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1

Preparation and Characterization of Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramics Qiang Chen1,a  

E-print Network

Preparation and Characterization of Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramics Qiang Chen1,a , Jinxu Li1,b properties; Perovskites; (K,Na)NbO3 Abstract. (K,Na)NbO3-based piezoelectric ceramics are promising piezoelectric properties. In this paper, lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.86Ta0.10Sb0

Volinsky, Alex A.

2

Tailoring of unipolar strain in lead-free piezoelectrics using the ceramic/ceramic composite approach  

SciTech Connect

The electric-field-induced strain response mechanism in a polycrystalline ceramic/ceramic composite of relaxor and ferroelectric materials has been studied using in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction. The addition of ferroelectric phase material in the relaxor matrix has produced a system where a small volume fraction behaves independently of the bulk under an applied electric field. Inter- and intra-grain models of the strain mechanism in the composite material consistent with the diffraction data have been proposed. The results show that such ceramic/ceramic composite microstructure has the potential for tailoring properties of future piezoelectric materials over a wider range than is possible in uniform compositions.

Khansur, Neamul H.; Daniels, John E. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Groh, Claudia; Jo, Wook; Webber, Kyle G. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Reinhard, Christina [Diamond Light Source, Beamline I12 JEEP, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kimpton, Justin A. [The Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

2014-03-28

3

Temperature Stability of V2O5-Doped KNN-LS-BF Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

V2O5-doped Na0.5K0.5NbO3-LiSbO3-BiFeO3 (KNN-LS-BF) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the traditional sintering method, and their temperature stability was studied. Characterization of the temperature dependences of dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the V2O5-doped KNN-LS-BF ceramics showed that V2O5 doping could significantly improve the temperature stability in the temperature range of 30°C to 420°C and cause a downward shift in the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition to below room temperature. It was also found that the V2O5-doped KNN-LS-BF ceramics possess good dielectric and piezoelectric properties ( ? r > 1066, tan ? < 4%, d 33 > 185 pC/N, k p > 0.25) in the temperature range of 30°C to 300°C.

Wang, Hua; Zhai, Xia; Xu, Ji-Wen; Yuan, Chang-Lai; Yang, Ling

2013-08-01

4

Giant piezoelectricity in potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.  

PubMed

Environment protection and human health concern is the driving force to eliminate the lead from commercial piezoelectric materials. In 2004, Saito et al. [ Saito et al., Nature , 2004 , 432 , 84 . ] developed an alkali niobate-based perovskite solid solution with a peak piezoelectric constant d33 of 416 pC/N when prepared in the textured polycrystalline form, intriguing the enthusiasm of developing high-performance lead-free piezoceramics. Although much attention has been paid on the alkali niobate-based system in the past ten years, no significant breakthrough in its d33 has yet been attained. Here, we report an alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramic with the largest d33 of ?490 pC/N ever reported so far using conventional solid-state method. In addition, this material system also exhibits excellent integrated performance with d33?390-490 pC/N and TC?217-304 °C by optimizing the compositions. This giant d33 of the alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramics is ascribed to not only the construction of a new rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary but also enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Our finding may pave the way for "lead-free at last". PMID:24499419

Wang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zheng, Ting; Zhang, Binyu; Lou, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiangjian

2014-02-19

5

Enhanced Piezoelectric Properties and Tunability of Lead-Free Ceramics Prepared by High-Energy Ball Milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconium-doped barium titanate Ba(Zr0.15Ti0.85)O3 lead-free ceramics (hereinafter referred to as BZT) were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method by adopting the high-energy ball milling technique. Nanosized BZT powders resulted from high-energy ball milling, which in turn enhanced the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics. A single-phase perovskite structure free from secondary phase peaks was observed for sintered BZT samples, and a relative density of ˜94% of the theoretical density was achieved. The electric-field-induced polarization-current data indicate the ferroelectric nature of the samples. Unipolar strain as high as 0.12% was realized for the ceramics sintered at 1350°C, indicating their potential for use in actuator applications. Very high tunability of >70% for these ceramics is also reported.

Mahesh, M. L. V.; Bhanuprasad, V. V.; James, A. R.

2013-12-01

6

Lead-free multilayer piezoelectric transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a multilayer piezoelectric transformer based on lead-free Mn-doped 0.94(Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics is presented. This piezoelectric transformer, with a multilayered construction in the thickness direction, is 8.3 mm long, 8.3 mm wide, and 2.3 mm thick. It operates in the second thickness extensional vibration mode. For a temperature rise of 20 °C, the transformer has an output power of

Mingsen Guo; X. P. Jiang; K. H. Lam; S. Wang; C. L. Sun; Helen L. W. Chan; X. Z. Zhao

2007-01-01

7

Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-BaNb2O6 Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1 - x)Bi0.5K0.5TiO3- xBaNb2O6 [(1 - x)KBT- xBN] with x ranging from 0 to 0.03 have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The effects of BaNb2O6 addition on the crystal structure, microstructure, and dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 ceramic were investigated. In the studied composition range, the x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that single perovskite phase formed in specimens with x < 0.03 and a trace secondary phase could be detected for x = 0.03. A morphotropic phase boundary separating rhombohedral and tetragonal phases was identified in the range of x = 0.01 to 0.02, where the optimum dielectric and piezoelectric properties were achieved with values of dielectric constant ? = 2960, piezoelectric constant d 33 = 96 pC/N, electromechanical coupling factor k p = 17.8%, and mechanical quality factor Q m = 150. Dielectric study revealed that all samples showed diffuse phase-transition characteristics. Furthermore, polarization-electric field ( P- E) hysteresis loops were of slim-loop type with small remanent polarization values for all compositions. The related physical mechanisms for the enhancement of dielectric and piezoelectric properties are discussed. The results demonstrate a tremendous potential of the studied system for use as lead-free piezoelectric ceramics.

Pu, Yongping; Gao, Pan; Wu, Ting; Liu, Xiaoyan; Dong, Zijing

2015-01-01

8

Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-BaNb2O6 Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1 - x)Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-xBaNb2O6 [(1 - x)KBT-xBN] with x ranging from 0 to 0.03 have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The effects of BaNb2O6 addition on the crystal structure, microstructure, and dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 ceramic were investigated. In the studied composition range, the x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that single perovskite phase formed in specimens with x < 0.03 and a trace secondary phase could be detected for x = 0.03. A morphotropic phase boundary separating rhombohedral and tetragonal phases was identified in the range of x = 0.01 to 0.02, where the optimum dielectric and piezoelectric properties were achieved with values of dielectric constant ? = 2960, piezoelectric constant d 33 = 96 pC/N, electromechanical coupling factor k p = 17.8%, and mechanical quality factor Q m = 150. Dielectric study revealed that all samples showed diffuse phase-transition characteristics. Furthermore, polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops were of slim-loop type with small remanent polarization values for all compositions. The related physical mechanisms for the enhancement of dielectric and piezoelectric properties are discussed. The results demonstrate a tremendous potential of the studied system for use as lead-free piezoelectric ceramics.

Pu, Yongping; Gao, Pan; Wu, Ting; Liu, Xiaoyan; Dong, Zijing

2014-12-01

9

(Bi(1\\/2)Na(1\\/2))TiO3-BaTiO3 system for lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the (Bi(1\\/2)Na(1\\/2))TiO3 (BNT)-based solid solutions, Ba-modified bismuth sodium titanate, (Bi(1\\/2)Na(1\\/2))(1-x)Ba(x)TiO3 (BNBT), is studied for its dielectric and piezoelectric properties as a new group of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. A rhombohedral (F sub alpha)-tetragonal (F sub beta) morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) is shown to exist at x = 0.06-0.07 by X-ray data, and dielectric and piezoelectric properties. BNBT ceramics with

Tadashi Takenaka; Kei-Ichi Maruyama; Koichiro Sakata

1991-01-01

10

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of sodium lithium niobate Na1-xLixNbO3 lead free ferroelectric ceramics  

E-print Network

ferroelectric ceramics G. R. Li & Q. R. Yin & L. Y. Zheng Y. Y. Guo & W. W. Cao Published online: 17 May 2007 curves of LNN ceramics showed that there exist three phase transitions from room temperature up. The solid solution NaxLi1-xNbO3 (LNN) ceramics is a very interest- ing material due to its lead free

Cao, Wenwu

11

Enhanced ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and ferromagnetism in Nd-modified BiFeO3-BaTiO3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free multiferroic ceramics of 0.75Bi1-xNdxFeO3 - 0.25BaTiO3 + 1 mol. % MnO2 were prepared by a conventional ceramic technique and their structure, piezoelectricity, and multiferroicity were studied. The ceramics sintered at 890-990 °C possess a pure perovskite structure. A morphotropic phase boundary of rhombohedral and monoclinic phases is formed at x = 0.05. A small amount of Nd improves the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics. The ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition becomes gradually diffusive with x increasing. After the addition of Nd, the ferromagnetism of the ceramics is greatly enhanced by ˜320%. The increase in sintering temperature improves significantly the ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and ferromagnetic properties of the ceramics. The ceramics with x = 0.05 sintered at 950-990 °C possess improved ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, magnetism and insulation with Pr of 16.5-17.5 ?C/cm2, d33 of 113-121 pC/N, Mr of 0.127-0.138 emu/g, R of ˜5 × 109 ?.cm and high TC of 473-482 °C, indicating that the ceramic is a promising candidate for room-temperature multiferroic and high-temperature piezoelectric materials.

Zheng, Qiaoji; Luo, Lingling; Lam, Kwok Ho; Jiang, Na; Guo, Yongquan; Lin, Dunmin

2014-11-01

12

Ferroelectric instabilities and enhanced piezoelectric response in Ce modified BaTiO3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal structure, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric behaviors of the Ba(Ti1-xCex)O3 solid solution have been investigated at close composition intervals in the dilute concentration regime. Ce concentration as low as 2 mol. % induces tetragonal-orthorhombic instability and coexistence of the phases, leading to enhanced high-field strain and direct piezoelectric response. Detailed structural analysis revealed tetragonal + orthorhombic phase coexistence for x = 0.02, orthorhombic for 0.03 ? x ? 0.05, and orthorhombic + rhombohedral for 0.06 ? x ? 0.08. The results suggest that Ce-modified BaTiO3 is a potential lead-free piezoelectric material.

Brajesh, Kumar; Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; Ranjan, Rajeev

2015-01-01

13

Synthesis of (K, Na) (Nb, Ta)O 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramic powders by high temperature mixing method under hydrothermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facile hydrothermal route via high temperature mixing method was used to synthesize (K, Na) (Nb, Ta)O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramic powders. The influence of Ta doping and K+\\/(K++Na+) molar ratios in the starting solution on the resultant powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. The Ta element was successfully doped

Honghui Gu; Kongjun Zhu; Xuming Pang; Bin Shao; Jinhao Qiu; Hongli Ji

14

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (Bi 1? x ? y Nd x Na 1? y ) 0.5Ba y TiO 3 lead-free ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

New lead-free (Bi1?x?yNdxNa1?y)0.5BayTiO3 ceramics were prepared by a conventional ceramic technique and their dielectric and piezoelectric properties were studied. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Nd3+ and Ba2+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a new solid solution with a pure perovskite structure, and a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases is formed at 0.04

Dunmin Lin; K. W. Kwok

2010-01-01

15

Morphotropic phase boundary and electric properties in (1-x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-xBiCoO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

E-print Network

-free piezoelectric ceramics Fei-Fei Guo, Bin Yang, Shan-Tao Zhang, Xiao Liu, Li-Mei Zheng et al. Citation: J. Appl ceramics Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 252905 (2012) Enhanced piezoelectric performance from carbon fluoropolymer phase boundary and electric properties in (12x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-xBiCoO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

Cao, Wenwu

16

Effect of poling temperature on piezoelectricity of CaZrO3-modified (K, Na)NbO3-based lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical poling is indispensable for endowing isotropic ferroelectric polycrystals with a net macroscopic polarization and hence piezoelectricity. However, little attention has been paid to the optimization of poling conditions in (K, Na)NbO3-based ceramics with a polymorphic phase transition. This study investigated the electrical properties of CaZrO3-modified (K, Na, Li)(Nb, Ta)O3 lead-free piezoceramics as a function of the poling temperature. Peak piezoelectric coefficient d33 of 352 ± 7 pC/N and planar electromechanical coupling factor kp of 0.47 were obtained at the optimized poling temperature of 120 °C, which crosses the polymorphic phase transition regime. In-depth analysis of the asymmetric polarization hysteresis loops and bipolar strain curves uncovered striking analogy between electrical poling and unipolar cycling in the current system, which is attributed to a competition between domain reorientation and space charge accumulation.

Yao, Fang-Zhou; Wang, Ke; Jo, Wook; Lee, Jae-Shin; Li, Jing-Feng

2014-09-01

17

Ferroelectric and impedance response of lead-free (B0.5N0.5) TiO3-BaZrO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric (0.96B0.5N0.5TiO3)-0.04BaZrO3 (BNT-BZ4) was synthesized by using a solid-state reaction method. SEM micrograph shows dense microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the formation of a BNB-BZ4 single phase having pseudocubic symmetry. A maximum value of remnant polarization (30?C/cm2) and piezoelectric constant (112 pC/N) was observed for BNT-BZ4 ceramic. The temperature dependences of the dielectric properties of BNT-BZ4 were investigated in the temperature range of 25-600°C at various frequencies (0.1 Hz-1 MHz). The maximum dielectric constant value (epsilonr) reaches a highest value of 4046 (at 10 kHz). The electrical properties were investigated by using complex impedance spectroscopy and provided better understanding of relaxation process.

Rahman, Jamil ur; Hussain, Ali; Maqbool, Adnan; Kim, Jin Soo; Song, Tae Kwon; Lee, Je Hyun; Kim, Won Jeong; Kim, Myong Ho

2014-06-01

18

Polymorphic structure evolution and large piezoelectric response of lead-free (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The polymorphic structure evolution of (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics was investigated by analysis of the in situ X-ray diffraction and dielectric spectra. The results indicated that a confined orthorhombic (O) phase region induced by the approach of the rhombohedral (R) and tetragonal (T) phases existed in an extremely narrow temperature range of (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Zr{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9})O{sub 3} composition. The electric properties near the O–T phase boundaries of (Ba{sub 0.95}Ca{sub 0.05})(Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95})O{sub 3} and (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Zr{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9})O{sub 3} were compared. The results suggested that the confined O phase region is an important factor that contributes to the extremely large piezoelectric response.

Tian, Ye [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, Shaanxi (China); Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Chao, Xiaolian, E-mail: chaoxl@snnu.edu.cn, E-mail: yangzp@snnu.edu.cn; Wei, Lingling; Liang, Pengfei; Yang, Zupei, E-mail: chaoxl@snnu.edu.cn, E-mail: yangzp@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, Shaanxi (China); Jin, Li [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

2014-03-17

19

Enhanced piezoelectricity and nature of electric-field induced structural phase transformation in textured lead-free piezoelectric Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter provides a comparative description of the properties of textured and randomly oriented poly-crystalline lead-free piezoelectric 0.93(Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)-0.07BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) ceramics. A high longitudinal piezoelectric constant of (d33) ˜ 322 pC/N was obtained in (001)PC textured NBT-7BT ceramics, which is almost ˜2× times the d33 coefficient reported for randomly oriented ceramics of the same composition. In situ neutron diffraction experiments revealed that characteristically different structural responses are induced in textured and randomly oriented NBT-BT ceramics upon application of electric fields (E), which are likely related to the varying coherence lengths of polar nanoregions and internal stresses induced by domain switching.

Maurya, Deepam; Pramanick, Abhijit; An, Ke; Priya, Shashank

2012-04-01

20

Fabrication of Lead-Free Lithium-Doped Na0.5K0.5NbO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics with Dense Grain Structure Using Sol-Gel Surface Coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric 0.06(LiNbO3)-0.94(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (LNKN) ceramics in disc form were fabricated and characterized to acquire good electromechanical properties. A molding method including cold isostatic pressing (CIP) was used to form a dense and regular microstructure and suppress the cracking problems of LNKN ceramics during the following high-temperature sintering. The LNKN ceramic sintered at 1040 °C showed a high piezoelectric constant d33 of 170 pC/N owing to its high density. Furthermore, perovskite LNKN films with the same composition as the ceramics were fabricated using 2-methoxyethanol-based sol-gel solution. The sol-gel surface coating on the LNKN ceramics was found to be very effective for increasing the piezoelectric constant because of the interface stabilization effect leading to a uniform electric field in piezoelectric elements. As a result, we obtained the highest piezoelectric constant d33 of 183 pC/N. The lead-free LNKN ceramics are promising for applications in eco-friendly ferroelectric and piezoelectric devices.

Lim, Sun Kyung; Han, Jeong Seon; Yoo, Ae Ri; Lee, Seong Eui; Lee, Hee Chul

2013-10-01

21

Large Piezoelectric Constant and High Curie Temperature of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramic Ternary System Based on Bismuth Sodium Titanate-Bismuth Potassium Titanate-Barium Titanate near the Morphotropic Phase Boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lead-free piezoelectric ceramic ternary system based on bismuth sodium titanate, (Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3 (BNT) - bismuth potassium titanate (Bi1\\/2K1\\/2)TiO3 (BKT) - barium titanate BaTiO3 (BT) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases has been investigated. In the case of a(Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3-bBaTiO3-c(Bi1\\/2K1\\/2)TiO3 [BNBK(100a\\/100b\\/100c)] solid solution ceramics, the highest piezoelectric constant d33=191 pC\\/N, Curie temperature, Tc=301°C, electromechanical coupling factor,

Hajime Nagata; Masaki Yoshida; Yoichi Makiuchi; Tadashi Takenaka

2003-01-01

22

Effect of domain structure on the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of lead-free alkali niobate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Load-bearing applications, such as actuators, require sufficient mechanical properties to guarantee long lifetime and reliability. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics show relatively low mechanical strength which decreases after applying an electric field. Thus far, evaluations of the mechanical properties have not been the focus in the case of alkali niobate-based (NKN) ceramics. For this purpose, differently poled Lix(Na0.5K0.5)1-xNbO3 ceramics have been observed by means of 3-point bending tests. Best results were achieved with Li0.02Na0.49K0.49NbO3, with a flexural strength of 115 MPa in unpoled state. This value was maximized at a 90° domain switching fraction ? of about 20% to 134 MPa. Other compositions showed similar behavior, which led to the idea that domain switching can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of NKN ceramics. Internal stresses induced via domain reorientation might be the cause of this phenomenon and will be examined in this study.

Martin, Alexander; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

2014-09-01

23

Phase transition behavior and high piezoelectric properties in lead-free BaTiO3CaTiO3BaHfO3 ceramics  

E-print Network

ceramics Dali Wang · Zhaohua Jiang · Bin Yang · Shantao Zhang · Mingfu Zhang · Feifei Guo · Wenwu Cao of lead-free (1-x)Ba(Hf0.16Ti0.84)O3­x (Ba0.70Ca0.30)TiO3 (BCHT) ceramics fabricated by the conventional been proposed based on their dielectric behavior. It is found that BHCT ceramics undergo a complicated

Cao, Wenwu

24

Phase transition temperatures and piezoelectric properties of (Bi(1/2)Na(1/2))TiO3- and (Bi(1/2)K(1/2))TiO3-based bismuth perovskite lead-free ferroelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

The phase transition temperatures and the dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of bismuth perovskite lead-free ferroelectric ceramics such as (Bi(1/2)Na(1/2))TiO3 (BNT)- and (Bi(1/2)Na(1/2))TiO3 (BKT)-based solid solutions have been reviewed. According to the results obtained by our group, these ceramics can be considered as superior lead-free piezoelectric materials for reducing environmental damage. Perovskite-type ceramics appear to be suitable for actuator and high-power applications that require a large piezoelectric constant d33 and a high Curie temperature TC or a high depolarization temperature Td (> 200 degrees C). In this paper, we summarize the relationship between phase transition temperatures and piezoelectric properties. In the case of the BNT-based solid solutions, the highest piezoelectric properties were obtained at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between rhombohedral and tetragonal phases. However, d33 and Td were shown to have a tradeoff relationship. Considering the high Td and high d33, the tetragonal side of the MPB composition is suitable for piezoelectric actuator application. Meanwhile, the Qm values on the rhombohedral side of the MPB composition were better than those on the tetragonal side, and excellent high-power characteristics were obtained for Mn-doped BNT-(Bi(1/2)Na(1/2))TiO3-BKT ternary systems with rhombohedral symmetry. BKT ceramics were prepared by the hot-pressing (HP) method, and their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were clarified. BKT ceramics doped with a small amount of Bi have a relatively high remanent polarization of Pr = 27.6 microC/cm2 and high piezoelectric properties (k33 = 0.40 and d33 = 101 pC/N). In addition, it was clarified that BKT ceramics have a high Td of approximately 300 degrees C. The solid solution (1-x)BKT-xBaTiO3 (BKT-BT100x) exhibited a high Td of approximately 300 degrees C at x > 0.4. PMID:19686975

Takenaka, Tadashi; Nagata, Hajime; Hiruma, Yuji

2009-08-01

25

Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of (Bi0.94-xLaxNa0.94)0.5Ba0.06TiO3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (Bi0.94-x LaxNa0.94)0.5Ba0.06TiO3 have been fabricated by an ordinary sintering technique, and their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties have been studied. The results of x-ray diffraction reveal that La3+ and Ba2+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a new solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. After the partial substitution of La3+ for Bi3+ in the (Bi0.94-x Lax Na0.94)0.5Ba0.06TiO3 ceramics (x = 0-0.04), the ceramics exhibit a lower coercive field Ec and a larger remanent polarization Pr. Because of the large Pr and low Ec, the ceramics with x = 0.02-0.04 exhibit optimum piezoelectric properties: d33 = 181-196 pC N-1 and kP = 33.2-36.3%. The depolarization temperature Td decreases with increasing x (x = 0 - 0.04). At the high La3+ level (x = 0.06-0.12), the ceramics exhibit weak ferroelectricity and thus possess very poor piezoelectricity, and the low dielectric anomaly at Td disappears. In addition, the ceramics exhibit a relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12-fold coordination sites. The temperature dependences of the ferroelectric and dielectric properties suggest that the ceramics with x = 0-0.04 may contain both polar and non-polar regions at temperatures above Td, while for the ceramics with x = 0.06-12, the polar and non-polar regions coexist at room temperature.

Zheng, Qiaoji; Xu, Chenggang; Lin, Dunmin; Gao, Daojiang; Kwok, K. W.

2008-06-01

26

Structure, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of (Bi0.98- x La0.02Na1- x )0.5Ba x TiO3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free (Bi0.98- x La0.02Na1- x )0.5Ba x TiO3 ceramics have been prepared by an ordinary sintering technique and their structure, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties have been studied. The results of X-ray diffraction show that La2+ and Ba2+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a new solid solution with a pure perovskite structure, and a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) exists at 0.04< x<0.10. Compared with pure Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 ceramics, the (Bi0.98- x La0.02Na1- x )0.5Ba x TiO3 ceramics possess much smaller coercive field E c and larger remanent polarization P r. Because of the low E c (3.38 kV/mm), large P r (46.2 ?C/cm2) and the formation of the MPB of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases, the piezoelectric properties of the ceramics are significantly enhanced at x=0.06: d 33=181 pC/N and k p=36.3%. The depolarization temperature T d reaches a minimum value near the MPB. The ceramics exhibit relaxor characteristic, which is probably a result from the cation disordering in the 12-fold coordination sites. The temperature dependences of the ferroelectric and dielectric properties suggest that the ceramics may contain both polar and non-polar regions at the temperatures above T d.

Lin, Dunmin; Kwok, K. W.

2009-10-01

27

Structure, electrical properties and depolarization temperature of (Bi 0.5Na 0.5)TiO 3-BaTiO 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free ceramics (1 - x)Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3- xBaTiO 3 have been prepared by a conventional solid reaction method, and their structure, electrical properties and depolarization temperature have been studied. The results of X-ray diffraction reveal that Ba 2+ diffuse into the Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure, and a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) exists at 0.06 < x < 0.10. The grain size decreases with x. After the introduction of BaTiO 3 into Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3, the ceramics exhibit a lower coercive field Ec and a larger remanent polarization Pr. Because of the strong ferroelectricity and MPB, the ceramics with x = 0.06 exhibit optimum piezoelectric properties: d33 = 155 pC/N and kP = 36.7%. The depolarization temperature Td shows a strong compositional dependence and gives a minimum value at MPB. In addition, the ceramics exhibit relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12-fold coordination sites. The results of the ferroelectric and dielectric properties at high temperatures may suggest that the ceramics may contain both the polar and non-polar regions at temperatures above Td.

Xu, Chenggang; Lin, Dunmin; Kwok, K. W.

2008-07-01

28

Structure and electrical properties of (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-x-y-z BaxSryCazTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-x-y-xBax SryCazTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared by a conventional mixed oxide method, and their structural and electrical properties have been studied. The results of x-ray diffraction reveal that Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a single-phase perovskite structure, and a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) exists at x = 0.04-0.08, y = 0.015, z = 0.01. After the substitutions of Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+, the ceramics exhibit a lower coercive field Ec and a larger remanent polarization Pr, which facilitates the poling and leads to an improvement in the piezoelectric coefficient d33 and the planar electromechanical coupling factor kP. Also, the depolarization temperature Td decreases, showing a strong dependence on the substitution level of Ba2+. For the ceramics with the compositions near the MPB, Pr = 44 µC cm-2, d33 = 173 pC N-1, kP = 34% and Td = 120 °C. In addition, the ceramics exhibit a relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12-fold coordination sites. The results of the ferroelectric and dielectric properties at high temperatures suggest that the ceramics may contain both the polar and non-polar regions at temperatures above Td.

Lin, Dunmin; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, H. W. L.

2007-09-01

29

Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of [(Bi 0.98 La 0.02 Na 1? x Li x ) 0.5 ] 0.94 Ba 0.06 TiO 3 lead-free ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free ceramics [(Bi0.98La0.02Na1?x\\u000a Li\\u000a x\\u000a )0.5]0.94Ba0.06TiO3 have been prepared by an ordinary sintering technique and their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties have been studied.\\u000a The results of X-ray diffraction reveal that Li+, Ba2+, and La3+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a new solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. The partial substitution of Li+ lowers the coercive field E

Dunmin Lin; K. W. Kwok

2009-01-01

30

Investigation of a new lead-free Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramic  

PubMed Central

Lead-free piezoelectric compositions of the (1-x)Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-x(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 system (when x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) were fabricated using a solid-state mixed oxide method and sintered between 1,050°C and 1,175°C for 2 h. The effect of (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 [BST] content on phase, microstructure, and electrical properties was investigated. The optimum sintering temperature was 1,125°C at which all compositions had densities of at least 98% of their theoretical values. X-ray diffraction patterns that showed tetragonality were increased with the increasing BST. Scanning electron micrographs showed a slight reduction of grain size when BST was added. The addition of BST was also found to improve the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the BNKT ceramic. A large room-temperature dielectric constant, ?r (1,609), and piezoelectric coefficient, d33 (214 pC/N), were obtained at an optimal composition of x = 0.10. PMID:22221833

2012-01-01

31

Diffuse phase transition and electrical properties of lead-free piezoelectric (LixNa1-x)NbO3 (0.04 ? x ? 0.20) ceramics near morphotropic phase boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature-dependent dielectric permittivity of lead-free (LixNa1-x)NbO3 for nominal x = 0.04-0.20, prepared by solid state reaction followed by sintering, was studied to resolve often debated issue pertaining to exactness of morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) location besides structural aspects and phase stability in the system near MPB. Interestingly, a diffuse phase transition has been observed in the dielectric permittivity peak arising from the disorder induced in A-site and structural frustration in the perovskite cell due to Li substitution. A partial phase diagram has been proposed based on temperature-dependent dielectric permittivity studies. The room temperature piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were investigated and the ceramics with x = 0.12 showed relatively good electrical properties (d33 = 28 pC/N, kp = 13.8%, Qm = 440, Pr = 12.5 ?C/cm2, Ec = 43.2 kV/cm, and Tm = 340 °C). These parameter values make this material suitable for piezoelectric resonator and filter applications. Moreover, a high dielectric permittivity (?'r = 2703) with broad diffuse peak near transition temperature, and low dielectric loss (<4%) over a wide temperature range (50-250 °C) found in this material may also have a potential application in high-temperature multilayer capacitors in automotive and aerospace related industries.

Mitra, S.; Kulkarni, A. R.; Prakash, Om

2013-08-01

32

Raman- and Brillouin-scattering studies on lead-free piezoelectric Bi0.5(Na0.78K0.22)0.5- x TiO3 ceramics with A-site vacancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Raman and Brillouin spectra of lead-free piezoelectric Bi0.5(Na0.78K0.22)0.5- x TiO3 ceramics with A-site vacancies were investigated for x = 0 ˜ 0.05. The Raman spectra measured at room temperature showed seven broad bands over the range of 50-1000 cm-1, reflecting strong anharmonicity, inherent A-site disorder and the resulting breakdown of the Raman selection rule. The splitting of the A1 mode near 270 cm-1 indicated that the tetragonal symmetry was maintained over the whole x range, consistent with the X-ray diffraction results. The Brillouin spectra exhibited distributed longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes, in addition to central peaks. The distributed acoustic modes were attributed to the scattering events at all scattering angles from 0 to 180° due to multiple reflections and refractions at the grain boundaries. The relaxation time obtained from fitting the broad central peak by using a Debye function exhibited a slowing-down behavior in the paraelectric phase. The formation of the central peak was attributed to the existence of nano-sized polar regions due to the anharmonic vibrations and the hopping motions of the A-site cations.

Kim, Tae Hyun; Kojima, Seiji; Ahn, Chang Won; Kim, Ill Won; Ko, Jae-Hyeon

2013-04-01

33

Structure and electrical properties of Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3–BaTiO 3–Bi 0.5Li 0.5TiO 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free ceramics (1–x–y)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–xBaTiO3–yBi0.5Li0.5TiO3 have been prepared by a conventional ceramic technique, and their structure and electrical properties have been studied. The results of XRD measurement show that Ba2+ and Li+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. With x increasing from 0.02 to 0.12, the ceramics transform gradually from rhombohedral phase to

Dunmin Lin; K. W. Kwok; H. L. W. Chan

2008-01-01

34

New lead-free piezoelectric ceramics based on (K0.48Na0.52)(Nb0.95Ta0.05)O3-Bi0.5(Na0.7K0.2Li0.1)0.5ZrO3.  

PubMed

(1 - x)(K0.48Na0.52)(Nb0.95Ta0.05)O3-xBi0.5(Na0.7K0.2Li0.1)0.5ZrO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with a new type of phase boundary have been designed and fabricated. This phase boundary lies in the compositional range of 0.04 ? x ? 0.05, and is formed by the coexistence of the rhombohedral, orthorhombic, and tetragonal phases. Interestingly, we found that the ferroelectric, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics with compositions near the phase boundary are significantly enhanced. In particular, the ceramic with x = 0.045 shows the best piezoelectric behavior of d33 ? 290 pC/N and kp ? 0.42 among all the compositions studied in this work, and it also exhibits a good thermal stability at annealing temperatures of ?270 °C. All these results indicate that such a material system is a good candidate for lead-free piezoelectric applications in the future. PMID:24452129

Cheng, Xiaojing; Wu, Jiagang; Wang, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Binyu; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiao, Dingquan; Wang, Xiangjian; Lou, Xiaojie

2014-03-01

35

Effect of composition on electrical properties of lead-free Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-(Ba{sub 0.98}Nd{sub 0.02})TiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with the composition of (1-x)Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x(Ba{sub 0.98}Nd{sub 0.02})TiO{sub 3} or (1-x) BNKT-xBNdT (with x = 0-0.20 mol fraction) have been synthesized by a conventional mixed-oxide method. The compositional dependence of phase structure and electrical properties of the ceramics were systemically studied. The optimum sintering temperature of all BNKT-BNdT ceramics was found to be 1125 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that BNdT effectively diffused into BNKT lattice during sintering to form a solid solution with a perovskite structure. Scanning electron micrographs showed a slight reduction of grain size when BNdT was added. It was found that BNKT-0.10BNdT ceramic exhibited optimum electrical properties ({epsilon}{sub r} = 1716, tan{delta} = 0.0701, T{sub c} = 327 Degree-Sign C, and d{sub 33} = 211 pC/N), suggesting that this composition has a potential to be one of a promising lead-free piezoelectric candidate for dielectric and piezoelectric applications.

Jaita, Pharatree [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

2013-07-14

36

Effect of ZnO-B2O3 addition on the dielectric and the piezoelectric properties of lead-free (Na0.525K0.443Li0.037)(Nb0.883Sb0.08Ta0.037)O3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Na0.525K0.443Li0.037)(Nb0.883Sb0.08Ta0.037)O3 + x wt% ZnO-B2O3 (NKLNST + x ZnO-B2O3) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared via a conventional solid-state reaction for various values of x = {0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2}; then, the dielectric and the piezoelectric properties of these ceramics were investigated. A pure perovskite structure and a small secondary phase were observed in the X-ray diffraction patterns. For the 0.3-wt% ZnO-B2O3 specimen, a density of ? = 4.537 g/cm3, an electromechanical coupling factor of k P = 0.432, a mechanical quality factor of Q m = 96, and piezoelectric constant of d 33 = 209 pC/N were found to be optimal. These results indicate that the material with this composition is a promising candidate for use in a lead-free piezoelectric device.

Kim, You-Seok; Yoo, Ju-Hyun

2014-12-01

37

Microstructure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (K 0.5 Na 0.5 )NbO 3 Ba(Ti 0.95 Zr 0.05 )O 3 lead-free ceramics with CuO sintering aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an ordinary ceramic fabrication technique, we fabricated lead-free (1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-xBa(Ti0.95Zr0.05)O3 ceramics with CuO sintering aid . Ba(Ti0.95Zr0.05)O3 diffuses into (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 to form a new solid solution. The ceramics with perovskite structure possess orthorhombic phase at x?0.04 and become tetragonal\\u000a phase at x?0.06. Both the paraelectric cubic–ferroelectric tetragonal and the ferroelectric tetragonal–ferroelectric orthorhombic\\u000a phase transition temperatures decrease with increasing the concentration

D. Lin; K. W. Kwok; H. L. W. Chan

2007-01-01

38

Structure and piezoelectric properties of lead-free bismuth-based perovskite solid solutions.  

E-print Network

??A new group of lead free piezoelectric perovskite solid solutions, (1-x)Bi(B'B")O?-xABO?, were obtained via solid-state processing techniques. The solubility of unstable perovskite Bi(B'B")O? compounds into… (more)

Huang, Chien-Chih

2008-01-01

39

Structure, electrical properties and depolarization temperature of (Bi 0.5Na 0.5)TiO 3–BaTiO 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free ceramics (1?x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–xBaTiO3 have been prepared by a conventional solid reaction method, and their structure, electrical properties and depolarization temperature have been studied. The results of X-ray diffraction reveal that Ba2+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure, and a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) exists at 0.06

Chenggang Xu; Dunmin Lin; K. W. Kwok

2008-01-01

40

A lead-free flexible structure for piezoelectric power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we demonstrate a fully-flexible piezoelectric hybrid structure composed of sodium niobate nanocubes and polyvinylidene fluoride. Hydrothermally-grown sodium niobate nanocubes show an orthorhombic crystal structure with Pmc21 symmetry, and polyvinylidene fluoride is electrically poled for the ?-phase, each of those represents piezoelectricity. Hybrid devices were electrically tested in two different modes by applying forces parallel to the in-plane and the out-of-plane directions of the piezoelectric layer. Our device shows an output voltage, current, and power density of 2.9 V, 68 nA, and 4.4 ?Wcm-3, respectively, at a pushing force of 5 kgf and a frequency of 1 Hz. The output power generation also shows a linear relation with the applied force over a wide range of 1-5 kgf. This implies our flexible hybrid piezoelectric structure can be adapted to various mechanical environments. Our unique structure should open up various application areas of piezoelectric materials such as touch sensors, flexible energy harvesters and eco-friendly piezoelectric actuators.

Kho, Byung Woo; Yun, Byung Kil; Jung, Jong Hoon; Lee, Minbaek

2014-06-01

41

High electrostrictive coefficient Q33 in lead-free Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the electrostrictive effect in Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BZT-xBCT, x = 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6) ceramics was investigated to gain understanding of their high piezoelectric activity. The electrostrictive coefficient Q33 of the BZT-xBCT ceramics was observed to be around 0.04 m4/C2, twice that reported for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based ceramics. The Q33 was found to be quite stable with respect to temperature and composition for the BZT-xBCT ceramics. The addition of Fe3+ dopant to the ceramics greatly decreased their Curie temperature without affecting their Q33, which remained 0.04 m4/C2. Moreover, a high and hysteresis-free electric-field-induced strain was obtained for 2 at. % Fe-doped BZT-0.5BCT ceramics at room temperature, caused by their high Q33 coefficient and lower-than-room-temperature Curie temperature. The small-signal M33 coefficient of 2 at. % Fe-doped BZT-0.5BCT ceramics was found to be 1.5 × 10-16 m2/V2 (0.32 × 10-16 m2/V2 for undoped counterpart). These results indicate that 2 at. % Fe-doped BZT-0.5BCT ceramics have great potential as alternatives for hard Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics in actuator applications, where reproducible and non-hysteretic deformation responses are required.

Li, Fei; Jin, Li; Guo, Runping

2014-12-01

42

Structural And Electrical Analysis Of Lead Free BZT-xBCT Ceramics  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study of structural and electric properties of a recently discovered lead free electroceramic, Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-x(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} or BZT-xBCT, was conducted in the entire range from x = 0 to x = 1. This novel ceramic composite is being seen as a genuine understudy for commercially one of the most widely used piezoelectric ceramic, PZT, which is facing worldwide criticism due to its lead toxicity. The new system can be very extensively used like PZT in transduction applications as sensor, actuator and ultrasonic devices apart from numerous other utilities. The XRD, SEM and Ferroelectric studies establish the structural transition and different phases as function of Zr /Ti and Ba /Ca ratios.

Bhardwaj, Chandan; Kumar, Ashvani; Kaur, Davinder [Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

2010-12-01

43

Structure, electrical properties and temperature characteristics of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-Bi0.5Li0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(1- x- y)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3- xBi0.5K0.5TiO3- yBi0.5Li0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared by an ordinary sintering technique, and their structure, electrical properties, and temperature characteristics have been studied systematically. The ceramics can be well-sintered at 1050-1150 °C. The increase in K+ concentration decreases the grain-growth rate and promotes the formation of grains with a cubic shape, while the addition of Li+ decreases greatly the sintering temperature and assists in the densification of BNT-based ceramics. The results of XRD diffraction show that K+ and Li+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. As x increases from 0.05 to 0.50, the ceramics transform gradually from rhombohedral phase to tetragonal phase and consequently a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) is formed at 0.15? x?0.25. The concentration y of Li+ has no obvious influence on the crystal structure of the ceramics. Compared with pure Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, the partial substitution of K+ and Li+ for Na+ lowers greatly the coercive field E c and increases the remanent polarization P r of the ceramics. Because of the MPB, lower E c and large P r, the piezoelectricity of the ceramics is improved significantly. For the ceramics with the compositions near the MPB ( x=0.15-0.25 and y=0.05-0.10), the piezoelectric properties become optimum: piezoelectric coefficient d 33=147-231 pC/N and planar electromechanical coupling factor k P=20.2-41.0%. In addition, the ceramics exhibit relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12-fold coordination sites. The depolarization temperature T d shows a strong dependence on the concentration x of K+ and reaches the lowest values at the MPB. The temperature dependences of the ferroelectric and dielectric properties at high temperatures may imply that the ceramics may contain both the polar and non-polar regions at temperatures above T d.

Lin, Dunmin; Zheng, Qiaoji; Xu, Chenggang; Kwok, K. W.

2008-11-01

44

Structure, electrical properties and temperature characteristics of Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 TiO 3 –Bi 0.5 K 0.5 TiO 3 –Bi 0.5 Li 0.5 TiO 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1?x?y)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–xBi0.5K0.5TiO3– yBi0.5Li0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared by an ordinary sintering technique, and their structure, electrical properties,\\u000a and temperature characteristics have been studied systematically. The ceramics can be well-sintered at 1050–1150?°C. The increase\\u000a in K+ concentration decreases the grain-growth rate and promotes the formation of grains with a cubic shape, while the addition\\u000a of Li+ decreases greatly the sintering

Dunmin Lin; Qiaoji Zheng; Chenggang Xu; K. W. Kwok

2008-01-01

45

Advances in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Actuators  

PubMed Central

Piezoelectrics have widespread use in today’s sensor and actuator technologies. However, most commercially available piezoelectric materials, e.g., Pb [ZrxTi1?x] O3 (PZT), are comprised of more than 60 weight percent lead (Pb). Due to its harmful effects, there is a strong impetus to identify new lead-free replacement materials with comparable properties to those of PZT. This review highlights recent developments in several lead-free piezoelectric materials including BaTiO3, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, K0.5Bi0.5TiO3, Na0.5K0.5NbO3, and their solid solutions. The factors that contribute to strong piezoelectric behavior are described and a summary of the properties for the various systems is provided. PMID:22294907

Aksel, Elena; Jones, Jacob L.

2010-01-01

46

Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

Flinn, I.

1975-01-01

47

New potassium-sodium niobate material system: a giant-d?? and high-T(C) lead-free piezoelectric.  

PubMed

In this work, we elucidate the influence of Bi(0.5)Li(0.5)ZrO3 (BLZ) content on the phase structure, microstructure, and electrical properties of (1 -x)K(0.40)Na(0.60)Nb(0.965)Sb(0.035)O3-xBi(0.5)Li(0.5)ZrO3 lead-free ceramics. We simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high T(C) in this material system. The coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases is responsible for such a large d33 in the ceramics with BLZ contents (x) ranging from 0.025 to 0.035. Doping with BLZ not only induces the formation of the phase boundary, but also maintains a high T(C). The ceramic with x = 0.03 shows an enhanced piezoelectric behaviour (d33 ~ 400 pC N(-1) and k(p) ~ 0.47) together with a high T(C) of 292 °C. A good temperature stability for ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity is also observed in these ceramics. This study is the first time that such a good comprehensive performance has been obtained in potassium-sodium niobate materials. We believe that this type of material system possessing giant-d33 and high-T(C) is a promising candidate for use in high-temperature piezoelectric devices. PMID:24958201

Zheng, Ting; Wu, Jiagang; Cheng, Xiaojing; Wang, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Binyu; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Lou, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiangjian

2014-08-14

48

Electrical properties of lead-free 0.98(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.02Ba(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 piezoelectric ceramics by optimizing sintering temperature  

PubMed Central

Lead-free 0.98(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.02Ba(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 [0.98NKN-0.02BZT] ceramics were fabricated by the conventional mixed oxide method with sintering temperature at 1,080°C to 1,120°C. The results indicate that the sintering temperature obviously influences the structural and electrical properties of the sample. For the 0.98NKN-0.02BZT ceramics sintered at 1,080°C to 1,120°C, the bulk density increased with increasing sintering temperature and showed a maximum value at a sintering temperature of 1,090°C. The dielectric constant, piezoelectric constant [d33], electromechanical coupling coefficient [kp], and remnant polarization [Pr] increased with increasing sintering temperature, which might be related to the increase in the relative density. However, the samples would be deteriorated when they are sintered above the optimum temperature. High piezoelectric properties of d33 = 217 pC/N, kp = 41%, dielectric constant = 1,951, and ferroelectric properties of Pr = 10.3 ?C/cm2 were obtained for the 0.98NKN-0.02BZT ceramics sintered at 1,090°C for 4 h. PMID:22221445

2012-01-01

49

Lead-free LiNbO3 nanowire-based nanocomposite for piezoelectric power generation  

PubMed Central

In a flexible nanocomposite-based nanogenerator, in which piezoelectric nanostructures are mixed with polymers, important parameters to increase the output power include using long nanowires with high piezoelectricity and decreasing the dielectric constant of the nanocomposite. Here, we report on piezoelectric power generation from a lead-free LiNbO3 nanowire-based nanocomposite. Through ion exchange of ultra-long Na2Nb2O6-H2O nanowires, we synthesized long (approximately 50 ?m in length) single-crystalline LiNbO3 nanowires having a high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 approximately 25 pmV-1). By blending LiNbO3 nanowires with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer (volume ratio 1:100), we fabricated a flexible nanocomposite nanogenerator having a low dielectric constant (approximately 2.7). The nanogenerator generated stable electric power, even under excessive strain conditions (approximately 105 cycles). The different piezoelectric coefficients of d33 and d31 for LiNbO3 may have resulted in generated voltage and current for the e33 geometry that were 20 and 100 times larger than those for the e31 geometry, respectively. This study suggests the importance of the blending ratio and strain geometry for higher output-power generation in a piezoelectric nanocomposite-based nanogenerator. PACS 77.65.-j; 77.84.-s; 73.21.Hb PMID:24386884

2014-01-01

50

Perovskite lithium and bismuth modified potassium-sodium niobium lead-free ceramics for high temperature applications  

SciTech Connect

[(K{sub (1-x)/2}Na{sub (1-x)/2}Li{sub x}){sub 1-3y}Bi{sub y}]NbO{sub 3} (abbreviated as KNLBN) ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state sintering. The addition of Li{sup +} and Bi{sup 3+} makes the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition temperature (T{sub O-T}) decrease from 200 deg. C for pure (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ceramics to -10 deg. C for KNLBN ceramics (x=0.06, y=0.005), while maintaining high Curie temperature (T{sub C}=455 deg. C) and piezoelectric properties (d{sub 33}=185 pC/N, k{sub p}=0.43, k{sub t}=0.45, {epsilon}{sub 33}{sup T}/{epsilon}{sub 0}=1020, and tan {delta}=0.023) at room temperature. In addition, good temperature stability of electrical properties is obtained in KNLBN ceramics (x=0.06, y=0.005) owing to the decrease of T{sub O-T}. These results indicate that KNLBN (x=0.06, y=0.005) ceramic is a promising lead-free piezoelectric candidate material for high temperature applications.

Du Hongliang; Zhou Wancheng; Luo Fa; Zhu Dongmei; Qu Shaobo; Pei Zhibin [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Educational Ministry, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); The College of Science, Air Force Engineering University, Xi'an 710051 (China)

2007-10-29

51

Large strain under a low electric field in lead-free bismuth-based piezoelectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, the composition and electric field dependent strain behavior of (1 - x)Bi0.5(Na0.78K0.22)0.5TiO3-xBi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 (BNKT-BMT) were investigated to develop lead-free piezoelectric materials with a large strain response at a low driving field for actuator applications. A large strain of 0.35% (Smax/Emax = 636 pm/V) at an applied field of 55 kV/cm was obtained with a composition of 4 mol. % BMT. In particular, the electric field required to deliver large strains was reduced to a level that revealed not only a large Smax/Emax of 542 pm/V at a driving field as low as 35 kV/cm, but also remarkably suppressed the large hysteresis.

