the rates of oxygen and hydrogen evolution on pasted electrodes prepared from the Bi-bearing oxide. For comparison, the characteristics and performance of a Bi-free (Barton-pot) oxide, which is manufactured in the USA, are also examined. Increasing the level of bismuth and lowering those of the other impurities in soft lead produces no unusual changes in either the physical or the chemical properties of the resulting Bi-bearing oxide compared with Bi-free oxide. This is very important because there is no need for battery manufacturers to change their paste formulae and paste-mixing procedures on switching to the new Bi-bearing oxide. There is little difference in the rates of oxygen and hydrogen evolution on pasted electrodes prepared from Bi-bearing or Bi-free oxides. On the other hand, these rates increase on the former electrodes when the levels of all the other impurities are made to exceed (by deliberately adding the impurities as oxide powders) the corresponding, specified values for the Bi-bearing oxide. The latter behaviour is particularly noticeable for hydrogen evolution, which is enhanced even further when a negative electrode prepared from Bi-bearing oxide is contaminated through the deposition of impurities added to the sulfuric acid solution. The effects of impurities in the positive

  1. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Karden, E.; Surewaard, E.; Sauer, D. U.

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking.

  2. Utilization of a bipolar lead acid battery for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, William O.; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Eckles, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The development of a battery comprised of bipolar lead acid modules is discussed. The battery is designed to satisfy the requirements of the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The battery will have the following design features: (1) conventional lead acid chemistry; (2) thin electrode/active materials; (3) a thin separator; (4) sealed construction (gas recombinant); and (5) welded plastic frames for the external seal.

  3. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  4. Research on valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongyu; Duan, Shuzhen

    This paper introduces design technology for automotive valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries, such as grid alloy separator, container, positive and negative plate additives, and grid frame. Compared with conventional flooded-electrolyte lead/acid batteries, automotive VRLA batteries are influenced by high charge voltage and by high temperature. If the voltage of the automotive charging system is reduced and the battery is located outside the engine compartment of the automobile, VRLA batteries will enjoy longer service lives than flooded-electrolyte counterparts. The same assembly line can produce both automotive VRLA batteries and polyethylene envelope batteries. This reduces the production costs for automotive VRLA batteries.

  5. Towards the year 2000 — the prospects for lead/acid batteries in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, G.

    A review is presented of lead/acid battery production in the countries of Western and Eastern Europe (except CIS), based on statistics for lead consumption in lead/acid batteries. The breakdown between automotive and industrial batteries is also detailed. The foreseeable development of the various markets for lead/acid batteries towards the year 2000 is described. The analysis uses a broad range of published forecasts. Emphasis is given to the accuracy of the forecasts, as it is common for the latter to be based on forecasts for other industrial activities and to rely heavily on assumptions that are made about the evolution of battery service life. The range of forecasts obtained for each battery market is discussed, especially in Eastern Europe, where many different scenarios are still possible. It is concluded that quantitative growth of the lead/acid battery market should be higher in Western than in Eastern Europe, and higher for industrial than for automotive batteries.

  6. Research results from the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium point the way to longer life and higher specific energy for lead/acid electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, P. T.

    Amidst the welter of publicity devoted to the newer battery chemistries, the remarkable progress made by lead/acid battery technologists in response to the needs of the emerging electric-vehicle market has tended to be overlooked. The flooded design of battery, launched by Gaston Planté around 1860, has given way to a valve-regulated variant which has a history dating only from the 1970s. The key parameters of this `maintenance free' battery have been improved markedly during the course of the development programme of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), and it is likely that lead/acid will continue to feature strongly in motive-power applications as a result of its cost advantage and of its enhanced effectiveness.

  7. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  8. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  9. The development of a new sealed bipolar lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, A. I.; Rowlette, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    New light weight composite bipolar plates which can withstand the corrosive environment of the lead acid battery have made possible the construction of a sealed bipolar lead acid battery that promises to achieve very high specific power levels and substantially higher energy densities than conventional lead acid batteries. Performance projections based on preliminary experimental results show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  10. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment. PMID:26941209

  11. Bipolar lead-acid batteries for electrical actuation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Douglas C.; Gentry, William O.; Hall, David

    1994-01-01

    This document presents in viewgraph format information on bipolar battery development at Johnson Controls, Incorporated. The organization structure, goals, progress to date, future plans, and battery parameters and electrical properties are given.

  12. Bipolar lead-acid batteries for electrical actuation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Douglas C.; Gentry, William O.; Hall, David

    1994-02-01

    This document presents in viewgraph format information on bipolar battery development at Johnson Controls, Incorporated. The organization structure, goals, progress to date, future plans, and battery parameters and electrical properties are given.

  13. Development status of a sealed bipolar lead/acid battery for high-power battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, J. L.; Rowlette, J. J.; Drake, E. D.

    A sealed bipolar lead/acid (SBLA) battery is being developed by Arias Research Associates (ARA) which will offer a number of important advantages in applications requiring high power densities. These applications include electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles, uninterruptable power supplies (UPS), electrically-heated catalysts (EHCs) for automobiles, utility-power peak-shaving, and others. The advantages of the SBLA over other types of batteries will by significantly higher power density, together with good energy density, high cycle life, high voltage density, low production cost and zero maintenance. In addition, the lead/acid battery represents a technology which is familiar and accepted by Society, is recyclable within the existing infrastructure, and does not raise the safety concerns of many other new batteries (e.g., fire, explosion and toxic gases). This paper briefly reviews the basic design concepts and issues of the SBLA battery technology, various quasi-bipolar approaches and the results of ARA's development work during the past four years. Performance data are given based on both in-house and independent testing of ARA laboratory test batteries. In addition, performance projections and other characteristics are given for three ARA SBLA battery designs, which are compared with other batteries in three example applications: UPS, EHCs, and EVs. The most notable advantages of the SBLA battery are substantial reductions in product size and weight for the UPS, smaller packaging and longer life for the EHC, and higher vehicle performance and lower cost for the EV, compared to both existing and advanced EV batteries.

  14. The performance of Ebonex ® electrodes in bipolar lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Keith; Hill, Andrew; Hill, John; Loyns, Andrew; Partington, Tom

    Recent work by Atraverda on the production of an Ebonex ® material that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form bipolar substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries is described. In addition, data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory lead-acid batteries is presented indicating that weight savings of around 40% for a bipolar 36 V design (20 Ah capacity, 5 h rate, 9 kW) are potentially achievable in comparison to more conventional designs containing monopolar lead grids. Results indicate that their use as bipolar substrate materials will provide light-weight, long-lasting lead-acid batteries suitable for automotive, standby and power tool applications.

  15. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.

    1994-02-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and The Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. the reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges.

  16. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.

    1994-02-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and The Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges.

  17. The development of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Szymborski, J.; Jungst, R.G.

    1993-10-01

    Technical advances in lead-acid battery design have created new opportunities for battery systems in telecommunications, computer backup power and vehicle propulsion power. Now the lead-acid battery has the opportunity to become a major element in the mix of technologies used by electric utilities for several power quality and energy and resource management functions within the network. Since their introduction into industrial applications, Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries have received widespread acceptance and use in critical telecommunications and computer installations, and have developed over 10 years of reliable operational history. As further enhancements in performance, reliability and manufacturing processes are made, these VRLA batteries are expanding the role of battery-based energy storage systems within utility companies portfolios. This paper discusses the rationale and process of designing, optimizing and testing VRLA batteries for specific utility application requirements.

  18. Application features and considerations in advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.F.; Rajan, J.B.; Lee, T.S.; Christianson, C.C.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the development of advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries, major efforts have focussed on improving specific energy, specific power, cycle life, and cost. Nonetheless, other battery characteristics related to application needs are also important features which must be considered during the battery development process. This paper describes various application features and improvements incorporated in these advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries. Their volumetric energy density and packaging flexibility are presented: their charged-stand capabilities and energy efficiencies are reported; and development work on the safe control of battery off-gases and the implementation of single-point watering systems is discussed.

  19. Large lead/acid batteries for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.

    Lead/acid batteries are suitable for a multitude of utility applications. This paper presents some examples where large lead/acid batteries have been used for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications. The operational experiences are given together with a discussion about the design and technical specialities of these batteries. In 1986, a 17 MW/14 MWh battery was installed at BEWAG in Berlin which, at that time, was the largest lead/acid battery in the world. Designed to strengthen Berlin's 'island' system, it was used since the beginning of 1987 for frequency regulation and spinning reserve. In December 1993, when Berlin was connected to the electricity grid, frequency regulation was no longer required but the battery was still used for spinning reserve. For many years, the industrial battery plant of Hagen in Soest has used a large lead/acid battery for load levelling. The experience gained during more than ten years shows that load levelling and peak shaving can be a marked benefit for customers and utilities with regard to reducing their peak demand. In the summer of 1992, a 216 V and 2200 Ah lead/acid battery with positive tubular plates and gelled electrolyte was installed at a solar power plant in Flanitzhutte, a small village in the south of Germany which is not connected to the electricity grid. A report is given of the first years of use and includes a discussion about the best charge strategy for such gel batteries when used for solar power applications.

  20. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Li, A. J.; Finlow, D. E.

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  1. Development of ultra high power, valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, M. Luisa; Valenciano, Jesús; Ojeda, Araceli

    There is a recent market trend towards industrial battery powered products that demand occasionally very high discharge rates. This fact is today solved by oversizing the battery or by using more expensive high power nickel-cadmium batteries. Within an EC funded project, ultra high power lead-acid batteries for UPS applications are being developed. The batteries are characterised by a thin electrode design linked to the use of novel separator materials to increase the battery life under floating and deep cycling conditions. Battery performance under different working conditions is presented, in comparison to standard products, and the battery improvements and failure mechanisms are also discussed.

  2. Reinforced Positive Filler Paste For Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dean B.; Rippel, Wally E.

    1991-01-01

    Lead-coated glass fibers extend battery life. Mixture of lead-coated glass fibers and positive paste form pellets of active material between grid wires of positive battery electrode. Fibers contribute to charge capacity, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stability of electrode.

  3. Development of a valve-regulated lead/acid battery for automotive use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calasanzio, D.; Cecchinato, G.; Marchetto, M.

    The use of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries (VRLA) in automotive applications provides some important advantages with respect to traditional flooded designs. Difficulties are reported for flooded lead/acid batteries that use PbCa alloys in the positive grids with respect to recovery of capacity after deep discharge. This problem is no longer valid for recombinant batteries using absortive glass-mat (AGM) separators. Further, this truly maintenance-free battery can be installed in any position, even outside the engine compartment, because of the absence of gas emission or electrolyte spillage. The shelf life is very long and the battery can be stored at open circuit for 12 months with no significant loss of performance. The cold-cranking capacity is higher than the equivalent conventional lead/acid battery due to the reduced internal resistance.

  4. Manufacture and application of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    This paper introduces the manufacture and application of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in China. The contents cover the following topics: (i) background development; (ii) materials; (iii) manufacturing technology and equipment; (iv) application and market prospects.

  5. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., DG-1269 ``Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear... lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by May 13, 2013....

  6. "Stratifiability index" - A quantitative assessment of acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Ebner, Ellen; Börger, Alexander; Gose, Sven; Wenzl, Heinz

    2014-12-01

    A methodology is presented to quantify acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries and compare different types of batteries regardless of their design features and size by means of the proposed "stratifiability index". This index describes to what degree acid stratification develops in flooded lead acid batteries. Different test procedures are proposed which induce severe acid stratification within 48 h and lead to significantly different degrees of acid stratification. The test procedures are intended to assist in the development and selection of batteries which are less prone to develop severe acid stratification.

  7. Strategies for enhancing lead-acid battery production and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, D. W. H.; Manders, J. E.; Nelson, R. F.; Peters, K.; Rand, D. A. J.; Stevenson, M.

    This paper is a record of the replies given by an expert panel to questions asked by delegates to the Eighth Asian Battery Conference. The subjects are as follows. Analysis of lead and lead compounds: accuracy; critical aspects of sampling. Grid alloys: influence of tin on microstructure and grain size; optimum combination of grid-alloy technologies for automotive batteries. Battery manufacture and design: quality-assurance monitoring; acid-spray treatment of plates; efficiency of tank formation; control of α-PbO 2/β-PbO 2 ratio; PbO 2 conversion level; positive/negative plate ratio; amount and type of separator for valve-regulated technology. Battery performance: use of cadmium reference electrode; influence of positive/negative plate ratio; local action; negative-plate expanders; gas-recombination catalysts; selective discharge of negative and positive plates.

  8. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Joern; Meissner, Eberhard; Shirazi, Sepehr

    More and more vehicles hit the European automotive market, which comprise some type of micro-hybrid functionality to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. Most carmakers already offer at least one of their vehicles with an optional engine start/stop system, while some other models are sold with micro-hybrid functions implemented by default. But these car concepts show a wide variety in detail-the term "micro-hybrid" may mean a completely different functionality in one vehicle model compared to another. Accordingly, also the battery technologies are not the same. There is a wide variety of batteries from standard flooded and enhanced flooded to AGM which all are claimed to be "best choice" for micro-hybrid applications. A technical comparison of micro-hybrid cars available on the European market has been performed. Different classes of cars with different characteristics have been identified. Depending on the scope and characteristics of micro-hybrid functions, as well as on operational strategies implemented by the vehicle makers, the battery operating duties differ significantly between these classes of vehicles. Additional laboratory investigations have been carried out to develop an understanding of effects observed in batteries operated in micro-hybrid vehicles pursuing different strategies, to identify limitations for applications of different battery technologies.

  9. Vibration test methods and their experimental research on the performance of the lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Baoxiang; Wang, Hua; He, Xie

    2014-12-01

    As we know, Lead-acid battery is difficult to balance many factors such as the accuracy and the on-line testing requirement. The detecting system, as stated in this article, is based on the vibration test procedure, dynamically following the electrochemical process of the Lead-acid Battery, and collects the real-time state parameters for calculation, analysis and judgment. It also quantizes precisely the degradation and chargeability of the battery and therefore self-adapts to the ideal target values. During the test, it has not charged and discharged large current to the lead-acid battery, it only plus a smaller and shorter time of impulse voltage signal on both ends of lead-acid battery, so the battery measured is damage free, and the system energy consumption is small; Using the load compensation technology, it has solved the influence of load on the test results. What's more, the load characteristics are improved at the same time, it realized the online detection. The vibration detection is based on the adaptive fuzzy inference model which has taken various factors into account, concerning the choices of input aspects which may influence the output value. It realized a number of Lead-acid Battery voltage self-adaption and accomplished a variety of high-precise tests.

  10. Lead acid battery pulse discharge investigation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dowgiallo, E

    1980-04-01

    The effects of high current pulses caused by electric vehicle silicon-controlled rectifier and transistor chopper controllers on battery energy, lifetime, and microstructure were studied. Test equipment and results are described. It was found that the energy of improved golf cart-type batteries deteriorated under pulsed conditions by about 10% with respect to dc conditions for pulses between 16 and 333 Hz - no difference was noted above 333 Hz. Frequencies and duty cycles characteristic of electric vehicle controllers produce ampere-hour capacities similar in magnitude to dc discharges of the same average currents. The amount of positive plate corrosion under pulsed conditions was about twice that ot the unpulsed. Unusually large lead sulfate crystals were found in isolated colonies in pulsed plates, whereas a battery that had been discharged each cycle at an equivalent steady state did not show these large crystals. 5 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)

  11. Lead-acid battery research and development—a vital key to winning new business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Battery strings are operated in a partial-state-of-charge mode (PSoC) in several new and changing applications for lead-acid batteries, in which the battery is seldom, if ever, fully charged or discharged. The lead battery industry faces new challenges as additional failure modes become evident in these PSoC applications. Without overcharge, cell imbalances caused by variations in cell temperature will cause premature failures. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are especially susceptible because of the heat generated by oxygen recombination at the negative plate. Improved thermal properties are shown by a proprietary battery design that combines absorptive glass mat and gelled acid technologies. Well-designed power systems are also required to reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations and, thereby, increase battery life.

  12. Development of a high-performance lead-acid battery for new-generation vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Allan

    The ultimate objective of this project is to demonstrate that a valve-regulated lead-acid battery of dual-tab design can be successfully substituted for the nickel-metal hydride battery pack in a Honda Insight hybrid electric vehicle. While the realization of the construction of the battery modules, the battery management system and the associated software has been more complex and time-consuming than was originally envisaged, the battery has now been fitted into the vehicle. With the initial system integration work now complete, the project plan is to test the vehicle with its lead-acid battery for up to 50,000 miles over a combination of the high speed, hill and urban circuits at the Millbrook Proving Grounds in the UK, as well as in general road driving. Prior to this, the developmental battery will have new cells fitted because of the uncertain cycling history of the original cells during the prolonged development period.

  13. A fractional order model for lead-acid battery crankability estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, J.; Cugnet, M.; Laruelle, S.; Grugeon, S.; Sahut, B.; Oustaloup, A.; Tarascon, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    With EV and HEV developments, battery monitoring systems have to meet the new requirements of car industry. This paper deals with one of them, the battery ability to start a vehicle, also called battery crankability. A fractional order model obtained by system identification is used to estimate the crankability of lead-acid batteries. Fractional order modelling permits an accurate simulation of the battery electrical behaviour with a low number of parameters. It is demonstrated that battery available power is correlated to the battery crankability and its resistance. Moreover, the high-frequency gain of the fractional model can be used to evaluate the battery resistance. Then, a battery crankability estimator using the battery resistance is proposed. Finally, this technique is validated with various battery experimental data measured on test rigs and vehicles.

