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Sample records for leaf beetle galerucella

  1. Differences in preference and performance of the water lily leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae populations on native and introduced aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianqing; Blossey, Bernd

    2009-12-01

    Plant invasions represent ecological opportunities for herbivorous insects able to exploit novel host plants. The availability of new hosts and rapid adaptations may lead to host race formation and ultimately speciation. We studied potential host race formation in the water lily leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae, in response to invasion by water chestnut, Trapa natans, in eastern North America. This leaf beetle is well suited for such studies because previous work showed that different herbivore populations follow different "evolutionary pathways" and specialize locally in response to differences in habitat preferences and host plant availability. We compared host preference and performance of G. nymphaeae offspring originating from T. natans and offspring of individuals originating from an ancestral host Nuphar lutea, yellow water lily, on T. natans and three native hosts (N. lutea, Nympheae odorata, and Brasenia schreberi). Regardless of origin (Trapa or Nuphar), adults strongly preferred their native host, N. lutea, over T. natans. Although laboratory survival rates (larva to pupa) were extremely high (80%) regardless of origin or host offered, survival rates in a common garden were greatly reduced, particularly for T. natans (24%) and to a lesser extent on N. lutea (54%), regardless of beetle origin. Larval drowning during more frequent leaf changes when developing on small Trapa leaves seems to be responsible for this difference. Preference of females for N. lutea is beneficial considering the much higher larval survival on the ancestral host. Abundant T. natans where the plant is invasive provides an alternative food source that beetles can use after egg/larval loads on their preferred host reach carrying capacity, but this utilization comes at a cost of high larval mortality. PMID:20021761

  2. Effects of cyclamen mite (Phytonemus pallidus) and leaf beetle (Galerucella tenella) damage on volatile emission from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) plants and orientation of predatory mites (Neoseiulus cucumeris, N. californicus, and Euseius finlandicus).

    PubMed

    Himanen, Sari; Vuorinen, Terhi; Tuovinen, Tuomo; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2005-11-01

    Volatile emission profile of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) plants (cvs. Polka and Honeoye) damaged by cyclamen mite (Phytonemus pallidus Banks) or leaf beetle Galerucella tenella (L.) (cv. Polka) was analyzed to determine the potential of these strawberry plants to emit herbivore-induced volatiles. The total volatile emissions as well as emissions of many green leaf volatiles (e.g., (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate) and methyl salicylate were greater from cyclamen mite-damaged strawberry plants than from intact plants. Leaf beetle feeding increased emissions of monoterpenes (Z)-ocimene and (E)-beta-ocimene, sesquiterpenes (E)-beta-caryophyllene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and germacrene-D, and a homoterpene (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) significantly. Nevertheless, the naïve generalist predatory mites, Neoseiulus cucumeris, Neoseiulus californicus, and Euseius finlandicus did not prefer P. pallidus- or G. tenella-damaged plants over intact plants in a Y-tube olfactometer, suggesting that these predatory mite species are not attracted by the herbivore-induced volatiles being released from young strawberry plants. PMID:16248563

  3. Susceptibility of the leaf-eating beetle, Galerucella calmariensis, a biological control agent for purple loosestrife (Lythrum salcaria), to three mosquito control larvicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowe, T.P.; Hershberger, T.D.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of Galerucella calmariensis, a species used to control purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), to three mosquito control larvicides. Larvae and adults were fed loosestrife cuttings dipped in Abate? (3.75 g?L-1) was reduced significantly and survival was significantly lower among larvae and adults eating cuttings dipped in Abate (>0.17 g?L-1 and >2.27 g?L-1, respectively). Hatching success of eggs dipped in Altosid (>2.52 g?L-1) was reduced significantly. With exposure to Altosid, larval survival to pupation and adult emergence was reduced significantly at concentrations of >2.92 g?L-1 and >0.63 g?L-1, respectively. Altosid (>0.23 g?L-1) also delayed the onset of pupation and adult emergence among larvae that survived to pupate. Larvae that survived with exposure to Altosid (>1.72 g?L-1) grew to 70% larger than those exposed to lower concentrations. Pupal survival was unaffected with exposure to Abate and Altosid and adult survival was unaffected with exposure to Altosid. Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis did not adversely affect any life stage of G. calmariensis. The mean Abate concentration on cuttings exposed to operational spraying was in the range that reduced egg hatchability and adult survival but was higher than concentrations that caused complete mortality of larvae. The mean Altosid concentration on cuttings exposed to operational spraying was in the range that reduced hatching success in eggs and delayed pupation and adult emergence of larvae.

  4. Bayesian species delimitation reveals generalist and specialist parasitic wasps on Galerucella beetles (Chrysomelidae): sorting by herbivore or plant host

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To understand the ecological and evolutionary consequences of species interactions in food webs necessitates that interactions are properly identified. Genetic analyses suggest that many supposedly generalist parasitoid species should rather be defined as multiple species with a more narrow diet, reducing the probability that such species may mediate indirect interactions such as apparent competition among hosts. Recent studies showed that the parasitoid Asecodes lucens mediate apparent competition between two hosts, Galerucella tenella and G. calmariensis, affecting both interaction strengths and evolutionary feedbacks. The same parasitoid was also recorded from other species in the genus Galerucella, suggesting that similar indirect effects may also occur for other species pairs. Methods To explore the possibility of such interactions, we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers to resolve the phylogeny of both host and parasitoid and to test the number of parasitoid species involved. We thus collected 139 Galerucella larvae from 8 host plant species and sequenced 31 adult beetle and 108 parasitoid individuals. Results The analysis of the Galerucella data, that also included sequences from previous studies, verified the five species previously documented as reciprocally monophyletic, but the Bayesian species delimitation for A. lucens suggested 3–4 cryptic taxa with a more specialised host use than previously suggested. The gene data analyzed under the multispecies coalescent model allowed us to reconstruct the species tree phylogeny for both host and parasitoid and we found a fully congruent coevolutionary pattern suggesting that parasitoid speciation followed upon host speciation. Conclusion Using multilocus sequence data in a Bayesian species delimitation analysis we propose that hymenopteran parasitoids of the genus Asecodes that infest Galerucella larvae constitute at least three species with narrow diet breath. The evolution of

  5. THE PRESENCE OF TIBIAL SPURS AS A MALE SEXUAL CHARACTER FOR GALERUCELLA CALMARIENIS (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Close examination (20-30X) of tibia of Galerucella calmariensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) showed that some of these leaf beetles had a single black-colored spur at the distal end of the tibia. These spurs were only observed on the meso- and metatibia and were clearly contrasted against the l...

  6. Early-Summer Pheromone Biology of Galerucella calmariensis and Relationship to Dispersal and Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Galerucella calmariensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has become an effective biological control agent for purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). A male-produced aggregation pheromone was recently identified in this mostly univoltine beetle, and attractiveness to both sexes was demonstrated in the ...

  7. Allozyme gene diversities in some leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Krafsur, E S

    1999-08-01

    Gene diversity at allozyme loci was investigated in the bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trifurcata Forster; the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller); the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricus; the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the southern corn rootworm, also called the spotted cucumber beetle, D. undecimpunctata howardi Baker; the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence; and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Six of these species are economically important pests of crops and display adaptive traits that may correlate with genetic diversity. Gene diversity H(E) in bean leaf beetles was 17.7 +/- 4.0% among 32 loci. In western corn rootworms, H(E) = 4.8 +/- 2.0% among 36 loci, and in spotted cucumber beetles, H(E) = 11.9 +/- 2.7% among 39 loci. Diversity among 27 loci was 10.5 +/- 4.3% in the Colorado potato beetle. The data were compared with gene diversity estimates from other leaf beetle species in which heterozygosities varied from 0.3 to 21% and no correlation was detected among heterozygosities, geographic ranges, or population densities. Distributions of single-locus heterozygosities were consistent with selective neutrality of alleles. PMID:10624512

  8. Soybean N relations and bean leaf beetle larval feeding damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine if soil fertilizer nitrogen (N) input treatments would impact the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcate Förster) biology. The experiment was conducted in the soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] phase of a long-term corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean rotation study. S...

  9. Attachment of Galerucella nymphaeae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) to surfaces with different surface energy.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Constanze; Blankenstein, Andreas; Koops, Sven; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies deal with insect attachment onto surfaces with different roughness; however, little is known about insect attachment onto surfaces that have different chemistry. In the present study, we describe the attachment structures of the water-lily leaf beetle Galerucella nymphaeae and test the hypothesis that the larval and adult stages generate the strongest attachment on surfaces with contact angles that are similar to those of leaves of their host plants. The larvae bear a smooth attachment system with arolium-like structures at their legs and a pygopodium at the abdomen tip. Adults have pointed setae on the ventral side of the two proximal tarsomeres and densely arranged spatula-shaped ones on their third tarsomere. In a centrifugal force tester, larvae and adults attained the highest friction forces and safety factors on surfaces with a water contact angle of 83 deg compared to those of 6, 26 and 109 deg. This comes close to the contact angle of their host plant Nuphar lutea (86 deg). The similarity in larval and adult performances might be a result of the similar chemical composition of their attachment fluid. We compare our findings with previous studies on the forces that insects generate on surfaces with different surface energies. PMID:25324345

  10. Nitrogen fertilizer management effects on soybean N components and bean leaf beetle populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean leaf beetle [Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster)] larvae consume soybean [Glycine max (L.)] root nodules. This study was conducted to determine if different rates of N contained in starter fertilizer impact soybean shoot N components and bean leaf beetle (BLB) populations. The effects of starter N ...

  11. Endemism patterns in the Italian leaf beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584

  12. Dock leaf beetle, Gastrophysa viridula Deg., herbivory on Mossy Sorrel, Rumex confertus Willd: Induced plant volatiles and beetle orientation responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive weed Rumex confertus Willd. (mossy sorrel) is fed upon and severely defoliated by Gastrophysa viridula Deg. (dock leaf beetle), a highly promising biological control agent for this weed. We report volatile organic compound (VOC) induction when one leaf on R. confertus was damaged by G. ...

  13. Cold tolerance of the montane Sierra leaf beetle, Chrysomela aeneicollis.

    PubMed

    Boychuk, Evelyn C; Smiley, John T; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P; Bernards, Mark A; Rank, Nathan E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Small ectothermic animals living at high altitude in temperate latitudes are vulnerable to lethal cold throughout the year. Here we investigated the cold tolerance of the leaf beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis living at high elevation in California's Sierra Nevada mountains. These insects spend over half their life cycle overwintering, and may therefore be vulnerable to winter cold, and prior studies have demonstrated that survival is reduced by exposure to summertime cold. We identify overwintering microhabitat of this insect, describe cold tolerance strategies in all life stages, and use microclimate data to determine the importance of snow cover and microhabitat buffering for overwinter survival. Cold tolerance varies among life history stages and is typically correlated with microhabitat temperature: cold hardiness is lowest in chill-susceptible larvae, and highest in freeze-tolerant adults. Hemolymph osmolality is higher in quiescent (overwintering) than summer adults, primarily, but not exclusively, due to elevated hemolymph glycerol. In nature, adult beetles overwinter primarily in leaf litter and suffer high mortality if early, unseasonable cold prevents them from entering this refuge. These data suggest that cold tolerance is tightly linked to life stage. Thus, population persistence of montane insects may become problematic as climate becomes more unpredictable and climate change uncouples the phenology of cold tolerance and development from the timing of extreme cold events. PMID:26231921

  14. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    PubMed Central

    Koch, R.L.; Burkness, E.C.; Hutchison, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated. PMID:15861221

  15. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  16. The first record of a leaf-hole shelter in leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with descriptions of two new Orthaltica Crotch species from southern India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two behavioral novelties in adults of leaf beetles were observed in a couple of new species of Orthaltica Crotch: 1) use of low cost, leaf-hole shelter, which are pre-formed holes produced by larger beetles that fed on the same leaf, or made artificially as part of an experiment; 2) use of feces t...

  17. Physiological Response of Tamarix ramosissima (Salt Cedar) to Diorhabda elongata (Leaf Beetle) Herbivory in a Controlled Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Question/Methods The effects of Diorhabda elongata (leaf beetle) herbivory on Tamarix ramosissima physiology are largely undocumented. Wounding by the beetle during consumption of leaf tissue and the laying of eggs (oviposition) could increase root and leaf respiration as carbohydrates a...

  18. Bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) response to soybean variety and organic-compliant treatments in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to concerns from certified organic producers who were experiencing significant market losses due to seed staining of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], we evaluated alternative ways to manage bean leaf beetles [Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster)] (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a known vector for...

  19. Evaluation of Organic Pest Management Treatments for Bean Leaf Beetle in Soybean in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many organic soybean producers face the challenge of bean leaf beetle (Ceratoma trifurcata), which harbors bean mottle pod virus and opens infection sites for Fusarium spp., Cercospora kikuchii, and Phomopsis spp., which cause discoloration in soybeans. Stained soybean seed is less acceptable for fo...

  20. Genetic variability of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), in the Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean leaf beetle (BLB) is a key pest of soybean in the Midwestern US. Presently there is scant information on genetic structure and gene flow of BLB; This information would be very useful for pest management. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to investigates the genetic variabil...

  1. Bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management for reduction of bean pod mottle virus.

    PubMed

    Krell, Rayda K; Pedigo, Larry P; Hill, John H; Rice, Marlin E

    2004-04-01

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a management concern for soybean, Glycine max (L.), producers in the North Central states because it can cause yield loss and reduce seed quality by induction of seed coat mottling. The main vector of BPMV is the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster). An experiment was conducted in 2000 and 2001 at two locations in northwestern and central Iowa to test three insecticide treatments for suppression of bean leaf beetles, and subsequently, BPMV. Treatments of insecticide applications with lambda-cyhalothrin were 1) a single early-season application (23 g [AI] /ha) (2.5 oz/acre) at the VE-VC soybean developmental stage; 2) two early-season applications, the first the same as treatment 1 and a second at the same rate 9-13 d later; 3) a single early-season application the same as treatment 1, followed by a mid-season application (28 g [AI] /ha (3.2 oz/acre) at approximately R2 (flowering, near 15 July); and 4) an unsprayed control. Application of lambda-cyhalothrin after soybean emergence and again as first-generation bean leaf beetles emerged in northwestern Iowa in 2000 (treatment 3) significantly reduced beetle densities through mid-season, BPMV field incidence by 31.5%, and seed coat mottling by 31.2%, compared with the unsprayed control. Similar effects were measured at the same location when insecticide was applied twice at early season (treatment 2). Yield was 453.7 kg/ha (6.74 bu/acre) greater in treatment 2 and 525.20 kg/ha (7.80 bu/acre) greater in treatment 3 than in the unsprayed control at the northwestern site in 2000. At both locations in 2001 fewer treatment effects were observed, which was likely related to lower beetle populations in that year. Early-season insecticide sprays targeted at overwintered beetles on VC-VE reduced the initial population of vector insects and may have contributed to a lower first-generation population because of reduced overwintered beetle oviposition. In 1 year at one location there

  2. First record of leaf-hole shelters used and modified by leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), with descriptions of two new Orthaltica Crotch species from southern India

    PubMed Central

    Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Konstantinov, Alexander S.; Shameem, K. M.; Balan, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Behavioural novelties observed in adult leaf beetles of two new Orthaltica Crotch species include: 1) the use of low cost leaf-hole shelters, either in pre-formed holes produced by larger beetles that fed on the same leaf, or artificially created holes as part of an experiment; and 2) the use of faeces to partition the hole. Two new southern Indian species of the genus Orthaltica are described and illustrated: Orthaltica syzygium and Orthaltica terminalia. Host plants are identified for both species. A key to the Indian species of Orthaltica is provided. PMID:24146572

  3. Coinciding development of winter wheat and leaf beetles along an Alpine transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechini, Luca; Morlacchi, Pablo; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2013-02-01

    The degree of temporal coincidence in the development of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the cereal leaf beetles Oulema melanopus (L.) and Oulema duftschmidi (Redtenbacher, 1874) was studied by means of explanatory phenology models. Temperature and photoperiod control crop development, whereas oviposition and development of eggs and larvae of the two beetles depend on temperature and crop phases. The models parametrized with literature data satisfactorily represented crop and prepupal insect development at several Swiss and Italian locations. The successfully validated models were used for representing multiannual crop and insect development at seven locations on a European transect between the Danube river in the North and the Po River in the South. Depending on temperature and photoperiod, the crop phases occurred at different time periods but were generally of similar durations. The shifting of the crop phases exposed the cereal leaf beetles to environmental conditions which were similar during oviposition and slightly different as the growing season progressed. The simulated oviposition and prepupal survivorship was much higher for O. melanopus than for O. duftschmidi but did not differ between the locations. The crop phase-dependent mortality (Mc) was consistently higher for O. duftschmidi than for O. melanopus, whose Mc increased with increasing altitude. The extent of coinciding development was investigated by means of the summed larval development rates divided by the summed wheat development rate. During the oviposition period the insect development was coincident with wheat development. With time progression, however, the temperature difference between the locations increased causing an incomplete coincidence in the development of wheat and cereal leaf beetles. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of coinciding development of the three species is largely controlled by temperature and photoperiodic conditions.

  4. Elm leaf beetle performance on ozone-fumigated elm. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, J.H.; Hall, R.W.; Townsend, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Leaves (1986) from elm hybrids ('Pioneer', 'Homestead', '970') previously fumigated in open-top chambers with ozone or with charcoal-filtered air (CFA) were evaluated for water and nitrogen content or were fed to adult elm leaf beetles (ELB), Xanthogaleruca = (Pyrrhalta) luteola (Muller), to determine host suitability for beetle fecundity and survivorship. ELB females fed ozone-fumigated leaves laid significantly fewer eggs than females fed CFA-fumigated leaves. Leaf nitrogen or water content was unaffected. Hybrid '970' (1988) was fumigated with CFA or with ozone concentrations to determine effects on ELB fecundity, leaf consumption, and survivorship. Significantly fewer eggs were laid at the higher concentration of ozone. Because higher levels of ozone are found in urban areas and because municipalities often replace American elms, Ulmus americana L., with Dutch elm disease-resistant elm hybrids that are susceptible to ELB defoliation, it is important to explore the relationships between ozone sensitivity of elm and susceptibility to ELB herbivory before recommending replacement use of these elms to municipal arborists. The study was conducted to determine whether ozone pollution influences host quality of elm for ELB and how ELB fecundity, leaf consumption rate, and survivorship are affected.

  5. Management of Yellowmargined Leaf Beetle Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Using Turnip as a Trap Crop.

    PubMed

    Balusu, Rammohan; Rhodes, Elena; Liburd, Oscar; Fadamiro, Henry

    2015-12-01

    The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål, is a major pest of cruciferous vegetable crops in organic production systems. Very few organically acceptable management options are currently available for this pest. Field studies were conducted at a research station in Alabama and at a commercial organic vegetable farm in Florida to investigate the effectiveness of turnip, Brassica rapa rapa, as a trap crop for M. ochroloma. In the research station trial with cabbage planted as the cash crop, perimeter planting of turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced beetle numbers and crop damage below levels recorded in the control. During the first season of our on-farm trial, with napa cabbage and mustard as the cash crops, using turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced both beetle numbers and cash crop damage below levels found in the control plots, but economic damage was still high. In the second season, beetle populations were too low for significant differences in damage levels to occur between the trap crop and control plots. Together, these results suggest that turnip planted as a trap crop can be an effective control tactic for cruciferous crops, like cabbage, that are much less attractive to M. ochroloma than turnip. In crops, like mustard and napa cabbage, that are equally or only slightly less attractive than turnip, planting turnip as a trap crop would have to be used in combination with other tactics to manage M. ochroloma. PMID:26470380

  6. Aggregation pheromone of the cereal leaf beetle: field evaluation and emission from males in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sujaya; Cossé, Allard A; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Bartelt, Robert J

    2003-09-01

    The previously identified, male-specific compound of the cereal leaf beetle (CLB, Chrysomelidae; Oulema melanopus), (E)-8-hydroxy-6-methyl-6-octen-3-one, was studied further with respect to field activity and emission rate from male beetles. In a 5-week field experiment in Oregon, the compound was shown to function as an aggregation pheromone in attracting male and female CLBs migrating from overwintering sites in spring. Traps baited with the synthetic compound (500 microg per rubber septum) caught 3.3 times more CLBs than control traps. Lower doses of the pheromone (50 and 150 microg) were less attractive than the 500 microg dose. One relatively abundant, volatile compound from the host plant (oats), (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, that elicited responses from beetle antennae was not attractive, either by itself or as a synergist of the pheromone. Both sexes were captured about equally for all treatments. We also measured daily pheromone emission by male beetles in the laboratory. Individual males feeding on oat seedlings under greenhouse conditions emitted as much as 6 microg per day, which is about 500 times higher than had been previously observed under incubator conditions. The pheromone emission rate was at least five times higher during the day than at night, and in one male, emission spanned a period of 28 d. The release rate of synthetic pheromone from the 500 microg septa was very similar to the maximum from single males; thus, future experiments should evaluate even higher doses. The field results indicate that the pheromone has potential as a monitoring tool for early detection of CLBs as they move from their overwintering sites into newly planted cereal crops in spring. PMID:14584683

  7. Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) water fluxes before, during and after episodic defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hultine, K.R.; Nagler, P.L.; Dennison, P.E.; Bush, S.E.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful and economically costly plant invaders in the western United States, in part due to its potential to remove large amounts of water from shallow aquifers. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have released a new biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) along many watersheds in the western United States to reduce the spread of tamarisk. The beetle defoliates tamarisk for much of the growing season resulting in potentially large seasonal declines in productivity, fitness, and water loss from tamarisk stands. We measured sap flux density (Js) using heat dissipation sensors to investigate water use patterns of tamarisk before, during and after a single, six week beetle-induced defoliation event in southeastern, Utah, USA. Granier-style probes were installed on 20 dominant trees from May through September 2008, a period that covers almost the entire growing season. As the beetle emerged from dormancy in mid-June, daytime and nighttime Js measurably increased for approximately two weeks before declining to less than 20% of predicted values (predicted by modeling Js with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in May and June before defoliation). Tamarisk trees in mid-August produced new leaves and Js returned to pre-defoliation levels. Total Js, summed over the duration of the study was 13% lower than predicted values. These data suggest that defoliation results in only small changes in seasonal water loss from tamarisk stands. Current research is focusing on long-term ecohydrological impacts of tamarisk defoliation over multiple growing seasons.

  8. ABC transporter functions as a pacemaker for sequestration of plant glucosides in leaf beetles

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Anja S; Peters, Sven; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions dominate the planet’s terrestrial ecology. When it comes to host–plant specialization, insects are among the most versatile evolutionary innovators, able to disarm multiple chemical plant defenses. Sequestration is a widespread strategy to detoxify noxious metabolites, frequently for the insect’s own benefit against predation. In this study, we describe the broad-spectrum ATP-binding cassette transporter CpMRP of the poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi as the first candidate involved in the sequestration of phytochemicals in insects. CpMRP acts in the defensive glands of the larvae as a pacemaker for the irreversible shuttling of pre-selected metabolites from the hemolymph into defensive secretions. Silencing CpMRP in vivo creates a defenseless phenotype, indicating its role in the secretion process is crucial. In the defensive glands of related leaf beetle species, we identified sequences similar to CpMRP and assume therefore that exocrine gland-based defensive strategies, evolved by these insects to repel their enemies, rely on ABC transporters as a key element. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01096.001 PMID:24302568

  9. ABC transporter functions as a pacemaker for sequestration of plant glucosides in leaf beetles.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Anja S; Peters, Sven; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions dominate the planet's terrestrial ecology. When it comes to host-plant specialization, insects are among the most versatile evolutionary innovators, able to disarm multiple chemical plant defenses. Sequestration is a widespread strategy to detoxify noxious metabolites, frequently for the insect's own benefit against predation. In this study, we describe the broad-spectrum ATP-binding cassette transporter CpMRP of the poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi as the first candidate involved in the sequestration of phytochemicals in insects. CpMRP acts in the defensive glands of the larvae as a pacemaker for the irreversible shuttling of pre-selected metabolites from the hemolymph into defensive secretions. Silencing CpMRP in vivo creates a defenseless phenotype, indicating its role in the secretion process is crucial. In the defensive glands of related leaf beetle species, we identified sequences similar to CpMRP and assume therefore that exocrine gland-based defensive strategies, evolved by these insects to repel their enemies, rely on ABC transporters as a key element. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01096.001. PMID:24302568

  10. Egg-hatching synchrony and larval cannibalism in the dock leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Kutcherov, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Females of leaf beetles and many other herbivorous insects lay eggs in coherent batches. Hatchlings emerge more or less simultaneously and often prey on their late-hatching clutchmates. It is not certain, however, whether this synchrony of hatching is a mere by-product of cannibalism or whether an additional synchronizing factor exists. The following simple experiment was aimed at determining the causal relationship between cannibalism and simultaneous larval emergence. Egg clutches of the dock leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula were split into two halves. These halves were either kept as coherent groups in two separate dishes or, alternatively, only one half remained whole, whereas the other one was divided into single eggs, each of which was incubated in a separate dish. Halving of a clutch into coherent groups only slightly disrupted the synchrony of emergence. The consequence of individual isolation was more dramatic. Half-clutches consisting of disconnected solitary eggs required almost twice as much time for complete emergence of all larvae, which was significantly more than cannibalism as a sole synchronizing factor might explain. Moreover, survival rates were the same in coherent half-clutches (in the presence of cannibalism) and among isolated individuals. This group effect and the small contribution of cannibalism suggest the existence of an additional synchronizing factor. Possible mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are discussed. PMID:26482400

  11. Defoliation by introduced Diorhabda elongata leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) reduces carbohydrate reserves and regrowth of Tamarix (Tamaricacceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diorhabda elongate (Brulle) sensu lato leaf beetles have been released in the United States for the classical biological control of invasive Tamarix L. species, which are exotic trees that are causing deterioration of riparian ecosystems in western North America. The impact of D. elongate defoliat...

  12. Book review: Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book entitled Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler. (246 pages, 324 black and white illustrations, 8.5 “ x 11"; ISBN 0-9753471-8-7. Forty dollars, paperback. Biota of South Carolina. Volume 5. Clemson University, Clemson, S. ...

  13. Diapause in the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for tamarisk (Tamarix spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tamarisk leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata Brulle deserticola Chen was collected in Northwestern China and has been released in the Western U.S. to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). Characteristics of diapause and reproductive development in D. elongata were examined to improve management as a bioc...

  14. Population structure, genetic variability, and gene flow of the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, in the Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a common pest of soybean in the Midwest. However, there are currently no studies on the genetic variability of C. trifurcata. This study examined 15-30 individuals from 25 subpopulations to determine genetic variability ...

  15. Overwintering survival, phenology, voltinism, and reproduction among different populations of the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The classical biological control program for exotic saltcedars (various Tamarix species and hybrids) has involved the assessment of different populations of the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Brullé) sensu lato that are promising for release in areas of North America that are located south of 37°N ...

  16. Influences of the Tamarisk Leaf Beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on the diet of insectivorous birds along the Dolores River in Southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, Sarah L.; van Riper, Charles, III

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a biologic control agent, the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), on native avifauna in southwestern Colorado, specifically, addressing whether and to what degree birds eat tamarisk leaf beetles. In 2010, we documented avian foraging behavior, characterized the arthropod community, sampled bird diets, and undertook an experiment to determine whether tamarisk leaf beetles are palatable to birds. We observed that tamarisk leaf beetles compose 24.0 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 19.9-27.4 percent) and 35.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 32.4-45.1 percent) of arthropod abundance and biomass in the study area, respectively. Birds ate few tamarisk leaf beetles, despite a superabundance of D. carinulata in the environment. The frequency of occurrence of tamarisk leaf beetles in bird diets was 2.1 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 1.3- 2.9 percent) by abundance and 3.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 2.6-4.2 percent) by biomass. Thus, tamarisk leaf beetles probably do not contribute significantly to the diets of birds in areas where biologic control of tamarisk is being applied.

  17. The consequences of alternating diet on performance and food preferences of a specialist leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Tremmel, Martin; Müller, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    The food quality of a given host plant tissue will influence the performance and may also affect the preference behavior of herbivorous animals. As nutrient contents and defense metabolite concentrations can vary significantly between different parts of a plant and change over time, herbivores are potentially confronted with diet differing in quality even when feeding on a single plant individual. Here we investigated to what extent feeding exclusively either on young or old, mature leaves of Brassica rapa or on a mixed diet of young and old leaves offered in alternating order affects the larval performance, food consumption, and the host preference behavior of adult mustard leaf beetles, Phaedon cochleariae. Analyzing different leaf quality traits, we found lower water contents, no changes in C:N ratio but more than threefold higher glucosinolate concentrations in young compared to old leaves. Individuals reared on mixed diet performed as well as animals reared on young leaves. Thus, compared to animals feeding exclusively on highly nutritious young leaves, diet-mixing individuals may balance the lower nutrient intake by a dilution of adverse secondary metabolites. Alternatively, they may integrate over the variation in their food, using a previously assimilated resource for growth at times of scarcity. Animals reared on old leaves grew less and had a prolonged larval developmental time, although they showed increased consumption indicating compensatory feeding. Additionally, we found that experience with a certain diet affected the preference behavior. Whereas individuals reared exclusively on young leaves preferred young over old leaves for feeding and oviposition, we did not find any preferences by animals reared exclusively on old leaves or by females reared on alternating diet. Thus, in contrast to positive feedbacks for animals reared on young leaves, an integrative growth of diet-mixing individuals potentially leads to a lack of feedback during development

  18. Infestation of grain fields and degree-day phenology of the cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Utah: long-term patterns.

    PubMed

    Evans, Edward W; Carlile, Nolan R; Innes, Matthew B; Pitigala, Nadishan

    2014-02-01

    Scouting at key times in the seasonal development of insect pest populations, as guided by degree-day accumulation, is important for minimizing unwarranted insecticide application. Fields of small grains in northern Utah were censused weekly from 2001 to 2011, to assess infestation by the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and develop degree-day guidelines for measuring cereal leaf beetle abundance at peak egg and larval densities in any given year. Even in years of high overall numbers of cereal leaf beetle, relatively few fields were heavily infested (with 20 or more cereal leaf beetle eggs + larvae per 0.09 m2) at either egg or larval peak density during the growing season. In individual fields, the number of immature cereal leaf beetle (eggs + larvae) at peak larval density was positively related to the number of immature cereal leaf beetles present earlier at peak egg density. Although there was large variation among years in when cereal leaf beetle egg and larval numbers peaked during the season as measured by degree-day accumulation from 1 January, much of this variation was accounted for by the warmth of the early spring before significant egg laying occurred. Hence, degree-day estimates that account for early spring warmth can guide growers in scouting grain fields at peak egg densities to identify fields at high risk of subsequent economic damage from cereal leaf beetle larval feeding. The relatively low incidence of fields heavily infested by cereal leaf beetle in northern Utah emphasizes the benefit that growers can gain by scouting early before applying insecticide treatments. PMID:24665707

  19. Attraction of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus Glabratus, To Leaf Volatiles of its Host Plants in North America.

    PubMed

    Martini, Xavier; Hughes, Marc A; Smith, Jason A; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-07-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an important pest of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swamp bay (P. palustris) trees in forests of the southeastern USA. It is also a threat to commercially grown avocado. The beetle is attracted to host wood volatiles, particularly sesquiterpenes. Contrary to other ambrosia beetles that attack stressed, possibly pathogen-infected, and dying trees, X. glabratus readily attacks healthy trees. To date little is known about the role of leaf volatiles in the host selection behavior and ecology of X. glabratus. To address this question, an olfactometer bioassay was developed to test the behavioral response of X. glabratus to plant leaf volatiles. We found that X. glabratus was attracted to the leaf odors of their hosts, redbay and swamp bay, with no attraction to a non-host tree tested (live oak, Quercus virginiana), which served as a negative control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS/MS) analysis of leaves revealed the absence of sesquiterpenes known to be attractive to X. glabratus and present in host wood, suggesting that additional leaf-derived semiochemicals may serve as attractants for this beetle. An artificial blend of chemicals was developed based on GC/MS analyses of leaf volatiles and behavioral assays. This blend was attractive to X. glabratus at a level that rivaled currently used lures for practical monitoring of this pest. This synthetic redbay leaf blend also was tested in the field. Baited traps captured more X. glabratus than unbaited controls and equivalently to manuka oil lures. We hypothesize that leaf volatiles may be used by X. glabratus as an additional cue for host location. PMID:26070721

  20. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor), egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola) activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i) untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii) egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii) feeding, (iv) artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v) methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans) and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant) database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction, transport and

  1. Maternally inherited architecture in tertiary leaf beetles: paleoichnology of cryptocephaline fecal cases in Dominican and Baltic amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboo, Caroline S.; Engel, Michael S.; Chamorro-Lacayo, Maria Lourdes

    2009-09-01

    Complex ethological adaptations and intraspecific interactions leave few fossil traces. We document three Dominican (20 million years old [myo]) and Baltic (45 myo) amber fossils that exhibit firm evidence of highly integrated interactions between mothers and offspring in the diverse camptosomate lineage of beetles (Chrysomelidae, leaf beetles). As in contemporary species, these hard cases were initially constructed by mothers, then inherited and retained by offspring, which then elaborate this protective domicile with an unusual but economical building material, their feces. The three fossils are classified in the Subfamily Cryptocephalinae; two are classified in the tribe Chlamisini based on morphological evidence—the flattened head lacking a sharp keel and long legs with simple recurved untoothed claws. These diagnostic features are not clearly visible in the third specimen to permit more refined identification. These fossils provide more precise paleontological dating of tribal nodes within the cryptocephaline radiation of leaf beetles. These fossils are the first and earliest evidence of mother-offspring interaction, building behavior, and fecal recycling in Camptosomata beetles and of inheritance of architectural structures in beetles.

  2. Monitoring impacts of Tamarix leaf beetles (Diorhabda elongata) on the leaf phenology and water use of Tamarix spp. using ground and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Brown, T.; Hultine, K. R.; van Riper, C.; Bean, D. A.; Murray, R.; Pearlstein, S.; Glenn, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    Tamarix leaf beetles (Diorhabda elongata) have been released in several locations on western U.S. rivers to control the introduced shrub, Tamarix ramosissima and related species. As they are expanding widely throughout the region, information is needed on their impact on Tamarix leaf phenology and water use over multiple cycles of annual defoliation. We used networked digital cameras (phenocams) and ground surveys to monitor the defoliation process from 2008-2010 at multiple sites on the Dolores River, and MODIS satellite imagery from 2000 to 2009 to monitor leaf phenology and evapotranspiration (ET) at beetle release sites on the Dolores, Lower Colorado, Carson, Walker and Bighorn Rivers. Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) values for selected MODIS pixels were used to estimate green foliage density before and after beetle releases at each site. EVI values were transformed into estimates of ET using an empirical algorithm relating ET to EVI and potential ET (ETo) at each site. Phenocam and ground observations show that beetle damage is temporary, and plants regenerate new leaves following an eight week defoliation period in summer. The original biocontrol model predicted that Tamarix mortality would reach 75-85% over several years of defoliation due to progressive weakening of the shrubs each year, but over the early stages of leaf beetle-Tamarix interactions studied here (3-8 years), our preliminary findings show actual reductions in EVI and ET of only 13-15% across sites due to the relatively brief period of defoliation and because not all plants at a site were defoliated. Also, baseline ET rates varied across sites but averaged only 329 mm yr-1 (23% of ETo), constraining the possibilities for water salvage through biocontrol of Tamarix. The spatial and temperol resolution of MODIS imagery were too coarse to capture the details of the defoliation process, and high-resolution imagery or expanded phenocam networks are needed for future monitoring programs.

  3. Synergistic interactions between leaf beetle herbivory and fire enhance tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drus, Gail M.; Dudley, Tom L.; Antonio, Carla M.; Even, Thomas J.; Brooks, Matt L.; Matchett, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The combined effects of herbivory and fire on plant mortality were investigated using prescribed burns of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima Lebed) exposed to herbivory by the saltcedar leaf beetle (Chrysomelidae: Diorhabda carinulata Desbrocher). Tamarix stands in the Humboldt Sink (NV, USA) were divided into three treatments: summer burn (August 2006), fall burn (October 2006) and control (unburned), and litter depth was manipulated to vary fire intensity within burn seasons. A gradient of existing herbivory impact was described with three plant condition metrics prior to fire: reduced proportions of green canopy, percent root crown starch sampled at the height of the growing season (August 2006), and percent root crown starch measured during dormancy (December 2006). August root crown starch concentration and proportion green canopy were strongly correlated, although the proportion green canopy predicted mortality better than August root crown starch. December root crown starch concentration was more depleted in unburned trees and in trees burned during the summer than in fall burn trees. Mortality in summer burned trees was higher than fall burned trees due to higher fire intensity, but December root crown starch available for resprouting in the spring was also lower in summer burned trees. The greatest mortality was observed in trees with the lowest December root crown starch concentration which were exposed to high fire intensity. Disproportionate changes in the slope and curvature of prediction traces as fire intensity and December starch reach reciprocal maximum and minimum levels indicate that beetle herbivory and fire intensity are synergistic.

  4. Types of geographical distribution of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) in Central Europe *

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Rönn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A comparison of the geographical distribution patterns of 647 species of Chrysomelidae in Central Europe revealed 13 types of distribution: (1) widely distributed, (2) southern, (3) southeastern, (4) southwestern, (5) northern, (6) eastern, (7) south east quarter, (8) south west quarter, (9) fragmented, (10) montane, (11) subalpine & alpine, (12) scattered, (13) unusual, and irregular patterns produced by insufficient data. Some of these distributions are trivial (e. g. northern, eastern, etc., alpine) but others are surprising. Some cannot be explained, e. g. the remarkable gaps in the distribution of Chrysolina limbata (Fabricius, 1775) and in Aphthona nonstriata (Goeze, 1777). Although our 63.000 records are necessarily tentative, we found that the distribution maps from these data reflect in many cases the common knowledge on the occurrence of leaf beetles in specific areas. PMID:22303107

  5. Feeding specialization and host-derived chemical defense in Chrysomeline leaf beetles did not lead to an evolutionary dead end

    PubMed Central

    Termonia, Arnaud; Hsiao, Ting H.; Pasteels, Jacques M.; Milinkovitch, Michel C.

    2001-01-01

    Combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Chrysomelina beetles and chemical data of their defensive secretions indicate that two lineages independently developed, from an ancestral autogenous metabolism, an energetically efficient strategy that made the insect tightly dependent on the chemistry of the host plant. However, a lineage (the interrupta group) escaped this subordination through the development of a yet more derived mixed metabolism potentially compatible with a large number of new host-plant associations. Hence, these analyses on leaf beetles document a mechanism that can explain why high levels of specialization do not necessarily lead to “evolutionary dead ends.” PMID:11259651

  6. Exploring the Leaf Beetle Fauna (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of an Ecuadorian Mountain Forest Using DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Thormann, Birthe; Ahrens, Dirk; Marín Armijos, Diego; Peters, Marcell K.; Wagner, Thomas; Wägele, Johann W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity hosting a huge but little known diversity of insects that is endangered by habitat destruction and climate change. Therefore, rapid assessment approaches of insect diversity are urgently needed to complement slower traditional taxonomic approaches. We empirically compare different DNA-based species delimitation approaches for a rapid biodiversity assessment of hyperdiverse leaf beetle assemblages along an elevational gradient in southern Ecuador and explore their effect on species richness estimates. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a COI barcode data set of 674 leaf beetle specimens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of 266 morphospecies from three sample sites in the Podocarpus National Park, we employed statistical parsimony analysis, distance-based clustering, GMYC- and PTP-modelling to delimit species-like units and compared them to morphology-based (parataxonomic) species identifications. The four different approaches for DNA-based species delimitation revealed highly similar numbers of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) (n = 284–289). Estimated total species richness was considerably higher than the sampled amount, 414 for morphospecies (Chao2) and 469–481 for the different MOTU types. Assemblages at different elevational levels (1000 vs. 2000 m) had similar species numbers but a very distinct species composition for all delimitation methods. Most species were found only at one elevation while this turnover pattern was even more pronounced for DNA-based delimitation. Conclusions/Significance Given the high congruence of DNA-based delimitation results, probably due to the sampling structure, our study suggests that when applied to species communities on a regionally limited level with high amount of rare species (i.e. ~50% singletons), the choice of species delimitation method can be of minor relevance for assessing species numbers and turnover in tropical insect communities

  7. Triterpene saponin hemi-biosynthesis of a leaf beetle's (Platyphora kollari) defensive secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghostin, Jean; Habib-Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Rozenberg, Raoul; Daloze, Désiré; Pasteels, Jacques M.; Braekman, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    The adults of the leaf beetle Platyphora kollari (Chrysomelidae) are able to metabolise the oleanane triterpene β-amyrin (1) into the glycoside 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-hederagenin (2) that is stored in their defensive glands. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that oleanolic acid (3) is an intermediate in the conversion of 1 into 2 and to check whether the sequestration of pentacyclic triterpenes is selective in favour of β-amyrin (1). To this end, adults of P. kollari were fed with Ipomoea batatas leaf disks painted with a solution of [2,2,3-2H3]oleanolic acid or [2,2,3-2H3]α-amyrin and the secretion of their defensive glands analysed by HPLC ESIMS. The data presented in this work indicated that the first step of the transformation of β-amyrin (1) into the sequestered glycoside 2 is its oxidation into oleanolic acid (3) and that this conversion is selective but not specific in favour of β-amyrin (1).