Ullah, Aman; Won Ahn, Chang; Ullah, Amir; Won Kim, Ill

2013-07-01

52

Characterization of Lead-Free B2O3 Doped Barium Stannate Titanate Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free barium stannate titanate ceramics doped with 2 wt% of B2O3 were prepared via a solid state sintering. The optimum condition for the preparation was carried out. Properties of the lead free material were characterized by various methods. The high dielectric constant >14000 with low tan ? 0.040 was observed at 34° C for the samples prepared at the optimum condition. Plots of dielectric permittivity as a function of temperature showed that the ceramics exhibit a diffuse ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. The dielectric constant was also measured as a function of electric field. The dielectric-electric field measurement indicated that this material exhibits a high tunability. In addition, mechanical property such as hardness was investigated. Relation between grain size and hardness of the ceramics was found to obey the Hall-Petch equation: Hv = 0.07+12.9G-1/2.

Tawichai, N.; Pengpat, K.; Rujijanagul, G.

2009-07-01

53

Comparative study of 2mol% Li- and Mn-substituted lead-free potassium sodium niobate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Li and Mn substitution on the dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of lead free K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) was investigated. Samples were prepared using a conventional solid state reaction method. The sintering temperature for all the samples was 1050°C. The optimum doping concentration for the enhancement of different properties without the introduction of any other co-dopants such as Ti, Sb, and La was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that all the samples crystallize in a single phase perovskite structure. The dielectric properties were investigated as a function of temperature and applied electric field frequency. Compared with Li-substituted KNN (KLNN), Mn-substituted KNN (KMNN) exhibited a higher dielectric constant ? max (i.e., 4840) at its critical transition temperature T c (i.e., 421°C) along with a lower value of tangent loss at 10 kHz and greater values of saturation polarisation P s (i.e., 20.14 ?C/cm2) and remnant polarisation P r (i.e., 15.48 ?C/cm2). The piezoelectric constant ( d 33) of KMNN was 178 pC/N, which is comparable to that of lead-based hard ceramics. The results presented herein suggest that B-site or Mn substitution at the optimum concentration results in good enhancement of different properties required for materials used in memory devices and other applications.

Dahiya, Asha; Thakur, O. P.; Juneja, J. K.; Singh, Sangeeta; Dipti

2014-12-01

54

NEW LEAD-FREE PEROVSKITE RELAXOR CERAMICS DERIVED FROM BaTiO3 AND CONTAINING SCANDIUM  

E-print Network

NEW LEAD-FREE PEROVSKITE RELAXOR CERAMICS DERIVED FROM BaTiO3 AND CONTAINING SCANDIUM ANNIE SIMON-ray diffraction and dielectric characterizations. Dielectric measurements performed on ceramics with 0 x 0 therefore been performed in detail on ceramics with BaTiO3-derived compositions.2-23 Thanks to frequency

Boyer, Edmond

55

Lead-free ferroelectric relaxor ceramics derived from BaTiO_3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of lead-free BaTiO3-based ceramics were prepared. Depending on the composition, some of them exhibit a relaxor behaviour whose characteristics were related to the type of ionic substitution and to the substitution rate. The relaxor effect is all the more favoured as the composition deviates more from BaTiO3 and as the substitution is heterovalent in the 6-coordination number crystallographic site. Some of these materials could prove valuable (dielectrics for capacitors and actuators) because they are environment-friendly.

Ravez, J.; Simon, A.

2000-07-01

56

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free (Bi,Na)TiO3-based thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of morphotropic phase boundary (Bi,Na)TiO3-(Bi,K)TiO3-BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films deposited on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO3 substrates were reported. Thin films of 350 nm thickness exhibited small signal dielectric permittivity and loss tangent values of 750 and 0.15, respectively, at 1 kHz. Ferroelectric hysteresis measurements indicated a remanent polarization value of 30 ?C/cm2 with a coercive field of 85-100 kV/cm. The thin film transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f) of these films after poling at 600 kV/cm was found to be -2.2 C/m2. The results indicate that these BNT-based thin films are a potential candidate for lead-free piezoelectric devices.

Abazari, M.; Safari, A.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

2010-02-01

57

Dielectric properties of lead-free BZT-KNN perovskite ceramics for energy storage.  

PubMed

Lead-free (1-x)Ba(Zr?.??Ti?.??)O?-x(K?.?Na?.?)NbO? ; x=0-0.05) (BZT-KNN) perovskite ceramics, a materials with potential applications for energy storage, are investigated. The samples are prepared by a solid-state reaction method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to study the microstructure of the samples. Their dielectric properties and impedance spectra are reported as functions of temperature and frequency. The addition of 1?mol?% (K?.?Na?.?)NbO? to Ba(Zr?.??Ti?.??)O? improves the dielectric constant and enhances its diffuseness in a wide temperature range. The small amount of (K?.?Na?.?)NbO? is found to markedly affect the microstructure of the Ba(Zr?.??Ti?.??)O? ceramic (grain size and other characteristics) without changing the phase or crystal symmetry. In addition, we report that fine substructures in the grains, so-called sheet structures, are responsible for the dielectric properties (both diffuseness and dielectric constant) of (1-x)Ba(Zr?.??Ti?.??)O?-x(K?.?Na?.?)NbO? (x=0-0.03; especially x=0.01) ceramics. PMID:21994154

Gui, Dong-Yun; Liu, Han-Xing; Hao, Hua; Sun, Yue; Cao, Ming-He; Yu, Zhi-Yong

2011-10-17

58

Growth and properties of Li, Ta modified (K,Na)NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric single crystals  

PubMed Central

Li, Ta modified (K,Na)NbO3 single crystals with the size of 18 mm × 18 mm × 10 mm were successfully grown by top-seeded solution growth method, with orthorhombic–tetragonal phase transition temperature ~79 °C and Curie temperature ~276 °C. The electromechanical coupling factors k33 and kt were found to be ~88% and ~65%, respectively. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 for the [001]c poled crystals reached 255 pC/N. In addition, the electromechanical coupling factor exhibited high stability over the temperature range of ?50 °C to 70 °C, making these lead free crystals good candidates for electromechanical applications. PMID:25404953

Huo, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Limei; Zhang, Shujun; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Gang; Wang, Rui; Yang, Bin; Cao, Wenwu; Shrout, Thomas R.

2014-01-01

59

Fracture mechanics for piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We Study cracks either in piezoelectrics, or on interfaces between piezoelectrics and other materials such as metal electrodes or polymer matrices. The projected applications include ferroelectric actuators operating statically or cyclically, over the major portion of the samples, in the linear regime of the constitutive curve, but the elevated field around defects causes the materials to undergo hysteresis locally. The fracture mechanics viewpoint is adopted—that is, except for a region localized at the crack tip, the materials are taken to be linearly piezoelectric. The problem thus breaks into two subproblems: (i) determining the macroscopic field regarding the crack tip as a physically structureless point, and (ii) considering the hysteresis and other irreversible processes near the crack tip at a relevant microscopic level. The first Subproblem, which prompts a phenomenological fracture theory, receives a thorough investigation in this paper. Griffith's energy accounting is extended to include energy change due to both deformation and polarization. Four modes of square root singularities are identified at the tip of a crack in a homogeneous piezoelectric. A new type of singularity is discovered around interface crack tips. Specifically, the singularities in general form two pairs: r {1}/{2}±i? and r {1}/{2}±i? , where ?. and k are real numbers depending on the constitutive constants. Also solved is a class of boundary value problems involving many cracks on the interface between half-spaces. Fracture mechanics are established for ferroelectric ceramics under smallscale hysteresis conditions, which facilitates the experimental study of fracture resistance and fatigue crack growth under combined mechanical and electrical loading. Both poled and unpoled fcrroelectrie ceramics are discussed.

Suo, Z.; Kuo, C.-M.; Barnett, D. M.; Willis, J. R.

1992-05-01

60

Structure and temperature dependent electrical properties of lead-free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3- SrZrO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free SrZrO3-modified Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT-SZ) ceramics were fabricated by a conventional solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a pure perovskite phase without any traces of secondary phases. Scanning electron microscopy images depicts dense grain morphology. The temperature dependences of the dielectric behavior was measured in the temperature range of 50-500 °C at 100 kHz. With the increase in SZ content, the dielectric constant (?r) constantly decreased and the maximum dielectric constant temperature (Tm) shifted towards lower temperatures. In addition to this, ferroelectric hysteresis loops indicated a disruption of ferroelectric order and increase in the relaxor character of BNT ceramics with increase in SZ concentration. A maximum values of remnant polarization (32 ?C/cm2) and piezoelectric constant (100 pC/N) were observed at SZ5 and SZ4, respectively.

Maqbool, Adnan; Rahman, Jamil ur; Hussain, Ali; Park, Jong Kyu; Gone Park, Tae; Song, Jae Sung; Kim, Myong Ho

2014-06-01

61

Characteristics of Acoustic Emission Sensor Using Lead-Free (LiNaK)(NaTaSb)O3 Ceramics for Fluid Leak Detection at Power Plant Valves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, acoustic emission (AE) sensor was fabricated using lead-free (LiNaK)-(NbTaSb)O3 ceramics for preventing environmental pollution. The structure of the AE sensor was designed as a Langevin-type one with air backing. The electromechanical coupling factor kp and piezoelectric constants d33 and g33 of lead-free (LiNaK)-(NbTaSb)O3 ceramics were 0.49, 300 pC/N, 27.02 mV·m/N, respectively. The peak sensitivity and frequency of the AE sensor using this ceramic material were 66.3 dB and 29.4 kHz, respectively. The results for fluid leak detection at a power plant valve were as follows; the peak frequency of response was 25 kHz at 2 and 6 kgf/cm2 N2 gas pressures, and increased up to 50 kHz at a 10 kgf/cm2 N2 gas pressure. The magnitude of the response voltage was about 40 mV at all the pressures.

Hong, Jaeil; Yoo, Juhyun; Lee, Kabsoo; Lee, Sangguk; Song, Hyunseon

2008-04-01

62

Stable resonance characteristics in CuO-modified lead-free 0.94(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-0.06LiNbO3 ceramics sintered at optimal temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with the nominal composition of [(K0.5Na0.5)0.94Li0.06]NbO3+xmol%CuO [KNLN+ xmol%CuO] had been synthesized by conventional solid-state sintering. Effects of the addition of CuO on the phase structure, micro-morphology evolution and electric properties of the ceramics were investigated. The ceramics synthesized at 1000-1060 degC showed a phase transition from orthorhombic to tetragonal symmetry, which is analogous to the morphtropic phase

Dandan Wan; Ying Yang; Qian Li; Kongjun Zhu

2008-01-01

63

Piezoelectric Vibrational Energy Harvester Using Lead-Free Ferroelectric BiFeO3 Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed that BiFeO3 films are suitable for piezoelectric vibrational energy harvester (VEH) applications, because BiFeO3 has high spontaneous polarization and low dielectric permittivity. We demonstrated that energy can be harvested by a micromachined VEH using a BiFeO3 film deposited using a sol-gel process. A VEH with a resonant frequency of ˜98 Hz produced an output voltage of 1.5 V·G-1 and electrical power of 2.8 µW·mm-3·G-2 (G=9.8 m/s2) at a load resistance of 1 M?. Using the analytical model for VEH, the generalized electromechanical coupling factor was estimated to be 0.41%. These results were comparable to those of the best-performing VEHs using other piezoelectric films.

Yoshimura, Takeshi; Murakami, Shuichi; Wakazono, Keisuke; Kariya, Kento; Fujimura, Norifumi

2013-05-01

64

Strain engineering effects on electrical properties of lead-free piezoelectric thin films on Si wafers.  

PubMed

Using radio frequency - magnetron sputtering, calcium-doped barium zirconate titanate ((Ba(0.85)Ca(0.15))(Zr(0.1)Ti(0.9))O(3), BCZT) thin films were deposited on Si wafers with different bottom electrodes. The obtained BCZT thin film on a lanthanum nickel oxide (LNO) electrode had a highly c-axis preferred orientation, while the BCZT thin film on a Pt bottom electrode had (111) preferred orientation. Furthermore, the out-of-plane lattice constant of the BCZT on LNO/Si was 3.4% larger than that of the reported bulk material because of the compressive thermal stress from LNO with a large thermal expansion coefficient. This compressive thermal stress engenders an increase of the Curie temperature. The local piezoelectric response of the BCZT thin film on a LNO/Si structure was measured by piezoresponse force microscope. PMID:25286200

Ohno, Tomoya; Kamai, Yuto; Oda, Yuutaro; Sakamoto, Naonori; Matsuda, Takeshi; Wakiya, Naoki; Suzuki, Hisao

2014-01-01

65

Templated Grain Growth of Textured Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallographic texturing of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics offers a means of achieving significant enhancements in the piezoelectric response. Templated grain growth (TGG) en- ables the fabrication of textured ceramics with single crystal-like properties, as well as single crystals. In TGG, nucleation and growth of the desired crystal on aligned single crystal template particles results in an increased fraction of oriented material

G. L. Messing; S. Trolier-McKinstry; E. M. Sabolsky; C. Duran; S. Kwon; B. Brahmaroutu; H. Yilmaz; P. W. Rehrig; K. B. Eitel; E. Suvaci; M. Seabaugh; K. S. Oh

2004-01-01

66

A study on (K, Na) NbO3 based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics micro speaker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flat panel micro speaker was fabricated from (K, Na) NbO3 (KNN)-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics by a tape casting and cofiring process using Ag-Pd alloys as an inner electrode. The interface between ceramic and electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The acoustic response was characterized by a standard audio test system. We found that the micro speaker with dimensions of 23 × 27 × 0.6 mm3, using three layers of 30 ?m thickness KNN-based ceramic, has a high average sound pressure level (SPL) of 87 dB, between 100 Hz-20 kHz under five voltage. This result was even better than that of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ceramics under the same conditions. The experimental results show that the KNN-based multilayer ceramics could be used as lead free piezoelectric micro speakers.

Gao, Renlong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Huan, Yu; Sun, Yiming; Liu, Jiayi; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

2014-10-01

67

Models and Characterization of Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected literature on the use of linearized constitutive equations and complex piezoelectric coefficients to develop models and characterize materials is presented in brief. One-dimensional models of simple piezoelectric ceramic components are derived using linearized constitutive equations and other fundamental relations to illustrate the procedure used to develop multi-dimensional models. Then, the procedure for building models of multi-layer devices using models of components is illustrated. Models are also used to characterize materials. A method to determine the errors when the ANSI/IEEE Standard method is used to determine real piezoelectric coefficients and methods to characterize non-Standard shapes often used in devices are also presented

Ebenezer, D. D.

2008-07-01

68

Multilayer Piezoelectric Ceramic Vibrator with Internal Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilayer piezoelectric vibrators made from high mechanical quality factor (Q m) PbZrTiO3 ceramic material with internal electrodes have been investigated for application to ultrasonic devices. The existence of internal electrodes activates the ceramic sintering reaction and as a result, cofiring of the the multilayer vibrator at a lower temperature becomes possible. Multilayer vibrators with 2-9 layers of internal electrodes were

Yoshiaki Fuda; Hiroshi Ono; Futoshi Shiotani; Katsunori Kumasaka

1995-01-01

69

The characterisation of lead-free thick-film resistors on different low temperature Co-fired ceramics substrates  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Lead free thick film resistors based on ruthenium oxide were developed. ? The compatibility of resistors with different LTCC substrates was evaluated. ? The interactions between resistors and glassy LTCC substrates were not detected. ? Electrical characteristics were comparable with commercial thick film resistors. -- Abstract: Lead-free thick-film resistors were synthesised and investigated. The thick-film resistor materials with nominal sheet resistivities from 50 ohm/sq. to 50 kohm/sq. were prepared using combinations of two lead-free glasses with reflow temperatures at 940 °C and 1240 °C, respectively, and two RuO{sub 2} powders (fine-grained and coarse-grained RuO{sub 2}). The thick-film resistors were printed and fired on alumina and on low temperature co-fired ceramics substrates and fired at 850 °C and 950 °C. The fired resistors were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, by scanning electron microscopy and by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The sheet resistivities, temperature coefficients of resistivity, gauge factors and noise indices were measured.

Hrovat, Marko, E-mail: marko.hrovat@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia) [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); CoE NAMASTE, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kielbasinski, Konrad [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland) [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Makarovi?, Kostja [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia) [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); CoE NAMASTE, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Belavi?, Darko [HIPOT-RR d.o.o., Šentpeter 18, SI-8222 Oto?ec (Slovenia) [HIPOT-RR d.o.o., Šentpeter 18, SI-8222 Oto?ec (Slovenia); CoE NAMASTE, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jakubowska, Malgorzata [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland) [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Mechatronics, Warsaw University of Technology, ?w. Andrzeja Boboli 8, 02-525 Warsaw (Poland)

2012-12-15

70

Mechanical confinement for improved energy storage density in BNT-BT-KNN lead-free ceramic capacitors  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of modern power electronics, embedded circuits and non-conventional energy harvesting, the need for high performance capacitors is bound to become indispensible. The current state-of-art employs ferroelectric ceramics and linear dielectrics for solid state capacitance. However, lead-free ferroelectric ceramics propose to offer significant improvement in the field of electrical energy storage owing to their high discharge efficiency and energy storage density. In this regards, the authors have investigated the effects of compressive stress as a means of improving the energy storage density of lead-free ferroelectric ceramics. The energy storage density of 0.91(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.07BaTiO{sub 3}-0.02(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ferroelectric bulk ceramic was analyzed as a function of varying levels of compressive stress and operational temperature .It was observed that a peak energy density of 387 mJ.cm{sup -3} was obtained at 100 MPa applied stress (25{sup o}C). While a maximum energy density of 568 mJ.cm{sup -3} was obtained for the same stress at 80{sup o}C. These values are indicative of a significant, 25% and 84%, improvement in the value of stored energy compared to an unloaded material. Additionally, material's discharge efficiency has also been discussed as a function of operational parameters. The observed phenomenon has been explained on the basis of field induced structural transition and competitive domain switching theory.

Chauhan, Aditya; Patel, Satyanarayan; Vaish, Rahul, E-mail: rahul@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, 175 001 (India)

2014-08-15

71

Multilayer Piezoelectric Ceramic Actuator with Interdigital Internal Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multilayer piezoelectric ceramic actuator with interdigital internal electrodes has been developed. The internal electrodes of this actuator are line electrodes which are printed on piezoelectric ceramic green sheets and stacked such that alternating electrode lines are displaced by one-half pitch. This actuator is displaced at right angles to the stacking direction due to the piezoelectric longitudinal effect. Therefore, it

Junichi Ohashi; Yoshiaki Fuda; Tomeji Ohno

1993-01-01

72

Wide phase boundary zone, piezoelectric properties, and stability in 0.97(K0.4Na0.6)(Nb1-xSbx)O3-0.03Bi0.5Li0.5ZrO3 lead-free ceramics.  

PubMed

In this work, the rhombohedral (R) and tetragonal (T) phase boundary of the 0.97(K0.4Na0.6)(Nb1-xSbx)O3-0.03Bi0.5Li0.5ZrO3 piezoceramics has been attained in a wide composition range of 0.035 ? x ? 0.08, and the Sb(5+) could simultaneously shrink its TR-O and TO-T. A giant d33 of 380-405 pC N(-1) and a TC of 200-292 °C have been observed in the ceramics with the coexistence of both R and T phases. In addition, the ceramics with 0.035 ? x ? 0.08 also show a good thermal stability of the d33, and an enhanced temperature stability of ferroelectricity could be observed in the ceramic with x = 0.035. As a result, adding the optimum antimony content is an efficient way to promote the electrical properties of potassium-sodium niobate ceramics with the R-T phase boundary. PMID:24848676

Zheng, Ting; Wu, Jiagang; Cheng, Xiaojing; Wang, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Binyu; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Lou, Xiaojie

2014-07-01

73

Kinetic ceramics piezoelectric hydraulic pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the development and testing of two Piezoelectrically driven Hydraulic Pumps (PHP2 & PHP3) utilizing low cost discrete multilayer piezoelectric actuators and low cost structural components. New valve technologies were developed utilizing reed and MEMS valves. Structural optimization was performed to decrease weight and volume. The PHP3 design extracts power from a PZT material with high efficiency despite impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric actuator and fluid by utilizing a hydraulic pendulum energy recovery technique. Hydraulic power of 168 watts can be developed with a pump mass of under 1lb. Flow rate of 2300 cc/min free flow has been demonstrated as well as output pressure greater than 200 bar in the stalled condition. The result of the effort is practical solid state conversion of electrical energy into a useable hydraulic source for actuation systems without having normal rotational wear components. The PHP2 pump was used to power the hydraulic primary flight controls in a RPV technology demonstrator flight tested in November 2006.

O'Neill, Conal; Burchfield, John

2007-04-01

74

Doping effects of Li-Sb content on the structure and electrical properties of [(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}(Li){sub x}(Sb){sub x}(Nb){sub 1} {sub -x}O{sub 3}] lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}]{sub 1-x}(Li){sub x}(Sb){sub x}(Nb){sub 1-x}O{sub 3} were prepared by solid-state reaction method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRD analysis of the powder suggests the formation of a single-phase material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure changes from orthorhombic to tetragonal with increase in x. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dielectric studies show a diffuse phase transition at 100 Degree-Sign C and 330 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition x = 0.050 shows maximum remanent polarization (Pr {approx} 0.66 C m{sup -2}). -- Abstract: Ceramic samples of [Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}]{sub 1-x}(Li){sub x}(Sb){sub x}(Nb){sub 1-x}O{sub 3} (NKNLS) (x = 0.04-0.06) were prepared by high temperature solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis of the powder samples suggests the formation of a single-phase material with transformation from orthorhombic to tetragonal crystal structure with increase in Sb content. Dielectric studies show a diffuse phase transition about 100 Degree-Sign C and another phase ferroelectric-paraelectric transition at 330 Degree-Sign C. Polarization vs. electric field (P-E) hysteresis studies show maximum remanent polarization (Pr {approx} 0.66 C m{sup -2}) for composition x = 0.05. AC conductivity in the compound increases with increase in temperature which may be attributed due to oxygen vacancies and show negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) effect.

Rani, Rashmi; Sharma, Seema [Ferroelectric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.N. College, Patna 800 013 (India)] [Ferroelectric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.N. College, Patna 800 013 (India); Rai, Radheshyam, E-mail: radheshyamrai@ua.pt [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)] [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)] [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

2012-02-15

75

A new Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} based lead-free piezoelectric system with calculated end-member Bi(Zn{sub 0.5}Hf{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

The phase structure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of a new lead-free piezoelectric system (1???x)Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–xBi(Zn{sub 0.5}Hf{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} [(1???x)BNT–xBZH, x?=?0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.04] were investigated. The structure of Bi(Zn{sub 0.5}Hf{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} was calculated using first-principles method and (1???x)BNT–xBZH ceramics were fabricated by conventional solid-state process. At room temperature, a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) from rhombohedral to pseudocubic is identified near x?=?0.02 by the analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns. The ceramics with MPB near room temperature exhibit excellent electrical properties: the Curie temperature, maximum polarization, remnant polarization, and coercive field are 340?°C, 56.3??C/cm{sup 2}, 43.5??C/cm{sup 2}, and 5.4?kV/mm, respectively, while the maximum positive bipolar strain and piezoelectric coefficient are 0.09% and 92 pC/N, respectively. In addition, a linear relationship between the MPB phase boundary composition and the calculated tetragonality of non-BNT end-member was demonstrated. Thus, this study not only shows a new BNT-based lead-free piezoelectric system but also suggest a new way to predict the composition at MPB a priori when designing new lead-free piezoelectric system.

Liu, Feng [The Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wahyudi, Olivia; Li, Yongxiang, E-mail: yxli@mail.sic.ac.cn [The Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2014-03-21

76

Development of a Templated Grain Growth System for Texturing Piezoelectric Ceramics  

E-print Network

be obtained from crystallographically textured piezoelectric ceramics. Single crystal piezoelectrics demonstrate high strain because crystal orientation can be controlled ­ the perfect lattice simplifies crystal orientation. Single crystals actuate better than typical ceramics, but are expensive. Highly textured ceramics

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

77

Piezoelectric properties of high Curie temperature barium titanate-bismuth perovskite-type oxide system ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT)—bismuth magnesium titanium oxide [Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3, BMT] system ceramics were prepared in an ambient atmosphere in order to increase the Curie temperature (Tc) of BT above 132 °C. A single perovskite phase was observed for BT-BMT ceramics with BMT compositions less than 50 mol %, and their relative densities were greater than 94%. Synchrotron measured x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that all the cations in the ceramics were homogeneously distributed. The temperature dependence of the dielectric properties revealed that the BT-BMT system ceramics exhibited relaxorlike characteristics with a dielectric maximum temperature as high as 360 °C for the 0.5BT-0.5BMT ceramic. The apparent piezoelectric constant (d?) was 60 pC/N for the 0.4BT-0.6BMT ceramic. Based upon these results, the BT-BMT system shows potential as a new type of lead-free material for high Tc piezoelectric applications.

Wada, Satoshi; Yamato, Keisuke; Pulpan, Petr; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Lee, Bong-Yeon; Iijima, Takashi; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

2010-11-01

78

Low electric-field driven ultrahigh electrostrains in Sb-substituted (Na,K)NbO3 lead-free ferroelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free (Na0.52K0.48)(Nb1-ySby)O3 (NKNSy) ferroelectric ceramics were reported to exhibit an ultrahigh electrostrain (dynamic d33* (=S/E) of 800-1100 pm/V) in a relatively low driving electric field range (1-4 kV/mm). As evidenced by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and dielectric measurements, the mechanism of generating large strains was ascribed to both the low-field induced reversible rhombohedral-monoclinic phase transition (1-2 kV/mm) and the enhanced domain switching (2-4 kV/mm) owing to the normal to relaxor phase transformation, which contribute to ˜62% and ˜38% of the total strain, respectively. The results indicate that the NKNSy compositions would have excellent potentials for applications of lead-free actuator ceramics.

Fu, Jian; Zuo, Ruzhong; Qi, He; Zhang, Chen; Li, Jingfeng; Li, Longtu

2014-12-01

79

High-Temperature Piezoelectric Ceramic Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active combustion control of spatial and temporal variations in the local fuel-to-air ratio is of considerable interest for suppressing combustion instabilities in lean gas turbine combustors and, thereby, achieving lower NOx levels. The actuator for fuel modulation in gas turbine combustors must meet several requirements: (1) bandwidth capability of 1000 Hz, (2) operating temperature compatible with the fuel temperature, which is in the vicinity of 400 F, (3) stroke of approximately 4 mils (100 m), and (4) force of 300 lb-force. Piezoelectric actuators offer the fastest response time (microsecond time constants) and can generate forces in excess of 2000 lb-force. The state-of-the-art piezoceramic material in industry today is Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, called PZT. This class of piezoelectric ceramic is currently used in diesel fuel injectors and in the development of high-response fuel modulation valves. PZT materials are generally limited to operating temperatures of 250 F, which is 150 F lower than the desired operating temperature for gas turbine combustor fuel-modulation injection valves. Thus, there is a clear need to increase the operating temperature range of piezoceramic devices for active combustion control in gas turbine engines.

Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.; Dynys, Frederick W.

2005-01-01

80

Response of intergrown microstructure to an electric field and its consequences in the lead-free piezoelectric bismuth sodium titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the R3c average structure and micro-structure of the ceramic Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) in situ under applied electric fields using diffraction techniques. Electron diffraction implies the presence of significant octahedral tilt twin disorder, corresponding to the existence of a fine scale intergrown microstructural (IGMS) 'phase' within the R3c rhombohedral average structure matrix. A careful neutron refinement suggests not only that the off-centre displacements of the cations relative to the oxygens in the R3c regions increases systematically on application of an electric field but also that the phase fraction of the IGMS regions increases systematically. The latter change in phase fraction on application of the electric field enhances the polar displacement of the cations relative to the oxygen anions and affects the overall strain response. These IGMS regions form local polar nano regions that are not correlated with one another, resulting in polarisation relaxation and strain behaviour observed in BNT-containing materials.

Liu, Yun; Norén, Lasse; Studer, Andrew J.; Withers, Ray L.; Guo, Yiping; Li, Yongxiang; Yang, Hui; Wang, Jian

2012-03-01

81

Response of intergrown microstructure to an electric field and its consequences in the lead-free piezoelectric bismuth sodium titanate  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the R3c average structure and micro-structure of the ceramic Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BNT) in situ under applied electric fields using diffraction techniques. Electron diffraction implies the presence of significant octahedral tilt twin disorder, corresponding to the existence of a fine scale intergrown microstructural (IGMS) 'phase' within the R3c rhombohedral average structure matrix. A careful neutron refinement suggests not only that the off-centre displacements of the cations relative to the oxygens in the R3c regions increases systematically on application of an electric field but also that the phase fraction of the IGMS regions increases systematically. The latter change in phase fraction on application of the electric field enhances the polar displacement of the cations relative to the oxygen anions and affects the overall strain response. These IGMS regions form local polar nano regions that are not correlated with one another, resulting in polarisation relaxation and strain behaviour observed in BNT-containing materials. - Graphical abstract: The intergrown microstructure at very fine scales within the R3c rhombohedral phase matrix of BNT, originating from octahedral tilt twinning disorder, will increase with respect to an external field. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of an intergrown microstructural 'phase' within the average structure matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This phase fraction of the intergrown microstructural regions changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such regions form local polar nano regions that are not correlated with one another.

Liu Yun, E-mail: yliu@rsc.anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Noren, Lasse [Research School of Chemistry, the Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Studer, Andrew J. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232 (Australia); Withers, Ray L.; Guo Yiping [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Li Yongxiang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Yang Hui [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); College of Life Science and Technology, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xian 710021 (China); Wang Jian [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2012-03-15

82

The structure and optical properties of lead-free transparent KNLTN-La0.01 ceramics prepared by conventional sintering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Na0.52K0.44Li0.04)0.97La0.01Ta0.20Nb0.80O3 (KNLTN-La0.01) lead-free subtransparent ceramics was prepared by a conventional sintering technique. The structure and the optical properties of the ceramics were investigated. The room temperature crystallographic indexing revealed the ABO3 perovskite type, tetragonal phase and P4mm point group in the ceramics. The surface and fractured surface SEM micrographs showed a dense microstructure with few micropores in KNLTN-La0.01 ceramics, which was obviously better than for the pure KNLTN ceramics. The refractive indexes of the films were investigated by an ellipsometer and the results show that the KNLTN-La0.01 subtransparent ceramics reveals significant wavelength dependent dispersion. The refractive index ranges from 2.14 to 2.06 with the wavelength increase from 380 nm to 900 nm. The dispersive behavior was analyzed by three parameters of Cauchy dispersion model and the values of the parameters A, B and C are 2.0610±0.0005, 0.0054±0.0003 and 0.00069±0.00004, respectively.

Yang, W. L.; Xiu, H. J.; Xiong, Y. L.; Wang, J.; Yuan, C. X.; Wei, J.; Zhou, Z. X.

2014-12-01

83

Development of optical phase shifter based on piezoelectric ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase shifter is necessary in the optical phase-shifting measurement. At present the phase shifter commonly used is approximately divided into the penetrance-type and the reflection-type. In this paper, a reflection-type phase shifter made of piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble is developed. The assemble are constituted of the flat piezoelectric ceramic with parallel connection circuit and inline structure. The communication between the computer and MCU is by RS232. The D/A converter controlled by the MCU outputs 0~10V voltage. Then the voltage is amplified to 0~400V DC voltage by the designed linear DC amplifier. When this voltage loads on the piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble, the assemble will axially extend 0~5mm. In this paper, the connecting types for the mechanical construction and circuit of the piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble, the driving power and the DC amplifier with high linearity are all introduced. The whole system developed is standardized by using phase-interfering Michelson. The standardization and the practical application indicates that this system has excellent linearity and precision repeatability.

Yu, Fusheng; Shen, Xiaoqin; Yao, Chunjuan; Leng, Changlin

2005-02-01

84

Enhanced piezoelectric and mechanical properties of AlN-modified BaTiO3 composite ceramics.  

PubMed

BaTiO3-xAlN (BT-xAlN) composite ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state reaction sintering. The effects of the AlN content on the crystalline structures, densities, and electrical and mechanical properties of the BT ceramics were investigated. The BT-1.5%AlN ceramic exhibits a good piezoelectric constant of 305 pC N(-1) and an improved Vickers hardness of 5.9 GPa. The enhanced piezoelectricity originates from interactions between defect dipoles and spontaneous polarization inside the domains due to the occurrence of local symmetry, caused by the preferential distribution of the Al(3+)-N(3-) pairs vertical to the c axis. The hardening of the material is attributed to the improved density, and particle and grain boundary strengthening. Our work indicates that if a suitable doping ion pair is designed, lead-free ceramic systems prepared from ordinary raw materials by a conventional sintering method have a high probability of exhibiting good piezoelectric and mechanical properties simultaneously. PMID:24852079

Xu, Dan; Wang, Lidong; Li, Weili; Wang, Wei; Hou, Yafei; Cao, Wenping; Feng, Yu; Fei, Weidong

2014-07-14

85

Electrical modeling of Piezoelectric ceramics for analysis and evaluation of sensory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectricity is an ability of some materials to generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress. Piezoelectric ceramics are often used for sensory systems to monitor mechanical characteristics of structures through an electrical signal. Thus, to support system level analysis and evaluation of sensory systems, understanding and estimating the electrical behavior of piezoelectric ceramics with a minimum effort

Jina Kim; Benjamin L. Grisso; Jeong K. Kim; Dong Sam Ha; Daniel J. Inman

2008-01-01

86

Relaxorlike dielectric dynamics in the lead-free K0.5Na0.5NbO3-SrZrO3 ceramic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have detected a typical relaxor/glasslike dielectric response in the derived lead-free (1-x)K0.5Na0.5NbO3-(x)SrZrO3 ceramic system. In the compositional range 0.10?x?0.33, where solid solubility was observed, the system exhibits a broad dispersive dielectric maximum, a Vogel-Fulcher temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation frequency, and a paraelectric-to-glass crossover in the temperature dependence of the dielectric nonlinearity. As the relatively high values of the dielectric constant, exceeding 5000 in the x =0.15 compound, are only weakly dependent on the frequency in the range of 20 Hz-1 MHz, and, furthermore, the history-dependent effects play only a minor role in comparison to some widely used lead-based relaxors, this environmentally friendly system seems to be very promising for a variety of applications.

Bobnar, Vid; Holc, Janez; Hrovat, Marko; Kosec, Marija

2007-04-01

87

High-Sensitivity Accelerometer Using Multilayer Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high sensitivity accelerometer using multilayer piezoelectric ceramics including internal electrodes has been developed. The sensitivity of this accelerometer is about 900 pC\\/G at the frequency range from 0.01 to 10 Hz. Because the circuit was structed to cancel pyroelectric voltages, the output voltage changes of this accelerometer were decreased to 1\\/10 compared with the case of a noncanceling circuit.

Yasunori Ohtsuki; Yoshiaki Fuda; Tetsuo Yoshida

1993-01-01

88

Determination of crystallographic orientation of lead-free piezoelectric (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Crystallographic structure of sol-gel-processed lead-free (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN) epitaxial films on [100]-cut SrTiO{sub 3} single-crystalline substrates was investigated for a deeper understanding of its piezoelectric response. Lattice parameter measurement by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the orthorhombic KNN films on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces are [010] oriented (b-axis-oriented) rather than commonly identified c-axis orientation. Based on the crystallographic orientation and corresponding ferroelectric domain structure investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy, the superior piezoelectric property along b-axis of epitaxial KNN films than other orientations can be explained.

Yu, Qi; Zhu, Fang-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Qian; Wang, Ke; Li, Jing-Feng, E-mail: jingfeng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China)] [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China)

2014-03-10

89

Piezoelectric ceramic assembly tubes for torsional actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efforts described here are intended to provide a basis for the utilization of novel piezoelectric actuators in smart materials and structures. The actuator design developed in this study is a segmented, piezoelectric tube, with the individual segments driven in a d15 shear mode. The PZT-5A tubes were cut longitudinally in to an even number of equal slender segments. These slender segments were poled individually along their length using a continuous poling technique developed at NRL. The polarization of the poled segments alternates in direction between adjacent segments. The segments were reassembled with a conductive epoxy so that it serves as both joint and electrode. The assembled actuator tubes were evaluated by applying electric field normal to the polarization direction of the segments, demonstrating proof of concept. These solid state prototype devices were driven to precise angular displacement and torque output. Reliability test, including both fatigue and mechanical loading of the device, were conducted. In conjunction with this effort, numerical computation analyses were performed with respect to structural integrity versus segment joint thickness, and the relative effect of cylindrical versus polygonal configurations. These studies facilitated the successful production of prototypes. Projected actuator outputs based on electromechanical test results are also discussed in terms of requirements for noise and vibration control of helicopter rotor blades.

Kim, Chulho; Glazounov, Alexandre E.; Flippen, Luther D.; Pattnaik, Amitav; Zhang, Qi Ming; Lewis, David, III

1999-07-01

90

Relaxor nature in lead-free Sr{sub 5}LaTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} tetragonal tungsten bronze ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Lead-free tetragonal tungsten bronze Sr{sub 5}LaTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} ceramics were prepared and the correlation of the relaxor nature and crystal structure was studied using dielectric spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Three dielectric relaxations were observed below the deviation temperature T{sub D}? 330 K. Relaxation I and II followed the Vogel-Fulcher law with the freezing temperatures of 189 K and ?90 K. Low temperature relaxation III, which was first observed in filled tungsten bronze, followed well the Arrhenius law. Dielectric response becomes static below 50 K. Polarization-field (P-E) hysteresis loops were evaluated from 183 K to 298 K. P{sub r} value of 0.41?C/cm{sup 2} was observed at 183 K. Deviation of lattice parameter c from the linear contraction and increasing of tetragonality (c/a ratio) were observed below T{sub D}, reflecting the structure change during the formation of polar nanoregions and the following freezing process. Opposite tendency was observed below 100 K for all the lattice parameters, corresponding to relaxation III. Generally, the main dielectric relaxation I and II were attributed to flipping and breathing of polar nanoregions along c axis, while the concerted rotations of the oxygen octahedra in the ab plane were suggested as the origin of relaxation III.

Li Zhu, Xiao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Li, Kun; Qiang Liu, Xiao; Ming Chen, Xiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Asif Rafiq, Muhammad [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)] [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

2013-09-28

91

Local and global energy release rates for an electrically yielded crack in a piezoelectric ceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural reliability concerns of various electromechanical devices call for a better understanding of the mechanisms of fracture in piezoelectric ceramics subjected to combined mechanical and electrical loading. For these materials, due to unexplained discrepancies between theory and experiments, even the basic criterion of fracture remains a point of controversy. A viewpoint adopted in this paper is to model piezoelectric ceramics

Huajian Gao; Tong-Yi Zhang; Pin Tong

1997-01-01

92

An investigation of the development of novel piezoelectric actuator designs by fused deposition of ceramics (FDC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric ceramic materials are widely used in numerous applications for both sensing mechanical force and producing actuation under an applied electric field. In some applications such as manufacturing of optical instruments and semiconductor chips, a displacement of a few hundred microns with a precision positioning of 0.1 mum is required. Piezoelectric ceramics are well suited for such a positioning accuracy,

Farhad Mohammadi

2001-01-01

93

Fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic micro-actuator and its reliability for hard disk drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new U-type micro-actuator for precisely positioning a magnetic head in high-density hard disk drives was proposed and developed. The micro-actuator is composed of a U-type stainless steel substrate and two piezoelectric ceramic elements. Using a high-d31 piezoelectric coefficient PMN-PZT ceramic plate and adopting reactive ion etching process fabricate the piezoelectric elements. Reliability against temperature was investigated to ensure the

Yang Jing; Jianbin Luo; Wenyan Yang; Guoxian Ju

2004-01-01

94

First principles study of lead free piezoelectric AgNbO3 and (Ag1-xKx)NbO3 solid solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an ab-initio study of structural, electronic and ferroic properties of lead-free orthorhombic AgNbO3 in centrosymmetric Pbcm and recently proposed noncentrosymmetric Pmc21 space group symmetries. The calculated polarization of AgNbO3 in Pmc21 phase is ˜0.09 ?C/cm2, whereas it is 55.9 ?C/cm2 in the ideal cubic phase. The large polarization of AgNbO3 in the ideal cubic structure is attributed to off-centering of Ag as well as Nb ions at the A and B sites, respectively. In our calculations both phases (Pmc21 and Pbcm) of AgNbO3 show small relative energy difference (˜0.1 meV/f.u), thus suggesting the coexistence of centrosymmetric and non-centrosymmetric phases and thereby antiferroelectric and ferroelctric order in room temperature AgNbO3 polycrystals. We further study structural properties and spontaneous polarization in orthorhombic Pmc21 Ag1-xKxNbO3 solid solutions. The calculated spontaneous polarization of AgNbO3 is enhanced due to suppression of NbO6 octahedral tilt angles as K ion is substituted at Ag sites. Our study suggests that appropriate cation substitution should indeed result in the improvement of ferroelectric properties of lead-free AgNbO3.

Niranjan, Manish K.; Asthana, Saket

2012-09-01

95

Water-induced degradation in lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-induced degradation in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramics was studied by a comparison experiment. In one treatment, PZT rings were immersed in a 0.01 M NaOH solution for long periods of time; in the other treatment, PZT rings were placed in a 0.01 M NaOH solution and hydrogen was evolved onto their silver electrodes by the electrolysis of water. No degradation occurred to samples immersed in the NaOH solution; but for the samples that were also treated by electrolysis of water, serious degradation occurred as their mechanical quality factor decreased dramatically and their dielectric loss increased considerably. I-V measurement showed that the resistance decreased greatly in the degraded samples, which could be explained by the formation of charge carriers due to the reduction reaction of atomic hydrogen from the electrolysis of water. It was proposed that the reduction reaction of atomic hydrogen at ambient temperature is an important origin for the degradation of piezoelectric ceramic devices.

Chen, W. P.; Chan, H. L. W.; Yiu, F. C. H.; Ng, K. M. W.; Liu, P. C. K.

2002-05-01

96

Structural and dielectric properties of a new lead-free ferroelectric Ba0.8Ca0.2Ti0.8Ge0.2O3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the development of a lead free Ba0.8Ca0.2Ti0.8Ge0.2O3 (BCTG) ceramics elaborated by a conventional sintering process. The BCTG exhibits interesting ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The XRD analysis showed that 20 at.% of Ge doping can be fully incorporated into the perovskite lattice of Ba1-xCaxTiO3. Dielectric properties revealed that the BCTG ceramic undergone a second order phase transition type at around 120 °C independently of the used frequency and behaves as displacive ferroelectric. Ferroelectric investigation showed that P-E hysteresis loop could be obtained at low applied electrical field. The BCTG compound may be highly promising for applications as lead-free ferroelectric materials to reduce environmental damages.

Asbani, B.; Lahmar, A.; Amjoud, M.; Dellis, J.-L.; Gagou, Y.; Mezzane, D.; El Marssi, M.

2014-07-01

97

Development of novel piezoelectric ceramics and composites for sensors and actuators by solid freeform fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel piezoelectric ceramic, and ceramic\\/polymer composite structures were fabricated by solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for sensor and actuator applications. SFF techniques including: Fused Deposition of Ceramics (FDC) and Sanders Prototyping (SP) were utilized to fabricate a variety of complex structures directly from a computer aided design (CAD) file. Many novel and complex composite structures including volume fraction gradients (VFG), staggered

A. Safari; S. C. Danforth

1998-01-01

98

Three-dimension finite element analysis on coupling effect of piezoelectric ceramics in concrete slabs under the concentrated load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric ceramic has been one of structures extensively applied. Due to the complexity in its boundary condition and its stress state, the relevant researches on these carried out in traditional experimental ways have shown inefficiency and limitations. In view of this, the paper studies the piezoelectric ceramic's boundary condition and its stress state by setting up the three dimension finite models of piezoelectric ceramics in concrete slabs. The computer simulations are conducted. In the simulation, varied concentrated loads are applied and different buried depths of piezoelectric ceramics are considered. The block elements are adopted to simulate the concrete slabs, while the plane elements are used for the piezoelectric ceramics. Firstly, the stress distribution of the concrete slabs and that of the piezoelectric ceramics in slabs are derived from the computer nonlinear solver. Then piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric ceramics in the stress field are simulated. And the equivalent circuit parameters of the piezoelectric ceramics under the varied concentrated loads are obtained. The results of the analysis show that three dimension finite element analysis is a convenient and reliable tool for studies on the coupling effect of piezoelectric ceramics in concrete slabs. The study offers references for the further three dimension finite element analysis on concrete structure stress monitoring with the use of piezoelectric ceramics in concrete slabs.

Qu, Chen

2009-07-01

99

Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous potassium niobate (KNbO3, KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

Wada, S.; Mase, Y.; Shimizu, S.; Maeda, K.; Fujii, I.; Nakashima, K.; Pulpan, P.; Miyajima, N.

2011-10-01

100

Lead-free piezoelectric (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 thin films derived from chemical solution modified with stabilizing agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN)-based ferroelectric thin films were prepared by a chemical solution approach modified with both diethanolamine (DEA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the stabilizing agents. The obtained KNN thin films exhibited a remarkably low leakage current and well-saturated polarization hysteresis loop. The effective piezoelectric strain coefficient d33 and voltage coefficient g33 under the clamping of the substrate were improved to 74.0 pm/V and 28.3 mm V/N, respectively. The reason for the superior properties was found that the addition of EDTA and DEA was effective in suppressing the volatilization of K and Na at moderate temperature before the crystallization.