  14. Sealed NiCad vs. sealed lead acid batteries - Charge control and monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, R.M. )

    1991-09-01

    A control regime for NiCad and lead acid batteries which can evaluate the available energy deliverable by the battery at any time is reported. The use of battery cell impedance, state of charge, incremental slope tests, a charge control regime, discharge monitor, and charge control circuit to monitor the battery is discussed. It is shown how the battery state of readiness can be established with reasonable accuracy for both types of batteries and how the control regime can be continually optimized for best performances.

  15. The sealed lead-acid battery: performance and present aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmons, John; Kurian, Raju; Goodman, Alan; Johnson, William R.

    The United States Navy has flown valve-regulated lead-acid batteries (VRLA) for approximately 22 years. The first VRLA aircraft batteries were of a cylindrical cell design and these evolved to a prismatic design to save weight, volume, and to increase rate capability. This paper discusses the evolution of the VRLA aircraft battery designs, present VRLA battery performance, and battery size availability along with their aircraft applications (both military and commercial). The paper provides some of the reliability data from present applications. Finally, the paper discusses what future evolution of the VRLA technology is required to improve performance and to remain the technology of choice over other sealed aircraft battery designs.

  16. Characterization of nano-lead-doped active carbon and its application in lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bo; Jiang, Liangxing; Xue, Haitao; Liu, Fangyang; Jia, Ming; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, nano-lead-doped active carbon (nano-Pb/AC) composite with low hydrogen evolution current for lead-acid battery was prepared by ultrasonic-absorption and chemical-precipitate method. The nano-Pb/AC composite was characterized by SEM, EDS and TEM. The electrochemical characterizations are performed by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in a three-electrode system. Since intermediate adsorption is the rate-determining step, the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is markedly inhibited as the intermediate adsorption impedance of nano-Pb/AC increased. Meanwhile, the working potential of nano-Pb/AC is widened to the whole potential region of Pb negative plate (from -1.36 V to -0.86 V vs. Hg/HgSO4) in lead-acid battery. In addition, nano-Pb can improve the interfacial compatibility between AC and Pb paste, accordingly relieve the symptoms of carbon floatation. Finally, 2.0 V single-cell flooded lead-acid batteries with 1.0 wt.% nano-Pb/AC or 1.0 wt.% AC addition in negative active materials are assembled. The cell performances test results show that the 3 h rate capacity, quick charging performance, high current discharging performance and cycling performance of nano-Pb/AC modified battery are all improved compared with regular lead-acid battery and AC modified lead-acid battery.

  17. The advanced lead-acid battery consortium—a worldwide cooperation brings rapid progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The development of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries has, in recent years, been carried forward rapidly through the collaborative efforts of a worldwide consortium of battery manufacturers and related elements of industry; the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). This group has set aside its competitive instincts in order to achieve acceptable goals in respect of those parameters that are key factors controlling the marketability of electric vehicles (EVs): cost, cycle life, specific energy, specific power and rate of recharge. This paper provides an overview of the principal themes of the ALABC research and development programme.

  18. Lead-acid battery use in the development of renewable energy systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu; Mao, Xianxian; Zhao, Yanfang; Feng, Shaoli; Chen, Hongyu; Finlow, David

    Policies and laws encouraging the development of renewable energy systems in China have led to rapid progress in the past 2 years, particularly in the solar cell (photovoltaic) industry. The development of the photovoltaic (PV) and wind power markets in China is outlined in this paper, with emphasis on the utilization of lead-acid batteries. The storage battery is a key component of PV/wind power systems, yet many deficiencies remain to be resolved. Some experimental results are presented, along with examples of potential applications of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, both the absorbed glass mat (AGM) and gelled types.

  19. An overview of the development of lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicles in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramaiah, G.; Subramanian, V. R.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) made an entry into the Indian scene quite recently in the area of passenger transportation, milk floats and other similar applications. The industrial EV market, with various models of fork-lift trucks and platform trucks already in wide use all over India, is a better understood application of EV batteries. The lead/acid traction batteries available in India are not of high-energy density. The best available indigenous lead/acid traction battery has an energy density ( C/5 rate) of 30 W h kg -1 as against 39 W h kg -1 available abroad. This paper reviews the developmental efforts relating to lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicle applications in India, such as prototype road vehicles, commercial vehicles, rail cars, and locomotives. Due to the need for environmental protection and recognition of exhaustible, finite supplies of petroleum fuel, the Indian government is presently taking active interest in EV projects.

  20. High-performance positive paste for lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W.H.

    1996-09-01

    Positive lead-acid plates with high porosity and surface area, aiming to deliver a very high current density, about 1 A/cm{sup 2}, were developed. The high porosity and surface area were achieved by using a combination of fine particles of lead oxide and/or basic lead sulfates with an adequate amount of persulfate and water. The relationship between the positive paste phase composition and the high rate performance of the plate was studied. The highly porous plate is able to deliver a very high current owing to more acid being available in the plate structure. In the low rate applications when acid diffusion from the bulk becomes the limiting factor, the high-performance plate is not more advantageous than the conventional starting lighting, and ignition (SLI) plates. The cycle life of the high-performance plate is sensitive to depth of discharge. The deep discharge high rate capacity of the high-performance plates falls faster than that of the SLI plate. Nevertheless, the high-performance paste delivers at least 30% more energy, either to the same depth of discharge per cycle or for the entire service life with constant capacity removal in each cycle. One failure mode of the high-performance plates is the change of material morphology during deep discharge cycling, which results in material shedding.

  1. Effect of depth of discharge on lead-acid battery overcharge requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F.

    1986-02-01

    The develop an optimal charge procedure, the relation between battery available capacity, applied overcharge, and the depth-of-discharge (DOD) level prior to charging needed to be established. Therefore, a series of parametric tests was conducted to measure the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries from initial DOD levels of 25, 50, 75, and 100%. Because the available capacity and charge acceptance of the lead-acid battery are dependent on operating temperature, all the charges and discharges were initiated at a fixed temperature. Also because of the typical variation in available capacity of the lead-acid battery with age, baseline performance measurements were periodically acquired for normalization of the charge acceptance test data. The results from these tests show that the amount of overcharge needed to obtain the maximum available capacity from an EV-3000 improved lead-acid battery (which uses electrolyte mixing) is greatly reduced from that needed for commercially available golf-car lead-acid batteries. This was true for all initial DOD levels. The overcharges needed by the EV-3000 battery was a function of the DOD level prior to charging, but the overcharge needed for the golf-car battery was independent of DOD level. The acquired data can be used to derive an optium charge algorithm that relates capacity, overcharge, and DOD level. Applying only the minimum overcharge level needed for full capacity offers advantages of: (1) reduced generation of gases, (2) reduced water consumption, (3) cleaner battery containers, (4) reduced maintenance, and (5) increased battery life.

  2. Effects of cobalt in lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagshaw, N. B.

    The effects of cobalt additions (0.1-1 g/1) to the electrolyte have been studied by anodic corrosion tests on sheets of various alloys, and by continuous charge, cycling and charge retention tests on thick plate automotive-type of batteries. Positive grid corrosion decreases with increase in cobalt concentration but the effect is less marked for alloys with high intrinsic corrosion resistance. Cobalt oxidizes some types of separator even at a relatively low concentration. The top-of-charge voltage is reduced by the presence of cobalt, the effect occurring mainly at the positive plate. Cobalt causes increased open-circuit losses but the effect is fairly small at low concentrations (0.1-0.15 g/1).

  3. Recycling the plastic components in today's lead/acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Feraudy, H.

    With production facilities first established in 1988 at Villefranche in the Rhone valley, the author's company aims to produce 40 tonnes of polypropylene granules from 50 000 scrap battery cases every day. Following a doubling of capacity in 1991, the company now has an annual sales turnover of 40 million FFand an output of 10 000 tonnes which makes the operation one of the largest in Europe for the production of recycled polypropylene. The technology developed and used by the Company enables the process to separate, reclaim and produce high-quality constituent materials that are suitable for use by the automotive industry at a price competitive with virgin materials. The new line, installed in 1991, has enabled the Company to add glass-fibre, rubber and other materials into the recycled product to prepare special types of high-quality material with added value. The overall process is carefully controlled and should soon be certified to ISO standard 9002.

  4. Aspects of lead/acid battery technology 4. Plate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prout, L.

    By design there is usually an excess of positive over negative material in plates. This compensates to an extent the lesser formation charge input required by positive and renders the mismatch when forming positive plate against negative plate of minor importance. Open tank and container formations are described and the dangers of imcomplete formation when 'no-burn' connections are used. The mechanism of material conversation is illustrated from microsections taken from a traction negative. Variations of container formation to suit factory conditions are detailed and economies in electrolyte usage in open-tank formation. The benefit of rest periods during charge are examined particularly for traction. The drying of the positive plates after formation requires careful control; when used in dry-charged automotive batteries poor initial starting can occur if the drying temperature exceeds 70 °C and the moisture content is below 0.25 wt.%.

  5. Gelled-electrolyte lead/acid batteries for stationary and traction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, G. J.; Lenain, P.

    The development of new ranges of valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries for stationary and traction applications is described. These batteries are gas recombining and use gelled electrolyte, tubular positive plates cast in lead-calcium-tin alloys and a specially-designed pressure relief valve. For stationary service, comparisons are made with VRLA batteries using absorptive glass mat separators. For traction applications, the relative merits of gel technology against alternative approaches to the achievement of lower maintenance for traction batteries are discussed. Operational experience with these batteries is outlined and guidelines indicated for correct application.

  6. The effects of lead sulfate on new sealed lead acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cleland, M J; Maloney, J P; Rowe, B H

    2000-04-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) rely on batteries to power external cardiac defibrillators. While maintenance protocols should be followed to ensure that batteries possess adequate capacity to power their defibrillator, they are not often applied to new batteries. This study examines the effects of prolonged storage on sealed lead acid (SLA) batteries, the number of batteries that are affected by lead sulfate, and the ability of a protocol to restore the capacity in SLA batteries. A prospective cohort of new batteries was subjected to testing and discharge protocols. Initial battery capacities were measured using a battery analyzer. An "over-discharge" protocol fully discharged the battery over a 24-h period, and batteries were recharged and reanalyzed. Capacity measurements were repeated twice. Sulfate buildup was defined a priori as final capacity measurements greater than predischarge measurements. There were 126 batteries studied, a mean of 14 months after manufacture. Overall, 47 batteries (36.5%) had measured capacity that was insufficient (< 65% capacity). Batteries possessing very low initial capacities (< 55%) responded with a significant improvement on average of 54.7% compared with batteries within a normal capacity range (> 65%) whose average improvement was 9.3%. After discharge, there was an average of 17% improvement in the measured capacity, with no differences in the final capacity readings in each battery type. In conclusion, sealed lead acid batteries are affected by prolonged storage. The loss of capacity created by accumulation of lead sulfate can be reversed if battery maintenance protocols are used as part of EMS quality assurance programs. PMID:10729667

  7. Early results from a systems approach to improving the performance and lifetime of lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellaway, M. J.; Jennings, P.; Stone, D.; Crowe, E.; Cooper, A.

    Lead acid batteries offer important advantages in respect of unit cost and ease of recycling. They also have good power and low temperature performance. However, for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) duty with their extreme rates and continuous PSoC operation, improvements are required to significantly extend service life. The Reliable Highly Optimised Lead Acid Battery (RHOLAB) project is taking a radical approach to the design of a lead acid HEV battery pack to address this issue, taking a systems approach to produce a complete pack that is attractive to vehicle manufacturers. This paper describes the project at an intermediate stage where some testing has been completed and the construction of the complete pack system is well under way.

  8. Lead-acid battery performance and technology in commercial electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weinlein, C.E.

    1982-06-01

    The lead-acid battery system is promoted for energy storage in electric vehicles for these reasons: the industry is in place, it has the lowest material costs, it is recyclable, it has demonstrated the greatest performance improvements, and it has had more field experience than other batteries. Globe Battery has demonstrated its ability to meet state-of-the-art standards set by Argonne Laboratories in a recent program. The design approach included computerized battery modelling, use of lightweight materials, extensive internal insulation, a single-point watering and venting system, and a unique electrolyte circulation system. The water venting minimizes high electrolyte specific gravities. The electrolyte circulation eliminates a condition known as electrolyte stratification. With these improvements the lead-acid battery is again proving itself to be a tough competitor.

  9. Lead exposure assessment from study near a lead-acid battery factory in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; Liu, Ming; Huang, Yumei; Fan, Ruifang; Su, Yanhua; Hu, Guocheng; Peng, Xiaowu; Peng, Xiaochun

    2012-07-01

    The production of lead-acid battery in China covered about one-third of the world total output and there are more than 2000 lead-acid battery factories. They may cause the major environment lead pollution. Blood lead levels of several hundreds of residents were over 100 μg/L due to the waste discharges from a lead-acid battery factory in Heyuan, Guangdong province. This study aimed to find out the environmental lead sources, the human lead exposure pathways, and the amplitudes from a lead-acid battery factory. The study results showed that lead levels in soil, dust, tree leaves and human blood declined with the distances increased from the production site. Twenty nine of 32 participants had blood lead levels of over 100 μg/L with an exceptional high value of 639 μg/L for one child. This result suggested that the lead-acid battery production from this factory has caused the elevated lead levels in its neighboring environment and residents. Dust intake was the dominant exposure pathway for humans (over 90%). The lead levels found in adult and toddler (6.19 and 50.1 μg/kg/d, respectively) in the polluted area were far higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 μg/kg body weight (translated into 3.5 μg/kg/d), which was established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Blood lead levels within the family members were strongly correlated with the house dust lead levels. Our results in this study suggested that further studies in this area should be performed to assess human exposure and relevant human health risks from living close to lead-acid battery factories. PMID:22578522

  10. Analysis of the performance parameters of lead/acid batteries in photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, D. U.; Bächler, M.; Bopp, G.; Höhe, W.; Mittermeier, J.; Sprau, P.; Willer, B.; Wollny, M.

    A systematic effort is made to define analysis and performance parameters for lead/acid batteries in photovoltaic (PV) systems. In this paper, results from the data analysis are presented, showing typical current and voltage profiles and time series of state-of-charge. Four major classes of battery operating conditions in PV systems and another four classes of temperature conditions are identified. Typical results from all classes are shown as examples. These results should help system engineers to choose the right control strategies and the battery industry to choose and develop appropriate batteries for PV applications especially for Central Europe, where most of the systems under investigation are located.

  11. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for SLI use in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoi, T.; Furukawa, H.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for automotive applications have been on the market in Japan for more than ten years. Initially, the batteries were used only for a small-size motorcycle. Today, however, they are widely employed in all sizes of motorcycles. In the meantime, VRLA batteries have also been used for agricultural machines, and even for some types of passenger cars. This paper provides an overview of the progress in the development and application of VRLA batteries for SLI (starting, lighting and ignition) use in Japan and discusses future expected trends.

  12. Optical State-of-Change Monitor for Lead-Acid Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1998-07-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cdl or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  13. Results of chopper-controlled discharge life cycling studies on lead acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.; Sidik, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    A group of 108 state of the art nominally 6 volt lead acid batteries were tested in a program of one charge/discharge cycle per day for over two years or to ultimate battery failure. The primary objective was to determine battery cycle life as a function of depth of discharge (25 to 75 percent), chopper frequency (100 to 1000 Hz), duty cycle (25 to 87.5 percent), and average discharge current (20 to 260 A). The secondary objective was to determine the types of battery failure modes, if any, were due to the above parameters. The four parameters above were incorporated in a statistically designed test program.

  14. Development of a lead-acid battery for a hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, A.

    In September 2000, a project reliable, highly optimized lead-acid battery (RHOLAB) started under the UK Foresight Vehicle Programme with the objective of developing an optimized lead-acid battery solution for hybrid electric vehicles. The work is based on a novel, individual, spirally-wound valve-regulated lead-acid 2 V cell optimized for HEV use and low variability. This cell is being used as a building block for the development of a complete battery pack that is managed at the cell level. Following bench testing, this battery pack is to be thoroughly evaluated by substituting it for the Ni-MH pack in a Honda Insight. The RHOLAB cell is based on the 8 Ah Hawker Cyclon cell which has been modified to have current take-off at both ends—the dual-tab design. In addition, a variant has been produced with modified cell chemistry to help deal with problems that can occur when these valve-regulated lead-acid battery (VRLA) cells operate in a partial-state-of-charge condition. The cells have been cycled to a specially formulated test cycle based on real vehicle data derived from testing the Honda Insight on the various test tracks at the Millbrook Proving Grounds in the UK. These cycling tests have shown that the lead-acid pack can be successfully cycled when subjected to the high current demands from the vehicle, which have been measured at up to 15 C on discharge and 8 C during regenerative recharging, and cycle life is looking very promising under this arduous test regime. Concurrent with this work, battery development has been taking place. It was decided early on to develop the 144 V battery as four 36 V modules. Data collection and control has been built-in and special steps taken to minimize the problems of interconnect in this complex system. Development of the battery modules is now at an advanced stage. The project plan then allows for extensive testing of the vehicle with its lead-acid battery at Millbrook so it can be compared with the benchmark tests which

  15. Idling-stop vehicle road tests of advanced valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Ken; Ohmae, Takao; Suwaki, Hironori; Shiomi, Masaaki; Osumi, Shigeharu

    The results of road tests on valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in an idling-stop (stop and go) vehicle are reported. Idling-stop systems are simple systems to improve fuel economy of automobiles. They are expected to spread widely from an environmental perspective. Performances of a conventional flooded battery, a conventional VRLA battery, and an improved VRLA battery were compared in road tests with an idling-stop vehicle. It was found that the improved VRLA battery was suited to idling-stop applications because it had a smaller capacity loss than the conventional flooded battery during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operation. The positive grid was corroded in layers, unlike the usual grain boundary corrosion of SLI battery grid. It is because the corrosion proceeded mainly under PSoC conditions. The corrosion rate could be controlled by potential control of positive plates.

