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Sample records for leafminer phyllocnistis citrella

  1. Phyllocnistis citrella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, is a global pest of citrus. Damage is caused by larval mining of the leaves that reduces photosynthetic capacity of the leaves and predisposes the wounded leaf to infection by the bacterium that causes citrus canker disease. This entry in the encylopedia...

  2. Multiple leafminer species attracted to the major pheromone components of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is a major pest of citrus throughout the world due to leafmining damage that reduces photosynthetic capacity of leaves and increases the incidence and severity of citrus canker disease. A lure comprised of two aldehyde compounds isolated from ph...

  3. Coverage patterns reduce cost of mating disruption for control of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a global pest of citrus and contributes to the incidence and severity of citrus bacterial canker, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. SPLAT-CLM™ (ISCA Technologies)is an emulsified wax product that provides sustained rele...

  4. A novel pheromone dispenser for mating disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sex pheromone of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, was deployed in a Florida citrus grove using a novel deployment device containing SPLAT™, a flowable formulation of an emulsified wax compound designed to provide slow release of semiochemicals. The device consisted of two disks con...

  5. Exacerbation of citrus canker by citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is an important bacterial disease of citrus that is spread naturally by rain and wind. Damage to citrus leaves by the citrus leafminer (CLM) , Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), has been shown to promote infect...

  6. Season-long mating disruption of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, with an emulsified wax formulation of pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, is a major world wide pest of citrus. Mating disruption has proven effective against this pest in small plot investigations. We achieved season-long disruption of P. citrella with a newly developed, flowable emulsified wax dispenser of pheromone (SPLAT-CLM™...

  7. Attraction of a native Florida leafminer, Phyllocnistis insignis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), to pheromone of invasive citrus leafminer, P. citrella: Evidence for mating disruption of a native nontarget species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We collected a native North American species, Phyllocnistis insignis (Frey & Boll), in traps baited with a 3:1 blend of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal (triene) and (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal (diene), two components of the sex pheromone of the exotic citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton....

  8. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-12-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management. PMID:23667805

  9. Disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus: effect of blend and placement height, longevity of disruption and emission profile of a new dispenser

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent efforts to disrupt mating of the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a global pest of citrus, have focused on the use of SPLAT™ (ISCA Technologies), a flowable wax emulsion intended to serve as a slow-release matrix for pheromones. Early success with this...

  10. Attraction of a native Florida leafminer, Phyllocnistis insignis, to pheromone of an invasive citrus Leafminer, P. citrella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We collected a native North American species, Phyllocnistis insignis (Frey & Boll) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in traps baited with a 3:1 blend of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal (triene) and (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal (diene), 2 components of the sex pheromone of the invasive citrus leafminer, P....

  11. Movement of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), from a grove to traps and sentinel plants in adjacent land

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We captured male Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton in traps baited with pheromone in pastureland 1200 m west of a known source. The capture of males was correlated with northeast wind blowing from groves, suggesting males moved passively on wind currents from groves before navigating upwind toward phe...

  12. Describing seasonal phenology of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) with pheromone lure: controlling for lure degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps were deployed in a Florida citrus grove at various dates over the course of one year to describe the seasonal flight phenology of the leafminer Phyllocnistic citrella. To compensate for lure degradation, a correction factor was applied based on a regression model of relative lure efficiency, e...

  13. Investigating dormant season application of pheromone in citrus to control overwintering and spring populations of Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, reproduces on leaf flush during winter. Deployment of pheromone during winter could suppress moth populations in spring and summer more than a spring application alone. We tested the primary pheromone component of Phyllocnistis (P. citrella), (Z,Z,E)-7...

  14. Advances in mating disruption for control of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined proportionality and concentration of sex pheromone blends for mating disruption for citrus leafminer using geometric designs. Either major component was effective at disrupting mating in field trials; (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal was approximately 13 times more effective compared with...

  15. An applicator for high viscosity semiochemical products and intentional treatment gaps for mating disruption of Phyllocnistis citrella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella is a global pest of citrus and contributes to the incidence and severity of citrus bacterial canker, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. SPLAT-CLM™ (ISCA Technologies, Inc.) is an emulsified wax product that provides sustained release of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatr...

  16. Spatial distribution of parasitism on Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, 1856 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, S M; Redaelli, L R; Diefenbach, L M G; Efrom, C F

    2008-11-01

    Many species of microhymenopterous parasitoids have been registered on Phyllocnistis citrella, the citrus leafminer. The present study aimed to identify the spatial distribution pattern of the native and introduced parasitoids of P. citrella in two citrus orchards in Montenegro, RS. The new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees in each orchard were inspected at the bottom (0-1.5 m) and top (1.5-2.5 m) stratum and had their position relative to the quadrants (North, South, East and West) registered at every 15 days from July/2002 to June/2003. The leaves with pupae were collected and kept isolated until the emergence of parasitoids or of the leaf miner; so, the sampling was biased towards parasitoids that emerge in the host pupal phase. The horizontal spatial distribution was evaluated testing the fitness of data to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. In Montenegrina, there was no significant difference in the number of parasitoids and in the mean number of pupae found in the top and bottom strata (chi2 = 0.66; df = 1; P > 0.05) (chi2 = 0.27; df =1; P > 0.05), respectively. In relation to the quadrants, the highest average numbers of the leafminer pupae and of parasitoids were registered at the East quadrant (chi2 = 11.81; df = 3; P < 0.05), (chi2 = 10.36; df = 3; P < 0.05). In the Murcott orchard, a higher number of parasitoids was found at the top stratum (63.5%) (chi2 = 7.24; df =1 P < 0.05), the same occurring with the average number of P. citrella pupae (62.9%) (chi2 = 6.66; df = 1; P < 0.05). The highest number of parasitoids and of miners was registered at the North quadrant (chi2 = 19. 29; df = 3; P < 0.05), (chi2 = 4.39; df = 3; P < 0.05). In both orchards, there was no difference between the numbers of shoots either relative to the strata as well as to the quadrants. As the number of shoots did not varied much relative to the quadrants, it is possible that the higher number of miners and parasitoids in the East and West quadrants would be

  17. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella Pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Simone M; Redaelli, Luiza R; Diefenbach, Lúcia M G; Dal Soglio, Fábio K

    2007-01-01

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leafminer, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 degrees 68'S and 51 degrees 46'W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. PMID:18060301

  18. Citrus Leafminer Mating Disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption targets a specific pest and has no negative impact on natural enemies, the environment, or agricultural workers. A flowable wax dispenser was tested for releasing the female sex pheromone of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella. These dispensers are biodegradable, inexpens...

  19. Winter and spring application of SPLAT-CLM for control of citrus leafminer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is active throughout the year in Florida and reproduces on periodic leaf flush in winter. We tested mating disruption in mature grapefruit trees during winter and spring using SPLAT-CLM, an emulsified wax with prolonged release of the insect’s prima...

  20. Off-ratio blends for mating disruption of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone studies often seek to identify an optimal response to continuously varied mixture components wherein proportionality of one component cannot be varied independently. Geometric designs were used to systematically and efficiently explore the experimental space defined by pheromone amount and...