Goh, Phoi Chin; Yao, Kui; Chen, Zhong

2010-09-01

101

Origin of high piezoelectric response in A-site disordered morphotropic phase boundary composition of lead-free piezoelectric 0.93(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.07BaTiO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perovskite piezoelectric compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) are known to exhibit high piezoelectric response. In lead-based ABO3 compound with B-site disorder, the origin of this enhancement has been associated with the presence of an intermediate monoclinic/orthorhombic state that bridges the adjacent ferroelectric rhombohedral and tetragonal phases. However, the origin of high piezoelectric response in lead-free ABO3 compounds with A-site disorder has not been conclusively established. We describe a microscopic model derived from comparative analyses of high resolution transmission electron microscopy and neutron diffraction that explains the origin of high piezoelectric response in lead-free MPB compositions of 0.93(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.07BaTiO3. Direct observation of nanotwins with monoclinic symmetry confirmed the presence of an intermediate bridging phase that facilitates a pathway for polarization reorientation. Monoclinic distortions of an average rhombohedral phase are attributed to localized displacements of atoms along the non-polar directions.

Maurya, Deepam; Murayama, M.; Pramanick, A.; Reynolds, W. T.; An, Ke; Priya, Shashank

2013-03-01

102

Growth and characterization of lead-free piezoelectric BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-Ba0.7Ca0.3TiO3 thin films on Si substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-Ba0.7Ca0.3TiO3 (BCZT) thin films were grown on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-buffered Si (0 0 1) by off-axis RF magnetron sputtering at temperatures ranging from 550 to 810 °C. In this article, we present the detailed investigation on structure, leakage current behaviors and electromechanical properties of BCZT thin films. The crystallographic texture and grain size of the as-grown thin films are strongly dependent on the growth temperature, which consequently affects the leakage behaviors and local electromechanical properties. The crystallographic orientation becomes better and the grain size increases when increased the substrate temperature. The dominant leakage mechanism is found to be space-charge-limited conduction at low electric field, while a Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is confirmed in high electric field region for the films deposited at 710 °C and 810 °C. The increasing growth temperature also leads to remarkable improvement in the local electromechanical properties of the films. The BCZT film deposited at an optimal temperature of 810 °C exhibits a considerably high effective piezoelectric coefficient d33,f of 94 ± 4 pm/V, which is comparable to that of a typical lead zirconate titanate thin film.

Luo, B. C.; Wang, D. Y.; Duan, M. M.; Li, S.

2013-04-01

103

Overview of NASA Langley's Piezoelectric Ceramic Packaging Technology and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several actuator packaging concepts designed to enhance the performance of commercial electroactive ceramics. NASA LaRC focused on properly designed actuator and sensor packaging for the following reasons, increased durability, protect the working material from the environment, allow for proper mechanical and electrical contact, afford "ready to use" mechanisms that are scalable, and develop fabrication methodology applicable to any active material of the same physical class. It is more cost effective to enhance or tailor the performance of existing systems, through innovative packaging, than to develop, test and manufacture new materials. This approach led to the development of several solid state actuators that include THUNDER, the Macrofiber Composite or (MFC) and the Radial Field Diaphragm or (RFD). All these actuators are fabricated using standard materials and processes derived from earlier concepts. NASA s fabrication and packaging technology as yielded, piezoelectric actuators and sensors that are easy to implement, reliable, consistent in properties, and of lower cost to manufacture in quantity, than their predecessors (as evidenced by their continued commercial availability.) These piezoelectric actuators have helped foster new research and development in areas involving computational modeling, actuator specific refinements, and engineering system redesign which led to new applications for piezo-based devices that replace traditional systems currently in use.

Bryant, Robert G.

2007-01-01

104

Temperature Dependence of Piezoelectric, Dielectric, and Elastic Properties of Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The piezoelectric resonance and the ferroelectric hysteresis loopin 8\\/65\\/35 lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics were measuredsimultaneously at temperatures ranging from 20 to 140°C. The complexelastic compliance and the complex piezoelectric and dielectric constantswere extracted from the piezoelectric resonance data, while thetemperature-dependent remanent polarization and coercive field were obtainedfrom the ferroelectric hysteresis loops. From the temperature behavior of theabove quantities,

Vid Bobnar; Zdravko Levstik; andAdrijan Levstik

1998-01-01

105

Problem of Piezoelectric Sensitivity of 1–3Type Composites Based on Ferroelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new anisotropic 1–3-type composite with high piezoelectric sensitivity is put forward, and trends in increasing the effective parameters characterising piezoelectric sensitivity are analysed. Effective piezoelectric coefficients and , squared figure of merit and related hydrostatic parameters , and are studied within the framework of the proposed model of the ferroelectric ceramic\\/porous polymer composite with 1–3–0 connectivity. Effects of porosity,

Vitaly Yu. Topolov; Anatoly E. Panich

2009-01-01

106

On saturation-strip model of a permeable crack in a piezoelectric ceramic  

E-print Network

and Sun [12] show that there is a decrease in the critical stress of a cracked piezoelectric body. This contribution elucidates how an applied electric field affects crack growth in piezoelectric ceramic through its if the electric field is applied along the direction of poling axis, and there is an increase in critical stress

Li, Shaofan

107

Long ranged structural modulation in the pre-morphotropic phase boundary cubic-like state of the lead-free piezoelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

The nature of the pre-morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) cubic-like state in the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1?x)Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-(x)BaTiO{sub 3} at x???0.06 has been examined in detail by electric field and temperature dependent neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, dielectric and ferroelectric characterization. The superlattice reflections in the neutron diffraction patterns cannot be explained with the tetragonal P4bm and the rhombohedral (R3c) phase coexistence model. The cubic like state is rather a result of long ranged modulated complex octahedral tilt. This modulated structure exhibits anomalously large dielectric dispersion. The modulated structure transforms to a MPB state on poling. The field-stabilized MPB state is destroyed and the modulated structure is restored on heating the poled specimen above the Vogel-Fulcher freezing temperature. The results show the predominant role of competing octahedral tilts in determining the nature of structural and polar states in Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-based ferroelectrics.

Garg, Rohini; Narayana Rao, Badari; Ranjan, Rajeev, E-mail: rajeev@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Senyshyn, Anatoliy [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergestrasse 1, D-85747 Garching b. München (Germany)

2013-12-21

108

Phase transitional behavior and piezoelectric properties of (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-LiNbO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1-x)(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-xLiNbO3 {[Lix(Na0.5K0.5)1-x]NbO3} (x=0.04-0.20) have been synthesized by an ordinary sintering technique. The materials with perovskite structure is orthorhombic phase at x ?0.05 and becomes tetragonal phase at x ?0.07, a phase K3Li2Nb5O15 with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure begins to appear at x =0.08 and becomes dominant with increasing the content of LiNbO3. A morphotropic phase boundary between orthorhombic and tetragonal phases is found in the composition range 0.05piezoelectric and electromechanical properties are enhanced for compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary. Piezoelectric constant d33 values reach 200-235pC/N. Electromechanical coefficients of the planar mode and the thickness mode reach 38%-44% and 44%-48%, respectively. The Curie temperatures (TC) of [Lix(Na0.5K0.5)1-x]NbO3 (x=0.04-0.20) are in the range of 452-510°C, at least 100°C higher than that of conventional Pb(Zr ,Ti)O3. Our results show that [Lix(Na0.5K0.5)1-x]NbO3 is a good lead-free high-temperature piezoelectric ceramic.

Guo, Yiping; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Ohsato, Hitoshi

2004-11-01

109

Water-Induced Degradation in Lead Zinc Niobate Lead Zirconate Titanate Soft Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-induced degradation of lead zinc niobate-lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(ZrTi)O3) soft piezoelectric ceramics is studied using electrochemical hydrogen charging, in which the silver electrodes of the piezoelectric ceramics constitute a cathode in 0.01-M NaOH solution to evolve hydrogen by electrolysis of water. It is found that with the increasing hydrogen charging time, the resonance impedance increases, the difference between the resonance frequency and the anti-resonance frequency decreases, the spontaneous polarization, the remanent polarization and the piezoelectric coefficient d33 decrease. The degradation behaviour of the soft piezoelectric ceramics can be explained to hydrogen incorporating into the lattice and forming hydroxy (OH-) bonds in the perovskite structure, which prevents the Ti ions from switching and increases the coercive field Ec. The degradation characteristics of the soft piezoelectric ceramics are quite different from that of lead zirconate titanate hard piezoelectric ceramics.

Jiang, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Wan-Ping; Peng, Zhi; Zeng, Min; Chan-Wang, Li-Hua; Yin, Qing-Rui

2005-05-01

110

Electromechanical coupling and temperature-dependent polarization reversal in piezoelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

Electrostriction plays a central role in describing the electromechanical properties of ferroelectric materials, including widely used piezoelectric ceramics. The piezoelectric properties are closely related to the underlying electrostriction. Small-field piezoelectric properties can be described as electrostriction offset by the remanent polarization which characterizes the ferroelectric state. Indeed, even large-field piezoelectric effects are accurately accounted for by quadratic electrostriction. However, the electromechanical properties deviate from this simple electrostrictive description at electric fields near the coercive field. This is particularly important for actuator applications, for which very high electromechanical coupling can be obtained in this region. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric ceramics at electric field strengths close to the coercive field, and the effects of temperature on electromechanical processes during polarization reversal. The roles of intrinsic ferroelectric strain coupling and extrinsic domain processes and their temperature dependence in determining the electromechanical response are discussed. PMID:21937304

Weaver, Paul M; Cain, Markys G; Correia, Tatiana M; Stewart, Mark

2011-09-01

111

Room temperature electro-caloric effect in lead-free Ba(Zr0.1Ti0.9)1-xSnxO3 (x=0, x=0.075) ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrocaloric effect of lead-free Ba(Zr0.1Ti0.9)1-xSnxO3 (x=0 and x=0.075) ceramics is investigated. In the composition x=0, the electrocaloric strength (?) was about 0.23 K mm/kV at Curie temperature. The incorporation of a small amount of tin (Sn) ions in the matrix of Ba(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 was found to decrease the Curie temperature TC toward room temperature while the value of the electrocaloric strength remained practically unchanged (?=0.22 K mm/kV).

Kaddoussi, H.; Gagou, Y.; Lahmar, A.; Belhadi, J.; Allouche, B.; Dellis, J.-L.; Courty, M.; Khemakhem, H.; El Marssi, M.

2015-01-01

112

Strong piezoelectricity exhibited by large-grained BaTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A good understanding of the strong piezoelectric mechanism of BaTiO3 ceramics is very important from both scientific and technological viewpoints. This Letter reports an unusual piezoelectric phenomenon observed in a group of large-grained dense BaTiO3 ceramics with average grain sizes ranging from 5.1 to 16.3 ?m, which are prepared with a hydrothermally synthesized BaTiO3 fine powder by hot-press sintering. Among these BaTiO3 ceramics, the one possessing an average grain size of 5.6 ?m exhibits a particularly prominent piezoelectricity with piezoelectric constants d33 = 485 pC/N and d33* = 725 pm/V at room temperature and a peak d33 value of 574 pC/N around 8.5 °C. This ceramic is further investigated from the aspects of domain patterns and polarization versus electric field (P-E) loops and compared with a conventionally sintered BaTiO3 ceramic prepared using a solid-state reaction method. The investigation shows that it has the domain patterns of simple parallel stripes inside the grains and the square-like P-E loops and differs significantly from the conventionally sintered ceramic, and indicates that the observed strong piezoelectricity is strongly related to the large remanent polarization.

Zhang, J. L.; Ji, P. F.; Wu, Y. Q.; Zhao, X.; Tan, Y. Q.; Wang, C. L.

2014-06-01

113

Engineering of piezoelectric properties in ferroelectric ceramics and thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses different possibilities for controlling piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric materials and devices. The piezoelectric properties engineering can be made on different scales. Tuning of the piezoelectric response by controlling con- tributions from domain walls displacement is used to illustrate engineering on nanometer scale. Texture control in ferroelec- tric films and grain size control is discussed as an example

D. DAMJANOVIC; F. CHU; D. V. TAYLOR; M. DEMARTIN MAEDER; L. SAGALOWICZ; P. DURAN MARTIN; N. SETTER

114

Sensitivity analysis of piezoelectric paint sensors made up of PZT ceramic powder and water-based acrylic polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain sensor based on piezoelectric paint film has been designed to be used in structural vibration monitoring applications. The piezoelectric paint film can be considered as a piezoelectric composite constituted by two phases: lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder (active phase) homogeneously distributed in a water-based acrylic polymer (passive phase). Two electrodes placed to both sides of the film

Ismael Payo; J. M. Hale

2011-01-01

115

Study of barrier layer capacitance effect in lead free Ba0.95Sr0.05(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3-BaZr0.1Ti0.9O3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free Ba0.95Sr0.05(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3-BaZr0.1Ti0.9O3 (50/50) ceramic, a material with potential applications for energy storage, are investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns show a single phase perovskite structure in all the samples. Sintering temperature affects the microstructural and dielectric properties of the ceramics. Microstructural analysis showed the uniformly distributed and highly packed grains in all the samples. We obtained high dielectric constant with low dielectric loss due to the controlled sintering. Giant dielectric constant (~19496) with low dielectric loss (~0.32) was obtained for 1250 °C sintered sample at room temperature and 1 kHz frequency. Complex impedance analysis confirms that the grain boundary effect (barrier layer formation) is responsible for such a high value of dielectric constant. Another interesting feature of this ceramic is the appearance of room temperature magnetodielectric response (1.9%, 8 kOe) at 100 Hz frequency.

Kumar Patel, Piyush; Yadav, K. L.

2014-11-01

116

Dielectric constant tunability at microwave frequencies and pyroelectric behavior of lead-free submicrometer-structured (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-xBaxTiO3 ferroelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

In this article, we show that the dielectric constant of lead-free ferroelectric ceramics based on the solid solution (1-x)(Bi(0.5)Na(0.5))TiO(3)-xBaTiO(3), with compositions at or near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), can be tuned by a local applied electric field. Two compositions have been studied, one at the MPB, with x = 0.06 (BNBT6), and another one nearer the BNT side of the phase diagram, with x = 0.04 (BNBT4). The tunability of the dielectric constant is measured at microwave frequencies between 100 MHz and 3 GHz by a nonresonant method and simultaneously applying a dc electric field. As expected, the tunability is higher for the composition at the MPB (BNBT6), reaching a maximum value of 60% for an electric field of 900 V/cm, compared with the composition below this boundary (BNBT4), which saturates at 40% for an electric field of 640 V/cm. The high tunability in both cases is attributed to the fine grain and high density of the samples, which have a submicrometer homogeneous grain structure with grain size of the order of a few hundred nanometers. Such properties make these ceramics attractive for microwave tunable devices. Finally, we have tested these ceramics for their application as infrared pyroelectric detectors and we have found that the pyroelectric figure of merit is comparable to traditional lead-containing pyroelectrics. PMID:25004530

Martínez, Félix L; Hinojosa, Juan; Doménech, Ginés; Fernández-Luque, Francisco J; Zapata, Juan; Ruiz, Ramon; Pardo, Lorena

2013-08-01

117

Gamma Ray Irradiation Effects on the Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Barium Titanate Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of heavy dose gamma ray irradiation on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics has been investigated. It is found that on irradiation the ferroelectric property decreases and polarization behavior shows double loop hysteresis. The piezoelectric properties including piezoelectric charge constant ( d 33), electromechanical coupling coefficient ( K p), and electrostrictive strain also decreases. The most probable reason for decreased ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties may be the occurrence of random local strain upon irradiation. The phase transition temperature from ferroelectric to paraelectric decreases and degree of diffuseness increases on irradiation. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve showed a peak at 226 °C showing that irradiated BaTiO3 has TL properties. Presence of TL clearly indicates that gamma ray irradiation causes trapped holes and electrons and these trapped charges are released at temperature higher than 226 °C. The creation of trapped holes and electrons effected the microstrain of BaTiO3 ceramic leading to change in the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramic.

Medhi, Nirmali; Nath, A. K.

2013-09-01

118

Adaptive CMAC model reference control system for linear piezoelectric ceramic motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present a design method for a model reference control structure using a cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC). Since the dynamic characteristics and motor parameters of the linear piezoelectric ceramic motor (LPCM) are highly nonlinear and time-varying. An adaptive CMAC model reference control system is proposed to control the position of the moving table of the LPCM

Ya-Fu Peng; Rong-Jong Wain; Chih-Min Lin

2003-01-01

119

Dielectric relaxation, lattice dynamics and polarization mechanisms in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 0.95[0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3]-0.05CaTiO3 ceramics, the temperature TS (dielectric permittivity shoulder at about 125 °C) represents a transition between two different thermally activated dielectric relaxation processes. Below TS, the approximately linear decrease of the permittivity with the logarithm of frequency was attributed to the presence of a dominant ferroelectric phase. Above TS, the permittivity shows a more complicated dependence of the frequency and Raman modes indicate a sudden increase in the spatial disorder of the material, which is ascribed to the presence of a nonpolar phase and to a loss of interaction between polar regions. From 30 to 150 °C, an increase in the maximum polarization with increasing temperature was related to three possible mechanisms: polarization extension favoured by the simultaneous presence of polar and non-polar phases; the occurrence of electric field-induced transitions from weakly polar relaxor to ferroelectric polar phase; and the enhanced polarizability of the crystal structure induced by the weakening of the Bi-O bond with increasing temperature. The occurrence of different electric field induced polarization processes with increasing temperature is supported by the presence of additional current peaks in the current-electric field loops.

Viola, Giuseppe; Ning, Huanpo; Wei, Xiaojong; Deluca, Marco; Adomkevicius, Arturas; Khaliq, Jibran; John Reece, Michael; Yan, Haixue

2013-07-01

120

Electro-caloric effect in lead-free Sn doped BaTiO3 ceramics at room temperature and low applied fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural, dielectric, ferroelectric (FE), 119Sn Mössbauer, and specific heat measurements of polycrystalline BaTi1-xSnxO3 (x = 0% to 15%) ceramics are reported. Phase purity and homogeneous phase formation with Sn doping is confirmed from x-ray diffraction and 119Sn Mössbauer measurements. With Sn doping, the microstructure is found to change significantly. Better ferroelectric properties at room temperature, i.e., increased remnant polarization (38% more) and very low field switchability (225% less) are observed for x = 5% sample as compared to other samples and the results are explained in terms of grain size effects. With Sn doping, merging of all the phase transitions into a single one is observed for x ? 10% and for x = 5%, the tetragonal to orthorhombic transition temperature is found close to room temperature. As a consequence better electro-caloric effects are observed for x = 5% sample and therefore is expected to satisfy the requirements for non-toxic, low energy (field) and room temperature based applications.

Upadhyay, Sanjay Kumar; Reddy, V. Raghavendra; Bag, Pallab; Rawat, R.; Gupta, S. M.; Gupta, Ajay

2014-09-01

121

Electro-caloric effect in lead-free Sn doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics at room temperature and low applied fields  

SciTech Connect

Structural, dielectric, ferroelectric (FE), {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer, and specific heat measurements of polycrystalline BaTi{sub 1–x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 3} (x?=?0% to 15%) ceramics are reported. Phase purity and homogeneous phase formation with Sn doping is confirmed from x-ray diffraction and {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer measurements. With Sn doping, the microstructure is found to change significantly. Better ferroelectric properties at room temperature, i.e., increased remnant polarization (38% more) and very low field switchability (225% less) are observed for x?=?5% sample as compared to other samples and the results are explained in terms of grain size effects. With Sn doping, merging of all the phase transitions into a single one is observed for x???10% and for x?=?5%, the tetragonal to orthorhombic transition temperature is found close to room temperature. As a consequence better electro-caloric effects are observed for x?=?5% sample and therefore is expected to satisfy the requirements for non-toxic, low energy (field) and room temperature based applications.

Upadhyay, Sanjay Kumar; Reddy, V. Raghavendra, E-mail: varimalla@yahoo.com, E-mail: vrreddy@csr.res.in; Bag, Pallab; Rawat, R. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Gupta, S. M. [Ceramic Laboratory, LMDDD, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India); Gupta, Ajay [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Noida 201303 (India)

2014-09-15

122

Effect of gamma ray irradiation on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of barium stannate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tin doped barium titanate ceramics has been obtained by solid state reaction method followed by high energy ball milling. The effect of heavy dose gamma ray irradiation on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the synthesized barium stannate titanate ceramics has been observed. It has been found that on irradiation the ferroelectric property decreases with decreasing values of Pr and Ec. The piezoelectric properties including d33, electrostrictive strain and electromechanical coupling coefficient (Kp) also decrease following the same trend of Pr and Ec. Grain size decreases and grain patterns become irregular after irradiation as observed from SEM micrographs. The Thermoluminescence (TL) property of the barium stannate titanate ceramics has also been investigated and reported.

Nath, A. K.; Medhi, Nirmali

2013-10-01

123

Properties of PZT-Based Piezoelectric Ceramics Between -150 and 250 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties of three PZT-based piezoelectric ceramics and one PLZT electrostrictive ceramic were measured as a function of temperature. In this work, the dielectric, ferroelectric polarization versus electric field, and piezoelectric properties of PZT-4, PZT-5A, PZT-5H, and PLZT-9/65/35 were measured over a temperature range of -150 to 250 C. In addition to these measurements, the relative thermal expansion of each composition was measured from 25 to 600 C and the modulus of rupture of each material was measured at room temperature. This report describes the experimental results and compares and contrasts the properties of these materials with respect to their applicability to intelligent aerospace systems.

Hooker, Matthew W.

1998-01-01

124

High temperature properties of BiScO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart actuators and intelligent structures are sought after for aeronautical applications. As a result of high Curie temperature (430 °C) and piezoelectric coefficient (>200 pC/N), BiScO3-PbTiO3 (BS-PT) ceramics are prospective materials for high temperature actuators. This paper reports on the temperature dependent electrical, ferroelectric, and electromechanical properties of liquid phase sintered BS-PT ceramics. Compared to solid state sintered BS-PT, liquid phase sintered BS-PT with Bi2O3 showed improved electrical performance: (1) threefold reduction in loss tangent at elevated temperatures, (2) fivefold increase in dc resistivity at high electrical fields, and (3) 15% increase in high field piezoelectric coefficient. Hysteresis loops of the highly resistive ceramics were saturated and showed no major dependence on the magnitude and the frequency of the applied field. BS-PT ceramics exhibit depoling behavior at temperatures below (>350 °C) the Curie temperature (430 °C). Liquid phase sintering using excess Bi2O3 is shown to be a promising approach to produce superior BS-PT ceramics for high temperature actuators.

Sehirlioglu, Alp; Sayir, Ali; Dynys, Fred

2009-07-01

125

Optimum placement of piezoelectric ceramic modules for vibration suppression of highly constrained structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibration suppression efficiency of so-called shunted piezoelectric systems is decisively influenced by the number, shape, dimensions and position of the piezoelectric ceramic elements integrated into the structure. This paper presents a procedure based on evolutionary algorithms for optimum placement of piezoelectric ceramic modules on highly constrained lightweight structures. The optimization loop includes the CAD software CATIA V5, the FE package ANSYS and DynOPS, a proprietary software tool able to connect the Evolving Object library with any simulation software that can be started in batch mode. A user-defined piezoelectric shell element is integrated into ANSYS 9.0. The generalized electromechanical coupling coefficient is used as the optimization objective. Position, dimensions, orientation, embedding location in the composite lay-up and wiring of customized patches are determined for optimum vibration suppression under consideration of operational and manufacturing constraints, such as added mass, maximum strain and requirements on the control circuit. A rear wing of a racing car is investigated as the test object for complex, highly constrained geometries.

Belloli, Alberto; Ermanni, Paolo

2007-10-01

126

Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of lanthanum-modified PZTFN ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specimens of Pb1-1.5 x La x (Zr0.53Ti0.47)1- y- z Fe y Nb z O3 ( x = 0, 0.004, 0.008, 0.012, and 0.016, y = z = 0.01) (PZTFN) ceramics were synthesized by a semi-wet route. In the present study, the effect of La doping was investigated on the structural, microstructural, dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of the ceramics. The results show that, the tetragonal (space group P4 mm) and rhombohedral (space group R3 c) phases are observed to coexist in the sample at x = 0.012. Microstructural investigations of all the samples reveal that La doping inhibits grain growth. Doping of La into PZTFN improves the dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics. The hysteresis loops of all specimens exhibit nonlinear behavior. The dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties show a maximum response at x ? 0.012, which corresponds to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB).

Kumar, Arvind; Mishra, S. K.

2014-10-01

127

Theoretical study on the static performance of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 1-3 connectivity  

E-print Network

Theoretical study on the static performance of piezoelectric ceramic- polymer composites with 1 1992) Inhomogeneous displacement profiles have been derived for a single-rod composite and a single-tube l-3 ceramic-polymer composite under both uniaxial and hydrostatic stress. The effective

Cao, Wenwu

128

Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Piezoelectric Ceramics by Coulomb Coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport properties of bulk and guided acoustic waves travelling in a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disc, originally manufactured to serve as ultrasonic transducer, have been monitored by scanned Coulomb coupling. The images are recorded by excitation and detection of ultrasound with local electric field probes via piezoelectric coupling. A narrow pulse has been used for excitation. Broadband coupling is achieved since neither mechanical nor electrical resonances are involved. The velocities of the traveling acoustic waves determined from the images are compared with characteristic velocities calculated from material properties listed by the manufacturer of the PZT plate.

Habib, Anowarul; Shelke, Amit; Pluta, Mieczyslaw; Kundu, Tribikram; Pietsch, Ullrich; Grill, Wolfgang

2012-07-01

129

Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder  

ScienceCinema

Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide.

Anderson, Iver

2013-03-01

130

Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder  

SciTech Connect

Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide.

Anderson, Iver

2012-01-01

131

Electric and elastic behaviors of a piezoelectric ceramic with a charged surface electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies on electric and elastic behaviors induced by internal or surface electrodes in a piezoelectric ceramic are mainly concentrated on a two-dimensional analysis. However, most sensors and actuators are related to a three-dimensional piezoelectric body with electrodes. This paper is concerned with the electroelastic analysis of a penny-shaped thin electrode coating on the surface of a hexagonal piezoelectric half-space. The Hankel transform technique is employed to reduce the mixed boundary value problem to an Abel integral equation. Solving the resulting equation analytically, a solution is obtained in a closed form. Explicit expressions for the complete electric and elastic behaviors in any position in the entire piezoelectric half-space are determined in terms of elementary functions. The results indicate that the vertical surface displacement reaches a maximum at the entire electrode region, while the radial surface displacement reaches a peak only at the electrode edge. Moreover, in addition to electric displacement and electric field, elastic stresses exhibit singular behavior near the electrode edge.

Li, Xian-Fang; Lee, Kang Yong

2004-04-01

132

Modeling Time-dependent Responses of Piezoelectric Fiber Composite  

E-print Network

. There are some lead-free piezoceramics such as sodium potassium niobate (KNN) and bismuth ferrite (BiFeO 3 ). Moreover, some polymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyimide are also piezoelectric materials. The piezoelectric constant d of PVDF... varies between 1.5 to 32pC/N, which is much smaller than those of piezoelectric ceramics and the stiffness of PVDF is generally small, making it rather daunting for providing large actuation. PVDF is often used as sensor in smart composite. [1...

Li, Kuo-An

2011-02-22

133

Understanding the role of A-site and B-site cations on piezoelectric instability in lead--free (1-x) BaTiO3 -- xA(Cu1/3Nb2/3)O3 (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) solid solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides fundamental understanding of the enhanced piezoelectric instability in lead-free piezoelectric (1-x) BaTiO3-xA(Cu1/3Nb2/3)O3(A: Sr, Ba and Ca and x = 0.0-0.03) solid solutions. These compositions were found to exhibit large longitudinal piezoelectric constant (d33) of ˜330 pC/N and electromechanical planar coupling constant (kp) ˜ 46% at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction coupled with atomic pair distribution functions (PDF)s indicated increase in local polarization. Raman scattering and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis revealed that substitutions on A and B-site both substantially perturbed the local octahedral dynamics and resulted in localized nano polar regions with lower symmetry. The presence of nano domains and local structural distortions smears the Curie peak resulting in diffuse order-disorder type phase transitions. The effect of these distortions on the variations in physical property was modeled and analyzed within the context of nanodomains and phase transitions. *spriya@vt.edu

Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Priya, Shashank

2013-03-01

134

Orientation-dependent piezoelectric properties in lead-free epitaxial 0.5BaZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3}-0.5Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin films  

SciTech Connect

Orientation-engineered 0.5BaZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3}-0.5Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} (BZT-BCT) thin films were deposited on La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}-coated SrTiO{sub 3} single-crystalline (001), (110), and (111) substrates by off-axis radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction confirmed a highly epitaxial growth of all the as-deposited films. It is believed the strong orientation dependence of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties on the films is attributed to the relative alignment of crystallites and spontaneous polarization vector. The optimal ferroelectric response lies in the [001] direction, whereas a comparatively large effective piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33,eff} of 100.1 ± 5 pm/V was attained in [111] BZT-BCT thin film, suggesting its potential application for high-performance lead-free piezoelectric devices.

Luo, B. C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Wang, D. Y.; Li, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Duan, M. M. [School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)] [School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

2013-09-16

135

Roles of Li and Ta in Pb-free piezoelectric (Na,K)NbO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of (Na,K)NbO3 (NKN) is enhanced not only at its morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition but also enhanced at its polymorphic phase transition (PPT) temperature between orthorhombic and tetragonal phases (TO-T). Thus, for NKN-based ceramics, even higher d33 could be obtained if both MPB and PPT are simultaneously optimized. This temperature as well as composition dependence of piezoelectric properties of NKN-based ceramics requires a systematic approach that differentiates factors for MPB and PPT. In this paper, the roles of Li and Ta known to affect d33 and TO-T were identified in relation with lattice parameters.

Sung, Y. S.

2014-10-01

136

Piezoelectric performances of undoped ( K , Na ) NbO3 ceramics and crystals for transducers applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to take control on the grain size and densification of undoped K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN), from micrometer to millimeter grain sizes. For this purpose, ceramics are prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and conventional sintering. Their piezoelectric properties are comparatively studied. After full structural and microstructural characterizations, high electromechanical properties (kt = 45 %, kp = 30 %, Z = 20 MRay) for conventional sintering and (kt = 45 %, kp = 48 %, Z = 30 MRay) for SPS sintering are obtained. Otherwise, millimeter grains are produced by the floating zone method used for crystal growth, and their electromechanical properties are determined and compared to their homologous ceramics. Moreover, using the characteristics of the three materials, simulated electroacoustic responses of single-element transducers are compared. The results show that KNN is suitable for transducer applications.

Bah, Micka; Giovannelli, Fabien; Schoenstein, Frédéric; Retoux, Richard; Feuillard, Guy; Le Clézio, Emmanuel; Monot-Laffez, Isabelle

2014-11-01

137

A Piezoelectric PZT Ceramic Mulitlayer Stack for Energy Harvesting Under Dynamic Forces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piezoelectric energy harvesting transducers (PEHTs) are commonly used in motion/vibration energy scavenging devices. To date, most researchers have focused on energy harvesting at narrow bandwidths around the mechanical resonance frequency, and most piezoelectric harvesting devices reported in the literature have very low effective piezoelectric coefficient (d(sub eff)) (< 10(exp 4) pC/N). For instance, more than 80% of PEHT related papers are on transverse "31" mode cantilever beam type PEHTs (CBPEHTs) having piezoelectric coefficients of about 100 pC/N. The level of harvested electrical power for CBPEHTs is on the order of microW even at resonance mode. In order to harvest more electrical energy across broader bandwidth, high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures are needed. In this study, we investigate a "33" longitudinal mode, piezoelectric PZT ceramic multilayer stack (PZT-Stack) with high effective piezoelectric coefficient for high-performance PEHTs. The PZT-Stack is composed of 300 layers of 0.1 mm thick PZT plates, with overall dimensions of 32.4 mm X 7.0 mm X 7.0 mm. Experiments were carried out with dynamic forces in a broad bandwidth ranging from 0.5 Hz to 25 kHz. The measured results show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient of the PZT-stack is about 1 X 10(exp 5) pC/N at off-resonance frequencies and 1.39 X 10(exp 6) pC/N at resonance, which is order of magnitude larger than that of traditional PEHTs. The effective piezoelectric coefficients (d(sub eff)) do not change significantly with applied dynamic forces having root mean square (RMS) values ranging from 1 N to 40 N. In resonance mode, 231 mW of electrical power was harvested at 2479 Hz with a dynamic force of 11.6 N(sub rms), and 7.6 mW of electrical power was generated at a frequency of 2114 Hz with 1 N(sub rms) dynamic force. In off-resonance mode, an electrical power of 18.7 mW was obtained at 680 Hz with a 40 N(sub rms) dynamic force. A theoretical model of energy harvesting for the PZT-Stack is established. The modeled results matched well with experimental measurements. This study demonstrated that high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures enable PEHTs to harvest more electrical energy from mechanical vibrations or motions, suggesting an effective design for high-performance low-footprint PEHTs with potential applications in military, aerospace, and portable electronics. In addition, this study provides a route for using piezoelectric multilayer stacks for active or semi-active adaptive control to damp, harvest or transform unwanted dynamic vibrations into useful electrical energy.

Xu, Tian-Bing; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kang, Jin Ho; Zuo, Lei; Zhou, Wanlu; Tang, Xiudong; Jiang, Xiaoning

2011-01-01

138

Development of lead-free single-element ultrahigh frequency (170 – 320 MHz) ultrasonic transducers  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of single-element ultrahigh frequency (UHF) ultrasonic transducers in which the center frequency ranged from 170 to 320 MHz. The center frequency of > 300 MHz is the highest value of lead-free ceramic ultrasonic transducers ever reported. With concern in the environmental pollution of lead-based materials, the transducer elements presented in this work were lead-free K0.5Na0.5NbO3/Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (KNN/BNT) composite thick films. All transducers were evaluated in a pulse-echo arrangement. The measured ?6 dB bandwidth of the transducers ranged from 35 to 64 %. With the optimized piezoelectric properties of the composite film, the insertion loss of the UHF transducers was measured and determined to range from ?50 to ?60 dB. In addition to the pulse-echo measurement, a 6-?m tungsten wire phantom was also imaged with a 205 MHz transducer to demonstrate the imaging capability. The measured ?6 dB axial and lateral resolutions were found to be 12 ?m and 50 ?m, respectively. The transducer performance presented in this work is shown to be better or comparable to previously reported results even though the frequency is much higher. PMID:23485349

Lam, Kwok Ho; Ji, Hong Fen; Zheng, Fan; Ren, Wei; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

2013-01-01

139

Miniature pressure sensor and micromachined actuator structure based on low-temperature-cofired ceramics and piezoelectric material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method to fabricate pressure sensors using low-temperature-cofired ceramics (LTCC) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric polymer is presented. The basic structure consists essentially of two LTCC substrates with an interlayer of PVDF sandwiched between them. For the top and bottom electrodes, a thin conductive film is deposited on both sides of the PVDF layer, but simultaneously PVDF layers with

P. K. Khanna; B. Hornbostel; R. Grimme; W. Schäfer; J. Dorner

2004-01-01

140

Elastic constants measured from acoustic wave velocities in barium titanate piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The longitudinal and transverse wave velocities in barium titanate (BT) ceramics sintered at different firing temperatures were measured using an ultrasonic precision thickness gauge with high-frequency pulse generation to evaluate elastic constants, such as Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. With increasing firing temperature, the longitudinal and transverse wave velocities increased; as a result, Young’s modulus increased because of BT ceramics being mechanically hard. Poisson’s ratio after DC poling, however, was almost independent of the firing temperature. It was confirmed that there was an important factor for generating piezoelectricity regarding changes in Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio after DC poling compared with those before DC poling, that is, lowering Young’s modulus and increasing Poisson’s ratio. Furthermore, the modulus of rigidity and bulk modulus increased with the firing temperature because of the increase in ceramic bulk density. The modulus of rigidity decreased and the bulk modulus increased during DC poling because of domain alignment.

Ogawa, Toshio; Ikegaya, Taiki

2015-01-01

141

A Piezoelectric Plethysmograph Sensor Based on a Pt Wire Implanted Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate Bulk Ceramic  

PubMed Central

This work reports on the development of a Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate (PLZT) bulk ferroelectric poled ceramic structure as a Piezoelectric Plethysmograph (PZPG) sensor. The ceramic was implanted during its fabrication with a platinum (Pt) wire which works as an internal electrode. The ceramic was then submitted to an experimental setup in order to validate and determine the Pt-wire mechanical effects. This PZPG sensor was also mounted on a finger splint in order to measure the blood flow that results from the pulsations of blood occurring with each heartbeat. Fingertip pulses were recorded jointly with an ECG signal from a 25 year old male to compare the time shift; the PZPG sensor guarantees the electrical isolation of the patient. The proposed PZPG has several advantages: it can be adjusted for fingertip measurements, but it can easily be extended by means of spare bands, therefore making possible PZPG measurements from different body locations, e.g., forehead, forearm, knee, neck, etc. PMID:22163596

González-Morán, Carlos O.; Flores-Cuautle, J.J. Agustín; Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto

2010-01-01

142

Piezoelectric properties of BiFeO{3} PbTiO{3} ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramics of type (BiFeO{3})x (PbTiO{3})1 - x have been fabricated using conventional mixed oxide synthesis. The strain field (xE)/polarisation field (PE) behaviour of compositions x = 0.80, 0.70, 0.65 and 0.60 have been studied. At high field strengths, piezoelectricity can be instilled in these materials. The composition x = 0.70 is observed to be the most active of those studied, with a total strain of 0.22% and a d{33} of 160 pm V-1 using an electric field strength of 18 MV m-1. It is not possible to determine the magnitude of the coercive field using the PE data in these materials. The most active composition is observed to lie outside the mixed phase region.

Comyn, T. P.; Stevenson, T.; Bell, A. J.

2005-09-01

143

Modeling of piezoelectric ceramic vibrators including thermal effects. Part IV. Development and experimental evaluation of a bond graph model of the thickness vibrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a model of the piezoelectric ceramic vibrator which includes thermal energy exchange on an equal footing with the electrical and mechanical energy. By use of an isentropically linear model for the material and the bond graph models for a piezoelectric thickness vibrator and heat conduction previously developed by the authors, a thermodynamically complete model is developed. For

Won-Kyu Moon; Ilene J. Busch-Vishniac

1997-01-01

144

Domain wall motion and electromechanical strain in lead-free piezoelectrics: Insight from the model system (1 ? x)Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}–x(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction during application of electric fields  

SciTech Connect

The piezoelectric compositions (1 ? x)Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}–x(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} (BZT-xBCT) span a model lead-free morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between room temperature rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at approximately x?=?0.5. In the present work, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during electric field application are used to elucidate the origin of electromechanical strain in several compositions spanning the tetragonal compositional range 0.6???x???0.9. As BCT concentration decreases towards the MPB, the tetragonal distortion (given by c/a-1) decreases concomitantly with an increase in 90° domain wall motion. The increase in observed macroscopic strain is predominantly attributed to the increased contribution from 90° domain wall motion. The results demonstrate that domain wall motion is a significant factor in achieving high strain and piezoelectric coefficients in lead-free polycrystalline piezoelectrics.

Tutuncu, Goknur [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Li, Binzhi [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Bowman, Keith [Illinois Institute of Technology, Armour College of Engineering, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Jones, Jacob L., E-mail: JacobJones@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2014-04-14

145

Preparation and characterization of yBiGaO(3)-(1-x-y)BiScO(3)-xPbTiO(3) piezoelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

The ternary system of yBiGaO(3)-(1-x-y)BiScO(3)-xPbTiO(3) (BGS-PT) ceramics was prepared by using conventional mixing oxide processing. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the BGS-PT ceramics showed the perovskite structure. The Curie temperature (TC) of BGSPT ceramics was found to increase with increasing BiGaO3 content. However, a larger BiGaO3 content led to sharply decreased piezoelectric properties, and the secondary phase was formed in the BGS-PT system. BGS-PT ceramics with x = 0.56, y = 0.19 showed a high Curie temperature T(C) and a large piezoelectric constant d(33) of 501??C and 152 pC/N, respectively. The high T(C) of BGS-PT ceramics with usable piezoelectric properties suggests future high-temperature applications. PMID:18276546

Jiang, Yihang; Qin, Baoquan; Chen, Yi; Huang, Wei; Zhao, Yi; Jiang, Yuzhi; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

2007-12-01

146

Structure and ferroelectric studies of (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Ti{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1})O{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Ti{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1})O{sub 3} (BCTZO) ceramic was synthesized by the ceramic method. • In situ XRD and Raman spectra showed the phase transition of BCTZO around 360 K. • The ceramics showed a tunability of 82% at 40 kV cm{sup ?1} electric field. • BCTZO exhibited good quality factor of 111 at microwave frequencies. • Piezoforce microscopy studies indicated the switchability of ferroelectric domains. - Abstract: We have synthesized and studied the structural and ferroelectric properties of lead-free 0.5(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3}–0.5Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3} ceramics in the temperature region of its ferroelectric transition. The synthesized material showed high dielectric constant, low loss and good pyroelectric figure of merit. From the temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements, we determined the tricritical point to be in the temperature range of 303–400 K. The dielectric measurements indicate a diffuse ferroelectric phase transition (DPT) around 360 K in agreement with the X-ray measurements. We studied the evolution of Raman spectra with temperature to understand the nature of phase transition in BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) and the BCTZO. The results indicates that the transition of ferroelectric–paraelectric state is not sharp as in the case of BTO and the polar state persists through the paraelectric state. In general, our study indicates that there are ferroelectric domains of nanometer size beyond the commonly defined transition temperature. The observation of local piezoelectric hysteresis loop indicated the existence of intrinsic ferroelectric property of the ceramic at the nanoscale. The ceramics exhibited electric field tunable dielectric properties with a tunability of 82% at an applied DC field of 40 kV cm{sup ?1}, low dielectric loss of 0.001 and room temperature pyroelectric coefficient of 6 × 10{sup ?8} C cm{sup ?2} K{sup ?1} and the detectivity of 1.9 × 10{sup ?8} C cm{sup ?1} J{sup ?1}; larger than those reported for other BaTiO{sub 3}-based materials. Overall, our results indicate that BCTZO ceramics with coexistence of rhombohedral–tetragonal phases is a promising candidate for lead-free ferroelectric applications.

Venkata Ramana, E., E-mail: venkataramanaesk@rediffmail.com [I3N-Aveiro, Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810 193 (Portugal); Mahajan, A. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810 193 (Portugal); Graça, M.P.F.; Mendiratta, S.K.; Monteiro, J.M.; Valente, M.A. [I3N-Aveiro, Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810 193 (Portugal)

2013-10-15

147

LEAD FREE SOLDERING ON CONTACT PADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article are presented results from the investigations of some peculiarities in the process of soldering on small topological forms in PCBs. The investigation is dedicated to the surface mount technology and deals with lead contained and lead free solder alloy pastes. Attention is paid on the implementation of contact pads with lead free surface finish. For this purpose

Valentin Hristov Videkov; Svetozar Krastev Andreev; Nikola Stefanov

148

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the KNN ceramic compound doped with Li, La and Ta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the purpose of improving the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN), a multiple doping strategy was tested in this research. Piezoceramics with composition [(K0.5Na0.5)0.94Li0.06]0.97La0.01(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 were prepared by the traditional ceramic method. The calcined powders were sintered in their own atmosphere at 1,100 °C for 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the Li+, La3+ and Ta5+ cations diffuse into the KNN structure to form a perovskite-structured solid solution. For 1 h sintering time, a dominant orthorhombic phase is obtained, whereas for the longer times, the dominant phase was tetragonal. The presence of a tetragonal tungsten-bronze minority second phase is confirmed. Scanning electron micrographs show rectangular-shaped grains with a mean size of 1.1 ± 0.2 ?m. The existence of pores and traces of a liquid phase favoring grain growth and homogeneity is also observed. Experimental results show an enhancement of the permittivity associated with the enlargement of the c parameter of the cell that increases with sintering time. Li+ incorporation into the structure is made evident by its transition temperature at 400 °C different from those of KNNLaTi (81-110 °C) and KNNLaTa (340 °C). An analysis of the phase transition of the samples indicates a normal rather than a diffuse transition. The electromechanical parameters k p, Q m, ? p, s 11, d 31 and g 31 are determined and compared to those of commercial PZT ceramics.

Fuentes, J.; Portelles, J.; Durruthy-Rodríguez, M. D.; H'Mok, H.; Raymond, O.; Heiras, J.; Cruz, M. P.; Siqueiros, J. M.

2014-09-01

149

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the KNN ceramic compound doped with Li, La and Ta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the purpose of improving the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN), a multiple doping strategy was tested in this research. Piezoceramics with composition [(K0.5Na0.5)0.94Li0.06]0.97La0.01(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 were prepared by the traditional ceramic method. The calcined powders were sintered in their own atmosphere at 1,100 °C for 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the Li+, La3+ and Ta5+ cations diffuse into the KNN structure to form a perovskite-structured solid solution. For 1 h sintering time, a dominant orthorhombic phase is obtained, whereas for the longer times, the dominant phase was tetragonal. The presence of a tetragonal tungsten-bronze minority second phase is confirmed. Scanning electron micrographs show rectangular-shaped grains with a mean size of 1.1 ± 0.2 ?m. The existence of pores and traces of a liquid phase favoring grain growth and homogeneity is also observed. Experimental results show an enhancement of the permittivity associated with the enlargement of the c parameter of the cell that increases with sintering time. Li+ incorporation into the structure is made evident by its transition temperature at 400 °C different from those of KNNLaTi (81-110 °C) and KNNLaTa (340 °C). An analysis of the phase transition of the samples indicates a normal rather than a diffuse transition. The electromechanical parameters k p, Q m, ? p, s 11, d 31 and g 31 are determined and compared to those of commercial PZT ceramics.

Fuentes, J.; Portelles, J.; Durruthy-Rodríguez, M. D.; H'Mok, H.; Raymond, O.; Heiras, J.; Cruz, M. P.; Siqueiros, J. M.

2015-02-01

150

Microstructure Design of Lead-Free Piezoelectric R. E. Garcia,,  

E-print Network

University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2044 : Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 : Toyota Central Research & Development Laboratories, Inc., Nagatuke, Aichi, 480-1190, Japan : Toyota

Rohrer, Gregory S.

151

Self-sensing tunable vibration absorber incorporating piezoelectric ceramic-magnetostrictive composite sensoriactuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel self-sensing tunable vibration absorber (SSTVA) is developed for active absorption of vibrations in vibrating structures. The SSTVA consists of a piezoelectric ceramic-magnetostrictive composite sensoriactuator suspended in a mounting frame by two flexible beams connected to the axial ends of the sensoriactuator. The sensoriactuator serves to produce an axial force for tuning of the natural frequency of the SSTVA, to gather the signals associated with structural vibrations and to provide a lumped damped mass for the SSTVA. By monitoring the sensoriactuator output voltage while adjusting its input magnetic field (or electric current), the natural frequency of the SSTVA is tuned to the targeted resonance frequency of a structure. In this paper, the working principle, design prototype and operating performance of a 62.5 Hz SSTVA are reported. A high tunability of the natural frequency of 20% and a good sensing capability of vibrations comparable to a commercial accelerometer are obtained, together with a high absorbability of vibrations of ~ 4 dB in a steel-plate-neoprene resilient mount structure.