  16. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  17. Study and application of several-step tank formation of lead/acid battery plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongyu; Wei, Yongzhong; Luo, Yourong; Duan, Shuzhen

    A several-step tank formation method and related charging equipment have been developed for automotive lead/acid batteries. This process offers the advantages of reduced energy requirements, increased charging efficiency and reduced environmental problems. Results also suggest that several-step formation ameliorates the problem of premature capacity loss and extends the useful service-life of automotive batteries. This is thought to be due to the production of greater amounts of α-PbO 2 in the positive plates.

  18. Investigations of the factors causing performance losses of lead/acid traction batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberger, H.; Fabjan, Ch.; Gofas, N.

    A failure analysis is carried out with a lead/acid traction battery after a two-years' test run in an electric passenger car. A survey of the operational data, in combination with laboratory tests and chemical and physical analyses, reveals the main causes of battery damage and performance loss: insufficiencies of the charging procedure, inadequate maintainance (water-refilling system), antimony-contamination and loss of the active material due to grid corrosion and shedding of PbO 2.

  19. Designing lead-acid batteries to meet energy and power requirements of future automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Patrick T.; Rand, David A. J.; Monahov, Boris

    2012-12-01

    A review is given of the factors that mitigate against the successful use of lead-acid batteries in the high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) duties experienced in hybrid electric vehicles, together with a consideration of successful remedies for those factors.

  20. The Comparative Performance of Batteries: The Lead-Acid and the Aluminum-Air Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoux, Xavier; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a teaching program that shows how electrochemical principles can be conveyed by means of hands-on experiences of student-centered teaching experiments. Employs the readily available lead-acid cell and the simple aluminum-air cell. Discusses the batteries, equilibrium cell potential, performance comparison, current, electrode separation,…

  1. History and current status of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Hiroto; Fuchida, Kyo

    The valve-regulated design of the sealed lead/acid battery (VRB), developed in the first half of the 1960s in Japan for use in portable television sets, has achieved successful market growth. This paper reviews the history of development of VRBs during the past thirty years, present production models, production quality, major applications, and technical problems.

  2. Using Diagnostic Assessment to Help Teachers Understand the Chemistry of the Lead-Acid Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen pre-service and in-service teachers taking a chemistry teaching methods course at a university in Hong Kong were asked to take a diagnostic assessment. It consisted of seven multiple-choice questions about the chemistry of the lead-acid battery. Analysis of the teachers' responses to the questions indicated that they had difficulty in…

  3. Advances in recombinant battery separator mat (RBSM) separators for lead-acid batteries—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zguris, G. C.

    Microglass separators have been used in lead-acid batteries for more than 20 years with excellent results. This type of separator (known as recombinant battery separator mat (RBSM)) has allowed valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology to become a commercial reality. When the concept of the VRLA battery was developed, the requirements of the RBSM separator were not fully known nor appreciated. In many cases, the direction charted for the separator has not been the most beneficial path to follow for separator performance and battery life. In some cases, such as the density of the separator media, experience has shown that the most correct path (low density) does not give rise to long battery life. As VRLA battery technology matures, greater pressure on cost and quality has arisen, especially with the proposed transition to 42 V automotive applications. This paper reviews some of the advances and changes in the RBSM separator made over the last 20 years, and provides some thoughts on future directions for this essential component of the VRLA battery.

  4. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for stop-and-go applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, G. J.

    Increasing levels of demand for electrical power for vehicles have prompted a considerable level of research into higher voltage systems. This has resulted in the definition of preliminary standards for 36/42 V systems. The implementation costs for these systems are high and this has led to improvements in 12/14 V power architectures. In particular, alternator power outputs at 14 V have increased and the need for lower emission levels and fuel economy is stimulating a demand for stop-and-go systems. In this type of application, the engine is stopped each time the vehicle comes to a halt, and is restarted when the accelerator is pressed again. The duty cycle that this applies to the battery is quite onerous with many shallow discharge cycles. Flooded lead-acid batteries are unable to meet the requirements and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are essential to meet the demands applied. The background to stop-and-go battery applications is considered and test results on practical batteries are presented to show that under a simulated duty cycle, good performance can be achieved. There is also a need for a higher level of battery management for stop-and-go systems. A practical approach to battery condition monitoring to assess the state-of-charge and state-of-health of the battery is described.

  5. Lead-acid batteries for micro- and mild-hybrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenciano, J.; Fernández, M.; Trinidad, F.; Sanz, L.

    Car manufactures have announced the launch in coming months of vehicles with reduced emissions due to the introduction of new functions like stop-start and regenerative braking. Initial performance request of automotive lead-acid batteries are becoming more and more demanding and, in addition to this, cycle life with new accelerated ageing profiles are being proposed in order to determine the influence of the new functions on the expected battery life. This paper will show how different lead-acid battery technologies comply with these new demands, from an improved version of the conventional flooded SLI battery to the high performance of spiral wound valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. Different approaches have been studied for improving conventional flooded batteries, i.e., either by the addition of new additives for reducing electrolyte stratification or by optimisation of the battery design to extend cycling life in partial state of charge conditions. With respect to VRLA technology, two different battery designs have been compared. Spiral wound design combines excellent power capability and cycle life under different depth of discharge (DoD) cycling conditions, but flat plate design outperform the latter in energy density due to better utilization of the space available in a prismatic enclosure. This latter design is more adequate for high end class vehicles with high electrical energy demand, whereas spiral wound is better suited for high power/long life demand of commercial vehicle. High temperature behaviour (75 °C) is rather poor for both designs due to water loss, and then VRLA batteries should preferably be located out of the engine compartment.

  6. Advanced design of valve-regulated lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Newnham, R. H.; Ozgun, H.; Fleming, F. A.

    A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge (PSoC)/fast-charge, electric-vehicle operation. The improvements in performance are attributed to more uniform utilization of the plate active-materials. The battery, combined with an internal-combustion engine and a new type of supercapacitor, will be used to power an HEV, which is being designed and constructed by an Australian industry-government consortium.

  7. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  8. ANN modeling of water consumption in the lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Karami, Hassan; Mahdipour, Maryam

    Due to importance of the quantity of water loss in the life cycle of lead-acid batteries, water consumption tests were performed on 72 lead-acid batteries with low antimony grid alloy at different charge voltages and temperatures. Weight loss of batteries was measured during a period of 10 days. The behavior of batteries in different charge voltages and temperatures were modeled by artificial neural networks (ANNs) using MATLAB 7 media. Four temperatures were used in the training set, out of which three were used in prediction set and one in validation set. The network was trained by training and prediction data sets, and then was used for predicting water consumption in all three temperatures of prediction set. Finally, the network obtained was verified while being used in predicting water loss in defined temperatures of validation set. To achieve a better evaluation of the model ability, three models with different validation temperatures were used (model 1 = 50 °C, model 2 = 60 °C and model 3 = 70 °C). There was a good agreement between predicted and experimental results at prediction and validation sets for all the models. Mean prediction errors in modeling charge voltage-temperature-time behavior in the water consumption quantity for models 1-3 were below 0.99%, 0.03%, and 0.76%, respectively. The model can be simply used by inexpert operators working in lead-acid battery industry.

  9. ANN modeling of cold cranking test for sealed lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Mahdipour, Maryam

    A cold cranking test for 17 sealed lead-acid batteries with grids of lead-calcium alloy at -18 °C was performed at different discharge currents. Time-voltage behavior of the batteries during 10 s discharge, voltage values at discharge times of 30, 60 and 90 s, and time of discharge to reach a final voltage of 6 V are critical points in the cold cranking test. These were modeled by artificial neural networks in MATLAB 7 media. Nine discharge currents were used for the training set, five discharge currents for the prediction set and three discharge currents for the validation set. Maximum prediction errors in the modeling of the time-voltage behavior during a 10 s discharge (model 1), the voltage of critical points of 30, 60, 90 s (model 2) and the time to reach a final voltage of 6 V (model 3) were under 3.1%, 3.3%, and 3.5%, respectively for each model. The results obtained showed that the models can be used in the battery industry for the prediction of the cold cranking behavior of lead-acid batteries at high discharge currents based on experimental cold cranking data at low discharge currents without the use of expensive and complex instruments. A file (EXE file) based on the model obtained by WinNN 32 was prepared to enable inexpert operators in the lead-acid battery industry to use the method.

  10. Lead-acid traction batteries for electric road vehicle propulsion Directions for research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.

    1980-09-01

    Little information exists on the behavior of lead-acid batteries operating under the duty cycles normal to electric road vehicle service. Important battery requirements for the propulsion of traffic-compatible electric vehicles include a deep-discharge capability at high efficiencies of active material utilization, and a long cycle life. In order to optimize power-source characteristics to meet these criteria, especially for passenger cars, it is necessary to gain full knowledge of the influence of actual vehicle service on the performance of traction batteries. This article defines areas in which both fundamental and applied work are required to achieve this aim based on the current performance of the lead-acid system.

  11. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  12. Improved fiber optic device for in situ determination of electrolyte stratification in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdátsy, G.; Benedek, F.; Kokavecz, J.; Szabó, G.; Kornis, J.

    2009-12-01

    A three-channel, highly sensitive, fiber optic device is presented to measure acid concentration in lead-acid batteries during their operation. The refractive index and thereby the concentration of sulfuric acid is measured by a bent, silica glass fiber tip, stripped off its cladding. Sensor heads of the device are small enough to be inserted at different positions in the cell of an ordinary, flooded lead-acid battery. Measuring the concentration of the electrolyte at different depths of the battery cell, acid stratification can be accurately determined. During the test of the instrument, about 0.3 Hz temporal and 0.05 wt % concentration resolutions were achieved while the temperature drift was found to be -0.25 wt %/°C.

  13. Improved fiber optic device for in situ determination of electrolyte stratification in lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Gajdátsy, G; Benedek, F; Kokavecz, J; Szabó, G; Kornis, J

    2009-12-01

    A three-channel, highly sensitive, fiber optic device is presented to measure acid concentration in lead-acid batteries during their operation. The refractive index and thereby the concentration of sulfuric acid is measured by a bent, silica glass fiber tip, stripped off its cladding. Sensor heads of the device are small enough to be inserted at different positions in the cell of an ordinary, flooded lead-acid battery. Measuring the concentration of the electrolyte at different depths of the battery cell, acid stratification can be accurately determined. During the test of the instrument, about 0.3 Hz temporal and 0.05 wt % concentration resolutions were achieved while the temperature drift was found to be -0.25 wt %/degrees C. PMID:20059171

  14. A new lead-acid battery for high pulse power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.; Attia, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The development of new electronically conductive materials which can withstand the environment of the positive plates has made possible the construction of a high pulse power sealed bipolar lead-acid battery. The new battery is described and its advantages over other electrochemical systems are outlined. Performance projections show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  15. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  16. Electrochemical energy — progress towards a cleaner future: lead/acid batteries and the competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) with conventional architecture may be capable of a range of 72-80 km (45-50 miles) with a 35 Wh kg -1 lead/acid battery with a weight equal to 25% of that of the vehicle. An improved vehicle (such as the GM Impact) with lower energy utilization and architecture that allows greater battery weight may attain 160 km (100 miles). A battery corresponding to the mid-term goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium in an Impact-type vehicle could allow 480 km (300 miles) range. It remains to be seen if this will be technically and economically attained. The EV is more likely to be made practical with the development of a satisfactory polymer-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which will involve the same recharging logistics as those of a gasoline vehicle, with much improved energy efficiency. Considerable progress is still required, but one major problem, the amount of platinum catalyst required per vehicle, appears to have been overcome. A loading of 0.15 g/kW now appears to be feasible, so major production of such vehicles will allow platinum producers to keep pace. The advent of the PEM-fuel-cell/battery hybrid vehicle wiil open up a larger market for rechargeable bateries than that for vehicles which use traction batteries alone. Economics seem to point to the fact that such vehicles will use lead/acid batteries for the hybrid peak power and regenerative braking element.

  17. Charge regimes for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries: Performance overview inclusive of temperature compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Y. S.; Hurley, W. G.; Wölfle, W. H.

    The main battery type employed in standby applications is the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. Float charging is normally used to maintain the battery in its fully charged state, however, float charging has limitations that can damage the battery and shorten its life. New charge regimes have evolved in recent years to tackle the intrinsic problems of float charging. The intermittent charge (IC) regime and the interrupted charge control (ICC) regime have been developed to prolong the service life of the battery in standby applications. The battery is normally maintained in the standby mode for a long period of time and there are infrequent discharge tests to verify the efficacy of the battery. Hence, the service life of the battery is highly correlated to its charge regime. This paper reviews the charge regimes for VRLA batteries, and assesses their charging performance and their impact on the service life of the battery. Recognising that temperature plays a significant role in battery operation, temperature compensation schemes are described for different charge regimes.

  18. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... identification as Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1269, in the Federal Register on March 12, 2013 (78 FR 15753), for a... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The...

  19. Low-maintenance, valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries in utility applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, G. M.; Spindler, W. C.

    Electric power utility companies have various needs for lead/acid batteries, and also are beginning to promote customer-side-of-the meter applications for mutual benefits. Increasing use of lead/acid batteries in the future will depend heavily on improving performance and reliability of sealed, recombination designs, and on their versatility for many applications. Classifying various utility uses could be by cycling requirements, depth-of-discharge, power or energy (ratio of watts to hours), or by site (utility or customer). Deep-cycling examples are energy storage, peak-shaving and electric vehicles. Shallow-cycling examples are frequency regulation and reactive power control. Infrequent discharge examples are stationary service and spinning reserve. (Float service for telecommunications and uninterruptible power sources (UPS) applications are not addressed.) Some present and planned installations of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries are surveyed. Performance characteristics will be discussed, including recent results of testing both gel and absorptive glass mat (AGM) types of deep-cycling batteries. Recommendations for future research and development of valve-regulated cell technology are outlined, based on a recent conference organized by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  20. Snap-through anti-ignition vent cap for lead acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Erb, E.M.; Heiser, J.I.

    1980-11-11

    A vented battery cap is provided which is adapted to engage at least one of a plurality of fill holes in an automotive storage battery or similar lead acid battery and which has pressure release means for venting the combustible gases produced within that storage battery under conditions such as overcharge conditions into the atmosphere. The cap itself is comprised of substantially two portions, a base member which fits into at least one of the fill holes and a top member which snap-fits through the base member. The pressure release means comprises a plurality of extremely narrow slits on both the top and underside of the cap which have widths in the order of 0.003 to 0.005 of an inch. The remainder of the battery cap is tightly sealed to prevent any extraneous leaks of battery gases received from the automotive battery from leaking into the atmosphere. The slits are so constructed to facilitate the safe expulsion of any volume of gas normally produced by an automotive storage battery, while virtually eliminating the likelihood that ignition of gases within the atmosphere will result in explosive consequences either within the battery cap or within the battery itself.

  1. Amersorb: a new high-performance polymeric separator for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, Valérie

    Given the recent improvements in valve-regulated batteries, lead-acid technology is nowadays considered to be well-suited for stationary power applications. Gel and absorptive glass mat (AGM) valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are complementary technologies and provide reliability and efficiency due to progressive optimization of the design and components. Special attention has been paid to the separation system, as its influence on the battery performance has been fully demonstrated. Polymeric calendered ribbed separators are traditionally used in gel VRLA batteries. For this technology, the separator is required to have high pore volume, optimized pore size, low acid displacement and low electrical resistance. It must also support efficient and controlled oxygen transfer. Glass-microfibre separators are presently the preferred material for AGM batteries. In addition to the properties listed for the polymeric type, glass-microfibre separators must not allow any drainage or stratification of the liquid electrolyte, and be able to retain their initial thickness after filling and during the battery life in order to sustain the initial compression in each cell. The Amersorb separator is well adapted to both technologies, for example: (i) the ribbed and corrugated patterns provide improved porosity (pore volume and pore-size distribution); (ii) the flat membrane is not only able to wick and retain the acid, but has also optimal compression properties (low compressibility and excellent springiness).

  2. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part I: Proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, Angel; Kircheva, Nina; Perrin, Marion

    2011-10-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid is proposed as innovative solution for high energy density lead acid battery. The proof of concept is demonstrated, developing grids suitable for the small capacity, scale of valve-regulated lead acid batteries with 2.5-3 Ah plates. The manufacturing of the grids, includes fast, known and simple processes which can be rescaled for mass production with a minimum, investment costs. The most critical process of green composite carbonisation by heating in inert, atmosphere from 200 to 1000 °C takes about 5 h, guaranteeing the low cost of the grids. An AGM-VRLA, cell with prototype positive plate based on the lead-2% tin electroplated carbon honeycomb grid and, conventional negative plates is cycled demonstrating 191 deep cycles. The impedance spectroscopy, measurements indicate the grid performance remains acceptable despite the evolution of the corrosion, processes during the cycling.