  8. Precise RNAi-mediated silencing of metabolically active proteins in the defence secretions of juvenile leaf beetles

    PubMed Central

    Bodemann, René Roberto; Rahfeld, Peter; Stock, Magdalena; Kunert, Maritta; Wielsch, Natalie; Groth, Marco; Frick, Sindy; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2012-01-01

    Allomones are widely used by insects to impede predation. Frequently these chemical stimuli are released from specialized glands. The larvae of Chrysomelina leaf beetles produce allomones in gland reservoirs into which the required precursors and also the enzymes are secreted from attached gland cells. Hence, the reservoirs can be considered as closed bio-reactors for producing defensive secretions. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to analyse in vivo functions of proteins in biosynthetic pathways occurring in insect secretions. After a salicyl alcohol oxidase was silenced in juveniles of the poplar leaf beetles, Chrysomela populi, the precursor salicyl alcohol increased to 98 per cent, while salicyl aldehyde was reduced to 2 per cent within 5 days. By analogy, we have silenced a novel protein annotated as a member of the juvenile hormone-binding protein superfamily in the juvenile defensive glands of the related mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. The protein is associated with the cyclization of 8-oxogeranial to iridoids (methylcyclopentanoid monoterpenes) in the larval exudates made clear by the accumulation of the acylic precursor 5 days after RNAi triggering. A similar cyclization reaction produces the secologanin part of indole alkaloids in plants. PMID:22874750

  9. Tropical forests are both evolutionary cradles and museums of leaf beetle diversity

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Duane D.; Farrell, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    The high extant species diversity of tropical lineages of organisms is usually portrayed as a relatively recent and rapid development or as a consequence of the gradual accumulation or preservation of species over time. These explanations have led to alternative views of tropical forests as evolutionary “cradles” or “museums” of diversity, depending on the organisms under study. However, biogeographic and fossil evidence implies that the evolutionary histories of diversification among tropical organisms may be expected to exhibit characteristics of both cradle and museum models. This possibility has not been explored in detail for any group of terrestrial tropical organisms. From an extensively sampled molecular phylogeny of herbivorous Neotropical leaf beetles in the genus Cephaloleia, we present evidence for (i) comparatively ancient Paleocene–Eocene adaptive radiation associated with global warming and Cenozoic maximum global temperatures, (ii) moderately ancient lineage-specific diversification coincident with the Oligocene adaptive radiation of Cephaloleia host plants in the genus Heliconia, and (iii) relatively recent Miocene–Pliocene diversification coincident with the collision of the Panama arc with South America and subsequent bridging of the Isthmus of Panama. These results demonstrate that, for Cephaloleia and perhaps other lineages of organisms, tropical forests are at the same time both evolutionary cradles and museums of diversity. PMID:16818884

  10. Locomotion and attachment of leaf beetle larvae Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zurek, Daniel B.; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Voigt, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between attachment devices and the substrate. Larval gait patterns were analysed using high-speed video recordings. Instead of the tripod gait of adults, larvae walked by swinging contralateral legs simultaneously while adhering by the pygopod. Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight. Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Despite their smaller overall contact area, tarsal pads contributed to a larger extent to total attachment ability, probably because of their distributed spacing. Furthermore, we observed different behaviour in adults and larvae when centrifuged: while adults gradually slipped outward on the centrifuge drum surface, larvae stayed at the initial position until sudden detachment. PMID:25657837

  11. Transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Liu, L; Li, C X; Huang, S C; Ma, Z L; Qin, W Q; Peng, Z Q

    2015-01-01

    The coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, is a destructive pest of palm plants. Although its ecological and biological characteristics are well understood, its genetic information remains largely unknown. To advance our understanding of its molecular ba-sis of biology and ecology, we sequenced and analyzed its whole transcriptome by using high-throughput Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 8.08 Gb of clean reads were generated in a single run, which were assembled by using Trinity into 41,652 unigenes with an average length of 932 bp. By sequence similarity searches for known proteins, 23,077 (55.4%) unigenes were annotated by BLASTx searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of the unigenes assembled, 18,153 and 13,733 were assigned to Gene Ontology and Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins, respectively. In addition, 10,415 unigenes were mapped onto 247 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. These transcriptomic resources will facilitate gene identification and elucidate the molecular mechanisms of biological and ecological aspects under-lying this palm pest, in order to design a new control strategy. PMID:26345762

  12. Tamarix and Diorhabda leaf beetle interactions: implications for Tamarix water use and riparian habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagler, Pamela; Glenn, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    Tamarix leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) have been widely released on western United States rivers to control introduced shrubs in the genus Tamarix, with the goals of saving water through removal of an assumed high water-use plant, and of improving habitat value by removing a competitor of native riparian trees. We review recent studies addressing three questions: (1) to what extent are Tamarix weakened or killed by recurrent cycles of defoliation; (2) can significant water salvage be expected from defoliation; and (3) what are the effects of defoliation on riparian ecology, particularly on avian habit? Defoliation has been patchy at many sites, and shrubs at some sites recover each year even after multiple years of defoliation. Tamarix evapotranspiration (ET) is much lower than originally assumed in estimates of potential water savings, and are the same or lower than possible replacement plants. There is concern that the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax trailli extimus) will be negatively affected by defoliation because the birds build nests early in the season when Tamarix is still green, but are still on their nests during the period of summer defoliation. Affected river systems will require continued monitoring and development of adaptive management practices to maintain or enhance riparian habitat values. Multiplatform remote sensing methods are playing an essential role in monitoring defoliation and rates of ET on affected river systems.

  13. Tropical forests are both evolutionary cradles and museums of leaf beetle diversity.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Duane D; Farrell, Brian D

    2006-07-18

    The high extant species diversity of tropical lineages of organisms is usually portrayed as a relatively recent and rapid development or as a consequence of the gradual accumulation or preservation of species over time. These explanations have led to alternative views of tropical forests as evolutionary "cradles" or "museums" of diversity, depending on the organisms under study. However, biogeographic and fossil evidence implies that the evolutionary histories of diversification among tropical organisms may be expected to exhibit characteristics of both cradle and museum models. This possibility has not been explored in detail for any group of terrestrial tropical organisms. From an extensively sampled molecular phylogeny of herbivorous Neotropical leaf beetles in the genus Cephaloleia, we present evidence for (i) comparatively ancient Paleocene-Eocene adaptive radiation associated with global warming and Cenozoic maximum global temperatures, (ii) moderately ancient lineage-specific diversification coincident with the Oligocene adaptive radiation of Cephaloleia host plants in the genus Heliconia, and (iii) relatively recent Miocene-Pliocene diversification coincident with the collision of the Panama arc with South America and subsequent bridging of the Isthmus of Panama. These results demonstrate that, for Cephaloleia and perhaps other lineages of organisms, tropical forests are at the same time both evolutionary cradles and museums of diversity. PMID:16818884

  14. Field resistance of two soybean germplasm lines, HC95-15MB and HC95-24MB, against bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaidae).

    PubMed

    Hammond, R B; Bierman, P; Levine, E; Cooper, R L

    2001-12-01

    Two recently released, Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis, Mulsant, resistant soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, germplasm lines, HC95-15MB and HC95-24MB, were examined for foliar and pod feeding resistance to adult bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman. Both lines were planted along with a susceptible control cultivar in 18 by 30-m plots and separate 0.8-ha size fields. Insects were sampled on a weekly basis with a sweep net. In late summer, defoliation ratings were recorded along with data on percentage pod feeding. Although a few significant differences in insect densities were obtained among the soybean lines on some sampling dates, no specific trends were observed in the ability of the resistant germplasm to reduce insect numbers. Insect population densities were similarly on all lines. However, both resistant lines were able to reduce defoliation during the growing season. Conversely, percentage pod feeding was similar among all the soybean lines, with no differences observed. The resistant germplasm lines appear able to lower levels of defoliation, and thus, offer a potential management tactic where leaf feeding, i.e., defoliation, is of concern. However, their ability to greatly reduce beetle population densities, and for the bean leaf beetle, to reduce pod feeding, appears limited. PMID:11777070

  15. Two Defensive Lines in Juvenile Leaf Beetles; Esters of 3-nitropropionic Acid in the Hemolymph and Aposematic Warning.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Gerhard; Becker, Tobias; Rahfeld, Peter; Gretscher, Rene R; Paetz, Christian; Pasteels, Jacques; von Reuss, Stephan H; Burse, Antje; Boland, Wilhelm

    2016-03-01

    Juveniles of the leaf beetles in subtribe Chrysomelina have efficient defense strategies against predators. When disturbed, they transiently expose volatile deterrents in large droplets from nine pairs of defensive glands on their back. Here, we report on an additional line of defense consisting of the non-volatile isoxazolin-5-one glucoside and its 3-nitropropanoyl ester in the larval hemolymph. Because isoxazolin-5-one derivatives were not detectable in related leaf beetle taxa, they serve as a diagnostic marker for the Chrysomelina subtribe. Conjugation of isotopically labelled 3-nitropropionic acid to isoxazolin-5-one glucoside in vivo demonstrates its function as a carrier for the 3-nitropropanoyl esters. The previous identification of characteristic glucosides as precursors of the volatile deterrents underlines the general importance of glucosides for sequestration from food plants, and the subsequent transport in the hemolymph to the defense system. The combination of repellent volatiles with non-volatile toxic compounds in the hemolymph has the potential to create synergistic effects since the odorant stimulus may help predators learn to avoid some foods. The combination of the two defense lines has the advantage, that the hemolymph toxins provide reliable and durable protection, while the repellents may vary after a host plant change. PMID:27033853

  16. Selective transport systems mediate sequestration of plant glucosides in leaf beetles: A molecular basis for adaptation and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jürgen; Pettersson, Eva M.; Feld, Birte K.; Burse, Antje; Termonia, Arnaud; Pasteels, Jacques M.; Boland, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Chrysomeline larvae respond to disturbance and attack by everting dorsal glandular reservoirs, which release defensive secretions. The ancestral defense is based on the de novo synthesis of monoterpene iridoids. The catabolization of the host-plant O-glucoside salicin into salicylaldehyde is a character state that evolved later in two distinct lineages, which specialized on Salicaceae. By using two species producing monoterpenes (Hydrothassa marginella and Phratora laticollis) and two sequestering species (Chrysomela populi and Phratora vitellinae), we studied the molecular basis of sequestration by feeding the larvae structurally different thioglucosides resembling natural O-glucosides. Their accumulation in the defensive systems demonstrated that the larvae possess transport systems, which are evolutionarily adapted to the glycosides of their host plants. Minor structural modifications in the aglycon result in drastically reduced transport rates of the test compounds. Moreover, the ancestral iridoid-producing leaf beetles already possess a fully functional import system for an early precursor of the iridoid defenses. Our data confirm an evolutionary scenario in which, after a host-plant change, the transport system of the leaf beetles may play a pivotal role in the adaptation on new hosts by selecting plant-derived glucosides that can be channeled to the defensive system. PMID:15365181

  17. Innate and Introduced Resistance Traits in Genetically Modified Aspen Trees and Their Effect on Leaf Beetle Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Hjältén, Joakim; Axelsson, E. Petter; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Wennström, Anders; Pilate, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Genetic modifications of trees may provide many benefits, e.g. increase production, and mitigate climate change and herbivore impacts on forests. However, genetic modifications sometimes result in unintended effects on innate traits involved in plant-herbivore interactions. The importance of intentional changes in plant defence relative to unintentional changes and the natural variation among clones used in forestry has not been evaluated. By a combination of biochemical measurements and bioassays we investigated if insect feeding on GM aspens is more affected by intentional (induction Bt toxins) than of unintentional, non-target changes or clonal differences in innate plant defence. We used two hybrid wildtype clones (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides and Populus tremula x P. alba) of aspen that have been genetically modified for 1) insect resistance (two Bt lines) or 2) reduced lignin properties (two lines COMT and CAD), respectively. Our measurements of biochemical properties suggest that unintended changes by GM modifications (occurring due to events in the transformation process) in innate plant defence (phenolic compounds) were generally smaller but fundamentally different than differences seen among different wildtype clones (e.g. quantitative and qualitative, respectively). However, neither clonal differences between the two wildtype clones nor unintended changes in phytochemistry influenced consumption by the leaf beetle (Phratora vitellinae). By contrast, Bt induction had a strong direct intended effect as well as a post experiment effect on leaf beetle consumption. The latter suggested lasting reduction of beetle fitness following Bt exposure that is likely due to intestinal damage suffered by the initial Bt exposure. We conclude that Bt induction clearly have intended effects on a target species. Furthermore, the effect of unintended changes in innate plant defence traits, when they occur, are context dependent and have in comparison to Bt induction

  18. Studying the organization of genes encoding plant cell wall degrading enzymes in Chrysomela tremula provides insights into a leaf beetle genome.

    PubMed

    Pauchet, Y; Saski, C A; Feltus, F A; Luyten, I; Quesneville, H; Heckel, D G

    2014-06-01

    The ability of herbivorous beetles from the superfamilies Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides has only recently begun to be appreciated. The presence of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) in the beetle's digestive tract makes this degradation possible. Sequences encoding these beetle-derived PCWDEs were originally identified from transcriptomes and strikingly resemble those of saprophytic and phytopathogenic microorganisms, raising questions about their origin; e.g. are they insect- or microorganism-derived? To demonstrate unambiguously that the genes encoding PCWDEs found in beetle transcriptomes are indeed of insect origin, we generated a bacterial artificial chromosome library from the genome of the leaf beetle Chrysomela tremula, containing 18 432 clones with an average size of 143 kb. After hybridizing this library with probes derived from 12 C. tremula PCWDE-encoding genes and sequencing the positive clones, we demonstrated that the latter genes are encoded by the insect's genome and are surrounded by genes possessing orthologues in the genome of Tribolium castaneum as well as in three other beetle genomes. Our analyses showed that although the level of overall synteny between C. tremula and T. castaneum seems high, the degree of microsynteny between both species is relatively low, in contrast to the more closely related Colorado potato beetle. PMID:24456018

  19. Phenology and Abundance of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Eastern South Dakota on Alfalfa and Soybean Relative to Tillage, Fertilization and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without a...

  20. Biological Control of Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in South Texas with the Saltcedar Leaf Beetle, Diorhabda elongata, and Effects on Athel (T.aphylla).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) has involved releases of exotic saltcedar leaf beetles, Diorhabda elongata Brullé sensu lato, in the western U.S. Adults in field cages feed, oviposit, and produce larvae on athel (Tamarix aphylla), an evergreen tree used in the southwestern U.S. and n...

  1. Oviposition strategy as a means of local adaptation to plant defence in native and invasive populations of the viburnum leaf beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbivores have been hypothesized to adapt locally to variation in plant defences and such adaptation could facilitate novel associations in the context of biological invasions. Here, we show that in the native range of the viburnum leaf beetle (VLB, Pyrrhalta viburni), two populations of geographi...

  2. Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential

  3. Regional scale impacts of Tamarix leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) on the water availability of western U.S. rivers as determined by multi-scale remote sensing methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Brown, Tim; Hultine, Kevin R.; van Riper, Charles, III; Bean, Daniel W.; Dennison, Philip E.; Murray, R. Scott; Glenn, Edward P.

    2012-01-01

    Tamarix leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) have been widely released on western U.S. rivers to control introduced shrubs in the genus Tamarix. Part of the motivation to control Tamarix is to salvage water for human use. Information is needed on the impact of beetles on Tamarix seasonal leaf production and subsequent water use overwide areas andmultiple cycles of annual defoliation.Herewe combine ground data with high resolution phenocam imagery and moderate resolution (Landsat) and coarser resolution (MODIS) satellite imagery to test the effects of beetles on Tamarix evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf phenology at sites on six western rivers. Satellite imagery covered the period 2000 to 2010 which encompassed years before and after beetle release at each study site. Phenocam images showed that beetles reduced green leaf cover of individual canopies by about 30% during a 6-8 week period in summer, but plants produced new leaves after beetles became dormant in August, and over three years no net reduction in peak summer leaf production was noted. ETwas estimated by vegetation index methods, and both Landsat and MODIS analyses showed that beetles reduced ET markedly in the first year of defoliation, but ET recovered in subsequent years. Over all six sites, ET decreased by 14% to 15% by Landsat and MODIS estimates, respectively. However, resultswere variable among sites, ranging fromno apparent effect on ET to substantial reduction in ET. Baseline ET rates before defoliation were low, 394 mmyr-1 by Landsat and 314 mm yr-1 by MODIS estimates (20-25% of potential ET), further constraining the amount of water that could be salvaged. Beetle-Tamarix interactions are in their early stage of development on this continent and it is too soon to predict the eventual extent towhich Tamarix populationswill be reduced. The utility of remote sensing methods for monitoring defoliation was constrained by the small area covered by each phenocamimage, the low temporal resolution of

  4. Faunistic patterns of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) within elevational and temporal gradients in Sierra de San Carlos, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Clark, Shawn M.; Jones, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The study of biodiversity of Chrysomelidae in Mexico and its variation within ecological gradients has increased recently, although important areas in the country remain to be explored. We conducted a faunistic inventory and analyzed the elevational and temporal variation of leaf beetle communities in the Sierra de San Carlos, in the state of Tamaulipas, in northeastern Mexico. This is an area with high to extreme priority for conservation, and due to its insular geographical position and to the vegetational communities present, it must be considered as a sky island. We selected seven sample sites distributed in different elevations within three localities, and comprising different vegetational communities. At each site, we randomly delimited 12 sample plots of 400 m2 where sampling was conducted by entomological sweep netting and collecting directly by hand. Sampling was conducted monthly at each plot, for a total of 1,008 samples between February 2013 and January 2014. By the end of the study, we had obtained a total of 3,081 specimens belonging to six subfamilies, 65 genera, and 113 species, with Trichaltica scabricula (Crotch, 1873) being recorded for first time in Mexico. Species richness was less than the values observed at other studies conducted in the same region, which is attributed to differences in the number of plant species and to the insular location of Sierra de San Carlos; however, the higher diversity values suggest a higher quality of natural resources and vegetational communities. No consistent pattern of leaf beetle communities was correlated with elevation, although higher values of species richness and diversity were obtained at the highest elevation site. The seasonal gradient showed that the rainy season is most favorable for leaf beetle communities. We found that species composition was different between sites and months, and also that there exists a significant association between the abundance obtained at each site and

  5. Faunistic patterns of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) within elevational and temporal gradients in Sierra de San Carlos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Clark, Shawn M; Jones, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The study of biodiversity of Chrysomelidae in Mexico and its variation within ecological gradients has increased recently, although important areas in the country remain to be explored. We conducted a faunistic inventory and analyzed the elevational and temporal variation of leaf beetle communities in the Sierra de San Carlos, in the state of Tamaulipas, in northeastern Mexico. This is an area with high to extreme priority for conservation, and due to its insular geographical position and to the vegetational communities present, it must be considered as a sky island. We selected seven sample sites distributed in different elevations within three localities, and comprising different vegetational communities. At each site, we randomly delimited 12 sample plots of 400 m(2) where sampling was conducted by entomological sweep netting and collecting directly by hand. Sampling was conducted monthly at each plot, for a total of 1,008 samples between February 2013 and January 2014. By the end of the study, we had obtained a total of 3,081 specimens belonging to six subfamilies, 65 genera, and 113 species, with Trichaltica scabricula (Crotch, 1873) being recorded for first time in Mexico. Species richness was less than the values observed at other studies conducted in the same region, which is attributed to differences in the number of plant species and to the insular location of Sierra de San Carlos; however, the higher diversity values suggest a higher quality of natural resources and vegetational communities. No consistent pattern of leaf beetle communities was correlated with elevation, although higher values of species richness and diversity were obtained at the highest elevation site. The seasonal gradient showed that the rainy season is most favorable for leaf beetle communities. We found that species composition was different between sites and months, and also that there exists a significant association between the abundance obtained at each site and particular

  6. Host finding and acceptance preference of the yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), on cruciferous crops.

    PubMed

    Balusu, Rammohan R; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2011-12-01

    The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an introduced pest of cruciferous crops in the southern United States, and arguably the most damaging pest of organic crucifer vegetable production in the region. Studies were conducted in the greenhouse and laboratory to investigate host finding and acceptance preference of M. ochroloma on four commonly grown cruciferous crops: cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata), collards (B. oleracea L. variety acephala), napa cabbage [B. pekinensis (Lour.)], and turnip (B. rapa L.) First, adult beetles were allowed to choose among the four plants in a multiple-choice greenhouse cage experiment and host preference was evaluated by using three parameters: number of beetles on each plant, number of larvae on each plant, and plant damage ratings. The results showed that M. ochroloma adults actively discriminated among the four host plants, with significantly higher numbers recorded on turnip and napa cabbage than on cabbage or collards. Significantly higher numbers of larvae also were recorded on turnip and napa cabbage starting on day 10. Similarly, higher damage ratings were recorded on turnip and napa cabbage than on the remaining two hosts. Results of four-choice olfactometer experiments, which compared attraction of M. ochroloma to headspace volatiles of the four host plants, demonstrated that host preference is mediated primarily by plant volatiles. Both sexes were significantly more attracted to napa cabbage than to the remaining treatments, with turnip being the second most attractive plant. These results confirm that turnip and napa cabbage are two preferred host plants of M. ochroloma, and may support the development of a trap crop system and attractant-based strategies for managing M. ochroloma in crucifer production. PMID:22217763

  7. Combining proteomics and transcriptome sequencing to identify active plant-cell-wall-degrading enzymes in a leaf beetle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The primary plant cell wall is a complex mixture of polysaccharides and proteins encasing living plant cells. Among these polysaccharides, cellulose is the most abundant and useful biopolymer present on earth. These polysaccharides also represent a rich source of energy for organisms which have evolved the ability to degrade them. A growing body of evidence suggests that phytophagous beetles, mainly species from the superfamilies Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea, possess endogenous genes encoding complex and diverse families of so-called plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). The presence of these genes in phytophagous beetles may have been a key element in their success as herbivores. Here, we combined a proteomics approach and transcriptome sequencing to identify PCWDEs present in larval gut contents of the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Results Using a two-dimensional proteomics approach, we recovered 11 protein bands, isolated using activity assays targeting cellulose-, pectin- and xylan-degrading enzymes. After mass spectrometry analyses, a total of 13 proteins putatively responsible for degrading plant cell wall polysaccharides were identified; these proteins belong to three glycoside hydrolase (GH) families: GH11 (xylanases), GH28 (polygalacturonases or pectinases), and GH45 (β-1,4-glucanases or cellulases). Additionally, highly stable and proteolysis-resistant host plant-derived proteins from various pathogenesis-related protein (PRs) families as well as polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) were also identified from the gut contents proteome. In parallel, transcriptome sequencing revealed the presence of at least 19 putative PCWDE transcripts encoded by the P. cochleariae genome. All of these were specifically expressed in the insect gut rather than the rest of the body, and in adults as well as larvae. The discrepancy observed in the number of putative PCWDEs between transcriptome and proteome analyses could be

  8. Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, antennal and behavioral responses to nonhost leaf and bark volatiles.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, William P; Sullivan, Brian T

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that bark beetles detect and avoid release points of volatile compounds associated with nonhost species, and thus such nonhost volatiles may have potential utility in the management of bark beetles. We used a coupled gas chromatograph-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) to assay the olfactory sensitivity of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to volatiles from leaves and bark of eight species of nonhost angiosperm trees that are common in the range of D. frontalis. Tree species sampled were red maple (Acer rubrum L.), mockernut hickory [Carya alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell.], sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.), blackjack oak [Quercus marilandica (L.) Muenchh.], and water oak (Quercus nigra L.). Beetle antennae responded to a total of 28 identifiable compounds in these samples. The relative olfactory responsiveness to 14 of these, as well as to nonanoic acid and four additional volatiles reported to be associated with nonhost angiosperms, was assessed in GC-EAD analyses of synthetic dilutions spanning six orders of magnitude. The largest response voltage amplitudes were obtained with trans-conophthorin, nonanoic acid, terpinen-4-ol, phenylethyl alcohol, and eucalyptol, whereas the lowest response thresholds were to nonanoic acid, nonanal, linalool, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and phenylethyl alcohol. Funnel traps baited with various combinations of eleven antennally-active angiosperm volatiles along with a standard attractant captured significantly fewer male and female D. frontalis than traps baited with the standard attractant alone. Our data suggest that a diversity of semiochemicals may be involved in host species discrimination by D. frontalis, and several may have utility in their management. PMID:23460417

  9. Factors affecting population dynamics of leaf beetles in a subarctic region: The interplay between climate warming and pollution decline.

    PubMed

    Zvereva, Elena L; Hunter, Mark D; Zverev, Vitali; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which abiotic drivers, such as climate and pollution, influence population dynamics of animals is important for our ability to predict the population trajectories of individual species under different global change scenarios. We monitored four leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding on willows (Salix spp.) in 13 sites along a pollution gradient in subarctic forests of north-western Russia from 1993 to 2014. During a subset of years, we also measured the impacts of natural enemies and host plant quality on the performance of one of these species, Chrysomela lapponica. Spring and fall temperatures increased by 2.5-3°C during the 21-year observation period, while emissions of sulfur dioxide and heavy metals from the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk decreased fivefold. However, contrary to predictions of increasing herbivory with climate warming, and in spite of discovered increase in host plant quality with increase in temperatures, none of the beetle species became more abundant during the past 20years. No directional trends were observed in densities of either Phratora vitellinae or Plagiodera versicolora, whereas densities of both C. lapponica and Gonioctena pallida showed a simultaneous rapid 20-fold decline in the early 2000s, remaining at very low levels thereafter. Time series analysis and model selection indicated that these abrupt population declines were associated with decreases in aerial emissions from the smelter. Observed declines in the population densities of C. lapponica can be explained by increases in mortality from natural enemies due to the combined action of climate warming and declining pollution. This pattern suggests that at least in some tri-trophic systems, top-down factors override bottom-up effects and govern the impacts of environmental changes on insect herbivores. PMID:27266523

  10. Tissue-Specific Transcript Profiling for ABC Transporters in the Sequestering Larvae of the Phytophagous Leaf Beetle Chrysomela populi

    PubMed Central

    Gretscher, René R.; Groth, Marco; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Background Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi. Results In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp). RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration. Conclusion We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a homeostasis of plant

  11. Population Structure, Genetic Variability, and Gene Flow of the Bean Leaf Beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, in the Midwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Skoda, Steven R.; Hunt, Thomas E.; Lee, Donald J.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Foster, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a common pest of soybean in the Midwest United States. However, there are currently no reports on the genetic variability of C. trifurcata. This study examined 15–30 individuals from 25 sample locations to estimate genetic variability and gene flow within and among C. trifurcata from across the Midwest. Amplified fragment length polymorphism generated 175 markers for analyses. Results from analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that the majority of genetic variation was from within samples; only a small amount of the total variation was attributed to the variation among the samples. The GST for the entire C. trifurcata population indicated that the majority of genetic variation was found within the samples, further supporting the AMOVA results. The estimated average gene flow among the C. trifurcata samples was 1.83. The Mantel test revealed no indication of correlation between geographical and genetic distance for all the C. trifurcata samples. These findings show that C. trifurcata in the Midwest are genetically heterogeneous and part of a large, interbreeding population. PMID:25373209

  12. Rare Failures of DNA Bar Codes to Separate Morphologically Distinct Species in a Biodiversity Survey of Iberian Leaf Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Baselga, Andrés; Gómez-Rodríguez, Carola; Novoa, Francisco; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2013-01-01

    During a survey of genetic and species diversity patterns of leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) assemblages across the Iberian Peninsula we found a broad congruence between morphologically delimited species and variation in the cytochrome oxidase (cox1) gene. However, one species pair each in the genera Longitarsus Berthold and Pachybrachis Chevrolat was inseparable using molecular methods, whereas diagnostic morphological characters (including male or female genitalia) unequivocally separated the named species. Parsimony haplotype networks and maximum likelihood trees built from cox1 showed high genetic structure within each species pair, but no correlation with the morphological types and neither with geographic distributions. This contrasted with all analysed congeneric species, which were recovered as monophyletic. A limited number of specimens were sequenced for the nuclear 18S rRNA gene, which showed no or very limited variation within the species pair and no separation of morphological types. These results suggest that processes of lineage sorting for either group are lagging behind the clear morphological and presumably reproductive separation. In the Iberian chrysomelids, incongruence between DNA-based and morphological delimitations is a rare exception, but the discovery of these species pairs may be useful as an evolutionary model for studying the process of speciation in this ecological and geographical setting. In addition, the study of biodiversity patterns based on DNA requires an evolutionary understanding of these incongruences and their potential causes. PMID:24040352

  13. A Novel Formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis for the Control of Brassica Leaf Beetle, Phaedon brassicae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunseong; Jeoung, Sujin; Park, Youngjin; Kim, Kunwoo; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-12-01

    Cabbage is a major vegetable crop over the world. Various insect pests can affect cabbage production. Excessive spray of chemical insecticides can lead to the development of insecticide resistance with various adverse effects on the environment and humans. Brassica leaf beetle, Phaedon brassicae Baly, is a coleopteran pest. Both larvae and adults cause damages to cabbage. The objective of this study was to develop an effective microbial insecticide against P. brassicae by adding an immunosuppressive agent to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The immunosuppressive agent was chosen from bacterial cultured broth of Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata (Ptt). Reverse phase HPLC revealed that Ptt-cultured broth possessed at least two eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (oxindole and indole) in its hexane extract. The bacterial cultured broth exhibited potent immunosuppressive activity against P. brassicae. Based on toxicity results, B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis (BtT) was selected from four strains of Bts. When Ptt-cultured broth was added to spore-producing BtT cells, the insecticidal activities of BtT against both larvae and adults of P. brassicae were significantly increased. This bacterial mixture applied to develop a "Bt-Plus," which was formulated by mixing BtT cells (10(11) spores per ml) and 48-h Ptt-cultured broth along with additives (surfactant and preservative). When Bt-Plus was sprayed to cabbage infested by P. brassicae at 1,000-fold dilution, the mixture exhibited much higher control efficacy than BtT treatment alone, suggesting it could be used as a novel Bt insecticide for the control of P. brassicae. PMID:26470390

  14. Synthetic cis-jasmone exposure induces wheat and barley volatiles that repel the pest cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Kevin J; Wawrzyniak, Maria; Lemańczyk, Grzegorz; Wrzesińska, Danuta; Piesik, Dariusz

    2013-05-01

    The plant semiochemical cis-jasmone primes/induces plant resistance that deters herbivores and attracts natural enemies. We studied the induction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in winter wheat and spring barley after exposure of plants to three synthetic cis-jasmone doses (50 μl of 1, 100, and 1 × 10(4) ng μl(-1)) and durations of exposure (1, 3, and 6 h). Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus, adult behavioral responses were examined in a Y-tube olfactometer to cis-jasmone induced plant VOC bouquets and to two synthetic blends of VOCs (3 green leaf volatiles (GLVs); 4 terpenes + indole). In both cereals, eight VOCs [(Z)-3-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexanyl acetate, (Z)-β-ocimene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and indole] were induced 100- to 1000-fold after cis-jasmone exposure. The degree of induction in both cereals was usually positively and linearly associated with increasing exposure dose and duration. However, VOC emission rate was only ~2-fold greater from plants exposed to the highest vs. lowest cis-jasmone exposure doses (1 × 10(4) difference) or durations (6-fold difference). Male and female O. melanopus were deterred by both cereal VOC bouquets after plant exposure to the high cis-jasmone dose (1 × 10(4) ng μl(-1)), while females were also deterred after plant exposure to the low dose (1 ng μl(-1)) but attracted to unexposed plant VOC bouquets. Both O. melanopus sexes were repelled by terpene/indole and GLV blends at two concentrations (25 ng · min(-1); 125 ng · min(-1)), but attracted to the lowest dose (1 ng · min(-1)) of a GLV blend. It is possible that the biologically relevant low cis-jasmone dose has ecological activity and potential for inducing field crop VOCs to deter O. melanopus. PMID:23588742

  15. Functional morphology of the copulatory organs of a reed beetle and a shining leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Donaciinae, Criocerinae) using X-ray micro-computed tomography *

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Uhl, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For more than 100 years it has been known that the sclerotised median lobe of beetles harbours a membranous structure (the "internal sac" or "endophallus") which is everted during copula inside the female genital tract. In order to explore the functional role of this structure and those associated with it, we cryofixed copulating pairs of Donacia semicuprea and Lilioceris lilii and studied the relative position of the elements of the copulatory apparatus of males and females by micro-computer-tomography. We found that the everted endophallus fills the lumen of the bursa copulatrix completely. Our data suggest that in Lilioceris lilii the tip of the sclerotised distal part of the ejaculatory duct, the flagellum, is positioned exactly over the opening of the spermathecal duct inside the bursa copulatrix. The mouth of the bursa copulatrix in Donacia semicuprea is armed with a strong muscle ring, and the whole wall of the bursa is covered externally with a layer of muscle fibres. These morphological differences correspond with differences in mating behaviour: In reed beetles (Donaciinae), females seemingly can control mating to a higher degree than in lily beetles (Lilioceris spp.). PMID:26798321

  16. Overshoot in Leaf Development of Ponderosa Pine in Wet Years Leads to Bark Beetle Outbreaks on Fine-Textured Soils in Drier Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, W. L.; Waring, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of insects and diseases have been recorded in forests of western North America during the past few decades, but the distribution of these outbreaks has not been uniform. In some cases, recent climatic variations along with the age and density of forests may explain some spatial variation. Forest managers and policy makers would benefit if areas prone to disturbance could be recognized so that mitigating actions could be taken. In this paper, we used two ponderosa pine-dominated sites in western Montana, U.S.A. to apply a modelling approach that couples information from remote sensing, soil surveys, and local weather stations to assess where bark beetle outbreaks might first occur and why. There was a slight downward trend in precipitation for both sites over the period between 1998 and 2010, and, interannual variability was high. Some years showed large increases followed by sharp decreases. Both sites had similar topography and fire histories, but bark beetle activity occurred earlier and more severely on one site than the other. The initial canopy density of the two sites was also similar, with leaf area indices derived via Landsat imagery ranging between 1.6- 2.0 m2 m-2. We wondered if the difference in bark beetle activity might be related to soils that were fine-textured at site I and coarse-textured at site II. We applied a process-based stand growth model (3-PG) to analyze the data and evaluate the hypotheses.

  17. Host range validation, molecular identification, and release and establishment of a Chinese biotype of the Asian leaf beetle Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Criocerinae) for control of Dioscorea bulbifera L. in ...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dioscorea bulbifera, an Asian vine, is invasive in the southeastern USA. It rarely flowers but propagates from potato-like bulbils formed in leaf axils, which persist into the subsequent growing season. Lilioceris cheni Gressitt and Kimoto, a foliage-feeding beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Crio...

  18. Stevesaltica, a new genus of moss and leaf-litter inhabiting flea beetles from Bolivia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus (Stevesaltica) with two new species (S. normi and S. perdita) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is similar to Exoceras Jacoby. An identification key for all flea beetle genera known to occur in mosses in the Western Hemisphere is provided....

  19. Independently recruited oxidases from the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family enabled chemical defences in leaf beetle larvae (subtribe Chrysomelina) to evolve

    PubMed Central

    Rahfeld, Peter; Kirsch, Roy; Kugel, Susann; Wielsch, Natalie; Stock, Magdalena; Groth, Marco; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of the leaf beetle subtribe Chrysomelina sensu stricto repel their enemies by displaying glandular secretions that contain defensive compounds. These repellents can be produced either de novo (iridoids) or by using plant-derived precursors (e.g. salicylaldehyde). The autonomous production of iridoids, as in Phaedon cochleariae, is the ancestral chrysomeline chemical defence and predates the evolution of salicylaldehyde-based defence. Both biosynthesis strategies include an oxidative step of an alcohol intermediate. In salicylaldehyde-producing species, this step is catalysed by salicyl alcohol oxidases (SAOs) of the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase superfamily, but the enzyme oxidizing the iridoid precursor is unknown. Here, we show by in vitro as well as in vivo experiments that P. cochleariae also uses an oxidase from the GMC superfamily for defensive purposes. However, our phylogenetic analysis of chrysomeline GMC oxidoreductases revealed that the oxidase of the iridoid pathway originated from a GMC clade different from that of the SAOs. Thus, the evolution of a host-independent chemical defence followed by a shift to a host-dependent chemical defence in chrysomeline beetles coincided with the utilization of genes from different GMC subfamilies. These findings illustrate the importance of the GMC multi-gene family for adaptive processes in plant–insect interactions. PMID:24943369

  20. Approved quarantine treatment for Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in large-size hay bales and Hessian fly and cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) control by bale compression.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2011-06-01

    A quarantine treatment using bale compression (32 kg/cm2 pressure) and phosphine fumigation (61 g/28.3 m3 aluminum phosphide for 7 d at 20 degrees C) was approved to control Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), in large-size, polypropylene fabric-wrapped bales exported from the western states to Japan. No Hessian fly puparia (45,366) survived to the adult stage in infested wheat, Triticum aestivum L., seedlings exposed to the treatment in a large-scale commercial test. Daily temperatures (mean +/- SEM) inside and among bales in three test freight containers were 17.8 +/- 0.2 front top, 17.0 +/- 0.2 front bottom, 17.3 +/- 0.2 middle bale, 15.7 +/- 0.3 middle air, 18.5 +/- 0.1 back top, and 18.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C back bottom, allowing the fumigation temperature to be established at > or = 20 degrees C. Mean fumigant concentrations ranged from 208 to 340 ppm during the first 3 d and ranged from 328 to 461 ppm after 7 d of fumigation. Copper plate corrosion values inside the doors, and in the middle of the large-size bales in all locations indicated moderate exposure to hydrogen phosphide (PH3). PH3 residues were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tolerance of 0.1 ppm in animal feeds. The research was approved by Japan and U.S. regulatory agencies, and regulations were implemented on 20 May 2005. Compression in large-size bale compressors resulted in 3-3.6 and 0% survival of Hessian fly puparia and cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), respectively. Bale compression can be used as a single treatment for cereal leaf beetle and as a component in a systems approach for quarantine control of Hessian fly. PMID:21735895

  1. Leaf beetles are ant-nest beetles: the curious life of the juvenile stages of case-bearers (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae).