  1. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, Donald R; Wagner, David L

    2011-01-01

    Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae). Phyllocnistis hyperpersea,new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea,new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia,new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened) foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica. PMID:21594066

  2. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Donald R.; Wagner, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae). Phyllocnistis hyperpersea,new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea,new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia,new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened) foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica. PMID:21594066

  3. Using response surface methods to explore and optimize mating disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of synthetic sex pheromones to disrupt mating of agricultural pests can be an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to pesticide applications. Optimizing mating disruption by manipulating multiple and interrelated variables such as the distribution and number of pheromon...

  4. Pheromones as mixtures: geometric designs and response surface modeling for optimization of mating disruption of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone blends composed of one or more components are mixtures. Mixtures present a unique problem for experiment design when response (e.g., insect attraction to a blend) is a function of proportionality of the blend's components. In mixtures, the ingredients must total to a constant value. Prop...

  5. Leafminers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafminers can be serious indirect pests of apple feeding on leaf tissue. When abundance is high, they can reduce yield, cause premature fruit drop and disturbing fruit pickers. Normally, they are controlled by parasitic wasps, but this control can be precluded by application of some types of pest...

  6. Sensory imbalance as mechanism of orientation disruption in the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella: Elucidation by multivariate geometric designs and response surface models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimental designs developed to address mixtures are ideally suited for many areas of experimental biology including pheromone blend studies because they address the confounding of proportionality and concentration intrinsic to factorial and one-factor-at-a-time designs. Geometric multivariate des...

  7. Area-wide mating disruption of a major citrus pest using an off-ratio blend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is a global pest of citrus and contributes to the incidence and severity of citrus bacterial canker disease. Results of response surface models generated by mixture-amount experiments suggested that an off-ratio blend consisting of t...

  8. Leafminers help us understand leaf hydraulic design.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Andrea; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2010-07-01

    Leaf hydraulics of Aesculus hippocastanum L. were measured over the growing season and during extensive leaf mining by the larvae of an invasive moth (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic) that specifically destroy the palisade tissue. Leaves showed seasonal changes in hydraulic resistance (R(lamina)) which were related to ontogeny. After leaf expansion was complete, the hydraulic resistance of leaves and the partitioning of resistances between vascular and extra-vascular compartments remained unchanged despite extensive disruption of the palisade by leafminers (up to 50%). This finding suggests that water flow from the petiole to the evaporation sites might not directly involve the palisade cells. The analysis of the temperature dependence of R(lamina) in terms of Q(10) revealed that at least one transmembrane step was involved in water transport outside the leaf vasculature. Anatomical analysis suggested that this symplastic step may be located at the bundle sheath where the apoplast is interrupted by hydrophobic thickening of cell walls. Our findings offer some support to the view of a compartmentalization of leaves into well-organized water pools so that the transpiration stream would involve veins, bundle sheath and spongy parenchyma, while the palisade tissue would be largely by-passed with the possible advantage of protecting cells from short-term fluctuations in water status. PMID:20199625

  9. Effects of urbanisation on the parasitoid community of a leafminer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio, María S.; Salvo, Adriana; Estallo, Elizabet L.

    2009-03-01

    Urbanisation may have detrimental effects on communities of parasitoids, affecting their species richness, abundance, and species dominance. Here we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanisation on parasitoid communities of Liriomyza commelinae (Frost) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), a leafminer of Commelina erecta L. (Commelinaceae), in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. To study changes in species richness, the specific composition of parasitic complexes and their degree of impact on the leafminer, 18 sampling sites from the centre to the outskirts of the city were selected and different variables indicative of urbanisation were quantified in each site. During January and February of 2005 and 2006, all mined leaves found in each plant patch were collected and the following variables were estimated: proportion of mined patches, abundance of the leafminer, total parasitoid species richness, total parasitism rates and parasitism due to the most abundant parasitoid species. The percentage of mined patches and leafminer abundance increased with urbanisation degree. Estimates of parasitoid species richness were not influenced by urbanisation degree but increased with species richness of mined plants. Changes in the specific composition of species along the urbanisation gradient were observed. Although parasitism by one of the species studied was higher in more urbanised sites of the city, the total parasitism rate of L. commelinae was not affected by urbanisation degree, species richness of mined plants or leafminer abundance. It appears that urbanisation benefits the herbivore species here studied but not through altering parasitoid activity. Changes in parasitoid community composition reflex dissimilar tolerance to environmental conditions displayed by different parasitoid species.

  10. Molecular survey for the invasive leafminer pest Liriomyza Huidobrensis in California (Diptera: Agromyzidae) uncovers only the native pest L. langei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liriomyza huidobrensis is a highly destructive invasive leafminer pest currently causing extensive damage to vegetable and horticultural crops around the world. Liriomyza langei is a leafminer pest native to California that cannot currently be morphologically distinguished from L. huidobrensis. This...

  11. Impact of Insecticides on Parasitoids of the Leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii, in Pepper in South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Ricardo; Harris, Marvin; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2011-01-01

    Liriomyza leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are cosmopolitan, polyphagous pests of horticultural plants and many are resistant to insecticides. Producers in South Texas rely on insecticides as the primary management tool for leafminers, and several compounds are available. The objective of this study is to address the efficacy of these compounds for controlling Liriomyza while minimizing their effects against natural enemies. Research plots were established at Texas AgriLife research center at Weslaco, Texas in fall 2007 and spring 2008 seasons, and peppers were used as a model crop. Plots were sprayed with novaluron, abamectin, spinetoram, lambda-cyhalothrin and water as treatments according to leafminer infestation; insecticide efficacy was monitored by collecting leaves and infested foliage. Plant phenology was also monitored. Novaluron was the most effective insecticide and lambda-cyhalothrin showed resurgence in leafminer density in fall 2007 and no reduction in spring 2008. Other compounds varied in efficacy. Novaluron showed the least number of parasitoids per leafminer larva and the lowest parasitoid diversity index among treatments followed by spinetoram. Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) was the sole leafminer species on peppers, and 19 parasitoid species were found associated with this leafminer. Application of these insecticides for management of leafminers with conservation of natural enemies is discussed. PMID:21864155

  12. Impact of insecticides on parasitoids of the leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii, in pepper in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ricardo; Harris, Marvin; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2011-01-01

    Liriomyza leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are cosmopolitan, polyphagous pests of horticultural plants and many are resistant to insecticides. Producers in South Texas rely on insecticides as the primary management tool for leafminers, and several compounds are available. The objective of this study is to address the efficacy of these compounds for controlling Liriomyza while minimizing their effects against natural enemies. Research plots were established at Texas AgriLife research center at Weslaco, Texas in fall 2007 and spring 2008 seasons, and peppers were used as a model crop. Plots were sprayed with novaluron, abamectin, spinetoram, lambda-cyhalothrin and water as treatments according to leafminer infestation; insecticide efficacy was monitored by collecting leaves and infested foliage. Plant phenology was also monitored. Novaluron was the most effective insecticide and lambda-cyhalothrin showed resurgence in leafminer density in fall 2007 and no reduction in spring 2008. Other compounds varied in efficacy. Novaluron showed the least number of parasitoids per leafminer larva and the lowest parasitoid diversity index among treatments followed by spinetoram. Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) was the sole leafminer species on peppers, and 19 parasitoid species were found associated with this leafminer. Application of these insecticides for management of leafminers with conservation of natural enemies is discussed. PMID:21864155