  3. Effects of phosphoric acid on the lead-acid battery reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Osamu; Iwakura, Chiaki; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Tamura, Hideo

    1986-10-01

    The addition of a small amount of phosphoric acid to 5 M H2SO4 (commercial electrolyte of lead-acid batteries) results in various positive effects on the lead-acid battery reactions: (1) depression of the corrosion rate of the lead substrate through a preferential formation of alpha-PbO2 on the substrate surface; (2) retardation of hard sulfate formation or of deactivation of active materials; and (3) change in the crystal morphology of PbSO2 formed on the discharge of PbO2. Most of these effects results from chemisorption of phosphoric acid on PbSO4 crystals produced in the discharge process of PbO2.

  4. New low-antimony alloy for straps and cycling service in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prengaman, R. David

    Lead-antimony alloys used for the positive grids in lead-acid batteries for cycling service have generally used antimony contents of 4.5 wt.% and above. Tubular batteries for cycling service that impart high compression of the active material to the grid surface via gauntlet use alloys with antimony contents as low as 1.5 wt.%. These batteries are generally employed in less-severe cycling service. Value-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries can give good cycling service without lead-antimony in the positive grid, but require a high tin content and high compression. The change in automotive battery positive grid alloys to lead-calcium-tin and the tin contents of VRLA positive grids and straps have dramatically increased the tin content of the recycled grid and strap lead in the USA, Europe, and Australia. The higher tin contents can contaminate the lead used for lead-antimony battery grids and generally must be removed to low levels to meet the specifications. This study describes a low-antimony alloy that contains a substantial amount of tin. The high tin content reduces the rate of corrosion of low-antimony positive grid alloys, improves conductivity, increases the bond between the grid and the active material, and cycles as well as the traditional 5-6 wt.% antimony alloys employed in conventional flat-plate batteries. The alloy is also used as a corrosion-resistant cast-on strap alloy for automotive batteries for high temperature service, as well as for posts, bushings, and connectors for all wet batteries.

  5. Techniques for jar formation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weighall, M. J.

    The market for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries is growing steadily and will be given a further boost as the market for 36-V batteries for the 42-V PowerNet develops over the next few years. The manufacture of VRLA batteries poses, however, a number of complex technical problems that are not experienced in the manufacture of conventional flooded batteries. For the large-scale manufacture of automotive batteries or other small VRLA batteries of 100 Ah or less, jar formation rather than plate formation and dry charge would seem to be a logical and economically sound decision. For this to be successful, however, a number of key issues need to be reviewed, starting with a detailed consideration of battery design. This paper reviews issues associated with the jar formation of VRLA batteries. Guidance is given concerning filling techniques (gravity or vacuum fill), the formation process, charging techniques, and formation algorithms. Battery design and separator optimisation is discussed. The properties of the separator, e.g. wicking rate, fibre composition, surface area and compression, may have a critical impact on acid filling and jar formation, and may partially determine the filling and formation conditions to be used. The control of temperature during formation is particularly important. Formation algorithms and temperature data are presented. Attention is drawn to the possible loss of plate-group compression during the formation process, and how this may be avoided.

  6. Enhancing the performance of lead-acid batteries with carbon - In pursuit of an understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Patrick T.; Rand, David A. J.; Peters, Ken

    2015-11-01

    The inherently poor dynamic charge-acceptance of the lead-acid battery can be greatly improved by the incorporation of additional carbon to the negative plate. An analysis is undertaken of the various ways by which the carbon may be introduced, and of the proposed mechanisms whereby its presence proves to be beneficial. It is intended that such an investigation should provide a guide to the selection of the optimum carbon inventory.

  7. Separator for starved electrolyte lead/acid battery. [perlite and glass fiber mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Bilawsky, P.D.; Cain, C.W.; Gross, S.E.; Scheffel, N.B.

    1980-11-11

    Compositions and papers made therefrom useful as separator materials in starved electrolyte lead/acid batteries are described. The compositions comprise a mixture of 30% to 80% by weight of perlite and 20% to 70% by weight of glass fibers. The glass fibers have diameters in the range of from 0.3 to 1.0 micrometers while the perlite has particle sizes in the range of from about 3 to about 100 micrometers.

  8. Development of sealed lead/acid battery 'SB60-S4' for automobile use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takashi; Nakazawa, Yoshio; Tsujino, Naohiro

    The construction and characteristics of a new sealed, automotive lead/acid battery are discussed and results from two years of field testing are presented. The starved-electrolyte design has virtually the same initial performance as a conventional flooded-electrolyte counterpart of the same size. A longer life is obtained, however, at low temperatures. The sealed batteries have generally exhibited good performance in field tests but there is a small decline in the operational characteristics at high temperatures and/or high voltage charging conditions.

  9. Computer-aided optimization of grid design for high-power lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keizo; Maeda, Ken-ichi; Sasaki, Kazuya; Hirasawa, Tokiyoshi

    Several high-power lead-acid batteries have been developed for automotive applications. A computer-aided optimization (CAO) technique has been used to obtain a low-resistance grid design. Unlike conventional computer simulation, the CAO technique does not require an unduly large number of designs to yield a good result. After introducing a pair of differential equations that are expected to be valid for the optimized design, the grid thickness is optimized by solving the boundary value problem of coupled differential equations. When applied for the grids of JIS B-size batteries, this technique reduces the potential drop of electrical resistance in a electrode by 11-14%.

  10. Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic data-driven approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Shen, Zheng; Ray, Asok; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2014-12-01

    This short paper presents a recently reported dynamic data-driven method, Symbolic Dynamic Filtering (SDF), for real-time estimation of the state-of-health (SOH) and state-of-charge (SOC) in lead-acid batteries, as an alternative to model-based analysis techniques. In particular, SOC estimation relies on a k-NN regression algorithm while SOH estimation is obtained from the divergence between extracted features. The results show that the proposed data-driven method successfully distinguishes battery voltage responses under different SOC and SOH situations.

  11. Advanced separator construction for long life valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. R.

    The performance of absorptive glass mat separators in valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries is strongly influenced by the diameter of the fibres from which they are made. Coarser diameter fibres are beneficial for the compressive properties of separators while finer fibres maintain the uniform distribution of the electrolyte. Studies of cell compression and electrolyte stratification are reported using separators manufactured with segregated layers of fine and coarse fibres incorporated into a single sheet. This construction locates the different classes of fibre at their location of maximum effectiveness. Improvements in battery life in both cyclic and float charge applications are recorded, and compared with single layer separators.

  12. Development of 36-V valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmae, T.; Hayashi, T.; Inoue, N.

    A 36-V valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery used in a 42-V power system has been developed for the Toyota Hybrid System-Mild (THS-M) vehicle to meet the large electrical power requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and the increasing power demands on modern automobile electrical systems. The battery has a longer cycle-life in HEV use through the application of ultra high-density active-material and an anti-corrosive grid alloy for the positive plates, special additives for the negative plates, and absorbent glass mat with less contraction for the separators.

  13. Chopper-controlled discharge life cycling studies on lead-acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraml, J. J.; Ames, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    State-of-the-art 6 volt lead-acid golf car batteries were tested. A daily charge/discharge cycling to failure points under various chopper controlled pulsed dc and continuous current load conditions was undertaken. The cycle life and failure modes were investigated for depth of discharge, average current chopper frequency, and chopper duty cycle. It is shown that battery life is primarily and inversely related to depth of discharge and discharge current. Failure mode is characterized by a gradual capacity loss with consistent evidence of cell element aging.

  14. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T.; Handschin, E.

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application.

  15. A new electrolyte formulation for low cost cycling lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcheux, L.; Lailler, P.

    This paper is devoted to the development of a new lead acid battery electrolyte formulation for cycling applications, especially for renewable energy markets in developing countries. These emerging markets, such as solar home systems, require lead acid batteries at very low prices and improved performances compared to automotive batteries produced locally. The new acid formulation developed is a mixture of sulphuric acid, liquid colloidal silica and other additives including phosphoric acid. The colloidal silica is used at a low concentration in order to decrease the acid stratification process during cycling at high depth of discharge. Phosphoric acid is used for the improvement of the textural evolution of the positive active material during cycling. After a description of the markets and of the additives used in the new acid formulation, this paper presents the results obtained with normalised photovoltaic cycle testing on low cost automotive batteries modified by the new electrolyte formulation. It is shown that the cycling life of such batteries is much increased in the presence of the new formulation. These results are explained by the improved evolution of positive active mass softening parameters (specific surface and β-PbO 2 crystallite size) and also by a more homogeneous sulphating process on both plates.

  16. Developments in absorptive glass mat separators for cycling applications and 36 V lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, V.; Lambert, U.

    The major markets for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are undergoing a radical upheaval. In particular, the telecommunications industry requires more reliable power supplies, and the familiar 12 V electrical system in cars will probably be soon replaced by a 36/42 V system, or by other electrical systems if part of the automotive market is taken over by hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). In order to meet these new challenges and enable VRLA batteries to provide a satisfactory life in float and cycling applications in the telecommunication field, or in the high-rate-partial-state-of-charge service required by both 36/42 V automobiles and HEVs, the lead-acid battery industry has to improve substantially the quality of present VRLA batteries based on absorptive glass mat (AGM) technology. Therefore, manufacturing steps and cell components have to be optimized, especially AGM separators as these are key components for better production yields and battery performance. This paper shows how the optimal segregation of the coarse and fine fibres in an AGM separator structure can improve greatly the properties of the material. The superior capillarity, springiness and mechanical properties of the 100% glass Amerglass multilayer separator compared with commercial monolayer counterparts with the same specific surface-area is highlighted.

  17. Electrolyte depletion control laws for lead-acid battery discharge optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenno, R.; Nefedov, E.

    2014-12-01

    The technique described in this paper balances the power and energy withdrawn from a battery in galvanostatic discharge control that aims for stabilisation of the electrolyte concentration above the depletion level. This aim is achieved with relatively simple proportional feedback controls that are exponentially stabilising controls for a simple diffusion process that is the core part of battery processes. Although the full mapping of the proposed controls to state is rather complex, it has shown that the transformation works. In practice, these controls can be approximated either with the integrated past controls or with a simple exponential function that depends on a few parameters adjusted to the electrochemical processes in a battery under consideration. The battery control is tested in simulation on a detailed model developed for a lead-acid electrochemical cell.

  18. Maintenance-free 100 ampere-hour, lead acid battery for deep discharge, photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, C.

    1982-06-01

    A new 6-volt 100 AH totally mantenance-free lead-acid battery was developed for deep discharge photovoltaic applications. During this 14-month contract, notable accomplishments are described. Improvement was made in cycle life of 100 AH batteries with horizntal plae orientation. This improvement corroborates prior art work on the horizontal configuraton as applies to cycle life. Eagle-Picher had instituted this work earlier on the 15 AH size CAREFREE battery. The reason for the enhanced performance horizontally is more consistent quantity of electrolyte available along the plate surface. This eliminate preferential electrochemical reaction at any part of the plate surface. Also the horizontal orientation eliminates stratification of electrolyte specific gravity which can occur on vertical oriented batteries. A substantial improvement in cycle life using the partial-state-of-charge cycling routine as conceived by Sandia was demonstrated.

  19. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  20. Design of an efficient electrolyte circulation system for the lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuerk, D.

    The design and operation of an electrolyte circulation system are described. Application of lead acid batteries to electric vehicle and other repetitive deep cycle services produces a nondesirable state in the battery cells, electrolyte stratification. This stratification is the result of acid and water generation at the electrodes during cycling. With continued cycling, the extent of the stratification increases and prevents complete charging with low percentages of overcharge. Ultimately this results in extremely short life for the battery system. The stratification problem was overcome by substantially overcharging the battery. This abusive overcharge produces gassing rates sufficient to mix the electrolyte during the end portion of the charge. Overcharge, even though it is required to eliminate stratification, produces the undesirable results related to high voltage and gassing rates.

  1. New developments on valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for advanced automotive electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, M. L.; Hernández, J. C.; Valenciano, J.; Sánchez, A.; Trinidad, F.

    The development of novel electrical systems for low emission vehicles demands batteries with specific cycling performance, especially under partial state of charge (PSOC) conditions. Moreover, according to the powertrain design, battery high power capability is demanded or this function can be assumed by a supercapacitor or a flywheel. This paper deals with the development of AGM and gel valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for advanced automotive applications. AGM VRLA battery development was based on previous work for short autonomy high power UPS applications and on active material formulations with specific additives to improve battery life under high rate partial state of charge cycling conditions. The 18 Ah batteries showed excellent high rate capability (9 kW 10 s discharge peaks and 4 kW 5 s regenerative charge acceptance at 60% state of charge) and 110,000 power assist microcycles at 60% SOC and 2.5% DOD were fulfilled. Moreover, as preliminary work in the development of a cost-effective and reliable gel battery to be used in combination of a supercapacitor in a 42 V mild-hybrid powertrain, VRLA batteries with conventional gel formulations have been tested according to novel automotive cycling profiles, mainly moderate cycling under partial state of charge conditions and simulating load management in a stop and start working profile.

  2. Lead-acid bipolar battery assembled with primary chemically formed positive pasted electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, H.; Shamsipur, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Mousavi, M. F.

    Primary chemically formed lead dioxide (PbO 2) was used as positive electrode in preparation of lead-acid bipolar batteries. Chemical oxidation was carried out by both mixing and dipping methods using an optimized amount of ammonium persulfate as a suitable oxidizing agent. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the weight ratio of β-PbO 2 to α-PbO 2 is more for mixing method before electrochemical forming. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate charge transfer resistance of the lead dioxide obtained by mixing and dipping methods before and after electrochemical forming. Four types of bipolar lead-acid batteries were produced with: (1) lead substrate and conventional electroforming; (2) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with conventional electroforming; (3) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with chemical forming after curing and drying steps in oxidant bath, followed by electrochemical forming, and (4) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with primary chemical oxidation in mixing step, followed by conventional electroforming. The capacity and cycle-life tests of the prepared bipolar batteries were performed by a home-made battery tester and using the pulsed current method. The prepared batteries showed low weight, high capacity, high energy density and high power density. The first capacities of bipolar batteries of type 1-4 were found to be 152, 150, 180 and 198 mAh g -1, respectively. The experimental results showed that the prepared 6 V bipolar batteries of type 1-4 have power density (per cell unit) of 59.7, 57.4, 78.46 and 83.30 mW g -1 (W kg -1), respectively.

  3. Structural alteration of spermatozoa in the persons employed in lead acid battery factory.

    PubMed

    Naha, Nibedita; Bhar, R B; Mukherjee, A; Chowdhury, Amal Roy

    2005-04-01

    Lead is one of the industrially heavy metals that caused adverse effects on male reproductive system among battery factory workers, but information on the possible impact of lead on the structural integrity of sperm cell is limited. Thus present study was undertaken to assess the structural details of human spermatozoa of lead acid battery factory workers. Blood and semen samples were collected from total 80 workers (7-15 years exposure) and 40 non-occupationally exposed control subjects. The lead exposed battery factory workers showed lowering (P < 0.001) of sperm count, density, motility and semen volume along with an increase incidence of sperm abnormality and prolong liquefaction time. Structural alteration of sperm cell was prevalent among the exposed population as evidenced by significantly (P < 0.001) low sperm viability, low hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) percentage, high lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane with concomitant alterations of seminal plasma total and dehydro ascorbate level. Sharp depressions, membrane folding and granularity at sperm head surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both blood lead and semen lead was significantly (P < 0.001) higher among the factory workers. Thus it appears plausible that lead may reduce the antioxidant level in seminal plasma and enhance the lipid peroxidative changes in sperm membrane leading to concomitant structural damage of sperm cell surface in the workers employed in lead acid battery factories. PMID:16170983

  4. Electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon current collectors for lead-acid batteries: opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenge, Elod; Jung, Joey; Mahato, Basanta

    Reticulated, open-cell structures based on vitreous carbon substrates electroplated with a Pb-Sn (1 wt.%) alloy were investigated as current collectors for lead-acid batteries. Scanning and backscattered electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, anodic polarization and flooded 2 V single-cell battery testing was employed to characterize the performance of the proposed collectors. A battery equipped with pasted electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) electrodes of 137 cm 2 geometric area, at the time of manuscript submission, completed 500 cycles and over 1500 h of continuous operation. The cycling involved discharges at 63 A kg PAM-1 corresponding to a nominal 0.75 h rate and a positive active mass (PAM) utilization efficiency of 21%. The charging protocol was composed of two voltage limited (i.e. 2.6 V/cell), constant current steps of 35 and 9.5 A kg PAM-1, respectively, with a total duration of about 2 h. The charge factor was 1.05-1.15. The observed cycling behavior in conjunction with the versatility of electrodeposition to produce application-dependent optimized lead alloy coating thickness and composition shows promise for the development of lead-acid batteries using electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon collectors.

  5. Integrated li-ion ultracapacitor with lead acid battery for vehicular start-stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manla, Emad

    Advancements in automobile manufacturing aim at improving the driving experience at every level possible. One improvement aspect is increasing gas efficiency via hybridization, which can be achieved by introducing a feature called start-stop. This feature automatically switches the internal combustion engine off when it idles and switches it back on when it is time to resume driving. This application has been proven to reduce the amount of gas consumption and emission of greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere. However, the repeated cranking of the engine puts a large amount of stress on the lead acid battery required to perform the cranking, which effectively reduces its life span. This dissertation presents a hybrid energy storage system assembled from a lead acid battery and an ultracapacitor module connected in parallel. The Li-ion ultracapacitor was tested and modeled to predict its behavior when connected in a system requiring pulsed power such as the one proposed. Both test and simulation results show that the proposed hybrid design significantly reduces the cranking loading and stress on the battery. The ultracapacitor module can take the majority of the cranking current, effectively reducing the stress on the battery. The amount of cranking current provided by the ultracapacitor can be easily controlled via controlling the resistance of the cable connected directly between the ultracapacitor module and the car circuitry.