    PubMed

    Agrain, Federico A; Buffington, Matthew L; Chaboo, Caroline S; Chamorro, Maria L; Schöller, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Although some species of Cryptocephalinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been documented with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for almost 200 years, information on this association is fragmentary. This contribution synthesizes extant literature and analysizes the data for biological patterns. Myrmecophily is more common in the tribe Clytrini than in Cryptocephalini, but not documented for Fulcidacini or the closely-related Lamprosomatinae. Myrmecophilous cryptocephalines (34 species in 14 genera) primarily live among formicine and myrmecines ants as hosts. These two ant lineages are putative sister-groups, with their root-node dated to between 77-90 mya. In the New World tropics, the relatively recent radiation of ants from moist forests to more xeric ecosystems might have propelled the association of cryptocephalines and ant nests. Literature records suggest that the defensive behavioral profile or chemical profile (or both) of these ants has been exploited by cryptocephalines. Another pattern appears to be that specialized natural enemies, especially parasitoid Hymenoptera, exploit cryptocephaline beetles inside the ant nests. With the extant data at hand, based on the minimum age of a fossil larva dated to 45 mya, we can infer that the origin of cryptocephaline myrmecophily could have arisen within the Upper Cretaceous or later. It remains unknown how many times myrmecophily has appeared, or how old is the behavior. This uncertainty is compounded by incongruent hypotheses about the origins of Chrysomelidae and angiosperm-associated lineages of cryptocephalines. Living with ants offers multiple advantages that might have aided the colonization of xeric environments by some cryptocephaline species. PMID:26798319

  2. Leaf beetles are ant-nest beetles: the curious life of the juvenile stages of case-bearers (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae)

    PubMed Central

    Agrain, Federico A.; Buffington, Matthew L.; Chaboo, Caroline S.; Chamorro, Maria L.; Schöller, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although some species of Cryptocephalinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been documented with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for almost 200 years, information on this association is fragmentary. This contribution synthesizes extant literature and analysizes the data for biological patterns. Myrmecophily is more common in the tribe Clytrini than in Cryptocephalini, but not documented for Fulcidacini or the closely-related Lamprosomatinae. Myrmecophilous cryptocephalines (34 species in 14 genera) primarily live among formicine and myrmecines ants as hosts. These two ant lineages are putative sister-groups, with their root-node dated to between 77–90 mya. In the New World tropics, the relatively recent radiation of ants from moist forests to more xeric ecosystems might have propelled the association of cryptocephalines and ant nests. Literature records suggest that the defensive behavioral profile or chemical profile (or both) of these ants has been exploited by cryptocephalines. Another pattern appears to be that specialized natural enemies, especially parasitoid Hymenoptera, exploit cryptocephaline beetles inside the ant nests. With the extant data at hand, based on the minimum age of a fossil larva dated to 45 mya, we can infer that the origin of cryptocephaline myrmecophily could have arisen within the Upper Cretaceous or later. It remains unknown how many times myrmecophily has appeared, or how old is the behavior. This uncertainty is compounded by incongruent hypotheses about the origins of Chrysomelidae and angiosperm-associated lineages of cryptocephalines. Living with ants offers multiple advantages that might have aided the colonization of xeric environments by some cryptocephaline species. PMID:26798319

  3. Sap flux-scaled transpiration by tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) before, during and after episodic defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hultine, K.R.; Nagler, P.L.; Morino, K.; Bush, S.E.; Burtch, K.G.; Dennison, P.E.; Glenn, E.P.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The release of the saltcedar beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) has resulted in the periodic defoliation of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) along more than 1000 river km in the upper Colorado River Basin and is expected to spread along many other river reaches throughout the upper basin, and possibly into the lower Colorado River Basin. Identifying the impacts of these release programs on tamarisk water use and subsequent water cycling in arid riparian systems are largely unknown, due in part to the difficulty of measuring water fluxes in these systems. We used lab-calibrated, modified heat-dissipation sap flux sensors to monitor tamarisk water use (n=20 trees) before, during and after defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons (May-October) in southeastern Utah. We incorporated a simple model that related mean stem sap flux density (Js) with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (vpd) before the onset of defoliation in 2008. The model was used to calculate differences between predicted Js and Js measured throughout the two growing seasons. Episodic defoliation resulted in a 16% reduction in mean annual rates of Js in both 2008 and 2009, with decreases occurring only during the periods in which the trees were defoliated (about 6-8 weeks per growing season). In other words, rates of Js rebounded to values predicted by the model when the trees produced new leaves after defoliation. Sap flux data were scaled to stand water use by constructing a tamarisk-specific allometric equation to relate conducting sapwood area to stem diameter, and by measuring the size distribution of stems within the stand. Total water use in both years was 0.224m, representing a reduction of about 0.04myr-1. Results showed that repeated defoliation/refoliation cycles did not result in a progressive decrease in either leaf production or water use over the duration of the study. This investigation improves ground-based estimates of tamarisk water use, and will support

  4. Fusarium infection in maize: volatile induction of infected and neighboring uninfected plants has the potential to attract a pest cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus.

    PubMed

    Piesik, Dariusz; Lemńczyk, Grzegorz; Skoczek, Agata; Lamparski, Robert; Bocianowski, Jan; Kotwica, Karol; Delaney, Kevin J

    2011-09-01

    Fusarium infection of maize leaves and/or roots through the soil can stimulate the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It is also well known that VOC emission from maize plants can repel or attract pests. In our experiments, we studied VOC induction responses of Zea mays L. ssp. mays cv. 'Prosna' having Fusarium infection (mix of four species) in leaves or roots, then tested for VOC induction of uninfected neighboring plants, and finally examined wind-tunnel behavioral responses of the adult cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L. (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) behavior to four induced VOCs. In the first part of our experiment, we confirmed that several green leaf volatiles (GLVs; (Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, 1-hexyl acetate), terpenes (β-pinene, β-myrcene, Z-ocimene, linalool, β-caryophyllene), and shikimic acid pathway derivatives (benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate, indole) were positively induced from maize plants infected by Fusarium spp. The quantities of induced VOCs were higher at 7d than 3d post-infection and greater when plants were infected with Fusarium on leaves rather than through soil. In the second part of our experiment, uninfected maize plants also showed significantly positive induction of several VOCs when neighboring an infected plant where the degree of induction was negatively related to the distance from the infected plant. In the third part of our experiment, a Y-tube bioassay was used to evaluate upwind orientation of adult cereal leaf beetles to four individual VOCs. Female and male O. melanopus were significantly attracted to the GLVs (Z)-3-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and the terpenes linalool and β-caryophyllene. Our results indicate that a pathogen can induce several VOCs in maize plants that also induce VOCs in neighboring uninfected plants, though VOC induction could increase the range at which an insect pest species is attracted to VOC inducing plants

  5. Ground measured evapotranspiration scaled to stand level using MODIS and Landsat sensors to study Tamarix spp.response to repeated defoliation by the Tamarix leaf beetle at two sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlstein, S.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; Hultine, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Dolores River in Southern Utah and the Virgin River in Southern Nevada are ecosystems under pressure from increased groundwater withdrawal due to growing populations and introduced riparian species. We studied the impact of the biocontrol Tamarix leaf beetles (Dirohabda carinulata and D. elongata) on the introduced riparian species, Tamarix spp., phenology and water use over multiple cycles of annual defoliation. Heat balance sap flow measurements, leaf area index (LAI), well data, allometry and satellite imagery from Landsat Thematic Mapper 5 and EOS-1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors were used to assess the distribution of beetle defoliation and its effect on evapotranspiration (ET). Study objectives for the Virgin River were to measure pre-beetle arrival ET, while the Dolores River site has had defoliation since 2004 and is a site of long-term beetle effect monitoring. This study focuses on measurements conducted over two seasons, 2010 and 2011. At the Dolores River site, results from 2010 were inconclusive due to sensor malfunctions but plant ET by sap flow in 2011 averaged 1.02 mm/m^2 leaf area/day before beetle arrival, dropping to an average of 0.75 mm/m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival. Stand level estimations from May - December, 2010 by MODIS were about 0.63 mm/ day, results from Landsat were 0.51 mm/day in June and 0.78 in August. For January -September, 2011, MODIS values were about 0.6 mm/day, and Landsat was 0.57 mm/day in June and 0.62 mm/day in August. These values are lower than previously reported ET values for this site meaning that repeated defoliation does diminish stand level water use. The Virgin River site showed plant ET from sap flow averaged about 3.9-4 mm/m^2 leaf area/day from mid-May - September, 2010. In 2011, ET from sap flow averaged 3.83 mm/m^2 leaf area/day during June - July, but dropped to 3.73 mm/ m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival in August. The slight drop in plant ET is not significant

  6. A satellite model of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) breeding habitat and a simulation of potential effects of tamarisk leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.), southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this report represents the first time that a satellite model has been used to identify potential Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) (hereinafter referred to as “flycatcher”) breeding habitat rangewide for 2013–15. Fifty-seven Landsat scenes were required to map the entire range of the flycatcher, encompassing parts of six States and more than 1 billion 30-meter pixels. Predicted flycatcher habitat was summarized in a hierarchical fashion from largest to smallest: regionwide, State, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) management unit, 7.5-minute quadrangle, and critical-habitat reach. The term “predicted habitat” is used throughout this report to distinguish areas the satellite model predicts as suitable flycatcher habitat from what may actually exist on the ground. A rangewide accuracy assessment was done with 758 territories collected in 2014, and change detection was done with yearly habitat maps to identify how and where habitat changed over time. Additionally, effects of tamarisk leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.) on flycatcher habitat were summarized for the lower Virgin River from 2010 to 2015, and simulations of how tamarisk leaf beetles may affect flycatcher habitat in the lower Colorado and upper Gila Rivers were done for 2015. Model results indicated that the largest areas of predicted flycatcher habitat at elevations below 1,524 meters were in New Mexico and Arizona, areas followed in descending order by California, Texas, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado. By FWS management unit, the largest area of flycatcher habitat during all 3 years were the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico), followed by the Upper Gila (Arizona and New Mexico) and Middle Gila/San Pedro (Arizona) management units. The area of predicted flycatcher habitat varied considerably in 7.5-minute quadrangles, ranging from 0 to1,398 hectares (ha). Averaged across 3 years, the top three producing quadrangles were Paraje Well (New Mexico), San Marcial

  7. Putative Sugar Transporters of the Mustard Leaf Beetle Phaedon cochleariae: Their Phylogeny and Role for Nutrient Supply in Larval Defensive Glands

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Magdalena; Gretscher, René R.; Groth, Marco; Eiserloh, Simone; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytophagous insects have emerged successfully on the planet also because of the development of diverse and often astonishing defensive strategies against their enemies. The larvae of the mustard leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae, for example, secrete deterrents from specialized defensive glands on their back. The secretion process involves ATP-binding cassette transporters. Therefore, sugar as one of the major energy sources to fuel the ATP synthesis for the cellular metabolism and transport processes, has to be present in the defensive glands. However, the role of sugar transporters for the production of defensive secretions was not addressed until now. Results To identify sugar transporters in P. cochleariae, a transcript catalogue was created by Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries. A total of 68,667 transcripts were identified and 68 proteins were annotated as either members of the solute carrier 2 (SLC2) family or trehalose transporters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed an extension of the mammalian GLUT6/8 class in insects as well as one group of transporters exhibiting distinctive conserved motifs only present in the insect order Coleoptera. RNA-seq data of samples derived from the defensive glands revealed six transcripts encoding sugar transporters with more than 3,000 counts. Two of them are exclusively expressed in the glandular tissue. Reduction in secretions production was accomplished by silencing two of four selected transporters. RNA-seq experiments of transporter-silenced larvae showed the down-regulation of the silenced transporter but concurrently the up-regulation of other SLC2 transporters suggesting an adaptive system to maintain sugar homeostasis in the defensive glands. Conclusion We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the SLC2 family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNAi and RNA-seq experiments underline the importance of SLC2 transporters in defensive glands to achieve a chemical defense for successful

  8. Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB) shifted to the potato crop from native solanaceous weeds in the American West in 1859, and has been a serious pest ever since. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to several generations per year. It is the most importa...

  9. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution of host plant use in the Neotropical rolled leaf 'hispine' beetle genus Cephaloleia (Chevrolat) (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae).

    PubMed

    McKenna, Duane D; Farrell, Brian D

    2005-10-01

    Here, we report the results of a species level phylogenetic study of Cephaloleia beetles designed to clarify relationships and patterns of host plant taxon and tissue use among species. Our study is based on up to 2088bp of mtDNA sequence data. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic inference consistently recover a monophyletic Cephaloleia outside of a basal clade of primarily palm feeding species (the 'Arecaceae-feeding clade'), and C. irregularis. In all three analyses, the 'Arecaceae-feeding clade' includes Cephaloleia spp. with unusual morphological features, and a few species currently placed in other cassidine genera and tribes. All three analyses also recover a clade that includes all Zingiberales feeding Cephaloleia and most Cephaloleia species (the 'Zingiberales-feeding clade'). Two notable clades are found within the 'Zingiberales-feeding clade.' One is comprised of beetles that normally feed only on the young rolled leaves of plants in the families Heliconiaceae and Marantaceae (the 'Heliconiaceae & Marantaceae-feeding clade'). The other is comprised of relative host tissue generalist, primarily Zingiberales feeding species (the 'generalist-feeding clade'). A few species in the 'generalist-feeding clade' utilize Cyperaceae or Poaceae as hosts. Overall, relatively basal Cephaloleia (e.g., the 'Arecaceae clade') feed on relatively basal monocots (e.g., Cyclanthaceae and Arecaceae), and relatively derived Cephaloleia (e.g., the 'Zingiberales-feeding clade') feed on relatively derived monocots (mostly in the order Zingiberales). Zingiberales feeding and specialization on young rolled Zingiberales leaves have each apparently evolved just once in Cephaloleia. PMID:16054400

  10. Co-Occurrence Patterns of Common and Rare Leaf-Litter Frogs, Epiphytic Ferns and Dung Beetles across a Gradient of Human Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Oldekop, Johan A.; Bebbington, Anthony J.; Truelove, Nathan K.; Tysklind, Niklas; Villamarín, Santiago; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Indicator taxa are commonly used to identify priority areas for conservation or to measure biological responses to environmental change. Despite their widespread use, there is no general consensus about the ability of indicator taxa to predict wider trends in biodiversity. Many studies have focused on large-scale patterns of species co-occurrence to identify areas of high biodiversity, threat or endemism, but there is much less information about patterns of species co-occurrence at local scales. In this study, we assess fine-scale co-occurrence patterns of three indicator taxa (epiphytic ferns, leaf litter frogs and dung beetles) across a remotely sensed gradient of human disturbance in the Ecuadorian Amazon. We measure the relative contribution of rare and common species to patterns of total richness in each taxon and determine the ability of common and rare species to act as surrogate measures of human disturbance and each other. We find that the species richness of indicator taxa changed across the human disturbance gradient but that the response differed among taxa, and between rare and common species. Although we find several patterns of co-occurrence, these patterns differed between common and rare species. Despite showing complex patterns of species co-occurrence, our results suggest that species or taxa can act as reliable indicators of each other but that this relationship must be established and not assumed. PMID:22701730

  11. Co-occurrence patterns of common and rare leaf-litter frogs, epiphytic ferns and dung beetles across a gradient of human disturbance.

    PubMed

    Oldekop, Johan A; Bebbington, Anthony J; Truelove, Nathan K; Tysklind, Niklas; Villamarín, Santiago; Preziosi, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Indicator taxa are commonly used to identify priority areas for conservation or to measure biological responses to environmental change. Despite their widespread use, there is no general consensus about the ability of indicator taxa to predict wider trends in biodiversity. Many studies have focused on large-scale patterns of species co-occurrence to identify areas of high biodiversity, threat or endemism, but there is much less information about patterns of species co-occurrence at local scales. In this study, we assess fine-scale co-occurrence patterns of three indicator taxa (epiphytic ferns, leaf litter frogs and dung beetles) across a remotely sensed gradient of human disturbance in the Ecuadorian Amazon. We measure the relative contribution of rare and common species to patterns of total richness in each taxon and determine the ability of common and rare species to act as surrogate measures of human disturbance and each other. We find that the species richness of indicator taxa changed across the human disturbance gradient but that the response differed among taxa, and between rare and common species. Although we find several patterns of co-occurrence, these patterns differed between common and rare species. Despite showing complex patterns of species co-occurrence, our results suggest that species or taxa can act as reliable indicators of each other but that this relationship must be established and not assumed. PMID:22701730

  12. Characterization and evolutionary dynamics of a complex family of satellite DNA in the leaf beetle Chrysolina carnifex (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Palomeque, Teresa; Muñoz-López, Martín; Carrillo, José A; Lorite, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The present study characterizes the complex satellite DNA from the specialized phytophagous beetle species Chrysolina carnifex. The satellite DNA is formed by six monomer types, partially homologous but having diverged enough to be separate on the phylogenetic trees, since each monomer type is located on a different branch, having statistically significant bootstrap values. Its analysis suggests a common evolutionary origin of all monomers from the same 211-bp sequence mainly by means of base-substitution mutations evolutionarily fixed to each monomer type and duplications and/or deletions of pre-existing segments in the 211-bp sequence. The analysis of the sequences and Southern hybridizations suggest that the monomers are organized in three types of repeats: monomers (211-bp) and higher-order repeats in the form of dimers (477-bp) or even trimers (633-bp). These repetitive units are not isolated from others, and do not present the pattern characteristic for the regular tandem arrangement of satellite DNA. In-situ hybridization with biotinylated probes corresponding to the three types of repeats showed the pericentromeric location of these sequences in all meiotic bivalents, coinciding with the heterochromatic blocks revealed by C-banding, indicating in addition that each type of repeat is neither isolated from others nor located in specific chromosomes but rather that they are intermixed in the heterochromatic regions. The presence of this repetitive DNA in C. haemoptera, C. bankii and C. americana was also tested by Southern analysis. The results show that this satellite DNA sequence is specific to the C. carnifex genome but has not been found in three other species of Chrysolina occupying similar or different host plants. PMID:16331411

  13. Inter- and Intrapopulation Variability in the Composition of Larval Defensive Secretions of Willow-Feeding Populations of the Leaf Beetle Chrysomela lapponica.

    PubMed

    Geiselhardt, Sven; Hilker, Monika; Müller, Frank; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Zvereva, Elena L

    2015-03-01

    We explored the inter- and intrapopulation variability in the larval defensive chemistry of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica with respect to the salicylic glycoside (SG) content of its host species. Secretions of larvae from three populations associated in nature with SG-poor willows contained nearly twice as many components and 40-fold higher concentrations of autogenously produced isobutyrates and 2-methylbutyrates than secretions of larvae from three populations associated with SG-rich willows, which in turn had 200-fold higher concentrations of host-derived salicylaldehyde. Reciprocal transfer experiments showed that the larvae from populations associated with SG-rich willows did not produce appreciable amounts of butyrates on either SG-rich or SG-poor willows, while populations feeding on several SG-poor willow species retained the ability for efficient sequestration of SGs, along with their ability to produce high amounts of isobutyrates and 2-methylbutyrates. Only the populations associated with SG-poor willows demonstrated among-family variation in the composition of defensive secretion and differential responses of individual families to willows with alternative SG levels, which can be seen as the prerequisites for shifting to novel hosts. These non-specialized populations show a dual defensive strategy, which corresponds to the ancestral state of this species, while populations that fully depend on host-derived toxins (feeding on SG-rich willows) or have lost the ability to produce salicylaldehyde (feeding on birches) are most deviant from the ancestral state. The results indicate that defensive strategies may differ between populations within a species, and suggest that this variation reduces extinction risks and maintains the high ecological diversity and wide distribution of C. lapponica. PMID:25804685

  14. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Tian; Zheng, Fu-Shan; Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  15. Host range validation, molecular identification, and release and establishment of a Chinese biotype of the Asian leaf beetle Lilioceris cheni Gressitt & Kimoto

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dioscorea bulbifera, a climbing vine from Asia, is a pernicious invasive plant in the southeastern USA. The plant rarely flowers but propagates by way of potato-like bulbils formed in leaf axils, which persist into the next growing season. Lilioceris cheni Gressitt & Kimoto, a foliage-feeding leaf ...

  16. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900–126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  17. Ecophysiological Responses of Salt Cedar (Tamarix spp. L.) to the Northern Tamarisk Beetle (Diorhabda carinulata Desbrochers) In A Controlled Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf beetle, Diorhabda elongata Brulle, was released in several western states as a biocontrol agent to suppress Tamarix spp. L. which has invaded riparian ecosystems; however, effects of leaf beetle herbivory on Tamarix physiology are largely undocumented and may have ecosystem ramifications. H...

  18. Biologically inspired optics: analog semiconductor model of the beetle exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhl, Kaia; Roth, Zachary; Srinivasan, Pradeep; Rumpf, Raymond; Johnson, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Evolution in nature has produced through adaptation a wide variety of distinctive optical structures in many life forms. For example, pigment differs greatly from the observed color of most beetles because their exoskeletons contain multilayer coatings. The green beetle is disguised in a surrounding leaf by having a comparable reflection spectrum as the leaves. The Manuka and June beetle have a concave structure where light incident at any angle on the concave structures produce matching reflection spectra. In this work, semiconductor processing methods were used to duplicate the structure of the beetle exoskeleton. This was achieved by combining analog lithography with a multilayer deposition process. The artificial exoskeleton, 3D concave multilayer structure, demonstrates a wide field of view with a unique spectral response. Studying and replicating these biologically inspired nanostructures may lead to new knowledge for fabrication and design of new and novel nano-photonic devices, as well as provide valuable insight to how such phenomenon is exploited.

  19. Carabid Beetles as Parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid habit is uncommon in beetles; only 11 beetle families include parasitoid species. Three tribes of 76 in the Carabidae are known to have species in which larvae are pupal ectoparasitoids: Brachinini, Peleciini, and Lebiini. The first larval instar is the free-living, host-finding stage...

  20. Ambrosia beetle fungiculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture, as evidenced by the 11 independent origins and 3,500 species of ambrosia beetles, represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. This presentation focuses on the discovery of a clade within the filamentous fungus Fusarium that is associ...

  1. A Review of the Natural Enemies of Beetles in the Subtribe Diabroticina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): Implications for Sustainable Pest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabroticina is a speciose subtribe of New World Chrysomelidae (Subfamily Galerucinae: Tribe Luperini) that includes pests like corn rootworms, cucumber beetles and bean leaf beetles (e.g. Diabrotica, Acalymma, Cerotoma species). The evolution and spread of pesticide resistance, the European invasio...

  2. Lady beetles of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lady beetles are one of the most familiar groups of beneficial insects. Farmers and gardeners appreciate them for devouring insect pests. Both adult lady beetles and caterpillar-like juveniles eat pests. Lady beetles are recognizable by their red and orange colors that contrast with black spots and...

  3. Electrophysiological responses of the Naupactus bipes beetle to essential oils from Piperaceae species.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Clécio S; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Corrêa, Arlene G; Kato, Massuo J

    2012-08-01

    Electrophysiological responses based on electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and electroantennography (EAG) analysis of Naupactus bipes beetles (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Brachycerinae) were used to test volatile oils of Piper gaudichaudianum, P. regnellii and P. hispidum. In the EAG experiments, female and male beetles showed significant EAG response to the three volatile oils of Piper species, with the females' responses slightly higher than the males'. The experiments with GC-EAD revealed that some terpenoids (namely, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, alpha-copaene and germacrene) present in the leaf essential oils of the Piper species are perceptible to female and male beetles. PMID:22978240

  4. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  5. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai’i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  6. Pine Beetle Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Earth Systems Science Office scientists worked with officials in St. Tammany Parish, La., to detect and battle pine beetle infestation in Fontainebleu State Park. The scientists used a new method of detecting plant stress by using special lenses and modified sensors to detect a change in light levels given off by the plant before the stress is visible to the naked eye.

  7. Waves and Water Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  8. Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small hive beetles (SHB) have become serious pests of honey bees, especially in the southeastern region of the United States. Both adults and larvae cause serious feeding damages and their fecal matters contaminate harvestable honey. At present, Coumaphos (used as an in-hive treatment) and Gardstar ...

  9. Beetles, Biofuel, and Coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier

    2015-05-06

    Berkeley Lab scientist Javier Ceja-Navarro discusses his research on the microbial populations found the guts of insects, specifically the coffee berry borer, which may lead to better pest management and the passalid beetle, which could lead to improved biofuel production.

  10. Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

  11. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    SciTech Connect

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A.

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  12. Utilizing NASA Satellite Missions to Identify Bark Beetle Infestation in Sequoia National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Bird, J. E.; Sabatine, S. M.; Sady, G. C.; Stalzer, A. M.; Wheeler, T. A.; Skiles, J. W.; Schmidt, C.

    2009-12-01

    Bark beetle-induced tree mortality has increased over the last few decades, exacerbated by below-average precipitation and a loss of soil nutrients, forcing park managers to improve bark beetle monitoring techniques. Bark beetle dynamics were investigated during summer 2009 at 32 sites within Sequoia National Park, California with the aim of correlating field data with satellite imagery to provide forest managers with a more efficient methodology for tracking, monitoring, and forecasting bark beetle outbreaks. Field parameters included visual assessments of the presence and degree of bark beetle-induced mortality and percent canopy cover. Ancillary data such as relative leaf chlorophyll concentration and soil nutrients including sodium [Na+], nitrate [NO3-], and potassium [K+] were collected for each 15 × 15 meter plot. The relationship between bark beetle attacks and potassium [K+] shows higher concentrations in healthy areas. Additionally, algorithms from three satellites were used to identify areas of moisture and vegetation stress; including the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) from ASTER, Enhanced Wetness Difference Index (EWDI) from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5), Disturbance Index (DI) from MODIS, and four other vegetation indices from Landsat TM5. Vegetation indices show uniform stress across various years.

  13. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  14. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  15. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  16. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  17. Preferential Feeding and Occupation of Sunlit Leaves Favors Defense Response and Development in the Flea Beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum – A Pest of Corylus avellana

    PubMed Central

    Łukowski, Adrian; Giertych, Marian J.; Zadworny, Marcin; Mucha, Joanna; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The monophagous beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum, is a major leaf pest of Corylus avellana (common hazel). In contrast to majority of the other studied species of shrubs, sunlit leaves are grazed to a much greater extent than shaded leaves. Since the observation of a link between leaf irradiance level and A. brevicollis feeding is unique, we hypothesized that feeding preference of this beetle species is related to the speed needed to escape threats i.e. faster jumping. We also hypothesized that sunlit leaves are more nutritious and easier to consume than the leaves of shaded shrubs. Results indicated that beetle mass was greater in beetles occupying sunlit leaves, which is consistent with our second hypothesis. The study also confirmed under laboratory conditions, that larvae, pupae and beetles that were fed full-light (100% of full light) leaves were significantly heavier than those fed with shaded leaves (15% of full light). In the high irradiance conditions (higher temperature) duration of larval development is also reduced. Further results indicated that neither the concentration of soluble phenols, leaf toughness, or the number of trichomes could explain the insect’s preference for sunlit leaves. Notably, measurements of jump length of beetles of this species, both in the field and under laboratory conditions, indicated that the defense pattern related to jumping was associated with light conditions. The jump length of beetles in the sun was significantly higher than in the shade. Additionally, in laboratory tests, beetle defense (jumping) was more strongly affected by temperature (15, 25, or 35°C for 24h) than by leaf type. The effect of sunlit, higher nutrient leaves (greater level of non-structural carbohydrates) on defense (jumping) appears to be indirect, having a positive effect on insect mass in all developmental stages. PMID:25927706

  18. Preferential feeding and occupation of sunlit leaves favors defense response and development in the flea beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum--a pest of Corylus avellana.

    PubMed

    Łukowski, Adrian; Giertych, Marian J; Zadworny, Marcin; Mucha, Joanna; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The monophagous beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum, is a major leaf pest of Corylus avellana (common hazel). In contrast to majority of the other studied species of shrubs, sunlit leaves are grazed to a much greater extent than shaded leaves. Since the observation of a link between leaf irradiance level and A. brevicollis feeding is unique, we hypothesized that feeding preference of this beetle species is related to the speed needed to escape threats i.e. faster jumping. We also hypothesized that sunlit leaves are more nutritious and easier to consume than the leaves of shaded shrubs. Results indicated that beetle mass was greater in beetles occupying sunlit leaves, which is consistent with our second hypothesis. The study also confirmed under laboratory conditions, that larvae, pupae and beetles that were fed full-light (100% of full light) leaves were significantly heavier than those fed with shaded leaves (15% of full light). In the high irradiance conditions (higher temperature) duration of larval development is also reduced. Further results indicated that neither the concentration of soluble phenols, leaf toughness, or the number of trichomes could explain the insect's preference for sunlit leaves. Notably, measurements of jump length of beetles of this species, both in the field and under laboratory conditions, indicated that the defense pattern related to jumping was associated with light conditions. The jump length of beetles in the sun was significantly higher than in the shade. Additionally, in laboratory tests, beetle defense (jumping) was more strongly affected by temperature (15, 25, or 35°C for 24 h) than by leaf type. The effect of sunlit, higher nutrient leaves (greater level of non-structural carbohydrates) on defense (jumping) appears to be indirect, having a positive effect on insect mass in all developmental stages. PMID:25927706

  19. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Sprayable Polymer Gel Against Crucifer Flea Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Canola.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2016-08-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), is a key pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in the northern Great Plains of North America. The efficacies of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.), a sprayable polymer gel, and a combination of both were assessed on canola for flea beetle management. Plots were treated soon after colonization by adult flea beetles, when canola was in the cotyledon to one-leaf stage. Ten plants along a 3.6-m section of row were selected and rated at pre-treatment and 7 and 14 d post treatment using the damage-rating scheme advanced by the European Plant Protection Organization, where 1 = 0%, 2 = 2%, 3 = 5%, 4 = 10%, and 5 = 25% leaf area injury. Under moderate flea beetle feeding pressure (1-3.3% leaf area damaged), seeds treated with Gaucho 600 (Bayer CropScience LP Raleigh, NC) (imidacloprid) produced the highest yield (843.2 kg/ha). Meanwhile, Barricade (Barricade International, Inc. Hobe Sound, FL) (polymer gel; 1%) + Scanmask (BioLogic Company Inc, Willow Hill, PA) (Steinernema feltiae) resulted in the highest yields: 1020.8 kg/ha under high (2.0-5.3% leaf area damaged), and 670.2 kg/ha at extremely high (4.3-8.6 % leaf area damaged) feeding pressure. Our results suggest that Barricade (1%) + Scanmask (S. feltiae) can serve as an alternative to the conventional chemical seed treatment. Moreover, Scanmask (S. feltiae) can be used to complement the effects of seed treatment after its protection has run out. PMID:27329629

  20. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  1. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  2. Gastrophysa polygoni herbivory on Rumex confertus: Single leaf VOC induction and dose dependent herbivore attraction/repellence to individual compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report large induction (> 65fold increases) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from a single leaf of the invasive weed mossy sorrel, Rumex confertus Willd. (Polygonaceae), by herbivory of the dock leaf beetle, Gastrophysa polygoni L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The R. confertus VOC ble...

  3. Beetle adhesive hairs differ in stiffness and stickiness: in vivo adhesion measurements on individual setae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, James M. R.; Federle, Walter

    2011-05-01

    Leaf beetles are able to climb on smooth and rough surfaces using arrays of micron-sized adhesive hairs (setae) of varying morphology. We report the first in vivo adhesive force measurements of individual setae in the beetle Gastrophysa viridula, using a smooth polystyrene substrate attached to a glass capillary micro-cantilever. The beetles possess three distinct adhesive pads on each leg which differ in function and setal morphology. Visualisation of pull-offs allowed forces to be measured for each tarsal hair type. Male discoidal hairs adhered with the highest forces (919 ± 104 nN, mean ± SE), followed by spatulate (582 ± 59 nN) and pointed (127 ± 19 nN) hairs. Discoidal hairs were stiffer in the normal direction (0.693 ± 0.111 N m-1) than spatulate (0.364 ± 0.039 N m-1) or pointed (0.192 ± 0.044 N m-1) hairs. The greater adhesion on smooth surfaces and the higher stability of discoidal hairs help male beetles to achieve strong adhesion on the elytra of females during copulation. A comparison of pull-off forces measured for single setae and whole pads (arrays) revealed comparable levels of adhesive stress. This suggests that beetles are able to achieve equal load sharing across their adhesive pads so that detachment through peeling is prevented.

  4. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  5. crw1 - A Novel Maize Mutant Highly Susceptible to Foliar Damage by the Western Corn Rootworm Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Venkata, Bala Puchakayala; Lauter, Nick; Li, Xu; Chapple, Clint; Krupke, Christian; Johal, Gurmukh; Moose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States. The adult WCR beetles derive their nourishment from multiple sources including corn pollen and silks as well as the pollen of alternate hosts. Conversely, the corn foliage is largely neglected as a food source by WCR beetles, leading to a perception of a passive interaction between the two. We report here a novel recessive mutation of corn that was identified and named after its foliar susceptibility to corn rootworm beetles (crw1). The crw1 mutant under field conditions was exceptionally susceptible to foliar damage by WCR beetles in an age-specific manner. It exhibits pleiotropic defects on cell wall biochemistry, morphology of leaf epidermal cells and lower structural integrity via differential accumulation of cell wall bound phenolic acids. These findings indicate that crw1 is perturbed in a pathway that was not previously ascribed to WCR susceptibility, as well as implying the presence of an active mechanism(s) deterring WCR beetles from devouring corn foliage. The discovery and characterization of this mutant provides a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of interactions between maize and adult WCR beetles and identify new strategies to control the spread and invasion of this destructive pest. PMID:23951124

  6. crw1--A novel maize mutant highly susceptible to foliar damage by the western corn rootworm beetle.

    PubMed

    Venkata, Bala Puchakayala; Lauter, Nick; Li, Xu; Chapple, Clint; Krupke, Christian; Johal, Gurmukh; Moose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States. The adult WCR beetles derive their nourishment from multiple sources including corn pollen and silks as well as the pollen of alternate hosts. Conversely, the corn foliage is largely neglected as a food source by WCR beetles, leading to a perception of a passive interaction between the two. We report here a novel recessive mutation of corn that was identified and named after its foliar susceptibility to corn rootworm beetles (crw1). The crw1 mutant under field conditions was exceptionally susceptible to foliar damage by WCR beetles in an age-specific manner. It exhibits pleiotropic defects on cell wall biochemistry, morphology of leaf epidermal cells and lower structural integrity via differential accumulation of cell wall bound phenolic acids. These findings indicate that crw1 is perturbed in a pathway that was not previously ascribed to WCR susceptibility, as well as implying the presence of an active mechanism(s) deterring WCR beetles from devouring corn foliage. The discovery and characterization of this mutant provides a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of interactions between maize and adult WCR beetles and identify new strategies to control the spread and invasion of this destructive pest. PMID:23951124

  7. Beetles do it differently: two stereodivergent cyclisation modes in iridoid-producing leaf-beetle larvae.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Maritta; Rahfeld, Peter; Shaker, Kamel H; Schneider, Bernd; David, Anja; Dettner, Konrad; Pasteels, Jacques M; Boland, Wilhelm

    2013-02-11

    Larvae of the Chrysomelina species Phaedon cochleariae, Hydrothassa marginella, Phratora vulgatissima, Gastrophysa viridula, Gastrophysa atrocyanea, Gastrophysa cyanea and Gastrophysa polygoni produce the iridoid chrysomelidial (1) to defend themselves against predators. Feeding experiments with a deuterated precursor ([(2)H(5)]8-hydroxygeraniol 9) and in vitro isotope exchange experiments with defensive secretion in (2)H(2)O revealed differences in the cyclisation of the ultimate precursor 8-oxogeranial (8) to 1, between members of the genus Gastrophysa and all other species. In P. cochleariae, H. marginella and P. vulgatissima 1 is most likely produced by a Rauhut-Currier-type cyclisation via a "transoid dienamine", with loss of a single deuterium atom from C(4) of the precursor. In contrast, members of the genus Gastrophysa cyclise 8 via a "cisoid dienamine" intermediate, with exchange of all three deuterium atoms from the methyl group at C(3). To study whether the different cyclisation modes influence the stereochemistry of 1, the absolute configuration of 1 of the larvae was determined by GC-MS on a chiral column. In accordance with literature (J. Meinwald, T. H. Jones, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1978, 100, 1883 and N. Shimizu, R. Yakumaru, T. Sakata, S. Shimano, Y. Kuwahara, J. Chem. Ecol. 2012, 38, 29), we found (5S,8S)-chrysomelidial (1) in H. marginella and P. vulgatissima, but P. cochleariae and all investigated members of the genus Gastrophysa synthesise (5R,8R)-chrysomelidial (1). PMID:23341265

  8. Oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, D S; Christmas, T I; Greig, D E

    1990-05-01

    Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles (Order: Coleoptera). It is caused by a vesicant chemical contained in the body fluids of the beetles. The smallest and least known family is the Oedemeridae. Although there are few references in the medical literature, blister beetle dermatosis caused by oedemerids may be more common and widespread than currently recognized. The best known family is the Meloidae with numerous species worldwide causing blistering. The vesicant chemical in both Oedemeridae and Meloidae is cantharidin. The third group of blister beetles includes species of the genus Paederus (Family: Staphylinidae). The clinicopathologic picture differs because this genus contains a different vesicant agent, pederin. The clinicopathologic features of oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis are described. The world medical and relevant entomologic literature is reviewed. PMID:2189910

  9. Systematics and biology of mites associated with neotropical hispine beetles in unfurled leaves of Heliconia, with descriptions of two new genera of the family Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Gamasina: Ascoidea).

    PubMed

    Moraza, María L; Lindquist, Evert E

    2015-01-01

    Two new genera Makarovaia and Hispiniphis are described from adults and immatures of newly described species associated with hispine beetles of the genera Chelobasis and Cephaloleia, respectively, occupying unfurled leaves of Heliconia in lowland rainforest of Costa Rica. The new genera share a suite of unique morphological attributes, but are tentatively assigned to the family Melicharidae. While all instars of the mites can be found under the elytra of their adult beetle hosts, adult mites also move freely on and off the beetles. A new form of laboulbeniaceous fungus of the genus Rickia is frequently associated with adult mites of Makarovaia as well as their beetle hosts, yet evidently rarely with mites of a species of Hispiniphis or its beetle hosts which may co-occupy the same host leaves. Limited data suggest considerable host specificity between mites and their beetle hosts. Whether the association of these mites with hispine beetles may be ancient, prior to the beetles' adaptation to living in unfurled leaves of host plants, or is a more recent invasion and partitioning of the rolled leaf beetle fauna, is discussed. PMID:25781831

  10. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  11. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  12. Adult beetles compensate for poor larval food conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thorben; Müller, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Life history traits of herbivores are highly influenced by the quality of their hosts, i.e., the composition of primary and secondary plant metabolites. In holometabolous insects, larvae and adults may face different host plants, which differ in quality. It has been hypothesised that adult fitness is either highest when larval and adult environmental conditions match (environmental matching) or it may be mainly determined by optimal larval conditions (silver spoon effect). Alternatively, the adult stage may be most decisive for the actual fitness, independent of larval food exposure, due to adult compensation ability. To determine the influence of constant versus changing larval and adult host plant experiences on growth performance, fitness and feeding preferences, we carried out a match-mismatch experiment using the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Larvae and adults were either constantly reared on watercress (natural host) or cabbage (crop plant) or were switched after metamorphosis to the other host. Growth, reproductive traits and feeding preferences were determined repeatedly over lifetime and host plant quality traits analysed. Differences in the host quality led to differences in the development time and female reproduction. Egg numbers were significantly influenced by the host plant species experienced by the adults. Thus, adults were able to compensate for poor larval conditions. Likewise, the current host experience was most decisive for feeding preferences; in adult beetles a feeding preference was shaped regardless of the larval host plant. Larvae or adults reared on the more nutritious host, cabbage, showed a higher preference for this host. Hence, beetles most likely develop a preference when gaining a direct positive feedback in terms of an improved performance, whereby the current experience matters the most. Highly nutritious crop plants may be, in consequence, all the more exploited by potential pests that may show a high plasticity in

  13. Book review: Methods for catching beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...

  14. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moths...