  13. Effects of rootstock and flushing on the incidence of three insects on 'Clementine de Nules' citrus trees.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S Trapero; García, A Hervalejo; Pérez, M Jiménez; Boyero, J R; Vela, J M; Martínez-Ferri, E

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of six different citrus rootstocks on the incidence of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), and the aphid species, Aphis gossypii Glover and A. spiraecola Patch (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on 'Clementine de Nules' trees (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.). Sampling was conducted during 2005 and 2006 in a grove of 3-yr-old trees in southern Spain with six rootstocks arranged in a completely randomized block design. Incidence (i.e., degree of infestation) and availability of resources for herbivores were assessed bi-weekly, and in addition, a "flushing index" was estimated as the number of young shoots (as a percentage of total shoots) susceptible to herbivore injury. Our results showed that contrasting factors affected the incidence of populations of P. citrella, A. gossypii, and A. spiraecola on 'Clementine de Nules'. Incidence of P. citrella was significantly dependent on the flushing pattern observed throughout the study, whereas the reverse was true for the aphid species. Among these, A. spiraecola had similar levels of incidence regardless of rootstock, whereas A. gossypii were found almost exclusively on leaves of 'Clementine de Nules' grafted on 'Cleopatra mandarin' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan). Potential implications of these results on pest control are discussed. PMID:19161697

  14. Genetic diversity and association analysis of leafminer (Liriomyza langei) resistance in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Shi, Ainong; Mou, Beiquan

    2016-08-01

    Leafminer (Liriomyza langei) is a major insect pest of many important agricultural crops, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Use of genetic resistance is an efficient, economic, and environment-friendly method to control this pest. The objective of this research was to conduct association analysis and identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with leafminer resistance in spinach germplasm. A total of 300 USDA spinach germplasm accessions were used for the association analysis of leafminer resistance. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) was used for genotyping and 783 SNPs from GBS were used for association analysis. The leafminer resistance showed a near normal distribution with a wide range from 1.1 to 11.7 stings per square centimeter leaf area, suggesting that the leafminer resistance in spinach is a complex trait controlled by multiple genes with minor effect in this spinach panel. Association analysis indicated that five SNP markers, AYZV02040968_7171, AYZV02076752_412, AYZV02098618_4615, AYZV02147304_383, and AYZV02271373_398, were associated with the leafminer resistance with LOD 2.5 or higher. The SNP markers may be useful for breeders to select plants and lines for leafminer resistance in spinach breeding programs through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27490441

  15. DNA barcoding of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA barcoding revealed the presence of the polyphagous leafminer pest Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in Bangladesh. DNA barcode sequences for mitochondrial COI were generated for Agromyzidae larvae, pupae and adults collected from field populations across Bangladesh. BLAST sequence similarity searches ...

  16. Disarming the Jasmonate-Dependent Plant Defense Makes Nonhost Arabidopsis Plants Accessible to the American Serpentine Leafminer1

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; Tateishi, Ken; Seo, Shigemi; Kugimiya, Soichi; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Sawada, Yuji; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yara, Kaori; Shimoda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2013-01-01

    Here, we analyzed the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the American serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii), an important and intractable herbivore of many cultivated plants. We examined the role of the immunity-related plant hormone jasmonate (JA) in the plant response and resistance to leafminer feeding to determine whether JA affects host suitability for leafminers. The expression of marker genes for the JA-dependent plant defense was induced by leafminer feeding on Arabidopsis wild-type plants. Analyses of JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants suggested the importance of JA in the plant response to leafminer feeding. The JA content of wild-type plants significantly increased after leafminer feeding. Moreover, coi1-1 mutants showed lower feeding resistance against leafminer attack than did wild-type plants. The number of feeding scars caused by inoculated adult leafminers in JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants was higher than that in wild-type plants. In addition, adults of the following generation appeared only from coi1-1 mutants and not from wild-type plants, suggesting that the loss of the JA-dependent plant defense converted nonhost plants to accessible host plants. Interestingly, the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system may play at most a minor role in this conversion, indicating that this major antiherbivore defense of Brassica species plants probably does not have a major function in plant resistance to leafminer. Application of JA to wild-type plants before leafminer feeding enhanced feeding resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium). Our results indicate that JA plays an important role in the plant response and resistance to leafminers and, in so doing, affects host plant suitability for leafminers. PMID:24022267

  17. The leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) encapsulates its koinobiont parasitoid Halticoptera circulus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Kemmochi, T; Fujimori, S; Saito, T

    2016-06-01

    The koinobiont parasitoid Halticoptera circulus (Walker) is a potential biological control agent of leafminers, but it has only rarely been collected from the invasive leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), in Japan. To understand why this is the case, parasitism and development of H. circulus in L. trifolii was compared with parasitism and development in two indigenous leafminer species, Liriomyza chinensis Kato and Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau). There was no significant difference in parasitism rates by H. circulus in the three leafminer species and the eggs and larvae successfully developed in L. chinensis and C. horticola. However, H. circulus failed to develop in L. trifolii, where developmental stages were encapsulated by host haemocytes. This parasitoid may be a good agent to control indigenous leafminers such as L. chinensis and C. horticola but is unlikely to be useful for the biological control of the invasive L. trifolii in Japan. PMID:26639841

  18. Elachista saccharella (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), a leafminer infesting sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leafminer, Elachista saccharella (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) was found in Louisiana on 12 July 2006 and documented as a new distribution record for Louisiana and the south-central United States and represents a significant range extension for the species. Elachista saccharella was first ...

  19. Insecticide-mediated apparent displacement between two invasive species of Leafminer fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Closely related invasive species may often displace one another, but it is often difficult to determine mechanisms because of the historical nature of these events. The leafmining flies Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii have become serious invasive agricultural pests throughout the world. W...

  20. Genetic diversity and association analysis of leafminer (Liriomyza langei) resistance in spinach (Spinacia oleracea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafminer (Liriomyza spp.) is a major insect pest of many important agricultural crops, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Use of genetic resistance is an efficient, economic and environment-friendly method to control this pest. The objective of this research was to conduct association analysis ...

  1. Repellent response of female agromyzid flies to leafminer-infested bean plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, L. trifolii (Burgess) and L. huidobrensis (Blanchard) are three invasive leafminer species (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in China that have caused significant economic damage on vegetables and ornamental plants. In the current study, the repellent responses of female adults to ...

  2. The first confirmed record of the leafminer Phytomyza rufipes (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytomyza rufipes Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is a leafmining pest of Brassicaceae in Europe and other regions of the world. Once reported from Oregon in the United States, this record has since been found to be a misidentification. Here we report P. rufipes for the first time from California. We ...