  6. Temperature effects on sealed lead acid batteries and charging techniques to prolong cycle life.

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ronda

    2004-06-01

    Sealed lead acid cells are used in many projects in Sandia National Laboratories Department 2660 Telemetry and Instrumentation systems. The importance of these cells in battery packs for powering electronics to remotely conduct tests is significant. Since many tests are carried out in flight or launched, temperature is a major factor. It is also important that the battery packs are properly charged so that the test is completed before the pack cannot supply sufficient power. Department 2665 conducted research and studies to determine the effects of temperature on cycle time as well as charging techniques to maximize cycle life and cycle times on sealed lead acid cells. The studies proved that both temperature and charging techniques are very important for battery life to support successful field testing and expensive flight and launched tests. This report demonstrates the effects of temperature on cycle time for SLA cells as well as proper charging techniques to get the most life and cycle time out of SLA cells in battery packs.

  7. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) and its application in microporous separators for lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. C.; Harvey, M. K.; Ng, J. C.; Scheunemann, U.

    The polyethylene (PE) used in separators for automotive lead/acid batteries is actually UHMW-PE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene). Microporous PE separators were commercialized in the early 1970s. Since then, they have gained in popularity in the lead/acid battery industry, particularly in SLI (starting, lighting and ignition) automotive applications. This paper provides an introductory overview of the UHMW-PE polymer and its contributions to the PE battery separator manufacturing process, battery assembly and battery performance, in comparison with other conventional separators such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass fibre.

  8. Selection of pre-blended expanders for optimum lead/acid battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, D. P.

    Expanders are an essential component of lead/acid batteries. They prevent performance losses in negative plates that would otherwise be caused by passivation and structural changes in the active material. The functions of the components of modern negative-plate expanders are described and data are presented to show how the capacity and life of the battery are affected by the type and amount of barium sulfate and lignin incorporated in the expander blend. The differences between expanders for automotive, deep-cycle and standby-power batteries are illustrated and typical formulations shown for each application. There are several ways in which expanders can be incorporated into negative plates. These range from adding the individual components to the paste mix to adding a pre-blended formulation. The benefits of pre-blending are more uniform distribution of expander in the plate, simplification of paste mixing, and improved quality control.

  9. SUNRAYCE 1993: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have 'hands-on' contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  10. Capacity and peak power degradation of lead-acid battery under simulated electric vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Tummillo, A. F.; Miller, J. F.; Hornstra, F.; Christianson, C. C.

    In a program supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, controlled laboratory tests were conducted at Argonne to evaluate the effects of selected EV application factors on the performance and life of the EV-2300 lead-acid battery. These application factors included simulated driving profile discharges with different levels of peak power demands for vehicle acceleration, long rest times after charge or discharge, and different methods of recharging. The performance and life variations among cells and modules in a full-scale battery pack were also examined. Statistical methods were used to analyze the laboratory test data. The key factors affecting the performance and life of the battery were identified, and the rates of capacity and power degradation were quantified using multiple regression techniques. The analyses show that the most significant factors were peak power demand levels and cell location within the six-cell modules. The effects of charge method and rest times were found to be small.

  11. SUNRAYCE 93: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-11-03

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems, and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have {open_quotes}hands-on{close_quotes} contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use, and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  12. Reducing the cost of maintaining valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in telecommunications applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniveton, M. W.

    British Telecommunications has utilized valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) technology for 10 years and has considerable experience of varying product performance. A discussion is given of battery applications in telecommunications and includes experiences of typical failure modes such as group-bar corrosion and premature capacity loss, together with the detrimental effects of high temperature on service life. Specific maintenance requirements are also reviewed with particular attention to costs and reliability. Data are presented on the effectiveness of new methods of testing large numbers of VRLA batteries and, in particular, the reliability of conductance testing. An explanation is given of the role of conductance measurements, discharge testing and manufacturers' laboratory analysis in contributing to an effective maintenance programme. Specific requirements for the management of a battery-replacement programme are also included. Finally, BT user experience is described and solutions are provided to reduce the cost of VRLA maintenance while improving reliability.

  13. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part I. Selected key parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Kaiser, F.; Koehler, L.; Albers, J.; Kabza, H.

    Micro-hybrid electric vehicles were launched by BMW in March 2007. These are equipped with brake energy regeneration (BER) and the automatic start and stop function (ASSF) of the internal combustion engine. These functions are based on common 14 V series components and lead-acid (LA) batteries. The novelty is given by the intelligent onboard energy management, which upgrades the conventional electric system to the micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In part I of this publication the key factors for the operation of LA batteries in the MHPS are discussed. Especially for BER one is high dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) for effective boost charging. Vehicle rest time is identified as a particular negative parameter for DCA. It can be refreshed by regular fully charging at elevated charge voltage. Thus, the batteries have to be outstandingly robust against overcharge and water loss. This can be accomplished for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries at least if they are mounted in the trunk. ASSF goes along with frequent high-rate loads for warm cranking. The internal resistance determines the drop of the power net voltage during cranking and is preferably low for reasons of power net stability even after years of operation. Investigations have to be done with aged 90 Ah VRLA-absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries. Battery operation at partial state-of-charge gives a higher risk of deep discharging (overdischarging). Subsequent re-charging then is likely to lead to the formation of micro-short circuits in the absorbent glass mat separator.

  14. Study of the influence of carbon on the negative lead-acid battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bača, Petr; Micka, Karel; Křivík, Petr; Tonar, Karel; Tošer, Pavel

    Experiments were made with negative lead-acid battery electrodes doped with different concentrations of powdered carbon. It turned out that the rate of formation decreased with the rising concentration of carbon added into the active material. During accelerated cycling in the PSoC regime, the cycle life showed a maximum at a concentration of carbon near 1%, whereas at lower or higher concentrations the cycle life was profoundly lower. A marked increase of the active mass resistance with the cycle number was recorded at carbon concentrations above 2%. Orientation experiments showed that compression of the lead-acid laboratory cells caused an increase of the cycle life of the negative electrode in the studied regime.

  15. Maintenance-free, 100 ampere-hour, lead acid battery for deep discharge, photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, C.

    1982-06-01

    A new 6-volt 100 AH totally maintenance-free lead-acid battery was developed for deep discharge photovoltaic applications. During this 14-month contract, notable accomplishments are described. Improvement was made in cycle life of 100 AH batteries with horizontal plate orientation. This improvement corroborates prior art work on the horizontal configuration as applies to cycle life. Eagle-Picher had instituted this work earlier on the 15 AH size CAREFREE battery. The reason for the enhanced performance horizontally is more consistent quantity of electrolyte available along the plate surface. This eliminates preferential electrochemical reaction at any part of the plate surface. Also the horizontal orientation eliminates stratification of electrolyte specific gravity which can occur on vertical oriented batteries. A substantial improvement in cycle life using the partial-state-of-charge cycling routine as conceived by Sandia was demonstrated. Totally sealed operation was accomplished with oxygen gas recombination of starved electrolyte 100 AH batteries at charge rates of C/100 to C/20. The final design was a sealed, starved electrolyte 100 AH battery to provide oxygen gas recombination with the negative plate.

  16. High-performance of PbO2 nanowire electrodes for lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, A.; Mistretta, M. C.; Randazzo, S.; Piazza, S.; Sunseri, C.; Inguanta, R.

    2014-06-01

    PbO2 nanowires were obtained by template electrodeposition in polycarbonate membranes and tested as positive electrode for lead-acid battery. Nanowires were grown on the same material acting as current collector that was electrodeposited too. The nanostructured electrodes were assembled in a zero-gap configuration using commercial negative plate and separator. Cell performance was tested by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles in a 5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. PbO2 nanostructured electrodes were able to deliver at 1C rate an almost constant capacity of about 190 mAh g-1 (85% of active material utilization), close to the theoretical value (224 mAh g-1). The nanowire array provides a very large surface area (about 70 times higher than the geometrical one) that enhances the specific capacity of the battery. SEM images of the as-prepared and cycled electrodes showed that nanowires morphology changes significantly after the initial cycles. Change of morphology led to the formation of very spongy structure, characterized by the presence of macro-voids, which ensured penetration of the electrolyte in the inner areas of the electrode. Besides, PbO2 nanowires showed a very good cycling stability, maintained for more than 1000 cycles. These findings indicate that this new type of electrode might be a promising substitute of positive plates in lead-acid battery.

  17. An analytical study of a lead-acid flow battery as an energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alex; Mukerjee, Santanu; Lee, Sang C.; Lee, Dong-Ha; Park, Sam

    2014-03-01

    The most important issue with our current clean energy technology is the dependence on environmental conditions to produce power. To solve this problem a wide range of energy storage devices are being explored for grid-scale energy storage including soluble lead-acid flow batteries. Flow batteries offer a unique solution to grid-scale energy storage because of their electrolyte tanks which allow easy scaling of storage capacity. This study seeks to further understand the mechanisms of a soluble lead acid flow battery using simulations. The effects of varies changes to operating conditions and the system configuration can be explored through simulations. The simulations preformed are 2D and include the positive electrode, negative electrode, and the flow space between them. Simulations presented in this study show Pb(II) surface concentration, external electric potential, and PbO/PbO2 surface concentration on the positive electrode. Simulations have shown increasing cell temperature can increase external electric potential by as much as 0.2 V during charge. Simulations have also shown electrolyte velocity is an important aspect when investigating lead deposition onto the electrodes. Experimental work was performed to validate simulation results of current density and voltage. Good correlation was found between experimental work and simulation results.

  18. Silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes for use in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    Electrochemical properties of silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes for lead-acid batteries are described, and the following possible applications discussed: Determination of individual capacities of positive and negative plates. Monitoring individual electrode behavior during deep discharge and cell reversal. Optimization charge or discharge parameters, by controlling the current such that pre-determined limits of positive or negative half-cell potential are respected. Observation of acid concentration differences, for example due to acid stratification, by measuring diffusion potentials (concentration-cell voltages). Detection of defective cells, and defective plate sets, in a string of cells, at the end of their service life. Silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes, permanently installed in lead-acid cells, may be a means to improve battery management, and therewith to improve reliability and service life. In vented batteries, reference electrodes may be used to limit positive plate polarization during charge, or float-charge. Limiting the positive half-cell potential to an upper, pre-set value would permit to keep anodic corrosion as low as possible. During cycling, discharge could be terminated when the half-cell potential of the positive electrode has dropped to a pre-set limit. This would prevent excessive discharge of the positive electrodes, which could result in an improvement of cycle life. In valve-regulated batteries, reference electrodes may be used to adjust float-charge conditions such as to assure sufficient cathodic polarization of the negative electrodes, in order to avoid sulfation. The use of such reference electrodes could be beneficial particularly in multi-cell batteries, with overall voltages above 12 V, operated in a partial-state-of-charge.

  19. Microstructure and properties of continuously cast, lead-alloy strip for lead/acid battery grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, N.-Y.; Valeriote, E. M. L.; Sklarchuk, J.

    Lead/acid battery grid alloys, such as low-antimony-lead and lead-calcium-tin alloys with and without silver, are successfully continuously cast into strip using Cominco's Multi-Alloy Caster™. The mechanical and electrochemical properties of the continuously cast, low-antimony-lead strip are strongly dependent on the arsenic content in the alloys. On the other hand, the tin:calcium (Sn:Ca) ratio in the PbCaSn alloys plays an important role in the development of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of these alloys.

  20. Distribution of current in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries: a thermographic analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streza, M.; Nuţ, C.; Tudoran, C.; Bunea, V.; Calborean, A.; Morari, C.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental method for the investigation of the current distribution in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries has been developed. The information is extracted by analysing the heat dissipation in the electrode during the discharge by using a high-performance IR camera. The effect of the current in the metallic grid can be de-convoluted from the total heat produced in the electrode by numerical processing of the temperature distribution over the electrode surface. By its simplicity and effectiveness, the proposed method has the potential to become an important tool in optimising electrode geometry.

  1. Reliability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for stationary applications.

    SciTech Connect

    De Anda, Mindi Farber; Butler, Paul Charles; Miller, Jennifer L; Moseley, Patrick T.

    2004-03-01

    A survey has been carried out to quantify the performance and life of over 700,000 valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells, which have been or are being used in stationary applications across the United States. The findings derived from this study have not identified any fundamental flaws of VRLA battery technology. There is evidence that some cell designs are more successful in float duty than others. A significant number of the VRLA cells covered by the survey were found to have provided satisfactory performance.

  2. Environmental and biological monitoring in a lead acid battery manufacturing unit in India.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, B; Ravibabu, K; Raghavan, S; Krishnamurthy, V; Rajan, B K; Rajmohan, H R

    2005-07-01

    An environmental and biological monitoring of a lead acid battery manufacturing unit was carried out to measure the respirable particulate matter, lead content in working atmosphere and blood lead levels of workers employed in different sections. The results showed high mean air lead concentration in buffing (1444.45 microg/m(3)), plate cutting (430.14 microg/m(3)) and pasting (277.48 microg/m(3)) sections. The mean blood lead levels of employees in these sections were also higher than the values prescribed by ACGIH. PMID:16096364

  3. Resolution in QCM sensors for the viscosity and density of liquids: application to lead acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H(2)SO(4) solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical "resolution limit" to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product [Formula: see text] of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for [Formula: see text] measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency. PMID:23112618

  4. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product (ρη) of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for ρη measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency. PMID:23112618

  5. Maintenance-free, deep-discharge, lead-acid battery for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymborski, J.

    1982-04-01

    Progress in the development, design, fabrication, and testing of totally maintenance-free sealed lead-acid batteries suitable for the deep-discharge regimes of solar photovoltaic applications is reported. The 6-volt, 100-ampere-hour battery was designed to meet these additional key design goals: 6-h nominal discharge rates; 80% depth-of-discharge daily duty cycle; 2000 cycles to an 80% depth-of-discharge; recharge in less than 8 h; 80% roundtrip energy efficiency; and self-discharge rate of less than 1% per week. Totally maintenance-free sealed operation was achieved by designing the cells so that only oxygen is generated on charge. The cells in this battery are fabricated with positive grids cast from a low antimony alloy in order to achieve both maintenance-free operation and good deep cycle performance. Various cycle life tests and tests to determine the tolerance of the battery to operation and storage at various states-of-charge and over a wide range of temperatures were performed. The charging parameters to adequately recharge the battery while minimizing overcharge and gassing were extensively studied.

  6. Aspects of lead/acid battery technology 5. Dry charging of formed negative plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prout, L.

    The objective in the dry charging of formed negative plates in lead/acid batteries is to preserve the highly active sponge lead material from attack by atmospheric oxygen until the dry and unfilled charged battery is put into service. This review discusses the following methods that are commonly used for dry charging: (i) drying in a vacuum; (ii) drying by direct application of superheated steam; (iii) drying in an inert-gas atmosphere; (iv) removal of water by hot kerosene and subsequent drying in a closed kerosene vapour chamber and (v) drying in the presence of anti-oxidants. The protection of dry-charge characteristics, rapid evaluation of dry-charge quality and testing for excess wax or oil inhibitors are also described.

  7. Hybrid modeling of lead-acid batteries in frequency and time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Buller, S.; Sauer, D. U.; De Doncker, R. W.; Karden, E.

    This paper presents an improved impedance-based non-linear simulation model for lead-acid batteries. The parameterization of impedance-based models is difficult for operation profiles with high Ah throughput in short times. Such conditions result in non-steady-state conditions and do not allow precise measurements of impedance parameters. Therefore, the model has been extended by an electrolyte transport model which describes the generation and the transport of sulfuric acid inside the porous electrodes. This expands the model validity as higher Ah throughputs can be simulated now. A description of the Matlab/Simulink implementation and its parameterization in the time domain is given. Furthermore, the advantages and the limits of the improved model are discussed. The model allows for precise modeling of automotive batteries, both in conventional applications and in vehicles with electrically assisted propulsion. It is therefore an important tool for the design of automotive power nets.

  8. Research and development of advanced lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, M. G.; Bowman, D. E.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose was to develop an advanced lead-acid battery based on the concept of forced flow of electrolyte through porous electrodes for enhanced battery performance. The objectives were: specific energy of 42 Wh/kg, energy density of 70 Wh/l, and cycle life of 100 cycles. Accomplishments were: 35 flow-through cells with reduced construction time, higher fiber content in the positive active materials (PAM) with increased strength by a factor of 3, high-density PAM for increased life without utilization losses, confirmation of solid-state relaxation theory, methods for measuring permeability, 31 cycles achieved in C-450, oxygen recombination in many test cells, electrolyte reservoir can be below the top of the cells, and completed designs for positive and negative flow-through grids and for the injection molds to produce the grid/plastic laminates.

  9. Evaluating the performance enhancement of lead acid batteries by forced circulation of the electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.; Gilbert, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    Phenomena which may limit the performance of lead-acid batteries are the space charge and corresponding voltage gradient in the boundary between the plates and the electrolyte and also the stratification of the varying density electrolyte during the discharging and charging process. It has been suggested that forced circulation of the electrolyte could improve performance by minimizing these negative effects. However, the amount of benefit has been uncertain. This paper reviews previous work that has been performed to measure and model battery performance. It describes the experimental apparatus that was developed to demonstrate the difference between free and forced circulation of the electrolyte. It then presents experimental data that demonstrates substantial performance improvement results from forced circulation of the electrolyte. These improvements included a 16% improvement in energy output, along with higher power capability.