Duan, Yuan-Feng; Wing Or, Siu

2011-08-01

152

NASA DOD Lead Free Electronics Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary'technical objective of this project is to undertake comprehensive testing to generate information on failure modes/criteria to better understand the reliability of: Packages (e.g., Thin Small Outline Package [TSOP], Ball Grid Array [BGA], Plastic Dual In-line Package [PDIPD assembled and reworked with lead-free alloys Packages (e.g., TSOP, BGA, PDIP) assembled and reworked with mixed (lead/lead-free) alloys.

Kessel, Kurt R.

2008-01-01

153

Enhanced piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sol-gel derived ceramics using single crystal PZT cubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoceramic materials have attracted much attention for sensing, actuation, structural health monitoring and energy harvesting applications in the past two decades due to their excellent coupling between energy in the mechanical and electrical domains. Among all piezoceramic materials, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been the most broadly studied and implemented, in industrial applications due to its high piezoelectric coupling coefficients. Piezoceramic materials are most often employed as thin films or monolithic wafers. While there are numerous methods for the synthesis of PZT films, the sol-gel processing technique is the most widely used due to its low densification temperature, the ease at which the film can be applied without costly physical deposition equipment and the capability to fabricate both thin and thick films. However, the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived films are substantially lower than those of bulk materials, which limit the application of sol-gel films. In comparison, single crystal PZT materials have higher piezoelectric coupling coefficients than polycrystalline materials due to their uniform dipole alignment. This paper will introduce a novel technique to enhance the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived ceramics through the use of single crystal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 microcubes as an inclusion in the PZT sol-gel. The PZT single crystal cubes are synthesized through a hydrothermal based method and their geometry and crystal structure is characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A mixture of PZT cubes and sol-gel will then be sintered to crystallize the sol-gel and obtain full density of the ceramic. XRD and SEM analysis of the cross section of the final ceramics will be performed and compared to show the crystal structure and microstructure of the samples. The P-E properties of the samples will be tested using a Sawyer-Tower circuit. Finally, a laser interferometer will be used to directly measure the piezoelectric strain-coupling coefficient of the PZT sol-gel ceramics with and without PZT cube inclusions. The results will show that with the integration of PZ0.52T0.48 crystal inclusions the d33 coupling coefficient will increase more than 200% compared to that of pure PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 sol-gel.

Lin, Yirong; Andrews, Clark; Sodano, Henry A.

2010-04-01

154

New potassium-sodium niobate ceramics with a giant d33.  

PubMed

For potassium-sodium niobate, poor piezoelectric properties always perplex most researchers, and then it becomes important to attain a giant piezoelectricity. Here we reported a giant piezoelectric constant in (1-x)(K0.48Na0.52)(Nb0.95Sb0.05)O3-xBi0.5Ag0.5ZrO3 lead-free ceramics. The rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary was shown in the ceramics with 0.04ceramic with x=0.0425 possesses a giant d33 of ?490 pC/N. We also discussed the physical mechanisms of enhanced piezoelectricity. As a result, such a research can benefit the sustainable development of (K,Na)NbO3 materials. PMID:24784228

Wang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zheng, Ting; Lou, Xiaojie; Zhang, Binyu; Zhu, Jianguo

2014-05-14

155

Study of polymorphic phase boundary in (Na,K,Li) (Nb,Ta,Sb)O3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Li, Ta and Sb co-doped (Na,K)NbO3 ceramics have been widely investigated due to the significantly enhanced piezoelectric properties attributed to the polymorphic phase transition (PPT). An empirical discriminant k = x/0.3 + y/0.3 + z/0.06 to estimate the PPT composition of Liz(Na0.5+?K0.5-?)1-zNb1-x-yTaxSbyO3 ceramics was deduced based on a displayed phase diagram between the phase structure and doping contents. The phase structure could be conveniently estimated by k, in which a PPT appeared in the vicinity of k = 1, crossing O symmetry at k < 1 and T symmetry at k > 1. Around k = 1, a series of LizNa0.52K0.48-zNb0.90Ta0.05Sb0.05O3 ceramics was prepared by a traditional solid-state reaction in a narrow range 0.03 ? z ? 0.05. A PPT at room temperature appeared critically in the z = 0.04 composition, indicating a good feasibility of the suggested empirical equation to determine the critical PPT composition in the present study. The optimized piezoelectric properties d33 255 pC N-1 and kp 35.0% were attained due to the PPT behaviour.

Zhao, Xiaokun; Zhang, Boping; Zhu, Lifeng; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Pengfei

2014-02-01

156

Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Micromotors  

E-print Network

This report describes development of micro-fabricated piezoelectric ultrasonic motors and bulk-ceramic piezoelectric ultrasonic motors. Ultrasonic motors offer the advantage of low speed, high torque operation without ...

Flynn, Anita M.

1995-06-01

157

Fundamental limitation to the magnitude of piezoelectric response of ?001?pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?001?pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramic was found to exhibit a 65% improvement in the longitudinal piezoelectric response as compared to its random counterpart. Piezoresponse force microscopy study revealed the existence of larger 180° and non-180° domains for textured ceramic as compared to the random ceramic. Improvement in piezoresponse by the development of ?001?pc texture is discussed in terms of the crystallographic nature of KNN and domain morphology. A comparative analysis performed with a rhombohedral composition suggested that the improvement in longitudinal piezoresponse of polycrystalline ceramics by the development of ?001?pc texture is determined by the crystal structure.

Gupta, Shashaank; Belianinov, Alexei; Baris Okatan, Mahmut; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Priya, Shashank

2014-04-01

158

Ferroelastic domains in lead-free barium zirconate titanate - barium calcium titanate piezoceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions. Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions.

Ehmke, Matthias Claudius

159

Microstructure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (Pb1-xSrx)Nb1.96Ti0.05O6 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Pb1-xSrx)Nb1.96Ti0.05O6 with 2 wt% excess PbO (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08) piezoelectric ceramics with high Curie temperature were fabricated via the conventional solid state reaction method. Effects of Sr2+ amount on crystallite structure, microstructure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties were studied. The substitution of Sr2+ ions for Pb2+ ions is effective to lower sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that all ceramics form the single orthorhombic ferroelectric phase. The doping of Sr2+ ions facilitates improving densification of the ceramics. Grain size and lattice parameters of the ceramics vary with the change of the Sr2+ contents. Both Curie temperature and maximum dielectric constant change with increasing the Sr2+ amounts. The dielectric constant data were also studied using the Curie-Weiss law and modified Curie-Weiss law. The ceramic with x = 0.04 possesses excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties, presenting a high potential to be used in high-temperature applications as piezoelectric transducers.

Yuan, Jing-jing; Chen, Xiao-ming; Zhou, Jian-ping; Liu, Peng

2014-09-01

160

An analysis of lead-free (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.915}-(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.05}Ba{sub 0.02}Sr{sub 0.015}TiO{sub 3} ceramic for efficient refrigeration and thermal energy harvesting  

SciTech Connect

This article demonstrates the colossal energy harvesting capability of a lead-free (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.915}-(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.05}Ba{sub 0.02}Sr{sub 0.015}TiO{sub 3} ceramic using the Olsen cycle. The maximum harvestable energy density estimated for this system is found to be 1523?J/L (1523?kJ/m{sup 3}) where the results are presented for extreme ambient conditions of 20–160?°C and electric fields of 0.1–4 MV/m. This estimated energy density is 1.7 times higher than the maximum reported to date for the lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (thin film) system. Moreover, this study introduces a generalized and effective solid state refrigeration cycle in contrast to the ferroelectric Ericson refrigeration cycle. The cycle is based on a temperature induced polarization change on application of an unipolar electric field to ferroelectric ceramics.

Vats, Gaurav; Vaish, Rahul, E-mail: rahul@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175 001 (India); Bowen, Chris R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Materials Research Centre, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

2014-01-07

161

Accelerated Aging of Lead-Free Propellant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following higher than expected 2-NDPA depletion rates in a lead-free doublebase formulation (RPD-422), an accelerated aging study was conducted to verify the depletion rates. A test plan was prepared to compare the aging characteristics of lead-free propellant and NOSIH-AA2. The study was also designed to determine which lead-free ballistic modifiers accelerated 2-NDPA depletion. The increased depletion rate occurred in propellants containing monobasic copper salicylate. Four lead-free propellants were then formulated to improved aging characteristics over previous lead-free propellant formulations. The new formulations reduced or replaced the monobasic copper salicylate. The new formulations had improved aging characteristics. Their burn rates, however, were unacceptable for use in a 2.75 inch rocket. To compare aging characteristics, stabilizer depletion rates of RPD-422, AA2, M28, and RLC 470/6A were measured or taken from the literature. The data were fit to a kinetic model. The model contained first and zero order terms which allowed the stabilizer concentration to go to zero. In the model, only the concentration of the primary stabilizer was considered. Derivatives beyond the first nitrated or nitroso derivative of 2-NPDA were not considered. The rate constants were fit to the Arrhenius equation and extrapolated to lower temperatures. The time to complete stabilizer depletion was estimated using the kinetic model. The four propellants were compared and the RPD-422 depleted faster at 45 C than both A22 and M28. These types of predictions depend on the validity of the model and on confidence in the Arrhenius relationship holding at lower temperatures. At 45 C, the zero order portion of the model dominates the depletion rate.

Furrow, Keith W.; Jervey, David D.

2000-01-01

162

Plate-like structure health monitoring based on ultrasonic guided wave technology by using bonded piezoelectric ceramic wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric ceramic wafers are applied for the excitation and detection of ultrasonic guided waves to determine the health state of plate-like structures. Two PZT wafers, whose diameter is 11mm and thickness is 0.4mm respectively, are bonded permanently on the surface of a 1mm thick aluminum plate. One of these wafers is actuated by sinusoidal tone burst at various frequencies ranging from 100kHz to 500kHz, the other one is used as a receiver for acquiring ultrasonic guided wave signals. According to the amplitudes and shapes of these received signals, guided wave modes and their proper frequency range by using these wafers are determined. For the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, the Daubechies wavelet of order 40 is used for signal denoising as the mother wavelet. Furthermore, the detection of an artificial cylindrical through-hole defect is achieved by using S0 at 300kHz. Experimental results show that it is feasible and effective to detect defects in plate-like structures based on ultrasonic guided wave technology by using bonded piezoelectric ceramic wafers.

Liu, Zenghua; Zhao, Jichen; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

2008-11-01

163

Label-free detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals by integrating a competitive binding assay with a piezoelectric ceramic resonator.  

PubMed

A piezoelectric biosensor for detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was developed by incorporating chemical/biochemical recognition elements on the ceramic resonator surface for competitive binding assays. A facile electrodeposition was employed to modify the sensor surface with Au nanoparticles, which increased the surface area and enhanced the binding capacity of the immobilized probes. Thiol-labeled long chain hydrocarbon with bisphenol A (BPA) as head group was synthesized and self-assembled on the Au nanoparticle surface as the sensing probes, which showed a linear response upon the binding of estrogen receptor (ER-?) ranging from 1 to 30 nM. Detection of estrone, 17?-estradiol and BPA was achieved by integrating a competitive binding assay with the piezoelectric sensor. In this detection scheme, different concentrations of EDCs were incubated with 30 nM of ER-?, and the un-bounded ER-? in the solution was captured by the probes immobilized on the ceramic resonator, which resulted in the frequency changes for different EDCs. The biosensor assay exhibited a linear response to EDCs with a low detection limit of 2.4-2.9 nM (S/N=3), and required only a small volume of sample (1.5 µl) with the assay time of 2h. The performance of the biosensor assay was also evaluated for rapid and facile determination of EDCs of environmental relevant concentrations in drinking water and seawater, and the recovery rate was in the range between 94.7% and 109.8%. PMID:24201004

Hu, Liang-sheng; Fong, Chi-Chun; Zou, Lan; Wong, Wing-Leung; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Wu, Rudolf S S; Yang, Mengsu

2014-03-15

164

Effects of Fe2O3 Additive on the Structure and Piezoelectric Properties of PZT-PFW-PMN Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quaternary piezoelectric ceramics 0.90Pb0.95Sr0.05(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-0.03Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3-0.07Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZT-PFW-PMN) + 0.2 wt.% CeO2 + x wt.% Fe2O3 (x = 0.0 to 0.20) were prepared by the conventional solid-state method. The effects of Fe2O3 addition on the structure and electrical properties of the system were systematically investigated. The results revealed that the phase structure of all samples was tetragonal phase and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties were significantly promoted with increasing Fe2O3 addition. The coercive field E C and internal bias field E i were found to increase with increasing Fe2O3 content. As a result, addition of 0.05 wt.% Fe2O3 for this system resulted in excellent electrical properties, with the following parameter values: Q m = 1839, K p = 0.61, d 33 = 382 pC/N, ? r = 1823, tan ? = 0.0054, P r = 19.26 ?C/cm2, E C = 13.28 kV/cm, and E i = 0.76 kV/cm. The results indicate that the Fe2O3-modified PZT-PFW-PMN ceramics exhibited favorable properties and could be good candidates for use in high-power piezoelectric transformer applications.

Zong, Ximei; Yang, Zupei

2014-11-01

165

Effects of Fe2O3 Additive on the Structure and Piezoelectric Properties of PZT-PFW-PMN Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quaternary piezoelectric ceramics 0.90Pb0.95Sr0.05(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-0.03Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3-0.07Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZT-PFW-PMN) + 0.2 wt.% CeO2 + x wt.% Fe2O3 ( x = 0.0 to 0.20) were prepared by the conventional solid-state method. The effects of Fe2O3 addition on the structure and electrical properties of the system were systematically investigated. The results revealed that the phase structure of all samples was tetragonal phase and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties were significantly promoted with increasing Fe2O3 addition. The coercive field E C and internal bias field E i were found to increase with increasing Fe2O3 content. As a result, addition of 0.05 wt.% Fe2O3 for this system resulted in excellent electrical properties, with the following parameter values: Q m = 1839, K p = 0.61, d 33 = 382 pC/N, ? r = 1823, tan ? = 0.0054, P r = 19.26 ?C/cm2, E C = 13.28 kV/cm, and E i = 0.76 kV/cm. The results indicate that the Fe2O3-modified PZT-PFW-PMN ceramics exhibited favorable properties and could be good candidates for use in high-power piezoelectric transformer applications.

Zong, Ximei; Yang, Zupei

2015-01-01

166

Ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of BiScO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3}-Pb(Cd{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

(0.95-x)BiScO{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.05Pb(Cd{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BS-xPT-PCN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have been synthesized by traditional solid-state reaction methods. The microstructural morphology, phase structure, and electrical properties of BS-xPT-PCN ceramics were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated BS-xPT-PCN ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at MPB composition enhanced the polarizability by the coupling between two dynamically equivalent energy states, resulting in the improved piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties at MPB vicinity. The BS-xPT-PCN (x = 0.60) ceramics possess the optimal piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties with d{sub 33} = 505pC/N, k{sub p} = 55.9%, k{sub t} = 36.5%, strain = 0.23% (under the electric field 37.5 kV/cm), and P{sub r} = 39.7 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}. High temperature dielectric behaviors showed diffuse phase transition in BS-xPT-PCN ceramics. The Curie temperature T{sub c} was found to increase from 371 Degree-Sign C to 414 Degree-Sign C with x increasing from 0.58 to 0.62. All these results together with the good thermal stabilities make the BS-xPT-PCN ceramics promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

Zhao Tianlong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen Jianguo; Dong Shuxiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Chunming [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu Yang [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

2013-07-14

167

First-Principles Calculation of Lead-Free Perovskite SnTiO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phonon spectra, band structure and density of states of cubic perovskite SnTiO3 were investigated using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) computation. The potential energy curves of cations displacement and the formation energy of Sn substitution to B-site were calculated to estimate the structure stability. The results indicate that perovskite SnTiO3 is a promising ferroelectric end member for lead-free piezoelectric materials and applications.

Ye, Hongjun; Zhang, Ruizhi; Wang, Dawei; Cui, Yu; Wei, Jie; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo; Wei, Xiaoyong

2013-09-01

168

Piezoelectric Properties of Pb0.98Bi0.02Zr0.51Ti0.48Zn0.01O3 Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of eutectic behavior of PbTiO3-PbZrO3-Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 ternary system, perovskite-structured Pb0.98Bi0.02Zr0.51Ti0.48Zn0.01O3 ceramics were able to be prepared using conventional electronic ceramic processing at low sintering temperature compatible with Ag as inner electrode materials, promising for co-firing technology to fabricate monolithic multilayer piezoelectric transducers. The dependence of its piezoelectric properties on sintering temperature and various dopants were investigated experimentally and a piezoelectric property with dielectric constant of ?33T/?0=1190, dielectric loss of tan ?=0.6%, piezoelectric coefficient of d33=270 pC/N, planar coupling coefficient of kp=0.54, thickness coupling coefficient of kt=0.46 and Curie temperature of Tc=346 °C was obtained for the 0.5% Co-doped Pb0.98Bi0.02Zr0.51Ti0.48Zn0.01O3 ceramics sintered at 950 °C.

He, Wenze; Yu, Jian

2011-02-01

169

Piezoelectric dispenser based on a piezoelectric-metal-cavity actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A piezoelectric dispenser has been fabricated based on the idea of a piezoelectric-metal-cavity (PMC) actuator. The PMC actuator consists of a metal ring sandwiched between two identical piezoelectric unimorphs. The radial contraction of the piezoelectric ceramic is converted into a flextensional motion of the unimorph, causing a large flexural displacement in the center part of the actuator. With the PMC

K. H. Lam; C. L. Sun; K. W. Kwok; H. L. W. Chan

2009-01-01

170

Modeling of piezoelectric ceramic vibrators including thermal effects. Part IV. Development and experimental evaluation of a bond graph model of the thickness vibrator  

SciTech Connect

This article develops a model of the piezoelectric ceramic vibrator which includes thermal energy exchange on an equal footing with the electrical and mechanical energy. By use of an isentropically linear model for the material and the bond graph models for a piezoelectric thickness vibrator and heat conduction previously developed by the authors, a thermodynamically complete model is developed. For a simple case, the predicted results from the developed model are compared with the results from experiments. Predictions are found to compare very favorably with these measurements. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

Moon, W.; Busch-Vishniac, I.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

1997-03-01

171

Piezoelectric ceramic bimorph coupled to thin metal plate as cooling fan for electronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of piezoelectric fans for cooling electronic devices were constructed and tested at 60 Hz, 110 V and 220 V, respectively. The aim of the work is to investigate the possibility of replacing the rotary type of fan in some noise-sensitive electronic devices. Different vibrating metal plates were tested and analyzed theoretically. It is found that the resonant frequency

Ju Hyun Yoo; Jae Il Hong; Wenwn Cao

2000-01-01

172

Fundamental limitation to the magnitude of piezoelectric response of (001)pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic  

SciTech Connect

(001)pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramic was found to exhibit a 65% improvement in the longitudinal piezoelectric response as compared to its random counterpart. Piezoresponse force microscopy study revealed the existence of larger 180 and non-180 domains for textured ceramic as compared to that of the random ceramic. Improvement in piezoresponse by the development of (001)pc texture is discussed in terms of the crystallographic nature of KNN and domain morphology. A comparative analysis performed with a rhombohedral composition suggested that the improvement in longitudinal piezoresponse of polycrystalline ceramics by the development of (001)pc texture is limited by the crystal structure.

Gupta, Shashaank [ORNL] [ORNL; Belianinov, Alex [ORNL] [ORNL; Okatan, Mahmut B [ORNL] [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL; Priya, Shashaank [Virginia Tech] [Virginia Tech

2014-01-01

173

Epitaxial Stabilization of a Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Lead-Free Ferroelectric Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation details the synthesis and characterization of compressively strained epitaxially grown bismuth ferrite thin films in an effort to improve their piezoelectric properties with the goal of finding a viable lead-free alternative to lead zirconate titanate. It is found that under compressive epitaxial strain a morphotropic phase boundary, the hallmark of high performance piezoelectrics, is stabilized in this material. The structural characterization of these films reveals complex mixed-phase morphologies whereby nearly energetically degenerate monoclinically distorted tetragonal and rhombohedral ferroelectric phases coexist with apparent crystallographically coherent interfaces. This mixed phase morphology is found to be responsive to perturbations both via mechanical indentation and an applied electric field, whereby a reversible phase transition is observed in the films. Electrical characterization of these films indicates a pronounced increase in their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties.

Zeches, Robert James

174

Synthesis and characterization of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-0.5(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} ceramic  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline sample of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-0.5(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} ceramic has been synthesized by solid state reaction method. Single-phase perovskite structure with rhombohedral symmetry was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Temperature dependent dielectric permittivity studies demonstrated frequency independent behavior, indicating that the studied sample was not a typical relaxor ferroelectric. A polymorphic phase transition between rhombohedral and tetragonal phase was noticed near room temperature followed by a tetragonal to cubic transition with 97 Degree-Sign C as the temperature of maximum permittivity. The macroscopic values of d{sub 33} and d{sub 31} were {approx}350 pC/N and -141 pm/V, whereas the electromechanical coupling factors k{sub p} and k{sub t} were 44.5% and 41.6%, respectively. Bulk P-E hysteresis loop was obtained with saturation polarization 11 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and coercive field {approx}4 kV/cm. Distinct polarization contrast with a complex mosaic-like domain structure was observed in the out-of-plane mode of piezoresponse force microscopy. The domain width and the correlation length were estimated to be nearly 2 {mu}m and 827 nm, respectively. Local hysteresis loop with apparent coercive voltage, V{sub c} = 15.8 V, was observed.

Coondoo, Indrani; Panwar, Neeraj; Kholkin, A. L. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)] [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Amorin, Harvey; Alguero, Miguel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

2013-06-07

175

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components  

E-print Network

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components: Tin Whisker Growth METALS This project degraded by the switch to lead- free technology. In particular, the state of compressive stress and the localized creep response (whisker growth) of tin-based lead-free electrodeposits are being measured

176

NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the current state of the lead-free electronics project. It characterizes the test articles, which were built with lead-free solder and lead-free component finishes. The tests performed and reported on are: thermal cycling, combine environments testing, mechanical shock testing, vibration testing and drop testing.

Kessel, Kurt

2010-01-01

177

Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of Sn-doped (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramics processed under low oxygen partial pressure atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sn-doped (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (Sn-NKN) ceramics fired under various oxygen partial pressure (pO2) conditions have been investigated and discussed in terms of bulk piezoelectric and dielectric properties. X-ray diffraction measurements and Rayleigh analysis indicate that the substitution site of the Sn cations depend on the pO2 atmosphere in the firing process. For pO2 higher than 1.0 × 10-10 atm, Sn cations mainly substitute as Sn4+ at the B-site of perovskite NKN, whereas Sn2+ A-site substitution is favored under a low-pO2 atmosphere. Low-pO2 fired Sn-NKN ceramics exhibit higher relative permittivity, Curie temperature, and piezoelectric coefficient (d33). Sn2+ at A-site acts as a donor and reduces the p-type carrier concentrations that result from an electronic compensation of metal vacancies created through the high volatility of Na and K suboxides. The higher piezoelectricity and resistivity in low-pO2 fired Sn-NKN ceramics make this material suitable for base-metal cofired devices such as Ni-inner-electrode multilayer capacitors and actuators.

Kobayashi, Keisuke; Doshida, Yutaka; Mizuno, Youichi; Randall, Clive A.

2014-01-01

178

Research trends in lead-free soldering in the US: NCMS Lead-Free Solder Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences Lead-Free Solder Project carried out by a consortium of 11 industrial corporations, academic institutions, and national laboratories completed its four year program to identify, and evaluate alternatives to eutectic tin-lead solder. The goal of the project was to determine whether safe, reliable, nontoxic and cost-effective substitutes exist for lead-bearing solders in electronics

I. Artaki; D. Noctor; J. Mather; S. Schroeder; D. Napp; C. Desantis; W. Desaulnier; Tsung-Yu Pan; L. Felton; M. Palmer; J. Rosser; J. Felty; P. Vianco; J. Greaves; G. Whitten; Yun Zhu; C. Handwerker

1999-01-01

179

Machining piezoelectric (PZT) ceramics using an electrochemical spark machining (ECSM) process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machining of advanced engineering materials such as composites and ceramics is important but it is very difficult and uneconomical to do so by conventional methods of machining. A need for new techniques for machining these advanced engineering materials cannot be over-emphasized. In this study, the authors have attempted to explore the feasibility of using an electrochemical spark machining (ECSM) process

Y. P. Singh; Vijay K. Jain; Prashant Kumar; D. C. Agrawal

1996-01-01

180

Robust polarization and strain behavior of sm-modified BiFeO3 piezoelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

The route to phase-pure BiFeO3 (BFO) ceramics with excellent ferroelectric and electromechanical properties is severely impeded by difficulties associated with the perovskite phase stability during synthesis. This has meant that dopants and solid solutions with BFO have been investigated as a means of not only improving the functional properties, but also of improving the perovskite phase formation of BFO-based ceramics. The present work focuses on Sm-modified BFO ceramics of composition Bi0.88Sm0.12FeO3. The polarization and strain behaviors were investigated as a function of the phase composition, microstructure, and chemical composition. Addition of Sm reduces the susceptibility of the BFO perovskite to phase degradation by Si impurities. Si was observed to react into Sm-rich grains dispersed within the microstructure, with no large increases in the amount of bismuth-parasitic phases, namely Bi25FeO39 and Bi2Fe4O9. These as-prepared ceramics exhibited robust polarization behavior showing maximum remnant polarizations of ~40 to 50 ?C/cm(2). The electric-fieldinduced strain showed an appreciable stability in terms of the driving field frequency with maximum peak-to-peak strains of ~0.3% and a coercive field of ~130 kV/cm. PMID:25585392

Walker, Julian; Budic, Bojan; Bryant, Peter; Kurusingal, Valsala; Sorrell, Charles; Bencan, Andreja; Rojac, Tadej; Valanoor, Nagarajan

2015-01-01

181

Enhanced piezoelectric performance of (0.98-x)Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.02Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

(0.98-x)Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.02Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BSI-PT-PZN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by traditional solid-state reaction method. Combining X-ray diffraction results with piezoelectric data, it was found that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) occurred at x = 0.575. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33}, curie temperature T{sub c}, and electromechanical coupling factor k{sub p} of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics with MPB composition were 427 pC/N, 412 Degree-Sign C, and 0.51, respectively. Furthermore, the strain of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics reached up to 0.25% under the electric field of 40 kV/cm. Temperature-dependent electromechanical coupling coefficient for MPB composition was stable from room temperature up to 350 Degree-Sign C. The piezoelectric properties of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics were comparable to that of 0.36BiScO{sub 3}-0.64PbTiO{sub 3} (BS-PT) ceramics, and the piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics was about twice that of our previous reported 0.4Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-0.6PbTiO{sub 3} (BSI-PT) ceramics. The reduction in the expensive Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and comparable piezoelectric properties with BS-PT ceramics indicated that BIS-PT-PZN ceramics were promising for commercial applications as high temperature actuators and sensors.

Chen Jianguo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Yiheyuan Road No.5, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Yanchang Road No. 149, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhao Tianlong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Yiheyuan Road No.5, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cheng Jinrong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Yanchang Road No. 149, Shanghai 200072 (China); Dong Shuxiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Yiheyuan Road No.5, Beijing 100871 (China)

2013-04-14

182

Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Er{sup 3+} doped CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er{sup 3+} doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er{sup 3+} concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

Peng Dengfeng [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Wang Xusheng; Yao Xi [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xu Chaonan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Lin Jian; Sun Tiantuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao'an Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

2012-05-15

183

Effects of porosity on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of porous lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

We report porous lead zirconate titanate ceramics fabricated by tert-butyl alcohol-based gel-casting process which show a very high thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient (0.77), high hydrostatic figure of merit (9594x10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/N), and low acoustic impedance (3.7 Mrayls). We show that the porosity effectively affects the performance of the samples in two ways: (1) a higher porosity simplifies the resonance behavior, leading to more efficient energy transduction; (2) its replacement of active ceramic phase leads to low relative permittivity, high hydrostatic figure of merit, and low acoustic impedance. It was confirmed the properties could be tailored by controlling the porosity.

Yang Ankun; Wang Changan; Guo Rui; Huang Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2011-04-11

184

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of PNN-PZN-PZT ceramics for actuator application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fields of optics, precision machinery and semiconductor processing, microposition actuators are required for the control of position in the submicron range. In this paper, 0.5PNN-(0.5-x)PZN-xPZT(x:0.0~0.5) ceramics were fabricated with various mole ratios of the PZT powders prepared by a molten-salt synthesis method and PNN, PZN powders prepared by a columbite precursor method. The formation rate of perovskite phase

Su-Ho Lee; Han-Geun Kim; Hun-Il Choi; Geon Sa-Gong

1997-01-01

185

Influence of a silver epoxy dopant on the performance of broken piezoelectric ceramic transducer based on an analytical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, an unprecedented increase in the types of, the methods of using, and the demand for piezoelectric ceramic transducers (PCTs) has been observed in the market. These factors increase the probability of PCTs being subjected to breakage. Therefore, this study proposes a simple, low-cost procedure which uses available components to repair and reinstall five broken PCTs and then tests them as emitters and receivers in bulk and surface wave detection. An SM211 PCT with a 7.2 MHz frequency, a high damping and electromechanical coupling coefficient, and two silver electrodes were selected for the experiment. A Mason circuit was used for the procedure, the Laplace transform was used as a mathematical analysis method, and MATLAB was the technical computing language used to model the new transfer function for this type of PCT. This study proved that silver electrodes are a significant load on PCTs, particularly at high frequencies. Very good identity correlations between this mathematical and the experimental responses of the standard PCT were obtained. Later this mathematical model was used to prove the explanations provided by this research. The response of the standard PCT was compared with that of the samples of PCT that have been repaired (SPCTR). Through this comparison, many conclusions were obtained, and several recommendations were made, which can be taken advantage of by people who are interested in this field of research. Such recommendations include analyzing the response of SPCTR and explaining the types of ultrasonic tests in which SPCTR can be used.

Abdulhamed Mohammed, Arshed; Haris, Sallehuddin Mohamed; Zaki Nuawi, Mohd

2014-04-01

186

Phase Transition and Electrical Properties of Ba0.7Ca0.3TiO3BiFeO3 Ceramics Cai-Xia Li,,  

E-print Network

Phase Transition and Electrical Properties of Ba0.7Ca0.3TiO3­BiFeO3 Ceramics Cai-Xia Li,,§ Bin Yang, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics of (1 � x)Ba0.70 Ca0.30TiO3­x BiFeO3 [(1 � x)BCT­xBF, x = 0­0.065] have been prepared and investigated. The ceramics with x 0.06 have

Cao, Wenwu

187

Enhanced piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate sol-gel derived ceramics using single crystal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 cubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoceramic materials have attracted much attention for sensing, actuation, structural health monitoring, and energy harvesting applications in the past two decades due to their excellent coupling between energy in the mechanical and electrical domains. Among all piezoceramic materials, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been the most broadly studied and implemented, in industrial applications due to its high piezoelectric coupling coefficients. Piezoceramic materials are most often employed as thin films or monolithic wafers. While there are numerous methods for the synthesis of PZT films, the sol-gel processing technique is the most widely used due to its low densification temperature, the ease at which the film can be applied without costly physical deposition equipment and the capability to fabricate both thin and thick films. However, the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived films are substantially lower than those of bulk materials, which limit the application of sol-gel films. In comparison, single crystal PZT materials have higher piezoelectric coupling coefficients than polycrystalline materials due to their uniform dipole alignment. This paper will introduce a novel technique to enhance the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived ceramics through the use of single crystal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 microcubes as an inclusion in the PZT sol-gel. The PZT single crystal cubes are synthesized through a hydrothermal based method and their geometry and crystal structure is characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). A mixture of PZT cubes and sol-gel will then be sintered to crystallize the sol-gel and obtain full density of the ceramic. XRD and SEM analysis of the cross section of the final ceramics will be performed and compared to show the crystal structure and microstructure of the samples. The P-E properties of the samples will be tested using a Sawyer-Tower circuit. Finally, a laser interferometer will be used to directly measure the piezoelectric strain-coupling coefficient of the PZT sol-gel ceramics with and without PZT cube inclusions. The results will show that with the integration of PZT crystal inclusions the d33 coupling coefficient will increase more than 200% compared to that of pure PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 sol-gel.

Lin, Yirong; Andrews, Clark; Sodano, Henry A.

2010-09-01

188

Wireless energy transmission through a sealed wall using the acoustic-electric interaction of piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a system to transmit and store electric energy by using transmitting element, a chargeable battery, and a rectifier together with a dc-dc converter to connect the two components as an integrated system. The transmitting element is modeled by two piezoelectric transducers. One is as the driving transducer for generating acoustic wave; the other is as the receiving transducer for converting the acoustic energy into electric energy. A dc-dc converter employed in the storage circuit is to match the optimal output voltage of the receiving transducer with the battery voltage for efficient charging. A synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) in parallel with the receiving transducer is introduced to artificially extend the closed circuit interval of the rectifier. This analysis extends a previous one by considering that influence of wall thickness which always exists in the application. The characteristics of the energy-transmitting element are studied. Performance of the energy-transmitting element is optimized by synthetic adjusting parameters of the element, and carefully choosing input frequency of electric source.

Hu, Hongping; Xue, Huan; Hu, Yuantai; Chen, Xuedong

2009-07-01

189

Effect of high density and reduced ionic defects on piezoelectric behavior of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reduced concentration of ionic defects along with >99 % of the theoretical density has been achieved for K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic by employing a twofold sintering technique. Lower concentration of ionic defects resulted in an order of magnitude improvement in the resistivity and hence enhanced poling of the ceramic at 100 °C. High density and improved poling of the ceramic resulted in a significant improvement in electromechanical properties while maintaining the high orthorhombic-tetragonal ( T o-t) and Curie ( T c) temperatures of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (200 and 395 °C respectively). A comparison with the previous studies suggested that the piezoelectric properties of the ceramic synthesized in this study were similar to those synthesized using complex techniques such as spark plasma sintering and hot pressing. This is a significant advancement facilitating the possibility of transition of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic toward device application.

Gupta, Shashaank; Priya, Shashank

2015-01-01

190

NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to concerns about risks from lead-free induced faults to high reliability products, NASA has initiated a multi-year project to provide manufacturers and users with data to clarify the risks of lead-free materials in their products. The project will also be of interest to component manufacturers supplying to high reliability markets. The project was launched in November 2006. The primary technical objective of the project is to undertake comprehensive testing to generate information on failure modes/criteria to better understand the reliability of: - Packages (e.g., TSOP, BOA, PDIP) assembled and reworked with solder interconnects consisting of lead-free alloys - Packages (e.g., TSOP, BOA, PDIP) assembled and reworked with solder interconnects consisting of mixed alloys, lead component finish/lead-free solder and lead-free component finish/SnPb solder.

Kessel, Kurt R.

2009-01-01

191

NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to concerns about risks from lead-free induced faults to high reliability products, NASA has initiated a multi-year project to provide manufacturers and users with data to clarify the risks of lead-free materials in their products. The project will also be of interest to component manufacturers supplying to high reliability markets. The project was launched in November 2006. The primary technical objective of the project is to undertake comprehensive testing to generate information on failure modes/criteria to better understand the reliability of: - Packages (e.g., TSOP, BGA, PDIP) assembled and reworked with solder interconnects consisting of lead-free alloys - Packages (e.g., TSOP, BGA, PDIP) assembled and reworked with solder interconnects consisting of mixed alloys, lead component finish/lead-free solder and lead-free component finish/SnPb solder.

Kessel, Kurt R.

2009-01-01

192

NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to concerns about risks from lead-free induced faults to high reliability products, NASA has initiated a multi-year project to provide manufacturers and users with data to clarify the risks of lead-free materials in their products. The project will also be of interest to component manufacturers supplying to high reliability markets. The project was launched in November 2006. The primary technical objective of the project is to undertake comprehensive testing to generate information on failure modes/criteria to better understand the reliability of: (1) Packages (e.g., Thin Small Outline Package [TSOP], Ball Grid Array [BGA], Plastic Dual In-line Package [PDIP]) assembled and reworked with solder interconnects consisting of lead-free alloys (2) Packages (e.g., TSOP, BGA, PDIP) assembled and reworked with solder interconnects consisting of mixed alloys, lead component finish/lead-free solder and lead-free component finish/SnPb solder

Kessel, Kurt

2009-01-01

193

Lead-free KNbO3 ferroelectric nanorod based flexible nanogenerators and capacitors.  

PubMed

In spite of high piezoelectricity, only a few one-dimensional ferroelectric nano-materials with perovskite structure have been used for piezoelectric nanogenerator applications. In this paper, we report high output electrical signals, i.e. an open-circuit voltage of 3.2 V and a closed-circuit current of 67.5 nA (current density 9.3 nA cm(-2)) at 0.38% strain and 15.2% s(-1) strain rate, using randomly aligned lead-free KNbO(3) ferroelectric nanorods (~1 ?m length) with piezoelectric coefficient (d(33) ~ 55 pm V (-1)). A flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator is mainly composed of KNbO(3)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) composite sandwiched by Au/Cr-coated polymer substrates. We deposit a thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layer between the KNbO(3)-PDMS composite and the Au/Cr electrode to completely prevent dielectric breakdown during electrical poling and to significantly reduce leakage current during excessive straining. The flexible KNbO(3)-PDMS composite device shows a nearly frequency-independent dielectric constant (~3.2) and low dielectric loss (<0.006) for the frequency range of 10(2)-10(5) Hz. These results imply that short and randomly aligned ferroelectric nanorods can be used for a flexible high output nanogenerator as well as high-k capacitor applications by performing electrical poling and further optimizing the device structure. PMID:22922486

Jung, Jong Hoon; Chen, Chih-Yen; Yun, Byung Kil; Lee, Nuri; Zhou, Yusheng; Jo, William; Chou, Li-Jen; Wang, Zhong Lin

2012-09-21

194

Piezoelectric properties of <001> textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric properties of (1-x) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x=0.3-0.35), ceramics with a high degree of <001> fiber texture were investigated for possible actuator applications. Piezoelectric coefficients (d33) in excess of 1200 pC/N associated with strain levels up to >0.3% were observed in samples prepared by a reactive templated grain growth process. No excess PbO was used in the starting composition. A high degree of fiber texture was achieved using <001> oriented BaTiO3 template particles in a fine-grained precursor for the PMN-32PT matrix. High densities together with texture resulted in a significant increase in strain levels and d33 values compared to their polycrystalline counterparts. Peak dielectric constants on the order of 22 000 with losses of ˜2% and well-saturated hysteresis loops with a Pr˜27 ?C/cm2 were recorded on the textured samples. These domain engineered, textured ceramics have tremendous potential for high-performance actuators.

Sabolsky, E. M.; James, A. R.; Kwon, S.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Messing, G. L.

2001-04-01

195

Unique single-domain state in a polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-180° ferroelectric domains are also ferroelastic domains; their existence in polycrystalline materials is to relieve internal stresses generated during solid-solid phase transitions and minimize the elastic distortion energy. Therefore, grains with random orientations in polycrystalline ceramics are always occupied by many domains, especially in the regions close to grain boundaries. In this Rapid Communication, we report the observation of a single-domain state in a BaTiO3-based polycrystalline ceramic at intermediate poling electric fields with in situ transmission electron microscopy. The grains in the virgin ceramic and under high poling fields are found multidomained. The unique single-domain state is believed to be responsible for the ultrahigh piezoelectric property observed in this lead-free composition and is suggested to be of orthorhombic symmetry for its exceptionally low elastic modulus.

Guo, Hanzheng; Zhou, Chao; Ren, Xiaobing; Tan, Xiaoli

2014-03-01

196

A measurement method for piezoelectric material properties under longitudinal compressive stress--a compression test method for thin piezoelectric materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new compression test method for piezoelectric materials to investigate changes in piezoelectric properties under the compressive stress condition. Until now, compression tests of piezoelectric materials have been generally conducted using bulky piezoelectric ceramics and pressure block. The conventional method using the pressure block for thin piezoelectric patches, which are used in unimorph or bimorph actuators, is prone

Lae-Hyong Kang; Dae-Oen Lee; Jae-Hung Han

2011-01-01

197

NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), depots, and support contract ors have to be prepared to deal with an electronics supply chain that increasingly provides parts with lead-free finishes, some labeled no differently and intermingled with their SnPb counterparts. Allowance of lead-free components presents one of the greatest risks to the r eliability of military and aerospace electronics. The introduction of components with lead-free terminations, termination finishes, or cir cuit boards presents a host of concerns to customers, suppliers, and maintainers of aerospace and military electronic systems such as: 1. Electrical shorting due to tin whiskers 2. Incompatibility of lead-f ree processes and parameters (including higher melting points of lead -free alloys) with other materials in the system 3. Unknown material properties and incompatibilities that could reduce solder joint reli ability As the transition to lead-free becomes a certain reality for military and aerospace applications, it will be critical to fully un derstand the implications of reworking lead-free assemblies.

Kessel, Kurt

2010-01-01

198

Prototyping of radially oriented piezoelectric ceramic-polymer tube composites using fused deposition and lost mold processing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric tube composite hydrophones of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity were developed using Fused Deposition (FD) and lost mold processing (LMP). In this work, a new series of thermoplastic binder formulations, named the ECG series, were developed for the FD process. The ECG-9 formulation exhibits mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties suitable for the Fused Deposition of functional lead zirconate titanate ceramic devices. This binder consists of 100 parts (by weight) Vestoplast 408, 20 parts Escorez 2520, 15 parts Vestowax A-227, and 5 parts Indopol H-1500. Oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, stearic acid, and stearyl alcohol (in toluene) were tested for use as a dispersant in the PZT/ECG-9 system. It was found that stearic acid adsorbs the most onto PZT powder, adsorbing 8.1 mg/m2. Using stearic acid, solutions of increasing concentration (5.0--50.0 g/l) were measured for adsorption. It was found that 30.0 g/l is the minimum concentration necessary for optimum surface coverage. The surfactant-coated powder was compounded with ECG-9 binder to create a 54 vol.% mix. The mix was extruded using a single screw extrusion apparatus into continuous lengths (>30 m) of 1.78 mm diameter filament. Fused Deposition was used to create composite designs of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity. After sintering, samples exhibit a sintered density greater than 97%. Sanders Prototyping (SPI) was used to manufacture molds for use with LMP techniques. Molds of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity were developed. The molds were infiltrated with a 55 vol.% aqueous based PZT slurry. The parts were subjected to a binder decomposition cycle, followed by sintering. Resultant samples were highly variable due to random macro-pores present in the samples after sintering. The resultant preforms were embedded in epoxy, and polished to dimensions of 8.0 mm inside diameter (ID), 14.0 mm outside diameter (OD), and 10.0 mm length (l) the OD and l dimensions are accurate to +/--2%, while the ID is accurate to +/--5%. Samples were corona poled, and the electromechanical properties were evaluated. Dielectric constant (K), hydrostatic charge coefficients (dh), and radial displacements (ur) were measured. Of the seven composite types studied, the FD-based composites with 3-2 connectivity exhibited the highest average dh of 42.4 pCN. The same 3-2 composites exhibited the highest dhgh (FOM) of 140 fm2/N.

McNulty, Thomas Francis

199

Investigation of MPB region in lead free BLNT-BCT system through XRD and Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead free piezoelectrics [1-x{(Bi0.96La0.04)0.5Na0.5TiO3}?x(Ba0.90Ca0.10TiO3)] (BLNT-BCT) with compositions x ? 0.20 have been synthesized by a semi-wet route and the compositions around the MPB region have been systematically investigated using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms phase formation without any traces of secondary phases. Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data revealed different structural symmetry for a different range of compositions viz., (i) rhombohedral (R3c) [x ? 0.08] (ii) rhombohedral (R3c) + tetragonal (P4mm) (MPB) [0.10 ? x ? 0.15] (iii) tetragonal (P4mm) [0.15 < x ? 0.20], which is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The structural phase transitions have been correlated with piezoelectric properties and the composition with x = 0.12 depicts better piezoelectric properties amongst studied compositions, which is attributed to the coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases.

Pal, V.; Thakur, O. P.; Dwivedi, R. K.

2015-02-01

200

Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers  

SciTech Connect

Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end members in composites. Piezoelectric single crystals offer outstanding electromechanical response but are limited by their manufacturing cost. Piezoelectric polymers provide excellent acoustic impedance matching and transducer fabrication flexibility although their piezoelectric properties are not as good as ceramics and single crystals. Composites combined the merits of ceramics and polymers and are receiving increased attention. The typical structure and electromechanical properties of each type of materials are introduced and discussed with respect to underwater acoustic transducer applications. Their advantages and disadvantages are summarized. Some of the critical design considerations when developing underwater acoustic transducers with these materials are also touched upon.

Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-07-07

201

NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). depots. and support contractors have to be prepared to deal with an electronics supply chain thaI increasingly provides parts with lead-free finishes. some labeled no differently and intenningled with their SnPb counterparts. Allowance oflead-free components presents one of the greatest risks to the reliability of military and aerospace electronics. The introduction of components with lead-free lenninations, tennination finishes, or circuit boards presents a host of concerns to customers. suppliers, and maintainers of aerospace and military electronic systems such as: 1. Electrical shorting due to tin whiskers; 2. Incompatibility oflead-free processes and parameters (including higher melting points of lead-free alloys) with other materials in the system; and 3. Unknown material properties and incompatibilities that could reduce solder joint re liability.

Kessel, Kurt

2011-01-01

202

Giant self-biased magnetoelectric response with obvious hysteresis in layered homogeneous composites of negative magnetostrictive material Samfenol and piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) response and obvious hysteresis are observed in trilayer homogenous ME laminate composite consisting of negative magnetostrictive Samfenol (SmFe2) plates and piezoelectric ceramic PZT (Pb(Zr,Ti)O3) plates. The large anisotropic field of SmFe2 oriented the direction [111] of easy magnetization results in an enhanced internal bias due to its huge intrinsic anisotropic constant. The experimental results demonstrate that this composite exhibits ˜30 times higher ME voltage coefficient than that of composite FeNi/PZT/FeNi with weak ME coupling at zero bias. These results provide the possibility of this homogeneous ME composite for ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensing without bias.