  15. Standard methods for small hive beetle research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, are parasites and scavengers of honey bee and other social bee colonies native to sub-Saharan Africa, where they are a minor pest only. In contrast, the beetles can be harmful parasites of European honey bee subspecies. Very rapidly after A. tumida established pop...

  16. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moth...

  17. Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stridulation behavior has been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid...

  18. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms. PMID:18392795

  19. Avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, John A.; Zhang, Qing-He; Birgersson, Göran

    The bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), searches in mixed conifer and deciduous forests of northern Europe for suitable branches of its host, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We tested whether odors from several diverse nonhost trees and plants common in the habitat (e.g., mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia; oak, Quercus robur; alder buckthorn, Frangula alnus; blueberry, Vaccinium myrtillus; raspberry, Rubus idaeus; and grass, Deschampsia flexuosa) would reduce the attraction of the bark beetle to traps releasing its aggregation pheromone components in the field. Volatiles from the leaves or bark of each of these plants significantly reduced the attraction of the beetles to their pheromone. Odors collected from these nonhosts and analyzed by GC/MS contained monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and ``green-leaf'' alcohols, several of which (e.g., 1-octene-3-ol and β-caryophyllene) reduced the attraction to pheromone in the field and elicited electroantennographic responses. In the laboratory, reproduction by the beetle was marginal in nonhost Norway spruce, Picea abies, and was absent in the other nonhost trees. Olfactory avoidance of unsuitable nonhosts may have evolved due to advantages in avoiding mistakes during host selection.

  20. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

  1. Contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion in an introduced herbivorous beetle Ophraella communa.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Y; Doi, H; Thomas, C E; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T

    2016-04-01

    Host range expansion of herbivorous insects is a key event in ecological speciation and insect pest management. However, the mechanistic processes are relatively unknown because it is difficult to observe the ongoing host range expansion in natural population. In this study, we focused on the ongoing host range expansion in introduced populations of the ragweed leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, to estimate the evolutionary process of host plant range expansion of a herbivorous insect. In the native range of North America, O. communa does not utilize Ambrosia trifida, as a host plant, but this plant is extensively utilized in the beetle's introduced range. Larval performance and adult preference experiments demonstrated that native O. communa beetles show better survival on host plant individuals from introduced plant populations than those from native plant populations and they also oviposit on the introduced plant, but not on the native plant. Introduced O. communa beetles showed significantly higher performance on and preference for both introduced and native A. trifida plants, when compared with native O. communa. These results indicate the contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion of introduced O. communa and suggest that the evolutionary change of both the host plant and the herbivorous insect involved in the host range expansion. PMID:26728888

  2. Anemomenotatic orientation in beetles and scorpions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsenmair, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Orientation, by beetles and scorpions, according to wind direction and force are analyzed. Major efforts were made to determine: (1) which physical qualities of the air current influence anemomenotaxis, (2) which physiological mechanism is responsible for such orientation, (3) which sense organs do beetles and scorpions use to perceive wind directions, and (4) what the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in the beetle and scorpion is. Experimental results show that the trichobothria in scorpions perceives wind direction; in the beetle it is perceived by sense organs excited by pendicellus-flagellum joint movements. A compensation mechanism is suggested as the basis for anemomenotactic orientation. It was also suggested that the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in scorpions is space orientation; while in beetles it was found to be part of the appetitive behavior used to search for olfactory sign stimuli.

  3. Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.

    2013-01-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle–angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future. PMID:24062759

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wei, Jia-Ning; Jia, Dong; Li, Shuang; Ma, Rui-Yan

    2016-09-01

    To provide molecular markers for population genetic analysis of the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila, we determined its mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) for the first time. The mitogenome of A. hygrophila was 15 917 bp in length with an AT content of 75.15%. It had the typical set of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and an AT-rich control region. Compared with the ancestral mitogenome of insects, no gene rearrangement occurred in A. hygrophila. Incomplete stop codons were present in PCGs of A. hygrophila. All tRNA genes except for trnS(AGN) could form the typical clover-leaf secondary structures. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that A. hygrophila was close to other species belonging to the same family of Chrysomelidae. PMID:26368047

  5. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young

  6. Knockdown, residual, and antifeedant activity of pyrethroids and home landscape bioinsecticides against Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Linden foliage.

    PubMed

    Baumler, Rebecca E; Potter, Daniel A

    2007-04-01

    Residual toxicity and leaf protection capability of five pyrethroids, professional and home garden azadirachtin formulations, and six other bioinsecticides for the home landscape were evaluated against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), on linden, Tilia cordata L. Capacity of intoxicated beetles to recover and subsequently feed and disperse also was evaluated to provide insight on activity characteristics of the different compounds. Intact shoots were sprayed and left in the field for varying intervals before being challenged with beetles in no-choice and choice tests. All pyrethroids except permethrin gave greater leaf protection, knockdown, and kill than did carbaryl, the standard, after 14 d of weathering. Deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lamda-cyhalothrin gave a high level of protection for at least 19 d, and azadirachtin (Azatin XL) deterred feeding in choice tests for as long as 14 d. Home garden formulations containing pyrethrins in canola oil (Pyola) or azadiractin (Neem-Away) gave good short-term (< 3-d) protection. Formulations of capsaicin, rotenone + pyrethrins, kaolin particle film, D-limonene, or garlic extract were ineffective, the latter two formulations being highly phytotoxic to linden. Results of this study should help support updating of guidelines for insecticidal control of Japanese beetles. PMID:17461070

  7. Living near the edge: Being close to mature forest increases the rate of succession in beetle communities.

    PubMed

    Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M; Jordan, Gregory J; Baker, Thomas P; Balmer, Jayne M; Wardlaw, Tim; Baker, Susan C

    2015-04-01

    In increasingly fragmented landscapes, it is important to understand how mature forest affects adjacent secondary forest (forest influence). Forest influence on ecological succession of beetle communities is largely unknown. We investigated succession and forest influence using 235 m long transects across boundaries between mature and secondary forest at 15 sites, sampling a chronosequence of three forest age classes (5-10, 23- 29, and 42-46 years since clear-cutting) in tall eucalypt forest in Tasmania, Australia. Our results showed that ground-dwelling beetle communities showed strong successional changes, and in the oldest secondary forests, species considered indicators of mature forest had recolonized to abundance levels similar to those observed within adjacent mature forest stands. However, species composition also showed forest influence gradients in all age classes. Forest influence was estimated to extend 13 m and 20 m in the youngest and intermediate-aged secondary forests, respectively. However, the estimated effect extended to at least 176 m in the oldest secondary forest. Our environmental modeling suggests that leaf litter, microclimate, and soil variables were all important in explaining the spatial variation in beetle assemblages, and the relative importance of factors varied between secondary forest age classes. Mature-forest beetle communities can recolonize successfully from the edge, and our results provide a basis for land managers to build mature habitat connectivity into forest mosaics typical of production forests. Our results also indicate the importance of forest influence in determining potential conservation value of older secondary forest for beetles. PMID:26214924

  8. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    PubMed Central

    Koksharov, Mikhail I.; Ugarova, Natalia N.

    2012-01-01

    Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems. PMID:24688645

  9. Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, R L; Metcalf, R A; Rhodes, A M

    1980-07-01

    The characteristic bitter substances of the Cucurbitaceae act as kairomones for a large group of diabroticite beetles (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Luperini), promoting host selection and compulsive feeding behavior. These beetles (e.g., Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) respond to as little as 1 ng of cucurbitacin (Cuc) B on thin-layer plates by arrest and compulsive feeding. Six species of diabroticite beetles were about 10 times more responsive to Cuc B than to Cuc E and less responsive to Cuc D, I, and L. Chloroform extracts of 18 species of Cucurbita were developed on thin-layer chromatograms and exposed to diabroticite beetles. The feeding patterns showed pronounced beetle responses to three general Cuc distribution patterns: Cuc B and D as in Cucurbita andreana and C. ecuadorensis; Cuc E and I as in C. okeechobeensis and C. martinezii; and Cuc E glycoside in C. texana. All the diabroticites responded in exactly the same feeding patterns. The results demonstrate a coevolutionary association between the Cucurbitaceae and the Luperini, during which the intensely bitter and toxic Cucs that arose to repel herbivores and protect the plants from attack became specific kairomone feeding stimulants for the beetles. PMID:16592849

  10. Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Robert A.; Rhodes, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic bitter substances of the Cucurbitaceae act as kairomones for a large group of diabroticite beetles (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Luperini), promoting host selection and compulsive feeding behavior. These beetles (e.g., Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) respond to as little as 1 ng of cucurbitacin (Cuc) B on thin-layer plates by arrest and compulsive feeding. Six species of diabroticite beetles were about 10 times more responsive to Cuc B than to Cuc E and less responsive to Cuc D, I, and L. Chloroform extracts of 18 species of Cucurbita were developed on thin-layer chromatograms and exposed to diabroticite beetles. The feeding patterns showed pronounced beetle responses to three general Cuc distribution patterns: Cuc B and D as in Cucurbita andreana and C. ecuadorensis; Cuc E and I as in C. okeechobeensis and C. martinezii; and Cuc E glycoside in C. texana. All the diabroticites responded in exactly the same feeding patterns. The results demonstrate a coevolutionary association between the Cucurbitaceae and the Luperini, during which the intensely bitter and toxic Cucs that arose to repel herbivores and protect the plants from attack became specific kairomone feeding stimulants for the beetles. PMID:16592849

  11. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  12. Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their

  13. Volatile emissions from the lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) is a serious, cosmopolitan pest in poultry production facilities, consuming grain, carrying disease organisms, and causing structural damage in poultry house walls. Pheromones have been described for many economically important beetle speci...

  14. Do Pine Beetles Fan the Flames in Western Forests?

    NASA Video Gallery

    As mountain pine beetles damage whole regions of Western forests, some worry that the dead trees left behind have created a tinderbox ready to burn. But do pine beetles really increase fire risk? I...

  15. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of

  16. Cold temperatures increase cold hardiness in the next generation Ophraella communa beetles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Rasmann, Sergio; Li, Min; Guo, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hong-Song; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, has been introduced to control the spread of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in China. We hypothesized that the beetle, to be able to track host-range expansion into colder climates, can phenotypically adapt to cold temperatures across generations. Therefore, we questioned whether parental experience of colder temperatures increases cold tolerance of the progeny. Specifically, we studied the demography, including development, fecundity, and survival, as well as physiological traits, including supercooling point (SCP), water content, and glycerol content of O. communa progeny whose parents were maintained at different temperature regimes. Overall, the entire immature stage decreased survival of about 0.2%-4.2% when parents experienced cold temperatures compared to control individuals obtained from parents raised at room temperature. However, intrinsic capacity for increase (r), net reproductive rate (R 0) and finite rate of increase (λ) of progeny O. communa were maximum when parents experienced cold temperatures. Glycerol contents of both female and male in progeny was significantly higher when maternal and paternal adults were cold acclimated as compared to other treatments. This resulted in the supercooling point of the progeny adults being significantly lower compared to beetles emerging from parents that experienced room temperatures. These results suggest that cold hardiness of O. communa can be promoted by cold acclimation in previous generation, and it might counter-balance reduced survival in the next generation, especially when insects are tracking their host-plants into colder climates. PMID:24098666

  17. [Relationships of Aulacophora beetles feeding behavior with cucurbitacin types in host crops].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Kong, Chuihua; Liang, Wenju; Zhang, Maoxin; Hu, Fei

    2005-07-01

    Aulacophora fermoralis chinensis and Aulacophora cattigarensis are the two related Aulacophora beetles, but their host selectivity and feeding behavior are significantly different. A. fernzoralis chinensis usually feeds upon Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita moschata, but never upon Luffa acutangula, Momordica charantia and Citrullas lanatus. Its feeding behavior on hosts is to snip a circular trench on their leaves, and then, to feed the leaf tissues isolated by the trench. On the contrary, A. cattigarensis only feeds L. acutangula, and its trenching behavior rarely occurs. This study showed that the host selectivity and feeding behavior of the two beetles were significantly correlated with the types of cucurbitacin biosynthesized by host melon crops. C. sativus and C. moschata might be induced to produce cucurbitacin I by A. fermoralis chinensis feeding, and this compound was responsible for feeding deterrent on A. fermoralis chinensis. Therefore, the feeding behavior of A. fermoralis chinensis was to block the translocation of cucurbitacin I to feeding sites. M. charantia and C. lanatus contained deterrent cucurbitacin D, and thus, both beetles never fed upon them, while L. acutangula contained stimulants cucurbitacin B and E, and made A. cattigarensis directly feed upon it without trenching. The results suggested that the taste responses of insects on specific allelochemicals from plants may play an important role in host selectivity and feeding behavior. PMID:16252877

  18. Cold Temperatures Increase Cold Hardiness in the Next Generation Ophraella communa Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Rasmann, Sergio; Li, Min; Guo, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hong-Song; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, has been introduced to control the spread of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in China. We hypothesized that the beetle, to be able to track host-range expansion into colder climates, can phenotypically adapt to cold temperatures across generations. Therefore, we questioned whether parental experience of colder temperatures increases cold tolerance of the progeny. Specifically, we studied the demography, including development, fecundity, and survival, as well as physiological traits, including supercooling point (SCP), water content, and glycerol content of O. communa progeny whose parents were maintained at different temperature regimes. Overall, the entire immature stage decreased survival of about 0.2%–4.2% when parents experienced cold temperatures compared to control individuals obtained from parents raised at room temperature. However, intrinsic capacity for increase (r), net reproductive rate (R0) and finite rate of increase (λ) of progeny O. communa were maximum when parents experienced cold temperatures. Glycerol contents of both female and male in progeny was significantly higher when maternal and paternal adults were cold acclimated as compared to other treatments. This resulted in the supercooling point of the progeny adults being significantly lower compared to beetles emerging from parents that experienced room temperatures. These results suggest that cold hardiness of O. communa can be promoted by cold acclimation in previous generation, and it might counter-balance reduced survival in the next generation, especially when insects are tracking their host-plants into colder climates. PMID:24098666

  19. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  20. Thermal and water relations of desert beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J.

    2001-11-01

    The physical problems that living organisms have to contend with in hot deserts are primarily extremes of temperature, low humidity, shortage or absence of free water, and the environmental factors that accentuate these - such as strong winds, sand-storms, lack of shade, rocky and impenetrable soils. Climatic factors are particularly important to smaller animals such as arthropods on account of their relatively enormous surface to volume ratios. Nevertheless, beetles (especially Tenebrionidae and, to a lesser extent, Chrysomelidae) are among the most successful animals of the desert, and are often the only ones to be seen abroad during the day. Similar physical problems are experienced by insects in all terrestrial biomes, but they are much enhanced in the desert. Although climatic extremes are often avoided by burrowing habits coupled with circadian and seasonal activity rhythms, as well as reproductive phenology, several species of desert beetle are nevertheless able to withstand thermal extremes that would rapidly cause the death of most other arthropods including insects. The reactions of desert beetles to heat are largely behavioural whilst their responses to water shortage are primarily physiological. The effects of coloration are not discussed. In addition to markedly low rates of transpiration, desert beetles can also withstand a considerable reduction in the water content of their tissues. The study of desert beetles is important because it illustrates many of the solutions evolved by arthropods to the problems engendered, in an extreme form, by life in all terrestrial environments.

  1. Thermal and water relations of desert beetles.

    PubMed

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J L

    2001-11-01

    The physical problems that living organisms have to contend with in hot deserts are primarily extremes of temperature, low humidity, shortage or absence of free water, and the environmental factors that accentuate these--such as strong winds, sand-storms, lack of shade, rocky and impenetrable soils. Climatic factors are particularly important to smaller animals such as arthropods on account of their relatively enormous surface to volume ratios. Nevertheless, beetles (especially Tenebrionidae and, to a lesser extent, Chrysomelidae) are among the most successful animals of the desert, and are often the only ones to be seen abroad during the day. Similar physical problems are experienced by insects in all terrestrial biomes, but they are much enhanced in the desert. Although climatic extremes are often avoided by burrowing habits coupled with circadian and seasonal activity rhythms, as well as reproductive phenology, several species of desert beetle are nevertheless able to withstand thermal extremes that would rapidly cause the death of most other arthropods including insects. The reactions of desert beetles to heat are largely behavioural whilst their responses to water shortage are primarily physiological. The effects of coloration are not discussed. In addition to markedly low rates of transpiration, desert beetles can also withstand a considerable reduction in the water content of their tissues. The study of desert beetles is important because it illustrates many of the solutions evolved by arthropods to the problems engendered, in an extreme form, by life in all terrestrial environments. PMID:11771473

  2. Open field host selection and behavior by tamarisk beetles (Diorhabda spp.)(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in biological control of exotic saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) and risks to non-target athel (T. aphylla) and native Frankenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of exotic, invasive saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) in the western USA involves releases of exotic saltcedar leaf beetles, Diorhabda elongata Brullé sensu lato. Adults in cages alight, feed and oviposit on athel (Tamarix aphylla), an evergreen cold-intolerant tree used for shade and as...

  3. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J D; Pirk, C W W; Hepburn, H R; Kastberger, G; Elzen, P J

    2002-07-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y. PMID:12216866

  4. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  5. Behavioural response of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae to selected plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Ayhan; Isaacs, Rufus; Whalon, Mark E

    2006-11-01

    Potato leaves were treated with 2, 20 or 200 g kg(-1) solutions of extracts of five plant species collected in Turkey, and then exposed to larvae of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). During the first 24 h of exposure, leaf consumption was not affected by 2 g kg(-1) extracts, whereas significantly more leaf tissue remained on leaves treated with 20 g kg(-1) extracts of Arctium lappa L., Bifora radians M Bieb, Humulus lupulus L. or Xanthium strumarium L. than on untreated control leaves. Feeding was not affected by the 20 g kg(-1) extract of Verbascum songaricum Schrenk ex Fisch & Mey. Extracts of all species at 200 g kg(-1) reduced larval feeding, with H. lupulus and X. strumarium providing the greatest protection. Observations of larval behaviour over the first 15 min of exposure to these extracts revealed that the interaction of beetles with leaf tissue was significantly affected by plant extracts. Feeding frequency was not affected by 2 g kg(-1) extracts but was reduced by all higher concentrations. Feeding was inhibited completely by 20 g kg(-1) of H. lupulus extract and reduced significantly compared with the controls by all other extracts. Suppression of feeding was caused by all extracts at 200 g kg(-1), with V. songaricum providing 91% reduction in feeding duration. Rejection behaviour, in which larvae did not return to the leaf after their interaction with it, was rare on 2 g kg(-1) extracts but seen in over 60% of larvae on 20 g kg(-1) extracts and over 80% on 200 g kg(-1) extracts. The present results demonstrate that these extracts have significant ability to protect potato leaves for up to 24 h by prevention of feeding behaviour by L. decemlineata. Further studies are needed to determine the potential of these plant extracts, or their active components, for use in biologically based pest management strategies. PMID:16886174

  6. Catchment response to bark beetle outbreak and dust-on-snow in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livneh, Ben; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Buma, Brian; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Schneider, Dominik; Molotch, Noah P.; Wolter, K.; Wessman, Carol A.

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002, the headwaters of the Colorado River and nearby basins have experienced extensive changes in land cover at sub-annual timescales. Widespread tree mortality from bark beetle infestation has taken place across a range of forest types, elevation, and latitude. Extent and severity of forest structure alteration have been observed through a combination of aerial survey, satellite remote-sensing, and in situ measurements. Additional perturbations have resulted from deposition of dust from regional dry-land sources on mountain snowpacks that strongly alter the snow surface albedo, driving earlier and faster snowmelt runoff. One challenge facing past studies of these forms of disturbance is the relatively small magnitude of the disturbance signals within the larger climatic signal. The combined impacts of forest disturbance and dust-on-snow are explored within a hydrologic modeling framework. We drive the Distributed Hydrology Soil and Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with observed meteorological data, time-varying maps of leaf area index and forest properties to emulate bark beetle impacts, and parameterizations of snow albedo based on observations of dust forcing. Results from beetle-killed canopy alteration suggest slightly greater snow accumulation as a result of less interception and reduced canopy sublimation and evapotranspiration, contributing to overall increases in annual water yield between 8% and 13%. However, understory regeneration roughly halves the changes in water yield. A purely observation-based estimate of runoff coefficient change with cumulative forest mortality shows comparable sensitivities to simulated results; however, positive water yield changes are not statistically significant (p ⩽ 0.05). The primary hydrologic impact of dust-on-snow forcing is an increased rate of snowmelt associated with more extreme dust deposition, producing earlier peak streamflow rates on the order of 1-3 weeks. Simulations of combined bark beetle and dust

  7. Patterns on the iridescent beetle, Chrysina gloriosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Ok; Sharma, Vivek; Crne, Matija; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2009-03-01

    The brilliant metallic color of a beetle Chrysina gloriosa has been known to occur due to selective reflectance from a cholesteric structure on the exoskeleton. The surface also appears to have hexagonally packed structures. Crystallographic concepts and Voronoi analysis were used to determine the degree of order in different regions of the beetle. Along the hexagons in the Voronoi diagram, many clustered pentagons and heptagons were observed. Due to the surface curvature, the number of pentagons was found to be higher than the number of heptagons. The cells appear yellow in the center surrounded by a green region with a yellow edge. Confocal microscopy was used to image the underlying structure, which was found to consist of concentric arcs on a surface of a shallow cone. The observed structures resemble the defects on a cholesteric phase with a free surface, and provide an interesting explanation of structural color development in beetles, along with inspiration for the design of chiral photonic structures.

  8. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed. PMID:21738430

  9. Evolution of specialization: a phylogenetic study of host range in the red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes tetraophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Rasmann, Sergio; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2011-06-01

    Specialization is common in most lineages of insect herbivores, one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth. To address how and why specialization is maintained over evolutionary time, we hypothesized that plant defense and other ecological attributes of potential host plants would predict the performance of a specialist root-feeding herbivore (the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus). Using a comparative phylogenetic and functional trait approach, we assessed the determinants of insect host range across 18 species of Asclepias. Larval survivorship decreased with increasing phylogenetic distance from the true host, Asclepias syriaca, suggesting that adaptation to plant traits drives specialization. Among several root traits measured, only cardenolides (toxic defense chemicals) correlated with larval survival, and cardenolides also explained the phylogenetic distance effect in phylogenetically controlled multiple regression analyses. Additionally, milkweed species having a known association with other Tetraopes beetles were better hosts than species lacking Tetraopes herbivores, and milkweeds with specific leaf area values (a trait related to leaf function and habitat affiliation) similar to those of A. syriaca were better hosts than species having divergent values. We thus conclude that phylogenetic distance is an integrated measure of phenotypic and ecological attributes of Asclepias species, especially defensive cardenolides, which can be used to explain specialization and constraints on host shifts over evolutionary time. PMID:21597250

  10. BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S R; Brown, Susan J

    2007-01-01

    BeetleBase (http://www.bioinformatics.ksu.edu/BeetleBase/) is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software components developed by the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project. This strategy not only reduces the time required to develop the database query tools but also makes the data structure of BeetleBase compatible with that of other model organism databases. BeetleBase will be useful to the Tribolium research community for genome annotation as well as comparative genomics. PMID:17090595

  11. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

    1997-09-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

  12. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  13. Beetle and plant density as cues initiating dispersal in two species of adult predaceous diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Taylor, Stacy; Vamosi, Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Dispersal can influence population dynamics, species distributions, and community assembly, but few studies have attempted to determine the factors that affect dispersal of insects in natural populations. Consequently, little is known about how proximate factors affect the dispersal behavior of individuals or populations, or how an organism's behavior may change in light of such factors. Adult predaceous diving beetles are active dispersers and are important predators in isolated aquatic habitats. We conducted interrelated studies to determine how several factors affected dispersal in two common pond-inhabiting species in southern Alberta, Canada: Graphoderus occidentalis and Rhantus sericans. Specifically, we (1) experimentally tested the effect of plant and beetle densities on dispersal probabilities in ponds; (2) surveyed ponds and determined the relationships among beetle densities and plant densities and water depth; and (3) conducted laboratory trials to determine how beetle behavior changed in response to variation in plant densities, conspecific densities, food, and water depth. Our field experiment determined that both species exhibited density dependence, with higher beetle densities leading to higher dispersal probabilities. Low plant density also appeared to increase beetle dispersal. Consistent with our experimental results, densities of R. sericans in ponds were significantly related to plant density and varied also with water depth; G. occidentalis densities did not vary with either factor. In the laboratory, behavior varied with plant density only for R. sericans, which swam at low density but were sedentary at high density. Both species responded to depth, with high beetle densities eliciting beetles to spend more time in deeper water. The presence of food caused opposite responses for G. occidentalis between experiments. Behavioral changes in response to patch-level heterogeneity likely influence dispersal in natural populations and are expected

  14. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  15. Research on Asian longhorned beetle in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An established population of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) (Anoplophora glabripennis) (Motschulsky) was discovered in 2003 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Given the enormous risk that ALB posses to the expansive forests of southern Canada and northern U.S. and the urgent need to eradicate ALB, as ...

  16. Systematics of Fusaria associated with Ambrosia beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here, I summarize research efforts directed at characterizing ambrosia beetle-associated fusaria, including the species responsible for avocado wilt in Israel (Mendel et al., Phytoparasitica 2012) and branch dieback in California (Eskalen et al., Pl. Dis. 2012). Our multilocus molecular phylogenetic...

  17. Population Dynamics of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle Luprops tristis, in Relation to Annual Cycle of Foliage Phenology of Its Host, the Para Rubber Tree, Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    The population dynamics of the rubber plantation litter beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius 1801 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was assessed in relation to the phenology of leaf shedding and defoliation pattern of para rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), during a two year study period. The abundance of adults, larvae and pupae per 1m2 of litter sample was recorded. Post dormancy beetles appeared in leaf litter following annual leaf shedding, whereas larvae, pupae and teneral adults were present after leaf flush. No stages were recorded from plantations following the summer rains until the annual litter fall in the next season. Parental adults peaked at the time of leaf sprouting and tender leaf fall. Larvae and teneral adults peaked at the time of premature fall of green leaves and flowers. Teneral adults of six age classes were recorded and all entered dormancy irrespective of the feeding time available to each age class. Females outnumbered males in the parent generation, while the sex ratio of new generation adults was not biased towards either sex. The phenological stages of rubber trees included leaf fall in late December and early January, leaf sprouting and new leaf production in January and flowering in February. All feeding stages of L. tristis peaked in abundance when premature leaves are most abundant in the leaf litter. Prediction of the timing of appearance of various developmental stages of L. tristis in plantations, invasion into buildings and intensity of population build up in rubber belts is possible by tracking the phenology of leaf fall in rubber plantations, time of return of post dormancy adults and the onset of summer rainfall. Perfect synchrony was recorded between the field return of parental adults with annual leaf shedding, the oviposition phase of parental adults with tender leaf fall at the time of leaf sprouting, and larval and teneral adult stages with premature fall of leaves. Premature leaf

  18. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dena M.; Marcot, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  19. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dena M; Marcot, Jonathan D

    2015-04-22

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  20. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  1. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium–Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known independent evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symb...

  2. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  3. Floral Associations of Cyclocephaline Scarab Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: 1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, 2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and 3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  4. Towards scaling interannual ecohydrological responses of conifer forests to bark beetle infestations from individuals to landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Savoy, P.; Reed, D. E.; Frank, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Widespread epidemics of forest-damaging insects have severe implications for the interconnections between water and ecosystem processes under present-day climate. How these systems respond to future climates is highly uncertain, and so there is a need for a better understanding of the effects of such disturbances on plant hydraulics, and the consequent effects on ecosystem processes. Moreover, large-scale manifestations of such disturbances require scaling knowledge obtained from individual trees or stands up to a regional extent. This requires a conceptual framework that integrates physical and biological processes that are immutable and scalable. Indeed, in Western North America multiple conifer species have been impacted by the bark beetle epidemic, but the prediction of such widespread outbreaks under changing environmental conditions must be generalized from a relatively small number of ground-based observations. Using model-data fusion we examine the fundamental principles that drive ecological and hydrological responses to bark beetles infestation from individuals to regions. The study includes a mid-elevation (2750 m a.s.l) lodgepole pine forest and higher (3190 m a.s.l.) elevation Engelmann spruce - fir forest in southern Wyoming. The study included a suite of observations, comprising leaf gas exchange, non-structural carbon (NSC), plant hydraulics, including sap flux transpiration (E), vulnerability to cavitation, leaf water potentials, and eddy covariance, were made pre-, during-, and post-disturbance, as the bark beetle infestation moved through these areas. Numerous observations tested hypotheses generated by the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES), which integrates soil hydraulics and dynamic tree hydraulics (cavitation) with canopy energy and gas exchange, and operates at scales from individuals to landscapes. TREES accurately predicted E and NSC dynamics among individuals spanning pre- and post-disturbance periods, with the 95

  5. Endozoochory by beetles: a novel seed dispersal mechanism

    PubMed Central

    de Vega, Clara; Arista, Montserrat; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Herrera, Carlos M.; Talavera, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Due in part to biophysical sized-related constraints, insects unlike vertebrates are seldom expected to act as primary seed dispersers via ingestion of fruits and seeds (endozoochory). The Mediterranean parasitic plant Cytinus hypocistis, however, possesses some characteristics that may facilitate endozoochory by beetles. By combining a long-term field study with experimental manipulation, we tested whether C. hypocistis seeds are endozoochorously dispersed by beetles. Methods Field studies were carried out over 4 years on six populations in southern Spain. We recorded the rate of natural fruit consumption by beetles, the extent of beetle movement, beetle behaviour and the relative importance of C. hypocistis fruits in beetle diet. Key Results The tenebrionid beetle Pimelia costata was an important disperser of C. hypocistis seeds, consuming up to 17·5 % of fruits per population. Forty-six per cent of beetles captured in the field consumed C. hypocistis fruits, with up to 31 seeds found in individual beetle frass. An assessment of seeds following passage through the gut of beetles indicated that seeds remained intact and viable and that the proportion of viable seeds from beetle frass was not significantly different from that of seeds collected directly from fruits. Conclusions A novel plant–animal interaction is revealed; endozoochory by beetles may facilitate the dispersal of viable seeds after passage through the gut away from the parent plant to potentially favourable underground sites offering a high probability of germination and establishment success. Such an ecological role has until now been attributed only to vertebrates. Future studies should consider more widely the putative role of fruit and seed ingestion by invertebrates as a dispersal mechanism, particularly for those plant species that possess small seeds. PMID:21303784

  6. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. PMID:26992100

  7. Prison construction and guarding behaviour by European honeybees is dependent on inmate small hive beetle density.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J D; Hepburn, H R; Ellis, A M; Elzen, P J

    2003-08-01

    Increasing small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) density changes prison construction and guarding behaviour in European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). These changes include more guard bees per imprisoned beetle and the construction of more beetle prisons at the higher beetle density. Despite this, the number of beetles per prison (inmate density) did not change. Beetles solicited food more actively at the higher density and at night. In response, guard bees increased their aggressive behaviour towards beetle prisoners but did not feed beetles more at the higher density. Only 5% of all beetles were found among the combs at the low density but this percentage increased five-fold at the higher one. Successful comb infiltration (and thus reproduction) by beetles is a possible explanation for the significant damage beetles cause to European honeybee colonies in the USA. PMID:12955230

  8. Fungal Symbionts of the Spruce Bark Beetle Synthesize the Beetle Aggregation Pheromone 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Axelsson, Karolin; Krokene, Paal; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles depend on aggregation pheromones to mass-attack their host trees and overwhelm their resistance. The beetles are always associated with phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that probably assist in breaking down tree resistance, but little is known about if or how much these fungal symbionts contribute to the beetles' aggregation behavior. In this study, we determined the ability of four major fungal symbionts of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus to produce beetle aggregation pheromones. The fungi were incubated on Norway spruce Picea abies bark, malt agar, or malt agar amended with 0.5% (13)C glucose. Volatiles present in the headspace of each fungus were analyzed for 7 days after incubation using a SPME autosampler coupled to a GC/MS. Two Grosmannia species (G. penicillata and G. europhioides) produced large amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), the major component in the beetles' aggregation pheromone blend, when growing on spruce bark or malt agar. Grosmannia europhioides also incorporated (13)C glucose into MB, demonstrating that the fungi can synthesize MB de novo using glucose as a carbon source. This is the first clear evidence that fungal symbionts of bark beetles can produce components in the aggregation pheromone blend of their beetle vectors. This provides new insight into the possible ecological roles of fungal symbionts in bark beetle systems and may deepen our understanding of species interactions and coevolution in these important biological systems. PMID:26302987

  9. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra. PMID:25499796

  10. Assessing soybean leaf area and leaf biomass by spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral radiances were correlated with soybean total leaf area index, green leaf area index, chlorotic leaf area index, green leaf biomass, chlorotic leaf biomass, and total biomass. The most significant correlations were found to exist between the IR/red radiance ratio data and green leaf area index and/or green leaf biomass (r squared equals 0.85 and 0.86, respectively). These findings demonstrate that remote sensing data can supply information basic to soybean canopy growth, development, and status by nondestructive determination of the green leaf area or green leaf biomass.

  11. Water capture by a desert beetle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Andrew R.; Lawrence, Chris R.

    2001-11-01

    Some beetles in the Namib Desert collect drinking water from fog-laden wind on their backs. We show here that these large droplets form by virtue of the insect's bumpy surface, which consists of alternating hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions. The design of this fog-collecting structure can be reproduced cheaply on a commercial scale and may find application in water-trapping tent and building coverings, for example, or in water condensers and engines.

  12. A Physiological and Behavioral Mechanism for Leaf Herbivore-Induced Systemic Root Resistance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Matthias; Robert, Christelle A.M.; Marti, Guillaume; Lu, Jing; Doyen, Gwladys R.; Villard, Neil; Barrière, Yves; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Turlings, Ted C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect plant-mediated interactions between herbivores are important drivers of community composition in terrestrial ecosystems. Among the most striking examples are the strong indirect interactions between spatially separated leaf- and root-feeding insects sharing a host plant. Although leaf feeders generally reduce the performance of root herbivores, little is known about the underlying systemic changes in root physiology and the associated behavioral responses of the root feeders. We investigated the consequences of maize (Zea mays) leaf infestation by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars for the root-feeding larvae of the beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major pest of maize. D. virgifera strongly avoided leaf-infested plants by recognizing systemic changes in soluble root components. The avoidance response occurred within 12 h and was induced by real and mimicked herbivory, but not wounding alone. Roots of leaf-infested plants showed altered patterns in soluble free and soluble conjugated phenolic acids. Biochemical inhibition and genetic manipulation of phenolic acid biosynthesis led to a complete disappearance of the avoidance response of D. virgifera. Furthermore, bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed a direct link between the avoidance response of D. virgifera and changes in soluble conjugated phenolic acids in the roots of leaf-attacked plants. Our study provides a physiological mechanism for a behavioral pattern that explains the negative effect of leaf attack on a root-feeding insect. Furthermore, it opens up the possibility to control D. virgifera in the field by genetically mimicking leaf herbivore-induced changes in root phenylpropanoid patterns. PMID:26430225

  13. A Physiological and Behavioral Mechanism for Leaf Herbivore-Induced Systemic Root Resistance.

    PubMed

    Erb, Matthias; Robert, Christelle A M; Marti, Guillaume; Lu, Jing; Doyen, Gwladys R; Villard, Neil; Barrière, Yves; French, B Wade; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Turlings, Ted C J; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Indirect plant-mediated interactions between herbivores are important drivers of community composition in terrestrial ecosystems. Among the most striking examples are the strong indirect interactions between spatially separated leaf- and root-feeding insects sharing a host plant. Although leaf feeders generally reduce the performance of root herbivores, little is known about the underlying systemic changes in root physiology and the associated behavioral responses of the root feeders. We investigated the consequences of maize (Zea mays) leaf infestation by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars for the root-feeding larvae of the beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major pest of maize. D. virgifera strongly avoided leaf-infested plants by recognizing systemic changes in soluble root components. The avoidance response occurred within 12 h and was induced by real and mimicked herbivory, but not wounding alone. Roots of leaf-infested plants showed altered patterns in soluble free and soluble conjugated phenolic acids. Biochemical inhibition and genetic manipulation of phenolic acid biosynthesis led to a complete disappearance of the avoidance response of D. virgifera. Furthermore, bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed a direct link between the avoidance response of D. virgifera and changes in soluble conjugated phenolic acids in the roots of leaf-attacked plants. Our study provides a physiological mechanism for a behavioral pattern that explains the negative effect of leaf attack on a root-feeding insect. Furthermore, it opens up the possibility to control D. virgifera in the field by genetically mimicking leaf herbivore-induced changes in root phenylpropanoid patterns. PMID:26430225

  14. Loss of flight promotes beetle diversification.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Sota, Teiji

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of flight is a key innovation that may enable the extreme diversification of insects. Nonetheless, many species-rich, winged insect groups contain flightless lineages. The loss of flight may promote allopatric differentiation due to limited dispersal power and may result in a high speciation rate in the flightless lineage. Here we show that loss of flight accelerates allopatric speciation using carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae). We demonstrate that flightless species retain higher genetic differentiation among populations and comprise a higher number of genetically distinct lineages than flight-capable species, and that the speciation rate with the flightless state is twice that with the flight-capable state. Moreover, a meta-analysis of 51 beetle species from 15 families reveals higher genetic differentiation among populations in flightless compared with flight-capable species. In beetles, which represent almost one-fourth of all described species, repeated evolution of flightlessness may have contributed to their steady diversification since the Mesozoic era. PMID:22337126

  15. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right–left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use. PMID:25368178

  16. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  17. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

    2014-11-18

    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use. PMID:25368178

  18. Fifteen into Three Does Go: Morphology, Genetics and Genitalia Confirm Taxonomic Inflation of New Zealand Beetles (Chrysomelidae: Eucolaspis).

    PubMed

    Doddala, Prasad R C; Minor, Maria A; Rogers, David J; Trewick, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Eucolaspis Sharp 1886 is a New Zealand native leaf beetle genus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) with poorly described species and a complex taxonomy. Many economically important fruit crops are severely damaged by these beetles. Uncertain species taxonomy of Eucolaspis is leaving any biological research, as well as pest management, tenuous. We used morphometrics, mitochondrial DNA and male genitalia to study phylogenetic and geographic diversity of Eucolaspis in New Zealand. Freshly collected beetles from several locations across their distribution range, as well as identified voucher specimens from major museum collections were examined to test the current classification. We also considered phylogenetic relationships among New Zealand and global Eumolpinae (Coleoptera: Chyrosomelidae). We demonstrate that most of the morphological information used previously to define New Zealand Eucolaspis species is insufficient. At the same time, we show that a combination of morphological and genetic evidence supports the existence of just 3 mainland Eucolaspis lineages (putative species), and not 5 or 15, as previously reported. In addition, there may be another closely related lineage (putative species) on an offshore location (Three Kings Islands, NZ). The cladistic structure among the lineages, conferred through mitochondrial DNA data, was well supported by differences in male genitalia. We found that only a single species (lineage) infests fruit orchards in Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand. Species-host plant associations vary among different regions. PMID:26600380

  19. Fifteen into Three Does Go: Morphology, Genetics and Genitalia Confirm Taxonomic Inflation of New Zealand Beetles (Chrysomelidae: Eucolaspis)

    PubMed Central

    Doddala, Prasad R. C.; Minor, Maria A.; Rogers, David J.; Trewick, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Eucolaspis Sharp 1886 is a New Zealand native leaf beetle genus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) with poorly described species and a complex taxonomy. Many economically important fruit crops are severely damaged by these beetles. Uncertain species taxonomy of Eucolaspis is leaving any biological research, as well as pest management, tenuous. We used morphometrics, mitochondrial DNA and male genitalia to study phylogenetic and geographic diversity of Eucolaspis in New Zealand. Freshly collected beetles from several locations across their distribution range, as well as identified voucher specimens from major museum collections were examined to test the current classification. We also considered phylogenetic relationships among New Zealand and global Eumolpinae (Coleoptera: Chyrosomelidae). We demonstrate that most of the morphological information used previously to define New Zealand Eucolaspis species is insufficient. At the same time, we show that a combination of morphological and genetic evidence supports the existence of just 3 mainland Eucolaspis lineages (putative species), and not 5 or 15, as previously reported. In addition, there may be another closely related lineage (putative species) on an offshore location (Three Kings Islands, NZ). The cladistic structure among the lineages, conferred through mitochondrial DNA data, was well supported by differences in male genitalia. We found that only a single species (lineage) infests fruit orchards in Hawke’s Bay region of New Zealand. Species-host plant associations vary among different regions. PMID:26600380

  20. Endocrine control of exaggerated traits in rhinoceros beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits in insects such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetle. Male stag beetles have sexually-dimorphic, condition-dependent expre...