  10. Leady oxide for lead/acid battery positive plates: scope for improvement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.; Rand, D. A. J.

    Among the many factors that determine and influence the performance of lead/acid batteries, one of the most important, and as yet not fully developed, is how to make the positive active mass more electrochemically reactive. The inherent characteristics of this active mass are the cumulative result of the four precursor stages of its production, namely, the leady oxide, paste mixing, curing and formation procedures. There is evidence to suggest that the method of pasting itself is also influential. Many recent studies have reported progress on techniques to increase active-material utilization, to improve plate conditioning, and to solve the vexagious problem of premature capacity loss. The purpose of this discussion is to focus attention on the role and the importance of leady oxide on battery design and performance. At present, the battery industry makes leady oxide by either the ball-mill or the Barton-pot process. It is difficult to conclude which of the two methods gives the best leady oxide. Each type of leady oxide has its champions but, in general, ball-mill and Barton-pot product both make effective automotive batteries. For deep-cycle batteries, however, many battery companies (especially in Europe and Japan) prefer ball-mill oxide; in North America, the Barton-pot variety is favoured. This investigation examines the present procedures for making leady oxide, the desirable properties of leady oxide, and the influence of the oxide on battery performance. Analysis shows that there is scope for the production of improved leady oxide—by using existing production techniques and/or by the development of new processing technology.

  11. The key to success: Gelled-electrolyte and optimized separators for stationary lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, Valérie

    The lead acid technology is nowadays considered one of the best suited for stationary applications. Both gel and AGM batteries are complementary technologies and can provide reliability and efficiency due to the constant optimization of the battery design and components. However, gelled-electrolyte batteries remain the preferred technology due to a better manufacturing background and show better performance mainly at low and moderate discharge rates. Especially, using the gel technology allows to get rid of the numerous problems encountered in most AGM batteries: drainage, stratification, short circuits due to dendrites, and mostly premature capacity loss due to the release of internal cell compression. These limitations are the result of the evident lack of an optimal separation system. In gel batteries, on the contrary, highly efficient polymeric separators are nowadays available. Especially, microporous separators based on PVC and silica have shown the best efficiency for nearly 30 years all over the world, and especially in Europe, where the gel technology was born. The improved performance of these separators is explained by the unique extrusion process, which leads to excellent wettability, and optimized physical properties. Because they are the key for the battery success, continuous research and development on separators have led to improved properties, which render the separator even better adapted to the more recent gel technology: the pore size distribution has been optimized to allow good oxygen transfer while avoiding dendrite growth, the pore volume has been increased, the electrical resistance and acid displacement reduced to such an extent that the electrical output of batteries has been raised both in terms of higher capacity and longer cycle life.

  12. Preparation and characterization of nano-structured lead oxide from spent lead acid battery paste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Yang, Danni; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Kumar, R Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2012-02-15

    As part of contribution for developing a green recycling process of spent lead acid battery, a nanostructural lead oxide was prepared under the present investigation in low temperature calcination of lead citrate powder. The lead citrate, the precursor for preparation of this lead oxide, was synthesized through leaching of spent lead acid battery paste in citric acid solution. Both lead citrate and oxide products were characterized by means of thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the lead citrate was sheet-shape crystal of Pb(C(6)H(6)O(7)) · H(2)O. When the citrate was calcined in N(2) gas, β-PbO in the orthorhombic phase was the main product containing small amount of Pb and C and it formed as spherical particles of 50-60 nm in diameter. On combusting the citrate in air at 370°C (for 20 min), a mixture of orthorhombic β-PbO, tetragonal α-PbO and Pb with the particle size of 100-200 nm was obtained, with β-PbO as the major product. The property of the nanostructural lead oxide was investigated by electrochemical technique, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV). The CV measurements presented the electrochemical redox potentials, with reversibility and cycle stability over 15 cycles. PMID:22209588

  13. ERC nickel cadium battery performance tests and comparisons with lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Crumley, R.L.; Hardin, J.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A battery pack consisting of eighteen 6-V, roll-bonded nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, manufactured by Energy Research Corporation (ERC), was evaluated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program for electric vehicle applications. The purpose of the testing was to determine the capacity and performance characteristics of the battery pack and to obtain data which would permit direct comparison with other selected EV application batteries. Laboratory charge/discharge characterization and vehicle dynamometer tests were performed with the NiCd battery pack in the Battery and Dynamometer Laboratories of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center. Testing was done in accordance with the Electric Vehicle Test Procedures of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J227). 8 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Technical and economic advantages of making lead-acid battery grids by continuous electroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warlimont, H.; Hofmann, T.

    A new continuous electroforming process to manufacture lead grids for automotive and industrial lead-acid batteries has been developed. A galvanic cell comprising a drum cathode for electroforming and a subsequent series of galvanic cells which form a strip galvanizing line are operating in a single, fully continuous, automatic process. Virgin lead or lead scrap may be used as the anode material. The product is grid strip of any specified thickness and design which can be fed into existing strip-pasting equipment. The composition and microstructure of the grid material can be varied to provide increased corrosion resistance and increased paste adherence. A unique feature of the material is its inherent layered composite structure that allows optimization of the properties according to particular functional requirements. Thus, both the specific power and the specific energy of the battery can be increased by reducing weight. The material properties increase the calendar life of the battery by increasing the corrosion resistance of the grid, and increase the cycle-life of the battery by improved adherence of the positive active material. The technical and economic features and competitive advantages of this new technology and product are presented in quantitative terms.

  15. Life evaluation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for load-leveling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Miller, J. F.; Webster, C. E.; Hogrefe, R. L.

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has initiated a test program to evaluate the suitability of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for use in deep-discharge cycling applications. The program includes the examination of VRLA batteries of the gelled-electrolyte design and the absorbed-electrolyte type. This work is sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO). While VRLA batteries have found use in standby and uninterruptable power source applications, insufficient data are available to determine their performance and life in repetitive cycling applications. The objectives of the ANL test plan are: (1) to use accelerated testing techniques to obtain evidence within a 6 month test period that indicate an expected life in a utility operating environment; (2) to determine VRLA battery life within a 2 to 3 year time period under conditions (temperature and depth-of-discharge) that closely simulate those encountered in load-leveling operations; and (3) to assess the applicability and usefulness of accelerated testing procedures for deep-discharge cycling applications.

  16. Design of an efficient electrolyte circulation system for the lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Thuerk, D.

    1982-01-01

    Application of lead-acid batteries to electric vehicle and other repetitive deep-cycle services produces a non-desirable state in the battery cells, electrolyte stratification. This stratification is the result of acid and water generation at the electrodes during cycling. Water, which is generated during discharge, rises to the electrolyte surface due to gravity differences, whereas the concentrated sulfuric acid generated during charge falls to the bottom of the container. With continued cycling, the extent of the stratification increases and prevents complete charging with low percentages of overcharge. Ultimately this results in extremely short life for the battery system. The industry presently overcomes the stratification problem by substantially overcharging the battery. This abusive overcharge produces gassing rates sufficient to mix the electrolyte during the end portion of the charge. The amount of recharge typically used to mix the electrolyte ranges from 120% to 140% of the prior discharge. Overcharge, even though it is required to eliminate stratification, produces the undesirable results related to high voltage and gassing rates. The design and operation of an electrolyte circulation system are described. (WHK)

  17. Wrought lead-calcium-tin alloys for tubular lead/acid battery grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prengaman, R. David

    Lead/acid batteries with tubular grids for the positive electrodes give flatter discharge curves and higher cycle life than batteries using flat plates. Most tubular grids for motive-power batteries contain 9-11 wt.% antimony. Recently, alloys with 1-6 wt.% antimony have been used for reduced maintenance batteries. Sealed, valve-regulated batteries with tubular positive grids for motive power, telecommunications, and UPS service are produced from cast lead-calcium-tin alloys. While these alloys permit the construction of such batteries, cast PbCaSn alloys are significantly inferior to cast PbSb alloys in mechanical properties. Wrought PbCaSn alloys, when used for tubular grids, permit the application of maintenance-free alloys with mechanical properties comparable with, or higher than, those of high-antimony alloys. Wrought materials increase life due to the absence of casting defects. Wrought lead-calcium alloys also offer a dramatic improvement in creep and corrosion resistance compared with conventional cast, tubular, PbCaSn alloys, as well as superior conductivity to cast PbSb. Wrought PbCaSn alloys permit the production of tubular grids at high speed in shapes and forms that are difficult to produce from cast materials. These grid shapes can lead to higher performance, higher discharge-rate, tubular plates. This paper discusses the mechanical properties, grain structure, and corrosion behaviour of cast and wrought PbCaSn and PbSb alloys for tubular grids. It also suggests manufacturing techniques for high performance, wrought, tubular plates.

  18. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Research programs on lead-acid batteries are reported that cover active materials utilization, active material integrity, and some technical support projects. Processing problems were encountered and corrected. Components and materials, a lead-plastic composite grid, cell designs, and deliverables are described. Cell testing is discussed, as well as battery subsystems, including fuel gage, thermal management, and electrolyte circulation. (LEW)

  19. Fuzzy modelling for the state-of-charge estimation of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, Claudio; Sáez, Doris; Orchard, Marcos E.; Cárdenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fuzzy model based structure for the characterisation of discharge processes in lead-acid batteries. This structure is based on a fuzzy model that characterises the relationship between the battery open-circuit voltage (Voc), the state of charge (SoC), and the discharge current. The model is identified and validated using experimental data that is obtained from an experimental system designed to test battery banks with several charge/discharge profiles. For model identification purposes, two standard experimental tests are implemented; one of these tests is used to identify the Voc-SoC curve, while the other helps to identify additional parameters of the model. The estimation of SoC is performed using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with a state transition equation that is based on the proposed fuzzy model. Performance of the proposed estimation framework is compared with other parametric approaches that are inspired on electrical equivalents; e.g., Thevenin, Plett, and Copetti.

  20. Battery energy-storage systems — an emerging market for lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. F.

    Although the concept of using batteries for lead levelling and peak shaving has been known for decades, only recently have these systems become commercially viable. Changes in the structure of the electric power supply industry have required these companies to seek more cost-effective ways of meeting the needs of their customers. Through experience gained, primarily in the USA, batteries have been shown to provide multiple benefits to electric utilities. Also, lower maintenance batteries, more reliable electrical systems, and the availability of methods to predict costs and benefits have made battery energy-storage systems more attractive. Technology-transfer efforts in the USA have resulted in a willingness of electric utilities to install a number of these systems for a variety of tasks, including load levelling, peak shaving, frequency regulation and spinning reserve. Additional systems are being planned for several additional locations for similar applications, plus transmission and distribution deferral and enhanced power quality. In the absence of US champions such as the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, ILZRO is attempting to mount a technology-transfer programme to bring the benefits of battery energy-storage to European power suppliers. As a result of these efforts, a study group on battery energy-storage systems has been established with membership primarily in Germany and Austria. Also, a two-day workshop, prepared by the Electric Power Research Institute was held in Dublin. Participants included representatives of several European power suppliers. As a result, ESB National Grid of Ireland has embarked upon a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of a battery energy-storage system in their network. Plans for the future include continuation of this technology-transfer effort, assistance in the Irish effort, and a possible approach to the European Commission for funding.

  1. Relation between energetic and utilization coefficients in the positive plates of automotive lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alkaine, C. V.; Carubelli, A.; Fava, H. W.; Sanhueza, A. C.

    A new experimental method to distinguish between energetic and structural materials and to characterize the manufacturing technology for positive plates in lead/acid batteries is discussed. This new method proposes the evaluation of the energetic β-coefficient from plots of capacity versus very low current densities under galvanostatic conditions and using real-size positive plates in 2.3-6.9 M H 2SO 4 solutions. The results are identical to those obtained previously from potentiostatic measurements, and they fit a new equation as opposed to Peukert's equation. The independence of the β-coefficient with H 2SO 4 concentration indicates that the discharge of PbO 2 to its products proceeds via a solid-state reaction mechanism.

  2. Research, development and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-08-01

    An advanced lead acid storage battery was developed to the preprototype cell and module design stage. Each module is equipped with a low cost tray, automatic watering system, and air-lift pumps for increased acid circulation in each cell. With the qualified alloy catastrophic positive grid corrosion will not limit cell cycle life. An accelerated shallow cycle regime at room ambient tested 60 cell designs for the active material shedding failure mode. It is found that an antishedding active material additive reduces positive active material shedding significantly and extend the cycle life of both the positive and the negative plate. Equations relating cell design to deep cycle life are developed from the factorial tests on the 60 cells.

  3. The partial state-of-charge cycle performance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Taisuke; Sawai, Ken; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Shiota, Masashi; Ishimoto, Shinji; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Osumi, Shigeharu

    Negative plate lugs of flooded lead-acid battery were corroded during partial state-of-charge (PSoC) pattern cycle life tests simulated from stop and go vehicle driving. Potential step was applied to Pb-Ca-Sn alloy electrode at various potential and time regimes, and the electrode surface was observed by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM) to investigate the corrosion mechanisms during the potential step cycles. It was found out that the severe corrosion occurs when the oxidation of Pb to PbSO 4 and partial reduction of passive layer of PbSO 4 take turns many times. It was also found out that the periodic full charge, the optimization of the alloy composition, addition of the material that may make the reaction mechanism change to electrolyte were effective to suppress the corrosion rate.

  4. Present and future of lead/acid battery manufacturer in the Commonwealth of Independent States (formerly the USSR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusin, A. I.; Leonov, V. N.; Gerasimov, A. G.; Volinkin, V. T.

    The production of lead/acid batteries in the former USSR, and now in the CIS, is concentrated in eight manufacturing plants (seven in Russia, one in Kazakhstan). The batteries that are manufactured include: automotive, aircraft, stationary, traction, diesel locomotive, railway car, boat, motorcycle, low-capacity sealed, and submersible designs. These activities involve the annual processing of 230 000 tonnes of lead. A brief review is given of the technology used in each of the battery designs.

  5. Recent new additives for electric vehicle lead-acid batteries for extending the cycle life and capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Kozawa, A.; Sato, A.; Fujita, K.; Brodd, D.

    1997-12-01

    An electrochemically prepared colloidal graphite was found to be an excellent additive for lead-acid batteries. The new additive extends the capacity and cycle life of new and old batteries and can regenerate old, almost dead, batteries. The colloidal graphite is stable in aqueous solution and the extremely fine particles are adsorbed mainly on the positive electrode. This additive has been given the name, {alpha}-Pholon. The amount required is very small: only 6% to 10% of volume of the {alpha}-Pholon solution (about 2% colloidal graphite in water solution). The beneficial effect of the new additive was demonstrated with motorcycle batteries and forklift batteries.

  6. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in electrolyte of lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Rocha, F R; Nóbrega, J A

    1997-12-19

    Electrolytes of lead-acid batteries can contain several impurities that reduce battery performance and lifetime. Nitrate ions are among these species because they can be reduced to ammonium in the lead electrode. In this work, an analytical method was developed to determine this anion in electrolytes of batteries used in telephone systems, in which nitrate concentration must be lower than 10 mg l(-1). The procedure consists in the reduction to nitrite in a copperized cadmium column followed by Griess's modified reaction. Due to the high sensitivity of this methodology, a large dispersion flow diagram (dispersion coefficient = 27.8) was projected. Thus, it was possible to eliminate the Schlieren effect and to obtain a NH (3)NH (+)(4) buffer in the sample zone in a suitable pH for reduction reaction (pH congruent with 8). Negative interference due to iron(III) was overcome by addition of excess iron (200 mg l(-1)). A relocatable filter was used to remove iron(III) hydroxide precipitate. This avoided adsorption on the surface of the filings and increase of back pressure. The analytical frequency is 80 measurements/h and the detection limit was estimated as 0.3 mg l(-1) in a 99.7% confidence level. A 2.2% relative standard deviation was obtained in a repeatability study (n = 10) by using a 25 mg l(-1) nitrate solution in a 3.6 mol l(-1) sulfuric acid medium. Recoveries from 95.5 to 104% were obtained by spiking 5.00 or 10.0 mg l(-1) of nitrate in samples of battery electrolyte. PMID:18967001

  7. Comparative study for "36 V" vehicle applications: advantages of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lailler, Patrick; Sarrau, Jean-François; Sarrazin, Christian

    From thermal engine equipped vehicles to completely electric ones, evolution of light weight vehicles in the future will take several steps in so far as there is no adequate battery or fuel cell presently available to power these vehicles for "on the road" driving. On the other hand, for city driving, vehicles can be improved a lot in terms of fuel efficiency as well as air pollution, if partly or totally electric propulsion can be developed, manufactured and marketed for appropriate applications. The 36-42 V battery is part of this orientation towards improving the efficiency of thermal vehicles in city driving, while keeping adequate autonomy on the roads. Actually, in city traffic, thermal engines are idle most of the time and stop periods represent a large part of the time spent "driving", using up fuel and polluting air for no use at all. The idea of stopping the engine during these periods, if appropriately managed, might potentially lead to a large improvement in fuel economy as well as air pollution reduction. The association of a higher voltage battery to an alternator-starter device in thermal vehicles, seems to be an interesting way towards that end. In this paper, we are presenting our results of a study we have just completed in relationship with RENAULT & VALEO, supported by the French Ministry of Industry, concerning a comparative evaluation of different automobile energy storage systems, and the definition of specifications as the final step of this study. The main conclusion is that lead-acid will still remain dominant in this role, since its operational cost versus efficiency is by far the lowest of every battery presently considered, more particularly in the less expensive car segments.