  3. Local crop planting systems enhance insecticide-mediated displacement of two invasive leafminer fly.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yulin; Reitz, Stuart R; Wei, Qingbo; Yu, Wenyan; Zhang, Zhi; Lei, Zhongren

    2014-01-01

    Liriomyza sativae and L. trifolii are highly invasive leafminer pests of vegetable crops that have invaded southern China in recent years. Liriomyza sativae was the first of these species to invade China, but it is now being displaced by L. trifolii. The rate and extent of this displacement vary across southern China. In Hainan, monocultures of highly valuable cowpea are planted and treated extensively with insecticides in attempts to control leafminer damage. In Guangdong, cowpea fields are interspersed with other less valuable crops, such as towel gourd (Luffa cylindrica), which receive significantly fewer insecticide applications than cowpea. To determine how differences in cropping systems influence the Liriomyza species composition, we conducted field trials in 2011 and 2012 in Guangdong where both species were present. We replicated conditions in Hainan by planting cowpea monocultures that were isolated from other agricultural fields, and we replicated conditions in Guangdong by planting cowpea in a mixed crop environment with towel gourd planted in neighboring plots. We then compared leafminer populations in cowpea treated with the insecticide avermectin and untreated cowpea. We also monitored leafminer populations in the untreated towel gourd. Untreated cowpea and towel gourd had comparatively low proportions of L. trifolii, which remained relatively stable over the course of each season. Avermectin applications led to increases in the proportions of L. trifolii, and after three weekly applications populations were >95% L. trifolii in both crop systems. However, the rate of change and persistence of L. trifolii in the mixed crop system were less than in the monocrop. These results indicate that L. trifolii is much less susceptible to avermectin than is L. sativae. Further, L. sativae was able to persist in the untreated towel gourd, which probably enabled it to recolonize treated cowpea. PMID:24651465

  4. Community dynamics of leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in a natural habitat from Central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valladares, Graciela; Salvo, Adriana

    2001-12-01

    We examined the temporal community dynamics of leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera) and their mainly polyphagous parasitoids in a natural habitat from Central Argentina. Changes in community composition are shown by changes in dominant species and similarity coefficients. Abundance of leafminers was highest in winter, and was not related to their species richness. Abundance and species richness were correlated in the parasitoid community. Temporal variation in parasitoid diversity and abundance were positively correlated with species number and density in the host community. Apparent parasitism was greater when parasitoid species richness was high and parasitoid community dominance was low.

  5. Effects of host-plant population size and plant sex on a specialist leaf-miner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañuelos, María-José; Kollmann, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    Animal population density has been related to resource patch size through various hypotheses such as those derived from island biogeography and resource concentration theory. This theoretical framework can be also applied to plant-herbivore interactions, and it can be modified by the sex of the host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in the form of egg scars, mines, signs of predation and emergence holes. This allows the life cycle of the insect to be reconstructed and the success at the different stages to be estimated. The main stages of the leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis were recorded in eleven populations of the evergreen host Ilex aquifolium in Denmark. Survival rates were calculated and related to population size, sex of the host plant, and egg and mine densities. Host population size was negatively related to leaf-miner prevalence, with larger egg and mine densities in small populations. Percentage of eggs hatching and developing into mines, and percentage of adult flies emerging from mines also differed among host populations, but were not related to population size or host cover. Feeding punctures left by adults were marginally more frequent on male plants, whereas egg scars and mines were more common on females. Overall survival rate from egg stage to adult emergence was higher on female plants. Egg density was negatively correlated with hatching, while mine density was positively correlated with emergence of the larvae. The inverse effects of host population size were not in line with predictions based on island biogeography and resource concentration theory. We discuss how a thorough knowledge of the immigration behaviour of this fly might help to understand the patterns found.

  6. MU06-857, a Green Leaf Lettuce Breeding Line with Resistance to Leafminer and Lettuce Mosaic Virus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a breeding line of green leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with resistance to leafminers (Liriomyza langei Frick) and lettuce mosaic. The line MU06-857 is similar to cultivar ‘Lolla Rossa’ (‘Lollo Ros...

  7. Impact of five insecticides used to control citrus pests on the parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola Longvinovskaya (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).

    PubMed

    de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2016-07-01

    The parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola Longvnovskaya is a main biological control agent of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, an insect pest that causes considerable damage to citrus worldwide. However, the use of pesticides to control arthropod pests can reduce the effectiveness of parasitoids and disrupt integrated pest management in citrus groves. This study evaluated the impact on A. citricola of five insecticides that are used to control arthropod pests in citrus. Our results indicated that imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and β-cyfluthrin were harmful (mortality >89 %) to A. citricola adults; whereas abamectin did not cause significant mortality and was considered harmless to the parasitoid. In addition to causing high mortality, imidacloprid and bifenthrin were considered moderately persistent, because they caused <25 % mortality to 17 and 24 days after spraying (DAS), respectively. Chlorpyrifos and β-cyfluthrin were considered slightly persistent (mortality <25 %, 7 DAS). Although abamectin was considered harmless to A. citricola adults, had a short life (mortality <25 %, 3 DAS), and did not significantly affect the parasitism rate, the number and viability of pupae, or the longevity of A. citricola, this insecticide significantly reduced the proportion of females in the progeny compared to the control treatment. Therefore, semi-field and field studies that consider demographic parameters are needed to evaluate the impacts of these insecticides on the A. citricola parasitoid. PMID:27146672

  8. Characterization, distribution, biology and impact on Italian walnut orchards of the invasive North-American leafminer Coptodisca lucifluella (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae).

    PubMed

    Bernardo, U; van Nieukerken, E J; Sasso, R; Gebiola, M; Gualtieri, L; Viggiani, G

    2015-04-01

    The leafminer Coptodisca sp. (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae), recently recorded for the first time in Europe on Italian black and common walnut trees, is shown to be the North-American Coptodisca lucifluella (Clemens) based on morphological (forewing pattern) and molecular (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I sequence) evidence. The phylogenetic relatedness of three species feeding on Juglandaceae suggests that C. lucifluella has likely shifted, within the same host plant family, from its original North-American hosts Carya spp. to Juglans spp. Over the few years since its detection, it has established in many regions in Italy and has become a widespread and dominant invasive species. The leafminer completes three to four generations per year, with the first adults emerging in April-May and mature larvae of the last generation starting hibernation in September-October. Although a high larval mortality was recorded in field observations (up to 74%), the impact of the pest was substantial with all leaves infested at the end of the last generation in all 3 years tested. The distribution of the leafminer in the canopy was homogeneous. The species is redescribed and illustrated, a lectotype is designated and a new synonymy is established. PMID:25630620

  9. Four new leaf-mining Acalyptris species from Guatemala and Belize, with new data on bionomics of Stigmella pruinosa (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae).