  1. Simulation model of the red flour beetle in flour mills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is one of the most common insect pests infesting wheat flour mills. Structural treatments such as methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride and heat, are used to control the red flour beetle. The structural treatments do not provide any residual action and, thus, any s...

  2. A culture method for darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp., have become a serious pest of Cucurbitaceae crops, especially in California. A culture method was sought to provide large numbers (> 500) of adult beetles of known age and sex that could be used for laboratory testing when needed. A method previously developed for ...

  3. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  4. Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DeGuzman, L.I.& A.M. Frake. Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles - The life history of small hive beetles (SHB) kept in an incubator (34ºC) and at room temperature (24-28ºC) was compared. Six slides of eggs, obtained using the glass slide technique, were placed individually in rear...

  5. Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

  6. Male-specific sesquiterpenes from Phyllotreta flea beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flea beetles in several genera are known to possess male-specific sesquiterpenes, at least some of which serve as aggregation pheromones that attract both sexes. In continuing research on the chemical ecology of Phyllotreta flea beetles, six new male-specific sesquiterpenes were identified, one fro...

  7. Resistance of sweetpotato genotypes to spotted and banded cucumber beetles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay techniques were developed for evaluating the resistance of sweetpotato germplasm to larvae and adults of the banded and spotted cucumber beetles. For the adult bioassay, individual beetles were placed on pieces of sweetpotato peel (periderm and cortex with stele removed) that was embedded ...

  8. Cantharidin Poisoning due to Blister Beetle Ingestion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Al-Binali, Ali M.; Shabana, Medhat; Al-Fifi, Suliman; Dawood, Sami; Shehri, Amer A.; Al-Barki, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Cantharidin is an intoxicant found in beetles in the Meloidae (Coleoptera) family. Ingestion may result in haematemesis, impaired level of consciousness, electrolyte disturbance, haematurea and renal impairment. Here, we report two paediatric cases of meloid beetle ingestion resulting in cantharidin poisoning and the clinical presentation of the ensuing intoxication. PMID:21509239

  9. Anti-predator defence drives parallel morphological evolution in flea beetles

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Deyan; Chesters, Douglas; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Zhang, Lijie; Yang, Xingke; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2011-01-01

    Complex morphological or functional traits are frequently considered evolutionarily unique and hence useful for taxonomic classification. Flea beetles (Alticinae) are characterized by an extraordinary jumping apparatus in the usually greatly expanded femur of their hind legs that separates them from the related Galerucinae. Here, we examine the evolution of this trait using phylogenetic analysis and a time-calibrated tree from mitochondrial (rrnL and cox1) and nuclear (small subunits and large subunits) genes, as well as morphometrics of femora using elliptic Fourier analysis. The phylogeny strongly supports multiple independent origins of the metafemoral spring and therefore rejects the monophyly of Alticinae, as defined by this trait. Geometric outline analysis of femora shows the great plasticity of this structure and its correlation with the type and diversity of the metafemoral springs. The recognition of convergence in jumping apparatus now resolves the long-standing difficulties of Galerucinae–Alticinae classification, and cautions against the value of trait complexity as a measure of taxonomic significance. The lineage also shows accelerated species diversification rates relative to other leaf beetles, which may be promoted by the same ecological factors that also favour the repeated evolution of jumping as an anti-predation mechanism. PMID:21159678

  10. Spatial and environmental correlates of species richness and turnover patterns in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline beetles.

    PubMed

    Freijeiro, Andrea; Baselga, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Despite some general concordant patterns (i.e. the latitudinal richness gradient), species richness and composition of different European beetle taxa varies in different ways according to their dispersal and ecological traits. Here, the patterns of variation in species richness, composition and spatial turnover are analysed in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline leaf beetles, assessing their environmental and spatial correlates. The underlying rationale to use environmental and spatial variables of diversity patterns is to assess the relative support for niche- and dispersal-driven hypotheses. Our results show that despite a broad congruence in the factors correlated with cryptocephaline and chrysomeline richness, environmental variables (particularly temperature) were more relevant in cryptocephalines, whereas spatial variables were more relevant in chrysomelines (that showed a significant longitudinal gradient besides the latitudinal one), in line with the higher proportion of flightless species within chrysomelines. The variation in species composition was also related to environmental and spatial factors, but this pattern was better predicted by spatial variables in both groups, suggesting that species composition is more linked to dispersal and historical contingencies than species richness, which would be more controlled by environmental limitations. Among historical factors, Pleistocene glaciations appear as the most plausible explanation for the steeper decay in assemblage similarity with spatial distance, both in cryptocephalines and chrysomelines. PMID:27408587

  11. Spatial and environmental correlates of species richness and turnover patterns in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline beetles

    PubMed Central

    Freijeiro, Andrea; Baselga, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite some general concordant patterns (i.e. the latitudinal richness gradient), species richness and composition of different European beetle taxa varies in different ways according to their dispersal and ecological traits. Here, the patterns of variation in species richness, composition and spatial turnover are analysed in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline leaf beetles, assessing their environmental and spatial correlates. The underlying rationale to use environmental and spatial variables of diversity patterns is to assess the relative support for niche- and dispersal-driven hypotheses. Our results show that despite a broad congruence in the factors correlated with cryptocephaline and chrysomeline richness, environmental variables (particularly temperature) were more relevant in cryptocephalines, whereas spatial variables were more relevant in chrysomelines (that showed a significant longitudinal gradient besides the latitudinal one), in line with the higher proportion of flightless species within chrysomelines. The variation in species composition was also related to environmental and spatial factors, but this pattern was better predicted by spatial variables in both groups, suggesting that species composition is more linked to dispersal and historical contingencies than species richness, which would be more controlled by environmental limitations. Among historical factors, Pleistocene glaciations appear as the most plausible explanation for the steeper decay in assemblage similarity with spatial distance, both in cryptocephalines and chrysomelines. PMID:27408587

  12. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  13. Food Preferences of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, a Nuisance Pest in Rubber Tree Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    Massive invasion of the litter dwelling beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), numbering about 0.5 to 4 million per residential building following summer showers, and their prolonged stay in a state of dormancy, make them an extreme nuisance in rubber tree plantation belts of the Western Ghats in south India. Food preference of post-dormancy adults, larvae and teneral adults stages towards tender, mature and senescent leaves were assessed in three choice and no choice leaf disc tests. All stages have strong preference towards fallen tender leaves and lowest preference towards senescent leaves indicating that leaf age is a major attribute determining food selection and food preference of L. tristis. Ready availability of the preferred, prematurely fallen, tender rubber tree leaves as a food resource is suggested as being responsible for the exceptionally high abundance of L. tristis in rubber tree plantation belts. PMID:20050783

  14. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  15. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  16. Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin Louise

    1991-01-01

    Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

  17. Defensive Chemistry of Lycid Beetles and of Mimetic Cerambycid Beetles that Feed on Them

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Noel; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Utterback, David; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Summary Beetles of the family Lycidae have long been known to be chemically protected. We present evidence that North American species of the lycid genera Calopteron and Lycus are rejected by thrushes, wolf spiders, and orb-weaving spiders, and that they contain a systemic compound that could account, at least in part, for this unacceptability. This compound, a novel acetylenic acid that we named lycidic acid, proved actively deterrent in feeding tests with wolf spiders and coccinellid beetles. Species of Lycus commonly figure as models of mimetic associations. Among their mimics are species of the cerambycid beetle genus Elytroleptus, remarkable because they prey upon the model lycids. We postulated that by doing so Elytroleptus might incorporate the lycidic acid from their prey for their own defense. However, judging from analytical data, the beetles practice no such sequestration, explaining why they remain relatively palatable (in tests with wolf spiders) even after having fed on lycids. Chemical analyses also showed the lycids to contain pyrazines, such as were already known from other Lycidae, potent odorants that could serve in an aposematic capacity to forestall predatory attacks. PMID:18698369

  18. Rapid dispersal of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) biocontrol beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) on a desert river detected by phenocams, MODIS imagery and ground observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Pearlstein, Susanna; Glenn, Edward P.; Brown, Tim B.; Bateman, Heather L.; Bean, Dan W.; Hultine, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    We measured the rate of dispersal of saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata), a defoliating insect released on western rivers to control saltcedar shrubs (Tamarix spp.), on a 63 km reach of the Virgin River, U.S. Dispersal was measured by satellite imagery, ground surveys and phenocams. Pixels from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors on the Terra satellite showed a sharp drop in NDVI in midsummer followed by recovery, correlated with defoliation events as revealed in networked digital camera images and ground surveys. Ground surveys and MODIS imagery showed that beetle damage progressed downstream at a rate of about 25 km yr−1 in 2010 and 2011, producing a 50% reduction in saltcedar leaf area index and evapotranspiration by 2012, as estimated by algorithms based on MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index values and local meteorological data for Mesquite, Nevada. This reduction is the equivalent of 10.4% of mean annual river flows on this river reach. Our results confirm other observations that saltcedar beetles are dispersing much faster than originally predicted in pre-release biological assessments, presenting new challenges and opportunities for land, water and wildlife managers on western rivers. Despite relatively coarse resolution (250 m) and gridding artifacts, single MODIS pixels can be useful in tracking the effects of defoliating insects in riparian corridors.

  19. Using Webcam Technology for Measuring and Scaling Phenology of Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) Infested with the Biocontrol Beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on the Dolores River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Brown, T.; Dennison, P. E.; Hultine, K. R.; Glenn, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    Tamarisk is an introduced shrub/tree that is now widespread in western U.S. riparian corridors. There is concern that tamarisk displaces native vegetation and consumes large amounts of water from riparian aquifers. Consequently, the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) has been introduced into the western US to control the spread of tamarisk. We studied the phenology and water use of tamarisk in two adjacent, beetle infested stands on the Dolores River, in southeastern Utah. A 10 m tower was erected in each tamarisk stand (“orchard” and “gauge”) prior to the 2008 growing season. Beetle damage was measured using fractional cover from images taken from the tower-mounted visible and infrared cameras (“phenocams”) starting in mid-May 2008 and again in mid-May 2009 through the growing season of each year. Tamarisk plants developed fresh leaves ca. mid-April and dense canopies by late-May. In 2008, defoliation became significant by June, whereas in 2009, defoliation became significant by mid-July (orchard) to late-July (gauge). In 2007, cameras were not installed, however defoliation occurred in July. Partial refoliation occurred approximately six weeks after the tamarisk trees were completely defoliated. Time-lapse image sets from the cameras were compared with fine-scale estimates of water use using stem sap flow measurements conducted over three growing seasons (2007-2009). Damage at an intermediate scale was measured with Aster imagery (15 m resolution) and at a coarse scale with MODIS imagery (250 m resolution). Vegetation indices (VIs) from the fine scale (tower phenocams) were comparable to VIs from satellite imagery at the intermediate and coarse scale. Plant transpiration fell dramatically during or shortly after the defoliated period, but recovered when new leaves were produced each year. Potential water salvage was constrained to the relatively brief period of defoliation. At the intermediate scale of measurement, beetle damage was seen to

  20. Yellow leaf blotch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow leaf blotch occurs worldwide in temperate climates. The disease is reported from countries in Asia, Australasia, Oceania, Europe, North America, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. In the northern Great Plains of North America, it is often the major leaf disease on alfalfa....

  1. Negative Feedbacks on Bark Beetle Outbreaks: Widespread and Severe Spruce Beetle Infestation Restricts Subsequent Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Sarah J.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  2. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  3. A common theme in extracellular fluids of beetles: extracellular superoxide dismutases crucial for balancing ROS in response to microbial challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gretscher, René R.; Streicher, Priska E.; Strauß, Anja S.; Wielsch, Natalie; Stock, Magdalena; Wang, Ding; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical for balancing the level of reactive oxygen species in the extracellular matrix of eukaryotes. In the present study we have detected constitutive SOD activity in the haemolymph and defensive secretions of different leaf beetle species. Exemplarily, we have chosen the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae, as representative model organism to investigate the role of extracellular SODs in antimicrobial defence. Qualitative and quantitative proteome analyses resulted in the identification of two extracellular Cu/Zn SODs in the haemolymph and one in the defensive secretions of juvenile P. cochleariae. Furthermore, quantitative expression studies indicated fat body tissue and defensive glands as the main synthesis sites of these SODs. Silencing of the two SODs revealed one of them, PcSOD3.1, as the only relevant enzyme facilitating SOD activity in haemolymph and defensive secretions in vivo. Upon challenge with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, PcSOD3.1-deficient larvae exhibited a significantly higher mortality compared to other SOD-silenced groups. Hence, our results serve as a basis for further research on SOD regulated host-pathogen interactions. In defensive secretions PcSOD3.1-silencing affected neither deterrent production nor activity against fungal growth. Instead, we propose another antifungal mechanism based on MRJP/yellow proteins in the defensive exudates. PMID:27068683

  4. Bark Beetle Impacts on Ecosystem Processes are Over Quickly and Muted Spatially

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Norton, U.; Borkhuu, B.; Reed, D. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Biederman, J. A.; King, A.; Gochis, D. J.; Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    The recent epidemic of bark beetles across western North America has impacted conifers from low to high elevations from New Mexico to Yukon. The mechanism of mortality is clear, with both mountain pine and spruce beetles killing trees by introducing xylem occluding blue stain fungi which dramatically stops transpiration. The visual impact of this outbreak is stunning, with mortality of canopy trees over 90% in some stands. However, emerging work shows that the impact on ecosystem processes is not as dramatic. We hypothesize that increased soil water and nitrogen sets up rapid succession of plant communities, which quickly restores ecosystem processing of water, carbon and nitrogen, while spatial patchiness of mortality and belowground responses mutes the impact as spatial scale increases from stands to watersheds. In support of our hypothesis we found 1) Soil nitrogen and moisture increase within one growing season but decrease to the same as uninfested stands five years later. 2) Soil respiration is correlated with live tree basal area suggesting a large component of autotrophic respiration. 3) Once stands have more than 50% basal area mortality, seedling density increases up to five fold and total non-tree understory cover increased two fold both within five years after infestation. 4) Ecosystem scale estimates of water vapor fluxes do not decline as rapidly as overstory leaf area. 5) Stable isotopes of snow, soil and stream water suggest that increased below canopy evapotranspiration nearly compensates for reduced canopy transpiration. 6) Nested watershed data shows that precipitation variations are much more important in regulating streamflow than changes in canopies from bark beetle induced mortality. These results were tested in the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) model. TREES was able to predict annual changes in the carbon fluxes but had difficulty simulating soil moisture and annual water budgets likely due to inadequate abiotic

  5. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status. PMID:21468408

  6. Brilliant Whiteness in Ultrathin Beetle Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukusic, Pete; Hallam, Benny; Noyes, Joe

    2007-01-01

    The colored appearances of animals are controlled by pigmentation, highly periodic ultrastructure, or a combination of both. Whiteness, however, is less common and is generated by neither of these, because it requires scattering processes appropriate for all visible wavelengths. We report whiteness resulting from a three-dimensional photonic solid in the scales of Cyphochilus spp. beetles. Their scales are characterized by their exceptional whiteness, their perceived brightness, and their optical brilliance, but they are only 5 micrometers thick. This thickness is at least two orders of magnitude thinner than common synthetic systems designed for equivalent-quality whiteness.

  7. Brilliant whiteness in ultrathin beetle scales.

    PubMed

    Vukusic, Pete; Hallam, Benny; Noyes, Joe

    2007-01-19

    The colored appearances of animals are controlled by pigmentation, highly periodic ultrastructure, or a combination of both. Whiteness, however, is less common and is generated by neither of these, because it requires scattering processes appropriate for all visible wavelengths. We report whiteness resulting from a three-dimensional photonic solid in the scales of Cyphochilus spp. beetles. Their scales are characterized by their exceptional whiteness, their perceived brightness, and their optical brilliance, but they are only 5 micrometers thick. This thickness is at least two orders of magnitude thinner than common synthetic systems designed for equivalent-quality whiteness. PMID:17234940

  8. Water capture by a desert beetle.

    PubMed

    Parker, A R; Lawrence, C R

    2001-11-01

    Some beetles in the Namib Desert collect drinking water from fog-laden wind on their backs. We show here that these large droplets form by virtue of the insect's bumpy surface, which consists of alternating hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions. The design of this fog-collecting structure can be reproduced cheaply on a commercial scale and may find application in water-trapping tent and building coverings, for example, or in water condensers and engines. PMID:11689930

  9. Leaf growth is conformal.

    PubMed

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-01-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour. PMID:27597439

  10. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  11. Red List of beetles of the Wadden Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, V.; Suikat, R.; Aßmann, Th.

    1996-10-01

    As no data on beetles in the Wadden Sea area are available from The Netherlands, the trilateral status of threat only refers to the Danish and German part of the Wadden Sea. In this area, in total, 238 species of beetles are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 189 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 4 species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 24 species of beetles is (probably) critical, 46 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 86 species is (probably) vulnerable and of 29 species (probably) susceptible.

  12. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database)

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A.; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ESACIB (‘EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos’) database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the “Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular”. In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  13. Dew condensation on desert beetle skin.

    PubMed

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J; Mongruel, A; Medici, M-G; Baquero, E; Parker, A R; Milimouk-Melnytchuk, I; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D

    2014-11-01

    Some tenebrionind beetles inhabiting the Namib desert are known for using their body to collect water droplets from wind-blown fogs. We aim to determine whether dew water collection is also possible for desert insects. For this purpose, we investigated the infra-red emissivity, and the wetting and structural properties, of the surface of the elytra of a preserved specimen of Physasterna cribripes (Tenebrionidæ) beetle, where the macro-structure appears as a series of "bumps", with "valleys" between them. Dew formation experiments were carried out in a condensation chamber. The surface properties (infra-red emissivity, wetting properties) were dominated by the wax at the elytra surface and, to a lower extent, its micro-structure. We performed scanning electron microscope on histological sections and determined the infra-red emissivity using a scanning pyrometer. The emissivity measured (0.95±0.07 between 8-14 μm) was close to the black body value. Dew formation occurred on the insect's elytra, which can be explained by these surface properties. From the surface coverage of the condensed drops it was found that dew forms primarily in the valleys between the bumps. The difference in droplet nucleation rate between bumps and valleys can be attributed to the hexagonal microstructure on the surface of the valleys, whereas the surface of the bumps is smooth. The drops can slide when they reach a critical size, and be collected at the insect's mouth. PMID:25403836

  14. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  15. "Excess Water" Following Deforestation by Beetle Kill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, K.; Miller, S. N.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation resulting from tree mortality by insects and disease may reduce transpiration demand and increase available water in mountain environments throughout. We tested this hypothesis using three large catchments (97-407 km2) located in the Snowy Mountains of Wyoming where hydrology is snowmelt dominated. An epidemic of spruce bark beetle and associated tree mortality emerged in 2006 and has since impacted 60 to 80% of basal area of the spruce-fir and mixed conifer forests. A 25-year continuous record (1998-2013) of daily snowfall, temperature, and stream discharge data between 1 April and 30 September of each year were available for each catchment. We used quantile regression and multivariate time series analysis first to control for the effects of temperature and snow water equivalent on the timing and magnitude of discharge and then to test for changes in discharge trends since 2006. We found no compelling evidence of changes in discharge trends associated with the onset of the beetle epidemic independent of snowmelt trends. Several factors could explain this apparent lack of "excess water" following tree mortality by insects and disease. Any increases in water may be scale dependent, a local phenomenon that does not transfer through large catchments. Other vegetation including young cohorts of affected tree species, shrubs, and herbaceous cover may respond robustly to the open canopy and utilize soil water previously consumed by the infected trees.

  16. Leaf Tissue Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Manos, Peter J.; Goldthwaite, Jonathan

    1975-01-01

    During winter, excised leaf tissue from Rumex obtusifolius degrades chlorophyll at twice the summer rate but the plant hormones, gibberellic acid and zeatin, inhibit the senescence rate by a constant percentage, regardless of season. PMID:16659225

  17. Micro-structure and frictional characteristics of beetle?s joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhendong; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2004-01-01

    Geometric and micro-structure design, tribology properties of beetle joints were experimentally studied, which aimed to enlighten ideas for the joint design of MEMS. The observation by using SEM and microscopy suggested that beetle’s joints consist of a concave surface matched with a convex surface. The heads of the beetles, rubbing with flat glass, were tested in fresh and dried statuses and compared with sapphire ball with flat glass. Frictional coefficient of the joint material on glass was significantly lower than that of the sapphire sphere on glass. The material of the joint cuticle for convex surface is rather stiff (the elastic modulus 4.5 Gpa) and smooth. The surface is hydrophobic (the contact angle of distilled water was 88.3°). It is suggested here that the high stiffness of the joint material and hydrophobicity of the joint surface are parts of the mechanism minimizing friction in insect joints.

  18. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.

    PubMed

    Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

  19. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    PubMed

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction. PMID:19253612

  20. Potential for Water Salvage by Release of the Biocontrol Beetle, Diorhabda carinulata, on Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) Dominated Western U.S. Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, R. S.; Nagler, P. L.; van Riper, C.; Bean, D.; Glenn, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    100 trees at each site were observed for percent flower and leaf, coupled with ratios of green-to-brown needle observations, done from spring green-up to senescence. Bird census data were collected at 100 m radius circular plot stations (n=20) and birds were captured in mist-nets, in which the type and number of birds were reported as birds per net hour. At each location, the results support our past 3 years of findings for the ET seasonally and annually time-series curves as the beetle came into the area and defoliated saltcedar. This study supports phenological observations showing that beetle damage is spotty and localized at most sites, and reduction in ET is confined mainly to July when beetles are actively feeding. However, beetles are still spreading and the eventual fate of Tamarisk stands remains to be determined.

  1. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  2. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  3. Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

  4. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  5. Two Additional Invasive Scarabaeoid Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of dynastine scarab beetles are reported for the first time on the island of Hawaii: the Pasadena masked chafer, Cyclocephala pasadenae (Casey)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) and the Temnorhynchus retusus (Fabricius)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini). The Pasadena mask...

  6. New generic synonyms in the Oriental flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following new synonyms are proposed for the genera of flea beetles from Oriental Region: Pseudocrypta Medvedev, 1996 and Sebaethiella Medvedev, 1993 = Acrocrypta Baly, 1862: 457; Bhutajana Scherer, 1979 = Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836; Burmaltica Scherer, 1969 = Aphthonaltica Heikertinger, 1924; Apht...

  7. The Role of Beetle Marks and Flower Colour on Visitation by Monkey Beetles (Hopliini) in the Greater Cape Floral Region, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Van Kleunen, Mark; Nänni, Ingrid; Donaldson, John S.; Manning, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims A deviation from the classical beetle pollination syndrome of dull-coloured flowers with an unpleasant scent is found in the Greater Cape Floral Region of South Africa. Here, monkey beetles (Scarabaeidae) visit brightly coloured, odourless flowers with conspicuous dark spots and centres (beetle marks). The role of flower colour and markings in attracting monkey beetles is still poorly understood. Method Artificial model flowers with different marking patterns were used to test the effect of beetle marks on visitation by monkey beetles. To test whether monkey beetles are conditioned to the colour of the local matrix species, model flowers of different colours were placed in populations of three differently coloured species of Iridaceae. Key Results Among all three matrix species the presence of dark markings of some kind (either centres or spots) increased visitation rates but the different matrix species differed in whether the effect was due to a dark centre or to dark spots. Monkey beetles were not conditioned for the colour of the matrix species: model colour was not significant in the Hesperantha vaginata and in the Romulea monadelpha matrices, whereas yellow model flowers were preferred over orange ones in the orange-flowered Sparaxis elegans matrix. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate that beetle marks attract pollinating monkey beetles in the Greater Cape Floral Region. In contrast to plants with the classical beetle pollination syndrome that use floral scent as the most important attractant of pollinating beetles, plants with the monkey beetle pollination syndrome rely on visual signals, and, in some areas at least, monkey beetles favour flowers with dark beetle markings over unmarked flowers. PMID:17951585

  8. Big dung beetles dig deeper: trait-based consequences for faecal parasite transmission.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nichar; Gómez, Andrés; Oliveira, Trícia Maria F de S; Nichols, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Observational evidence suggests that burial of faeces by dung beetles negatively influences the transmission of directly transmitted gastrointestinal helminths. However, the mechanistic basis for these interactions is poorly characterised, limiting our ability to understand relationships between beetle community composition and helminth transmission. We demonstrate that beetle body size and sex significantly impact tunnel depth, a key variable affecting parasite survival. Additionally, high parasite loads reduce the depth of beetle faeces burial, suggesting that the local prevalence of parasites infecting beetles may impact beetle ecosystem function. Our study represents a first step towards a mechanistic understanding of a potentially epidemiologically relevant ecosystem function. PMID:25496914

  9. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  10. Unisex pheromone detectors and pheromone-binding proteins in scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Nikonov, Alexander Alexeevich; Peng, Guihong; Tsurupa, Galina; Leal, Walter Soares

    2002-07-01

    Olfaction was studied in two species of scarab beetle, Anomala octiescostata and Anomala cuprea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae), which are temporarily isolated and use the same sex pheromone compounds, (R)-buibuilactone and (R)-japonilure. Single sensillum recordings in A. octiescostata revealed highly sensitive olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) (threshold <1 pg) that were tuned to the detection of the green leaf volatile compound (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. As opposed to similar ORNs in another scarab species, Phyllopertha diversa, in A. octiescostata a diazo analogue elicited much lower neuronal responses than the natural ligand. Detectors for other floral and leaf compounds were also characterized. Extremely stereoselective ORNs tuned to sex pheromone were identified in male and female antennae. Biochemical investigations showed that, in A. octiescostata and A. cuprea, the pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) isolated from male antennae were identical to PBPs obtained from female antennae. AoctPBP and AcupPBP had seven different amino acid residues. Binding of AoctPBP to (R)-japonilure is shown. PdivOBP1, which is also known to bind to (R)-japonilure, differed from AcupPBP in only two amino acid residues, one at the N-terminus and the other near the C-terminus. The structural features of the Bombyx mori PBP are compared with the sequences of eight known scarab odorant-binding proteins. PMID:12142325

  11. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  12. Mutualism Between Fire Ants and Mealybugs Reduces Lady Beetle Predation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shoujie; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-08-01

    Solenopsis invicta Buren is an important invasive pest that has a negative impact on biodiversity. However, current knowledge regarding the ecological effects of its interaction with honeydew-producing hemipteran insects is inadequate. To partially address this problem, we assessed whether the interaction between the two invasive species S. invicta and Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley mediated predation of P. solenopsis by Propylaea japonica Thunbery lady beetles using field investigations and indoor experiments. S. invicta tending significantly reduced predation by the Pr. japonica lady beetle, and this response was more pronounced for lady beetle larvae than for adults. A field investigation showed that the species richness and quantity of lady beetle species in plots with fire ants were much lower than in those without fire ants. In an olfaction bioassay, lady beetles preferred to move toward untended rather than tended mealybugs. Overall, these results suggest that mutualism between S. invicta and P. solenopsis may have a serious impact on predation of P. solenopsis by lady beetles, which could promote growth of P. solenopsis populations. PMID:26470296

  13. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Byrne, Marcus J; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-11-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. PMID:26538537

  14. Comparing fungal band formulations for Asian longhorned beetle biological control.

    PubMed

    Ugine, Todd A; Jenkins, Nina E; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

    2013-07-01

    Experiments were conducted with the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium brunneum to determine the feasibility of using agar-based fungal bands versus two new types of oil-formulated fungal bands for Asian longhorned beetle management. We investigated conidial retention and survival on three types of bands attached to trees in New York and Pennsylvania: standard polyester fiber agar-based bands containing fungal cultures, and two types of bands made by soaking either polyester fiber or jute burlap with oil-conidia suspensions. Fungal band formulation did not affect the number or viability of conidia on bands over the 2-month test period, although percentage conidial viability decreased significantly with time for all band types. In a laboratory experiment testing the effect of the three band formulations on conidial acquisition and beetle survival, traditional agar-based fungal bands delivered the most conidia to adult beetles and killed higher percentages of beetles significantly faster (median survival time of 27d) than the two oil-formulated materials (36-37d). We also tested the effect of band formulation on conidial acquisition by adult beetles kept individually in cages with a single band for 24h, and significantly more conidia (3-7times) were acquired by beetles from agar-based bands compared to the two oil formulations. PMID:23628142

  15. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  16. Intraguild Predation and Native Lady Beetle Decline

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Mary M.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Landis, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  17. Damped leaf flexure hinge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage.

  18. Damped leaf flexure hinge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage. PMID:26026549

  19. New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

  20. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood. PMID:14610654

  1. Biology, Behavior, and Management of Ambrosia Beetles Attacking Ornamental Nursery Stock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetles are being increasingly recognized as significant pests of field-grown ornamental nursery stock. Two species are especially problematic in ornamental nurseries, namely the black stem borer, Xylosandrus germanus, and the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Ambrosia b...

  2. How-To-Do-It. A Beetle, a Bur, and the Potato: An Introduction to Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes how the interrelation of the potato beetle, the buffalo-bur, and the potato is used as an introduction to ecology. Methods of controlling the beetle and ecological principles illustrated in the interrelationship are discussed. (JN)

  3. Limited transmission of the ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens between lady beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of differen...

  4. First record of a Mermithidae (Nematoda) from the meloid beetle Meloe violaceus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Lückmann, Johannes; Poinar, George O

    2003-05-01

    A new record of nematode parasitism of meloid beetles is reported and all earlier records are summarised. Rates of parasitism could be influenced by the toxic compound cantharidin that these beetles possess. PMID:12743809

  5. From Beetles in Nature to the Laboratory: Actuating Underwater Locomotion on Hydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pinchasik, Bat-El; Steinkühler, Jan; Wuytens, Pieter; Skirtach, Andre G; Fratzl, Peter; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2015-12-29

    The controlled wetting and dewetting of surfaces is a primary mechanism used by beetles in nature, such as the ladybird and the leaf beetle for underwater locomotion.1 Their adhesion to surfaces underwater is enabled through the attachment of bubbles trapped in their setae-covered legs. Locomotion, however, is performed by applying mechanical forces in order to move, attach, and detach the bubbles in a controlled manner. Under synthetic conditions, however, when a bubble is bound to a surface, it is nearly impossible to maneuver without the use of external stimuli. Thus, actuated wetting and dewetting of surfaces remain challenges. Here, electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) is used for the manipulation of bubble-particle complexes on unpatterned surfaces. Bubbles nucleate on catalytic Janus disks adjacent to a hydrophobic surface. By changing the wettability of the surface through electrowetting, the bubbles show a variety of reactions, depending on the shape and periodicity of the electrical signal. Time-resolved (μs) imaging of bubble radial oscillations reveals possible mechanisms for the lateral mobility of bubbles on a surface under electrowetting: bubble instability is induced when electric pulses are carefully adjusted. This instability is used to control the surface-bound bubble locomotion and is described in terms of the change in surface energy. It is shown that a deterministic force applied normal can lead to a random walk of micrometer-sized bubbles by exploiting the phenomenon of contact angle hysteresis. Finally, bubble use in nature for underwater locomotion and the actuated bubble locomotion presented in this study are compared. PMID:26633751

  6. Single and blended maize volatiles as attractants for diabroticite corn rootworm beetles.

    PubMed

    Hammack, L

    2001-07-01

    Synthetic maize volatiles and analogs dispensed singly and blended were tested for attractiveness to western (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) and northern corn rootworm beetles (NCR, D. barberi) in maize fields. Newly identified attractants included syn-benzaldoxime, especially for NCR, and beta-caryophyllene for WCR females. (+/-)-Linalool was more effective than was (-)-linalool. Myrcene, (+)-beta-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene were unattractive. Adding methyl salicylate to (+/-)-linalool, (+)-alpha-terpineol, or beta-ionone appeared to synergistically increase capture of WCR females, but dispensing the terpenes in binary blends did not. Dose-response data for methyl salicylate, (+/-)-linalool, and a blend of both compounds confirmed the synergy. beta-Caryophyllene, but not (-)-alpha-pinene, added to the latter blend produced a further synergistic increase in WCR female capture that did not vary with sesquiterpene dose from 1.0 to 100 mg. Indole addition to the same blend caused an increase in WCR female captures indicative of synergy, assuming that each did not individually lure different segments of the WCR female population. The green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol were unattractive alone and had no influence on efficacy of traps baited with 3.3 mg each of (+/-)-linalool, methyl salicylate, and beta-caryophyllene. The latter mixture captured about half as many WCR females as did 10 mg of 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, a potent WCR attractant standard. Substituting beta-ionone for (+/-)-linalool yielded a ternary blend that captured more beetles than did the aldehyde and was unaffected by aldehyde addition. Olive oil, which has been used to sustain attractant volatilization, did not affect captures. The results show that the blending of maize volatiles has thepotential to greatly improve efficacy of lures having promising applications in corn rootworm population management. PMID:11504034

  7. Identification of sound-producing hydrophilid beetles in underwater recordings using digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudh, Nissa E.

    For this study, a classification program capable of identifying four hydrophilid beetle species from vocalizations in under water hydrophone recordings was created. Within single-species recordings, classification accuracy ranged from 81-98%. Mathematical features, based on the frequency content of exemplar beetle vocalizations, were used to compare hydrophilid vocalizations with new sound data in Matlab(TM) and classify sounds as a beetle species, beetle distress call, or noise.

  8. New genera and species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from China and South Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new genera from China (Taumaceroides Lopatin and Yunnaniata Lopatin) and 11 new species (Smaragdina quadrimaculata Lopatin, Smaragdina oblongum Lopatin, Hyphaenia volkovitshi Lopatin, Arthrotus daliensis Lopatin, Taumaceroides sinicus Lopatin, Yunnaniata konstantinovi Lopatin, Calomicrus yunnanu...

  9. Biology and phenology of three leaf beetle species (Chrysomelidae) in a montane forest in southeast Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Flinte, Vivian; Hentz, Ethel; Morgado, Barbara Mascarenhas; Lima, Anne Caruliny do Monte; Khattar, Gabriel; Monteiro, Ricardo Ferreira; de Macedo, Margarete Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The population phenology of the cassidines, Coptocycla arcuata and Omaspides trichroa, and the chrysomeline, Platyphora axillaris, was studied at Serra dos Órgãos National Park, State of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. Monthly surveys of larvae and adults were conducted between 2008 and 2011 at approximately 1000 m altitude on their respective host plants, Cordia polycephala (Boraginaceae), Ipomoea philomega (Convolvulaceae) and Solanum scuticum (Solanaceae). This is the first observation of larviparity and host record for Platyphora axillaris. Although having different life history traits, all species showed similar phenologies. They were abundant from October to March, months of high temperatures and intense rainfall, with two distinct reproductive peaks in the same season. Abundance dropped abruptly during the coldest and driest months, from May to August. Frequently none of these species were recorded during June and July. This phenological pattern is similar to other Chrysomelidae living in subtropical areas of Brazil. Temperature and rainfall appear to be the major factors influencing the fluctuation of these three species. PMID:26798318

  10. Predictive modelling of adult emergence in a polyphagous Eucolaspis (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Doddala, P R C; Trewick, S A; Rogers, D J; Minor, M A

    2013-04-01

    Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) is a pest that inflicts huge economic loss in many organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards in New Zealand. The timing of control methods for this pest has been shown to be crucial for success. To aid in planning control programs, we studied threshold temperature and degree-days required for the development of Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" pupae and modeled adult emergence in the field. Pupal development was observed at three constant temperatures. Pupae required 237.0 +/- 21.67 degree-days above lower threshold temperature of 4.7 degrees C +/- 0.89 degrees C to develop into adults. The emergence of adults was modeled with these thermal values and the model was tested for accuracy with field data. The model performed well with a precision of +/- 4 d. The proposed phenology model has wide applicability in monitoring and planning pest control measures. PMID:23786080

  11. Characterization and chromosome location of satellite DNA in the leaf beetle Chrysolina americana (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Lorite, P; Palomeque, T; Garnería, I; Petitpierre, E

    2000-01-01

    This paper is the first record of the satellite DNA of the specialized phytophagous genus Chrysolina. The satellite DNA of Chrysolina americana is organized in a tandem repeat of monomers 189 bp long, has a A + T content of 59.6% and presents direct and inverted internal repeats. Restriction analysis of the total DNA with methylation sensitive enzymes suggests that this repetitive DNA is undermethylated. In siti hybridization with a biotinylated probe of the satellite DNA showed the pericentromeric localization of these sequences in all meiotic bivalents. The presence of this repetitive DNA in other species of the genus was also tested by Southern analysis. The results showed that this satellite DNA sequence is specific to the C. americana genome and has not been found in three other species of Chrysolina with a different choice of host plants than in the former. PMID:11678504

  12. Synopsis of warty leaf beetles genera of the world (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae: Chlamisini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World genera of Chlamisini are reviewed, diagnosed, and illustrated. A key for their dentification is provided. A replacement name, Kakita Chamorro-Lacayo and Konstantinov is presented for Ceratochlamys Bokermann which is a junior homonym of Ceratochlamys Habe, 1946 (Mollusca). Chlamisus rousei M...

  13. Catalog of known immature stages of Camptosomate leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae and Lamprosomatinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of syntheses of knowledge on immature stages of insects impedes accurate understanding of their diversity, biology and evolution. In Chrysomelidae, this information gap undermines basic explanations of this lineage’s radiation. Literature describing and discussing known immature stages of cas...

  14. Distance and Sex Determine Host Plant Choice by Herbivorous Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? Methodology We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis) when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus) with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. Conclusion Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores, whereas the presence of a

  15. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    PubMed

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards < or = 0.5 km from rain forest were predominantly visited by five previously unrecognized native beetle pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production. PMID:16156571

  16. Endocrine Control of Exaggerated Trait Growth in Rhinoceros Beetles.

    PubMed

    Zinna, R; Gotoh, H; Brent, C S; Dolezal, A; Kraus, A; Niimi, T; Emlen, D; Lavine, L C

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males. What remains unknown is whether JH regulates condition-dependent trait growth in other insects with extreme sexually selected structures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that JH mediates the condition-dependent expression of the elaborate horns of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. The sexually dimorphic head horn of this beetle is sensitive to nutritional state during larval development. Like stag beetles, male rhinoceros beetles receiving copious food produce disproportionately large horns for their body size compared with males under restricted diets. We show that JH titers are correlated with body size during the late feeding and early prepupal periods, but this correlation disappears by the late prepupal period, the period of maximum horn growth. While ectopic application of fenoxycarb during the third larval instar significantly delayed pupation, it had no effect on adult horn size relative to body size. Fenoxycarb application to late prepupae also had at most a marginal effect on relative horn size. We discuss our results in context of other endocrine signals of condition-dependent trait exaggeration and suggest that different beetle lineages may have co-opted different physiological signaling mechanisms to

  17. Hiding in plain sight: cuticular compound profile matching conceals a larval tortoise beetle in its host chemical cloud.