  8. New developments in separators for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, W.

    In valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries the electrolyte solution has to be immobilized to ensure tiny channels left open for the transfer of oxygen from the positive to the negative electrode. So far microfibre glassmats have predominantly been used, which based on their high porosity and good wettability of the glass fibres are able to retain durably large electrolyte volumes. The tensile strength of such microfibre glassmats remains unsatisfactory. Developments to produce absorbing mats from organic fibres have recently succeeded due to advanced developments in polymers and in fibre production processes as well as in achieving permanent hydrophilisation. Such polypropylene-microfibremats have excellent tensile and puncture strength and—as pockets—can be well integrated into highly automated assembly processes. Test data for polypropylene-microfibremats are presented and compared to microfibre glassmats. Another approach to hamper the electrolyte in its free mobility is to gel it: batteries with gelled electrolyte have been shown to require conventional microporous separators—both for secure fixing of plate spacing as well as for preventing electronic shorts. Despite their complex filling process gel batteries are well accepted for cycling applications, when simultaneously freedom from maintenance is required. Due to the high power requirements for EV batteries there is a trend towards thinner plates and thinner separation; also substantial pressure on the positive electrode and thus also on the separator is desirable to improve the cycling life decisively. A new separator development is presented, which in spite of high porosity (>80%), suffers only little deformation even under very high pressure. It effectively prevents acid stratification, forms no filling profile and permits oxygen transfer.

  9. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes. PMID:23500418

  10. Investigating the use of porous, hollow glass microspheres in positive lead acid battery plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Matthew; Bean, Thomas; Woodland, Travis; Canning, John; Cheng, I. Frank; Edwards, Dean B.

    2014-11-01

    Porous, hollow, glass microspheres (PHGMs) can be used to increase porosity in lead acid battery electrodes to improve the battery's power and energy performance at higher discharge rates. As reported in this paper, the PHGM additives did improve electrolyte storage and porosity in the electrodes. However, the nonconductive PHGMs do reduce the critical volume fraction (CVF) of the electrodes as predicted from conductivity models. The increase in electrode performance due to increased porosity may therefore be partially offset by the drop in capacity due to a lower critical volume fraction. Empirical equations are developed that relate the CFV and porosity of an electrode to the amount, size, and porosity of the additives in that electrode. The porosity estimates made from the empirical equations compare favorably with the experimental data from plates fabricated with these additives. The performance of electrodes with additives is estimated from computer models using the electrode's CVF and porosity as provided by the equations. Tests were performed on plates having volume loadings of PHGMs from 11% to 44% of total solids in positive electrodes to determine their effect on active material utilizations. The results from these discharge tests are reported and compared with theoretical models.

  11. Electrodeposited nanostructured lead dioxide as a thin film electrode for a lightweight lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, D. R. P.; Low, C. T. J.; Walsh, F. C.

    Thin films of nanostructured lead dioxide are investigated as a positive electrode material for a lightweight lead-acid battery. The films are obtained by constant current deposition from electrolytes of lead methanesulfonate in methanesulfonic acid. The films are tested in two conditions namely (a) cyclic voltammetry and (b) constant current battery cycling in sulfuric acid. The charge and discharge current density, charge density and charge efficiency are measured as a function of cycle number. The effect of deposition conditions, such as solution temperature (295 and 333 K), type of substrate and electrolyte additive (hexadecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide), on the electrochemical performance of the PbO 2 in sulfuric acid is investigated. It is found that the as-deposited lead dioxide film is compact and nanostructured β-phase structure. Following successive cycling in sulfuric acid, the compact thin film gradually transforms into a porous microstructure consisting of positive active material (PbO 2 and PbSO 4), several tens of nanometres size. The charge density, discharge density and peak discharge current density of the PbO 2 improve with cycling of the thin film electrode.

  12. Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernosek, R. W.; Martin, S. J.; Wessendorf, K. O.; Rumpf, A. N.

    We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to changes in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to (rho(eta))(exp (1/2)), where rho is the liquid density and eta is the viscosity.

  13. Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cernosek, R.W.; Martin, S.J.; Wessendorf, K.O.; Rumpf, A.N.

    1994-06-01

    We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to hanges in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the Corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to ({rho}{eta}) {sup {1/2}}, where {rho} is the liquid density and {eta} is the viscosity.

  14. Woven-grid sealed quasi-bipolar lead-acid battery construction and fabricating method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quasi-bipolar lead-acid battery construction includes a plurality of bipolar cells disposed in side-by-side relation to form a stack, and a pair of monoplanar plates at opposite ends of the stack, the cell stack and monopolar plates being contained within a housing of the battery. Each bipolar cell is loaded with an electrolyte and composed of a bipolar electrode plate and a pair of separator plates disposed on opposite sides of the electrode plate and peripherally sealed thereto. Each bipolar electrode plate is composed of a partition sheet and two bipolar electrode elements folded into a hairpin configuration and applied over opposite edges of the partition sheet so as to cover the opposite surfaces of the opposite halves thereof. Each bipolar electrode element is comprised of a woven grid with a hot-melt strip applied to a central longitudinal region of the grid along which the grid is folded into the hairpin configuration, and layers of negative and positive active material pastes applied to opposite halves of the grid on opposite sides of the central hot-melt strip. The grid is made up of strands of conductive and non-conductive yarns composing the respective transverse and longitudinal weaves of the grid. The conductive yarn has a multi-stranded glass core surrounded and covered by a lead sheath, whereas the non-conductive yarn has a multi-stranded glass core surrounded and covered by a thermally activated sizing.

  15. The available capacity computation model based on artificial neural network for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. C.; Lo, E. W. C.; Weixiang, Shen

    The available capacity computation model based on the artificial neural network (ANN) for lead-acid batteries in an electric vehicle (EV) is presented. Comparing with the methods based on the Peukert equation, which is often used for the calculation of the available capacity for lead-acid batteries in EVs, this model is more accurate. The results of the experiment have proven the accuracy of the proposed model; the computation values are in good agreement with experimental data, the associated error has been considered acceptable from an engineering point of view.

  16. Assessment of high power HEV lead-acid battery advancements by comparative benchmarking with a European test procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Mario; Pede, Giovanni; Sglavo, Vincenzo; Macerata, Diego

    The technical and practical suitability of lead-acid batteries for applications in vehicles with electrical drivetrains (battery-powered or hybrid electric) has been experimentally investigated in a variety of testing programmes. Under the direction and funding support of the Commission of the European Community, since early 1990s, the R&D Organisation EUCAR, a collaborative partnership of most European car manufacturers, has been conducting battery technological assessment projects, through bench tests carried out by different independent laboratories throughout Europe, using agreed test procedures. In this framework, ENEA acted as independent testing institute and tested, among others, three high power lead-acid batteries of various technologies (flat plate electrodes and spiral wound) for EV and HEV applications. In addition, different battery sizes and operating conditions have been tested at ENEA in a separate collaboration with ALTRA-IRISBUS. This paper intends to trace technological and performance improvements of high power lead-acid battery technology through the analysis of experimental data during parameter and life cycle tests, including the effects of battery sizes, charge/discharge profiles and testing procedures, with special emphasis on the reduction of the internal resistance and the variation of peak power and cycle life.

  17. A multi-point sensor based on optical fiber for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao-Paz, Ana M; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge; del Río-Vázquez, Alfredo; Martínez-Peñalver, Carlos; Lago-Ferreiro, Alfonso; Nogueiras-Meléndez, Andrés A; Doval-Gandoy, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a multi-point optical fiber-based sensor for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries. It is known that the battery charging process creates stratification, due to the different densities of sulphuric acid and water. In order to study this process, density measurements should be obtained at different depths. The sensor we describe in this paper, unlike traditional sensors, consists of several measurement points, allowing density measurements at different depths inside the battery. The obtained set of measurements helps in determining the charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of the battery. PMID:22319262

  18. A Multi-Point Sensor Based on Optical Fiber for the Measurement of Electrolyte Density in Lead-Acid Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Paz, Ana M.; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge; del Río-Vázquez, Alfredo; Martínez-Peñalver, Carlos; Lago-Ferreiro, Alfonso; Nogueiras-Meléndez, Andrés A.; Doval-Gandoy, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a multi-point optical fiber-based sensor for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries. It is known that the battery charging process creates stratification, due to the different densities of sulphuric acid and water. In order to study this process, density measurements should be obtained at different depths. The sensor we describe in this paper, unlike traditional sensors, consists of several measurement points, allowing density measurements at different depths inside the battery. The obtained set of measurements helps in determining the charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of the battery. PMID:22319262

  19. Comparative response of lead-acid and nickel/iron batteries to pulsed and constant-current loads

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Tummillo, A.F.; Biwer, T.L.; Christianson, C.C.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    Improved lead-acid and nickel/iron batteries are currently being developed for use in electric vehicles. The response of these batteries to given discharge conditions differs due to the inherent characteristics of each system. The discharge capacity of the lead-acid system is reduced (>25%) at increased discharge rates and its internal resistance is a function of both depth-of-discharge (DOD) and discharge rate. However, open-circuit stand times (0.5 to 2.0 h) at DOD levels >50% reduce the internal resistance of the lead-acid system and provide a corresponding increase in its availability capacity. In comparison, the discharge capacity and internal resistance of the nickel/iron system are virtually independent of both discharge rate and open-circuit stand times during discharge. With pulsed-current loads, the available energy and power output of both battery systems are always less than those obtained with equivalent constant-current loads due to increased internal power losses. The nickel/iron system exhibits an internal inductance that is significantly greater than that for the lead-acid system thereby causing potentially damaging voltage transients. This paper describes the test procedures and system employed, presents the test data, and methods for predicting battery response, and discusses the results obtained.

  20. An Exploratory Study Of Lead Recovery In Lead-Acid Battery Lifecycle In US Market: An Evidence-Based Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: This research examines lead recovery and recycling in lead-acid batteries (LAB) which account for 88% of US lead consumption. We explore strategies to maximize lead recovery and recycling in the LAB lifecycle. Currently, there is limited information on recycling ra...

  1. A lead-film electrode on an aluminium substrate to serve as a lead-acid battery plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolshina, L. A.; Kudyakov, V. Ya; Zyryanov, V. G.

    Compact lead layers have been deposited on the surfaces of aluminium and aluminium alloys. These coatings are uniform in thickness and have high porosity. The lead-film electrode produced on aluminium plate can be used as the positive electrode in a lead-acid battery.

  2. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part II: Operation of the negative plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Dumenil, S.; Alias, M.; Christin, R.; de Mascarel, A.; Perrin, M.

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the recent progress in the carbon honeycomb grid technology for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries with absorptive glass-mat separators (AGM-VRLAB). The work is focused on the development of negative current collectors using industrial grade composite honeycomb precursors. The developed model AGM-VRLA cells comprised of one prototype honeycomb negative electrode and two conventional traction positive counter-electrodes show high utilisation of the negative active material and long cycle life both in high-rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling mode and in deep cycling mode. The analysis of the results from the cycle-life tests and the tear-down analysis indicate that the benefits delivered by the novel grids can be related to the low mesh size of the grid, low γ-coefficient, as well as the use of milled carbon fibre additive. The combination of the three, results in the reversibility of the negative active material sulfation process when the electrolyte concentration in the cells is lower than the one traditionally used in the AGM-VRLAB technology. The negative plates show no signs of irreversible degradation after more than 900 cycles in deep cycling mode and more than 2000 capacity turnovers (equivalent cycles) in HRPSoC cycling mode.

  3. Polydivinylferrocene surface modified electrode for measuring state-of-charge of lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Todd; Singh, Pritam; Baker, Murray V.; Issa, Touma B.

    This paper outlines an investigation of the electrochemical behaviour of polymeric divinylferrocene (PDVF) produced by direct polymerisation of divinylferrocene (DVF) monomer on a glassy carbon substrate. The findings indicate that PDVF undergoes reversible reduction/oxidation in neutral and acidic aqueous media containing perchlorate (ClO 4 -) and sulfhate (SO 4 2-). The anodic peak potential of the PDVF shifts linearly to less positive potentials as the sulfuric acid (H 2SO 4) concentration is increased from 1 to 5 M. The polymer film strongly adheres to the glassy carbon surface and is electrochemically stable when subjected to repeated voltammetric cycling in the potential range of -0.2 to +0.8 V vs. Ag|AgCl. The potential of the partially oxidized film of PVDF on a glassy carbon substrate against a Ag|AgCl/KCl reference electrode in sulfuric acid solution is stable, reproducible and varies linearly with the acid concentration in the range of 1-5 M. This observation may be suitable for potentiometrically measuring the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries.

  4. Evolution of internal resistance during formation of flooded lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Chris; Deveau, Justin; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-09-01

    This study employs experimental techniques to measure the changing internal resistance of flooded, flat-plate lead-acid batteries during container formation, revealing a novel indicator of formation completeness. In order to measure internal resistance during formation, d.c. current pulses are superimposed over the constant formation current at set intervals, while change in voltage is measured. The resulting "pulsed" internal resistance is divided into ohmic and interfacial components by measuring the ohmic resistance with short d.c. pulses as well as with a.c. injection. Various constant-current container formations are carried out using different current levels, plate thicknesses, and pulsing techniques, yielding an array of resistance trends which are explained using Butler-Volmer kinetic theory. Ohmic and interfacial resistance trends are shown both theoretically and experimentally to eventually decay to a predictable steady-state value as the formation proceeds, suggesting that this internal resistance method can be used to detect the completion of the formation. The same principles are shown to apply to recharge cycles as well, but with potentially limited practical implications in comparison to formation.

  5. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar; Khan, Manzurul Haque; Khandker, Salamat; Sarwar, A. F. M.; Yasmin, Nahid; Faruquee, M. H.; Yasmin, Rabeya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB) in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturing workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the workers of LAB manufacturing industries located in Dhaka city. Result. Mean blood lead level (BLL) among the workers was found to be high. They were found to be suffering from a number of illnesses attributable to lead toxicity. The common illnesses were frequent headache, numbness of the limbs, colic pain, nausea, tremor, and lead line on the gum. High BLL was also found to be related to hypertension and anemia of the workers. Conclusion. High BLL and illnesses attributable to lead toxicity were prevalent amongst workers of the LAB manufacturing industries, and this requires attention especially in terms of occupational hygiene and safety. PMID:24707223

  6. Elecrokinetic separation of sulphate and lead from sludge of spent lead acid battery.

    PubMed

    Maruthamuthu, S; Dhanibabu, T; Veluchamy, A; Palanichamy, S; Subramanian, P; Palaniswamy, N

    2011-10-15

    A novel electrokinetic (EK) technique is applied to separate lead and sulphate from the sludge of used/spent lead acid battery. XRD reveals that the sludge is a mixture of (PbO)(4) [Pb(SO(4))], Pb(2)O(3), PbSO(4), Pb(S(2)O(3)) and Pb(2)(SO(4)) which upon DC voltage application in a EK cell employing either titanium electrodes or titanium substrate insoluble anode as electrodes caused migration of sulphates and lead ions respectively into anode and cathode compartments, and accumulation of insoluble lead oxides at the central compartment. The insoluble lead oxides accumulated at the central compartment in the ratio 1:3, respectively for the high oxygen over-voltage Ti-anode (Ti-EK cell) and low oxygen over-voltage TSIA-anode (TSIA-EK cell) shows the superiority of Ti anode over TSIA anode. Also thermal investigation reveals Pb deposited at Ti-cathode is superior to that from TSIA cathode. This process does not release air/soil pollutants which are usually associated with high temperature pyrotechnic process. PMID:21820805

  7. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.J.; Hsu, P.C.; Wu, M.S.; Ho, P.Y.

    2010-05-15

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m{sup 2}. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). (author)

  8. Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries.

    PubMed

    Ho, S F; Sam, C T; Embi, G B

    1998-09-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with

  9. Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Huang, Lei; Cherry, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Despite China's leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children's blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China's lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world's leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries.This review assesses the role of China's rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure.This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China's growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health impacts of the lead-acid

  10. Lead-acid battery with improved cycle life and increased efficiency for lead leveling application and electric road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsel, A.; Schulz, J.; Guetlich, K. F.

    1983-11-01

    Lifetime and efficiency of lead acid batteries are discussed. A gas lift pump was used to prevent acid stratification and to reduce the charging factor (down to 1.03 to 1.05). A re-expansion method was applied and an expander depot and a compound separation were built in. Cycle life is increased from 700 cycles to 1690 cycles. Efficiency is increased by energy and time saving due to the reduced charging factor and by the use of a recombination stopper and a charge indicator with remote control. It is suggested that the lead acid system is still one of the best possibilities for electric road vehicle applications.