Zhang, Jitao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; He, Wei; Yang, Aichao; Lu, Caijiang

2013-11-01

203

Piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) modulates axonal guidance growth of rat cortical neurons via RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 pathways.  

PubMed

Electrical stimulation is critical for axonal connection, which can stimulate axonal migration and deformation to promote axonal growth in the nervous system. Netrin-1, an axonal guidance cue, can also promote axonal guidance growth, but the molecular mechanism of axonal guidance growth under indirect electric stimulation is still unknown. We investigated the molecular mechanism of axonal guidance growth under piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stimulation in the primary cultured cortical neurons. PZT induced marked axonal elongation. Moreover, PZT activated the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) by increasing the frequency and amplitude of EPSCs of the cortical neurons in patch clamp assay. PZT downregulated the expression of Netrin-1 and its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC). Rho GTPase signaling is involved in interactions of Netrin-1 and DCC. PZT activated RhoA. Dramatic decrease of Cdc42 and Rac1 was also observed after PZT treatment. RhoA inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (C3-Exo) prevented the PZT-induced downregulation of Netrin-1 and DCC. We suggest that PZT can promote axonal guidance growth by downregulation of Netrin-1 and DCC to mediate axonal repulsive responses via the Rho GTPase signaling pathway. Obviously, piezoelectric materials may provide a new approach for axonal recovery and be beneficial for clinical therapy in the future. PMID:24203571

Wen, Jianqiang; Liu, Meili

2014-03-01

204

Environmental leadership in electronics manufacturing: lead-free and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the strategy and methodology for meeting the challenges of environmental leadership for the transition to WEEE\\/RoHS compliance in electronics manufacturing, including the key compatibility issues involved in lead-free soldering, supply chain compliance, compliance assurance management, design for the environment, and recycling for product end-of-life management.

Dongkai Shangguan

2004-01-01

205

A piezoelectrically actuated ball valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bimorph strip composed of two layers of poled piezoelectric ceramic material closes and opens valve. Strip performs like capacitator, allowing initial inrush of current when valve is energized and then only small leakage current flows as valve remains energized.

Erwin, L. R.; Schwartz, H. W.; Teitelbaum, B. R.

1972-01-01

206

Improved Piezoelectric Loudspeakers And Transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loudspeakers and related acoustic transducers of improved type feature both light weight and energy efficiency of piezoelectric transducers and mechanical coupling efficiency. Active component of transducer made from wafer of "rainbow" piezoelectric material, ceramic piezoelectric material chemically reduced on one face. Chemical treatment forms wafer into dishlike shallow section of sphere. Both faces then coated with electrically conductive surface layers serving as electrodes. Applications include high-fidelity loudspeakers, and underwater echo ranging devices.

Regan, Curtis Randall; Jalink, Antony; Hellbaum, Richard F.; Rohrbach, Wayne W.

1995-01-01

207

Piezoelectric composites for sensor and actuator applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 25 years, piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites have been conceptualized, prototyped, fabricated, and implemented in an array of applications encompassing medical imaging and military missions, among others. A detailed snapshot of the materials used, and a detailed account of the major innovative methods developed in making various piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites are presented. The salient aspects of processing of such

E. Koray Akdogan; Mehdi Allahverdi; Ahmad Safari

2005-01-01

208

Lead-Free Experiment in a Space Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Technical Memorandum addresses the Lead-Free Technology Experiment in Space Environment that flew as part of the seventh Materials International Space Station Experiment outside the International Space Station for approximately 18 months. Its intent was to provide data on the performance of lead-free electronics in an actual space environment. Its postflight condition is compared to the preflight condition as well as to the condition of an identical package operating in parallel in the laboratory. Some tin whisker growth was seen on a flight board but the whiskers were few and short. There were no solder joint failures, no tin pest formation, and no significant intermetallic compound formation or growth on either the flight or ground units.

Blanche, J. F.; Strickland, S. M.

2012-01-01

209

Rare earths in lead-free oxyfluoride germanate glasses.  

PubMed

Spectroscopic properties of rare earths in lead-free oxyfluoride germanate glasses were studied. The absorption and luminescence spectra of Eu(3+), Pr(3+) and Er(3+) ions were examined as a function of BaF? concentration and several spectroscopic parameters for rare earths were determined. The ratio of integrated luminescence intensity of the (5)D??(7)F? transition to that of the (5)D??(7)F? transition of Eu(3+) decrease significantly with increasing BaF? content. The absorption (Er(3+)) and emission (Pr(3+)) 'hypersensitive transitions' of rare earths are shifted in direction to shorter wavelengths with increasing BaF? content in glass composition. Emission spectra and their decays corresponding to the main (4)I??/??(4)I??/? laser transition of Er(3+) were also analyzed. Quite long-lived NIR luminescence of Er(3+) is observed for lead-free glass samples with low BaF? concentration. PMID:25088539

Pisarski, Wojciech A; Pisarska, Joanna; Dorosz, Dominik; Dorosz, Jan

2015-01-01

210

Piezoelectric properties of (Pb/sub 1-x/Ba/sub x/)/sub 2. 5-y/Na/sub 2y/Nb/sub 5/O/sub 15/ ceramic in the morphotropic region  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the effect of the sodium content of solid solutions of the title ceramic, obtained by hot pressing, on its piezoelectric properties and Curie temperature. It is established that the addition of NaNbO/sub 3/ to the morphotropic compositions increases the Curie point by about 100 C. There is then an increase in the ferrorigidity of the ceramic. The greatest temperature stability of the piezomodulus is found in compositions corresponding to the edge of the morphotropic region on the side of the rhombic phase with a (010) polar orientation.

Lopatin, S.S.; Biyatenko, Yu.N.; Medvedev, B.S.; Lupeiko, T.G.

1987-02-01

211

Development of fluxes for lead-free solders containing zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

New lead-free solders based on the Sn-Zn eutectic (92 wt. pct Sn - 8 wt. pct Zn) are promising candidates to replace near-eutectic tin-lead solders because these solders are less expensive than alternatives such as Sn-Ag eutectic base solders and the melting point of the tin-zinc eutectic (198 C) is much closer to melting point of commonly used tin-lead eutectic

S. Vaynman; M. E. Fine

1999-01-01

212

Growth and characterization of lead-free ferroelectric (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O3 single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a large size lead-free piezoelectric single crystal, (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O3 (KNLNTS) with the dimensions of 8.5×8.5×13.5 mm3 was successfully grown by the top-seeded solution growth method. This KNLNTS single crystal with high compositional homogeneity is in the tetragonal phase at room temperature. The Curie temperature TC of the tetragonal-cubic phase transition temperature is 210 °C. The piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors of the [001]C oriented KNLNTS single crystal are d33=172.55 pC/N, d31=-71.90 pC/N, k31=0.327, k33=0.523, and kt=0.541. In addition, the crystal shows good thermal stability so that it can be used for making high temperature electromechanical devices.

Wang, Junjun; Zheng, Limei; Yang, Bin; Wang, Rui; Huo, Xiaoqing; Sang, Shijing; Wu, Jie; Chang, Yunfei; Ning, Huanpo; Lv, Tianquan; Cao, Wenwu

2015-01-01

213

Underfill process development for lead free flip chip assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underfills are used to enhance the long-term reliability of the flip-chip solder joints. More specifically, the function of the underfill is to couple the chip to the substrate, wherein the shear stresses experienced by the solder joints are converted to bending stresses. The underfill flows under the die due to the influence of strong capillary forces. The flow of the underfill under the chip depends on various factors such as the viscosity of the underfill, contact angle, surface tension, temperature, underfill gap, substrate design, bump pattern, bump density, and size of the chip. The flow of underfill is also influenced by the cleanliness of the substrate, the cleanliness of the underside of the chip, and the flux residues. The interaction between the underfill and the substrate affects not only gap filling, but also the filleting of the underfill. Similarly, the underfill-flux interaction directly affects the quality of underfilling and the reliability of the flip chip assembly. In the case of lead free flip chip assembly, the major concerns vis-a-vis process development for a large chip with a small bump pitch (less than 190 mum) include lower throughput, voiding under the chip, and critical reliability performance. The principal objective of this research endeavor was to investigate the fundamental issues that relate to the process and reliability aspects of underfilling of lead free flip chip assemblies. In order to develop a robust underfilling process, the effect of different process parameters and their interaction with the material properties were studied. In order to improve the compatibility between the underfill and the flux, a new epoxy flux that was compatible with the lead free assembly process was developed. The performance of the epoxy was also compared with the performance of various rosin based fluxes. This study also helped in identifying the critical parameters that can affect the assembly yields. This research endeavor successfully contributed towards defining dispensing process windows for the underfills that were compatible with the lead free process. In conclusion, the proposed research contributed towards the development of the fundamental understanding of the capillary underfilling process for lead free flip chip assemblies.

Chaware, Raghunandan

214

Investigation of high Curie temperature (1-x)BiSc{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in the (1-x)BiSc{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} solid solution were fabricated. For y=0.5, ceramics were single phase, and piezoelectric coefficients (d{sub 33}) and electromechanical coupling coefficients (k{sub p}) for MPB compositions were 300 pC/N and 0.49, respectively; a level of piezoelectric activity similar to that of hard, lead zirconate titanate compositions but with T{sub C}approx60 deg. C higher at approx440 deg. C. For ceramics with y>=0.7, dielectric measurements in combination with diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of two ferroelectric phases for most PbTiO{sub 3} contents studied. The presence of two ferroelectric phases was associated with a decrease in piezoelectric activity and although raw materials costs for y=0.7 and 0.8 with respect to y=0 were significantly lower (less Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and T{sub C} greater (approx500 deg. C), d{sub 33} (approx100 pC/N) and k{sub p} (0.18) were too low to be commercially useful for actuator applications.

Sterianou, I.; Sinclair, D. C.; Reaney, I. M. [Department of Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P.; Bell, A. J. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

215

Ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Sr{sub 0.6}(BiNa){sub 0.2}Bi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: The oxygen vacancy was confirmed by the left figure and the role of oxygen vacancy on the piezoelectric properties was discussed. - Highlights: • The d{sub 33}, ? and T{sub c} were found to be 22 pC/N, ? ? 10{sup 6} ? cm and 586 °C. • The electromechanical properties: k{sub p} ? 5.0%, k{sub t} ? 8.7% and Q{sub m} ? 651. • The oxygen vacancy is responsible for electrical properties at high temperature. - Abstract: Aurivillius-type ceramic, Sr{sub 0.6}(BiNa){sub 0.2}Bi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBNBN), was synthesized by using conventional solid-state processing. Phase structure and microstructural morphology were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dielectric, piezoelectric and electromechanical properties of the SBNBN ceramic were investigated in detail. Curie temperature (T{sub c}), piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}), electromechanical coupling coefficient k{sub p}, k{sub t} and quality factor Q{sub m} of the SBNBN ceramic were found to be 586.5 °C, 22 pC/N, 5.0%, 8.7% and 651, respectively. In addition, the reasons for varieties of the resistivity and dielectric properties at high temperature were also discussed.

Fang, Pinyang, E-mail: fpy_2000@163.com; Xi, Zengzhe; Long, Wei; Li, Xiaojuan

2013-11-15

216

ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric properties of Sm1.5Sr0.5NiO4- ? ceramics with different concentrations of oxygen vacancies were characterized. The ceramics with lower concentration of oxygen vacancies were prepared by directly sintering the sol-gel derived powders in air, while the higher one could be obtained by annealing the as-sintered ceramics in the flow of nitrogen. The post-densification annealing in the flow of nitrogen decreased the dielectric constant at low temperature and increased it at high temperature, while the dielectric loss increased in overall temperature range. The activation energy of low-temperature dielectric relaxation decreased with increasing the concentration of oxygen vacancies, and so did that of bulk electrical resistances although the values of resistances increased, while the activation energy of electrical resistances for grain boundary increased though the values of resistances decreased. The giant dielectric response in the as-sintered Sm1.5Sr0.5NiO4- ? ceramics should be mainly attributed to the small polaronic hopping process, while that of annealed ceramics should be directly linked to the oxygen vacancies.

Liu, G.; Liu, X. Q.; Chen, X. M.

2014-09-01

217

High temperature piezoelectric drill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460°C), high pressure (~9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000°C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600°C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500°C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500°C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

2009-03-01

218

Ferroelectric and octahedral tilt twin disorder and the lead-free piezoelectric, sodium potassium niobate system  

SciTech Connect

Using electron diffraction, trends in the local structural behaviour of the K{sub x}Na{sub 1-x}NbO{sub 3} (KNN x) 'solid solution' system are investigated and interpreted using an order/disorder based theoretical framework. At room temperature, electron diffraction shows a single plane of transverse polarised, diffuse intensity perpendicular to [0 1 0]{sub p} Low-Asterisk (p for parent sub-structure) across the entire phase diagram, indicative of ferroelectric disorder along the [0 1 0]{sub p} direction co-existing with long range ferroelectric order along the orthogonal [1 0 0]{sub p} and [0 0 1]{sub p} directions. An additional characteristic pattern of diffuse scattering is also observed, involving rods of diffuse intensity running along the [1 0 0]{sub p}* and [0 0 1]{sub p}* directions of the perovskite sub-structure and indicative of octahedral tilt disorder about the [1 0 0]{sub p} and [0 0 1]{sub p} axes co-existing with long range ordered octahedral tilting around the [0 1 0]{sub p} direction. A possible crystal chemical explanation for the existence of this latter octahedral tilt disorder is explored through bond valence sum calculations. The possible influence of both types of disorder on the previously refined, room temperature space group/s and average crystal structure/s is examined. - Graphical abstract: [-3,0.-1]p zone axis EDP of K{sub 0.46}Na{sub 0.54}NbO{sub 3} indexed according to both the relevant Pcm21 space groups (no subscripts) and the parent perovskite subcell (denoted by a subscript p). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterises ferroelectric and octahedral tilt disorder in the KNN solid solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the possible driving forces for this disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the implications of this disorder for physical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the effects of this disorder on powder diffraction data.

Schiemer, Jason [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Withers, Ray L., E-mail: withers@rsc.anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu, Yun; Yi, Zhiguo [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2012-11-15

219

Active Piezoelectric Diaphragms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field), rather than the expected in-plane (XY-axis) direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M.; Covington, Ed W., III

2002-01-01

220

Active piezoelectric diaphragms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes (ICE). When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis, rather than the expected in-plane direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M., Jr.; Covington, Ed W., III

2002-07-01

221

Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of Ta2O5/Y2O3 codoping on the microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of Ba(Co0.56Zn0.40)1/3Nb2/3O3- xA- xB (A = 0.045 wt.% Ta2O5; B = 0.113 wt.% Y2O3) ceramics ( x = 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32) prepared according to the conventional solid-state reaction technique were investigated. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the main crystal phase in the sintered ceramics was BaZn0.33Nb0.67O3-Ba3CoNb2O9. The additional surface phase of Ba8CoNb6O24 and trace amounts of Ba5Nb4O15 second phase were present when Ta2O5/Y2O3 was added to the ceramics. The 1:2 B-site cation ordering was affected by the substitution of Ta5+ and Y3+ in the crystal lattice, especially for x = 4. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the optimally doped ceramics sintered at 1340°C for 20 h showed a compact microstructure with crystal grains in dense contact. Though the dielectric constant increased with the x value, appropriate addition would result in a tremendous modification of the Q × f and ? f values. Excellent microwave dielectric properties ( ? r = 35.4, Q × f = 62,993 GHz, and ? f = 2.6 ppm/°C) were obtained for the ceramic with x = 0.4 sintered in air at 1340°C for 20 h.

Bin, Tang; Feng, Si; Ying-xiang, Li; He-tuo, Chen; Xiao, Zhang; Shu-ren, Zhang

2014-11-01

222

Rare earths in lead-free oxyfluoride germanate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic properties of rare earths in lead-free oxyfluoride germanate glasses were studied. The absorption and luminescence spectra of Eu3+, Pr3+ and Er3+ ions were examined as a function of BaF2 concentration and several spectroscopic parameters for rare earths were determined. The ratio of integrated luminescence intensity of the 5D0 ? 7F2 transition to that of the 5D0 ? 7F1 transition of Eu3+ decrease significantly with increasing BaF2 content. The absorption (Er3+) and emission (Pr3+) ‘hypersensitive transitions’ of rare earths are shifted in direction to shorter wavelengths with increasing BaF2 content in glass composition. Emission spectra and their decays corresponding to the main 4I13/2 ? 4I15/2 laser transition of Er3+ were also analyzed. Quite long-lived NIR luminescence of Er3+ is observed for lead-free glass samples with low BaF2 concentration.

Pisarski, Wojciech A.; Pisarska, Joanna; Dorosz, Dominik; Dorosz, Jan

2015-01-01

223

Theoretical and experimental investigation of traveling wave propagation on a several- millimeter-long cylindrical pipe driven by piezoelectric ceramic tubes.  

PubMed

A novel method is presented for investigation of the traveling wave propagation generated on a thin film pipe with a short length of several millimeters. As a bridge to connect two piezoelectric ceramic (lead zirconate titanate, PZT) tubes, a thin-film metallic glass (TFMG) pipe is fabricated by a new technique of rotating magnetron sputtering. The vibrator combines the vibration of the axial mode of the PZT tube and the radial mode of the TFMG pipe. Theoretical analyses of the TFMG pipe and PZT tube, with a comparison of the finite element modeling, clarify the vibration characteristics so that the proper geometrical sizes, suitable boundary conditions, and driving voltage signals are designed. In the experiment, the designed vibrator was fabricated and the vibration characteristics were measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer system. The pure traveling wave propagation obtained theoretically and experimentally demonstrates the validity of this work. This study shows a new way to achieve a pure traveling wave on a short cylindrical pipe driven by PZT tubes. PMID:20639154

Sun, Dongming; Wang, Sheng; Hata, Seiichi; Sakurai, Junpei; Shimokohbe, Akira

2010-07-01

224

Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure and thermoelectric properties of Yb-doped Ca0.9- x Yb x La0.1 MnO3 (0 ? x ? 0.05) ceramics prepared by using the Pechini method derived powders have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that all samples exhibit single phase with orthorhombic perovskite structure. All ceramic samples possess high relative densities, ranging from 97.04% to 98.65%. The Seebeck coefficient is negative, indicating n-type conduction in all samples. The substitution of Yb for Ca leads to a marked decrease in the electrical resistivity, along with a moderate decrease in the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient. The highest power factor is obtained for the sample with x = 0.05. The electrical conduction in these compounds is due to electrons hopping between Mn3+ and Mn4+, which is enhanced by increasing Yb content.

Zhang, Bo; Chang, Aimin; Zhao, Qing; Ye, Haitao; Wu, Yiquan

2014-11-01

225

Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of excess Li content on the phase structure and microwave dielectric properties, especially on the temperature coefficient, of LiNb0.6 Ti0.5O3 (LNT) ceramics were studied. The results show that small amounts of Li effectively enhanced the sintering process due to the compensation of high volatility of Li, leading to a densification and homogenous microstructure, and therefore enhanced the dielectric properties. However, too much Li leads to a secondary phase and cause abnormal grain growth. The LNT + 5 wt.% Li ceramic sintered at 1075°C in the air shows the best properties of ? r = 69.73, Q × f = 5543 GHz, and ? f = -4.4 ppm/°C.

Li, Enzhu; Zou, Mengying; Duan, Shuxin; Xu, Ning; Yuan, Ying; Zhou, Xiaohua

2014-11-01

226

Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perovskite Ba0.999Pr0.001TiO3 ceramics has been prepared through a solid-state reaction method. Dielectric properties of the doped BaTiO3 (barium titanate) ceramics as a function of temperature at frequencies of 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 100 kHz, and 1 MHz are studied and reported here. Analyzing the empirical parameters, it has been shown that the Pr3+ addition up-shifted the temperature of the maximal dielectric constant to 180 (K) at 1 kHz. The value of the dielectric constant at higher frequencies dropped markedly. Such a marked drop in the value of the dielectric constant at higher frequencies can be explained in terms of interfacial polarization. The high dielectric constant at lower frequencies is due to the build-up of charges at the grain-grain boundary interface which is responsible for the large polarization. The ceramic was subjected to Rietveld refinement for quantitative analysis of the microstructure of the material.

Panigrahi, M. R.

2014-09-01

227

Modeling of piezoelectric ceramic vibrators including thermal effects. Part III. Bond graph model for one-dimensional heat conduction  

SciTech Connect

A new bond graph model for conduction heat transfer is developed, and applied to thermal energy balance in the piezoelectric thickness vibrator. In formulation of the heat conduction model, the mechanical and electrical effects are included. Hence, it can be directly applied to the temperature-dependent thickness vibrator. For the purpose of evaluation of the new method, one-dimensional heat conduction excluding other variable effects is compared with the results of the analytic solutions in simple cases. The simulation illustrates the validity and the accuracy of the model. Although the model is applied to the one-dimensional case only, the method can be easily used for general heat conduction problems. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

Moon, W.; Busch-Vishniac, I.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

1997-03-01

228

Enhanced piezoelectricity in broad composition range and the temperature dependence research of (Ba1-xCax)(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O3 piezoceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BaTiO3-based (Ba1-xCax)(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O3 (x=0-0.07) lead-free piezoceramics were fabricated by a conventional solid state reaction technique. The phase structure and electrical properties of the as-prepared ceramics were researched. The temperature (TO-T) of the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition dielectric peak shifts toward lower temperature with increasing Ca content and the Curie temperature (TC) almost does not shift. At room temperature, the polymorphic phase transition (PPT) from the orthorhombic phase to tetragonal phase is jointly identified by the ?r-T curves and XRD patterns. The piezoelectricity of the ceramics is enhanced due to the polymorphic phase transition and the best piezoelectricity is obtained at x=0.02 with d33=464 pC/N and kp=43.1%. The piezoelectricity is enhanced in the broad composition range x=0.01-0.06 with d33>400 pC/N and kp>41% which is beneficial for the industrial production. The temperature aging properties of piezoelectric constant d33, planar electromechanical coupling factor kp, the elastic compliance constant S11E and the radial frequency constant Nd are also researched.

Chen, Mingli; Xu, Zhijun; Chu, Ruiqing; Qiu, Hong; Li, Min; Liu, Yong; Shao, Lin; Ma, Shuai; Ji, Wanbin; Li, Wei; Gong, Shuwen; Li, Guorong

2014-01-01

229

Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Aging of piezoelectric properties was investigated in lead-free (1???x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} doped with 1at.?% Fe. The relaxor character of the un-poled material prevents macroscopic aging effects, while in the field-induced ferroelectric phase aging phenomena are similar to those found in lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate. Most prominent aging effects are the development of an internal bias field and the decrease of switchable polarization. These effects are temperature activated, and can be explained in the framework of defect complex reorientation. This picture is further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicating the existence of (Fe{sub Ti}{sup ?}?V{sub O}{sup ••}){sup •} defect complexes in the Fe-doped material.

Sapper, Eva; Dittmer, Robert; Rödel, Jürgen [Materials Science Department, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Damjanovic, Dragan [Ceramics Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland); Erdem, Emre [Institute of Physical Chemistry I, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Keeble, David J. [Division of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Jo, Wook [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Granzow, Torsten [Centre de Recherche Public—Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

2014-09-14

230

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} added (Pb,Ca,Sr)(Ti,Mn,Sb)O{sub 3} ceramics sintered at low temperature  

SciTech Connect

In this study, in order to develop low temperature sintering ceramics for a thickness mode multilayer piezoelectric transformer, (Pb,Ca,Sr)(Ti,Mn,Sb)O{sub 3} ceramics were fabricated using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, MnO{sub 2}, and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering aids at 870, 900, and 930 deg. C. Their respective dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated according to the amount of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. At the sintering temperature of 900 deg. C, the optimum value was shown for the density of 6.94 g/cm{sup 3}, thickness vibration mode electromechanical coupling factor (henceforth, k{sub t}) of 0.497, thickness vibration mode mechanical quality factor (henceforth, Q{sub mt}) of 3162, and dielectric constant (henceforth, {epsilon}{sub r}) of 209 for thickness mode multilayer piezoelectric transformer application.

Kim, Dohyung; Yoo, Juhyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semyung University, Jechon, Chungbuk 390-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Insung; Song, Jaesung [Piezoelectric Devices Research Group, KERI, Changwon 641-12 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-03-15

231

Lead-free bearing alloys for engine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments to reduce the fuel consumption, emission and air pollution, size and weight of engines for automotive, truck, ship propulsion and electrical power generation lead to temperature and load conditions within the engines that cannot be borne by conventional bearings. Presently, only costly multilayer bearings with electroplated or sputtered surface coatings can cope with the load/speed combinations required. Ecological considerations in recent years led to a ban by the European Commission on the use of lead in cars a problem for the standard bronze-lead bearing material. This MAP project is therefore developing an aluminium-based lead-free bearing material with sufficient hardness, wear and friction properties and good corrosion resistance. Only alloys made of components immiscible in the molten state can meet the demanding requirements. Space experimentation plays a crucial role in optimising the cast microstructure for such applications.

Ratke, Lorenz; Ågren, John; Ludwig, Andreas; Tonn, Babette; Gránásy, László; Mathiesen, Ragnvald; Arnberg, Lars; Anger, Gerd; Reifenhäuser, Bernd; Lauer, Michael; Garen, Rune; Gust, Edgar

2005-10-01

232

Giant energy density in [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) based compositions have been challenging to texture or grow in a single crystal form due to the incongruent melting point of ZrO2. Here we demonstrate the method for achieving 90% textured PZT-based ceramics and further show that it can provide highest known energy density in piezoelectric materials through enhancement of piezoelectric charge and voltage coefficients (d and g). Our method provides more than 5 increase in the ratio d(textured)/d(random). A giant magnitude of d g coefficient with value of 59 000 10 15 m2 N 1 (comparable to that of the single crystal counterpart and 359% higher than that of the best commercial compositions) was obtained.

Yan, Yongke [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Cho, Kyung-Hoon [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Maurya, Deepam [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Khachaturyan, Armen [State University of New Jersey, The; Priya, Shashank [ORNL

2013-01-01

233

Giant energy density in [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) based compositions have been challenging to texture or grow in a single crystal form due to the incongruent melting point of ZrO2. Here we demonstrate the method for achieving 90% textured PZT-based ceramics and further show that it can provide highest known energy density in piezoelectric materials through enhancement of piezoelectric charge and voltage coefficients (d and g). Our method provides more than ˜5× increase in the ratio d(textured)/d(random). A giant magnitude of d.g coefficient with value of 59 000 × 10-15 m2 N-1 (comparable to that of the single crystal counterpart and 359% higher than that of the best commercial compositions) was obtained.

Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Maurya, Deepam; Kumar, Amit; Kalinin, Sergei; Khachaturyan, Armen; Priya, Shashank

2013-01-01

234

Investigation of Structural and Electrical Properties of B-Site Complex Ion (Mg1/3Nb2/3)4+-Modified High-Curie-Temperature BiFeO3-BaTiO3 Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

B-site complex ion (Mg1/3Nb2/3)-modified high-temperature ceramics 0.71BiFeO3-0.29BaTi1-x (Mg1/3Nb2/3) x O3 (BF-BTMNx) have been fabricated by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The compositional dependence of the phase structure, electrical properties, and depolarization temperature of the ceramics was studied. The main phase structure of BF-BTMNx ceramics is perovskite phase with pseudocubic symmetry. The experimental results show that the dielectric and piezoelectric properties, and temperature stability strongly depend on the (Mg1/3Nb2/3)4+ content. The optimum (Mg1/3Nb2/3) content enhances the piezoelectric properties, Curie temperature, and depolarization temperature. The ceramic with x = 1% exhibited enhanced electrical properties of d 33 = 158 pC/N and k p = 0.322, combined with high-temperature stability with Curie temperature of T c = 453°C and depolarization temperature of T d = 400°C. These results show that the ceramic with x = 1% is a promising lead-free high-temperature piezoelectric material.

Zhou, Xiujuan; Zhou, Changrong; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Huabin; Cen, Zhenyong; Cheng, Jun; Cao, Lei; Fan, Qiaolan

2014-01-01

235

Variation of Piezoelectric properties and mechanisms across the relaxor-like/Ferroelectric continuum in BiFeO3- (K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 ceramics.  

PubMed

1- x - y)BiFeO3-x(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-yPbTiO3 (BFKBT- PT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated across the compositional space and contrasted against the xBiFeO3- (1-x)(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (BF-KBT) system, whereby a range of relaxor-like/ferroelectric behavior was observed. Structural and piezoelectric properties were closely related to the PbTiO3 concentration; below a critical concentration, relaxor-like behavior was identified. The mechanisms governing the piezoelectric behavior were investigated with structural, electrical, and imaging techniques. X-ray diffraction established that longrange non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order was evident above a critical PbTiO3 concentration, y > 0.1125. Commensurate with the structural analysis, electric-field-induced strain responses showed electrostrictive behavior in the PbTiO3-reduced compositions, with increased piezoelectric switching in PbTiO3-rich compositions. Positive-up-negative-down (PUND) analysis was used to confirm electric-field-induced polarization measurements, elucidating that the addition of PbTiO3 increased the switchable polarization and ferroelectric ordering. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) of the BF-KBT-PT system exhibited typical domain patterns above a critical PbTiO3 threshold, with no ferroelectric domains observed in the BF-KBT system in the pseudocubic region. Doping of BiFeO3-PbTiO3 has been unsuccessful in the search for hightemperature materials that offer satisfactory piezoelectric properties; however, this system demonstrates that the partial substitution of alternative end-members can be an effective method. The partial substitution of PbTiO3 into BF-KBT enables long-range non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order, resulting in increased polar order and TC, compared with the pseudocubic region. The search for novel high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics can therefore exploit the accommodating nature of the perovskite family, which allows significant variance in chemical and physical characters in the exploration of new solid-solutions. PMID:25585388

Bennett, James; Shrout, Thomas; Zhang, Shujun; Owston, Heather; Stevenson, Tim; Esat, Faye; Bell, Andrew; Comyn, T

2015-01-01

236

Electrophoretic deposition of advanced ceramic actuator.  

E-print Network

??In recent years, remarkable developments have taken place in electromechanical system research. Among them, piezoelectric ceramics and their devices have drawn huge attention. Actuators utilizing… (more)

Chen, Yanhong.

2008-01-01

237

Piezoelectric dispenser based on a piezoelectric-metal-cavity actuator.  

PubMed

A piezoelectric dispenser has been fabricated based on the idea of a piezoelectric-metal-cavity (PMC) actuator. The PMC actuator consists of a metal ring sandwiched between two identical piezoelectric unimorphs. The radial contraction of the piezoelectric ceramic is converted into a flextensional motion of the unimorph, causing a large flexural displacement in the center part of the actuator. With the PMC actuator as a fluid chamber, the large flexural actuation can be used to produce the displacement needed to eject fluid. By applying an appropriate voltage to the piezoelectric unimorphs, a drop-on-demand ejection of ink or water can be achieved. The efficiency of fluid ejection can be enhanced after installing a valve in the fluid chamber. With the simple PMC structure, the dispenser can be operated with a low driving voltage of 12-15 V. PMID:19655984

Lam, K H; Sun, C L; Kwok, K W; Chan, H L W

2009-07-01

238

Piezoelectric dispenser based on a piezoelectric-metal-cavity actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A piezoelectric dispenser has been fabricated based on the idea of a piezoelectric-metal-cavity (PMC) actuator. The PMC actuator consists of a metal ring sandwiched between two identical piezoelectric unimorphs. The radial contraction of the piezoelectric ceramic is converted into a flextensional motion of the unimorph, causing a large flexural displacement in the center part of the actuator. With the PMC actuator as a fluid chamber, the large flexural actuation can be used to produce the displacement needed to eject fluid. By applying an appropriate voltage to the piezoelectric unimorphs, a drop-on-demand ejection of ink or water can be achieved. The efficiency of fluid ejection can be enhanced after installing a valve in the fluid chamber. With the simple PMC structure, the dispenser can be operated with a low driving voltage of 12-15 V.

Lam, K. H.; Sun, C. L.; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, H. L. W.

2009-07-01

239

Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba{sub 0.850}Ca{sub 0.150})(Ti{sub 0.900}Zr{sub 0.100})O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba{sub 0.857}Ca{sub 0.143})(Ti{sub 0.928}Zr{sub 0.072})O{sub 3} to (Ba{sub 0.953}Ca{sub 0.047})(Ti{sub 0.427}Zr{sub 0.573})O{sub 3}. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba{sub 0.838}Ca{sub 0.162})(Ti{sub 0.854}Zr{sub 0.146})O{sub 3} composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d{sub 31} and k{sub 31} of 93 pC.N{sup ?1} and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T?=?305?K)

Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P., E-mail: veber@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr; Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Maglione, M. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Université Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Shimamura, K. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2014-04-14

240

Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

Erhart, Jirí

2013-01-01

241

High-Temperature Piezoelectrics with Large Piezoelectric Coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature piezoelectric materials are of interest for sensors and actuators in various industrial applications in which the devices are exposed to high temperature. A lot of research has been conducted in this area to bring forth a suitable piezoelectric material having a high Curie temperature for suitable usage at a high temperature with good piezoelectric properties. This report is an attempt to review the state of the art in high-temperature piezoelectric materials, covering their issues and concerns at elevated temperatures. Among the non-ferroelectric crystal classes, langasite and oxyborate crystals retain their piezoelectricity up to a very high temperature, but their piezoelectric coefficient is much smaller compared to a standard piezoelectric material such as lead zirconate titanate. A similar trend has also been observed in ferroelectric crystal class which shows poor piezoelectricity but retains it until a high temperature. Recent studies on solid solutions of bismuth-based oxides and lead titanate with the chemical formulae Bi(Me3+) O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Me1Me2)O3-PbTiO3 (Me3+ represents a trivalent cation and Me1 and Me2 are cations having a combined valency of 3) show a much application potential of these materials due to improved piezoelectric property and high Curie temperature. BiScO3-PbTiO3, Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3-PbTiO3, (Bi(Ni0.5Ti0.5)O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Zn0.5T0.5)O3-PbTiO3 are some interesting high-temperature piezoelectrics from the group of Bi(Me3+)O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Me1Me2) O3-PbTiO3 which shows superior piezoelectric properties at high temperatures. Among the lead-free piezoelectrics, (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 demands a special interest for further studies due to its plausible good piezoelectric property at elevated temperature.

Shinekumar, K.; Dutta, Soma

2014-12-01

242

High-Temperature Piezoelectrics with Large Piezoelectric Coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature piezoelectric materials are of interest for sensors and actuators in various industrial applications in which the devices are exposed to high temperature. A lot of research has been conducted in this area to bring forth a suitable piezoelectric material having a high Curie temperature for suitable usage at a high temperature with good piezoelectric properties. This report is an attempt to review the state of the art in high-temperature piezoelectric materials, covering their issues and concerns at elevated temperatures. Among the non-ferroelectric crystal classes, langasite and oxyborate crystals retain their piezoelectricity up to a very high temperature, but their piezoelectric coefficient is much smaller compared to a standard piezoelectric material such as lead zirconate titanate. A similar trend has also been observed in ferroelectric crystal class which shows poor piezoelectricity but retains it until a high temperature. Recent studies on solid solutions of bismuth-based oxides and lead titanate with the chemical formulae Bi(Me3+) O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Me1Me2)O3-PbTiO3 (Me3+ represents a trivalent cation and Me1 and Me2 are cations having a combined valency of 3) show a much application potential of these materials due to improved piezoelectric property and high Curie temperature. BiScO3-PbTiO3, Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3-PbTiO3, (Bi(Ni0.5Ti0.5)O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Zn0.5T0.5)O3-PbTiO3 are some interesting high-temperature piezoelectrics from the group of Bi(Me3+)O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Me1Me2) O3-PbTiO3 which shows superior piezoelectric properties at high temperatures. Among the lead-free piezoelectrics, (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 demands a special interest for further studies due to its plausible good piezoelectric property at elevated temperature.

Shinekumar, K.; Dutta, Soma

2015-02-01

243

Piezoelectric properties and temperature stability of Mn-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 textured ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we report the electromechanical properties of textured 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.25PbZrO3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-PZT) composition which has relatively high rhombohedral to tetragonal (R-T) transition temperature (TR-T of 160 °C) and Curie temperature (TC of 234 °C) and explore the effect of Mn-doping on this composition. It was found that MnO2-doped textured PMN-PZT ceramics with 5 vol. % BaTiO3 template (T-5BT) exhibited inferior temperature stability. The coupling factor (k31) of T-5BT ceramic started to degrade from 75 °C while the random counterpart showed a very stable tendency up to 180 °C. This degradation was associated with the "interface region" formed in the vicinity of BT template. MnO2 doped PMN-PZT ceramics textured with 3 vol. % BT and subsequently poled at 140 °C (T-3BT140) exhibited very stable and high k31 (>0.53) in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 130 °C through reduction in the interface region volume. Further, the T-3BT140 ceramic exhibited excellent hard and soft combinatory piezoelectric properties of d33 = 720 pC/N, k31 = 0.53, Qm = 403, tan ? = 0.3% which are very promising for high power and magnetoelectric applications.

Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Priya, Shashank

2012-03-01

244

Effect of ENIG deposition on the failure mechanisms of thermomechanically loaded lead-free 2nd level interconnections in LTCC\\/PWB assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of electroless NiAu (ENIG) deposition on the failure mechanisms and characteristic lifetimes of three different non-collapsible lead-free 2nd level interconnections in low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC)\\/printed wiring board (PWB) assemblies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Five LTCC module\\/PWB assemblies were fabricated and exposed to a temperature cycling test over a ?40 to

O. Nousiainen; T. Kangasvieri; K. Kautio; R. Rautioaho; J. Vähäkangas

2010-01-01

245

High Temperature Piezoelectric Ceramics Based on xPbTiO3-(1-x)Bi(Sc1/2Me1/4Ti1/4)O3 (Me = Zn, Mg) Ternary Perovskites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline xPbTiO3-(1-x)Bi(Sc1/2Me1/4Ti1/4)O3 (PT-BS-BMeT) ceramics, where Me = Mg (M) or Zn (Z), were studied for development of high temperature piezoelectrics. Ceramics were processed using standard mixed oxide procedure at various temperatures. X-ray diffraction at room temperature revealed that the tetragonality of PT-BS-BZT decreased as PbTiO3 content decreased from x = 0.90 to 0.60 and tetragonality of PT-BS-BMT decreased as PbTiO3 content decreased from x = 0.60 to 0.40. A transition was observed in PT-BS-BMT within compositions x = 0.42-0.50. Dielectric properties revealed permittivites up to ?r?20000 and transition temperatures up to 540 °C. Hysteresis measurements showed full saturation below 50 mol % PbTiO3 content with remanent polarization of Pr = 32.8 µC/cm2 and coercive field of 23.0 kV/cm. Converse piezoelectric coefficients (d33*) calculated from unipolar strain measurements revealed values between 240 and 313 pm/V. Depolarization temperatures were measured between 320 and 390 °C.

Ansell, Troy Y.; Nikkel, Jason; Cann, David P.; Sehirlioglu, Alp

2012-10-01

246

Lead-Free Propellant for Propellant Actuated Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division's CAD/PAD Department has been working to remove toxic compounds from our products for about a decade. In 1992, we embarked on an effort to develop a lead-free double base propellant to replace that of a foreign sole source. At the time there were availability concerns. In 1995, the department developed a strategic proposal to include a wider range of products. Efforts included such efforts as removing lead sheathing from linear explosives and replacing lead azide and lead styphnate compounds. This paper will discuss efforts specifically related to developing non-leaded double base propellant for use in various Propellant Actuated Devices (PADs) for aircrew escape systems. The propellants can replace their leaded counterparts, mitigating lead handling, processing, or toxic exposure to the environment and personnel. This work eliminates the use of leaded compounds, replacing them with a more environmentally benign metal-organic salt. Historically double-base propellants have held an advantage over other families of energetic materials through their relative insensitivity of the burning rate to changes in temperature and pressure. This desirable ballistic effect has been obtained with the use of a lead-organic salt alone or in a physical mixture with a copper-organic salt, or more recently with a lead-copper complex. These ballistic modifiers are typically added to the double-base 'paste' prior to gelatinization on heated calendars or one type or another. The effect of constant burning rate over a pressure range is called a 'plateau' while an even more beneficial effect of decreasing burning rate with increasing pressure is termed a 'mesa.' The latter effect results in very low temperature sensitivity of the propellant burning rate. Propellants with such effects are ideal tactical rocket motor propellants. The use of lead compounds poses a concern for the environment and personnel safety due to the metal's toxic nature when introduced into the atmosphere by propellant manufacturing, rocket firings, and disposal. Two separate programs are underway at Indian Head to replace the leaded ballistic modifiers in NOSIH-AA-2 and KU propellants. Although the system requirements were very different, the programs gained valuable information from one another throughout their course.

Goodwin, John L.

2000-01-01

247

Piezoelectric Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

248

FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices. Aubert et al introduce a novel technique of synthesizing composite nanomaterials and Cross and coworkers characterize Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films co-doped with Bi and Fe to enhance PZT capacitor ferroelectric properties. These articles are closely related to the global environmental load and energy issues that require solutions in modern ceramics technology. We hope that this focus issue will help advance not only ceramics-related but also other fields of materials science.

Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

2010-10-01

249

Piezoelectric valve  

DOEpatents

A motorized valve has a housing having an inlet and an outlet to be connected to a pipeline, a saddle connected with the housing, a turn plug having a rod, the turn plug cooperating with the saddle, and a drive for turning the valve body and formed as a piezoelectric drive, the piezoelectric drive including a piezoelectric generator of radially directed standing acoustic waves, which is connected with the housing and is connectable with a pulse current source, and a rotor operatively connected with the piezoelectric generator and kinematically connected with the rod of the turn plug so as to turn the turn plug when the rotor is actuated by the piezoelectric generator.

Petrenko, Serhiy Fedorovich

2013-01-15

250

Large effective-strain piezoelectric actuators using nested cellular architecture with exponential strain amplification mechanisms  

E-print Network

Design and analysis of piezoelectric actuators having over 20% effective strain using an exponential strain amplification mechanism are presented in this paper. Piezoelectric ceramic material, such as lead zirconate titanate ...

Ueda, Jun

251

Pre-stressed Curved Actuators: Characterization and Modeling of their Piezoelectric Behavior  

E-print Network

Pre-stressed Curved Actuators: Characterization and Modeling of their Piezoelectric Behavior Karla actuators consist of a piezoelectric ceramic (lead zirconate titanate or PZT) sandwiched between various thermo elastic relations and ferroelectric domain theory. The model predicts displacements based

252

Enhanced high-temperature piezoelectric properties of traditional Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics by a small amount substitution of KNbO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystal structure, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties were investigated on the (1-x)Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3-xKNbO3 system. The piezoelectric properties have been significantly improved by substituting a small amount of KNbO3. In the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.015), the compound not only shows enhanced piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 450 pC/N, which is two times larger than that of unmodified Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (d33 = 223 pC/N), but also the Curie temperature (TC = ?380 °C) is still well maintained at a high level. This phenomenon challenges our general knowledge that in piezoelectric materials the Curie temperature and piezoelectric properties are mutually contradictory. It should be noted that a giant total strain as high as 0.73% is also observed. The high thermal depoling temperature more than 300 °C combined with the excellent piezoelectric properties suggest it as a potential candidate for high temperature actuators and sensors applications.

Pan, Zhao; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Rong, Yangchun; Zheng, Shaoying; Liu, Laijun; Fang, Liang; Xing, Xianran

2014-12-01

253

Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Shifeng, Huang

2014-12-01

254

Piezoelectricity and local structural distortions in (Na0.5Bi0.5)1-xSrxTiO3-Bi12TiO20 flexoelectric-type polar ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously described sintered Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-Bi12TiO20 composites as flexoelectric-type polar ceramics because they have a net macroscopic flexoelectric polarization. Here, we report on the universal existence of the macroscopic flexoelectric polarization in the (Na0.5Bi0.5)1-xSrxTiO3-Bi12TiO20 system, in which enhanced piezoelectricity is observed. By combining Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques, we have identified the local flexoelectric polarization as distorted BiO5 polyhedra and TiO6 octahedra in the SrTiO3-Bi12TiO20 ceramic. The macroscopic polarization may be due to the partial alignment of these distorted units located within the grain boundary amorphous phases. Bi12TiO20 could have an important role in these flexoelectric-type polar ceramics.

Wang, L. H.; Zhao, M. L.; Wang, C. L.; Wang, J.; Kuai, W. J.; Tao, X. T.

2012-08-01

255

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of <001> fiber-textured 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.325PbTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.325PbTiO3 (PMN-32.5PT) ceramic composition (with 1 wt. % excess PbO) was fiber textured in the <001> direction by the templated grain growth process using 5 vol % oriented {001}-BaTiO3 platelet crystals as the templates. The templated ceramics annealed at 1150 °C for 5 h attained texture fractions as high as 0.9. The fiber-textured samples showed an increase in the piezoelectric, electromechanical coupling, and compliance coefficients when poled and measured in the <001>-textured direction. The low drive field (<5 kV/cm) d33 coefficients in the <001>, measured directly from unipolar strain-field measurements, were ˜1150 pC/N. This d33 coefficient is 1.2-1.5 times greater than randomly oriented samples. The poled ?max and ?rt for a 0.9-textured PMN-32.5PT ceramic were 21 500 and 2450, respectively. Factors limiting further property improvements are discussed.

Sabolsky, Edward M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Messing, Gary L.

2003-04-01

256

Thermal Fatigue Assessment of Lead-Free Solder Joints Qiang YU and Masaki SHIRATORI  

E-print Network

Thermal Fatigue Assessment of Lead-Free Solder Joints Qiang YU and Masaki SHIRATORI Department@swan.me.ynu.ac.jp ABSTRACT In this paper the authors have investigated the thermal fatigue reliability of lead-free solder on the initiation and propagation behaviors of fatigue cracks. Furthermore, they also studied the effect of voids

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

Lead-free KNbO ferroelectric nanorod based flexible nanogenerators and capacitors  

E-print Network

], and their extensive applications, such as in nano-sensors and nano- actuator/transducers [3]. Among ferroelectric nanoLead-free KNbO 3 ferroelectric nanorod based flexible nanogenerators and capacitors This article.1088/0957-4484/23/37/375401 Lead-free KNbO3 ferroelectric nanorod based flexible nanogenerators and capacitors Jong Hoon Jung1

Wang, Zhong L.