    PubMed

    Massuda, Kamila Ferreira; Trigo, José Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Larvae of tortoise beetles are postulated to have fecal shields as the main defensive strategy against predators. Such a device protects beetles both physically and chemically. In order to examine how larvae Chelymorpha reimoseri are protected against predatory ants, which frequently visit extrafloral nectaries in their host plant, the morning glory Ipomoea carnea, we conducted anti-predation bioassays with live 5th instars. In the field, larvae in contact with ants had survival between 40 and 73 %, independently of shield presence. In the laboratory, when exposed to Camponotus crassus, larvae with shields had significantly higher survival (85 %) than those without shields (64 %). In both scenarios, larval survival was significantly higher when compared with palatable Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as the latter were all consumed. We also observed that when C. reimoseri larvae showed no movement, the ants walked on them without attacking. We hypothesized that if the larval integument has a pattern of cuticular compounds (CCs) similar to that of its host plant, larvae would be rendered chemically camouflaged. In the field and laboratory, the freeze-dried palatable larvae of S. frugiperda treated with CCs of 5th instar C. reimoseri and left on I. carnea leaves were significantly less removed by ants than controls without these compounds. We also found a similarity of approximately 50 % between the CCs in C. reimoseri larvae and I. carnea host leaves. Both findings provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that chemical camouflage plays an important role in larval defense, which is reported for the first time in an ectophagous leaf beetle larva. PMID:24744044

  18. Non-Host Volatile Blend Optimization for Forest Protection against the European Spruce Bark Beetle, Ips typographus

    PubMed Central

    Unelius, C. Rikard; Schiebe, Christian; Bohman, Björn; Andersson, Martin N.; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Conifer feeding bark beetles (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) pose a serious economic threat to forest production. Volatiles released by non-host angiosperm plants (so called non-host volatiles, NHV) have been shown to reduce the risk of attack by many bark beetle species, including the European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus. However, the most active blend for I. typographus, containing three green leaf volatiles (GLVs) in addition to the key compounds trans-conophthorin (tC) and verbenone, has been considered too expensive for use in large-scale management. To lower the cost and improve the applicability of NHV, we aim to simplify the blend without compromising its anti-attractant potency. Since the key compound tC is expensive in pure form, we also tested a crude version: technical grade trans-conophthorin (T-tC). In another attempt to find a more cost effective substitute for tC, we evaluated a more readily synthesized analog: dehydro-conophthorin (DHC). Our results showed that 1-hexanol alone could replace the three-component GLV blend containing 1-hexanol, (3Z)-hexen-1-ol, and (2E)-hexen-1-ol. Furthermore, the release rate of tC could be reduced from 5 mg/day to 0.5 mg/day in a blend with 1-hexanol and (–)-verbenone without compromising the anti-attractant activity. We further show that T-tC was comparable with tC, whereas DHC was a less effective anti-attractant. DHC also elicited weaker physiological responses in the tC-responding olfactory receptor neuron class, providing a likely mechanistic explanation for its weaker anti-attractive effect. Our results suggest a blend consisting of (–)-verbenone, 1-hexanol and technical trans-conophthorin as a cost-efficient anti-attractant for forest protection against I. typographus. PMID:24454855

  19. Detection of tamarisk defoliation by the northern tamarisk beetle based on multitemporal Landsat 5 thematic mapper imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meng, Ran; Dennison, Philip E.; Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles, III; Nager, Pamela; Hultine, Kevin R.; Bean, Dan W.; Dudley, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The spread of tamarisk (Tamarix spp., also known as saltcedar) is a significant ecological disturbance in western North America and has long been targeted for control, leading to the importation of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) as a biological control agent. Following its initial release along the Colorado River near Moab, Utah in 2004, the beetle has successfully established and defoliated tamarisk across much of the upper Colorado River Basin. However, the spatial distribution and seasonal timing of defoliation are complex and difficult to quantify over large areas. To address this challenge, we tested and compared two remote sensing approaches to mapping tamarisk defoliation: Disturbance Index (DI) and a decision tree method called Random Forest (RF). Based on multitemporal Landsat 5 TM imagery for 2006-2010, changes in DI and defoliation probability from RF were calculated to detect tamarisk defoliation along the banks of Green, Colorado, Dolores and San Juan rivers within the Colorado Plateau area. Defoliation mapping accuracy was assessed based on field surveys partitioned into 10 km sections of river and on regions of interest created for continuous riparian vegetation. The DI method detected 3711 ha of defoliated area in 2007, 7350 ha in 2008, 10,457 ha in 2009 and 5898 ha in 2010. The RF method detected much smaller areas of defoliation but proved to have higher accuracy, as demonstrated by accuracy assessment and sensitivity analysis, with 784 ha in 2007, 960 ha in 2008, 934 ha in 2009, and 1008 ha in 2010. Results indicate that remote sensing approaches are likely to be useful for studying spatiotemporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation as the tamarisk leaf beetle spreads throughout the western United States.

  20. Salmonella recovery from broilers and litter following gavage with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles and larvae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of Salmonella to broiler chicks with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles or larvae was evaluated by sampling litter and ceca during growout. In two trials, 1 or 2 day-of-hatch broiler chicks (in a pen of 40) were gavaged with either 4 darkling beetles, 4 beetle larvae, or 0.1 mL pept...

  1. A FREEZE-DRIED DIET TO TEST BACTERIAL PATHOGENS OF COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Colorado potato beetle is an important pest on potato, eggplant and tomato. Because Colorado potato beetles develop resistance to insecticides quickly, new methods are needed for control. Bacillus thuringiensis is the only bacteria to successfully control Colorado potato beetle. Until recently, ...

  2. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  3. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  4. Raspberry leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) is limited to hosts in the genus Rubus and is transmitted persistently by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola Oestlund. It is found only in North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and in the Rocky Mountain regions of...

  5. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  6. Bacterial leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  7. Direction of interaction between mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and resource-sharing wood-boring beetles depends on plant parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Klutsch, Jennifer G; Najar, Ahmed; Cale, Jonathan A; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-09-01

    Plant pathogens can have cascading consequences on insect herbivores, though whether they alter competition among resource-sharing insect herbivores is unknown. We experimentally tested whether the infection of a plant pathogen, the parasitic plant dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) altered the competitive interactions among two groups of beetles sharing the same resources: wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). We were particularly interested in identifying potential mechanisms governing the direction of interactions (from competition to facilitation) between the two beetle groups. At the lowest and highest disease severity, wood-boring beetles increased their consumption rate relative to feeding levels at moderate severity. The performance (brood production and feeding) of mountain pine beetle was negatively associated with wood-boring beetle feeding and disease severity when they were reared separately. However, when both wood-boring beetles and high severity of plant pathogen infection occurred together, mountain pine beetle escaped from competition and improved its performance (increased brood production and feeding). Species-specific responses to changes in tree defense compounds and quality of resources (available phloem) were likely mechanisms driving this change of interactions between the two beetle groups. This is the first study demonstrating that a parasitic plant can be an important force in mediating competition among resource-sharing subcortical insect herbivores. PMID:26820567

  8. Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation.

    PubMed

    Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

    2013-02-18

    When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom. PMID:23352694

  9. DNA Barcoding of Japanese Click Beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa. PMID:25636000

  10. Defense by foot adhesion in a beetle (Hemisphaerota cyanea)

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    The beetle Hemisphaerota cyanea (Chrysomelidae; Cassidinae) responds to disturbance by activating a tarsal adhesion mechanism by which it secures a hold on the substrate. Its tarsi are oversized and collectively bear some 60,000 adhesive bristles, each with two terminal pads. While walking, the beetle commits but a small fraction of the bristles to contact with the substrate. But when assaulted, it presses its tarsi flatly down, thereby touching ground with all or nearly all of the bristles. Once so adhered, it can withstand pulling forces of up to 0.8 g (≈60 times its body mass) for 2 min, and of higher magnitudes, up to >3 g, for shorter periods. Adhesion is secured by a liquid, most probably an oil. By adhering, the beetle is able to thwart attacking ants, given that it is able to cling more persistently than the ant persists in its assault. One predator, the reduviid Arilus cristatus, is able to feed on the beetle, possibly because by injecting venom it prevents the beetle from maintaining its tarsal hold. PMID:10841556

  11. Variation in cyanogenic glycosides across populations of wild lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) has no apparent effect on bruchid beetle performance.

    PubMed

    Shlichta, J Gwen; Glauser, Gaetan; Benrey, Betty

    2014-05-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides (CNGs) act as feeding or oviposition deterrents and are toxic after enzymatic hydrolysis, thus negatively affecting herbivore performance. While most studies on CNGs focus on leaf herbivores, here we examined seeds from natural populations of Phaseolus lunatus in Mexico. The predominant CNGs, linamarin and lotaustralin, were quantified for each population by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also examined whether there was a correlation between the concentration of CNGs and the performance of the Mexican bean beetle, Zabrotes subfasciatus, on seeds from each population(.) The concentrations of CNGs in the seeds were relatively high compared to the leaves and were significantly variable among populations. Surprisingly, this had little effect on the performance of the bruchid beetles. Zabrotes subfasciatus can tolerate high concentrations of CNGs, most likely because of the limited β-glucosidase activity in the seeds. Seed herbivory does not appear to liberate hydrogen cyanide due to the low water content in the seed. This study illustrates the importance of quantifying the natural variation and activity of toxic compounds in order to make relevant biological inferences about their role in defense against herbivores. PMID:24863488

  12. Building a Beetle: How Larval Environment Leads to Adult Performance in a Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Reaney, Leeann T.; Knell, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The link between the expression of the signals used by male animals in contests with the traits which determine success in those contests is poorly understood. This is particularly true in holometabolous insects such as horned beetles where signal expression is determined during metamorphosis and is fixed during adulthood, whereas performance is influenced by post-eclosion feeding. We used path analysis to investigate the relationships between larval and adult nutrition, horn and body size and fitness-related traits such as strength and testes mass in the horned beetle Euoniticellus intermedius. In males weight gain post-eclosion had a central role in determining both testes mass and strength. Weight gain was unaffected by adult nutrition but was strongly correlated with by horn length, itself determined by larval resource availability, indicating strong indirect effects of larval nutrition on the adult beetle’s ability to assimilate food and grow tissues. Female strength was predicted by a simple path diagram where strength was determined by eclosion weight, itself determined by larval nutrition: weight gain post-eclosion was not a predictor of strength in this sex. Based on earlier findings we discuss the insulin-like signalling pathway as a possible mechanism by which larval nutrition could affect adult weight gain and thence traits such as strength. PMID:26244874

  13. Structural color in beetles of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Ana E.; Skigin, Diana C.; Inchaussandague, Marina E.; Roig Alsina, Arturo

    2010-08-01

    Photonic microstructures in nature, specifically in endemic species of Coleoptera from Argentina and the south of Chile have been identified, analyzed and modeled. These natural systems produce partial photonic bandgaps (PBGs) as a result of the high periodicity of the microstructures found in some parts of their bodies. With the aid of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy we have identified that the elytron (modified forewing of a beetle that encases the thin hind wings used in flight) of these insects shows a periodic structure which originates diffractive phenomena resulting in extraordinary physical effects such as iridescent or metallic colors. We measured the reflectance spectrum and obtained the chromaticity diagrams of the samples with an Ocean Optics 4000 spectrophotometer. The geometrical parameters of the structure were obtained by processing the SEM images with the ImageJ software, to introduce them in our electromagnetic model. In all cases, a satisfactory agreement between the measurements and the numerical results was obtained. This permits us to explain the mechanism of color production in those specimens. The study of structural colors in the natural world can inspire the development of artificial devices with particular applications in technology, such as intelligent sensors and new kinds of filters.

  14. The original colours of fossil beetles

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Maria E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Orr, Patrick J.; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group. PMID:21957131

  15. Hold your breath beetle-Mites!

    PubMed

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Drobniak, Szymon M; Schramm, Bartosz W; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozlowski, Jan; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory gas exchange in insects occurs via a branching tracheal system. The entrances to the air-filled tracheae are the spiracles, which are gate-like structures in the exoskeleton. The open or closed state of spiracles defines the three possible gas exchange patterns of insects. In resting insects, spiracles may open and close over time in a repeatable fashion that results in a discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern characterized by periods of zero organism-to-environment gas exchange. Several adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why insects engage in DGE, but none have attracted overwhelming support. We provide support for a previously untested hypothesis that posits that DGE minimizes the risk of infestation of the tracheal system by mites and other agents. Here, we analyze the respiratory patterns of 15 species of ground beetle (Carabidae), of which more than 40% of individuals harbored external mites. Compared with mite-free individuals, infested one's engaged significantly more often in DGE. Mite-free individuals predominantly employed a cyclic or continuous gas exchange pattern, which did not include complete spiracle closure. Complete spiracle closure may prevent parasites from invading, clogging, or transferring pathogens to the tracheal system or from foraging on tissue not protected by thick chitinous layers. PMID:26689423

  16. Can rove beetles (Staphylinidae) be excluded in studies focusing on saproxylic beetles in central European beech forests?

    PubMed

    Parmain, G; Bouget, C; Müller, J; Horak, J; Gossner, M M; Lachat, T; Isacsson, G

    2015-02-01

    Monitoring saproxylic beetle diversity, though challenging, can help identifying relevant conservation sites or key drivers of forest biodiversity, and assessing the impact of forestry practices on biodiversity. Unfortunately, monitoring species assemblages is costly, mainly due to the time spent on identification. Excluding families which are rich in specimens and species but are difficult to identify is a frequent procedure used in ecological entomology to reduce the identification cost. The Staphylinidae (rove beetle) family is both one of the most frequently excluded and one of the most species-rich saproxylic beetle families. Using a large-scale beetle and environmental dataset from 238 beech stands across Europe, we evaluated the effects of staphylinid exclusion on results in ecological forest studies. Simplified staphylinid-excluded assemblages were found to be relevant surrogates for whole assemblages. The species richness and composition of saproxylic beetle assemblages both with and without staphylinids responded congruently to landscape, climatic and stand gradients, even when the assemblages included a high proportion of staphylinid species. At both local and regional scales, the species richness as well as the species composition of staphylinid-included and staphylinid-excluded assemblages were highly positively correlated. Ranking of sites according to their biodiversity level, which either included or excluded Staphylinidae in species richness, also gave congruent results. From our results, species assemblages omitting staphylinids can be taken as efficient surrogates for complete assemblages in large scale biodiversity monitoring studies. PMID:25434278

  17. Mother knows the best mould: an essential role for non-wood dietary components in the life cycle of a saproxylic scarab beetle.

    PubMed

    Landvik, Matti; Niemelä, Pekka; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    Beetles living in tree hollows can feed on a wealth of substrates-e.g. the rotten wood surrounding the cavity, leaf humus falling into the hole, and larval frass accumulating in the cavity. In this paper, we examine the role of these main substrates in Finnish tree hollows in the female preference and larval growth of the hermit beetle Osmoderma barnabita. We rear larvae on diets consisting of wood material (as affected by brown-rot), leaf humus, and larval frass, in varying proportions. To pinpoint the effects of microbes, we contrast larval growth on sterilized versus unsterilized larval frass, and on pure mycelia of the cavity-creating fungus Laetiporus sulphureus. Finally, to relate larval performance to female preference, we examine female choice among the three main substrates used in the larval rearings. We found that the presence of one substrate modifies the influence of another, with larval growth and survival being highest on pure leaf humus. Microbes came with both positive and negative impacts on larval performance, as larvae grew quicker on unsterilized than on sterilized larval frass, but were also struck by higher mortality. On pure fungal mycelia, larvae neither grew nor survived. Female preference reflected larval performance, with leaf humus being preferred over other resources. Overall, our study suggests that organisms inhabiting tree holes may be dependent on subsidies entering the cavity from outside, and that ovipositing females may specifically respond to the presence of such subsidies. Thus, the quality of a microhabitat may depend on what enters it from outside. PMID:27215637

  18. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive.

    PubMed

    Greco, Mark K; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers (Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites. PMID:19997899

  19. Optimal foraging for specific nutrients in predatory beetles

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren; Clissold, Fiona J.; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that animals should forage to maximize their fitness, which in predators is traditionally assumed equivalent to maximizing energy intake rather than balancing the intake of specific nutrients. We restricted female predatory ground beetles (Anchomenus dorsalis) to one of a range of diets varying in lipid and protein content, and showed that total egg production peaked at a target intake of both nutrients. Other beetles given a choice to feed from two diets differing only in protein and lipid composition selectively ingested nutrient combinations at this target intake. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced diets, beetles balanced the over- and under-ingestion of lipid and protein around a nutrient composition that maximized egg production under those constrained circumstances. Selective foraging for specific nutrients in this predator thus maximizes its reproductive performance. Our findings have implications for predator foraging behaviour and in the structuring of ecological communities. PMID:22237910

  20. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  1. Drivers of extinction: the case of Azorean beetles.

    PubMed

    Terzopoulou, Sofia; Rigal, François; Whittaker, Robert J; Borges, Paulo A V; Triantis, Kostas A

    2015-06-01

    Oceanic islands host a disproportionately high fraction of endangered or recently extinct endemic species. We report on species extinctions among endemic Azorean beetles following 97% habitat loss since AD 1440. We infer extinctions from historical and contemporary records and examine the influence of three predictors: geographical range, habitat specialization and body size. Of 55 endemic beetle species investigated (out of 63), seven can be considered extinct. Single-island endemics (SIEs) were more prone to extinction than multi-island endemics. Within SIEs restricted to native habitat, larger species were more extinction-prone. We thus show a hierarchical path to extinction in Azorean beetles: species with small geographical range face extinction first, with the larger bodied ones being the most threatened. Our study provides a clear warning of the impact of habitat loss on island endemic biotas. PMID:26063753

  2. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E. Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  3. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Morris, E Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2011-09-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  4. Are leaves that fall from imidacloprid-treated maple trees to control Asian longhorned beetles toxic to non-target decomposer organisms?

    PubMed

    Kreutzweiser, David P; Good, Kevin P; Chartrand, Derek T; Scarr, Taylor A; Thompson, Dean G

    2008-01-01

    The systemic insecticide imidacloprid may be applied to deciduous trees for control of the Asian longhorned beetle, an invasive wood-boring insect. Senescent leaves falling from systemically treated trees contain imidacloprid concentrations that could pose a risk to natural decomposer organisms. We examined the effects of foliar imidacloprid concentrations on decomposer organisms by adding leaves from imidacloprid-treated sugar maple trees to aquatic and terrestrial microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. Imidacloprid in maple leaves at realistic field concentrations (3-11 mg kg(-1)) did not affect survival of aquatic leaf-shredding insects or litter-dwelling earthworms. However, adverse sublethal effects at these concentrations were detected. Feeding rates by aquatic insects and earthworms were reduced, leaf decomposition (mass loss) was decreased, measurable weight losses occurred among earthworms, and aquatic and terrestrial microbial decomposition activity was significantly inhibited. Results of this study suggest that sugar maple trees systemically treated with imidacloprid to control Asian longhorned beetles may yield senescent leaves with residue levels sufficient to reduce natural decomposition processes in aquatic and terrestrial environments through adverse effects on non-target decomposer organisms. PMID:18396551

  5. Test of nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone to protect trap trees for Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) from attacks by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Kevin J; Miller, Daniel R

    2010-12-01

    Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an invasive woodwasp, currently established in northeastern North America. In other regions of the world, stressed trap trees are used to monitor populations of S. noctilio and to provide inoculation points for the biological control nematode Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. However, the operational use of trap trees for S. noctilio in North America may be compromised by the large community of native organisms that inhabit stressed and dying pine trees. Common bark beetles such as Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) could potentially compete with S. noctilio and associates for resources on trap trees, possibly reducing the efficacy of trap trees as habitats for the woodwasp. In an attempt to develop a technology to mitigate this potential issue, three common semiochemical interruptants--conophthorin, green leaf volatile mix, and verbenone--were tested for effectiveness in reducing arrivals of I. pini and I. grandicollis on trap trees treated with herbicides in northeastern United States. In addition, the effects of these compounds were determined independently with pheromone-baited multiple-funnel traps. None of the interruptants reduced numbers of I. pini or I. grandicollis either arriving on trap trees or caught in pheromone-baited traps. However, verbenone increased catches of I. grandicollis in traps baited with its pheromone, ipsenol. The mix of green leaf volatiles reduced catches of a native ambrosia beetle, Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch), whereas verbenone reduced trap catches of an exotic ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford). Catches of X. germanus in traps adjacent to trap trees were enhanced with conophthorin. PMID:21309230

  6. Modeling net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in a beetle-attacked subalpine forest using a data-constrained ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, S. D.; Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Ryan, M. G.; Scott, H.; Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    The mountain pine and spruce bark beetles and associated blue-stain fungi have caused widespread mortality in the forests of the western U.S. during the past decade, impacting over 1.6 Mha in Northern Colorado and Southeast Wyoming alone. Both the beetles and fungi they carry block tree xylem and eventually cause mortality due to hydraulic failure. Previous studies of bark beetle mortality in Canadian forests have suggested a net loss of carbon following beetle attack. This study aimed to determine if forests in the southern Rocky Mountains showed a similar response. We simulated carbon fluxes over a time period of six years (2005-2010) at the Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiment sites (GLEES) Ameriflux site using the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) model. This time period included a beetle infestation during the last three years that resulted in mortality of 51% of the spruce trees that accounted for 90% of the spruce basal area. Model estimates of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) were compared to eddy-covariance measurements before, during, and after beetle attack. Model predictions of NEE were generated two ways, 1) using the standard set of maintenance respiration coefficients, and 2) constraining modeled respiration using equations derived from field measurements of stem, leaf, and soil respiration at GLEES, and were compared to NEE observations before, during, and after the presence of bark beetles. Model changes included both simple modification of the exponential temperature response curve (Q10) and adding new equations based on both temperature and live tissue nitrogen content. Pre-beetle observed growing season mean NEE averaged -1.49 μmol C m-2 s-1 and simulation means ranged from -4.10 to 0.64 μmol C m-2 s-1. Changing the model's computation of maintenance respiration to incorporate site-specific temperature response (Q10) resulted in an over-prediction of nighttime NEE by up to 100%, but a 10-30% improvement during the day

  7. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  8. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose

  9. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tribolium castaneum is a representative of earth’s most numerous eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and also an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved an abil...

  10. Chemical ecology of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U.S. in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. Females of X. glabratus vector a newly-described fungal pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae...

  11. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are naturally more eye-catching…

  12. Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T.; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency. PMID:22593097

  13. CUTICULAR HYDROCARBONS OF THE SUNFLOWER BEETLE, ZYGOGRAMMA EXCLAMATIONIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrocarbons were the major lipid class on the cuticular surface of adults, nymphs, and eggs of the sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis, characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minor amounts of wax ester from 40 to 48 carbon atoms in size were only detected in larvae. The hyd...

  14. Beauveria bassiana Infection of Eggs of Stored-Product Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin was tested under maximum challenge conditions with a dose of estimated dose of 1.1x105 conidia/mm2 for its effects on eggs of four of the major beetle pests of stored grain and grain products. When ambient relative humidity (RH) was 92%, hatch of fungus-treat...

  15. Mating disruption of oriental beetle with sprayable sex pheromone formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of mating disruption in the oriental beetle (OB), Anomala orientalis, with microencapsulated sprayable formulations of the major component of its sex pheromone, was evaluated in turfgrass. The effect of the applications was measured by monitoring male OB captures in pheromone-baited ...

  16. A deficiency of the homeotic complex of the beetle Tribolium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    In Drosophila, the establishment of regional commitments along most of the anterior/posterior axis of the developing embryo depends on two clusters of homeotic genes: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and the bithorax complex (BX-C). The red flour beetle has a single complex (HOM-C) representing the homologues of the ANT-C and BX-C in juxtaposition. Beetles trans-heterozygous for two particular HOM-C mutations spontaneously generate a large deficiency, presumably by an exchange within the common region of two overlapping inversions. Genetic and molecular results indicate that this deficiency spans at least the interval between the Deformed and abdominal-A homologues. In deficiency homozygous embryos, all gnathal, thoracic and abdominal segments develop antennal appendages, suggesting that a gene(s) has been deleted that acts to distinguish trunk from head. There is no evidence that beetles have a homologue of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu of similar genomic location and function. On the basis of the genetic tractability, convenient genome size and organization of Tribolium, and its relatively long phylogenetic divergence from Drosophila (>300 million years), we have integrated developmental genetic and molecular analyses of the HOM-C. We isolated about 70 mutations in the complex representing at least six complementation groups. The homeotic phenotypes of adults and lethal embryos lead us to believe that these beetle genes are homologous with the Drosophila genes indicated in Fig. 1 (see text).

  17. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Maurizi, Emanuela; Barbero, Francesca; Sala, Marco; Fattorini, Simone; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus) are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen). Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants. PMID:26154266

  18. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus: A threat to avocado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laurel wilt (LW) is a disease caused by Raffaelea sp., a fungal symbiont associated with the recently-introduced redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus. Impact of RAB as a vector of the disease to avocado is a threat to avocado production in the U.S. Since 2006, we have a) tested suscepti...

  19. Faunistics of Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jürgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

    2010-01-01

    The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time. PMID:20874597

  20. PATCH EXPLOITATION BY FEMALE RED FLOUR BEETLES, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characte...

  1. Down and Dirty with Dung Beetles: Innovating Teaching and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelk, Joee

    2009-01-01

    A lecturer at the University of Queensland has developed an excellent model to give students an authentic, hands-on experience of ecological research. The first-year university students have been learning about biodiversity as they carry out the task of beetle identification. This partnership gives the students a chance to contribute to an…

  2. Efficacy of aerosols for managing the red flour beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management professionals commonly utilize aerosolized liquid applications, also known as fogging, for management of stored-product insects, including the red flour beetle. These applications are part of a potential methyl bromide replacement technology because they could increase the time inte...

  3. Habitat manipulation in potato affects colorado potato beetle dispersal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased vegetational diversity in agricultural fields may alter the movement of pests into or within a field. Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlienata) is a devastating pest of potatoes world-wide that has developed resistance to insecticides, creating a need for alternate management stra...

  4. Cost of flight and the evolution of stag beetle weaponry.

    PubMed

    Goyens, Jana; Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Male stag beetles have evolved extremely large mandibles in a wide range of extraordinary shapes. These mandibles function as weaponry in pugnacious fights for females. The robust mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer are as long as their own body and their enlarged head houses massive, hypertrophied musculature. Owing to this disproportional weaponry, trade-offs exist with terrestrial locomotion: running is unstable and approximately 40% more costly. Therefore, flying is most probably essential to cover larger distances towards females and nesting sites. We hypothesized that weight, size and shape of the weaponry will affect flight performance. Our computational fluid dynamics simulations of steady-state models (without membrane wings) reveal that male stag beetles must deliver 26% more mechanical work to fly with their heavy weaponry. This extra work is almost entirely required to carry the additional weight of the massive armature. The size and shape of the mandibles have only negligible influence on flight performance (less than 0.1%). This indicates that the evolution of stag beetle weaponry is constrained by its excessive weight, not by the size or shape of the mandibles and head as such. This most probably paved the way for the wide diversity of extraordinary mandible morphologies that characterize the stag beetle family. PMID:25878126

  5. Current status of small hive beetle infestation in the Philippines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of the small hive beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida) is rapidly expanding. From sub-Saharan Africa where it is considered indigenous, SHB has successfully invaded other continents, is prevalent in Australia and North America, and has recently been introduced into Europe (summarized by FE...

  6. Cantharimide dimers from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerate PALLAS.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Takafumi; Jinpo, Katsuaki; Noda, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Five cantharidin-related compounds were isolated from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerate PALLAS (Meloidae). Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Three of them were identified as cantharimide dimers, which consist of two units of cantharimide combined with a tri-, tetra-, or penta-methylene group. PMID:17202708

  7. Cost of flight and the evolution of stag beetle weaponry

    PubMed Central

    Goyens, Jana; Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Male stag beetles have evolved extremely large mandibles in a wide range of extraordinary shapes. These mandibles function as weaponry in pugnacious fights for females. The robust mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer are as long as their own body and their enlarged head houses massive, hypertrophied musculature. Owing to this disproportional weaponry, trade-offs exist with terrestrial locomotion: running is unstable and approximately 40% more costly. Therefore, flying is most probably essential to cover larger distances towards females and nesting sites. We hypothesized that weight, size and shape of the weaponry will affect flight performance. Our computational fluid dynamics simulations of steady-state models (without membrane wings) reveal that male stag beetles must deliver 26% more mechanical work to fly with their heavy weaponry. This extra work is almost entirely required to carry the additional weight of the massive armature. The size and shape of the mandibles have only negligible influence on flight performance (less than 0.1%). This indicates that the evolution of stag beetle weaponry is constrained by its excessive weight, not by the size or shape of the mandibles and head as such. This most probably paved the way for the wide diversity of extraordinary mandible morphologies that characterize the stag beetle family. PMID:25878126

  8. Evaluation of factors impacting trap captures of red flour beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective monitoring program is the foundation of good Integrated Pest Management programs for food facilities such as mills, processing plants, warehouses, and retail stores. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a major stored-product pest of food facilities, especially mills, and a nu...

  9. Ancient associations of aquatic beetles and tank bromeliads in the Neotropical forest canopy

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Michael; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Ribera, Ignacio; Viloria, Angel; Zillikens, Anne; Steiner, Josephina; García, Mauricio; Hendrich, Lars; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2008-01-01

    Water reservoirs formed by the leaf axils of bromeliads are a highly derived system for nutrient and water capture that also house a diverse fauna of invertebrate specialists. Here we investigate the origin and specificity of bromeliad-associated insects using Copelatinae diving beetles (Dytiscidae). This group is widely distributed in small water bodies throughout tropical forests, but a subset of species encountered in bromeliad tanks is strictly specialized to this habitat. An extensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of Neotropical Copelatinae places these bromeliadicolous species in at least three clades nested within other Copelatus. One lineage is morphologically distinct, and its origin was estimated to reach back to 12–23 million years ago, comparable to the age of the tank habitat itself. Species of this clade in the Atlantic rainforest of southern Brazil and mountain ranges of northern Venezuela and Trinidad show marked phylogeographical structure with up to 8% mtDNA divergence, possibly indicating allopatric speciation. The other two invasions of bromeliad water tanks are more recent, and haplotype distributions within species are best explained by recent expansion into newly formed habitat. Hence, bromeliad tanks create a second stratum of aquatic freshwater habitat independent of that on the ground but affected by parallel processes of species and population diversification at various temporal scales, possibly reflecting the paleoclimatic history of neotropical forests. PMID:18434549

  10. Leaf development: a cellular perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kalve, Shweta; De Vos, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny) from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins, and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25132838

  11. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  12. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  13. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture...

  14. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects. PMID:21731659

  15. Population Structure of Mountain Pine Beetle Symbiont Leptographium longiclavatum and the Implication on the Multipartite Beetle-Fungi Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Farfan, Lina; Roe, Amanda D.; Rice, Adrianne V.; Cooke, Janice E. K.; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Over 18 million ha of forests have been destroyed in the past decade in Canada by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) and its fungal symbionts. Understanding their population dynamics is critical to improving modeling of beetle epidemics and providing potential clues to predict population expansion. Leptographium longiclavatum and Grosmannia clavigera are fungal symbionts of MPB that aid the beetle to colonize and kill their pine hosts. We investigated the genetic structure and demographic expansion of L. longiclavatum in populations established within the historic distribution range and in the newly colonized regions. We identified three genetic clusters/populations that coincide with independent geographic locations. The genetic profiles of the recently established populations in northern British Columbia (BC) and Alberta suggest that they originated from central and southern BC. Approximate Bayesian Computation supports the scenario that this recent expansion represents an admixture of individuals originating from BC and the Rocky Mountains. Highly significant correlations were found among genetic distance matrices of L. longiclavatum, G. clavigera, and MPB. This highlights the concordance of demographic processes in these interacting organisms sharing a highly specialized niche and supports the hypothesis of long-term multipartite beetle-fungus co-evolutionary history and mutualistic relationships. PMID:25153489

  16. Potato defense against Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say): microarray gene expression profiling of potato (Solanum tuberosum) by Colorado potato beetle infestation and regurgitant treatment of

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle is the leading pest of solanaceous plants, however little is known about the interaction of this beetle with the potato plant. Using the 11,421 EST solanaceae microarry profiling services at TIGR we have begun investigating the genes that are differentially expressed by infest...

  17. The artificial leaf.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  18. A Survey of Dung Beetles Infected with Larval Nematodes with Particular Note on Copris lunaris Beetles as a Vector for Gongylonema sp. in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mikaeili, Elmira; Mobedi, Iraj; Kia, Eshratbeigom; Masoomi, Lotfali; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Dung beetles (family Scarabaeidae) are one of the largest families of beetles worldwide. Due to biological behavior of these arthropods, they are considered to play an important role in the life cycle of some helminths. In the present study, dung beetles collected from cattle pastures in rural areas of Ardabil province, north-west of Iran were examined for infection with larval stages of helminths. According to the results, nematodes of 2 genera were identified including Rhabditis and Gongylonema. The more common species was Rhabditis sp. which was found in 9 species of beetles. Out of 15 different species of dung beetles, Copris lunaris was the only scarabaeid to be found naturally infected with the larval stages of Gongylonema sp. Our new findings introduce C. lunaris as a potential biological vector for transmission of Gongylonema sp. to vertebrates in the surveyed region. PMID:19290086

  19. Exserohilum Leaf Spot on Tigergrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tigergrass (Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze ) is a popular ornamental grass grown throughout landscapes in South Florida. In the summer of 2006, a leaf spot was observed on tigergrass in the landscape and a commercial nursery in Homestead, FL. The causal agent of the leaf spot was isolated, cha...

  20. How to pattern a leaf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, an...

  1. Predaceous diving beetles in Maine: Faunal list and keys to subfamilies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boobar, L.R.; Spangler, P.J.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Hopkins, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) collected in Maine are summarized. These records are augmented by field surveys of beetles in Aroostook Co., Maine during 1993-95. Keys to subfamilies are presented with color plates for selected species. A list of diving beetles that have been collected near Maine (state or province) is presented so that investigators will know what additional species might be expected in Maine. Basic taxonomy is presented to facilitate use of keys.

  2. Ophiostoma ips from Pinewood Nematode Vector, Japanese Pine Sawyer Beetle (Monochamus alternatus), in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong Yeon; Hyun, Min Woo; Kim, Jae Jin; Son, Seung Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Japanese pine sawyer beetle (Monochamus alternatus) is an economically important pest in coniferous trees. Ophiostoma ips was isolated from the beetle and identified based on analysis of morphological properties and the β-tubulin gene sequence. The fungus easily produced perithecia with a long neck on malt extract agar and its ascospores were rectangular shaped. This is first report of Ophiostoma species associated with the pinewood nematode vector beetle in Korea. PMID:23610541

  3. Ophiostoma ips from Pinewood Nematode Vector, Japanese Pine Sawyer Beetle (Monochamus alternatus), in Korea.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Yeon; Hyun, Min Woo; Kim, Jae Jin; Son, Seung Yeol; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2013-03-01

    Japanese pine sawyer beetle (Monochamus alternatus) is an economically important pest in coniferous trees. Ophiostoma ips was isolated from the beetle and identified based on analysis of morphological properties and the β-tubulin gene sequence. The fungus easily produced perithecia with a long neck on malt extract agar and its ascospores were rectangular shaped. This is first report of Ophiostoma species associated with the pinewood nematode vector beetle in Korea. PMID:23610541

  4. Social encapsulation of beetle parasites by Cape honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.).

    PubMed

    Neumann, P; Pirk, C W; Hepburn, H R; Solbrig, A J; Ratnieks, F L; Elzen, P J; Baxter, J R

    2001-05-01

    Worker honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis) encapsulate the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), a nest parasite, in propolis (tree resin collected by the bees). The encapsulation process lasts 1-4 days and the bees have a sophisticated guarding strategy for limiting the escape of beetles during encapsulation. Some encapsulated beetles died (4.9%) and a few escaped (1.6%). Encapsulation has probably evolved because the small hive beetle cannot easily be killed by the bees due to its hard exoskeleton and defensive behaviour. PMID:11482434

  5. Polarizing properties and structure of the cuticle of scarab beetles from the Chrysina genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández del Río, Lía; Arwin, Hans; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of several scarab beetles have been previously studied but few attempts have been made to compare beetles in the same genus. To determine whether there is any relation between specimens of the same genus, we have studied and classified seven species from the Chrysina genus. The polarization properties were analyzed with Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry and the structural characteristics with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the Chrysina beetles are green colored or have a metallic look (gold or silver). The results show that the green-colored beetles polarize reflected light mainly at off-specular angles. The gold-colored beetles polarize light left-handed near circular at specular reflection. The structure of the exoskeleton is a stack of layers that form a cusplike structure in the green beetles whereas the layers are parallel to the surface in the case of the gold-colored beetles. The beetle C. gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along the elytras and exhibits both types of effects. The results indicate that Chrysina beetles can be classified according to these two major polarization properties.

  6. Polarizing properties and structure of the cuticle of scarab beetles from the Chrysina genus.

    PubMed

    Fernández Del Río, Lía; Arwin, Hans; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of several scarab beetles have been previously studied but few attempts have been made to compare beetles in the same genus. To determine whether there is any relation between specimens of the same genus, we have studied and classified seven species from the Chrysina genus. The polarization properties were analyzed with Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry and the structural characteristics with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the Chrysina beetles are green colored or have a metallic look (gold or silver). The results show that the green-colored beetles polarize reflected light mainly at off-specular angles. The gold-colored beetles polarize light left-handed near circular at specular reflection. The structure of the exoskeleton is a stack of layers that form a cusplike structure in the green beetles whereas the layers are parallel to the surface in the case of the gold-colored beetles. The beetle C. gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along the elytras and exhibits both types of effects. The results indicate that Chrysina beetles can be classified according to these two major polarization properties. PMID:27575166

  7. Social encapsulation of beetle parasites by Cape honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, P.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Solbrig, A. J.; Ratnieks, F. L. W.; Elzen, P. J.; Baxter, J. R.

    2001-05-01

    Worker honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis) encapsulate the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), a nest parasite, in propolis (tree resin collected by the bees). The encapsulation process lasts 1-4 days and the bees have a sophisticated guarding strategy for limiting the escape of beetles during encapsulation. Some encapsulated beetles died (4.9%) and a few escaped (1.6%). Encapsulation has probably evolved because the small hive beetle cannot easily be killed by the bees due to its hard exoskeleton and defensive behaviour.

  8. Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles.

    PubMed

    Hulcr, Jiri; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-11-01

    Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood. Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles. The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood. Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts. Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs. We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini. PMID:20633043

  9. Leaf hydraulics II: vascularized tissues.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Fulton E; Holbrook, N Michele; Stroock, Abraham D

    2014-01-01

    Current models of leaf hydration employ an Ohm's law analogy of the leaf as an ideal capacitor, neglecting the resistance to flow between cells, or treat the leaf as a plane sheet with a source of water at fixed potential filling the mid-plane, neglecting the discrete placement of veins as well as their resistance. We develop a model of leaf hydration that considers the average conductance of the vascular network to a representative areole (region bounded by the vascular network), and represent the volume of tissue within the areole as a poroelastic composite of cells and air spaces. Solutions to the 3D flow problem are found by numerical simulation, and these results are then compared to 1D models with exact solutions for a range of leaf geometries, based on a survey of temperate woody plants. We then show that the hydration times given by these solutions are well approximated by a sum of the ideal capacitor and plane sheet times, representing the time for transport through the vasculature and tissue respectively. We then develop scaling factors relating this approximate solution to the 3D model, and examine the dependence of these scaling factors on leaf geometry. Finally, we apply a similar strategy to reduce the dimensions of the steady state problem, in the context of peristomatal transpiration, and consider the relation of transpirational gradients to equilibrium leaf water potential measurements. PMID:24012489

  10. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusu...

  11. Structural Origin of Circularly Polarized Iridescence in Jeweled Beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vivek; Crne, Matija; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2009-07-01

    The iridescent metallic green beetle, Chrysina gloriosa, which selectively reflects left circularly polarized light, possesses an exoskeleton decorated by hexagonal cells (~10 μm) that coexist with pentagons and heptagons. The fraction of hexagons decreases with an increase in curvature. In bright field microscopy, each cell contains a bright yellow core, placed in a greenish cell with yellowish border, but the core disappears in dark field. With use of confocal microscopy, we observe that these cells consist of nearly concentric nested arcs that lie on the surface of a shallow cone. We infer that the patterns are structurally and optically analogous to the focal conic domains formed spontaneously on the free surface of a cholesteric liquid crystal. These textures provide the basis for the morphogenesis as well as key insights for emulating the intricate optical response of the exoskeleton of scarab beetles.