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Noreika, Remigijus; Schuster, Jack

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes four new species: Acalyptris basicornis Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., A. peteni Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., A. caribbicus Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (host-plant: Lantana involucrata L., Verbenaceae), and A. statuarius Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. Another species, Stigmella pruinosa Puplesis & Robinson, is re-described, with new distribution records in Guatemala and with the first documentation of leaf-mines on Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae). All five species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, adults, and genitalia. PMID:25112742

  10. The mitochondrial genome of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, You-Zhu; Jin, Gui-Hua; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) (GenBank accession no. KR047789). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Chromatomyia. The current length with partial A  +  T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 15,320 bp with an A  +  T content of 77.54%. All the 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes were sequenced, except for the A  +  T-rich region. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Diptera, there is no rearrangement compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with the ATN start codon except for the gene cox1, which uses abnormal TTG. The A  +  T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnI with a sequenced length of 503 bp. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes recovered the monophyly of Agromyzidae with one species of Chromatomyia and four species of Liriomyza in our study. The superfamily Oestroidea (with Agromyzidae in analysis) is sister to the Opomyzoidea. PMID:26066024

  11. Mining the plant-herbivore interface with a leafmining Drosophila of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Noah K.; Groen, Simon C.; Chevasco, Daniela; Bear, Ashley; Beckwith, Noor; Gregory, T. Ryan; Denoux, Carine; Mammarella, Nicole; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Pierce, Naomi E.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental infections of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with genomically characterized plant pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae have facilitated dissection of canonical eukaryotic defense pathways and parasite virulence factors. Plants are also attacked by herbivorous insects, and the development of an ecologically relevant genetic model herbivore that feeds on Arabidopsis will enable the parallel dissection of host defense and reciprocal resistance pathways such as those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. An ideal candidate is Scaptomyza flava, a drosophilid fly whose leafmining larvae are true herbivores that can be found in nature feeding on Arabidopsis and other crucifers. Here we describe the eukaryotic life cycle of S. flava on Arabidopsis, and use multiple approaches to characterize the response of Arabidopsis to S. flava attack. Oviposition choice tests and growth performance assays on different Arabidopsis ecotypes, defense-related mutants, and hormone and chitin-treated plants revealed significant differences in host preference and variation in larval performance across Arabidopsis accessions. The jasmonate (JA) and glucosinolate pathways in Arabidopsis are important in mediating quantitative resistance against S. flava, and priming with JA or chitin resulted in increased resistance. Expression of xenobiotic detoxification genes was reduced in S. flava larvae reared on Arabidopsis JA signaling mutants, and increased in plants pre-treated with chitin. These results and future research directions are discussed in the context of developing a genetic model system to analyze insect/plant interactions. PMID:21073583

  12. Identification of the female-produced sex pheromone of Tischeria ekebladella, an oak leafmining moth.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Béla Péter; Tröger, Armin; Toshova, Theodora B; Subchev, Mitko; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Koster, J C Sjaak; Szőcs, Gábor; Tóth, Miklós; Francke, Wittko

    2012-10-01

    The native leafmining moth Tischeria ekebladella (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae) feeds on oaks and recently has become a pest of silviculture and urban green areas in central Europe. The behavioral responses of male moths to hexane extracts of whole bodies of calling females or males were tested under laboratory conditions. Only extracts of females elicited responses from males. Analysis of extracts by coupled gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection revealed the presence of two electroantennogram-active peaks. Structure elucidation of these compounds, by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry and independent synthesis revealed them to be (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene and (3Z,6Z,9Z,19Z)-tricosa-3,6,9,19-tetraene. While the triene was present in both sexes, the tetraene was female-specific. The latter is a new structure for a pheromone component of Lepidoptera and a novel natural product. Field trapping tests, carried out in a mixed oak forest near Budapest (Hungary), using synthetic compounds applied to rubber dispensers, showed that the tetraene per se elicited catches of males in large numbers. When the triene was added to the tetraene in a ratio of 1:1, there was no increase in trap catch; the triene alone did not elicit catches of males. For monitoring this insect, the tetraene, applied to rubber dispensers at a dose of 300 μg, is a potent sex attractant. PMID:23053915

  13. DNA-based identifications reveal multiple introductions of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) into the Torres Strait Islands and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Blacket, M J; Rice, A D; Semeraro, L; Malipatil, M B

    2015-10-01

    Leafmining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) can be serious economic pests of horticultural crops. Some genera such as Liriomyza are particularly problematic with numerous species, some of which are highly polyphagous (wide host range), which can only be confidently identified morphologically from adult males. In our study, DNA barcoding was employed to establish new locality records of the vegetable leafminer fly, Liriomyza sativae, from the islands of Torres Strait (Queensland, Australia) and the central highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). These records represent significant range extensions of this highly invasive plant pest. Specimens of immature leafminers (from leaf mines) were collected over a 5-year period during routine plant health surveys in ethanol or on FTA® filter paper cards, both methods proved effective at preserving and transporting insect DNA under tropical conditions, with FTA cards possessing some additional logistical benefits. Specimens were identified through sequencing two sections of the cytochrome oxidase I gene and the utility of each was assessed for the identification of species and intra-specific genetic lineages. Our study indicates that multiple haplotypes of L. sativae occur in PNG, while a different haplotype is present in the Torres Strait, with genetic regionalization between these areas apart from a single possible instance - one haplotype 'S.7' appears to be common between these two regions - interestingly this has also been the most common haplotype detected in previous studies of invasive L. sativae populations. The DNA barcoding methods employed here not only identified multiple introductions of L. sativae, but also appear generally applicable to the identification of other agromyzid leafminers (Phytomyzinae and Agromyzinae) and should decrease the likelihood of potentially co-amplifying internal hymenopteran parasitoids. Currently, L. sativae is still not recorded from the Australian mainland; however, further sampling of

  14. Putative polymerase chain reaction markers for insecticide resistance in the leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) to cyromazine and abamectin.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott; Pineda, Omaira

    2010-12-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to identify polymorphic genomic DNA that would discriminate among cyromazine-resistant, abamectin-resistant, and susceptible Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) leafminers. Using a reference strain that was susceptible to both cyromazine and abamectin, and a cyromazine-resistant strain and an abamectin-resistant strain, 400 oligonucleotides were assayed using RAPD-PCR. We found that two oligonucleotides, B10 and G16, amplified unique bands in the cyromazine-resistant strain but not in the reference or abamectin-resistant strains. Three oligonucleotides, K04, J13, and I02, showed polymorphisms unique to the abamectin-resistant strain but not in the reference or cyromazine-resistant strain. Leaf dip bioassays and RAPD-PCR were performed on two additional reference strains, seven strains from commercial ornamental production greenhouses, and one field strain. The two reference strains were negative for the resistance-correlated oligonucleotides. Of the seven strains from ornamental greenhouses, leaf dip bioassays showed that five had some level of resistance to both abamectin and cyromazine, whereas two were susceptible. The field strain was susceptible to both cyromazine and abamectin. In RAPD-DNA analyses, the five strains with abamectin resistance were positive for the three abamectin resistance-correlated oligonucleotides K04, J13, and I02. In the cases of cyromazine resistance, the five strains with cyromazine resistance were positive for the two cyromazine resistance-correlated oligonucleotides B10 and G16. The field strain and two greenhouse strains that were susceptible in leaf dip bioassays were negative for all three abamectin resistance-correlated oligonucleotides. The field strain and one greenhouse strain were negative for the two cyromazine resistance-correlated oligonucleotides; however, one greenhouse strain that was susceptible to cyromazine