258

Structure and electrical properties of Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-xK1/2Bi1/2TiO3 lead-free ferroelectric single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-xK1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT-xKBT) ferroelectric single crystals were characterized systematically. With increasing KBT concentration, the remanent polarization and coercive electric field decrease, while the piezoelectric constant and the electromechanical coupling coefficient increase. The evolution of average and local structures as a function of temperature and composition was investigated using in-situ X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The structure/property relationship of NBT-xKBT single crystals was discussed in detail.

Zhang, Haiwu; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Xiangyong; Deng, Hao; Ren, Bo; Li, Xiaobing; Luo, Haosu; Li, Shundao

2015-01-01

259

Piezoelectric Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimorph piezoelectric elements show relative large axial displacements at moderate voltages. Their response to voltage variations is very fast. The re-produceability of the displacement is practically limited only by the mechanical and electrical supplementary equipment. In combination with a deflection mirror linear scans or two-dimensional scan pattern can be generated. Fast scanning with good linearity and repeatability is possible, either in a resonant mode or in a random acces mode. However, the hysteresis of the piezoelectric material and the large capacitance of the elements impose some constraints on the applicability of the piezoelectric scanners. In the first part of the paper the properties of piezoelectric elements are discussed in view of scanner application; in the second part an experimental single mirror two-axis piezoelectric scanner is described. Some suggestions for future applications of piezoelectric scanners are made.

Hohner, M.; Manhart, S.

1987-09-01

260

Analysis of cracked piezoelectric solids by a mixed three-dimensional BE approach  

E-print Network

isotropy. Piezoelectric ceramics are used for construction of sensors, transducers, actuators as well piezopolymers as the polyvinilidene fluoride (PVDF). Due to manufacturing and complex electromechanical loads

Ariza Moreno, Pilar

261

Processing and Microstructural Engineering ofProcessing and Microstructural Engineering of Advanced CeramicsAdvanced Ceramics  

E-print Network

CeramicsAdvanced Ceramics Dr. Gary L. MessingDr. Gary L. Messing (Top Row Left to Right): Mike Ruffin, Adam particles to make either highly textured piezoelectric ceramics or single crystals from a polycrystalline ceramic Grain oriented microstructure produced by templated grain growth (TGG) in a Sr2Nb2O7 matrix

Messing, Gary L.

262

Phase transition and temperature stability of piezoelectric properties in Mn-modified Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the effect of two different Mn modifiers [MnO2 and Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3(PMnN)] on the of phase transitions in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 ceramics. The temperature dependence of polarization derived from measured pyroelectric current indicated change in nature of phase transition with MnO2 doping. This phenomenon was supported by the temperature evolution of the linear softening of low lying hard lattice mode as revealed by Raman analysis. The grain size was found to increase with MnO2 doping (5X) while decrease with PMnN modification (0.5X). Interestingly, the piezoelectric constant of MnO2 modified composition showed negligible degradation (<1%) even after heat treatment very close to the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition temperature.

Yan, Yongke; Kumar, Ashok; Correa, Margarita; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Katiyar, R. S.; Priya, Shashank

2012-04-01

263

Large piezoelectric effect in Pb-free Ba(Ti,Sn)O3-x(Ba,Ca)TiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a Pb-free pseudo-binary system, Ba(Sn0.12Ti0.88)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)O3 (BTS-xBCT), characterized by a phase boundary starting from a tricritical triple point of a paraelectric cubic phase, ferroelectric rhombohedral, and tetragonal phases. The optimal composition BTS-30BCT exhibits a high piezoelectric coefficient d33 ˜ 530 pC/N at room temperature. In view of the recent report of high piezoelectricity in another Pb-free system BZT-BCT (Liu and Ren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 257602 (2009)), which possesses a similar tricritical triple point in the phase diagram, it seems that forming a suitable phase boundary starting from a tricritical triple point could be an effective way to develop high-performance Pb-free piezoelectrics.

Xue, Dezhen; Zhou, Yumei; Bao, Huixin; Gao, Jinghui; Zhou, Chao; Ren, Xiaobing

2011-09-01

264

Effects of Fe2O3 addition on the piezoelectric and the dielectric properties of 0.99Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3-0.01Bi(Y1- x Fe x )O3 ceramics for energy-harvesting devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 0.99Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3-0.01Bi(Y1- x Fe x )O3 [PZT-BYF(x)] (x = 0.0 - 0.6) piezoelectric ceramics have been synthesized by using a modified conventional solid-state method. Initially, the perovskite Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (PZT) and the cubic-phase Bi(Y1- x Fe x )O3 [BYF(x)] were presynthesized and mixed to prepare PZT-BYF(x) ceramic composites. The effects of BYF(x) addition on the phase formation, microstructure, and piezoelectric/dielectric properties were measured as functions of sintering temperature. In addition to these measurements, the piezoelectric voltage constant ( g 33) and the piezoelectric transduction coefficient ( d 33 × g 33) were measured in order to evaluate the essential criteria for an energy-harvesting material. For all the specimens, X-ray diffraction analyses showed a complete solid solution with co-existing tetragonal and rhombohedral perovskite phases. All the ceramics exhibited denser and finer microstructures, which produced a high relative density of ? 98%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that BYF(x) addition enhanced the sintering density through the formation of a liquid phase. The doping with BYF(x) in the PZT system was found to be effective for maintaining a high Curie temperature of around 377-390 °C. With increasing content of Fe2O3 in the BYF(x) system, the piezoelectric and the dielectric properties were significantly improved. At a sintering temperature of 1170 °C, the piezoelectric and the dielectric properties of PZT-BYF(x) ceramics showed desirable values; this resulted in a significantly higher transduction coefficient. The compositions of PZTBYF(0.1), PZT-BYF(0.2), and PZT-BYF(0.3) showed a considerably lower ? 33 T value, but higher d 33 and k p values. Therefore, within the concentration limit of x = 0.1 to 0.3 moles of Fe2O3, the g 33 and the d 33 × g 33 values were improved significantly ( g 33 > 53 × 10-3 Vm/N and d 33 × g 33 > 20000 m2/N). The maximum transduction coefficient of 20167 × 10-15 m2/N was obtained from the composition of PZT-BYF(0.3). The high values of g 33 and d 33 × g 33 make these piezoelectric ceramics potential candidates for applications in energy-harvesting devices.

Mahmud, Iqbal; Ur, Soon-Chul; Yoon, Man-Soon

2014-07-01

265

Two-step sintering of new potassium sodium niobate ceramics: a high d?? and wide sintering temperature range.  

PubMed

In this work, the two-step sintering technique is used to realize a high piezoelectric constant (d33) and wide sintering temperature range (T(S)) in the 0.955(K(0.42)Na(0.58))(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O3-0.045(Bi(0.5)K(0.5))(0.90)Zn(0.10)ZrO3 lead-free ceramics. Dense microstructures were developed in the ceramics by two-step sintering. In the T(S) range of 800-1130 °C, the rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary was well maintained, and these ceramics possess enhanced dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties. It is of great interest to note that a d33 of 323-416 pC/N could be attained in a temperature gap range of 330 °C. We believe that the two-step sintering could both widen the sintering temperature and obtain a high d33 for this material system. PMID:25051530

Wu, Jiagang; Wang, Yumei

2014-09-14

266

Piezoelectric Driver for Incremental Motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vibrating device containing two piezoelectric ceramic slabs acts as mechanical driver. Eventually substitutes for small continuous or stepping electric motors of slow to moderate speeds. Piezoelectric driver simple in construction, requires no precise dimensions, inexpensive to make, and needs no lubrication. Not damaged by stalling or overloads and safe for use in explosive atmospheres; Motion controllable in micron-size increments, and holds position when power turned off. Potential applications as positioner or mover. Used to position instrument pointers, antennas, or solar panels; to focus lenses; or operate tuners, recording instruments, or valves.

Bruman, Joseph R.

1987-01-01

267

Piezoelectric properties and thermal stability of Ca0.92(Li,Ce)0.04Bi2Nb2-x W x O9 high-temperature ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ca0.92(Li,Ce)0.04Bi2Nb2-x W x O9 (x = 0.01-0.06) high-temperature piezoceramics were prepared by a conventional solid-state sintered method, and effects of W content on their piezoelectric properties were studied. All samples possess a pure Aurivillius-type structure, showing that Li, Ce, and W dopants have well diffused into the CaBi2Nb2O9 lattice to form a solid solution. The doping with W slightly decreases the Curie temperature (T C) of the ceramics. In addition, the excellent electrical properties (e.g., d 33 ~ 16.1 pC/N, k p ~ 9.58 %, Q m ~ 4,767) and a high Curie temperature (e.g., T c ~ 925 °C) are simultaneously obtained in the ceramics with x = 0.04, together with an enhanced thermal stability of <900 °C. As a result, the investigated material system provides the promising potential applications in ultra-high-temperature environments.

Wang, Yadan; Wu, Jiagang; Peng, Zhihang; Chen, Qiang; Xin, Deqiong; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

2015-01-01

268

Wettability of electroless Ni in the under bump metallurgy with lead free solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the wettability of several lead-free solders, including Sn, Sn?Ag, and Sn?Bi, on electroless Ni (EN)\\u000a with various phosphorus content. The role of phosphorus on solder wettability is studied. Microstructure evolution in the\\u000a lead-free solder\\/EN joint is investigated with the aid of electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) to relate metallurgical reactions\\u000a between the solder and the EN. The SN

Bi-Lian Young; Jenq-Gong Duh; Bi-Shiou Chiou

2001-01-01

269

The Reliability Research of Lead-Free Solder Joint of Flip-Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the minimum potential energy theorem and the theory of solder joint shape, 3D (three-dimensional) predicting model of flip-chip lead-free solder joints shape are established. According to different technologic parameters, the 3D solder joint shape is predicted. The nonlinear finite element analyses of the lead-free solder joint is performed by ANSYS under thermal cycles and the stress\\/strain distributions within

Yan De-jin; Zhou De-jian; Huang Chun-yue; Wu Zhao-hua; Zhou xiang

2006-01-01

270

Effects of PCB design variations on bend and ATC performance of lead-free solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder alloys, such as Sn-3.0Ag-0.5 Cu (SAC305) are the popular choices of lead-free solders replacing SnPb solders. However, SAC solders are more brittle in nature due to high stiffness and excessive intermetallic compounds growth at the solder joint to pad interface. This leads to higher risks in solder joints failures. Memory module type lead-free BGA packages are constantly

Hongtao Ma; Kuo-Chuan Liu; Tae-Kyu Lee; Dong Hyun Kim

2010-01-01

271

Lead-free hunting rifle ammunition: product availability, price, effectiveness, and role in global wildlife conservation.  

PubMed

Proposals to end the use of lead hunting ammunition because of the established risks of lead exposure to wildlife and humans are impeded by concerns about the availability, price, and effectiveness of substitutes. The product availability and retail prices of different calibers of lead-free bullets and center-fire rifle ammunition were assessed for ammunition sold in the USA and Europe. Lead-free bullets are made in 35 calibers and 51 rifle cartridge designations. Thirty-seven companies distribute internationally ammunition made with lead-free bullets. There is no major difference in the retail price of equivalent lead-free and lead-core ammunition for most popular calibers. Lead-free ammunition has set bench-mark standards for accuracy, lethality, and safety. Given the demonstrated wide product availability, comparable prices, and the effectiveness of high-quality lead-free ammunition, it is possible to phase out the use of lead hunting ammunition world-wide, based on progressive policy and enforceable legislation. PMID:23288616

Thomas, Vernon George

2013-10-01

272

Dielectric, piezoelectric and damping properties of novel 2-2 piezoelectric composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, a strip-shaped 2-2 cement/polymer-based piezoelectric composite was designed and fabricated. The dielectric, piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling properties of the composite were investigated as well as the coupling effects between the thickness and lateral modes of the piezoelectric composites. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the composites can be greatly influenced by variations of the piezoelectric ceramic volume fraction and the structural dimensions of the composites. Excellent properties have been achieved for ultrasonic transducer applications in civil engineering monitoring fields, such as large piezoelectric voltage constants, high thickness electromechanical coupling coefficients and low acoustic impedance. The damping property of the composites was especially studied. The maximum damping loss factor of the composites is between 0.28–0.32, and the glass transition temperature is between 55°–66 °C.

Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Lei, Wang; Shifeng, Huang

2015-02-01

273

Electro-caloric effect in (Ba1-xCax)(Zr0.05Ti0.95)O3: A lead-free ferroelectric material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electro-caloric effect in lead-free (Ba1-xCax)(Zr0.05Ti0.95)O3 ferroelectric ceramics has been studied for x = 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10. The electro-caloric coefficient as high as 0.253 K mm/kV has been obtained near tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition for x = 0.08. This value is nearly the same as observed in lead-based ferroelectric materials. The higher value of electro-caloric coefficient at x = 0.08 is attributed to the higher polarization flexibility.

Singh, Gurvinderjit; Tiwari, V. S.; Gupta, P. K.

2013-11-01

274

Experimental measurements and finite element models of High Displacement Piezoelectric Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric actuators have many applications including morphable wing technology and piezoelectric transformers. A Piezoelectric ceramic is a material that will move when a voltage is applied and conversely produces a charge when a pressure is applied. In our study, we examine THUNDER (Thin Layer Unimorph Ferroelectric Driver and Sensor) actuators (Thunder TM is a trademark of FACE International Corporation.) Thunder

Gilberto Camargo; Gevale Ashford; Eris Naco; Tim Usher

2004-01-01

275

The finite element analysis of cylindrical overlapping piezoelectric transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cylindrical overlapping piezoelectric transducer is mainly composed of the three cylindrical piezoelectric ceramics, bracket, metal bolt, rubber, waterproof layer and output cable. The transducer model was established, separately in the air and water, with ANSYS to calculate the vibration frequency and conductance .The transmitting response and directivity in water were also calculated .The results showed that the overlapping structure

Tian-xiao Dong; Li-kun Wang; Lei Qin; Li Li; Wei-wei Wu; Gang Wang

2008-01-01

276

A piezoelectric droplet generator for use in wind tunnels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a compact piezoelectric droplet generator. A unique feature of this instrument is the small size of its nozzle assembly which includes a cylindrical piezoelectric ceramic transducer, an interchangeable orifice, a charging ring, and deflection plates. The nozzle assembly is housed in an acrylic tube, 19 mm in outside diameter and 150 mm in length, which can be

W. D. Warnica; M. Van Reenen; M. Renksizbulut; A. B. Strong

1991-01-01

277

Piezoelectric piggy-back microactuator for hard disk drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new piezoelectric piggy-back microactuator for high density hard disk drives was designed and fabricated to achieve more accurate positioning of the magnetic head and increasing servo bandwidth. The microactuator is made of stiff piezoelectric ceramic material to actuate the slider on which the head-element is formed. It is designed to amplify the actuating displacement. The basic mechanical performance of

Yoshikazu Soeno; Sliinji Ichikawa; Takamitsu Tsuna; Yoshikazu Sato; Isamu Sato

1999-01-01

278

The correlation between fatigue and material constants of PLZT ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations between the ferroelectric fatigue and variations in mechanical properties have been investigated by simultaneous measurement of the fatigue and the piezoelectric resonance of bar 8\\/65\\/35 PLZT ceramics. It was found that the fatigue reflects itself only in dielectric and piezoelectric properties. Namely, the remanent polarization, the complex dielectric and piezoelectric constants and the electromechanical coupling factor all start to

Adrijan Levstik; Vid Bobnar; Zdravko Kutnjak; Cene Filipi?; Marija Kosec

1999-01-01

279

Performance of Lead-Free versus Lead-Based Hunting Ammunition in Ballistic Soap  

PubMed Central

Background Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. Methods We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. Results All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. Conclusion The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape, and reproducibility, showing that similar terminal ballistic behavior can be achieved. Furthermore, the volumetric image processing allowed superior analysis compared to methods that involve cutting of the soap blocks. PMID:25029572

Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

2014-01-01

280

Assembly of lead-free bumped flip-chip with no-flow underfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free solder reflow process has presented challenges to no-flow underfill material and assembly. The currently available no-flow underfill materials are mainly designed for eutectic Sn-Pb solders. This paper presents the assembly of lead-free bumped flip-chip with developed no-flow underfill materials. Epoxy resin\\/HMPA\\/metal AcAc\\/Flux G system is developed as no-flow underfills for Sn\\/Ag\\/Cu alloy bumped flip-chips. The solder wetting test is

Zhuqing Zhang; C. P. Wong

2002-01-01

281

Fracture Behavior and Characterization of Lead-Free Brass Alloys for Machining Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stricter environmental, health, and safety regulations address the harmful effects of lead and provide the driving force for the development of lead-free brass alloys. Conventional leaded brass rods are widely used in several manufacturing sectors (i.e., fabrication of hydraulic components, fittings, valves, etc.) due to their superior workability in extrusion and drawing as well as their superior machinability. As machinability performance involves shear and dynamic fracture processes evolved under high strain-rate conditions, the understanding of the mechanical behavior/microstructure interaction is critical in order to successfully tailor candidate lead-free alloys for improved machinability without compromising the reliability of manufactured components. In this work, the mechanical behavior under static and dynamic loading of three lead-free brass alloys (CW510L-CW511L-C27450) in comparison to a conventional leaded brass alloy (CW614N) was studied. The fractographic evaluation of the texture of conjugate fracture surfaces was performed to identify the involved fracture mechanisms and their relation to the alloy microstructure. It was shown that the CW510L lead-free brass alloy is a potential candidate in replacing conventional CW614N leaded brass, combining high tensile strength and fracture toughness, due to the prevalence of the ?-intermetallic phase in the alloy microstructure.

Toulfatzis, Anagnostis I.; Pantazopoulos, George A.; Paipetis, Alkiviadis S.

2014-09-01

282

How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials - Presentation  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2011, Congress passed the ?Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,? which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of ?lead-free? by reducing allowed...

283

Lead-free halide perovskite solar cells with high photocurrents realized through vacancy modulation.  

PubMed

Lead free perovskite solar cells based on a CsSnI3 light absorber with a spectral response from 950 nm is demonstrated. The high photocurrents noted in the system are a consequence of SnF2 addition which reduces defect concentrations and hence the background charge carrier density. PMID:25212785

Kumar, Mulmudi Hemant; Dharani, Sabba; Leong, Wei Lin; Boix, Pablo P; Prabhakar, Rajiv Ramanujam; Baikie, Tom; Shi, Chen; Ding, Hong; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Asta, Mark; Graetzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Mathews, Nripan

2014-11-01

284

Joint Lead-Free Solder Test Program for High Reliability Military and Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current and future space and defense systems face potential risks from the continued use of tin-lead solder, including: compliance with current environmental regulations, concerns about potential environmental legislation banning lead-containing products, reduced mission readiness, and component obsolescence with lead surface finishes. For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has lowered the Toxic Chemical Release reporting threshold for lead to 100 pounds. Overseas, the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and the Restriction on Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Dicctives in Europe and similar mandates in Japan have instilled concern that a legislative body will prohibit the use of lead in aerospace/military electronics soldering. Any potential banning of lead compounds could reduce the supplier base and adversely affect the readiness of missions led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Before considering lead-free electronics for system upgrades or future designs, however, it is important for the DoD and NASA to know whether lead-free solders can meet their systems' requirements. No single lead-free solder is likely to qualify for all defense and space applications. Therefore, it is important to validate alternative solders for discrete applications. As a result of the need for comprehensive test data on the reliability of lead-free solders, a partnership was formed between the DoD, NASA, and several original equipment manufactures (OEMs) to conduct solder-joint reliability (laboratory) testing of three lead-free solder alloys on newly manufactured and reworked circuit cards to generate performance data for high-reliability (IPC Class 3) applications.

Brown, Christina

2004-01-01

285

Miniature piezoelectric triaxial accelerometer measures cranial accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tiny triaxial accelerometer whose sensing elements are piezoelectric ceramic beams measures human cranial accelerations when a subject is exposed to a centrifuge or other simulators of g environments. This device could be considered for application in dental, medical, and automotive safety research.

Deboo, G. J.; Rogallo, V. L.

1966-01-01

286

Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators: Static & Dynamic Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators offer the advantage of large deformation (up to 8%) and large strokes. Because of a prestress applied to the piezo ceramics and an efficient mechanical amplifier, they can produce large strokes both in static and dynamic conditions including resonance. For these reasons, these actuators can be used for micro positioning, structure shaping, structure active damping, vibration generation,

Frank Claeyssen; R. Le Letty; F. Barillot; O. Sosnicki

2007-01-01

287

Piezoelectric transducer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transducer consists of a hybrid thin film and a piezoelectric transistor that acts as a stress-sensitive device with built-in gain. It provides a stress/strain transducer that incorporates a signal amplification stage and sensor in a single package.

Conragan, J.; Muller, R. S.

1970-01-01

288

Piezoelectric Properties of Bismuth Layer-Structured Ferroelectric Ceramics with a Preferred Orientation Processed by the Reactive Templated Grain Growth Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBT) and Na0.475Ca0.05Bi4.475Ti4O15 (NCBT) ceramics with a highly preferred {001} orientation were prepared by the reactive templated grain growth (RTGG) method. Plate-like Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) particles were synthesized by a molten salt technique and used as the reactive template. The template particles were mixed with other oxide and carbonate powders and aligned by tape-casting. During the sintering, oriented CBT

Tsuguto Takeuchi; Toshihiko Tani; Yasuyoshi Saito

1999-01-01

289

Polarization alignment, phase transition, and piezoelectricity development in polycrystalline 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructural origin of the exceptionally high piezoelectric response of polycrystalline 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 is investigated using in situ transmission electron microscopy, in addition to a wide variety of bulk measurements and first-principles calculations. A direct correlation is established relating a domain wall-free state to the ultrahigh piezoelectric d33 coefficient in this BaTiO3-based composition. The results suggest that the unique single-domain state formed during electrical poling is a result of a structural transition from coexistent rhombohedral and tetragonal phases to an orthorhombic phase that has an anomalously low elastic modulus. First-principles calculations indicate that incorporating Ca2+ and Zr4+ into BaTiO3 reduces the differences in structure and energy of the variant perovskite phases, and 0.5Ba (Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 is identified as unique because the variant phases become almost indistinguishable. The structural instability and elastic softening observed here are responsible for the excellent piezoelectric properties of this lead-free ceramic.

Guo, Hanzheng; Voas, Brian K.; Zhang, Shujun; Zhou, Chao; Ren, Xiaobing; Beckman, Scott P.; Tan, Xiaoli

2014-07-01

290

Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

2002-01-01

291

Ferroelastic Characterization of Piezoelectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elastic deformation behavior of an isotropic material is governed by Young's modulus Y and Poisson's ratio ?. Knowledge of the Young's modulus, for instance, is necessary to split the total deformation S i measured under load stress T i into elastic S {/i el} and "plastic" S {/i pl} strain contributions S_i = S_i^el + S_i^pl = {T_i over Y} + S_i^pl , where Y is not necessarily a constant, but may depend on the amount of nonelastic strains, as will be shown later. The methods for the determination of the Young's moduli, well-known from conventional ceramics and also applicable to unpoled piezoelectric materials, are much more complicated for nonisotropic materials due to the tensorial character of the modulus and the special electric boundary conditions [1]. The conditions of a constant electrical field, E z ? E 3 = const, or a constant dielectric displacement, D z ? E 3 = const, influence the elastic properties. This effect may be illustrated for a uniaxial stress state with T x ? T 1 ? 0 exclusively. In the case of a piezoelectric material, we are interested in the components D_3 = d_{31}T_1 + \\varepsilon_{33}^T E_3 .

Fett, T.

292

High thermal stability of piezoelectric properties in (Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)x-(BaTiO3)y-(Na0.5K0.5NbO3)1-x-y ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of (Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)x-(BaTiO3)y-(Na0.5K0.5NbO3)1-x-y ceramics for Na0.5K0.5NbO3 rich end of composition (x, y ? 0.04 mol. %). These compositions were found to exhibit significantly improved thermal stability of piezoresponse. Variation of dielectric constant as a function of temperature revealed that orthorhombic-tetragonal (To-t) and tetragonal-cubic (Tc) transition temperatures for these compositions were in the vicinity of 0 °C and 330 °C, respectively. Dynamic scaling and temperature dependent X-ray diffraction analysis were conducted. Results are discussed in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the piezoelectric response explaining the temperature dependent behavior.

Gupta, Shashaank; Priya, Shashank

2013-01-01

293

Strain rate effect and Johnson-Cook models of lead-free solder alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drop\\/impact causes high strain rate deformation in solder joints of microelectronics package. It is important to understand mechanical behavior of solder joints under high strain rate for reliability design of products. In this paper mechanical behaviors of two lead-free solder alloys, Sn3.5Ag and Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu, were investigated by quasi-static tests and the split Hopkinson tension\\/pressure bar testing technique under high strain

Qin Fei; An Tong; Chen Na

2008-01-01

294

NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project: Vibration Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vibration testing was conducted by Boeing Research and Technology (Seattle) for the NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Solder Project. This project is a follow-on to the Joint Council on Aging Aircraft/Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JCAA/JG-PP) Lead-Free Solder Project which was the first group to test the reliability of lead-free solder joints against the requirements of the aerospace/miLItary community. Twenty seven test vehicles were subjected to the vibration test conditions (in two batches). The random vibration Power Spectral Density (PSD) input was increased during the test every 60 minutes in an effort to fail as many components as possible within the time allotted for the test. The solder joints on the components were electrically monitored using event detectors and any solder joint failures were recorded on a Labview-based data collection system. The number of test minutes required to fail a given component attached with SnPb solder was then compared to the number of test minutes required to fail the same component attached with lead-free solder. A complete modal analysis was conducted on one test vehicle using a laser vibrometer system which measured velocities, accelerations, and displacements at one . hundred points. The laser vibrometer data was used to determine the frequencies of the major modes of the test vehicle and the shapes of the modes. In addition, laser vibrometer data collected during the vibration test was used to calculate the strains generated by the first mode (using custom software). After completion of the testing, all of the test vehicles were visually inspected and cross sections were made. Broken component leads and other unwanted failure modes were documented.

Woodrow, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

295

Impression creep testing and microstructurally adaptive creep modeling of lead free solder interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep plays an important role in the reliability of solder joints under thermo-mechanical fatigue conditions encountered by a microelectronic package during service. In addition, the fine intermetallic precipitates (Ag3Sn and\\/or Cu6Sn5) in the microstructures of the new lead-free solders (Sn-Ag and Sn-Ag-Cu) can undergo significant in situ strain-enhanced coarsening during TMC, resulting in in-service evolution of the creep behavior of

I. Dutta; D. Pan; S. Jadhav

2005-01-01

296

Low temperature electromigration and thermomigration in lead-free solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

High current density and high temperature gradient are major reliability concern for next generation nanoelectronic packaging and power electronics. High current density experiments on lead free solder joints coated with NiAu and non-coated Cu pads were conducted at ?20, ?30, ?40 and ?50°C ambient temperatures. The time to failure (TTF) shows that solder joints with NiAu coated Cu pads last

Cemal Basaran; Mohd F. Abdulhamid

2009-01-01

297

Diffuse phase transition in Li{sub 0.12}Na{sub 0.88}NbO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The morphotropic phase boundary composition viz. lithium sodium niobate, Li{sub 0.12}Na{sub 0.88}NbO{sub 3}, (LNN-12) was prepared by conventional solid state reaction and sintering route. The temperature dependent permittivity response near transition temperature showed a diffused phase transition (DPT). The degree of diffuseness, {gamma}, using the modified Curie-Weiss law, was found to be 1.92, indicative of almost-complete diffuse phase transition. The planar coupling constant k{sub p}, and mechanical quality factor Q{sub m}, measured by resonance-antiresonance method, were 0.17 and 413 respectively. These parameter values make LNN-12 ceramic an attractive candidate for transducers applications.

Mitra, Supratim; Kulkarni, Ajit R.; Prakash, Om [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

2013-02-05

298

Measurement of elastic modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity by piezoelectric resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A piezoelectric ceramic resonator is used for the ‘electrical’ measurement of elastic properties, i.e. Young’s modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity in metallic materials. Piezoelectric response is precisely calculated for the piezoelectric ceramic ring fixed at the end of a metallic rod. The piezoelectric ring serves as both an actuator as well as a sensor. The experimental setup and method of measurement using higher overtones is explained in detail and practically demonstrated for a set of different metallic materials. Young’s moduli and ultrasonic wave velocities are measured within 3% relative error. The presented method is suitable for an advanced engineering class or physics laboratory training.

Erhart, Ji?í

2015-01-01

299

Study of Thermo-Electro-Mechnical Coupling in Functionally Graded Metal-Ceramic Composites  

E-print Network

presents analyses of thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric actuators having combinations of metal and ceramic constituents with through thickness gradual variations of the metal and ceramic compositions. This is done in order to achieve better...

Doshi, Sukanya 1988-

2012-12-10

300

www.ceramics.org | American Ceramic Society Bulletin, Vol. 92, No. 118 By Paul G. Evans and Rebecca J. Sichel-Tissot  

E-print Network

www.ceramics.org | American Ceramic Society Bulletin, Vol. 92, No. 118 By Paul G. Evans and Rebecca of piezoelectric ceramic thin films There has been rapid development in the precision with which ferroelectric mate,2 Ferroelectric thin-film materi- als belong to the broad category of electronic ceramics, and they find

Evans, Paul G.

301

Solid freeform fabrication: novel manufacturing opportunities for electronic ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) methods offer unique opportunities for manufacturing electronic ceramics, specifically piezoelectric ceramics and ceramic\\/polymer composites (for sensing and actuating applications) free of constraints imposed by complexity of design or architecture. This is a direct result of the fact that these methods allow component manufacture without the need for hard tools\\/molds or costly machining. There are a number

S. C. Danforth; A. Safari

1996-01-01

302

Piezoelectric polymer foams: transducer mechanism and preparation as well as touch-sensor and ultrasonic-transducer properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different materials provide a mechanical-electrical energy conversion and are thus interesting candidates for piezoelectric sensors and actuators. Beside ferroelectric ceramics and polymers, also polymer foams, so-called ferroelectrets, are developed as piezoelectric active materials. Their piezoelectricity originates from optimized structural and elastic-foam properties accompanied with an optimized charge trapping at the polymer layers within the foam structure. The piezoelectric activity arises

M. Wegener

2010-01-01

303

Piezoelectric Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students explore the piezoelectric effect, which is the conversion between electricity and mechanical motion. The model used in this activity shows this conversion and users can manipulate the model to change the voltage and observe changes to a crystal. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In these activities, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity and central and key concepts.

2008-10-23

304

Effect of cement-polymer ratio on 1-3 piezoelectric composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1-3 type piezoelectric composite was fabricated by cut-filling technique. The effects of cement-polymer ratio on piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites were analyzed. The results show that piezoelectric strain factor d33 and piezoelectric voltage factor g33 exhibit the trend of decrease initially and then increase with increasing cement-polymer ratio. With the increase of cement-polymer ratio, the dielectric factor ?r and dielectric loss tan? of the composites increase initially and then decrease. Comparing with pure piezoelectric ceramic, the mechanical quality factor Qm decreases obviously. Acoustic impedance Z is about 9 M raly, which is matching with concrete.

Guo, Lili; Xu, Dongyu; Huang, Shifeng

2009-07-01

305

Lead-Free Double-Base Propellant for the 2.75 Inch Rocket Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current MK 66 2.75 inch Rocket Motor double-base propellant contains the lead-based ballistic modifier LC-12-15 to achieve the desired plateau and mesa burning rate characteristics. The use of lead compounds poses a concern for the environment and for personal safety due to the metal's toxic nature when introduced into the atmosphere by propellant manufacture, rocket motor firing, and disposal. Copper beta-resorcylate (copper 2,4-di-hydroxy-benzoate) was successfully used in propellant as a simple modifier in the mid 1970's. This and other compounds have also been mixed with lead salts to obtain more beneficial ballistic results. Synthesized complexes of lead and copper compounds soon replaced the mixtures. The complexes incorporate the lead, copper lack of organic liquids, which allows for easier propellant processing. About ten years ago, the Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), initiated an effort to develop a lead-free propellant for use in missile systems. Several lead-free propellant candidate formulations were developed. About five years ago, NSWC, in conjunction with Alliant Techsystems, Radford Army Ammunition Plant, continued ballistic modifier investigations. A four component ballistic modifier system without lead for double-base propellants that provide adequate plateau and mesa burn rate characteristics was developed and patented. The ballistic modifier's system contains bismuth subsalicylate, 1.5 percent; copper salicylate, 1.0 percent, copper stannate, 0.77 percent; and carbon black, 0.1 percent. Action time and impulse data obtained through multiple static firings indicate that the new lead-free double-base propellant, while not a match for NOSIH-AA-2, will be a very suitable replacement in the 2.75 inch Rocket Motor. Accelerated aging of the double-base propellant containing the lead-free ballistic modifier showed that it had a much higher rate of stabilizer depletion than the AA-2. A comprehensive study showed that an increased rate of stabilizer depletion occurred in propellants containing monobasic copper salicylate. The study also showed that propellants containing a mixture of bismuth subsalicylate and copper salicylate, had only about one-half the stabilizer depletion rate than those with copper salicylate alone. The copper salicylate catalyzes the decomposition of nitroglycerin, which triggers a chain of events leading to the increased rate of stabilizer depletion. A program has been initiated to coat the ballistic modifier, thus isolating it from the nitroglycerin.

Magill, B. T.; Nauflett, G. W.; Furrow, K. W.

2000-01-01

306

Actuation Behavior of Multilayer Ceramic Actuator Induced by ElectroMechanical Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actuation behavior of multilayer ceramic actuators (MCA) using PMN-PZT ceramics was investigated under the combined high electromechanical loading. When electric field and compressive stress are simultaneously applied to the ceramics, the piezoceramics is expected to be different from that of ceramics induced by only one quantity, electric field or mechanical load. This property difference was estimated via piezoelectric equation.

Mun-Su Ha; Soon-Jong Jeong; Jung-Hyuk Koh; Jae-Sung Song; Yeon-Hak Jeong

2006-01-01

307

Enhanced piezoelectric performance of composite sol-gel thick films evaluated using piezoresponse force microscopy  

PubMed Central

Conventional composite sol-gel method has been modified to enhance the piezoelectric performance of ceramic thick films. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PMN-PT) thick films were fabricated using the modified sol-gel method for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this work, piezoresponse force microscopy was employed to evaluate the piezoelectric characteristics of PZT and PMN-PT composite sol-gel thick films. The images of the piezoelectric response and the strain-electric field hysteresis loop behavior were measured. The effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33,eff) of the films was determined from the measured loop data. It was found that the effective local piezoelectric coefficient of both PZT and PMN-PT composite films is comparable to that of their bulk ceramics. The promising results suggest that the modified composite sol-gel method is a promising way to prepare the high-quality, crack-free ceramic thick films. PMID:23798771

Liu, Yuanming; Lam, Kwok Ho; Kirk Shung, K.; Li, Jiangyu; Zhou, Qifa

2013-01-01

308

Finite Element Analyses for Radial Piezoelectric Mode Laminated Transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel laminated piezoelectric transducer was mainly composed of the piezoelectric ceramics, metal bolt, rubber gasket, copper electrode, waterproof layer and output cable. The transducer finite-element modeling was built, separately in the air and water, with ANSYS10.0 to calculate the resonance frequency, conductance, transmitting voltage response and directivity. The simulation showed that the laminated structure effectively improved the sensitivity of

Dong TianXiao; Wang LiKun; Qin Lei; Wu WeiWei; Wang Gang

2008-01-01

309

Slow relaxation of field-induced piezoelectric resonance in paraelectric barium stannate titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kind of slow relaxation of field-induced piezoelectric resonance is observed in paraelectric barium stannate titanate ceramics. The piezoelectric resonance peaks vanish in several minutes when bias field is either applied or removed. These phenomena may be universal for dielectrics and can be explained by a model of slow dipoles composed of injected homocharges. With this model, the authors predict a negative piezoelectric modulus of d33 when just the bias field is removed, and verify it by experimental results.

Wei, Xiaoyong; Feng, Yujun; Yao, Xi

2004-03-01

310

Electrical Properties of Step-down Multilayer Piezoelectric Transformer for AC-DC converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilayer piezoelectric transformers (MPT) were manufactured using PZN-PMN-PZT ceramics and their electrical properties were then investigated according to frequency and load resistance. The voltage step-up ratio of multilayer piezoelectric transformer showed the maximum value in the vicinity of 73 kHz and increased according to the increase of load resistance. When the output impedance coincided with the load resistance, the piezoelectric

Ju-Hyun Yoo; Kook-Jin Kim; Chang-Bae Lee; Dong-Soo Paik; Hyun-Sang Yoon; Jae-Il Hong

2006-01-01

311

Research on Temperature Property of Piezoelectric Vibration Accelerometer Based on Cymbal Transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new type of piezoelectric vibration accelerometer was studied, which sensitive element is cymbal piezocomposite transducer with 2-(0)-2 connectivity rather than conventional piezoelectric ceramic. The temperature property of output voltage of this new piezoelectric vibration accelerometer was investigated. Put the temperature sensor DS18B20 into the vibration accelerometer to detect the inner temperature properties of the vibration accelerometer. Using microcomputer to

Li Denghua; Gao Xiangyu; Zhang Zhixin; Zhou Feng

2010-01-01

312

Piezoelectric cement-based materials with large coupling and voltage coefficients  

E-print Network

of the polarization. Conventional piezoelectric materials are the perovskite ceramics (e.g., titanates, zirco- natesPiezoelectric cement-based materials with large coupling and voltage coefficients Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Chung, Deborah D.L.

313

Large Effective-Strain Piezoelectric Actuators Using Nested Cellular Architecture With Exponential Strain Amplification Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and analysis of piezoelectric actuators having over 20% effective strain using an exponential strain amplification mechanism are presented in this paper. Piezoelectric ceramic material, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), has large stress and bandwidth, but its extremely small strain, i.e., only 0.1%, has been a major bottleneck for broad applications. This paper presents a new strain amplification design,

Jun Ueda; Thomas W. Secord; H. Harry Asada

2010-01-01

314

Design of Piezoelectric Actuators Using the Topology Optimization Based on Density Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flextensional Piezoelectric Actuator consists of a flexible structure actuated by piezoelectric ceramics. These actuators are applied to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), nanotechnology equipment, microsurgery equipment, etc. However, due to the fact these actuators essentially consist of a compliant me chanism their design is complex. The compliant structure behaves as a mechanical transform by amplifying and changing the direction of small output

Ronny Calixto Carbonari; Emílio Carlos; Nelli Silva

315

Piezoelectric actuation of crack growth along polymer-metal interfaces in adhesive bonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new experimental technique for determining mechanical properties of polymer-metal interfaces was developed by replacing the conventional mechanical testing machine with a piezoelectric actuator. The actuator was made from a thin ferroelectric ceramic beam attached to a bilayer polymer-metal composite specimen. The trilayer specimen was loaded by applying ac electric fields on the piezoelectric actuator to drive crack growth along

Tianbao Du; Ming Liu; Steve Seghi; K. J. Hsia; J. Economy; J. K. Shang

2001-01-01

316

VOLTAGE-TUNABLE PIEZOELECTRICALLY-TRANSDUCED SINGLE-CRYSTAL SILICON RESONATORS ON SOI SUBSTRATE  

E-print Network

blocks for on-chip integrated filter and frequency references to replace bulky, off-chip ceramic and SAW. The resonating element is made out of the SCS device layer of a SOI wafer. In a unique manner, piezoelectric that combine the advantages of piezoelectric and capacitive resonators. The resonating element is substantially

Ayazi, Farrokh

317

Application of a Classical Lamination Theory Model to the Design of Piezoelectric Composite Unimorph Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the design, development, and characterization of unimorphtype laminated piezoelectric actuators. The actuators consist of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) layer sandwiched between unidirectional Kevlar 49 and epoxy composite layers. Differential thermal expansion during processing places the ceramic plate in a state of residual compression and results in a curved actuator. Modified classical lamination theory (MCLT) (modified

Kyle G. Webber; David P. Hopkinson; Christopher S. Lynch

2006-01-01

318

Tin pest in Sn-0.5 wt.% Cu lead-free solder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tin pest (the product of the allotropic transformation of ?-tin into ?-tin at temperatures below 286 K) has been observed in a Sn-0.5 wt.% Cu solder alloy. Some 40 percent of the specimen surface was transformed into gray tin after aging at 255K for 1.5 years, and after 1.8 years, the proportion increased to about 70 percent. The degree of transformation in work-hardened areas is much higher than in other areas, suggesting residual stress might provide an additional driving force for the transformation into ?-tin. The allotropic change results in a 26 percent increase in volume, and cracks are initiated to accommodate the changes in volume. Results indicate that tin pest could lead to total disintegration of micro-electronic solder joints. The tin-copper eutectic system may become a prominent lead-free solder, and tin pest could have major ramifications on service lifetime of electronic assemblies.

Kariya, Yoshiharu; Williams, Naomi; Gagg, Colin; Plumbridge, William

2001-06-01

319

Analysis of lead free tin-silver-copper and tin-lead solder wetting reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead free electronics soldering is driven by a combination of health and environmental concerns, international legislation and marketing pressure by lead free electronics manufacturing competitors. Since July 1, 2006, companies that do not comply with the European Union legislation are not able to sell circuit assemblies with lead solder in the European Union. China has developed its own regulations, based on the European Union documents with a compliance date of March 1, 2007. Extensive testing by the electronics community has determined that the Sn - Ag - Cu (SAC) family of alloys is the preferred choice for lead free Surface Mount Technology (SMT) soldering. The 96.5Sn/3.0Ag/0.5Cu alloy was used in this study. Lead free soldering requires an increase in reflow peak temperatures which further aggravates component moisture sensitivity risks and thereby decreases assembly yield. Prior research has revealed an enhanced solder spreading phenomena at lower peak temperature and shorter time above liquidus with 63Sn/37Pb solder. This current research investigated solder wetting reactions in 63Sn/37Pb and 96.5Sn/3.0Ag/0.5Cu (SAC305) using materials and manufacturing systems that are industry relevant. The objective was to advance the knowledge base of metal wetting while developing a reflow assembly process that minimized the component defect rates. The components are damaged during reflow by popcorn delamination, which is the result of moisture absorption and subsequent rapid evaporation. A classical Design Of Experiments (DOE) approach was used, with wetted area as the response variable. Outside of the DOE, substrate dissolution depth, and substrate surface new phase formation (reaction product) distance from the triple line (solder wetting front) and reaction product thickness in the solder joint (under the solder) were also analyzed. The samples were analyzed for correlation of reflow peak temperature, reflow Time Above Liquidus (TAL), wetted area, reaction product distance from the triple line, substrate dissolution depth, triple line ridge (substrate protrusion into the molten solder) formation and reaction product thickness in the solder joint. The general results are (1) an improved understanding of 63Sn/37Pb and 96.5Sn/3.0Ag/0.5Cu WT% solder wetting reactions, (2) reduced 63Sn/37Pb and SAC reflow peak temperatures, and thereby reduced risk of moisture sensitivity damage to components. The significance of these results are (1) enhanced applied understanding of the complexity of molten metal wetting a substrate and (2) enhanced assembly yield due to minimal aggravation of component moisture sensitivity. The uniqueness of this research is that it utilized a holistic Systems Science approach which provided a combined microscopic (substrate and molten metal reactions) and macroscopic (wetted area) analysis of metal wetting using materials and processes that were directly relevant to electronics manufacturing.

Anson, Scott J.

320

KNN/BNT Composite Lead-Free Films for High-Frequency Ultrasonic Transducer Applications  

PubMed Central

Lead-free K0.5Na0.5NbO3/Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (KNN/BNT) films have been fabricated by a composite sol-gel technique. Crystalline KNN fine powder was dispersed in the BNT precursor solution to form a composite slurry which was then spin-coated onto a platinum-buffered Si substrate. Repeated layering and vacuum infiltration were applied to produce 5-?m-thick dense composite film. By optimizing the sintering temperature, the films exhibited good dielectric and ferroelectric properties comparable to PZT films. A 193-MHz high-frequency ultrasonic transducer fabricated from this composite film showed a ?6-dB bandwidth of approximately 34%. A tungsten wire phantom was imaged to demonstrate the capability of the transducer. PMID:21244994

Lau, Sien Ting; Ji, Hong Fen; Li, Xiang; Ren, Wei; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

2011-01-01

321

Integration of lead-free ferroelectric on HfO2/Si (100) for high performance non-volatile memory applications.  

PubMed

We introduce a novel lead-free ferroelectric thin film (1-x)BaTiO3-xBa(Cu1/3Nb2/3)O3 (x = 0.025) (BT-BCN) integrated on to HfO2 buffered Si for non-volatile memory (NVM) applications. Piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM), x-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were employed to establish the ferroelectricity in BT-BCN thin films. PFM study reveals that the domains reversal occurs with 180° phase change by applying external voltage, demonstrating its effectiveness for NVM device applications. X-ray photoelectron microscopy was used to investigate the band alignments between atomic layer deposited HfO2 and pulsed laser deposited BT-BCN films. Programming and erasing operations were explained on the basis of band-alignments. The structure offers large memory window, low leakage current, and high and low capacitance values that were easily distinguishable even after ~10(6)?s, indicating strong charge storage potential. This study explains a new approach towards the realization of ferroelectric based memory devices integrated on Si platform and also opens up a new possibility to embed the system within current complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processing technology. PMID:25683062

Kundu, Souvik; Maurya, Deepam; Clavel, Michael; Zhou, Yuan; Halder, Nripendra N; Hudait, Mantu K; Banerji, Pallab; Priya, Shashank

2015-01-01

322

On the research of lead-free material challengers for PZT replacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 and BaTi0.98Sn0.02O3 thin films elaborated by a sol-gel route and deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates. The annealing temperatures were 750 °C, 850 °C and 950 °C. An increase of the average size of grains was observed, from 60 nm at 750 °C to 110 nm at 950 °C and from 70 nm at 750 °C to 150 nm at 950 °C, for BST and BTS respectively, as well as an increase of the dielectric constant and remnant polarization. We have also shown that there are benefits for electrical properties to decrease the annealing time. Despite its non-significant piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties, BTS gives good dielectric properties. Under our optimized annealing conditions, we gave the evidence that ferroelectric BST is a good challenger to replace PZT in various applications, except in piezoelectrics, as the electrical properties measured on our thin films were particularly significant for applications in electronic devices.

Fasquelle, D.; Mascot, M.; Carru, J. C.