  12. Structural origin of circularly polarized iridescence in jeweled beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crne, Matija; Sharma, Vivek; Park, Jung O.; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2010-03-01

    The iridescent metallic green beetle, Chrysina gloriosa, selectively reflects left circularly polarized light. The exoskeleton is decorated by hexagonal cells (˜10 micron) that coexist with pentagons and heptagons. We find that the fraction of hexagons decreases with an increase in curvature. In bright field microscopy, each cell contains a bright yellow core, placed in a greenish cell with yellowish border, but the core disappears in the dark field. Using confocal microscopy, we observe that these cells consist of nearly concentric, nested arcs that lie on surface of a shallow cone. We infer that the patterns are structurally and optically analogous to the focal conic domains formed spontaneously on the free surface of a cholesteric liquid crystal. The microstructure provides the bases for the morphogenesis as well as key insights for emulating the intricate optical response the exoskeleton of scarab beetles.

  13. Simulation of light scattering from exoskeletons of scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Valyukh, Sergiy; Arwin, Hans; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2016-03-21

    An approach for simulation of light scattering from beetles exhibiting structural colors originating from periodic helicoidal structures is presented. Slight irregularities of the periodic structure in the exoskeleton of the beetles are considered as a major cause of light scattering. Two sources of scattering are taken into account: surface roughness and volume non-uniformity. The Kirchhoff approximation is applied to simulate the effect of surface roughness. To describe volume non-uniformity, the whole structure is modeled as a set of domains distributed in space in different orientations. Each domain is modeled as an ideal uniformly twisted uniaxial medium and differs from each other by the pitch. Distributions of the domain parameters are assumed to be Gaussian. The analysis is performed using the Mueller matrix formalism which, in addition to spectral and spatial characteristics, also provides polarization properties of the scattered light. PMID:27136777

  14. Bright-White Beetle Scales Optimise Multiple Scattering of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure.

  15. Bright-white beetle scales optimise multiple scattering of light.

    PubMed

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure. PMID:25123449

  16. Bright-White Beetle Scales Optimise Multiple Scattering of Light

    PubMed Central

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure. PMID:25123449

  17. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. PMID:25457944

  18. Associational Patterns of Scavenger Beetles to Decomposition Stages.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Nestor D

    2015-07-01

    Beetles associated with carrion play an important role in recycling organic matter in an ecosystem. Four experiments on decomposition, one per season, were conducted in a semirural area in Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Melyridae are reported for the first time of forensic interest. Apart from adults and larvae of Scarabaeidae, thirteen species and two genera of other coleopteran families are new forensic records in Argentina. Diversity, abundance, and species composition of beetles showed differences between stages and seasons. Our results differed from other studies conducted in temperate regions. Four guilds and succession patterns were established in relation to decomposition stages and seasons. Dermestidae (necrophages) predominated in winter during the decomposition process; Staphylinidae (necrophiles) in Fresh and Bloat stages during spring, summer, and autumn; and Histeridae (necrophiles) and Cleridae (omnivores) in the following stages during those seasons. Finally, coleopteran activity, diversity and abundance, and decomposition rate change with biogeoclimatic characteristics, which is of significance in forensics. PMID:26174466

  19. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  20. Regulation of Compound Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Rujin

    2013-01-01

    Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies. PMID:27135488

  1. Uptake of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc from Sediments by an Aquatic Macrophyte and by Terrestrial Arthropods in a Freshwater Wetland Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate trace-metal [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)] biotransference and biomagnification in terrestrial biota at different trophic levels (primary producer-top predator) of a wetland ecosystem. We investigated whether metal concentrations in the sediment are reflected in terrestrial arthropods and aquatic plants. We sampled the floating-leaved plant Trapa japonica; its species-specific primary consumer, the leaf beetle Galerucella nipponensis; and two predatory arthropods (the water strider Gerris sp. and the wolf spider Arctosa sp.) from three wetlands with different sedimentary metal concentrations. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures in the trophic link between the plants and the leaf beetles supported the specificity of their feeding relationship. The stable isotope signatures indicate that the leaf beetle could be an important link in the trophic transfer of the metals. Transference factors (TFs) were <1 for Pb in all trophic links, and concentrations in the organisms were negatively correlated with the trophic levels. There was no evidence of Pb biomagnification in the food chain. Cu and Zn had TF >1 for all biota, and the concentrations were positively correlated with the trophic levels. Thus, there may be Cu and Zn biomagnification in the arthropods. We noted TF <1 for Cd between the plants and the leaf beetles, but TF was >1 among the arthropods. Therefore, Cd is probably not biomagnified between T. japonica and G. nipponensis, but it might be biomagnified in the arthropods. The metal burden in terrestrial arthropods may also be influenced by uptake from the sediment by aquatic plants. PMID:27306449

  2. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform) to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population-genetic studies of O. taurus and

  3. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  4. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  5. 76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the pine shoot beetle (PSB) regulations by adding the entire State of Ohio and counties in Maine and Indiana to the list of quarantined areas following the detection of PSB in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the spread of PSB, a pest of pine trees, into noninfested areas of the United...

  6. Forest Ecosystem respiration estimated from eddy covariance and chamber measurements under high turbulence and substantial tree mortality from bark beetles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speckman, Heather N.; Frank, John M.; Bradford, John B.; Miles, Brianna L.; Massman, William J.; Parton, William J.; Ryan, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Eddy covariance nighttime fluxes are uncertain due to potential measurement biases. Many studies report eddy covariance nighttime flux lower than flux from extrapolated chamber measurements, despite corrections for low turbulence. We compared eddy covariance and chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration at the GLEES Ameriflux site over seven growing seasons under high turbulence (summer night mean friction velocity (u*) = 0.7 m s−1), during which bark beetles killed or infested 85% of the aboveground respiring biomass. Chamber-based estimates of ecosystem respiration during the growth season, developed from foliage, wood and soil CO2 efflux measurements, declined 35% after 85% of the forest basal area had been killed or impaired by bark beetles (from 7.1 ±0.22 μmol m−2 s−1 in 2005 to 4.6 ±0.16 μmol m−2 s−1 in 2011). Soil efflux remained at ~3.3 μmol m−2 s−1 throughout the mortality, while the loss of live wood and foliage and their respiration drove the decline of the chamber estimate. Eddy covariance estimates of fluxes at night remained constant over the same period, ~3.0 μmol m−2 s−1 for both 2005 (intact forest) and 2011 (85% basal area killed or impaired). Eddy covariance fluxes were lower than chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration (60% lower in 2005, and 32% in 2011), but the mean night estimates from the two techniques were correlated within a year (r2 from 0.18-0.60). The difference between the two techniques was not the result of inadequate turbulence, because the results were robust to a u* filter of > 0.7 m s−1. The decline in the average seasonal difference between the two techniques was strongly correlated with overstory leaf area (r2=0.92). The discrepancy between methods of respiration estimation should be resolved to have confidence in ecosystem carbon flux estimates.

  7. Effects of postfire salvage logging on deadwood-associated beetles.

    PubMed

    Cobb, T P; Morissette, J L; Jacobs, J M; Koivula, M J; Spence, J R; Langor, D W

    2011-02-01

    In Canada and the United States pressure to recoup financial costs of wildfire by harvesting burned timber is increasing, despite insufficient understanding of the ecological consequences of postfire salvage logging. We compared the species richness and composition of deadwood-associated beetle assemblages among undisturbed, recently burned, logged, and salvage-logged, boreal, mixed-wood stands. Species richness was lowest in salvage-logged stands, largely due to a negative effect of harvesting on the occurrence of wood- and bark-boring species. In comparison with undisturbed stands, the combination of wildfire and logging in salvage-logged stands had a greater effect on species composition than either disturbance alone. Strong differences in species composition among stand treatments were linked to differences in quantity and quality (e.g., decay stage) of coarse woody debris. We found that the effects of wildfire and logging on deadwood-associated beetles were synergistic, such that the effects of postfire salvage logging could not be predicted reliably on the basis of data on either disturbance alone. Thus, increases in salvage logging of burned forests may have serious negative consequences for deadwood-associated beetles and their ecological functions in early postfire successional forests. PMID:20735453

  8. DETECTION OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES IN 9975 PACKAGES USING ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, D.

    2013-03-04

    This report documents the initial feasibility tests performed using a commercial acoustic emission instrument for the purpose of detecting beetles in Department of Energy 9975 shipping packages. The device selected for this testing was a commercial handheld instrument and probe developed for the detection of termites, weevils, beetles and other insect infestations in wooden structures, trees, plants and soil. The results of two rounds of testing are presented. The first tests were performed by the vendor using only the hand-held instrument’s indications and real-time operator analysis of the audio signal content. The second tests included hands-free positioning of the instrument probe and post-collection analysis of the recorded audio signal content including audio background comparisons. The test results indicate that the system is promising for detecting the presence of drugstore beetles, however, additional work would be needed to improve the ease of detection and to automate the signal processing to eliminate the need for human interpretation. Mechanisms for hands-free positioning of the probe and audio background discrimination are also necessary for reliable detection and to reduce potential operator dose in radiation environments.

  9. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  10. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. PMID:27387908

  11. Chemical defense: aquatic beetle (Dineutes hornii) vs. fish (Micropterus salmoides).

    PubMed

    Eisner, T; Aneshansley, D J

    2000-10-10

    Captive largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) reject the gyrinid beetle, Dineutes hornii. They also reject edible items (mealworms) treated by topical addition of the norsesquiterpene gyrinidal, the principal component of the defensive secretion of the beetle. The bass' oral tolerance of gyrinidal varies broadly as a function of the gyrinidal dosage and the state of satiation of the fish. When taking a D. hornii or a gyrinidal-treated mealworm in the mouth, the fish subjects the item to an intensive oral flushing behavior, seemingly intended to rid the item of gyrinidal. The duration of oral flushing is itself a function of the gyrinidal dosage and the state of satiation of the bass. To counter oral flushing, D. hornii emits its secretion as a slow trickle. Duration of emission is slightly longer (1.5 min) than the time (1.3 min) invested by the bass in flushing a D. hornii before rejecting the beetle. We postulate that flush resistance may be a general feature of defensive chemical delivery systems in aquatic prey, given that oral flushing may be a common strategy of fish. PMID:11016949

  12. Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak.

    PubMed

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Sancak, Kerem; Jansson, Nicklas

    2016-03-01

    Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees. PMID:26904184

  13. Using Quasi-Dynamic Land Cover to Investigate Hydrologic Disturbance from Beetle-kill and Dust in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livneh, B.; Deems, J. S.; Buma, B.; Barsugli, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2002, the headwaters of the Colorado River Basin have experienced changes in land cover, occurring at sub-annual timescales. Widespread tree mortality from bark beetle infestation has taken place across a range of forest types, elevation, and latitude. Extent and severity of forest structure alteration have been observed through a combination of aerial survey data, MODIS-derived leaf area index (LAI), and in situ measurements. Additional disturbance has resulted from deposition of dust from regional dryland sources on mountain snowpacks that strongly alter the snow surface albedo, driving earlier and faster snowmelt runoff. Severity of dust-on-snow events have been estimated via satellite, field, and in-situ observations. In this study, we explore the combined impacts of forest disturbance and dust on snow within a hydrologic modeling framework. We force the Distributed Hydrology and Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with observed meteorology, time-varying maps of forest properties to emulate bark beetle impacts, and variable parameterizations of snow albedo based on dust events. Preliminary results from beetle-killed canopy alteration suggest slightly greater snow accumulation as a result of less snow interception and reduced canopy sublimation, which outweigh increases in sub-canopy snow ablation fluxes. The primary hydrologic control of dust-on-snow events is on the rate of snowmelt, with more rapid melt rates associated with more extreme dust deposition. The use of a process-based model at relatively fine spatial scales (~100m) together with quasi-dynamic vegetation and snow properties is expected to provide new insights into the mechanisms driving disturbance related hydrologic impacts and better inform mitigation strategies.

  14. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface...

  19. Chemical Ecology of Carpophilus Sap Beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Development of an Environmentally Friendly Method of Crop Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitidulid beetles of the genus Carpophilus are significant pests of a wide variety of fruits and grains and are also vectors of harmful microorganisms. The beetles are difficult to control with conventional insecticides because the beetle damage typically occurs just before harvest, when toxic resi...

  20. Potential host shift of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) to bumblebee colonies (Bombus impatiens Cresson)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the attractiveness of bumblebee, Bombus impatiens, colonies to small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, and explored potential defence mechanisms that bumblebees could use to repel small hive beetles. Our findings show that small hive beetles do not prefer honeybee, Apis mellifera, c...

  1. Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling using Fresnel's equation (Kumar and Silva, 1973) and Snell's Law successfully approximated the spectral curve for a 0.25-mm turgid oak leaf lying on a Halon background. Calculations were made for ten interfaces, air-wax, wax-cellulose, cellulose-water, cellulose-air, air-water, and their inverses. A water path of 0.5 mm yielded acceptable results, and it was found that assignment of more weight to those interfaces involving air versus water or cellulose, and less to those involving wax, decreased the standard deviation of the error for all wavelengths. Data suggest that the air-cell interface is not the only important contributor to the overall reflectance of a leaf. Results also argue against the assertion that the near infrared plateau is a function of cell structure within the leaf.

  2. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem–leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  3. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Kevin A; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M; Dawson, Todd E; Franks, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem-leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO₂ concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO₂ on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem-leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO₂ assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  4. Monitoring diapause development in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, under field conditions using molecular biomarkers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiplex PCR protocol was developed using five diapause-regulated genes to monitor diapause development of the Colorado potato beetle under field conditions. A total of 870 beetles from the Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota, USA, were screened for three consecutive years. Out of the ...

  5. Development and survivorship of a predatory lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata, on various aphid diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have documented declines in native lady beetles species in North America, including Coccinella novemnotata, the ninespotted lady beetle, which was a common aphid predator distributed throughout much of America north of Mexico. Ex situ rearing may be important in C. novemnotata conse...

  6. Darkling Beetles as a Potential Transmission Source of Salmonella in Broiler Flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adult and larval darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer) are common insect pests of commercial broiler operations. High populations of darkling beetles in commercial broiler operations can have a negative impact finanacially due to structural and insulation damage within the house, red...

  7. Co-occurence of Two Invasive Species: The Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), was first detected a century ago and now occurs in most of the continental United States. The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was discovered in the United States in 2003 and is now...

  8. Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone of the Lesser Mealworm Beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) is a widespread, serious pest in poultry production facilities and is difficult to control by conventional means. Although pheromone-based tools have become useful in the management of other beetle pests, no pheromone was known for A. diape...

  9. A simple method for quantitative diagnosis of small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we present a simple and fast method for quantitative diagnosis of small hive beetles (= SHB) in honeybee field colonies using corrugated plastic “diagnostic-strips”. In Australia, we evaluated its efficacy by comparing the number of lured SHB with the total number of beetles in the hives. The d...

  10. CLONING OF THREE DESICCATION REGULATED TRANSCRIPTS FROM DIAPAUSING COLORADO POTATO BEETLE, LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clones of three desiccation up-regulated transcripts (LdDes-1, -2 & -3) were isolated from diapausing Colorado potato beetle using suppression subtractive hybridization. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that LdDes-1, -2 & -3 are highly up-regulated in diapausing beetles and in desiccated nondiap...

  11. Small hive beetles, honeybees, yeast and plants: evolution of an insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is seemingly an anomaly among Nitidulids because it thrives in honeybee hives feeding on pollen and bee brood. Attraction to bee hives is mediated by the Honeybee alarm pheromone. We have discovered that when feeding on pollen resources in bee hives the beetl...

  12. Genetics and characteristics of a pigmentation defective laboratory strain of the lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beetles in the family Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, lady beetles, or ladybirds, are easily identifiable and popular beneficial insects. The species complex Coleomegilla maculata is commonly found in North American agroecosystems and widespread on the North American continent. It is impo...

  13. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Small Hive Beetles, Aethina Tumida Murray, in the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The population of the small hive beetle (SHB) was monitored from 2005 to 2008 in colonies of Italian and Russian honey bees located near St. Gabriel, Louisiana. SHB populations differed between honey bee stocks (only in site 2) with Italian honey bee colonies supporting more beetles (7.45 ± 0.98 be...

  14. Control of Chinese rose beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) through the use of solar-powered nighttime illumination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister), a scarab beetle found in Asia and the Pacific Islands, was first reported in Hawaii in 1891. Adults feed at night on leaves of a wide range of plant species, including many that are economically important. Aggregate feeding can stunt or even kill ...

  15. 76 FR 48120 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD--Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project AGENCY...: This project proposes to treat areas newly infested by mountain pine beetles on approximately 325,000...-rocky-mountain-black-hills@fs.fed.us , with ``MPB Response Project'' in the subject line....

  16. A system for harvesting eggs from the pink-spotted lady beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink spotted lady beetle. Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Adult beetles placed in square transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on t...

  17. Marking small hive beetles with thoracic notching: Effects on longevity, flight ability and fecundity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested two marking techniques for adult small hive beetles (SHB): dusting and thoracic notching. The use of blue and red chalk dusts to mark beetles was not persistent and caused early death of SHB with an average survival of 52.6 ± 23.8 and 13.9 ± 7.3 days, respectively. In contrast, notched bee...

  18. Development of a kairomone-based monitoring tool for the invasive redbay ambrosia beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-borer that vectors the fungal agent responsible for laurel wilt. This disease has had severe impact on forest ecosystems, and has spread to eight states in the southeastern US since the first detection of the beetle in Georg...

  19. Microsatellite loci for the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, a nest parasite of honey bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aethina tumida, a beetle parasite of honey bees, has recently and dramatically expanded its range and now parasitizes honey bees on three continents. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for this beetle species will help map this continuing range expansion, and will also prove useful for exploring the m...

  20. Pellet Formulations of Sex Pheromone Components for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study showed that sprayable sex pheromone formulations for mating disruption to control the oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, had limited persistence and contaminated shoes worn in the treated areas. Contamination of shoes created a nuisance by attracting male beetles when ...

  1. Diversity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Attracted to Avocado, Lychee, and Essential Oil Lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trapping studies conducted in north-central Florida for the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) captured numerous non-target ambrosia beetles, providing information on species diversity and relative abundance. Traps (Lindgren and sticky) baited with essential oil lures (manuka and p...

  2. Diversity abundance and seasonality of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionida) in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...

  3. Seasonal and spatial dispersal patterns of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionidae) from forest habitats into production nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are important pests of tree nurseries. While they are known to migrate in early spring from peripheral forested areas into nurseries, there are few data to show how far ambrosia beetles will fly to infest new host trees, or whether a mass trapping...

  4. Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) captures using colored traps in southeast Tennessee and south Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetles have become a major problem for nursery production, with controls centered around an accurate monitoring program. While the use of semiochemicals by ambrosia beetles is well understood, their potential use of visual cues including color remains relatively understudied. Field tests...

  5. BeetleBase in 2010: Revisions to Provide Comprehensive Genomic Information for Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BeetleBase (http://www.beetlebase.org) has been updated to provide more comprehensive genomic information for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. The database contains genomic sequence scaffolds mapped to 10 linkage groups (genome assembly release Tcas_3.0), genetic linkage maps, the official ...

  6. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  7. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) against small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (SHB) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees, the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and SHB reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies ha...

  8. Age and aggregation trigger mating behavior in the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to investigate the previously poorly documented reproductive behaviour of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae), a honey bee (Apis mellifera) parasite. We observed and described the mating behavior in detail, and tested the hypothesis that beetle aggregation plays a vi...

  9. Jumping without using legs: the jump of the click-beetles (Elateridae) is morphologically constrained.

    PubMed

    Ribak, Gal; Weihs, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    To return to their feet, inverted click-beetles (Elateridae) jump without using their legs. When a beetle is resting on its dorsal side, a hinge mechanism is locked to store elastic energy in the body and releases it abruptly to launch the beetle into the air. While the functional morphology of the jumping mechanism is well known, the level of control that the beetle has over this jumping technique and the mechanical constraints governing the jumps are not entirely clear. Here we show that while body rotations in air are highly variable, the jumps are morphologically constrained to a constant "takeoff" angle (79.9°±1.56°, n = 9 beetles) that directs 98% of the jumping force vertically against gravity. A physical-mathematical model of the jumping action, combined with measurements from live beetle, imply that the beetle may control the speed at takeoff but not the jumping angle. In addition, the model shows that very subtle changes in the exact point of contact with the ground can explain the vigorous rotations of the body seen while the beetle is airborne. These findings suggest that the evolution of this unique non-legged jumping mechanism resulted in a jumping technique that is capable of launching the body high into the air but it is too constrained and unstable to allow control of body orientation at landing. PMID:21698194

  10. Semiochemical based attraction of Small Hive Beetle: a window into evolution and invasive biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect behavioral preferences are tied to individual experience and evolutionary history. The Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is seemingly an anomaly among Nitidulids because members of the genus commonly feed on fruit and decaying material in association with fungi but the small hive beetle th...

  11. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    PubMed

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process. PMID:27385755

  12. Impacts of a water stress followed by an early frost event on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) susceptibility to Scolytine ambrosia beetles - Research strategy and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Sylvie; de Cannière, Charles; Molenberg, Jean-Marc; Vincke, Caroline; Deman, Déborah; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Climate change tends to induce more frequent abiotic and biotic extreme events, having large impacts on tree vitality. Weakened trees are then more susceptible to secondary insect outbreaks, as it happened in Belgium in the early 2000s: after an early frost event, secondary Scolytine ambrosia beetles attacks were observed on beech trees. In this study, we test if a combination of stress, i.e. a soil water deficit preceding an early frost, could render trees more attractive to beetles. An experimental study was set in autumn 2008. Two parcels of a beech forest were covered with plastic tents to induce a water stress by rain interception. The parcels were surrounded by 2-meters depth trenches to avoid water supply by streaming. Soil water content and different indicators of tree water use (sap flow, predawn leaf water potential, tree radial growth) were followed. In autumn 2010, artificial frost injuries will be inflicted to trees using dry ice. Trees attractivity for Scolytine insects, and the success of insect colonization will then be studied. The poster will focus on experiment setting and first results (impacts of soil water deficit on trees).

  13. 25 Years of Variability in the Biology of Salix-feeding Beetles and Associated Insects Along a Sierra Nevada Elevation Gradient, California: Are There Long-term Trends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiley, J. T.; Rank, N. E.; Dahlhoff, E.

    2006-12-01

    We have been studying the ecology, evolution and physiology of the willow leaf beetle, Chrysomela aeneicollis, in the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, since the early 1980's. One principal focus of this long-term study has been analysis of elevation gradient effects to the food web which includes willows (Salix ssp.), C. aeneicollis, and several predators including the hover fly Parasyphus melanderi and the hole-nesting wasp Symmorphus cristatus. We have observed and documented asymmetries along the elevation gradient. At upper elevations, populations confront higher frequencies of lethally cold nighttime temperatures and intensity of storms. When individuals are transplanted among elevations, upper elevation populations grow faster and survive better at upper elevation sites than populations from lower elevations. Our observations suggest that dispersal is sufficiently restricted among elevations to allow genetic differences in ability to respond to stressful climate to emerge. Lower elevation populations are subject to a wider range of predatory insect species, and predation plays a relatively larger role in their reproductive success. We have documented upward shifts in range for some populations of about 300 meters over the 25-year period of the study, although other populations do not show such shifts. We are preparing to document further range shifts along the elevation gradients by monitoring habitats which are currently at or above the upper range limits of the plants, beetles and predators, and looking for recruitment of new populations at those sites.

  14. The Yeast Fungus Trichosporon lactis Found as an Epizoic Colonizer of Dung Beetle Exoskeletons.

    PubMed

    Górz, Andrzej; Boroń, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    The study on the biology and biodiversity of coprophagous Scarabaeoidea carried out in the Polish Carpathians revealed the occurrence of unusual epizoic excrescences on various dung beetles species of the genus Onthophagus. The excrescences occur on the elytra, prothorax, and head of the studied beetles. Detailed research on this phenomenon determined that the fungus grew in the form of multicellular thalli. The ITS-based identification of fungal material collected from beetles' exoskeletons resulted in a 100 % match with Trichosporon lactis. Until now, only a yeast lifestyle/stage was known for this basidiomycete species. Therefore, in this paper, we describe a new substrate for growth of T. lactis and its unknown and intriguing relationship with dung beetles. The results obtained in this study open up numerous research possibilities on the new role of dung beetles in terrestrial ecosystems, as well as on using the physiological properties of T. lactis to restore soils. PMID:26385555

  15. Ecological modulation of environmental stress: interactions between ultraviolet radiation, epibiotic snail embryos, plants and herbivores.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Martin

    2008-05-01

    1. The distribution of egg masses of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus on the undersides of water lily leaves (e.g. Nuphar lutea) is related to the prevalence of the leaf-mining beetle Galerucella nymphaeae. 2. When given the choice, Planorbarius significantly avoids leaves that were infested by the mining beetle. Conversely, Lymnaea did not discriminate against mined leaves. 3. Intact Nuphar leaves block over 95% of incident ultraviolet radiation. Yet, ultraviolet transmission reaches almost 100% under beetle mining scars. These are several times wider than snail embryos. 4. When exposed to natural sunlight, Lymnaea embryos proved to be resistant to ambient ultraviolet, while Planorbarius embryos were rapidly killed. Thus, one selective advantage of Planorbarius discrimination against mined leaves when depositing its eggs could be the avoidance of ultraviolet radiation passing through mining scars. 5. Other mining-related modifications of the leaves, reduced area, decreased longevity, altered aufwuchs (i.e. biofilm and epibionts) are discussed but seem less relevant for the oviposition preference of Planorbarius. 6. The discriminatory behaviour of this snail species was triggered by water-borne cues emitted by the damaged leaf, not by the eggs or larvae of the beetle. 7. This study illustrates how environmental stress on a given species, ultraviolet radiation in this case, can be ecologically buffered (shading by Nuphar) or enhanced (reduction of Nuphar shading through beetle mining) by associated species. It highlights how the impact of a given stress depends on the identity of the target species as well as on the identity and role of other species in the community. PMID:18217942

  16. Transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene confer resistance to Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Ji, Xiangzhuo; Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Lina; Si, Huaijun; Wu, Jiahe; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a fatal pest, which is a quarantine pest in China. The CPB has now invaded the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and is constantly spreading eastward in China. In this study, we developed transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the cry3A gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic plants under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, while they expressed only in leaves and stems under the control of potato leaf and stem-specific promoter ST-LS1. The mortality of the larvae was higher (28% and 36%) on the transgenic plant line 35S1 on the 3rd and 4th days, and on ST3 (48%) on the 5th day after inoculation with instar larvae. Insect biomass accumulation on the foliage of the transgenic plant lines 35S1, 35S2 and ST3 was significantly lower (0.42%, 0.43% and 0.42%). Foliage consumption was lowest on transgenic lines 35S8 and ST2 among all plant foliage (7.47 mg/larvae/day and 12.46 mg/larvae/day). The different transgenic plant foliages had varied inhibition to larval growth. The survivors on the transgenic lines obviously were smaller than their original size and extremely weak. The transgenic potato plants with CPB resistance could be used to develop germplasms or varieties for controlling CPB damage and halting its spread in China. PMID:26025753

  17. EFFECTS OF SOME BIOINSECTICIDES AND ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI ON COLORADO POTATO BEETLE (LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA L.).

    PubMed

    Öztürk, H E; Güven, Ö; Karaca, I

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (4 strains) isolated from the Colorado potato beetle and the commercial biopesticides containing entomopathogenic fungi; Priority® (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), Nibortem® (Verticillium lecanii), Nostalgist® (Beauveria bassiana), Bio-Magic* (Metarhizium anisopliae), Bio-Nematon* (Paeciliomyces sp.) and plant extracts; Nimbedicine EC* (Azadiractin) were determined against Leptinotarsa decemlineata under laboratory conditions. An Imidacloprid active ingredient commercial insecticide was also used to compare the insecticidal activity and distilled water was used as control. The biological control agents were applied to 2nd-3rd larval instars, 4th larval instars and adults with spray and leaf dipping methods. Single concentration (10⁸ conidia/mL⁻¹) of entomopathogenic fungi and recommended dose of bioinsecticides were prepared for application. The number of dead insects were determined at 3, 5, and 7 days after applications. Experiments were conducted at 25 ±1° C and 60% ± 5 relative humidity with 16:8 h light: dark conditions. Entomopathogenic fungi and bioinsecticides were found to be more effective on larval stage than 4th larval instars and adults. In spray methods, Bio-Magic®, Nibortem®, and Nostalgist® caused 96.4%, 92.9% and 82.1% mortality on 2nd larval instars and 20%, 36.7% and 33.3% mortality on adults, respectively. All local fungal isolates (B. bassiana) applied on 2nd and 4th larval instars caused 100% mortality. Adults showed 58.6-86.2% mortality. PMID:27145587

  18. Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks, wildfire severity, and postfire tree regeneration in the US Northern Rockies

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Brian J.; Donato, Daniel C.; Turner, Monica G.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread tree mortality caused by outbreaks of native bark beetles (Circulionidae: Scolytinae) in recent decades has raised concern among scientists and forest managers about whether beetle outbreaks fuel more ecologically severe forest fires and impair postfire resilience. To investigate this question, we collected extensive field data following multiple fires that burned subalpine forests in 2011 throughout the Northern Rocky Mountains across a spectrum of prefire beetle outbreak severity, primarily from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). We found that recent (2001–2010) beetle outbreak severity was unrelated to most field measures of subsequent fire severity, which was instead driven primarily by extreme burning conditions (weather) and topography. In the red stage (0–2 y following beetle outbreak), fire severity was largely unaffected by prefire outbreak severity with few effects detected only under extreme burning conditions. In the gray stage (3–10 y following beetle outbreak), fire severity was largely unaffected by prefire outbreak severity under moderate conditions, but several measures related to surface fire severity increased with outbreak severity under extreme conditions. Initial postfire tree regeneration of the primary beetle host tree [lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia)] was not directly affected by prefire outbreak severity but was instead driven by the presence of a canopy seedbank and by fire severity. Recent beetle outbreaks in subalpine forests affected few measures of wildfire severity and did not hinder the ability of lodgepole pine forests to regenerate after fire, suggesting that resilience in subalpine forests is not necessarily impaired by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:25267633

  19. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  20. Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks, wildfire severity, and postfire tree regeneration in the US Northern Rockies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Brian J; Donato, Daniel C; Turner, Monica G

    2014-10-21

    Widespread tree mortality caused by outbreaks of native bark beetles (Circulionidae: Scolytinae) in recent decades has raised concern among scientists and forest managers about whether beetle outbreaks fuel more ecologically severe forest fires and impair postfire resilience. To investigate this question, we collected extensive field data following multiple fires that burned subalpine forests in 2011 throughout the Northern Rocky Mountains across a spectrum of prefire beetle outbreak severity, primarily from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). We found that recent (2001-2010) beetle outbreak severity was unrelated to most field measures of subsequent fire severity, which was instead driven primarily by extreme burning conditions (weather) and topography. In the red stage (0-2 y following beetle outbreak), fire severity was largely unaffected by prefire outbreak severity with few effects detected only under extreme burning conditions. In the gray stage (3-10 y following beetle outbreak), fire severity was largely unaffected by prefire outbreak severity under moderate conditions, but several measures related to surface fire severity increased with outbreak severity under extreme conditions. Initial postfire tree regeneration of the primary beetle host tree [lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia)] was not directly affected by prefire outbreak severity but was instead driven by the presence of a canopy seedbank and by fire severity. Recent beetle outbreaks in subalpine forests affected few measures of wildfire severity and did not hinder the ability of lodgepole pine forests to regenerate after fire, suggesting that resilience in subalpine forests is not necessarily impaired by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:25267633

  1. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization. PMID:26314028

  2. Effect of trap type, trap position, time of year, and beetle density on captures of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Hanula, James L; Ulyshen, Michael D; Horn, Scott

    2011-04-01

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont Raffaellea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich, and Aghayeva are responsible for widespread redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., mortality in the southern United States. Effective traps and lures are needed to monitor spread of the beetle and for early detection at ports-of-entry, so we conducted a series of experiments to find the best trap design, color, lure, and trap position for detection of X. glabratus. The best trap and lure combination was then tested at seven sites varying in beetle abundance and at one site throughout the year to see how season and beetle population affected performance. Manuka oil proved to be the most effective lure tested, particularly when considering cost and availability. Traps baited with manuka oil lures releasing 5 mg/d caught as many beetles as those baited with lures releasing 200 mg/d. Distributing manuka oil lures from the top to the bottom of eight-unit funnel traps resulted in similar numbers of X. glabratus as a single lure in the middle. Trap color had little effect on captures in sticky traps or cross-vane traps. Funnel traps caught twice as many beetles as cross-vane traps and three times as many as sticky traps but mean catch per trap was not significantly different. When comparing height, traps 1.5 m above the ground captured 85% of the beetles collected but a few were caught at each height up to 15 m. Funnel trap captures exhibited a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.79) with X. glabratus attack density and they performed well throughout the year. Catching beetles at low densities is important to port of entry monitoring programs where early detection of infestations is essential. Our trials show that multiple funnel traps baited with a single manuka oil lure were effective for capturing X. glabratus even when no infested trees were visible in the area. PMID:21510198

  3. Functional relationships of leafing intensity to plant height, growth form and leaf habit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, En-Rong; Milla, Rubén; Aarssen, Lonnie W.; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Leafing intensity, i.e. the number of leaves per unit of stem volume or mass, is a common developmental correlate of leaf size. However, the ecological significance and the functional implications of variation in leafing intensity, other than its relation to leaf size, are unknown. Here, we explore its relationships with plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit to test a series of corollaries derived from the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. Volume-based leafing intensities and plant heights were recorded for 109 woody species from the subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests of eastern China. In addition, we compiled leafing intensity data from published literature, and combined it with our data to form a 398 species dataset, to test for differences of leafing intensity between plant growth forms (i.e. herbaceous and woody) and leaf habits (i.e. deciduous and evergreens). Leafing intensity was negatively correlated with plant height and individual leaf mass. Volume-based leafing intensities were significantly higher in herbaceous species than in woody species, and also higher in deciduous than in evergreen woody species. In conclusion, leafing intensity relates strongly to plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit in directions generally in accordance to the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. These results can be interpreted in terms of the evolution of adaptive strategies involving response to herbivory, competitive ability for light and reproductive economy.

  4. Localized spatial and temporal attack dynamics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, B.J.; Powell, J.A.; Logan, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Beetle populations have evolved a mechanism for termination of colonization on a lodgepole pine tree at optimal beetle densities, with a concomitant switch of attacks to nearby trees. Observations of the daily spatial and temporal attack process of mountain pine beetles (nonepidemic) attacking lodgepole pine suggest that beetles switch attacks to a new host tree before the original focus tree is fully colonized, and that verbenone, an antiaggregating pheromone, may be acting within a tree rather than between trees.