  15. Leaf-mining by Phyllonorycter blancardella reprograms the host-leaf transcriptome to modulate phytohormones associated with nutrient mobilization and plant defense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Body, Mélanie; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Reichelt, Michael; Unsicker, Sybille; Bruneau, Maryline; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Huguet, Elisabeth; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Giron, David

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones have long been hypothesized to play a key role in the interactions between plant-manipulating organisms and their host-plants such as insect-plant interactions that lead to gall or 'green-islands' induction. However, mechanistic understanding of how phytohormones operate in these plant reconfigurations is lacking due to limited information on the molecular and biochemical phytohormonal modulation following attack by plant-manipulating insects. In an attempt to fill this gap, the present study provides an extensive characterization of how the leaf-miner Phyllonorycter blancardella modulates the major phytohormones and the transcriptional activity of plant cells in leaves of Malus domestica. We show here, that cytokinins strongly accumulate in mined tissues despite a weak expression of plant cytokinin-related genes. Leaf-mining is also associated with enhanced biosynthesis of jasmonic acid precursors but not the active form, a weak alteration of the salicylic acid pathway and a clear inhibition of the abscisic acid pathway. Our study consolidates previous results suggesting that insects may produce and deliver cytokinins to the plant as a strategy to manipulate the physiology of the leaf to create a favorable nutritional environment. We also demonstrate that leaf-mining by P. blancardella leads to a strong reprogramming of the plant phytohormonal balance associated with increased nutrient mobilization, inhibition of leaf senescence and mitigation of plant direct and indirect defense. PMID:26068004

  16. Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development and the stabilization of p53 protein of American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Changmann; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2012-01-01

    The American serpentine leafminer fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests worldwide. In this study, we determined electron beam doses for inhibition of normal development of the leaf miner and investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation on DNA damage and p53 stability. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (2nd instar), puparia (0-24 h old after pupariation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with increasing doses of electron beam irradiation (six levels between 30 and 200 Gy). At 150 Gy, the number of adults that developed from irradiated eggs, larvae and puparia was lower than in the untreated control. Fecundity and egg hatchability decreased depending on the doses applied. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated flies demonstrated that males were more radiotolerant than females. Adult longevity was not affected in all stages. The levels of DNA damage in L. trifolii adults were evaluated using the alkaline comet assay. Our results indicate that electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, low doses of electron beam irradiation led to the rapid appearance of p53 protein within 6 h; however, it decreased after exposure to high doses (150 Gy and 200 Gy). These results suggest that electron beam irradiation induced not only abnormal development and reproduction but also p53 stability caused by DNA damage in L. trifolii. We conclude that a minimum dose of 150 Gy should be sufficient for female sterilization of L. trifolii.

  17. Identification of the Female-Produced Sex Pheromone of the Leafminer Holocacista capensis Infesting Grapevine in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Geertsema, Henk; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Löfstedt, Christer

    2015-08-01

    We report the first identification of a sex pheromone in a heliozelid moth, Holocacista capensis van Nieukerken & Geertsema. This leafminer recently infested grapevine in South Africa. Compared to solvent extraction of pheromone glands, solid phase microextraction (SPME) proved to be highly effective for collection of the pheromone from calling females. The volatiles collected by SPME were analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD). Three compounds eliciting electrophysiological activity from the male antenna were identified as (Z)-5-tetradecenal, (Z)-7-tetradecenal, and (Z)-9-hexadecenal by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS analysis of dimethyldisulphide (DMDS) derivatives of fatty acyl moieties in pheromone gland extracts confirmed the presence of the corresponding putative pheromone precursors with double bonds in the same position and with Z geometry. Field trapping experiments in a South African vineyard confirmed that both (Z)-5-tetradecenal and (Z)-7-tetradecenal are essential for the attraction of male H. capensis, whereas addition of (Z)-9-hexadecenal to the blend did not affect the attractiveness. The composition of the pheromone is discussed in relation to the phylogeny of this family of moths. PMID:26271672

  18. Abamectin resistance in strains of vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is linked to elevated glutathione S-transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing-Bo; Lei, Zhong-Ren; Nauen, Ralf; Cai, Du-Cheng; Gao, Yu-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Abamectin resistance was selected in the vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) under laboratory conditions, and cross-resistance patterns and possible resistance mechanisms in the abamectin-resistant strains (AL-R, AF-R) were investigated. Compared with the susceptible strain (SS), strain AL-R displayed 39-fold resistance to abamectin after 20 selection cycles during 25 generations, and strain AF-R exhibited 59-fold resistance to abamectin after 16 selection cycles during 22 generations. No cross-resistance to cyromazine was found in both abamectin-resistant strains. However, we failed to select for cyromazine resistance in L. sativae under laboratory conditions by conducting 17 selection cycles during 22 generations. However, moderate levels of cross-resistance to abamectin (6-9 fold) were observed in strains which received cyromazine treatments. Biochemical analysis showed that glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in both abamectin-resistant strains (AL-R, AF-R) was significantly higher than in the susceptible strain (SS), suggesting metabolically driven resistance to abamectinin L. sativae. Recommendations of mixtures or rotation of cyromazine and abamectin should be considered carefully, as consecutive cyromazine treatments may select for low-level cross-resistance to abamectin. PMID:25813391

  19. A new leafminer on grapevine and Rhoicissus (Vitaceae) in South Africa within an expanded generic concept of Holocacista (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae)

    PubMed Central

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Geertsema, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A grapevine leafminer found recently in table grape orchards and vineyards in the Paarl region (Western Cape, South Africa) is described as Holocacista capensis sp. n. It has also been found on native Rhoicissus digitata and bred on that species in the laboratory. It is closely related to Holocacista salutans (Meyrick, 1921), comb. n. (from Antispila), described from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, but widespread in southern Africa and a native leafminer of various Vitaceae: Rhoicissus tomentosa, Rhoicissus digitata, Rhoicissus tridentata and Cissus cornifolia. Holocacista capensis has been found on Vitis vinifera both in Gauteng and Western Cape, the earliest record being from 1950 in Pretoria. The initial host shift from native Vitaceae to Vitis must have occurred much earlier. The species is sometimes present in high densities, but hitherto no sizeable damage to the crops has been noted. The genus Holocacista Walsingham & Durrant, 1909, previously known from the single European grapevine leafminer Holocacista rivillei (Stainton, 1855), is expanded and redescribed and for the first time reported from Africa, East and South-East Asia and Australia. It comprises seven named species and at least 15 unnamed species. The following species are also recombined with Holocacista: transferred from Antispilina: South-African Holocacista varii (Mey, 2011), comb. n., feeding on Pelargonium, transferred from Antispila: the Indian species Holocacista micrarcha (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. and Holocacista pariodelta (Meyrick, 1929), comb. n., both feeding on Lannea coromandelica, and Holocacista selastis (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. on Psychotria dalzelii. We also remove the following from Antispila: Heliozela anna (Fletcher, 1920), comb. n. and Heliozela argyrozona (Meyrick, 1918), comb. n., whereas the following Indian Vitaceae feeding species are confirmed to belong in Antispila s. str.: Antispila argostoma Meyrick, 1916 and Antispila aristarcha Meyrick, 1916. Holocacista