2012-09-01

323

Piezoelectric drive circuit  

DOEpatents

A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

Treu, Jr., Charles A. (Raymore, MO)

1999-08-31

324

Piezoelectrically Assisted Ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated the feasibility of using piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration to reduce membrane fouling and enhance the flux through ultrafiltration membranes. A preliminary economic evaluation, accounting for the power consumption of the piezoelectric driver and the extent of permeate flow rate enhancement, has also shown that piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration is cost effective and economically competitive in comparison with traditional separation

N. Ahner; D. Gottschlich; S. Narang; D. Roberts; S. Sharma; S. Ventura

1993-01-01

325

"Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

1994-01-01

326

High Strain, /001S Textured 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O30.325PbTiO3 Ceramics: Templated Grain Growth and Piezoelectric Properties  

E-print Network

High Strain, /001S Textured 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3­0.325PbTiO3 Ceramics: Templated Grain Growth­ 0.325PbTiO3 (PMN­32.5PT) ceramics were textured (grain- oriented) in the /001S-crystallographic direction by the templated grain growth process. The textured PMN­32.5PT ceramics were produced by orienting

Messing, Gary L.

327

Development of extremely ductile lead-free Sn-Al solders for futuristic electronic packaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, new lead-free Sn-Al solders are developed incorporating varying amount of Al (0.4 and 0.6% by weight) into pure Sn using disintegrated melt deposition technique. Solder samples were then subsequently extruded at room temperature and characterized. Microstructural characterization studies revealed equiaxed grain morphology, minimal porosity, reasonably uniform distribution of Al particles and good Sn-Al interfacial integrity. Melting temperature of Sn-0.6Al (228°C) was found to be close to the eutectic Sn-0.7Cu (227°C) solders. Microhardness was increased with increasing amount of Al in pure Sn. Room temperature tensile test results revealed that newly developed Sn-0.6Al solders exhibited significant improvement in 0.2% yield strength (˜67%), ultimate tensile strength (˜18%) and ductility (˜123%) when compared to commercial Sn-0.7Cu solder. Ductility was improved about 222%, 263% and 81% when compared to commercially available Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu, Sn-3.5Ag and Sn-37Pb solders, respectively without compromising strength.

Alam, Md Ershadul; Gupta, Manoj

2014-03-01

328

In Situ Synchrotron Characterization of Melting, Dissolution, and Resolidification in Lead-Free  

SciTech Connect

Melting and solidification of SAC 305 lead-free solder joints in a wafer-level chip-scale package were examined in situ with synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The chips with balls attached (but not assembled to a circuit board) were reflowed one to three times using a temperature and time history similar to an industrial reflow process. Diffraction patterns from the same joint were collected every 0.5 s during the melting and solidification process. The solidification of the Sn phase in the solder joint occurred between 0.5 s and 1 s. During melting, most of the Sn melted in about 0.5 s, but in some cases took 2-5 s for the Sn peak to completely disappear. In one instance, the Sn peak persisted for 30 s. The Ag{sub 3}Sn peaks dissolved in about 1-2 s, but the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} peaks from the interface were persistent and did not change throughout the melting and solidification process. Completely different Sn crystal orientations were always developed upon resolidification.

Zhou, Bite; Bieler, Thomas R.; Wu, Guilin; Zaefferer, Stefan; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan (Michigan); (Cisco); (MXPL)

2013-04-08

329

SHPB tests for mechanical behavior of lead-free solder alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic behavior of solder joints in microelectronic packages is key issue for drop/impact reliability design of mobile electronic products. The dynamic mechanical behavior of 63Sn37Pb, 96.5Sn3.5Ag and 96.5Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu at high strain rates have been investigated by using the split Hopkinson pressure/tension bar testing technique (SHPB). Stress-strain relations of the three solders were obtained at strain rates of 600s-1, 1200s-1 and 2200s-1, respectively. The experimental results show that the lead-free solders are strongly strain rate dependent. 96.5Sn3.5Ag is the most sensitive to strain rate, while 63Sn37Pb is the least. 96.5Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu has the greatest yield stress and tensile strength. Relations of the yield stress and the tensile strength of the solders with strain rate were fitted.

Qin, Fei; An, Tong; Chen, Na

2008-11-01

330

Mechanical Properties of Lead-Free Solder Joints Under High-Speed Shear Impact Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we expanded on recently reported research by using a modified miniature Charpy impact-testing system to investigate the shear deformation behavior of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu lead-free solder joints at high strain rates ranging from 1.1 × 103 s-1 to 5.5 × 103 s-1. The experimental results revealed that the maximum shear strength of the solder joint decreased with increasing load speed in the ranges tested in this study. For solder joints tested at a shear speed exceeding 1 m/s, corresponding to an approximate strain rate that exceeds 1950 s-1, the brittle fracture mode is the main failure mode, whereas lower strain rates result in a ductile-to-brittle transition in the fracture surfaces of solder joints. In addition, the mode II stress intensity factor ( K II) used to evaluate the fracture toughness ( K C) of an interfacial intermetallic compound layer between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder and the toughness of copper substrate was found to decrease from 1.63 MPa m0.5 to 0.97 MPa m0.5 in the speed range tested here.

Nguyen, Van Luong; Kim, Ho-Kyung

2014-11-01

331

Mechanical Properties of Lead-Free Solder Joints Under High-Speed Shear Impact Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we expanded on recently reported research by using a modified miniature Charpy impact-testing system to investigate the shear deformation behavior of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu lead-free solder joints at high strain rates ranging from 1.1 × 103 s-1 to 5.5 × 103 s-1. The experimental results revealed that the maximum shear strength of the solder joint decreased with increasing load speed in the ranges tested in this study. For solder joints tested at a shear speed exceeding 1 m/s, corresponding to an approximate strain rate that exceeds 1950 s-1, the brittle fracture mode is the main failure mode, whereas lower strain rates result in a ductile-to-brittle transition in the fracture surfaces of solder joints. In addition, the mode II stress intensity factor (K II) used to evaluate the fracture toughness (K C) of an interfacial intermetallic compound layer between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder and the toughness of copper substrate was found to decrease from 1.63 MPa m0.5 to 0.97 MPa m0.5 in the speed range tested here.

Nguyen, Van Luong; Kim, Ho-Kyung

2014-09-01

332

Developing a NASA Lead-Free Policy for Electronics - Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is not required by United States or international law to use lead-free (Pb-free) electronic systems but international pressure in the world market is making it increasingly important that NASA have a Pb-free policy. In fact, given the international nature of the electronics market, all organizations need a Pb-free policy. This paper describes the factors which must be taken into account in formulating the policy, the tools to aid in structuring the policy and the unanticipated and difficult challenges encountered. NASA is participating in a number of forums and teams trying to develop effective approaches to controlling Pb-free adoption in high reliability systems. The activities and status of the work being done by these teams will be described. NASA also continues to gather information on metal whiskers, particularly tin based, and some recent examples will be shared. The current lack of a policy is resulting in "surprises" and the need to disposition undesirable conditions on a case-by-case basis. This is inefficient, costly and can result in sub-optimum outcomes.

Sampson, Michael J.

2008-01-01

333

Thermomigration: An experimental damage mechanics study on nanoelectronic lead free solder alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on experimental study of thermomigration in lead-free solder alloys. Thermomigration in microelectronic solder joints was not a concern until significant miniaturization of electronics devices required to run high current densities with smaller solder joint sizes. High current density induces electromigration and Joule heating at the same time. The imbalance of Joule heating generated at top and bottom of solder joint causes a temperature gradient which is large enough to induce thermomigration damage. In the literature, most studies report electromigration induced damage without considering the influence of thermomigration, thus the effect of electromigration and thermomigration can not be individually identified. This dissertation studies the experimental damage mechanics of thermomigration without electromigration by studying formation and destruction of intermetallic compound, and vacancy migration due to diffusion driving forces. Microstructural degradation and hardness testing were used to quantify thermomigration induced damage. After studying material science and physics behind the thermomigration process, using test vehicles, the combined effects of electromigration and thermomigration were studied experimentally. The studies were repeated at a subzero temperatures to see the effect of low temperature on thermomigration and electromigration, and reliability of nanoelectronic solder joints. A new time to failure equation is proposed to show a threshold temperature below which diffusion slows down significantly. By ensuring the solder operating temperature is well kept below the threshold value by proper thermal management, the solder joint life can be extended.

Abdul Hamid, Mohd Foad

334

A high-temperature double-mode piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor (piezoelectric vibrator sizes: 4.7 × 13.5 × 2 mm3) has been studied for precise actuation at 200 °C high-temperature. This piezoelectric linear motor was made of (1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramic with a high curie temperature (428 °C) and it was operated in first longitudinal and the second bending double-mode. Our experimental results showed that the linear motor moves smoothly at the temperature as high as 200 °C with a driving force of 0.35 N and a speed up to 42 mm/s.

Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang

2012-08-01

335

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES AND POWER CONSIDERATIONS OF A PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the electrical characteristics of piezoelectric wafers for use in aeronautical applications such as active noise control in aircraft. Determination of capacitive behavior and power consumption is necessary to optimize the system configuration and to design efficient driving electronics. Empirical relations are developed from experimental data to predict the capacitance and loss tangent of a PZT5A ceramic as

T. Jordan; Z. Ounaies; J. Tripp; P. Tcheng

336

Bipolar piezoelectric fatigue of Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 Pb-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric fatigue behavior of Pb-free ceramics based on solid solutions of Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 was characterized at 50 kV/cm after 106 bipolar cycles. Ferroelectric compositions containing 2.5% Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 exhibited only minor losses in maximum strain (˜10%). In compositions with 5% Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 that exhibit large electric field-induced strains, the electromechanical strain actually increased 4%, exhibiting essentially fatigue free behavior. This finding demonstrates that these materials have excellent potential for demanding high cycle applications such as microelectromechanical systems actuators.

Patterson, Eric A.; Cann, David P.

2012-07-01

337

Temperature dependence of the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions in BiFeO3-(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution focuses on the use of modified Rayleigh law as a technique for determining the intrinsic and extrinsic (reversible/irreversible) contributions to the piezoelectric effect up to 150 °C across a broad compositional space, augmenting previous understanding of the BiFeO3-(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 system. At room temperature, a mechanistic explanation of the correlation between crystal symmetry, i.e., tetragonal spontaneous strain, xs, and the Rayleigh relations using Landau theory is provided. The intrinsic response was found to be heavily dependent upon the tetragonal xs, whereby an optimisation between polarization and permittivity was elucidated, leading to enhanced piezoelectric charge coefficients. A c/a ratio of ˜1.041 was identified at which the room temperature intrinsic and extrinsic effects were at a maximum; a dinit of 183 × 10-12 m/V and Rayleigh coefficient of 59 × 10-18 m2/V2 were measured, resulting in the largest piezoelectric charge coefficients. The piezoelectric charge coefficient d33, intrinsic and extrinsic contributions of these materials were all found to increase up to 150 °C while adhering to the Rayleigh model. The reversible extrinsic component of the total reversible response, dinit, was calculated to be relatively minor, 4.9% at room temperature, increasing to 12.1% at 150 °C, signifying its increasing influence to the piezoelectric effect, as domain wall motion is thermally activated. Hence, the phenomenological interpretation provided here may be used as a roadmap to elucidate the origins of the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric effect.

Bennett, J.; Shrout, T. R.; Zhang, S. J.; Mandal, P.; Bell, A. J.; Stevenson, T. J.; Comyn, T. P.

2014-09-01

338

Piezoelectric dilatometric analysis using homodyne and heterodyne laser interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromechanical coupling of piezoelectric materials has been widely studied since such property is found to be a key element of enhanced sensitivity in piezoelectric sensors or actuators. However a unified view of this coupling as function of frequencies verified using multiple measurement techniques has not previously been available. This study examines and compares multiple optical based homodyne and heterodyne interferometry techniques for piezoelectric displacement measurement, over a wide range of frequencies from DC to 20 MHz. A custom configured homodyne optical interferometer and a commercial heterodyne Laser Doppler Vibrometer are used in the study. Because the frequency ranges used by these devices overlap, it is possible to compare the results. Ferroelectric lead titanate PbTiO3 (PT) ceramic sample with high ferroelectric strain is studied in this work. Frequency dependence of the electromechanical displacement is obtained using multiple techniques and the emphasis of the interrogations is given to frequencies near piezoelectric resonances.

Delahoussaye, Keith

339

10 ?? 10 cm2 Hit Solar Cells Contacted with Lead-Free Electrical Conductive Adhesives to Solar Cell Interconnectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we have investigated the optical and electrical properties of 10 ?? 10 cm2 HIT solar cells with evaporated Cr\\/Ag grids. Contacts were done with low temperature lead-free electrically conductive adhesives to standard solar cell interconnector tabs (IT). Compared to solder joints conductive adhesives have the advantage of lower contact formation temperature with reasonable low contact resistances

M. L. D. Scherff; S. Schwertheim; Yue Ma; T. Mueller; W. R. Fahrner

2006-01-01

340

A piezoelectric transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

Won, C. C.

1993-01-01

341

Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

2013-12-01

342

Domain-orientation-controlled potassium niobate family piezoelectric materials with hydrothermal powders.  

PubMed

Materials of the potassium niobate family, as lead-free piezoelectric materials, are expected to be alternative materials to Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) because of their good piezoelectric properties, high Curie temperature, and so on. In particular, single-crystal potassium niobate is a promising ferroelectric material as a surface acoustic substrate and for functional optical effects. It is, however, well known that single crystals are difficult to fabricate because of the instability caused by temperature, external stress, and other factors. PMID:25265169

Fujiuchi, Yukiko; Morita, Takeshi

2014-10-01

343

Portfolio: Ceramics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

Hardy, Jane; And Others

1982-01-01

344

Ceramic actuators - Principles and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric and electrostrictive actuators for electromechanical work have applications that fall into the broad categories of positioners, motors, and vibration suppressors. These ceramic actuators have displacements of up to several tens of microns, which can be controlled with a precision of +/- 10 microns, as well as response speeds of the order of 10 microsec and generative forces as large as 400 kgf/sq cm. Their driving power is typically an order of magnitude smaller than that of electromagnetic motors. Attention is given to the multilayer and bimorph types of ceramic actuators that are currently the most often used in applications of this technology.

Uchino, Kenji

1993-04-01

345

Optimizing Voided Piezoelectric Polymers For Acoustic Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer piezoelectric materials offer lower density and more flexibility than piezoelectric ceramics for applications where rugged and lightweight acoustic sensors are required. This paper discusses constraints imposed by material stiffness and dielectric constants and aims to derive a generalized closed-form solution for optimizing charged foamed polymers. Optimized solutions are reached in the limits of very large and small void fraction and permittivity ratio. The permittivity ratio is the ratio of the dielectric constants of the polymer and the material that fills the voids. Demonstrations indicate that, in the oblique asymptote, the optimized void fraction becomes equivalent to the permittivity ratio. This effort was conducted under the auspices of the Undersea Warfare Business Area (UWBA) Independent Research & Development (IRAD) Board of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL).

Arvelo, Juan I.

2009-07-01

346

(K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.10,Sb0.06)O3 ferroelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

Recent progress in (K0.44, Na0.52, Li0.04)O3-based ceramics (KNN) with special emphasis on(K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.10,Sb0.06)O3 (KNN-LT-LS) is reviewed concisely. The base KNN and its compositional derivatives are analyzed in terms of dopant-property relationships, which are then extended to the ternary derivatives. The effects of processing conditions such as humidity, precursor purity, and oxygen partial pressure during sintering are elaborated on from a phenomenological perspective. It is also shown that the spontaneous polarization is sensitive to the processing route chosen for synthesis (mixed oxide versus perovskite routes). Special attention is devoted to the discussion of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) dilemma in the KNN-LT-LS system, where it is shown that the origin of high piezoelectric activity is actually due to a polymorphic transition at room temperature. It is shown that prototype transducers based on pure and 1 mol% Ba2+ doped KNN-LT-LS exhibit performance metrics comparable to those fabricated using PZT-5H. Overall, KNNLT- LS ceramics show great promise for lead-free applications, although issues such as temperature dependence of properties and strong sensitivity to processing conditions remain as the 2 major challenges. PMID:19686974

Safari, Ahmad; Abazari, Maryam; Kerman, Kian; Marandian-Hagh, Nader; Akdo?an, E Koray

2009-08-01

347

Multiscale Modeling of Mechanical Shock Behavior of Environmentally-Benign Lead-Free Solders in Electronic Packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing focus on developing environmentally benign electronic packages, lead-free solder alloys have received a great deal of attention. Mishandling of packages, during manufacture, assembly, or by the user may cause failure of solder joint. A fundamental understanding of the behavior of lead-free solders under mechanical shock conditions is lacking. Reliable experimental and numerical analyses of lead-free solder joints in the intermediate strain rate regime need to be investigated. This dissertation mainly focuses on exploring the mechanical shock behavior of lead-free tin-rich solder alloys via multiscale modeling and numerical simulations. First, the macroscopic stress/strain behaviors of three bulk lead-free tin-rich solders were tested over a range of strain rates from 0.001/s to 30/s. Finite element analysis was conducted to determine appropriate specimen geometry that could reach a homogeneous stress/strain field and a relatively high strain rate. A novel self-consistent true stress correction method is developed to compensate the inaccuracy caused by the triaxial stress state at the post-necking stage. Then the material property of micron-scale intermetallic was examined by microcompression test. The accuracy of this measure is systematically validated by finite element analysis, and empirical adjustments are provided. Moreover, the interfacial property of the solder/intermetallic interface is investigated, and a continuum traction-separation law of this interface is developed from an atomistic-based cohesive element method. The macroscopic stress/strain relation and microstructural properties are combined together to form a multiscale material behavior via a stochastic approach for both solder and intermetallic. As a result, solder is modeled by porous plasticity with random voids, and intermetallic is characterized as brittle material with random vulnerable region. Thereafter, the porous plasticity fracture of the solders and the brittle fracture of the intermetallics are coupled together in one finite element model. Finally, this study yields a multiscale model to understand and predict the mechanical shock behavior of lead-free tin-rich solder joints. Different fracture patterns are observed for various strain rates and/or intermetallic thicknesses. The predictions have a good agreement with the theory and experiments.

Fei, Huiyang

348

NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project. DRAFT Joint Test Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of conventional tin-lead (SnPb) in circuit board manufacturing is under ever-increasing political scrutiny due to increasing regulations concerning lead. The "Restriction of Hazardous Substances" (RoHS) directive enacted by the European Union (EU) and a pact between the United States National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI), Europe's Soldertec at Tin Technology Ltd. and the Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA) are just two examples where worldwide legislative actions and partnerships/agreements are affecting the electronics industry. As a result, many global commercial-grade electronic component suppliers are initiating efforts to transition to lead-free (Pb-free) in order to retain their worldwide market. Pb-free components are likely to find their way into the inventory of aerospace or military assembly processes under current government acquisition reform initiatives. Inventories "contaminated" by Pb-free will result in increased risks associated with the manufacturing, product reliability, and subsequent repair of aerospace and military electronic systems. Although electronics for military and aerospace applications are not included in the RoHS legislation, engineers are beginning to find that the commercial industry's move towards RoHS compliance has affected their supply chain and changed their parts. Most parts suppliers plan to phase out their non-compliant, leaded production and many have already done so. As a result, the ability to find leaded components is getting harder and harder. Some buyers are now attempting to acquire the remaining SnPb inventory, if it's not already obsolete. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), depots, and support contractors have to be prepared to deal with an electronics supply chain that increasingly provides more and more parts with Pb-free finishes-some labeled no differently than their Pb counterparts-while at the same time providing the traditional Pb parts. The longer the transition period, the greater the likelihood of Pb-free parts inadvertently being mixed with Pb parts and ending up on what are supposed to be Pb systems. As a result, OEMs, depots, and support contractors need to take action now to either abate the influx of Pb-free parts, or accept it and deal with the likely interim consequences of reduced reliability due to a wide variety of matters, such as Pb contamination, high temperature incompatibility, and tin whiskering. Allowance of Pb-free components produces one of the greatest risks to the reliability of a weapon system. This is due to new and poorly understood failure mechanisms, as well as unknown long-term reliability. If the decision is made to consciously allow Pb-free solder and component finishes into SnPb electronics, additional effort (and cost) will be required to make the significant number of changes to drawings and task order procedures. This project is a follow-on effort to the Joint Council on Aging Aircraft/Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JCAA/JG-PP) Pb-free Solder Project which was the first group to test the reliability of Pb-free solder joints against the requirements of the aerospace and military community.

Kessel, Kurt

2011-01-01

349

Ceramic-polymer nanocomposites with increased dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of lead free materials in device fabrication is very essential from environmental point of view. We have synthesized the lead free ferroelectric polymer nanocomposite films with increased dielectric properties. Lead free bismuth titanate has been used as active ceramic nanofillers having crystallite size 24nm and PVDF as the polymer matrix. Ferroelectric ?-phase of the polymer composite films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. Mapping data confirms the homogeneous dispersion of ceramic particles into the polymer matrix. Frequency dependent dielectric constant increases up to 43.4 at 100Hz, whereas dielectric loss decreases with 7 wt% bismuth titanate loading. This high dielectric constant lead free ferroelectric polymer films can be used for energy density applications.

Bhardwaj, Sumit; Paul, Joginder; Raina, K. K.; Thakur, N. S.; Kumar, Ravi

2014-04-01

350

Ceramic-polymer nanocomposites with increased dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss  

SciTech Connect

The use of lead free materials in device fabrication is very essential from environmental point of view. We have synthesized the lead free ferroelectric polymer nanocomposite films with increased dielectric properties. Lead free bismuth titanate has been used as active ceramic nanofillers having crystallite size 24nm and PVDF as the polymer matrix. Ferroelectric ?-phase of the polymer composite films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. Mapping data confirms the homogeneous dispersion of ceramic particles into the polymer matrix. Frequency dependent dielectric constant increases up to 43.4 at 100Hz, whereas dielectric loss decreases with 7 wt% bismuth titanate loading. This high dielectric constant lead free ferroelectric polymer films can be used for energy density applications.

Bhardwaj, Sumit, E-mail: sumit.bhardwaj4@gmail.com; Paul, Joginder, E-mail: sumit.bhardwaj4@gmail.com [Centre for Materials Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur -177 005 (India); Raina, K. K. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala -147 004 (India); Thakur, N. S. [Centre for Energy and Environment, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur -177005 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Materials Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur -177 005 (India); Beant College of Engineering and Technology, Gurdaspur -143521 (India)

2014-04-24

351

Destruction Mechanisms in Ceramic Multilayer Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Destruction mechanisms were investigated in electrostrictor, piezoelectric and phase-change antiferroelectric ceramic multilayer actuators with an interdigital electrode configuration. Simultaneous observations were done by three different methods; visual observation with a charge coupled device (CCD) microscope, field-induced strain and acoustic emission (AE) measurements. During a cyclic electric field application, the crack was initiated from the edge of an internal electrode and

Hideaki Aburatani; Shuichi Harada; Kenji Uchino; Atsushi Furuta; Yoshiaki Fuda

1994-01-01

352

High displacement ceramic metal composite actuators (moonies)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two most common type of piezoelectric actuators are the multilayer actuator with internal electrodes and the cantilevered bimorph actuator. A new type of composite ceramic actuator is the multilayered multistacked moonie (multi-multi moonie). Normal multilayer actuators produce a large generative force, but only a small displacement. Conversely, bimorphs produce large displacements but the forces are very small. The moonie

Aydin Dogan; Qichang Xu; Katsuhiko Onitsuka; Shoko Yoshikawa; Kenji Uchino; Robert E. Newnham

1994-01-01

353

Intelligent Ceramic Materials: Issues of Brittle Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review the brittle fracture behavior of piezoelectric and electrostrictive ceramics of interest for intelligent material systems. Properties of importance, such as critical fracture toughness, strength, and susceptibility to moisture enhanced crack growth, are addressed, especially as they are affected by the material's microstructure and chemistry. Local strains and ferroelectric domains produced by phase transformations in these

Stephen W. Freiman; Grady S. White

1995-01-01

354

Effect of lead-free solder joint's size and configuration on mechanical properties, microstructure, and aging kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of Lead-Free solder joints continue to change over a very long time while in service. The assessment of long-term service life of electronics packages invariably misses the effect of solder joint size and configuration, and may thus end up to be seriously misleading. One of the goals of the present research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the effects of solder joint size on the mechanical properties of microstructure and aging kinetics. This understanding will help in the assessment of the reliability of Lead-Free solder joints. For this purpose, two different room temperature properties, namely, shear strength and micro-hardness, are studied and the microstructure is also evaluated to find the correlation between them. These properties are measured before and after aging for different lengths of time at different temperatures. Five common Lead-Free alloys are selected for the present study, which are SAC105, SAC205, SAC305, SnCu and SnAg. The study also addresses effects of solder joint size by focusing on 20 mil (508?m) and 30 mil (760?m) diameter solder spheres reflowed onto solder mask defined OSP coated Cu pads with a typical manufacturing Lead-Free reflow profile. Isothermal aging is conducted for up to 500 hours at temperatures of 70, 100, and 125°C. As expected, the resulting room temperature properties decrease with aging time, and at a faster rate for higher aging temperatures. The acceleration factors that are extracted for the evolution of each property are different for the selected alloy and joint sizes.

Tashtoush, Tariq H.

355

Recent advances of conductive adhesives as a lead-free alternative in electronic packaging: Materials, processing, reliability and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tin–lead solder alloys are widely used in the electronic industry. They serve as interconnects that provide the conductive path required to achieve connection from one circuit element to another. There are increasing concerns with the use of tin–lead alloy solders in recognition of hazards of using lead. Lead-free solders and electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) have been considered as the most

Yi Li; C. P. Wong

2006-01-01

356

An investigation into active piezoelectric nanocomposites for distributed energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of monolithic piezoceramic materials in sensing and actuation applications has become quite common over the past decade. However, these materials have several properties that limit their application in practical systems. These materials are very brittle due to the ceramic nature of the monolithic material, making them vulnerable to accidental breakage during handling and bonding procedures. In addition, they have very poor ability to conform to curved surfaces and result in large add-on mass associated with using a typically lead-based ceramic. These limitations have motivated the development of alternative methods of applying the piezoceramic material, including piezoceramic fiber composites (PFCs), and piezoelectric paints. Piezoelectric paint is desirable because it can be spayed or painted on and can be used with abnormal surfaces. The ease at which the active composite can be applied allows for far larger surfaces to be used for energy harvesting than can be achieved with typical materials. Developments in piezoelectric nanocomposites for energy harvesting will also allow for the development of compliant materials with electromechanical coupling greater than available through existing piezoelectric polymers such as polyvinylidene floride (PVDF). Furthermore, the application of PVDF is limited to thin films due to the straining process required to obtain piezoelectric phase of the material. However, active nanocomposites can be molded into geometries that could not be obtained using currently available materials. The present study will characterize a variety of piezoelectric nanocomposite materials to determine how the properties of the polymer matrix and the piezoelectric inclusion affect the energy harvesting performance. The resulting active nanocomposites will be compared to existing piezo-polymers for power harvesting.

Liu, Yingtao; Sodano, Henry A.

2008-03-01

357

Shear Strength of Eutectic Sn-Bi Lead-Free Solders After Corrosion Testing and Thermal Aging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-cost manufacturing in the electronics industry is becoming more demanding, particularly in the production of consumer electronics. Such manufacturing processes require reliable and low-cost lead-free solders. Among the low temperature lead-free solders, eutectic Sn-Bi solder has attracted a great deal of interest since it offers good reliability comparable to that of Sn-Pb solders. In this paper, the shear strength of eutectic 42Sn-58Bi (wt.%) lead-free solder was studied using combinations of environmental tests including thermal aging at 100 °C, salt spray test, and a sequential combination of these tests. Microstructural studies on samples were performed at different time intervals of testing. To study the effect of salt spray and thermal aging on the mechanical reliability, shear testing was performed on the samples. Failure analysis including fractography on samples was conducted at different time intervals using a scanning electron microscope. Considerable corrosion was observed after the salt spray test. This was found to have a significant effect on the shear strength of the solder joints. Additionally, thermal aging was found to cause coarsening and to increase the thickness of intermetallic layers. This was also found to adversely affect the shear strength. The combination test was found to have the most significant effect, as the lowest shear strengths were seen after this testing.

Mostofizadeh, Milad; Pippola, Juha; Frisk, Laura

2014-05-01

358

Effects of (LiCe) co-substitution on the structural and electrical properties of CaBi2Nb2O9 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of the (LiCe) co-substituted calcium bismuth niobate (CaBi2Nb2O9, CBNO) are investigated. The piezoelectric properties of CBNO ceramics are significantly enhanced and the dielectric loss tan ? decreased. This makes poling using (LiCe) co-substitution easier. The ceramics (where ? represents A-site Ca2+ vacancies, possess a pure layered structure phase and no other phases can be found. The Ca0.88(LiCe)0.04?0.04Bi2Nb2O9 ceramics possess optimal piezoelectric properties, with piezoelectric coefficient (d33) and Curie temperature (TC) found to be 13.3 pC/N and 960 °C, respectively. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the (LiCe) co-substituted CBNO ceramics exhibit very stable temperature behaviours. This demonstrates that the CBNO ceramics are a promising candidate for ultrahigh temperature applications.

Tian, Xiao-Xia; Qu, Shao-Bo; Du, Hong-Liang; Li, Ye; Xu, Zhuo

2012-03-01

359

Advantages & Challenges of Cold Ball Pull Test vs Conventional Ball Shear Test in the Assessment of Lead-free Solder Joint Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison study was done between cold ball pull (CBP) test vs. the conventional ball shear test to further understand the advantages & challenges of CBP test as a method to assess lead-free solder joint performance. From this study, CBP was found to be a better and preferred tool that is able to identify poor lead free solder joint and

Eu Poh Leng; Min Ding; Hoh Huey Jiun; I. Ahmad; K. Hazlinda

2006-01-01

360

University of California, Irvine Environmental Health and Safety www.ehs.uci.edu Questions Call: (949) 824-6200 Version 1.0 Lead Free UCI  

E-print Network

at an angle (/ / / / /). The stripes appear light beige under normal conditions and darken in the autoclave/Lead Free Steam Indicator Tape LF2-048 PI Name: Lab Contact Name: Building: Room: Phone: 1. Number of rolls of lead containing autoclave tape to be disposed of: 2. Number of rolls of lead free autoclave requested

George, Steven C.

361

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Size Effects in Fine-Grained Morphotropic-Phase-Boundary Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics  

E-print Network

Titanate Ceramics Clive A. Randall,* Namchul Kim, John-Paul Kucera,* Wenwu Cao, and Thomas R. Shrout The processing, electromechanical properties, and micro- structure of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics over the influence of grain size on the piezoelectric properties in PZT ceramics. In general, grain-size studies were

Cao, Wenwu

362

Structural, ferroelectric, optical properties of A-site-modified Bi0.5(Na0.78K0.22)0.5Ti0.97Zr0.03O3 lead-free piezoceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reported the role of A-site modification on the structural, ferroelectric, optical and electrical field-induced strain properties of Bi0.5(Na0.78K0.22)0.5Ti0.97Zr0.03O3 lead-free piezoceramics. The Li+ ions with concentration from 0 to 5 mol% were used to substitute at A-site. There was no phase transition when Li+ ions was added up to 5 mol%. The electric field-induced strain (Smax/Emax) values increased from 600 to 643 pm/V for 2 mol% Li+-added which results from distortion both rhombohedral and tetragonal phase structures. The band gap reduced from 2.88 to 2.68 eV and the saturation polarization decreased from 46.2 to 26.1 ?C/cm2 when Li+ ions concentration increased from 0 to 5 mol% respectively. We expect that this work could be helpful for further understanding the role of A-site dopants in comparison with B-site modification in lead-free Bi0.5(Na,K)0.5TiO3-based ceramics.

Quan, N. D.; Quyet, N. V.; Bac, L. H.; Thiet, D. V.; Hung, V. N.; Dung, D. D.

2015-02-01

363

Adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An adaptive algorithm implemented in digital or analog form is used in conjunction with a voltage controlled amplifier to compensate for the feedthrough capacitance of piezoelectric sensoriactuator. The mechanical response of the piezoelectric sensoriactuator is resolved from the electrical response by adaptively altering the gain imposed on the electrical circuit used for compensation. For wideband, stochastic input disturbances, the feedthrough capacitance of the sensoriactuator can be identified on-line, providing a means of implementing direct-rate-feedback control in analog hardware. The device is capable of on-line system health monitoring since a quasi-stable dynamic capacitance is indicative of sustained health of the piezoelectric element.

Clark, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor); Vipperman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cole, Daniel G. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

364

Real-time calibration of open-loop piezoelectric actuators for interferometric applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper a piezoelectric actuator realized for interferometric applications is described, together with a numerical\\u000a model to simulate its electro-mechanical behavior. The actuator is an open-loop device made up of three piezoelectric ceramics\\u000a glued into a stainless steel case and connected directly to the parallel port of a personal computer by control electronics\\u000a developed on purpose. It consists

Luigi Bruno; Carmine Maletta

2008-01-01

365

Piezoelectric Polymer Shock Gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science and technology of piezoelectric materials has long been dominated by the availability of specific materials with particular properties. Piezoelectric PVDF (Poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymer and copolymers of PVDF with trifluoroethylene have shown to have the potential for new shock-wave sensors. Since 1981 through 1995, the piezoelectric response of PVDF was studied in a cooperative effort with François Bauer of ISL, France, R.A. Graham of Sandia National Laboratories and L.M. Lee of Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque. Among the known piezoelectric polymers, the PVDF plays an important role in measuring mechanical and physical state of matter under shock loading. The present paper presents the history of the development of the PVDF gauge. After 24 years of research in this area, main relevant results and data obtained are summarized as well as some original applications of the PVDF gauges.

Bauer, F.

2006-07-01

366

A high-temperature piezoelectric linear actuator operating in two orthogonal first bending modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventionally, piezoelectric ultrasonic linear actuators operate in longitudinal and bending combination (degenerate) modes for producing an elliptic motion which drives a slider moving linearly. With the increasing temperature, the degenerate mode will split into two separated modes again, resulting in piezoelectric actuators working to fail. Here, we report a miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic linear actuator made of Mn modified (1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics operating in two orthogonal first bending modes (B1-B1). The B1-B1 mode linear actuator showed much better load and speed temperature stability than piezoelectric actuators operating in different combination mode in the investigated temperature range of room temperature to 200 °C.

Chen, Jianguo; Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Dong, Shuxiang

2013-02-01

367

Laminated piezoelectric transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

2006-01-01

368

Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

2014-01-01

369

Piezoelectrically Enhanced Photocathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Doping of photocathodes with materials that have large piezoelectric coefficients has been proposed as an alternative means of increasing the desired photoemission of electrons. Treating cathode materials to increase emission of electrons is called "activation" in the art. It has been common practice to activate photocathodes by depositing thin layers of suitable metals (usually, cesium). Because cesium is unstable in air, fabrication of cesiated photocathodes and devices that contain them must be performed in sealed tubes under vacuum. It is difficult and costly to perform fabrication processes in enclosed, evacuated spaces. The proposed piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes would have electron-emission properties similar to those of cesiated photocathodes but would be stable in air, and therefore could be fabricated more easily and at lower cost. Candidate photocathodes include nitrides of elements in column III of the periodic table . especially compounds of the general formula Al(x)Ga(1.x)N (where 0< or = x < or =.1). These compounds have high piezoelectric coefficients and are suitable for obtaining response to ultraviolet light. Fabrication of a photocathode according to the proposal would include inducement of strain in cathode layers during growth of the layers on a substrate. The strain would be induced by exploiting structural mismatches among the various constituent materials of the cathode. Because of the piezoelectric effect in this material, the strain would give rise to strong electric fields that, in turn, would give rise to a high concentration of charge near the surface. Examples of devices in which piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes could be used include microchannel plates, electron- bombarded charge-coupled devices, image tubes, and night-vision goggles. Piezoelectrically enhanced photocathode materials could also be used in making highly efficient monolithic photodetectors. Highly efficient and stable piezoelectrically enhanced, ultraviolet-sensitive photocathodes and photodetectors could be fabricated by use of novel techniques for growing piezoelectrically enhanced layers, in conjunction with thinning and dopant-selective etching techniques.

Beach, Robert A.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Bell, Lloyd Douglas; Strittmatter, Robert

2011-01-01

370

Electrical Properties and Power Considerations of a Piezoelectric Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper assesses the electrical characteristics of piezoelectric wafers for use in aeronautical applications such as active noise control in aircraft. Determination of capacitive behavior and power consumption is necessary to optimize the system configuration and to design efficient driving electronics. Empirical relations are developed from experimental data to predict the capacitance and loss tangent of a PZT5A ceramic as nonlinear functions of both applied peak voltage and driving frequency. Power consumed by the PZT is the rate of energy required to excite the piezoelectric system along with power dissipated due to dielectric loss and mechanical and structural damping. Overall power consumption is thus quantified as a function of peak applied voltage and driving frequency. It was demonstrated that by incorporating the variation of capacitance and power loss with voltage and frequency, satisfactory estimates of power requirements can be obtained. These relations allow general guidelines in selection and application of piezoelectric actuators and driving electronics for active control applications.

Jordan, T.; Ounaies, Z.; Tripp, J.; Tcheng, P.

1999-01-01

371

Phase diagram and enhanced piezoelectricity in the strontium titanate doped potassium-sodium niobate solid solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric and the piezoelectric properties of the (1-x)(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-xSrTiO3 ceramics, densified by the Spark-Plasma-Sintering method, have been studied. A phase diagram was established from the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. A tetragonal-orthorhombic morpho-tropic phase boundary (MPB) was found at x 0.05. Around the MPB, piezoelectric properties were greatly improved. The origin for the enhanced piezoelectricity has been proposed.

Ruiping Wang; Rong-Jun Xie; Kotaro Hanada; Kunio Matsusaki; Hiroshi Bando; Mitsuru Itoh

2005-01-01

372

Piezoelectric and electrostrictive sensors and actuators for adaptive structures and smart materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in composite materials for piezoelectric sensors are briefly reviewed, and new systems using bias field control of the piezoelectric response in relaxor ferroelectric compositions in the PMN:PT and in the PLZT family materials are discussed. For actuator applications, multilayer actuator materials are evaluated, and possibilities for ultrahigh-strain materials are explored. Attention is also given to the composite systems incorporating both a sensor and a responder in the same material together with active solid state electronics. It is shown that a piezoelectric sensor/actuator system mimics an ultrasoft material for weak AC stress, maintaining the load-bearing capability of a stiff ceramic.

Cross, L. E.

373

New Development of High Performance Piezoelectric Materials by Nanodomain Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop high performance piezoelectric materials, a new method called at “nanodomain engineering” was proposed and investigated in this study. The nanodomain engineering means a method, which can produce high density nanodomain configurations by control of chemical composition, i.e., to develop an intermediate state between relaxor ferroelectrics and normal ferroelectrics. To confirm the concept, ternary system ceramics of BaTiO3-Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-BiFeO3(BT-BMT-BF) was prepared and characterized. As the results, a formation of nanodomain configurations was confirmed by a transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, for the ceramics with the nanodomain configurations, high apparent piezoelectric constants over 500 pC/N was clearly obtained, which suggested that the concept of “nanodomain engineering” might work good.

Wada, Satoshi

374

Process for producing gasoline of high octane number and particularly lead free gasoline, from olefininc c3-c4 cuts  

SciTech Connect

Lead free gasoline of high octane number is obtained from C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ olefinic cuts as follows: propylene contained in the C/sub 3/ cut is oligomerized, at least 80% of the isobutene and less than 40% of the n-butenes of the C/sub 4/ cut are oligomerized to form an oligomerizate distilling in the gasoline range, which is separated from the unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, the latter are subsequently alkylated to form a gasoline fraction which can be admixed with the oligomerizates of the Cnumber and the C/sub 4/ cuts to produce the desired high octane gasoline.

Hellin, M.; Juguin, B.; Torck, B.; Vu, Q. D.

1981-05-19

375

Evaluation of electromechanical coupling parameters of piezoelectric materials by using piezoelectric cantilever with coplanar electrode structure in quasi-stasis.  

PubMed

Based on Timoshenko beam theory, a principle model is proposed to establish the relationship between electric charge and excitation acceleration, and in quasi-stasis we apply the direct piezoelectric effect of multilayer cantilever with coplanar electrode structure to evaluate the piezoelectric strain coefficient d15 and electromechanical coupling coefficient k15. They are measured as 678 pC/N and 0.74 for the commercial piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT-51) bulk specimen and 656 pC/N and 0.63 for the lead magnesium niobate (PMN) bulk specimen, and they are in agreement with the calibration and simulation values. The maximum of relative errors is less than 4.2%, so the proposed method is reliable and convenient. PMID:24474142

Zheng, Xuejun; Zhu, Yuankun; Liu, Xun; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Jianguo

2014-02-01

376

High-throughput evaluation of domain switching in piezoelectric ceramics and application to PbZr{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} doped with La and Fe  

SciTech Connect

A combinatorial material synthesis and characterization technique is introduced and demonstrated wherein the ferroelectric behavior of a compositionally graded bulk ceramic is investigated during electrical loading. Using combined high-energy x-ray microdiffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy, non-180 deg. domain wall motion of different compositions is measured and quantified as a function of composition across the gradation. The greatest amount of non-180 deg. domain wall motion is found in samples containing the highest measured fraction of La dopant (2 mol %)

Jones, Jacob L.; Pramanick, Abhijit [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States); Daniels, John E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38043 Grenoble (France)

2008-10-13

377

Ring-type electric current sensor based on ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate of epoxy-bonded Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 1.92} short-fiber/NdFeB magnet magnetostrictive composite and Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramic  

SciTech Connect

A ring-type electric current sensor operated in vortex magnetic field detection mode is developed based on a ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate of an axially polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic ring bonded between two circumferentially magnetized epoxy-bonded Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 1.92} (Terfenol-D) short-fiber/NdFeB magnet magnetostrictive composite rings. The electric current sensitivity of the sensor was evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally. The sensor showed a high nonresonance sensitivity of {approx}12.6 mV/A over a flat frequency range of 1 Hz-30 kHz and a large resonance sensitivity of 92.2 mV/A at the fundamental shape resonance of 67 kHz, besides an excellent linear relationship between the input electric current and the output magnetoelectrically induced voltage. The power-free, bias-free, high-sensitive, and wide-bandwidth natures of the sensor make it great potential for real-time condition monitoring of engineering systems having electric current-carrying cables or conductors.

Leung, Chung Ming; Or, Siu Wing; Zhang, Shengyao; Ho, S. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2010-05-15

378

Structural Ceramics Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

379

Tailoring the structure and piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3-(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 ceramics for high temperature applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing requirement for piezoelectric materials and systems which can operate in extreme environments, for example, oil & gas, and aerospace. Here, we present the high temperature BiFeO3-K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-PbTiO3 (BF-KBT-PT) polycrystalline perovskite system. X-ray diffraction, impedance analysis, and Berlincourt measurements reveal a large region of phase coexistence, which can be tailored to optimise performance; Tc and the tetragonal spontaneous strain correlate strongly with the PbTiO3 concentration. The highest temperature composition has a d33 of 140 pmV-1 with a Tc = 542 °C, occupying previously unchartered territory on the classical d33-TC plot.

Bennett, J.; Bell, A. J.; Stevenson, T. J.; Comyn, T. P.

2013-10-01

380

On Ceramics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four ceramics activities for secondary-level art classes. Included are directions for primitive kiln construction and glaze making. Two ceramics design activities are described in which students make bizarrely-shaped lidded jars, feet, and footwear. (AM)

School Arts, 1982

1982-01-01

381

Direct piezoelectric responses of soft composite fiber mats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and polylactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 ˜ 1 nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here, we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at several BT concentrations. A homemade testing apparatus provided AC stresses in the 50 Hz-1.5 kHz-frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ˜ 0.5 nC/N and the compression modulus Y ˜ 104-105 Pa found are in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric and compressibility measurements. Importantly, the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simple finger tapping of a 0.15 mm thick 2-cm2 area mat. We propose using these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

Varga, M.; Morvan, J.; Diorio, N.; Buyuktanir, E.; Harden, J.; West, J. L.; Jákli, A.

2013-04-01

382

The study of dielectric, pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties on hot pressed PZT-PMN systems  

SciTech Connect

Hot uniaxial pressing technique has been adopted for the densification of PZT-PMN system with an aim to yield dense ceramics and to lower the sintering temperature and time for achieving better and reproducible electronic properties. The ceramics having >97% theoretical density and micron size grains are investigated for their dielectric, pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties. The effect of Li and Mn addition has also been studied.

Srivastava, Geetika; Umarji, A. M. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012 (India); Maglione, Mario [ICMCB, Universite de Bordeaux,-CNRS, 87, Av Dr Schweitzer 33806 Pessac (France)

2012-12-15

383

Diaphragm Pump With Resonant Piezoelectric Drive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A diaphragm pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator is undergoing development. This pump is intended to be a prototype of lightweight, highly reliable pumps for circulating cooling liquids in protective garments and high-power electronic circuits, and perhaps for some medical applications. The pump would be highly reliable because it would contain no sliding seals or bearings that could wear, the only parts subject to wear would be two check valves, and the diaphragm and other flexing parts could be designed, by use of proven methods, for extremely long life. Because the pump would be capable of a large volumetric flow rate and would have only a small dead volume, its operation would not be disrupted by ingestion of gas, and it could be started reliably under all conditions. The prior art includes a number piezoelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps. Because of the smallness of the motions of piezoelectric actuators (typical maximum strains only about 0.001), the volumetric flow rates of those pumps are much too small for typical cooling applications. In the pump now undergoing development, mechanical resonance would be utilized to amplify the motion generated by the piezoelectric actuator and thereby multiply the volumetric flow rate. The prime mover in this pump would be a stack of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, one end of which would be connected to a spring that would be part of a spring-and-mass resonator structure. The mass part of the resonator structure would include the pump diaphragm (see Figure 1). Contraction of the spring would draw the diaphragm to the left, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to increase and thereby causing fluid to flow into the chamber. Subsequent expansion of the spring would push the diaphragm to the right, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to decrease, and thereby expelling fluid from the chamber. The fluid would enter and leave the chamber through check valves. The piezoelectric stack would be driven electrically to make it oscillate at the resonance frequency of the spring and- mass structure. This frequency could be made high enough (of the order of 400 Hz) that the masses of all components could be made conveniently small. The resonance would amplify the relatively small motion of the piezoelectric stack (a stroke of the order of 10 m) to a diaphragm stroke of the order of 0.5 mm. The exact amplification factor would depend on the rate of damping of oscillations; this, in turn, would depend on details of design and operation, including (but not limited to) the desired pressure rise and volumetric flow rate. In order to obtain resonance with large displacement, the damping rate must be low enough that the energy imparted to the pumped fluid on each stroke is much less than the kinetic and potential energy exchanged between the mass and spring during each cycle of oscillation. To minimize the power demand of the pump, a highly efficient drive circuit would be used to excite the piezoelectric stack. This circuit (see Figure 2) would amount to a special-purpose regenerative, switching power supply that would operate in a power-source mode during the part of an oscillation cycle when the excitation waveform was positive and in a power-recovery mode during the part of the cycle when the excitation waveform was negative. The circuit would include a voltage-boosting dc-to-dc converter that would convert between a supply potential of 24 Vdc and the high voltage needed to drive the piezoelectric stack. Because of the power-recovery feature, the circuit would consume little power. It should be possible to build the circuit as a compact unit, using readily available components.