  5. Quantitative Characterization of Cantharidin in the False Blister Beetle, Oedemera podagrariae ventralis, of the Southern Slopes of Mount Elborz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, S.M.; Nikbakhtzadeh, M.R.; Vatandoost, H.; Mehdinia, A.; Rahimi-Foroshani, A.; Shayeghi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cantharidin, a potent vesicant and antifeedant agent, is produced by two families of beetles, Meloidae and Oedemeridae (Coleoptera). In this study, the cantharidin content of oedemerid beetles of central Iran was investigated using the GC-MS method. Cantharidin in both sexes of Oedemera podagrariae ventralis Meïneïtrieãs (Oedemeridae) was found in an average of 3.89 µg/beetle in males and 21.68 µg/beetle in females, which are amounts sufficient to irritate human skin. The average of cantharidin in virgin and coupled beetles was 1.35 and 1.62 (µg cantharidin/mg of beetle) respectively. Females had five to six times more cantharidin in their bodies than males, but there was no significant difference between the amount of cantharidin in virgin and coupled females. The results of this study revealed the production of cantharidin in both sexes of beetle. PMID:23461394

  6. Quantitative characterization of cantharidin in the false blister beetle, Oedemera podagrariae ventralis, of the southern slopes of Mount Elborz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, S M; Nikbakhtzadeh, M R; Vatandoost, H; Mehdinia, A; Rahimi-Foroshani, A; Shayeghi, M

    2012-01-01

    Cantharidin, a potent vesicant and antifeedant agent, is produced by two families of beetles, Meloidae and Oedemeridae (Coleoptera). In this study, the cantharidin content of oedemerid beetles of central Iran was investigated using the GC-MS method. Cantharidin in both sexes of Oedemera podagrariae ventralis Meïneïtrieãs (Oedemeridae) was found in an average of 3.89 µg/beetle in males and 21.68 µg/beetle in females, which are amounts sufficient to irritate human skin. The average of cantharidin in virgin and coupled beetles was 1.35 and 1.62 (µg cantharidin/mg of beetle) respectively. Females had five to six times more cantharidin in their bodies than males, but there was no significant difference between the amount of cantharidin in virgin and coupled females. The results of this study revealed the production of cantharidin in both sexes of beetle. PMID:23461394

  7. How to pattern a leaf.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, N; O'Connor, D; Moon, J; Lewis, M; Hake, S

    2012-01-01

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, and function, all leaves initiate in the same manner: from the flanks of a meristem. The maize leaf is useful for analysis of patterning due to the wealth of mutants and the distinct tissues along the proximal distal axis. The blade is distal, the sheath is proximal, and the ligule forms at the blade/sheath boundary. Establishment of this boundary involves the transcription factors LIGULELESS1 and LIGULELESS2 and the kinase LIGULELESS NARROW. The meristem-specific protein KNOTTED1 (KN1) binds and modulates the lg2 gene. Given the localization of KN1 at the proximal end of the leaf from the time of inception, we hypothesize that KN1 has a role in establishing the very proximal end of the leaf, whereas an auxin maximum guides the growing distal tip. PMID:23174765

  8. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (< 5 yr from outbreak to time of fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado

  9. Partial dosage compensation in Strepsiptera, a sister group of beetles.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-02-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in many different taxa, and so have mechanisms to compensate for expression differences on sex chromosomes in males and females. Different clades have evolved vastly different ways to achieve dosage compensation, including hypertranscription of the single X in male Drosophila, downregulation of both X's in XX Caenorhabditis, or inactivation of one X in female mammals. In the flour beetle Tribolium, the X appears hyperexpressed in both sexes, which might represent the first of two steps to evolve dosage compensation along the paths mammals may have taken (i.e., upregulation of X in both sexes, followed by inactivation of one X in females). Here we test for dosage compensation in Strepsiptera, a sister taxon to beetles. We identify sex-linked chromosomes in Xenos vesparum based on genomic analysis of males and females, and show that its sex chromosome consists of two chromosomal arms in Tribolium: The X chromosome that is shared between Tribolium and Strepsiptera, and another chromosome that is autosomal in Tribolium and another distantly related Strepsiptera species, but sex-linked in X. vesparum. We use RNA-seq (RNA sequencing) to show that dosage compensation along the X of X. vesparum is partial and heterogeneous. In particular, genes that are X-linked in both beetles and Strepsiptera appear fully dosage compensated probably through downregulation in both sexes, whereas genes on the more recently added X segment have evolved only partial dosage compensation. In addition, reanalysis of published RNA-seq data suggests that Tribolium has evolved dosage compensation, without hypertranscribing the X in females. Our results demonstrate that patterns of dosage compensation are highly variable across sex-determination systems and even within species. PMID:25601100

  10. Partial Dosage Compensation in Strepsiptera, a Sister Group of Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in many different taxa, and so have mechanisms to compensate for expression differences on sex chromosomes in males and females. Different clades have evolved vastly different ways to achieve dosage compensation, including hypertranscription of the single X in male Drosophila, downregulation of both X’s in XX Caenorhabditis, or inactivation of one X in female mammals. In the flour beetle Tribolium, the X appears hyperexpressed in both sexes, which might represent the first of two steps to evolve dosage compensation along the paths mammals may have taken (i.e., upregulation of X in both sexes, followed by inactivation of one X in females). Here we test for dosage compensation in Strepsiptera, a sister taxon to beetles. We identify sex-linked chromosomes in Xenos vesparum based on genomic analysis of males and females, and show that its sex chromosome consists of two chromosomal arms in Tribolium: The X chromosome that is shared between Tribolium and Strepsiptera, and another chromosome that is autosomal in Tribolium and another distantly related Strepsiptera species, but sex-linked in X. vesparum. We use RNA-seq (RNA sequencing) to show that dosage compensation along the X of X. vesparum is partial and heterogeneous. In particular, genes that are X-linked in both beetles and Strepsiptera appear fully dosage compensated probably through downregulation in both sexes, whereas genes on the more recently added X segment have evolved only partial dosage compensation. In addition, reanalysis of published RNA-seq data suggests that Tribolium has evolved dosage compensation, without hypertranscribing the X in females. Our results demonstrate that patterns of dosage compensation are highly variable across sex-determination systems and even within species. PMID:25601100

  11. The Rocky Mountain Epidemic of Bark Beetles and Blue Stain Fungi Cause Cascading Effects on Coupled Water, C and N cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Norton, U.; Reed, D.; Franks, J.; Aston, T.; Whitehouse, F.; Barnard, H. R.; Brooks, P. D.; Angstmann, J.; Massman, W. J.; Williams, D. G.; Harpold, A. A.; Biederman, J.; Edburg, S. L.; Meddens, A. J.; Gochis, D. J.; Hicke, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The ongoing epidemic of bark beetles and their associated xylem blocking blue-stain fungi is unprecedented in Rocky Mountain subalpine forests. As this epidemic continues, we seek to improve our predictive understanding of coupled water, C and N cycles by quantifying how these cycles may become uncoupled in response to the outbreak. Our specific questions are 1) how does the rapid drop in individual tree transpiration impact the temporal and spatial extent of evapotranspiration and 2) how does the subsequent increase in soil moisture and lower C inputs and N uptake impact soil C and N fluxes? We address these questions in two forest ecosystems using eddy covariance, sap flux, leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic conductance, vegetation characteristics and soil trace gas measurements. We applied two sampling designs 1) subdivide the lodgepole pine forest spatially into varying degrees of bark beetle and blue stain infection and 2) follow the fluxes as the outbreak continues at a point in space encompassing the range of spatial variability in mortality. The first order impact of the bark beetle and blue stain fungi is dramatic in all tree species with a greater than 50% reduction in transpiration per tree within a month of infection. This change occurs even before the characteristic red tinge occurs in the needles or before the sapwood is stained blue. Leaf stomatal conductance declines more than either the biochemical or light harvesting components of photosynthesis immediately after infestation. The annual C sink at the spruce/fir forest has declined from -2.88 to -0.57 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 from 2006 to 2009. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) over the last five years at the spruce/fir forest now has an inverse relationship with precipitation because the last two years have seen a dramatic decrease (from 73 to 59 cm/year) in ET while precipitation has increased (from ~100 to 140 cm/year). Soil moisture in both forests has increased up to 100% within one growing season in

  12. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf

  13. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

  14. Multitrophic interaction facilitates parasite-host relationship between an invasive beetle and the honey bee.

    PubMed

    Torto, Baldwyn; Boucias, Drion G; Arbogast, Richard T; Tumlinson, James H; Teal, Peter E A

    2007-05-15

    Colony defense by honey bees, Apis mellifera, is associated with stinging and mass attack, fueled by the release of alarm pheromones. Thus, alarm pheromones are critically important to survival of honey bee colonies. Here we report that in the parasitic relationship between the European honey bee and the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, the honey bee's alarm pheromones serve a negative function because they are potent attractants for the beetle. Furthermore, we discovered that the beetles from both Africa and the United States vector a strain of Kodamaea ohmeri yeast, which produces these same honey bee alarm pheromones when grown on pollen in hives. The beetle is not a pest of African honey bees because African bees have evolved effective methods to mitigate beetle infestation. However, European honey bees, faced with disease and pest management stresses different from those experienced by African bees, are unable to effectively inhibit beetle infestation. Therefore, the environment of the European honey bee colony provides optimal conditions to promote the unique bee-beetle-yeast-pollen multitrophic interaction that facilitates effective infestation of hives at the expense of the European honey bee. PMID:17483478

  15. The spatial distribution of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in soybean fields.

    PubMed

    Sara, Stacey A; McCallen, Emily B; Switzer, Paul V

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  16. The smell of parents: breeding status influences cuticular hydrocarbon pattern in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Sandra; Peschke, Klaus; Francke, Wittko; Müller, Josef K

    2007-01-01

    The waxy layer of the cuticle has been shown to play a fundamental role in recognition systems of insects. The biparental burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides is known to have the ability to discriminate between breeding and non-breeding conspecifics and also here cuticular substances could function as recognition cue. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the pattern of cuticular lipids can reflect the breeding status of a beetle or of any other insect. With chemical analysis using coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that the chemical signature of N. vespilloides males and females is highly complex and changes its feature with breeding status. Parental beetles were characterized by a higher amount of some unusual unsaturated hydrocarbons than beetles which are not caring for larvae. The striking correlation between cuticular profiles and breeding status suggests that cuticular hydrocarbons inform the beetles about parental state and thus enable them to discriminate between their breeding partner and a conspecific intruder. Furthermore, we found evidence that nutritional conditions also influence the cuticular profile and discuss the possibility that the diet provides the precursors for the unsaturated hydrocarbons observed in parental beetles. Our study underlines the fact that the cuticular pattern is rich of information and plays a central role in the burying beetles' communication systems. PMID:17609182

  17. The Spatial Distribution of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Soybean Fields

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Stacey A.; McCallen, Emily B.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  18. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  19. Genetic Differentiation between Resistance Phenotypes in the Phytophagous Flea Beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Peter W.; Breuker, Casper J.; de Vos, Helene; Vermeer, Kim M.C.A; Oku, Keiko; Verbaarschot, Patrick; Nielsen, Jens Kvist; Brakefield, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    The flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is genetically polymorphic for resistance against the defences of one of its host plants, Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae). Whereas resistant flea beetles are able to use B. vulgaris as well as other cruciferous plants as food, non-resistant beetles cannot survive on B. vulgaris. This limitation to host plant use of non-resistant beetles could potentially lead to asymmetric gene flow and some degree of genetic isolation between the different resistance-genotypes. Therefore, we studied the extent of genetic differentiation at neutral allozyme loci between samples of flea beetles that were collected at different locations and first tested for resistance phenotype. Since earlier work has shown a weak, but significant, effect of geographical distance between the samples on their genetic differentiation, in the present study variation at the neutral allozyme loci in P. nemorum was partitioned between geographical distance and resistance-phenotype. Both sources independently contributed statistically significantly to population differentiation. Thus, there appears to be a limitation to genetic exchange between the resistant and non-resistant flea beetles when corrections are made for their geographic differentiation. This is consistent with the presence of some degree of host race formation in this flea beetle. PMID:20053124

  20. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  1. Attractiveness of native mammal's feces of different trophic guilds to dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Bogoni, Juliano A; Hernández, Malva I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammal feces are the primary food and nesting resource for the majority of dung beetle species, and larval development depends on the quantity and quality of that resource. Physiological necessities, competitive interactions, and resource sharing are common and suggest that dung beetles may show preferences for feces of greater nutritional quality, which may in turn impact beetle assemblages and community structure. This study investigated whether attractiveness of dung beetles to different resource (feces) types varies depending on mammal trophic guild and associated nutritional content. This study was conducted in Atlantic Forest fragments in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil. To evaluate attractiveness, the feces of the carnivore Puma concolor, the omnivores Cerdocyon thous and Sapajus nigritus, and the herbivore Tapirus terrestris were utilized as bait. Dung was collected from zoo animals fed a standard diet. Sampling was performed in triplicate in five areas in the summer of 2013. Four pitfall traps were established in each area, and each trap was baited with one type of mammal feces. Food preference of the species was analyzed by calculating Rodgers' index for cafeteria-type experiments. In total, 426 individuals from 17 species were collected. Rodgers' index showed that omnivorous mammal feces (C. thous) were most attractive to all dung beetle species, although it is known that dung beetles are commonly opportunistic with respect to search for and allocation of food resources. These results suggest that mammal loss could alter competitive interactions between dung beetles. PMID:25528749

  2. Does social feeding improve larval survival of the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata?

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael P; Burt, Charles R; Whitney, Thomas D; Hastings, Steven A; Chang, Gary C

    2012-01-01

    Lady beetles typically lay eggs in clusters, and clutch-mates that emerge near to each other might benefit in multiple ways. For example, lady beetle larvae are attracted to the pheromone released by aphids under attack. Thus, one potential advantage to larvae emerging as a group is if one larva captures an aphid, others can share in consuming the same aphid. Sharing a meal likely reduces the per capita food intake of a hatchling, but it might also provide enough nutrition to prevent death by starvation during a particularly vulnerable stage. In an assay of the behavior of two-spotted lady beetles (Adalia bipunctata), larvae were attracted to chemical cues from damaged aphids, corroborating previous research. Densities of A. bipunctata hatchlings were then manipulated to test whether the presence of clutch-mates increasesed the probability of capturing prey, and the survivorship of hatchlings. In one experiment, a single aphid was placed with a number of lady beetle hatchlings ranging from 1 to 10 in a small arena for 72 hours to evaluate prey capture effectiveness and hatchling survival. As the initial density of lady beetle hatchlings increased, their prey capture rate increased. At the same time, survival of the hatchlings was not affected by their initial density. Five experiments were performed on individual fava bean plants by varying densities of aphids and lady beetle hatchlings to evaluate lady beetle survivorship measured after five days. In all five on-plant experiments, increasing the initial number of lady beetle larvae did not improve their survival. Lady beetle larvae shared meals during the small scale experiments, but that behavior did not improve their survivorship under any of the experimental conditions. PMID:23425121

  3. Age and aggregation trigger mating behaviour in the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Sandra G.; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Duncan, Michael; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Steidle, Johannes L. M.; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the poorly documented reproductive behaviour of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae), a honey bee ( Apis mellifera) parasite. We described the mating behaviour in detail and tested the hypothesis that beetle aggregation plays a vital role in mating in this species. Gender preference was examined in the context of age-dependency and possible chemical communication. Beetles started mating at a high frequency 18 days after emergence from the soil but only if they were aggregated ( p < 0.001); mating was infrequent when beetles were paired. Males in aggregation also tried to copulate with males and only copulated more frequently with females at 18 days after emergence from soil ( p < 0.001) in contrast to newly emerged, 7-day-old and 60-day-old beetles. Males and females spent more time in social contact with the opposite sex ( p < 0.01) when they were 18 days old in contrast to 7-day-old beetles. Filter papers which had been in contact with 21-day-old beetles were highly attractive to similar-aged beetles of the opposite sex ( p < 0.01). This suggests that chemical substances produced by the beetles themselves play a role in mating. Mating behaviour was characterised by a short pre-copulation courtship and female aggression towards other females and copulating couples. Both behaviours may be indicative of cryptic female choice. Delayed onset of reproductive behaviour is typical of many polygamous species, whilst the indispensability of aggregation for onset of sexual behaviour seems to be a feature unique to A. tumida. Both strategies support mass reproduction in this parasitic species, enabling A. tumida to overcome its honey bee host colony, and are probably triggered by chemotactic cues.

  4. Effect of temperature on the occurrence and distribution of colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Liu, Huai; Huang, Fangneng; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Wang, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Hui; Sun, Jin-Rui; Guo, Wen-Chao

    2014-04-01

    Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is the most destructive pest of potato in many countries of the world. It first invaded China from Kazakhstan in 1990s and now is a major pest of potato in many areas of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature on the spread of Colorado potato beetle in China after its invasion. Cold temperature in winter (December) and high temperature in summer (July) were analyzed in accordance with the absence and presence of Colorado potato beetle in Xinjiang. The boundary between the absence and presence of Colorado potato beetle in Xinjiang nearly coincided with the -8°C isotherm of monthly mean minimum temperature in winter. The stress of the low temperature in winter for Colorado potato beetle basically disappeared in the southeastern Hexi Corridor in Gansu Province of China, suggesting that the Hexi Corridor is the best channel to prevent any long-distance invasions of Colorado potato beetle into the Central Plains region. However, in Turpan City in northeastern Xinjiang, the extremely hot weather in the summer prevents the local colonization of Colorado potato beetle. Furthermore, according to our monitoring, high temperature in summer also limited Colorado potato beetle to diffuse eastward through Turpan. Results of this study suggest that it is essential to strengthen inspection and quarantine measures to prevent any artificial transmissions of Colorado potato beetle spreading eastward and thus to ensure the sustainable production of potato and other Solanaceae crops in northwest regions of China. PMID:24763102

  5. Age and aggregation trigger mating behaviour in the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae).

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Sandra G; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Duncan, Michael; Pettis, Jeffery S; Steidle, Johannes L M; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the poorly documented reproductive behaviour of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae), a honey bee (Apis mellifera) parasite. We described the mating behaviour in detail and tested the hypothesis that beetle aggregation plays a vital role in mating in this species. Gender preference was examined in the context of age-dependency and possible chemical communication. Beetles started mating at a high frequency 18 days after emergence from the soil but only if they were aggregated (p < 0.001); mating was infrequent when beetles were paired. Males in aggregation also tried to copulate with males and only copulated more frequently with females at 18 days after emergence from soil (p < 0.001) in contrast to newly emerged, 7-day-old and 60-day-old beetles. Males and females spent more time in social contact with the opposite sex (p < 0.01) when they were 18 days old in contrast to 7-day-old beetles. Filter papers which had been in contact with 21-day-old beetles were highly attractive to similar-aged beetles of the opposite sex (p < 0.01). This suggests that chemical substances produced by the beetles themselves play a role in mating. Mating behaviour was characterised by a short pre-copulation courtship and female aggression towards other females and copulating couples. Both behaviours may be indicative of cryptic female choice. Delayed onset of reproductive behaviour is typical of many polygamous species, whilst the indispensability of aggregation for onset of sexual behaviour seems to be a feature unique to A. tumida. Both strategies support mass reproduction in this parasitic species, enabling A. tumida to overcome its honey bee host colony, and are probably triggered by chemotactic cues.. PMID:26286322

  6. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, R.O.; Pulley, P.E.; Coulson, R.N. )

    1993-02-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild [Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff)] uses disturbed hosts as habitat for establishment of within-tree populations. The process of colonization of disturbed hosts was examined. Using a procedure designed to emulate effects of a lightning strike, pines were severely disturbed. Response was characterized by measuring beetle populations that (1) arrived at the trees and (2) successfully attacked the trees. Establishment of within-tree populations was characterized by measuring length of egg gallery excavated by attacking adults. The time delay between arrival and attack for D. frontalis and I. calligraphus was also calculated. Attack densities of both species became asymptotic as arrival increased. The percentage of arriving beetles that attacked ranged from 9 to 41 for D. frontalis and from 8 to 59 for I. calligraphus. Numbers of beetles that arrived at the tree but did not attack ranged from 2.7 to 50.2 beetles per dm[sup 2] for D. frontalis and from 0.2 to 10.0 beetles per dm[sup 2] for I. calligraphus. Most D. frontalis and I. calligraphus attacked on the day they arrived. The delay between arrival and attack was longer for I. calligraphus than the D. frontalis. Egg gallery excavated by D. frontalis increased throughout the study. Eventually, the Ips species were excluded from the lower half of the hole. The low attack densities observed in this study illustrate the significance of disturbed trees in providing refuges for enzootic levels of bark beetles. The aggregation behavior of beetle populations colonizing disturbed hosts supported the contention that these trees serve as foci for initiation of infestations. Furthermore, in disturbed pines, small numbers of beetles were capable of overcoming host defense systems.

  7. Does Social Feeding Improve Larval Survival of the Two-Spotted Lady Beetle, Adalia bipunctata?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael P.; Burt, Charles R.; Whitney, Thomas D.; Hastings, Steven A.; Chang, Gary C.

    2012-01-01

    Lady beetles typically lay eggs in clusters, and clutch-mates that emerge near to each other might benefit in multiple ways. For example, lady beetle larvae are attracted to the pheromone released by aphids under attack. Thus, one potential advantage to larvae emerging as a group is if one larva captures an aphid, others can share in consuming the same aphid. Sharing a meal likely reduces the per capita food intake of a hatchling, but it might also provide enough nutrition to prevent death by starvation during a particularly vulnerable stage. In an assay of the behavior of two-spotted lady beetles (Adalia bipunctata), larvae were attracted to chemical cues from damaged aphids, corroborating previous research. Densities of A. bipunctata hatchlings were then manipulated to test whether the presence of clutch-mates increasesed the probability of capturing prey, and the survivorship of hatchlings. In one experiment, a single aphid was placed with a number of lady beetle hatchlings ranging from 1 to 10 in a small arena for 72 hours to evaluate prey capture effectiveness and hatchling survival. As the initial density of lady beetle hatchlings increased, their prey capture rate increased. At the same time, survival of the hatchlings was not affected by their initial density. Five experiments were performed on individual fava bean plants by varying densities of aphids and lady beetle hatchlings to evaluate lady beetle survivorship measured after five days. In all five on-plant experiments, increasing the initial number of lady beetle larvae did not improve their survival. Lady beetle larvae shared meals during the small scale experiments, but that behavior did not improve their survivorship under any of the experimental conditions. PMID:23425121

  8. Is the inverse leafing phenology of the dry forest understory shrub Jacquinia nervosa (Theophrastaceae) a strategy to escape herbivory?

    PubMed

    Chaves, Oscar M; Avalos, Gerardo

    2006-09-01

    In the dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica, the understory shrub Jacquinia nervosa presents an inverse pattern of phenology that concentrates vegetative growth and reproduction during the dry season. In this study, we tested the "escape from herbivory" hypothesis as a potential explanation for the inverse phenological pattern of J. nervosa. We monitored leaf, flower and fruit production in 36 adult plants from October 2000 to August 2001. Leaves of six randomly selected branches per plant were marked and monitored every two weeks to measure the cumulative loss in leaf area. To analyze pre-dispersal seed predation we collected 15 fruits per plant and counted the total number of healthy and damaged seeds, as well as the number and type of seed predators found within the fruits. Leaf, flower, and fruit production occurred during the first part of the dry season (end of November to February). The cumulative herbivory levels were similar to those observed in other tropical dry forest tree species that concentrate leaf production during the wet season, and were concentrated on young leaves, which lost an average of 36.77 % of their area (SD = 34.35 %, N = 195). Chewing beetles of the genus Epicauta (Meloidae) were the most important herbivores. In mature leaves, most of the damage was caused by the beetle Coptocycla rufonotata (Chrysomelidae). Fruits took 4 months to develop during the dry season (January-March 2001) but continue increasing in size well into the first 3 months of the wet season (May-July). Average seed number per ripe fruit was 9 (SD = 5, N = 500). Seed predation in mature fruits was 42 % (SD = 47 %, N = 122). Most seeds were damaged by moth larvae of the family Tortricidae. Only 3 % of the flowers became fruits. This was influenced by the low level of flower synchrony (0.38+/-0.26, N = 36 plants), but neither leaf synchrony (0.88+/-0.06, N = 36 plants) nor plant size influenced fruit numbers. The significant damaged produced by insect

  9. Behavior of Leaf Meristems and Their Modification

    PubMed Central

    Ichihashi, Yasunori; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    A major source of diversity in flowering plant form is the extensive variability of leaf shape and size. Leaf formation is initiated by recruitment of a handful of cells flanking the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to develop into a complex three-dimensional structure. Leaf organogenesis depends on activities of several distinct meristems that are established and spatiotemporally differentiated after the initiation of leaf primordia. Here, we review recent findings in the gene regulatory networks that orchestrate leaf meristem activities in a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We then discuss recent key studies investigating the natural variation in leaf morphology to understand how the gene regulatory networks modulate leaf meristems to yield a substantial diversity of leaf forms during the course of evolution. PMID:26648955

  10. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another species with elytra covered in bumps is reported to have specialised adaptations facilitating water capture by fog-basking. To resolve if these other beetles also fog-bask, and if an elytra covered in bumps is a more efficient fog water collector than a smooth one, we examined four Namib Desert beetles; the smooth Onymacris unguicularis and O. laeviceps and the bumpy Stenocara gracilipes and Physasterna cribripes. Here we describe the beetles' fog-basking behaviour, the details of their elytra structures, and determine how efficient their dorsal surface areas are at harvesting water from fog. Results The beetles differ greatly in size. The largest P. cribripes has a dorsal surface area that is 1.39, 1.56, and 2.52 times larger than O. unguicularis, O. laeviceps, and S. gracilipes, respectively. In accordance with earlier reports, we found that the second largest O. unguicularis is the only one of the four beetles that assumes the head standing fog-basking behaviour, and that fog is necessary to trigger this behaviour. No differences were seen in the absolute amounts of fog water collected on the dorsal surface areas of the different beetles. However, data corrected according to the sizes of the beetles revealed differences. The better fog water harvesters were S. gracilipes and O. unguicularis while the large P. cribripes was the poorest. Examination of the elytra microstructures showed clear structural differences, but the elytra of all beetles were found to be completely hydrophobic

  11. User's guide to the douglas-fir beetle impact model. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, M.A.; Eav, B.B.; Thompson, M.K.

    1994-09-01

    Douglas-fir beetle occurs throughout the range of its principal host, Douglas-fir. At epidemic levels, the beetle causes considerable mortality in large-diameter Douglas-fir trees. Wind storms, drought, fire, and other factors have been reported as precendent conditions for epidemics of Douglas-fir beetle. An impact model has been developed to simulate tree mortality during such epidemics. The model has been linked to the Stand Prognosis Model (Forest Vegetation Simulator). This is a guide for using the model.

  12. Measuring Phenological Changes due to Defoliation of the Non-Native Species, Saltcedar (Tamarisk) Following Episodic Foliage Removal by the Beetle Diorhabda elongate and Phenological Impacts on Forage Quality for Insectivorous Birds on the Dolores River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.; Hultine, K. R.; van Riper, C.; Glenn, E. P.

    2008-12-01

    Since its introduction to the western U.S. more than a century ago, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) has become dominant or sub-dominant over many major arid, and semi-arid river systems and their tributaries. The presence of tamarisk has been cited for reducing water availability for human enterprise and biodiversity, displacing native vegetation and for reducing habitat quality for wildlife. With increasing emphasis by public and private sectors on controlling saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis) in the western US, there will likely be a dramatic change in riparian vegetation composition over the course of the next several decades. The rates at which these changes will occur, and the resultant effects on riparian insects and birds that utilize insects for food, are presently unknown. Effects on riparian vegetation communities, resulting from changes in host plant species composition, will likely include changes in plant biomass, microclimate changes, and plant species diversity. These changes could potentially have a profound impact on migratory and breeding birds within riparian corridors throughout the southwest. Recently, the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a tamarisk biocontrol agent. This beetle has successfully defoliated tamarisk where it has been introduced, but there are currently no comprehensive programs in place for monitoring the rapid spread of Diorhabda, the impact of defoliation on habitat and water resources, or the long-term impact of defoliation on tamarisk. We used higher spatial resolution ASTER data and coarser MODIS data for monitoring defoliation caused by Diorhabda elongata and subsequent changes in evapotranspiration (ET). Widespread tamarisk defoliation was observed in an eastern Utah study area during summers 2007, 2008. We measured stem sap flux, leaf carbon isotope ratios, leaf area, LAI, and vegetation indices from mounted visible and infrared cameras and satellite imagery. The cameras were paired on towers installed 30

  13. Larval RNA interference in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Linz, David M; Clark-Hachtel, Courtney M; Borràs-Castells, Ferran; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, offers a repertoire of experimental tools for genetic and developmental studies, including a fully annotated genome sequence, transposon-based transgenesis, and effective RNA interference (RNAi). Among these advantages, RNAi-based gene knockdown techniques are at the core of Tribolium research. T. castaneum show a robust systemic RNAi response, making it possible to perform RNAi at any life stage by simply injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the beetle's body cavity. In this report, we provide an overview of our larval RNAi technique in T. castaneum. The protocol includes (i) isolation of the proper stage of T. castaneum larvae for injection, (ii) preparation for the injection setting, and (iii) dsRNA injection. Larval RNAi is a simple, but powerful technique that provides us with quick access to loss-of-function phenotypes, including multiple gene knockdown phenotypes as well as a series of hypomorphic phenotypes. Since virtually all T. castaneum tissues are susceptible to extracellular dsRNA, the larval RNAi technique allows researchers to study a wide variety of tissues in diverse contexts, including the genetic basis of organismal responses to the outside environment. In addition, the simplicity of this technique stimulates more student involvement in research, making T. castaneum an ideal genetic system for use in a classroom setting. PMID:25350485

  14. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandmayr, Pietro; Giorgi, Filippo; Casale, Achille; Colombetta, Giorgio; Mariotti, Laura; Vigna Taglianti, Augusto; Weber, Friedrich; Pizzolotto, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920-30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets.

  15. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Marten; Vergnon, Remi; van Nes, Egbert H.; Cuppen, Jan G. M.; Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.; Leijs, Remko; Nilsson, Anders N.

    2015-01-01

    While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the world’s 4168 species of diving beetles. We show that across the globe these animals have evolved towards a small number of regularly-spaced body sizes, and that locally co-existing species are either very similar in size or differ by at least 35%. Surprisingly, intermediate size differences (10–20%) are rare. As body-size strongly reflects functional aspects such as the food that these generalist predators can eat, these beetles thus form relatively distinct groups of functional look-a-likes. The striking global regularity of these patterns support the idea that a self-organizing process drives such species-rich groups to self-organize evolutionary into clusters where functional redundancy ensures resilience through an insurance effect. PMID:26447476

  16. Biosynthesis of the defensive alkaloid cicindeloine in Stenus solutus beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierling, Andreas; Dettner, Konrad; Schmidt, Jürgen; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2012-08-01

    To protect themselves from predation and microorganismic infestation, rove beetles of the genus Stenus produce and store bioactive alkaloids like stenusine, 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine, and cicindeloine in their pygidial glands. The biosynthesis of stenusine and 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine was previously investigated in Stenus bimaculatus and Stenus similis, respectively. Both molecules follow the same biosynthetic pathway, where the N-heterocyclic ring is derived from l-lysine and the side chain from l-isoleucine. The different alkaloids are finally obtained by slight modifications of shared precursor molecules. The piperideine alkaloid cicindeloine occurs as a main compound additionally to ( E)-3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine and traces of stenusine in the pygidial gland secretion of Stenus cicindeloides and Stenus solutus. Feeding of S. solutus beetles with [D,15N]-labeled amino acids followed by GC/MS analysis techniques showed that cicindeloine is synthesized via the identical pathway and precursor molecules as the other two defensive alkaloids.

  17. Malpighian tubule development in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum).

    PubMed

    King, Benedict; Denholm, Barry

    2014-11-01

    Malpighian tubules (MpTs) are the major organ for excretion and osmoregulation in most insects. MpT development is characterised for Drosophila melanogaster, but not other species. We therefore do not know the extent to which the MpT developmental programme is conserved across insects. To redress this we provide a comprehensive description of MpT development in the beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), a species separated from Drosophila by >315 million years. We identify similarities with Drosophila MpT development including: 1) the onset of morphological development, beginning when tubules bud from the gut and proliferate to increase organ size. 2) the tubule is shaped by convergent-extension movements and oriented cell divisions. 3) differentiated tip cells activate EGF-signalling in distal MpT cells through the ligand Spitz. 4) MpTs contain two main cell types - principal and stellate cells, differing in morphology and gene expression. We also describe development of the beetle cryptonephridial system, an adaptation for water conservation, which represents a major modification of the MpT ground plan characterised by intimate association between MpTs and rectum. This work establishes a new model to compare MpT development across insects, and provides a framework to help understand how an evolutionary novelty - the cryptonephridial system - arose during organ evolution. PMID:25242057

  18. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Marten; Vergnon, Remi; van Nes, Egbert H; Cuppen, Jan G M; Peeters, Edwin T H M; Leijs, Remko; Nilsson, Anders N

    2015-01-01

    While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the world's 4168 species of diving beetles. We show that across the globe these animals have evolved towards a small number of regularly-spaced body sizes, and that locally co-existing species are either very similar in size or differ by at least 35%. Surprisingly, intermediate size differences (10-20%) are rare. As body-size strongly reflects functional aspects such as the food that these generalist predators can eat, these beetles thus form relatively distinct groups of functional look-a-likes. The striking global regularity of these patterns support the idea that a self-organizing process drives such species-rich groups to self-organize evolutionary into clusters where functional redundancy ensures resilience through an insurance effect. PMID:26447476

  19. Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Sloggett, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that ladybirds are quite often eaten by frogs and toads (Anura), with recorded frequencies reaching up to 15% of dietary items. Salamanders (Caudata) eat ladybirds less frequently, probably as their habits less often bring them into contact with the beetles. Amphibians do not appear to be deleteriously affected by the potentially toxic alkaloids that ladybirds possess. Amphibians, especially frogs and toads, use primarily prey movement as a release cue to attack their food; it is thus likely that their ability to discriminate against ladybirds and other chemically defended prey is limited. Because of this poor discriminatory power, amphibians have apparently evolved non-specific resistance to prey defensive chemicals, including ladybird alkaloids. Although amphibian-related ladybird mortality is limited, in certain habitats it could outweigh mortality from more frequently studied predators, notably birds. The gut analyses from the herpetological literature used in this study, suggest that in studying predation of insects, entomologists should consider specialized literature on other animal groups. PMID:26466621

  20. Early origin of parental care in Mesozoic carrion beetles

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chen-Yang; Thayer, Margaret K.; Engel, Michael S.; Newton, Alfred F.; Ortega-Blanco, Jaime; Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiang-Dong; Huang, Di-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction and timing of the early stages of social evolution, such as parental care, in the fossil record is a challenge, as these behaviors often do not leave concrete traces. One of the intensely investigated examples of modern parental care are the modern burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus), a lineage that includes notable endangered species. Here we report diverse transitional silphids from the Mesozoic of China and Myanmar that provide insights into the origins of parental care. Jurassic silphids from Daohugou, sharing many defining characters of Nicrophorinae, primitively lack stridulatory files significant for parental care communications; although morphologically similar, Early Cretaceous nicrophorines from the Jehol biota possess such files, indicating that a system of parental care had evolved by this early date. More importantly, burying beetles of the genus Nicrophorus have their earliest first record in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, and document early evolution of elaborate biparental care and defense of small vertebrate carcasses for their larvae. Parental care in the Early Cretaceous may have originated from competition between silphids and their predators. The rise of the Cretaceous Nicrophorinae implies a biology similar to modern counterparts that typically feed on carcasses of small birds and mammals. PMID:25225362

  1. Intermediate disturbance in experimental landscapes improves persistence of beetle metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Byju N; Feng, Zhilan; DeWoody, Yssa D; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-03-01

    Human-dominated landscapes often feature patches that fluctuate in suitability through space and time, but there is little experimental evidence relating the consequences of dynamic patches for species persistence. We used a spatially and temporally dynamic metapopulation model to assess and compare metapopulation capacity and persistence for red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) in experimental landscapes differentiated by resource structure, patch dynamics (destruction and restoration), and connectivity. High connectivity increased the colonization rate of beetles, but this effect was less pronounced in heterogeneous relative to homogeneous landscapes. Higher connectivity and faster patch dynamics increased extinction rates in landscapes. Lower connectivity promoted density-dependent emigration. Heterogeneous landscapes containing patches of different carrying capacity enhanced landscape-level occupancy probability. The highest metapopulation capacity and persistence was observed in landscapes with heterogeneous patches, low connectivity, and slow patch dynamics. Control landscapes with no patch dynamics exhibited rapid declines in abundance and approached extinction due to increased adult mortality in the matrix, higher pupal cannibalism by adults, and extremely low rates of exchange between remaining habitable patches. Our results highlight the role of intermediate patch dynamics, intermediate connectivity, and the nature of density dependence of emigration for persistence of species in heterogeneous landscapes. Our results also demonstrate the importance of incorporating local dynamics into the estimation of metapopulation capacity for conservation planning. PMID:26236869

  2. Species Radiation of Carabid Beetles (Broscini: Mecodema) in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Julia; Knapp, Michael; Emberson, Rowan M.; Townsend, J. Ian; Trewick, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand biodiversity has often been viewed as Gondwanan in origin and age, but it is increasingly apparent from molecular studies that diversification, and in many cases origination of lineages, postdate the break-up of Gondwanaland. Relatively few studies of New Zealand animal species radiations have as yet been reported, and here we consider the species-rich genus of carabid beetles, Mecodema. Constrained stratigraphic information (emergence of the Chatham Islands) and a substitution rate for Coleoptera were separately used to calibrate Bayesian relaxed molecular clock date estimates for diversification of Mecodema. The inferred timings indicate radiation of these beetles no earlier than the mid-Miocene with most divergences being younger, dating to the Plio-Pleistocene. A shallow age for the radiation along with a complex spatial distribution of these taxa involving many instances of sympatry implicates recent ecological speciation rather than a simplistic allopatric model. This emphasises the youthful and dynamic nature of New Zealand evolution that will be further elucidated with detailed ecological and population genetic analyses. PMID:24465949

  3. Quantification of motility of carabid beetles in farmland.

    PubMed

    Allema, A B; van der Werf, W; Groot, J C J; Hemerik, L; Gort, G; Rossing, W A H; van Lenteren, J C

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of the movement of insects at field and landscape levels helps us to understand their ecology and ecological functions. We conducted a meta-analysis on movement of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), to identify key factors affecting movement and population redistribution. We characterize the rate of redistribution using motility μ (L2 T-1), which is a measure for diffusion of a population in space and time that is consistent with ecological diffusion theory and which can be used for upscaling short-term data to longer time frames. Formulas are provided to calculate motility from literature data on movement distances. A field experiment was conducted to measure the redistribution of mass-released carabid, Pterostichus melanarius in a crop field, and derive motility by fitting a Fokker-Planck diffusion model using inverse modelling. Bias in estimates of motility from literature data is elucidated using the data from the field experiment as a case study. The meta-analysis showed that motility is 5.6 times as high in farmland as in woody habitat. Species associated with forested habitats had greater motility than species associated with open field habitats, both in arable land and woody habitat. The meta-analysis did not identify consistent differences in motility at the species level, or between clusters of larger and smaller beetles. The results presented here provide a basis for calculating time-varying distribution patterns of carabids in farmland and woody habitat. The formulas for calculating motility can be used for other taxa. PMID:25673121

  4. Synthesis of a dimethylfuran-containing macrolide insect pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthetic pathway to the furan-containing macrolide pheromone of Galerucella beetles was shortened from 13 steps in the original synthesis to 10 steps, and the overall yield was increased greater than six fold. A concise Reformatsky-based sequence of reactions was utilized to construct the key ...

  5. Improved Synthesis of a Dimethylfuran-Containing Macrolide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthetic pathway to the furan-containing macrolide pheromone of Galerucella beetles was shortened from 13 steps in the original synthesis to 10 steps, and the overall yield was increased greater than six fold. A concise Reformatsky-based sequence of reactions was utilized to construct the key ...

  6. Relationships between sugarcane leaf hyperspectral reflectance, leaf nitrogen content, and yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf spectral reflectance has been used to estimate crop leaf chemical composition and other physiological characters. Leaf reflectance of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) may be of use in evaluating genotypes. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify sugarcane genotypic variation in leaf hypers...

  7. Analysis of Circadian Leaf Movements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616

  8. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past five or so years blueberry growers in south Mississippi have discovered the disease Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot on some of their blueberry plants. In the past this disease was considered to be of minor importance occurring infrequently on isolated farms. But in recent years it ...

  9. Diversity, abundance and community network structure in sporocarp-associated beetle communities of the central Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Epps, Mary Jane; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Although arthropods are abundant and diverse in and on macrofungal sporocarps, their associations with fungi seldom have been described at a community level. We examined sporocarp-associated beetle communities in two primary sites in the Appalachian Mountains and foothills, assessing beetle diversity and abundance in relation to study site, sampling season (early vs. late summer), and sporocarp characteristics such as taxonomic position, dry mass and age. From 758 sporocarps representing >180 species we recovered 15404 adult beetles representing 72 species and 15 families, primarily Staphylinidae (> 98% of individuals and of 64% morphospecies). The probability of sporocarp colonization by beetles, beetle abundance and diversity differed among fungal species and were positively associated with sporocarp dry mass. Sporocarp age was positively correlated with beetle diversity and abundance (as measured in a focal species, Megacollybia platyphylla, Tricholomataceae), and its effects were independent of dry mass. Many beetle species were generalists, visiting a wide breadth of fungi in both the Agaricales and Polyporales; however, several beetle taxa showed evidence of specialization on particular fungal hosts. Host association data were used to examine the structure underlying sporocarp-beetle associations. Here we present the first evidence of nested community structure in the sporocarp-beetle interaction network. PMID:20648747

  10. Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin. PMID:21882695

  11. Long-term dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and its biocontrol agent, flea beetles in the genus Aphthona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.; Larson, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Three flea beetle species (Aphthona spp.), first introduced into North America in 1988, have come to be regarded as effective biological control organisms for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). The black flea beetles (Aphthona lacertosa and A. czwalinae) in particular have been shown to cause reductions in leafy spurge stem counts in the northern Great Plains, while the brown flea beetle (A. nigriscutis) has persisted and spread, but has not been found to be as effective at controlling leafy spurge. The ability of black flea beetles to control leafy spurge in any given year, however, has been found to vary. To better understand the long-term effects of flea beetle herbivory on leafy spurge, we monitored stem counts of leafy spurge and numbers of black and brown flea beetles at three sites on two National Wildlife Refuges in east-central North Dakota, USA, from 1998 to 2006. Brown flea beetle numbers were observed to be negligible on these sites. Over the 9 years of the study, black flea beetles were seen to spread over the three study sites and leafy spurge stem counts declined substantially on two of the three sites. Even at low densities of spurge, black flea beetle populations persisted, a necessary prerequisite for long-term control. We used structural equation models (SEM) to assess the yearly effects of black flea beetles, soil texture, and refuge site on leafy spurge stem counts over this time period. We then used equations developed from the SEM analysis to explore flea beetle-leafy spurge dynamics over time, after controlling for soil texture and refuge. Yearly effect strength of black flea beetles on leafy spurge was found to be modest, largely owing to substantial spatial variability in control. However, simulation results based on prediction coefficients revealed leafy spurge to be highly responsive to increases in flea beetle populations on average.

  12. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  1. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  7. Tree branch angle: maximizing effective leaf area.

    PubMed

    Honda, H; Fisher, J B

    1978-02-24

    In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature. PMID:17757590

  8. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277...

  13. Comparison of half and full-leaf shape feature extraction for leaf classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainin, Mohd Shamrie; Ahmad, Faudziah; Alfred, Rayner

    2016-08-01

    Shape is the main information for leaf feature that most of the current literatures in leaf identification utilize the whole leaf for feature extraction and to be used in the leaf identification process. In this paper, study of half-leaf features extraction for leaf identification is carried out and the results are compared with the results obtained from the leaf identification based on a full-leaf features extraction. Identification and classification is based on shape features that are represented as cosines and sinus angles. Six single classifiers obtained from WEKA and seven ensemble methods are used to compare their performance accuracies over this data. The classifiers were trained using 65 leaves in order to classify 5 different species of preliminary collection of Malaysian medicinal plants. The result shows that half-leaf features extraction can be used for leaf identification without decreasing the predictive accuracy.

  14. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... specifications, and tolerances C1L Choice Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth... injury tolerance. C2L Fine Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... specifications, and tolerances C1L Choice Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth... injury tolerance. C2L Fine Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... specifications, and tolerances C1L Choice Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth... injury tolerance. C2L Fine Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... specifications, and tolerances C1L Choice Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth... injury tolerance. C2L Fine Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C5L Low Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf Underripe, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C4F Fair Quality Medium-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...