  20. Effects of 4 years of CO 2 enrichment on the abundance of leaf-galls and leaf-mines in mature oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampichler, Christian; Teschner, Markus; Klein, Stefan; Körner, Christian

    2008-09-01

    Since CO 2 enrichment alters the composition of live plant tissues, the ongoing global increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration is expected to affect plant-animal interactions. Although this is a widely explored field, test systems studied so far have not included mature trees. Our study uses the Swiss Canopy Crane and the web-FACE CO 2 enrichment system in a 35 m tall temperate deciduous forest. We studied the in situ abundance of dominant leaf-galls and leaf-miners on 13 mature oaks before the treatment started, and in two sub-groups, one of which received CO 2 enrichment from 2001 to 2004. We expected that gall-inducing cynipids ( Neuroterus quercusbaccarum and N. numismalis) would show similar loads with spangle-galls on the two tree groups, due to their capacity to manipulate their host plant and the quality of gall tissues. On the other hand, we expected that leaf-miners ( Tischeria ekebladella) would show higher infestation on trees with high-quality (i.e. low C/N ratio, etc.) foliage leading to less mines on CO 2 enriched oaks. Partially in line with our hypothesis, spangle-gall density showed only a positive short-term pulse effect ( N. quercusbaccarum only) and did not differ across treatments after 4 years. In contrast to our hypothesis, the leaf-miner species did not respond persistently to CO 2 enrichment either; it even showed higher infestation on CO 2 enriched oaks in the 1st year after the onset of enrichment. In conclusion, CO 2 enrichment had no lasting effect in all three taxa, despite the substantial and consistent change in leaf chemistry of oak due to growth in elevated CO 2.

  1. A new leafminer on grapevine and Rhoicissus (Vitaceae) in South Africa within an expanded generic concept of Holocacista (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae).

    PubMed

    van Nieukerken, Erik J; Geertsema, Henk

    2015-01-01

    A grapevine leafminer found recently in table grape orchards and vineyards in the Paarl region (Western Cape, South Africa) is described as Holocacistacapensis sp. n. It has also been found on native Rhoicissusdigitata and bred on that species in the laboratory. It is closely related to Holocacistasalutans (Meyrick, 1921), comb. n. (from Antispila), described from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, but widespread in southern Africa and a native leafminer of various Vitaceae: Rhoicissustomentosa, Rhoicissusdigitata, Rhoicissustridentata and Cissuscornifolia. Holocacistacapensis has been found on Vitisvinifera both in Gauteng and Western Cape, the earliest record being from 1950 in Pretoria. The initial host shift from native Vitaceae to Vitis must have occurred much earlier. The species is sometimes present in high densities, but hitherto no sizeable damage to the crops has been noted. The genus Holocacista Walsingham & Durrant, 1909, previously known from the single European grapevine leafminer Holocacistarivillei (Stainton, 1855), is expanded and redescribed and for the first time reported from Africa, East and South-East Asia and Australia. It comprises seven named species and at least 15 unnamed species. The following species are also recombined with Holocacista: transferred from Antispilina: South-African Holocacistavarii (Mey, 2011), comb. n., feeding on Pelargonium, transferred from Antispila: the Indian species Holocacistamicrarcha (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. and Holocacistapariodelta (Meyrick, 1929), comb. n., both feeding on Lanneacoromandelica, and Holocacistaselastis (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. on Psychotriadalzelii. We also remove the following from Antispila: Heliozelaanna (Fletcher, 1920), comb. n. and Heliozelaargyrozona (Meyrick, 1918), comb. n., whereas the following Indian Vitaceae feeding species are confirmed to belong in Antispila s. str.: Antispilaargostoma Meyrick, 1916 and Antispilaaristarcha Meyrick, 1916. Holocacistasalutans and Holocacistavarii are

  2. First description of leaf-mining Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) feeding on the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    Despite taxonomic and conservation interest in the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae: subfamily Asteroideae, tribe Heliantheae), no Podanthus-feeding Nepticulidae or Tischeriidae have ever been recorded. Here, on the basis of material reared from Podanthus from central Mediterranean Chile, we present the description of Stigmella podanthae sp. nov. (Nepticulidae) and a re-description of Astrotischeria chilei Puplesis & Diškus, 2003. Females and host-plant of the latter species were previously unknown. Both treated species are illustrated with numerous photographs of the leaf-mines, adults of both sexes, and male and female genitalia. PMID:27395486

  3. Pre-release efficacy assessment of the leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a potential biological control agent for Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike & Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) is a potential biological control agent for the invasive vine Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lemaire (Asteraceae), in western North America, where two morphological varieties (stipulate and exstipulate) of Cape-i...

  4. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy in leafmining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae): Delimitation of Phytomyza fallén s. lat. and its species groups, with new insights on genitalic and host-use evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytomyza is the largest genus of leaf-mining flies (Agromyzidae), including over 530 species as previously delimited. Species of the very similar genus Chromatomyia are sometimes included in Phytomyza, and its status has been uncertain. Using 3,076 base pairs of DNA sequence from three genes (COI...

  5. Species Composition, Distribution, and Seasonal Abundance of Liriomyza Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Under Different Vegetable Production Systems and Agroecological Zones in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Foba, C N; Salifu, D; Lagat, Z O; Gitonga, L M; Akutse, K S; Fiaboe, K K M

    2015-04-01

    A longitudinal study to identify the species of Liriomyza leafminer, their distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal variation, including their host range, was conducted in vegetable fields at three altitudes in Kenya from November 2011 to November 2012. Three main species were identified: Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard), Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, and Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), of which L. huidobrensis was the most abundant across all altitudes irrespective of the cropping season and accounting for over 90% of the total Liriomyza specimens collected. Liriomyza species were collected from all infested incubated leaves of 20 crops surveyed belonging to seven families: Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Brassicaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Amaryllidaceae. However, more than 87.5% of the Liriomyza species were obtained from only four of these crops: Pisum sativum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Solanum lycopersicum L., and Solanum tuberosum, thereby demonstrating that Fabaceae and Solonaceae crops are the most important hosts with regard to Liriomyza species richness and relative abundance. L. huidobrensis had the widest host range (20 crops), followed by L. sativae (18 crops) and L. trifolii (12 crops). Although L. trifolii has been considered the dominant Liriomyza leafminer in Kenya, this study suggests that this may not be the case anymore, as L. huidobrensis dominates at all altitudes. PMID:26313175

  6. Insect-induced effects on plants and possible effectors used by galling and leaf-mining insects to manipulate their host-plant.