Izenson, Michael G.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.; Shimko, Martin A.

2007-01-01

384

Piezoelectric hydraulic pump performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A piezohydraulic pump making use of the step and repeat capability of piezoelectric actuators has been developed for actuation of aircraft control surfaces. The piezohydraulic pump utilizes a piezoelectric stack actuator to drive a piston in a cylinder. The cylinder is fitted with two check valves. On the compression stroke, oil is forced out of the cylinder. On the intake stroke, oil is drawn into the cylinder. The oil is used to drive a linear actuator. The actuator was driven at 7cm/sec with a 271N (61lb) blocking force. To achieve this, the piezoelectric stack actuator was driven at 60Hz with a switching power supply. The system utilizes an accumulator to eliminate cavitation. This work discusses piezohydraulic pumping theory, pump design, and pump performance. Consideration of pump performance includes the effects of varying accumulator pressure, hydraulic oil viscosity, and load imposed on the linear actuator.

Mauck, Lisa D.; Oates, William S.; Lynch, Christopher S.

2001-06-01

385

Dielectric spectroscopy of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

We report the dielectric properties of (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ceramics doped with x wt% of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x= 0.0-1.5 wt%) using the broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of perovskite structure signifying that Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffuse into the KNN lattice. Samples doped with x > 0.5 wt% exhibit smaller grain size and lower relative densities. The dielectric properties of KNN ceramics doped with Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} are enhanced by increasing the Dy{sup 3+} content; among the compositions studied, x = 0.5 wt% exhibited the highest dielectric constant and lowest loss at 1MHz over the temperature range of 30°C to 400°C. All the samples exhibit maximum dielectric constant at the Curie temperature (? 326°C) and a small peak in the dielectric constant at around 165°C is due to a structural phase transition.

Mahesh, P., E-mail: pamu@iitg.ernet.in; Subhash, T., E-mail: pamu@iitg.ernet.in; Pamu, D., E-mail: pamu@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati-781039 (India)

2014-04-24

386

Densification, crystallization, and electrical properties of lead zirconate titanate glass-ceramics.  

PubMed

Piezoelectric glass-ceramics in the lead zirconate titanato-lead silicate system were developed. SiO(2) was required for glass formability, and excess PbO allowed low temperature processing. The amounts of those constituents were limited by the optimization of the piezoelectric properties. Only a small region of compositions in this system yielded the desired combination of glass formability, crystallization and densification behavior, and resulting piezoelectric properties. Selected compositions were melted and roller quenched to form glass ribbon, then milled into glass powder. Pressed glass powder densified to closed porosity at 850 degrees C with piezoelectric d(33 ) and g(33) coefficients of 26 pC/N and 33x10(-3 ) Vm/N. The low temperature sintering behavior of these ferroelectric glass-ceramics provides the possibility of incorporating a piezoelectric material as a sensor or actuator in thick film circuits or low-fire multilayer packages. PMID:18238613

Houng, B; Kim, C Y; Haun, M J

2000-01-01

387

On the fracture toughness of ferroelectric ceramics with electric field applied parallel to the crack front  

E-print Network

; Piezoelectrics; Domain switching 1. Introduction Ferroelectric materials are widely used as actuators and sensorsOn the fracture toughness of ferroelectric ceramics with electric field applied parallel in ferroelectric ceramics with electric field applied parallel to the crack front. A multi

388

Enhanced active piezoelectric 0-3 nanocomposites fabricated through electrospun nanowires  

SciTech Connect

The use of monolithic piezoceramic materials in sensing and actuation applications has become quite common over the past decade. However, these materials have several properties that limit their application in practical systems. These materials are very brittle due to the ceramic nature of the monolithic material, making them vulnerable to accidental breakage during handling and bonding procedures. In addition, they have very poor ability to conform to curved surfaces and result in large add-on mass associated with using a typically lead-based ceramic. These limitations have motivated the development of alternative methods of applying the piezoceramic material, including piezoceramic fiber composites and piezoelectric 0-3 composites (also known as piezoelectric paint). Piezoelectric paint is desirable because it can be spayed or painted on and can be used with abnormal surfaces. However, the piezoelectric paint developed in prior studies has resulted in low coupling, limiting its application. In order to increase the coupling of the piezoelectric paint, this effort has investigated the use of piezoelectric nanowires rather than spherical piezoelectric particle, which are difficult to strain when embedded in a polymer matrix. The piezoceramic wires were electrospun from a barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) sol gel to produce fibers with 500-1000 nm diameters and subsequently calcinated to acquire perovskite BaTiO{sub 3}. An active nanocomposite paint was formed using the resulting piezoelectric wires and was compared to the same paint with piezoelectric nanoparticles. The results show that the piezoceramic wires produce 0-3 nanocomposites with as high as 300% increase in electromechanical coupling.

Feenstra, Joel [Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Sodano, Henry A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States)

2008-06-15

389

Reduced risk of acute poisoning in Australian cattle from used motor oils after introduction of lead-free petrol.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) poisoning of cattle has been relatively common in Australia and sump oil has been identified as an important cause of Pb toxicity for cattle because they seem to have a tendency to drink it. Lead-free petrol has been available in Australia since 1975, so the aim of this study was to assess the current risk to cattle from drinking used automotive oils. Sump or gear box oil was collected from 56 vehicles being serviced. The low levels of Pb found suggest that the removal of leaded petrol from the Australian market as a public health measure has benefited cattle by eliminating the risk of acute poisoning from used engine oil. PMID:20553575

Burren, B G; Reichmann, K G; McKenzie, R A

2010-06-01

390

Emission factors for gases and particle-bound substances produced by firing lead-free small-caliber ammunition.  

PubMed

Lead-free ammunition is becoming increasingly popular because of the environmental and human health issues associated with the use of leaded ammunition. However, there is a lack of data on the emissions produced by firing such ammunition. We report emission factors for toxic gases and particle-bound compounds produced by firing lead-free ammunition in a test chamber. Carbon monoxide, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide levels within the chamber were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while total suspended particles and respirable particles were determined gravimetrically. The metal content of the particulate emissions was determined and the associated organic compounds were characterized in detail using a method based on thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The particulate matter (?30 mg/round) consisted primarily of metals such as Cu, Zn, and Fe along with soot arising from incomplete combustion. Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds such as carbazole, quinolone, and phenazine were responsible for some of the 25 most significant chromatographic peaks, together with PAHs, diphenylamine, and phthalates. Emission factors were determined for PAHs and oxygenated PAHs; the latter were less abundant in the gun smoke particles than in domestic dust and diesel combustion smoke. This may be due to the oxygen-deficient conditions that occur when the gun is fired. By using an electrical low pressure impactor, it was demonstrated that more than 90% of the particles produced immediately after firing the weapon had diameters of less than 30 nm, and so most of the gun smoke particles belonged to the nanoparticle regime. PMID:24188168

Wingfors, H; Svensson, K; Hägglund, L; Hedenstierna, S; Magnusson, R

2014-01-01

391

Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric constant at both resonance and off resonance frequencies. The effective piezoelectric constant can be alternated by varying the size of each component, the degree of the pre-curvature of the positive strain components, the thickness of each layer in the multilayer stacks, and the piezoelectric constant of the material used. Because all of the elements are piezoelectric components, Stacked HYBATS can serve as projector and receiver for underwater detection. The performance of this innovation can be enhanced by improving the piezoelectric properties.

Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

2011-01-01

392

Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical failure or depolarization, especially at elevated temperatures. In this work, three kinds of ceramic-polymer composite piezoelectric materials were evaluated and compared against state-of-the-art piezoelectric materials. The new composites are unstructured and structured composites containing granular lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles or PZT fibers in a polyurethane matrix. The composites were used to build energy harvesting patches which were attached to a tire and tested under simulated rolling conditions. The energy density of the piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composite materials is initially not as high as that of the reference materials (a macro-fiber composite and a polyvinylidene fluoride polymer). However, the area normalized power output of the composites after temperature and strain cycling is comparable to that of the reference devices because the piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites did not degrade during operation.

van den Ende, D. A.; van de Wiel, H. J.; Groen, W. A.; van der Zwaag, S.

2012-01-01

393

Lead-free solder  

DOEpatents

A Sn--Ag--Cu eutectic alloy is modified with one or more low level and low cost alloy additions to enhance high temperature microstructural stability and thermal-mechanical fatigue strength without decreasing solderability. Purposeful fourth or fifth element additions in the collective amount not exceeding about 1 weight % (wt. %) are added to Sn--Ag--Cu eutectic solder alloy based on the ternary eutectic Sn--4.7%Ag--1.7%Cu (wt. %) and are selected from the group consisting essentially of Ni, Fe, and like-acting elements as modifiers of the intermetallic interface between the solder and substrate to improve high temperature solder joint microstructural stability and solder joint thermal-mechanical fatigue strength.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

2001-05-15

394

A piezoelectric driven ratchet actuator mechanism with application to automotive engine valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demands on the performance of internal combustion engines, specifically automobile engines, require the production of more mechanical energy for a given amount of chemical fuel with reduced tailpipe emissions. Of particular interest in the development of high performance\\/low emission engines is the control and timing of individual engine valves. This paper investigates the design of an innovative piezoelectric ceramic

Nader Jalili; John Wagner; Mohsen Dadfarnia

2003-01-01

395

Design and testing of a hybrid polymeric electrostrictive\\/piezoelectric beam with bang–bang control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrostrictive materials, hard ceramics and soft polymers, have been used as precision actuators in many engineering applications. This study is to examine bang–bang control performance of a hybrid Plexiglas beam laminated with polymeric electrostrictive (RTV 270) actuator and piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor layers using both analytical and experimental techniques. Material characteristics are calibrated via static testing first; a hybrid

H. S. Tzou; W. K. Chai

2007-01-01

396

TOWARDS EFFICIENT INTEGRATED PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS FOR SENSING,ACTUATION AND SHM  

E-print Network

with spherical particles and fibres made of ferroelectric ceramics [2], the serial production of polymer packagesTOWARDS EFFICIENT INTEGRATED PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS FOR SENSING,ACTUATION AND SHM Peter, active sheet structures can be build up, being suitable for sensing and actuation purposes [11

Boyer, Edmond

397

PROPERTIES OF PIEZOELECTRIC TITANATES AND ZIRCONATES INCLUDING A DISCUSSION OF THEIR CONTROL AND EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented at the 1956 Electronic Components Conf., Washington, D. C., ; May 1956. This paper is in two parts. The flrst part reports on the program ; pursued by Sandia Corporation in a planned effort toward obtaining more uniform ; and efficient piezoelectric ceramics. The second part discasses speciflcations ; and tests used by Sandia to ensure procurement of satisfactory

T. G. Kinsley; R. D. Wehrle

1956-01-01

398

Improper ferroelectricity and piezoelectric responses in rhombohedral (A,A')B2O6 perovskite oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature electronic materials are in constant demand as the required operational range for various industries increases. Here we design (A,A')B2O6 perovskite oxides with [111] "rock salt" A-site cation order and predict them to be potential high-temperature piezoelectric materials. By selecting bulk perovskites which have a tendency towards only out-of-phase BO6 rotations, we avoid possible staggered ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transitions while also retaining noncentrosymmetric crystal structures necessary for ferro- and piezoelectricity. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that (La,Pr)Al2O6 and (Ce,Pr)Al2O6 display spontaneous polarizations in their polar ground state structures; we also compute the dielectric and piezoelectric constants for each phase. Additionally, we predict the critical phase transition temperatures for each material from first-principles to demonstrate that the piezoelectric responses, which are comparable to traditional lead-free piezoelectrics, should persist to high temperature. These features make the rock salt A-site-ordered aluminates candidates for high-temperature sensors, actuators, or other electronic devices.

Young, Joshua; Rondinelli, James M.

2014-05-01

399

PRODUCT DATA Piezoelectric Accelerometer  

E-print Network

element used is a PZ 23 lead zirconate titanate element. The housing material is titanium. Calibration around a triangular centre post. The ring prestresses the piezoelectric elements to give a high degree Characteristics Dimensions See outline drawing Weight gram (oz.) 17 (0.6) Case Material Titanium Connector 10

Phani, A. Srikantha

400

Piezoelectric actuators control unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconductive cavities for future linear accelerators, such as ILC, have extremely large quality factors that require an effective stabilization with both slow and fast tuners. Piezoelectric actuators are the most common choice for fast tuners, but one drawback for large scale applications is the limited bandwidth and the large cost of commercially available drivers. In this paper we present a

Franco Bedeschi; Stefano Galeotti; Alberto Gennai; Carlo Magazzu; Diego Passuello; Elena Pedreschi; Franco Spinella; Federico Paoletti

2010-01-01

401

Ceramic Processing  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

EWSUK,KEVIN G.

1999-11-24

402

Ceramics Monthly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you've ever thrown some clay around or experimented with different glazes (and even if you haven't), you'll want to turn the electronic pages of Ceramics Monthly. Published ten times a year, the magazine focuses on all things ceramics, and visitors to their site can read selected articles about exhibitions, installations, ceramics techniques, and those ceramicists who are making their mark in the field. Those already in the ceramics field will also want to make note of the "Call for Entries" area of the site.

403

Ceramic filters  

SciTech Connect

Filters were formed from ceramic fibers, organic fibers, and a ceramic bond phase using a papermaking technique. The distribution of particulate ceramic bond phase was determined using a model silicon carbide system. As the ceramic fiber increased in length and diameter the distance between particles decreased. The calculated number of particles per area showed good agreement with the observed value. After firing, the papers were characterized using a biaxial load test. The strength of papers was proportional to the amount of bond phase included in the paper. All samples exhibited strain-tolerant behavior.

Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

1995-12-31

404

Origin of piezoelectricity in monolayer halogenated graphane piezoelectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodic patterning with adatoms or defect is one of the methods for opening the band gap of graphene. In particular, under certain configurations controlled by the order of hydrogen and halogen atoms attached on graphene, inversion symmetry of graphene can be broken to give piezoelectricity as well as pyroelectricity. Using first-principles calculations, we examine the structural stability and electronic properties of four polar conformations of halogenated graphane (C2HX)n to understand the origin of piezoelectricity in this two-dimensional system. The formation energies and piezoelectric coefficients manifest that the four conformations of (C2HF)n are energetically stable with considerable piezoelectricity. We find that the electronic contribution of the proper piezoelectricity in (C2HF)n is mainly related to the change of the electron distribution around F atoms. By substituting flourine with chlorine, we confirm that the piezoelectricity enhances at the expense of stability degradation.

Kim, Hye Jung; Noor-A-Alam, Mohammad; Son, Jong Yeog; Shin, Young-Han

2014-05-01

405

Fatigue failure kinetics and structural changes in lead-free interconnects due to mechanical and thermal cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental and human health concerns drove European parliament to mandate the Reduction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) for electronics. This was enacted in July 2006 and has practically eliminated lead in solder interconnects. There is concern in the electronics packaging community because modern lead-free solder is rich in tin. Presently, near-eutectic tin-silver-copper solders are favored by industry. These solders are stiffer than the lead-tin near-eutectic alloys, have a higher melting temperature, fewer slip systems, and form intermetallic compounds (IMC) with Cu, Ni and Ag, each of which tend to have a negative effect on lifetime. In order to design more reliable interconnects, the experimental observation of cracking mechanisms is necessary for the correct application of existing theories. The goal of this research is to observe the failure modes resulting from mode II strain and to determine the damage mechanisms which describe fatigue failures in 95.5 Sn- 4.0 Ag - 0.5 Cu wt% (SAC405) lead-free solder interconnects. In this work the initiation sites and crack paths were characterized for SAC405 ball-grid array (BGA) interconnects with electroless-nickel immersion-gold (ENIG) pad-finish. The interconnects were arranged in a perimeter array and tested in fully assembled packages. Evaluation methods included monotonic and displacement controlled mechanical shear fatigue tests, and temperature cycling. The specimens were characterized using metallogaphy, including optical and electron microscopy as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and precise real-time electrical resistance structural health monitoring (SHM). In mechanical shear fatigue tests, strain was applied by the substrates, simulating dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between the board and chip-carrier. This type of strain caused cracks to initiate in the soft Sn-rich solder and grow near the interface between the solder and intermetallic compounds (IMC). The growth near the interface was found to be caused by dislocation pile-ups at the IMC when the plastic zone ahead of the crack tip reached this interface. In temperature cycling testing, strains arose within the interconnect due to CTE mismatch between the solder and IMC. The substrates had matched CTE for all specimens in this research. Because of this, all the temperature cycling cracks were observed at interfaces, generally between the solder and IMC. Additionally, real-time electrical resistance may be a useful non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tool for the empirical observation of fatigue cracking in ball-grid arrays (BGA) during both mechanical and temperature cycling tests.

Fiedler, Brent Alan

406

Piezoelectric Actuator/Sensor Technology at Rockwell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the state-of-the art of piezoelectric materials based on perovskite and tungsten bronze families for sensor, actuator and smart structure applications. The microstructural defects in these materials have been eliminated to a large extent and the resulting materials exhibit exceedingly high performance for various applications. The performance of Rockwell actuators/sensors is at least 3 times better than commercially available products. These high performance actuators are being incorporated into various applications including, DOD, NASA and commercial. The multilayer actuator stacks fabricated from our piezoceramics are advantageous for sensing and high capacitance applications. In this presentation, we will describe the use of our high performance piezo-ceramics for actuators and sensors, including multilayer stacks and composite structures.

Neurgaonkar, Ratnakar R.

1996-01-01

407

A very promising piezoelectric property of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films. II: Birefringence and piezoelectricity  

SciTech Connect

Birefringent and piezoelectric properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramic thin films of monoclinic and trigonal structures were analyzed. The birefringence, observed by reflected polarized light microscopy, yields information on thin film microstructures, crystal shapes and sizes and on crystallographic orientations of grains of trigonal structure. Such an information was considered for investigating piezoelectric properties by laser Doppler vibrometry and by piezoresponse force microscopy. The vibration velocity was measured by applying an oscillating electric field between electrodes on both sides of a Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film deposited on a Si substrate which was pasted on an isolating mica sheet. In this case, it is shown that the vibration velocity results were not only from a converse piezoelectric effect, proportional to the voltage, but also from the Coulomb force, proportional to the square of the voltage. A huge piezoelectric strain effect, up to 7.6%, is found in the case of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} of trigonal structure. From an estimation of the electrical field through the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin film, this strain likely corresponds to a very high longitudinal coefficient d{sub 33} of several thousand picometers. Results obtained by piezoresponse force microscopy show that trigonal grains exhibit a polarization at zero field, which is probably due to stress caused expansion in the transition monoclinic-trigonal, presented in a previous article (part I). - Graphical abstract: Image of cross-polarized optical microscopy showing grains of trigonal structure embedded in the monoclinic phase (on the left); (a) mounting of the sample for Laser Doppler Vibrometry, sample constituted of several layers and its equivalent electrical circuit; (b) longitudinal displacements due to converse piezoelectric and Coulomb effects and corresponding piezoelectric strain-U{sub app.}. hystereses. Highlights: > A new Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} trigonal phase is shown to be birefringent and piezoelectric. > This phase is related to a reversible transition with a monoclinic phase. > The piezoelectricity of this trigonal phase is of several thousands of pm/V. > It is compared to piezoelectricity of the monoclinic phase of several tens of pm/V.

Audier, M., E-mail: Marc.Audier@grenoble-inp.fr [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique, UMR CNRS 5628, Minatec - INP Grenoble, 3 parvis Louis Neel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Chenevier, B.; Roussel, H. [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique, UMR CNRS 5628, Minatec - INP Grenoble, 3 parvis Louis Neel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Vincent, L. [CIME Nanotech Minatec, Microsystemes et capteurs, F-38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Pena, A. [Institut Neel - CNRS/UJF, Dpt. Matiere Condensee, Materiaux et Fonctions, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Lintanf Salauen, A. [L2MA, CEA LETI D2NT, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

2011-08-15

408

Piezoelectric Resonator with Two Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A piezoelectric resonator device includes: a top electrode layer with a patterned structure, a top piezoelectric layer adjacent to the top layer, a middle metal layer adjacent to the top piezoelectric layer opposite the top layer, a bottom piezoelectric layer adjacent to the middle layer opposite the top piezoelectric layer, and a bottom electrode layer with a patterned structure and adjacent to the bottom piezoelectric layer opposite the middle layer. The top layer includes a first plurality of electrodes inter-digitated with a second plurality of electrodes. A first one of the electrodes in the top layer and a first one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a first contact, and a second one of the electrodes in the top layer and a second one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a second contact.

Stephanou, Philip J. (Inventor); Black, Justin P. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

409

Piezoelectric step-motion actuator  

DOEpatents

A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

Mentesana; Charles P. (Leawood, KS)

2006-10-10

410

Effects of Cu, Zn on the Wettability and Shear Mechanical Properties of Sn-Bi-Based Lead-Free Solders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of minor Cu, Zn additions on the wettability, microstructures, and shear properties of Sn-Bi-based lead-free solder joints were investigated. The results show that a Cu addition promotes the wetting ratio of solder alloy, while Zn creates the opposite effect. The Cu5Zn8 intermetallic compound layer at the interface of Sn-40Bi-2Zn-0.1Cu and the Cu substrate alters the surface tension, which increases the contact angle. Also, this type of intermetallic compound contributes to the change of three wetting indicators. A proper amount of Cu, Zn increased the wetting force and decreased the wetting time, while the variation in the trend of withdrawing force is consistent with that of contact angle. From joint shear test results, the shear force decreased in the following order: Sn-40Bi-0.1Cu, Sn-58Bi, and Sn-40Bi-2Zn-0.1Cu solder joints. Cu additions refined the grain size of the Bi-rich phase and decreased the interface brittleness, which is the reason for the improvement of the shear strength of Sn-40Bi-0.1Cu solder joints. In contrast, Zn weakened the shear strength due to the brittle nature of the Zn-rich phase and the chemical activity of Zn.

Shen, Jun; Pu, Yayun; Yin, Henggang; Tang, Qin

2015-01-01

411

(Na, Bi)TiO3 based lead-free ferroelectric thin films on Si substrate for pyroelectric infrared sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we report ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties of (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) thin films on Si substrates using chemical solution deposition for the first time. The NBT-BT thin films deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates have exhibited a typical hysteresis loop with remnant polarization of 5 ?C/cm2 and coercive field of 80 kV/cm. Furthermore NBT-BT films showed pyroelectricity with pyroelectric coefficient of 0.6×10-8 C/cm2K. Monolithic-integration of Si electronics and lead-free ferroelectric NBT thin films has been archived using SiN passivation layer. It was previously believed that LSI processes could not incorporate any sodium-containing material which would cause characteristic degradation, such as threshold voltage shift. In this work, no threshold voltage shift in MOS characteristics was observed using this SiN layer. The SiN layer not only blocked diffusion from NBT chemistry, but also from crystallized NBT films during NBT formation process.

Akai, D.; Yoshita, R.; Ishida, M.

2013-04-01

412

Enhancing the Ductility of Sn-Ag-Cu Lead-Free Solder Joints by Addition of Compliant Intermetallics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tin (Sn)-rich lead (Pb)-free solders containing rare-earth (RE) elements have been shown to exhibit desirable attributes of microstructural refinement and enhanced ductility relative to conventional Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu lead-free solder, due to the unique mechanical properties of RE-Sn intermetallics. However, the roles of soft intermetallic phase in the enhanced ductility of Pb-free solder still need to be further investigated. In this paper, Ca and Mn were selected as doping elements for Sn-Ag-Cu solder. The mechanical properties of Ca-Sn and Mn-Sn intermetallics as a function of indentation depth were measured by nanoindentation using the continuous stiffness method (CSM). The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-reflowed Ca- and Mn-containing Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints were studied and compared with those of conventional Sn-Ag-Cu and RE-containing solder joints. It is shown that soft intermetallics result in higher ductility in Pb-free solders.

Xie, H. X.; Chawla, N.

2013-03-01

413

Methodology for analyzing stress states during in-situ thermomechanical cycling in individual lead free solder joints using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

To examine how a lead-free solder joint deforms in a thermal cycling environment, both the elastic and plastic stress and strain behavior must be understood. Methods to identify evolution of the internal strain (stress) state during thermal cycling are described. A slice of a package containing a single row of solder joints was thermally cycled from 0 C to 100 C with a period of about 1 h with concurrent acquisition of transmission Laue patterns using synchrotron radiation. These results indicated that most joints are single crystals, with some being multicrystals with no more than a few Sn grain orientations. Laue patterns were analyzed to estimate local strains in different crystal directions at different temperatures during a thermal cycle. While the strains perpendicular to various crystal planes all vary in a similar way, the magnitude of strain varies. The specimens were subsequently given several hundred additional thermal cycles and measured again to assess changes in the crystal orientations. These results show that modest changes in crystal orientations occur during thermal cycling.

Zhou, Bite; Bieler, Thomas R.; Lee , Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan; (MSU); (Cisco)

2010-07-22

414

High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

2012-01-01

415

High temperature piezoelectric drill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460°C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500°C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper.

Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

2012-04-01

416

Understanding the quasi-static thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectricity describes the behavior of a class of materials which exhibit a relationship between mechanical strain and electrical field. Piezoelectric materials can be crystals (e.g. quartz), ceramic (e.g. lead-zirconate-titanate---PZT---the primary focus of the present research), or polymers (e.g. polyvinylidine-fluoride - PVDF). Piezopolymers and piezoceramics offer a significant improvement in piezoelectric properties over naturally occurring piezoelectrics like quartz. In the last five years, research in piezoelectrics has begun to change focus from the more traditional sensor/actuator applications to utilizing piezoelectric materials in energy harvesting applications. The present research will explore the very low frequency response of piezoelectrics, including several energy harvesting applications, as well as the interactions between thermal, mechanical and electrical energy in a thermally driven piezoelectric energy generation system. In Chapter 1, the history of piezoelectric research and development is given, along with an overview of piezoelectricity for those readers who are not familiar with the topic. In Chapter 2, current investigations in piezoelectric energy harvesting research are summarized. The present research, namely understanding the quasi-static thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric materials is also summarized. In addition, two applications: thermal management in a satellite and energy harvesting from a vibrating highway bridge are detailed as motivators for the present research. Chapter 3 gives a summary of the relevant piezoelectric theory. In addition, electrical circuit theory and thermodynamic heat capacity/heat energy considerations required to complete the present research are given. Chapter 4 provides a summary of the experimental testing completed during the course of the present research. Significant testing, including determination of the PZT/Aluminum substrate sample time constants, thermal calibration testing and quantification of the voltage resulting from the PZT/Aluminum substrate samples, is detailed and summarized. In Chapter 5 the research analysis, including variance of the PZT element capacitance with loading condition, is presented. Novel piezoelectric theory associated with the thermally induced planar strain loading condition, along with corroborating test results, are also presented. Chapter 6 notes the significant results, conclusions and recommendations for future research resulting from the present research, including a system level summary of the 'satellite' and 'bridge' applications.

Ganley, Jeffrey Mark

2007-12-01

417

Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with <7mW power consumption. The close match between test data and simulation results suggests that the piezoelectric properties of bulk-PZT5A are mostly preserved without any necessity of repolarization. Three generations of resonant vibration energy harvesters are designed, simulated and fabricated to demonstrate the competitive performance of the new fabrication process over traditional piezoelectric deposition systems. An unpackaged PZT/Si unimorph harvester with 27mm3 active device volume produces up to 205microW at 1.5g/154Hz. The prototypes have achieved the highest figure-of-merits (normalized-power-density x bandwidth) amongst previously reported inertial energy harvesters. The fabricated energy harvester is utilized to create an autonomous energy generation platform in 0.3cm3 by system-level integration of a 50-80% efficient power management IC, which incorporates a supply-independent bias circuitry, an active diode for low-dropout rectification, a bias-flip system for higher efficiency, and a trickle battery charger. The overall system does not require a pre-charged battery, and has power consumption of <1microW in active-mode (measured) and <5pA in sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

418

Three-dimensional piezoelectric boundary elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong coupling between mechanical and electrical fields in piezoelectric ceramics makes them appropriate for use as actuation devices; as a result, they are an important part of the emerging technologies of smart materials and structures. These piezoceramics are very brittle and susceptible to fracture, especially under the severe loading conditions which may occur in service. A significant portion of the applications under investigation involve dynamic loading conditions. Once a crack is initiated in the piezoelectric medium, the mechanical and electrical fields can act to drive the crack growth. Failure of the actuator can result from a catastrophic fracture event or from the cumulative effects of cyclic fatigue. The presence of these cracks, or other types of material defects, alter the mechanical and electrical fields inside the body. Specifically, concentrations of stress and electric field are present near a flaw and can lead to material yielding or localized depoling, which in turn can affect the sensor/actuator performance or cause failure. Understanding these effects is critical to the success of these smart structures. The complex coupling behavior and the anisotropy of the material makes the use of numerical methods necessary for all but the simplest problems. To this end, a three-dimensional boundary element method program is developed to evaluate the effect of flaws on these piezoelectric materials. The program is based on the linear governing equations of piezoelectricity and relies on a numerically evaluated Green's function for solution. The boundary element method was selected as the evaluation tool due to its ability to model the interior domain exactly. Thus, for piezoelectric materials the coupling between mechanical and electrical fields is not approximated inside the body. Holes in infinite and finite piezoceramics are investigated, with the localized stresses and electric fields clearly developed. The accuracy of the piezoelectric boundary element method is demonstrated with two problems: a two-dimensional circular void and a three-dimensional spherical cavity, both inside infinite solids. Application of the program to a finite body with a centered, spherical void illustrates the complex nature of the mechanical and electrical coupling. Mode I fracture is also examined, combining the linear boundary element solution with the modified crack closure integral to determine strain energy release rates. Experimental research has shown that the strain, rather than the total, energy release rate is a better predictor of crack growth in piezoelectric materials. Solutions for a two-dimensional slit-like crack and for three-dimensional penny and elliptical cracks are presented. These solutions are developed using the insulated crack face electrical boundary condition. Although this boundary condition is used by most researchers, recent discussion indicates that it may not be an accurate model for the slender crack geometry. The boundary element method is used with the penny crack problem to investigate the effect of different electrical boundary conditions on the strain energy release rate. Use of a conductive crack face boundary condition, rather than an insulated one, acts to increase the strain energy release rate for the penny crack. These conductive strain energies are closer to the values determined using a permeable electrical boundary condition than to the original conductive boundary condition ones. It is shown that conclusions about structural integrity are strongly dependent on the choice of boundary conditions.

Hill, Lisa Renee

419

Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

420

PIEZOELECTRIC POWER SCAVENGING OF MECHANICAL VIBRATION ENERGY  

E-print Network

PIEZOELECTRIC POWER SCAVENGING OF MECHANICAL VIBRATION ENERGY PIEZOELECTRIC POWER SCAVENGING OFPIEZOELECTRIC POWER SCAVENGING OF MECHANICAL VIBRATION ENERGYMECHANICAL VIBRATION ENERGY CE 511- Structural

Ervin, Elizabeth K.

421

Piezoelectrically enhanced photocathode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photocathode, for generating electrons in response to incident photons in a photodetector, includes a base layer having a first lattice structure and an active layer having a second lattice structure and epitaxially formed on the base layer, the first and second lattice structures being sufficiently different to create a strain in the active layer with a corresponding piezoelectrically induced polarization field in the active layer, the active layer having a band gap energy corresponding to a desired photon energy.

Beach, Robert A. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Strittmatter, Robert P. (Inventor); Bell, Lloyd Douglas (Inventor)

2009-01-01

422

Modeling piezoelectric actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The piezoelectric actuator (PEA) is a well-known device for managing extremely small displacements in the range from 10 pm to 100 ?m. When developing a control system for a piezo-actuated positioning mechanism, the actuator dynamics have to be taken into account. An electromechanical piezo model, based on physical principles, is presented in this paper. In this model, a first-order differential

H. J. M. T. S. Adriaens; W. L. De Koning; R. Banning

2000-01-01

423

Multimaterial piezoelectric fibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fibre materials span a broad range of applications ranging from simple textile yarns to complex modern fibre-optic communication systems. Throughout their history, a key premise has remained essentially unchanged: fibres are static devices, incapable of controllably changing their properties over a wide range of frequencies. A number of approaches to realizing time-dependent variations in fibres have emerged, including refractive index modulation, nonlinear optical mechanisms in silica glass fibres and electroactively modulated polymer fibres. These approaches have been limited primarily because of the inert nature of traditional glassy fibre materials. Here we report the composition of a phase internal to a composite fibre structure that is simultaneously crystalline and non-centrosymmetric. A ferroelectric polymer layer of 30?m thickness is spatially confined and electrically contacted by internal viscous electrodes and encapsulated in an insulating polymer cladding hundreds of micrometres in diameter. The structure is thermally drawn in its entirety from a macroscopic preform, yielding tens of metres of piezoelectric fibre. The fibres show a piezoelectric response and acoustic transduction from kilohertz to megahertz frequencies. A single-fibre electrically driven device containing a high-quality-factor Fabry-Perot optical resonator and a piezoelectric transducer is fabricated and measured.

Egusa, S.; Wang, Z.; Chocat, N.; Ruff, Z. M.; Stolyarov, A. M.; Shemuly, D.; Sorin, F.; Rakich, P. T.; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Fink, Y.

2010-08-01

424

Facilitating NASA's Use of GEIA-STD-0005-1, Performance Standard for Aerospace and High Performance Electronic Systems Containing Lead-Free Solder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GEIA-STD-0005-1 defines the objectives of, and requirements for, documenting processes that assure customers and regulatory agencies that AHP electronic systems containing lead-free solder, piece parts, and boards will satisfy the applicable requirements for performance, reliability, airworthiness, safety, and certify-ability throughout the specified life of performance. It communicates requirements for a Lead-Free Control Plan (LFCP) to assist suppliers in the development of their own Plans. The Plan documents the Plan Owner's (supplier's) processes, that assure their customer, and all other stakeholders that the Plan owner's products will continue to meet their requirements. The presentation reviews quality assurance requirements traceability and LFCP template instructions.

Plante, Jeannete

2010-01-01

425

Structural, microstructural and thermal properties of lead-free bismuth–sodium–barium–titanate piezoceramics synthesized by mechanical alloying  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Mechano-synthesis of lead-free (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}Ba{sub 0.06}TiO{sub 3} piezoceramics with nanocrystalline/amorphous structure and homogeneous composition: partial transformation of constituents to BNBT, BNT and pyrochlore, amorphous phase formation, mechano-crystallization of the amorphous, pyrochlore-to-perovskite BNBT phase transformation during the process. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Perovskite BNBT powders with homogeneous composition were synthesized by MA. ? Partial transformation of constituents to BNBT, BNT and pyrochlore occurred by MA. ? Formation of an amorphous phase and afterwards its crystallization occurred by MA. ? Pyrochlore-to-perovskite BNBT phase transformation occurred after prolong milling. ? Polymorphic transformations of TiO{sub 2} act as the main alloying impediment during MA. -- Abstract: Bismuth–sodium–barium–titanate piezoceramics with a composition of (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}Ba{sub 0.06}TiO{sub 3} (BNBT) were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA). Structural analysis and phase identification were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructural studies and chemical composition homogeneity were performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Furthermore, thermal properties of the as-milled powders were evaluated by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). During the initial milling, the constituents were transformed to the perovskite, pyrochlore, and BNT phases; in addition, partial amorphization of the structure appeared during the milling cycle. As MA progressed, transformation of pyrochlore-to-perovskite and crystallization of the amorphous phase occurred and also, the BNBT phase was significantly developed. It was found that the MA process has the ability to synthesize the BNBT powders with a submicron particle size, regular morphology, and uniform elemental distribution.

Amini, Rasool, E-mail: amini@sutech.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, 71557-13876 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, 71557-13876 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazanfari, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh, Morteza; Ardakani, Hamed Ahmadi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, 71557-13876 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, 71557-13876 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, Mohammad [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, UNAM—National Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)] [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, UNAM—National Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

2013-02-15

426

Piezoelectric actuators for dynamic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main advantages of piezoelectrical actuators are their high resolution in motion and their excellent dynamic behavior. Especially the very short response times of solid state actuators presents new opportunities in developing high dynamical systems with unsurpassable characteristics. New concepts of piezoelectrically driven microoptical devices, e.g. optical fiber switches, intensity modulators and choppers, can be developed. Very compact systems with

Peter Buecker; Bernt Goetz; Thomas Martin

1998-01-01

427

478 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 31, NO. 2, JUNE 2008 Reliability and Failure Analysis of Lead-Free  

E-print Network

478 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 31, NO. 2, JUNE 2008 to certify the safety of an electronic package during the manufacturing and shipping processes. But recently with chemical compositions of 95.5Sn4.0Ag0.5Cu and 63Sn37Pb. It was found that the lead-free solder has a longer

Kim, Yong Jung

428

Coaxing graphene to be piezoelectric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several exotic characteristics and properties have made graphene a well-studied material from both a basic science viewpoint as well as tantalizing applications ranging from nanoelectronics, gas separation membranes to ultracapacitors. Graphene, however, is non-piezoelectric. This is obvious when graphene is in its metallic or semi-metallic state. However, even when graphene is in dielectric form—which can be engineered through porosity or by using nanoribbons—graphene is non-piezoelectric due to its centrosymmetric crystal structure. Using quantum mechanical calculations, we show that merely by creating holes of the right symmetry, graphene can be coaxed to act as a piezoelectric. We find that certain specifically tailored porous graphene sheets can "acquire" piezoelectricity coefficient that is nearly 72% of the well-known piezoelectric (quartz) or 36% of boron nitride nanotubes.

Chandratre, Swapnil; Sharma, Pradeep

2012-01-01

429

High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing  

PubMed Central

Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented. PMID:24361928

Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

2014-01-01

430

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of perovskite materials at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of perovskite materials including La modified Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT's), (Ba, Sr)TiO3 (BST) polycrystalline ceramics and Pb(Zn1\\/3 Nb2\\/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) single crystals were investigated for capacitor and actuator applications at cryogenic temperatures. PZTs were compositionally engineered to have decreased Curie temperatures (Tc) by La and Sn doping in order to compensate for the loss of extrinsic contributions to

D.-S. Paik; S.-E. Park; T. R. Shrout; W. Hackenberger

1999-01-01

431

On the propagation of long thickness-stretch waves in piezoelectric plates.  

PubMed

We study the propagation of thickness-stretch waves in a piezoelectric plate of polarized ceramics with thickness poling or crystals of class 6 mm whose sixfold axis is along the plate thickness. For device applications we consider long waves with wavelengths much longer than the plate thickness. A system of two-dimensional equations in the literature governing thickness-stretch, extensional, and symmetric thickness-shear motions of the plate is further simplified. The equations obtained can be used to analyze piezoelectric plate acoustic wave devices operating with thickness-stretch modes. PMID:24582557

Huang, Dejin; Yang, Jiashi

2014-07-01

432

Electrical admittance of piezoelectric parallelepipeds: application to tensorial characterization of piezoceramics  

SciTech Connect

This work deals with the characterization of functional properties, including determination of mechanical and electrical losses, of piezoelectric materials using only one sample and one measurement. First, the natural resonant frequencies of a piezoelectric parallelepiped are calculated and the electrical admittance is determined from calculations of the charge quantity on both electrodes of the parallelepiped. A first validation of the model is performed using a comparison with Mason's model. Results are reported for a PMN-34.5PT ceramic cube and a good agreement is found between experimental admittance measurements and their modeling. The functional properties of the PMN-34.5PT are then extracted.

Diallo, O.; Bavencoffe, M.; Feuillard, G. [Laboratoire GREMAN UMR CNRS 7347. École Nationale d’Ingénieurs du Val de Loire Université François Rabelais de Tours 3 Rue de la Chocolaterie BP 3410 41034 BLOIS CEDEX France (France)] [Laboratoire GREMAN UMR CNRS 7347. École Nationale d’Ingénieurs du Val de Loire Université François Rabelais de Tours 3 Rue de la Chocolaterie BP 3410 41034 BLOIS CEDEX France (France); Clezio, E. Le; Delaunay, T. [Institut d’Electronique du Sud UMR CNRS 5214 IES - MIRA case 082Université Montpellier 2 Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 5 France (France)] [Institut d’Electronique du Sud UMR CNRS 5214 IES - MIRA case 082Université Montpellier 2 Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 5 France (France)

2014-01-15

433

Evaluation of polarization of embedded piezoelectrics by the thermal wave method.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the benefit of the thermal wave method for the evaluation of the polarization state of embedded piezoelectrics. Two types of samples were investigated: A low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC)/lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensor-actuator and a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator. At modulation frequencies below 10 Hz, the pyroelectric response was governed by thermal losses to the embedding layers. Here, the sample behavior was described by a harmonically heated piezoelectric plate exhibiting heat losses to the environment characterized by a single thermal relaxation time. PMID:23007766

Suchaneck, Gunnar; Eydam, Agnes; Hu, Wenguo; Kranz, Burkhart; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Gerlach, Gerald

2012-09-01

434

Design and fabrication of lanthanum-doped tin-silver-copper lead-free solder for the next generation of microelectronics applications in severe environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tin-Lead solder (Sn-Pb) has long been used in the Electronics industry. But, due to its toxic nature and environmental effects, certain restrictions are made on its use by the European Rehabilitation of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, and therefore, many researchers are looking to replace it. The urgent need for removing lead from solder alloys led to the very fast introduction of lead-free solder alloys without a deep knowledge of their behavior. Therefore, an extensive knowledge and understanding of the mechanical behavior of the emerging generation of lead-free solders is required to satisfy the demands of structural reliability. Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solders are widely used as lead-free replacements but their coarse microstructure and formation of hard and brittle Inter-Metallic Compounds (IMCs) have limited their use in high temperature applications. Many additives are studied to refine the microstructure and improve the mechanical properties of SAC solders including iron (Fe), bismuth (Bi), antimony (Sb) and indium (In) etc. Whereas many researchers studied the impact of novel rare earth (RE) elements like lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and lutetium (Lu) on SAC solders. These RE elements are known as “vitamins of metals” because of their special surface active properties. They reduce the surface free energy, refine the grain size and improve the mechanical properties of many lead free solder alloys like Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu and SAC but still a systematic study is required to explore the special effects of “La” on the eutectic SAC alloys. The objective of this PhD thesis is to extend the current knowledge about lead free solders of SAC alloys towards lanthanum doping with varying environmental conditions implemented during service. This thesis is divided into six main parts.

Sadiq, Muhammad

435

Performance analysis of piezoelectric cantilever bending actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bimorph and unimorph are two typical bending mode actuators, either consisting two piezoelectric layers or one piezoelectric layer and one elastic layer. In the case of bimorph actuator, when an electric field is applied to the piezoelectric layers, one layer expands while the other contract along length direction, producing a pure bending deformation. In unimorph actuator, when piezoelectric layer is

Qing-Ming Wang; L. Eric Cross

1998-01-01

436

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 25 [4] (2005) 3335-3346. Phase diagram and Raman Imaging of Grain Growth Mechanisms  

E-print Network

1 J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 25 [4] (2005) 3335-3346. Phase diagram and Raman Imaging of Grain Growth Mechanisms in Highly Textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics Mai Pham Thi1 , Gregory March2, France Abstract Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 solid solution (PMN(1-x)-PTx) ceramics with 0

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

Effective electromechanical moduli of ferroelectric ceramics with fiber Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials & Rheological Properties of Ministry of Education,  

E-print Network

Effective electromechanical moduli of ferroelectric ceramics with fiber textures Y. C. Zhou Key and electromechanical coupling factors of ferroelectric ceramics BaTiO3 and Pb Mg1/3Nb2/3 O3­PbTiO3 PMN-PT with various, 011 -textured PMN-PT ceramics have much smaller piezoelectric coefficients d32 and d33 than does 011

Li, Jiangyu

438

Design Requirements for Amorphous Piezoelectric Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the piezoelectric activity in amorphous piezoelectric polymers is presented. The criteria required to render a polymer piezoelectric are discussed. Although piezoelectricity is a coupling between mechanical and electrical properties, most research has concentrated on the electrical properties of potentially piezoelectric polymers. In this work, we present comparative mechanical data as a function of temperature and offer a summary of polarization and electromechanical properties for each of the polymers considered.

Ounaies, Z.; Young, J. A.; Harrison, J. S.

1999-01-01

439

Piezoelectric motor development at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division  

SciTech Connect

The Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal Inc. has been investigating the fabrication and use of piezoelectric motors in mechanisms for United States Department of Energy (DOE) weapons applications for about four years. These motors exhibit advantages over solenoids and other electromagnetic actuators. Prototype processes have been developed for complete fabrication of motors from stock materials, including abrasive machining of piezoelectric ceramics and more traditional machining of other motor components, electrode plating and sputtering, electric poling, cleaning, bonding and assembly. Drive circuits have been fabricated and motor controls are being developed. Laboratory facilities have been established for electrical/mechanical testing and evaluation of piezo materials and completed motors. Recent project efforts have focused on the potential of piezoelectric devices for commercial and industrial use. A broad range of various motor types and application areas has been identified, primarily in Japan. The Japanese have been developing piezo motors for many years and have more recently begun commercialization. Piezoelectric motor and actuator technology is emerging in the United States and quickly gaining in commercial interest. The Kansas City Division is continuing development of piezoelectric motors and actuators for defense applications while supporting and participating in the commercialization of piezoelectric devices with private industry through various technology transfer and cooperative development initiatives.

Pressly, R.B.; Mentesana, C.P.

1994-11-01

440

Self-powered discrete time piezoelectric vibration damper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural vibration suppression is of great interest to the aircraft industry as it can reduce the amplitude of excessive vibration in lightly damped panels caused by conditions in their operational environment. One technique of suppressing vibration is to use passive damping techniques such as constrained layered damping incorporating viscoelastic materials. However these techniques may not be acceptable because of weight concerns or extreme temperature variations. Over the past decade much work has been done by researchers on the use of piezoelectric ceramic devices, using passive and active techniques, for structural vibration suppression. The passive piezoelectric damping devices consist