  11. Electrodeposited lead-foam grids on copper-foam substrates as positive current collectors for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Keju; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Huihui; Dai, Zhendong

    2014-02-01

    Contemporary lead-acid batteries have a high internal resistance and a limited utilization of their positive active materials (PAM). In order to alleviate these problems, lead (alloy) foam-based positive electrodes for lead-acid batteries are prepared by electrodepositing lead on a copper-foam substrate. Using scanning electron microscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, finite element analysis, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, the effect of the lead foam collectors on the electrochemical performance of the positive electrodes is characterized. The thickness of the lead coating has a strong effect on the corrosion-stability of the copper-foam substrate. In addition, the charge/discharge performance of the batteries is greatly improved by the lead-foam collectors. At the 20-2 h discharge rates, the utilization efficiency of the PAM of 40-PPI lead-foam battery is improved by 19-36% from the cast-grid battery. Combined with the finite element analysis, it appears that the 3D connected network structure of the positive lead foam electrode can reduce the surface current density, the polarization resistance, and the ohmic resistance of the battery because of its larger contact area with the active material. As a result, the lead foam battery has a higher utilization efficiency of the PAM.

  12. Semen quality and fertility of men employed in a South African lead acid battery plant.

    PubMed

    Robins, T G; Bornman, M S; Ehrlich, R I; Cantrell, A C; Pienaar, E; Vallabh, J; Miller, S

    1997-10-01

    Previous studies of the associations of measures of occupational lead exposure with measures of semen quality and infertility among male workers have produced conflicting results. The current study was undertaken to examine these associations among a population of workers with a broad range of measures of current and historical lead exposure. Ninety-seven lead-exposed workers from a South African lead acid battery facility provided semen samples that were analyzed for sperm density, sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and presence of antisperm antibodies. Questionnaire data were collected for reported histories of sub- or infertility. Current blood leads ranged from 28 to 93 micrograms/dl. Semen lead ranged from 1 to 87 micrograms/dl. Reasonably consistent and significant associations were found between an increased percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology and higher measures of current blood lead, cumulative blood lead, and duration of exposure. An increased percent of immotile sperm was associated only with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) among the lead exposure measures. There were no associations of sperm density or sperm count with any of the lead exposure measures. A weak association of increased percent of sperm with antisperm antibodies with increased semen lead was present. There were no consistent associations of measures of lead exposure with measures of fertility or procreativity. This study, while supporting the association of lead exposure with increased risk of abnormal sperm morphology seen in some previous studies, does not lend support to previously reported associations of sperm density or count or infertility with measures of lead exposure. However, the relatively high range of current blood leads, high prevalence of abnormalities in semen quality, and the lack of a control population, suggest that these negative findings should be interpreted with caution. PMID:9258391

  13. The hydrogen economy: a threat or an opportunity for lead-acid batteries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Dell, R. M.

    There is mounting concern over the sustainability of global energy supplies. Among the key drivers are: (i) global warming, ocean surface acidification and air pollution, which imply the need to control and reduce anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially emissions from transportation and thermal power stations; (ii) the diminishing reserves of oil and natural gas; (iii) the need for energy security adapted to each country, such as decreasing the dependence on fossil fuel imports (in particular, the vulnerability to volatile oil prices) from regions where there is political or economic instability; (iv) the expected growth in world population with the ever-increasing aspiration for an improved standard-of-living for all, especially in developing and poor nations. Hydrogen is being promoted world-wide as a total panacea for energy problems. As a versatile carrier for storing and transporting energy from any one of a myriad of sources to an electricity generator, it is argued that hydrogen will eventually replace, or at least greatly reduce, the reliance on fossil fuels. Not unexpectedly, the building of a 'hydrogen economy' presents great scientific and technological challenges in production, delivery, storage, conversion, and end-use. In addition, there are many policy, regulatory, economic, financial, investment, environmental and safety questions to be addressed. Notwithstanding these obstacles, it is indeed plausible that hydrogen will become increasingly deployed and will compete with traditional systems of energy storage and supply. Moreover, the case for hydrogen will be greatly strengthened if fuel cells, which are the key enabling technology, become more reliable, more durable, and less expensive. This paper examines the prospects for hydrogen as a universal energy-provider and considers the impact that its introduction might have on the present deployment of lead-acid batteries in mobile, stationary and road transportation applications.

  14. Influence of bismuth on the charging ability of negative plates in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N. P.; Manders, J. E.

    To examine the influence of bismuth on the charging ability of negative plates in lead-acid batteries, plates are made from three types of oxides: (i) leady oxide of high quality which contains virtually no bismuth (termed 'control oxide'); (ii) control oxide in which bismuth oxide is blended at bismuth levels from 0.01 to 0.12 wt.%; (iii) leady oxide produced from Pasminco VRLA Refined™ lead (0.05-0.06 wt.%Bi). An experimental tool—the 'conversion indicator'—is developed to assess the charging ability of the test negative plates when cycling under either zero percent state-of-charge (SoC)/full-charge or partial state-of-charge (PSoC) duty. Although the conversion indicator is not the true charging efficiency, the two parameters have a close relationship, namely, the higher the conversion indicator, the greater the charging efficiency. Little difference is found in the charging ability, irrespective of bismuth content and discharge rate, when the plates are subjected to zero percent SoC/full-charge duty; the conversion indicator lies in the range 81-84%. By contrast, there is a marked difference when the negative plates are subjected to PSoC duty, i.e. consecutive cycling through 90-60, 70-40, 80-40 and 90-40% SoC windows. Up to 0.06 wt.%Bi improves the charging ability, especially with a low and narrow PSoC window (40-70% SoC) of the type that will be experienced in 42 V powernet automobile and hybrid electric duties. To maximize this beneficial effect, bismuth must be distributed uniformly in the plates. This is best achieved by using VRLA Refined™ lead for oxide production.

  15. A study of lead-acid battery efficiency near top-of-charge and the impact on PV system design

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.W.; Corey, G.P.

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge of the charge efficiency of lead-acid batteries near top-of-charge is important to the design of small photovoltaic systems. In order to know how much energy is required from the photovoltaic array in order to accomplish the task of meeting load, including periodic full battery charge, a detailed knowledge of the battery charging efficiency as a function of state of charge is required, particularly in the high state-of-charge regime, as photovoltaic systems are typically designed to operate in the upper 20 to 30% of battery state-of-charge. This paper presents the results of a process for determining battery charging efficiency near top-of-charge and discusses the impact of these findings on the design of small PV systems.

  16. Development and field experience of monitoring system for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in stationary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Shigeru; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Yabumoto, Toshiaki; Shiga, Shoji; Watakabe, Yuichi; R&D Div., Furukawa Battery Co. Ltd.

    With ever-evolving information technology, it is becoming increasingly important to secure reliable back-up power supplies in telecommunications networks, data-processing facilities, utilities, etc. While valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are predominantly used nowadays, their diagnosis technology is not fully developed. As partial-discharge techniques require temporarily shutting-down of the system and also degrade battery life, manual testers based on an ohmic techniques have become popular. Accordingly, the Battery Condition Watcher (BCW) has been developed and commercialized. This is an automatic monitoring system with remote communication capabilities. It measures the internal impedance, voltage and temperature of individual cells or batteries with high accuracy. These parameters are subjected to data processing to enable diagnosis of battery conditions and life. Some aspects of field usage of the BCW are reported.

  17. Small-capacity valve-regulated lead/acid battery with long life at high ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, T.; Maeda, M.; Iwata, M.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries are widely used as back-up power sources for telecommunications and UPS. These applications require high-reliability under severe environmental conditions. To meet this demand, the authors' company have developed small capacity (12 V, 15-65 A h at C 20/20 rate), long-life VRLA batteries which can endure high ambient temperature. These batteries make use of a new alloy and grid design which has improved resistance to corrosion at the positive plate, while at the same time reduce float current at high temperature. As a result, these batteries have a life expectancy of 13 years at 25°C, and inhibited thermal runaway even under ambient temperatures up to 75°C. The batteries can be installed in outdoor and underground environments.

  18. Modified titanium foil's surface by high temperature carbon sintering method as the substrate for bipolar lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Zhu, Junsheng

    2014-12-01

    Titanium foil can be a type of ideal material as the substrate for bipolar lead-acid battery. However, it can't be directly used because it can be oxidized in the high voltage and strong oxidizing conditions. In this paper, we coat the titanium suboxide on the titanium foil surface by means of the high temperature carbon sintering method for the improvement of corrosion resistance of titanium metal and use it as the substrate to bipolar lead-acid battery to study its effect on the battery performances. Modified titanium foils are characterized by SEM, XRD, corrosion resistance test and electronic conductivity test. The electrochemical properties of the bipolar lead-acid battery are investigated by constant current charge/discharge method. The results demonstrate that the titanium foil carbon-sintered at 800 °C for 2 h has the most excellent chemical stability and electronic conductivity. Initial specific capacities of positive active material of bipolar lead-acid battery with modified titanium as the substrate at 0.25C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C discharge rate are 99.29 mAh g-1, 88.93 mAh g-1, 77.54 mAh g-1, and 65.41 mAh g-1. After 50 cycles, the specific capacity of positive active material at 0.5C is 81.36 mAh g-1 and after 100 cycles, the specific capacity at 1C is 61.92 mAh g-1.

  19. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  20. Lead acid battery performance and cycle life increased through addition of discrete carbon nanotubes to both electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugumaran, Nanjan; Everill, Paul; Swogger, Steven W.; Dubey, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary applications are changing the failure mechanisms of lead acid batteries. Sulfation at the negative electrode, acid stratification, and dendrite formation now precede positive electrode failures such as grid corrosion and active material shedding. To attenuate these failures, carbon has been explored as a negative electrode additive to increase charge acceptance, eliminate sulfation, and extend cycle life. Frequently, however, carbon incorporation decreases paste density and hinders manufacturability. Discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT), also known as Molecular Rebar®, are lead acid battery additives which can be stably incorporated into either electrode to increase charge acceptance and cycle life with no change to paste density and without impeding the manufacturing process. Here, full-scale automotive batteries containing dCNT in the negative electrode or both negative and positive electrodes are compared to control batteries. dCNT batteries show little change to Reserve Capacity, improved Cold Cranking, increased charge acceptance, and enhanced overall system efficiency. Life cycle tests show >60% increases when dCNT are incorporated into the negative electrode (HRPSoC/SBA) and up to 500% when incorporated into both electrodes (SBA), with water loss per cycle reduced >20%. Failure modes of cycled batteries are discussed and a hypothesis of dCNT action is introduced: the dCNT/Had Overcharge Reaction Mechanism.

  1. Development of an electrode for lead-acid batteries possessing a high electrochemical utilization factor and invariable cycling characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolshina, L. A.; Kudyakov, V. Ya.; Zyryanov, V. G.

    Investigations have been carried out on the deposition of compact lead layers on the surfaces of various metallic substrates. It is shown that the lead coatings so obtained are non-uniform in thickness and feature high porosities. The lead-film electrode thus produced on the surface of a fine copper grid can be used as a positive electrode in the lead-acid battery.

  2. Influence of the active mass particle suspension in electrolyte upon corrosion of negative electrode of a lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenev, Yu.; Shtompel, G.; Ostapenko, E.; Leonov, V.

    2014-07-01

    The influence of the suspension of positive active mass particles in the electrolyte on the performance of the negative electrode in a lead-acid battery is studied. A significant increase in the rate of corrosion of the lead electrode is shown when slime particles get in contact with its surface, which may result in the rise of macro-defects on the lugs of the negative electrodes.

  3. Screening and assessment of solidification/stabilization amendments suitable for soils of lead-acid battery contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Guanlin; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Rhee, Jae Seong; Wang, Sen; Li, Fasheng

    2015-05-15

    Lead exposure via ingestion of soil and dust generally occurs at lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling sites. Screening solidification/stabilization (S/S) amendments suitable for lead contaminated soil in an abandoned lead-acid battery factory site was conducted based on its chemical forms and environmental risks. Twelve amendments were used to immobilize the Pb in soil and assess the solidification/stabilization efficiency by toxicity leaching tests. The results indicated that three amendments, KH₂PO₄ (KP), KH₂PO₄:oyster shell power=1:1 (by mass ratio; SPP), and KH₂PO₄:sintered magnesia=1:1 (by mass ratio; KPM) had higher remediation efficiencies that led to a 92% reduction in leachable Pb with the addition of 5% amendments, while the acid soluble fraction of Pb (AS-Pb) decreased by 41-46% and the residual fraction (RS-Pb) increased by 16-25%. The S/S costs of the three selected amendments KP, SPP, and KPM could be controlled to $22.3 per ton of soil when the Pb concentration in soil ranged from 2000 to 3000 mg/kg. The results of this study demonstrated that KP, SPP, and KPM can effectively decrease bioavailability of Pb. These findings could provide basis for decision-making of S/S remediation of lead-acid battery contaminated sites. PMID:25699676

  4. Effects of standtime on the available capacity of lead-acid and nickel/iron electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Tummillo, A.F.; Biwer, R.L.; Yao, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    In electric vehicle (EV) applications, the battery load typically contains interruptions of various time durations. These standtimes affect the battery's available capacity and must be understood in order to predict and optimize vehicle operation. Laboratory tests were conducted to measure the impact of various standtimes (0-4 h) at different depth-of-discharge (DOD) and state-of-charge (SOC) levels on the capacity retention of both improved lead-acid and nickel/iron (Ni/Fe) EV batteries. The results showed that the Ni/Fe system exhibits a self-discharge capacity loss immediately after charging that increases with both standtime and SOC. Fortunately, the self-discharge rate decreases rapidly with standtime and discharging. Standtimes after charging also decrease the available capacity of the lead-acid system due to reduced battery temperatures. However, standtimes at DOD levels > 50% provide an increase in battery capacity by allowing for the relaxation of electrolyte concentration gradients. This paper describes the test procedures used, presents the test data, and discusses the results.

  5. Nonlinear phenomenon in monocrystalline silicon based PV module for low power system: Lead acid battery for low energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amrani, A.; El Amraoui, M.; El Abbassi, A.; Messaoudi, C.

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, we report the indoor photo-electrical measurements of monocrystalline silicon based photovoltaic (PV) module associated with 4 Ah lead acid battery as a storage unit for low power PV system applications. Concerning the PV module, our measurements show, at low illumination regime, that the short circuit current ISC increases linearly with the illumination power levels. Moreover, for high illumination levels, the mechanism of bimolecular recombination and space charge limitation may be intensified and hence the short current of the PV module ISCMod depends sublinearly on the incident optical power; the behavior is nonlinear. For the open circuit voltage of the PV module VOCMod measurements, a linear variation of the VOCMod versus the short circuit current in semi-logarithmic scale has been noticed. The diode ideality factor n and diode saturation current Is have been investigated; the values of n and Is are approximately of 1.3 and 10-9 A, respectively. In addition, we have shown, for different discharging-charging currents rates (i.e. 0.35 A, 0.2 A and 0.04 A), that the battery voltage decreases with discharging time as well as discharging battery capacity, and on the other hand it increases with the charging time and will rise up until it maximized value. The initial result shows the possibility to use such lead acid battery for low power PV system, which is generally designed for the motorcycle battery.

  6. Procedures for safe handling of off-gases from electric vehicle lead-acid batteries during overcharge

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, S.J.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Loutfy, R.O.; Varma, R.

    1980-01-25

    The potential for generation of toxic gases from lead-acid batteries has long been recognized. Prior to the current interest in electric vehicles, there were no studies specificaly oriented to toxic gas release from traction batteries, however. As the Department of Energy Demonstration Project (in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program) progresses, available data from past studies and parallel health effects programs must be digested into guidance to the drivers and maintenance personnel, tailored to their contact with electric vehicles. The basic aspects of lead-acid battery operation, vehicle use, and health effects of stibine and arsine to provide electric vehicle users with the information behind the judgment that vehicle operation and testing may proceed are presented. Specifically, it is concluded that stibine generation or arsine generation at rapid enough rates to induce acute toxic response is not at all likely. Procedures to guard against low-level exposure until more definitive data on ambient concentrations of the gases are collected are presented for both charging the batteries and driving the vehicles. A research plan to collect additional quantitative data from electric traction batteries is presented.

  7. SUNRAYCE 1995: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  8. SUNRAYCE 95: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1994-05-27

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  9. Studies on electrolyte formulations to improve life of lead acid batteries working under partial state of charge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, J. C.; Soria, M. L.; González, M.; García-Quismondo, E.; Muñoz, A.; Trinidad, F.

    For decades, valve regulated lead acid batteries with gel electrolyte have proved their excellent performance in deep cycling applications. However, their higher cost, when compared with flooded batteries, has limited their use in cost sensitive applications, such as automotive or PV installations. The use of flooded batteries in deep or partial state of charge working conditions leads to limited life due to premature capacity loss provoked by electrolyte stratification. Different electrolyte formulations have been tested, in order to achieve the best compromise between cost and life performance. Work carried out included electrochemical studies in order to determine the electrolyte stability and diffusional properties, and kinetic studies to check the processability of the electrolyte formulation. Finally, several 12 V batteries have been assembled and tested according to different ageing profiles.

  10. Simulation of the current distribution in lead-acid batteries to investigate the dynamic charge acceptance in flooded SLI batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, Julia; Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Karden, Eckhard

    Measurements show that the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of flooded SLI lead-acid batteries during micro-cycling in conventional and micro-hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on the short-term history, such as previous charge or discharge, current rate, lowest state of charge in the last 24 h and more. Factors of 10 have been reported. Inhomogeneous current distribution, especially as a result of acid stratification, has been suggested to explain the DCA variability. This hypothesis was investigated by simulation of a two-dimensional macrohomogeneous model. It provides a spatial resolution of three elements in horizontal direction in each electrode and three elements in vertical direction. For an existing set of parameters, different current profiles were analyzed with regard to the current distribution during charging and discharging. In these simulations, a strong impact of the short-term history on current, charge and acid density distribution was found as well as a strong influence of micro-cycles on both charge distribution and acid stratification.