    PubMed

    Giron, David; Huguet, Elisabeth; Stone, Graham N; Body, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    Gall-inducing insects are iconic examples in the manipulation and reprogramming of plant development, inducing spectacular morphological and physiological changes of host-plant tissues within which the insect feeds and grows. Despite decades of research, effectors involved in gall induction and basic mechanisms of gall formation remain unknown. Recent research suggests that some aspects of the plant manipulation shown by gall-inducers may be shared with other insect herbivorous life histories. Here, we illustrate similarities and contrasts by reviewing current knowledge of metabolic and morphological effects induced on plants by gall-inducing and leaf-mining insects, and ask whether leaf-miners can also be considered to be plant reprogrammers. We review key plant functions targeted by various plant reprogrammers, including plant-manipulating insects and nematodes, and functionally characterize insect herbivore-derived effectors to provide a broader understanding of possible mechanisms used in host-plant manipulation. Consequences of plant reprogramming in terms of ecology, coevolution and diversification of plant-manipulating insects are also discussed. PMID:26723843

  7. A Global Phylogeny of Leafmining Ectoedemia Moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): Exploring Host Plant Family Shifts and Allopatry as Drivers of Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore assessed the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation within Ectoedemia. Methodology Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 92 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leafmining insects. Significance We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae. Most species are restricted to one of the seven global biogeographic regions, but within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find general patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different

  8. Does Temperature-Mediated Reproductive Success Drive the Direction of Species Displacement in Two Invasive Species of Leafminer Fly?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haihong; Reitz, Stuart R.; Xiang, Juncheng; Smagghe, Guy; Lei, Zhongren

    2014-01-01

    Liriomyza sativae and L. trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are two highly invasive species of leafmining flies, which have become established as pests of horticultural crops throughout the world. In certain regions where both species have been introduced, L. sativae has displaced L. trifolii, whereas the opposite has occurred in other regions. These opposing outcomes suggest that neither species is an inherently superior competitor. The regions where these displacements have been observed (southern China, Japan and western USA) are climatically different. We determined whether temperature differentially affects the reproductive success of these species and therefore if climatic differences could affect the outcome of interspecific interactions where these species are sympatric. The results of life table parameters indicate that both species can develop successfully at all tested temperatures (20, 25, 31, 33°C). L. sativae had consistently higher fecundities at all temperatures, but L. trifolii developed to reproductive age faster. Age-stage specific survival rates were higher for L. sativae at low temperatures, but these were higher for L. trifolii at higher temperatures. We then compared the net reproductive rates (R0) for both species in pure and mixed cultures maintained at the same four constant temperatures. Both species had significantly lower net reproductive rates in mixed species cultures compared with their respective pure species cultures, indicating that both species are subject to intense interspecific competition. Net reproductive rates were significantly greater for L. sativae than for L. trifolii in mixed species groups at the lower temperatures, whereas the opposite occurred at the higher temperature. Therefore, interactions between the species are temperature dependent and small differences could shift the competitive balance between the species. These temperature mediated effects may contribute to the current ongoing displacement of L. sativae by

  9. Antispila oinophylla new species (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae), a new North American grapevine leafminer invading Italian vineyards: taxonomy, DNA barcodes and life cycle.

    PubMed

    van Nieukerken, Erik J; Wagner, David L; Baldessari, Mario; Mazzon, Luca; Angeli, Gino; Girolami, Vicenzo; Duso, Carlo; Doorenweerd, Camiel

    2012-01-01

    A grapevine leafminer Antispila oinophylla van Nieukerken & Wagner, sp. n., is described both from eastern North America (type locality: Georgia) and as a new important invader in North Italian vineyards (Trentino and Veneto Region) since 2006. The species is closely related to, and previously confused with Antispila ampelopsifoliella Chambers, 1874, a species feeding on Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planchon., and both are placed in an informal Antispila ampelopsifoliella group. Wing pattern, genitalia, and DNA barcode data all confirm the conspecificity of native North American populations and Italian populations. COI barcodes differ by only 0-1.23%, indicating that the Italian populations are recently established from eastern North America. The new species feeds on various wild Vitis species in North America, on cultivated Vitis vinifera L. in Italy, and also on Parthenocissus quinquefolia in Italy. North American Antispila feeding on Parthenocissus include at least two other species, one of which is Antispila ampelopsifoliella. Morphology and biology of the new species are contrasted with those of North American Antispila Hübner, 1825 species and European Holocacista rivillei (Stainton, 1855). The source population of the introduction is unknown, but cases with larvae or pupae, attached to imported plants, are a likely possibility. DNA barcodes of the three European grapevine leafminers and those of all examined Heliozelidae are highly diagnostic. North American Vitaceae-feeding Antispila form two species complexes and include several as yet unnamed taxa. The identity of three out of the four previously described North American Vitaceae-feeding species cannot be unequivocally determined without further revision, but these are held to be different from Antispila oinophylla. In Italy the biology of Antispila oinophylla was studied in a vineyard in the Trento Province (Trentino-Alto Adige Region) in 2008 and 2009. Mature larvae overwinter

  10. Antispila oinophylla new species (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae), a new North American grapevine leafminer invading Italian vineyards: taxonomy, DNA barcodes and life cycle

    PubMed Central

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Wagner, David L.; Baldessari, Mario; Mazzon, Luca; Angeli, Gino; Girolami, Vicenzo; Duso, Carlo; Doorenweerd, Camiel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A grapevine leafminer Antispila oinophylla van Nieukerken & Wagner, sp. n., is described both from eastern North America (type locality: Georgia) and as a new important invader in North Italian vineyards (Trentino and Veneto Region) since 2006. The species is closely related to, and previously confused with Antispila ampelopsifoliella Chambers, 1874, a species feeding on Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planchon., and both are placed in an informal Antispila ampelopsifoliella group. Wing pattern, genitalia, and DNA barcode data all confirm the conspecificity of native North American populations and Italian populations. COI barcodes differ by only 0–1.23%, indicating that the Italian populations are recently established from eastern North America. The new species feeds on various wild Vitis species in North America, on cultivated Vitis vinifera L. in Italy, and also on Parthenocissus quinquefolia in Italy. North American Antispila feeding on Parthenocissus include at least two other species, one of which is Antispila ampelopsifoliella. Morphology and biology of the new species are contrasted with those of North American Antispila Hübner, 1825 species and European Holocacista rivillei (Stainton, 1855). The source population of the introduction is unknown, but cases with larvae or pupae, attached to imported plants, are a likely possibility. DNA barcodes of the three European grapevine leafminers and those of all examined Heliozelidae are highly diagnostic. North American Vitaceae-feeding Antispila form two species complexes and include several as yet unnamed taxa. The identity of three out of the four previously described North American Vitaceae-feeding species cannot be unequivocally determined without further revision, but these are held to be different from Antispila oinophylla. In Italy the biology of Antispila oinophylla was studied in a vineyard in the Trento Province (Trentino-Alto Adige Region) in 2008 and 2009. Mature larvae

  11. Effects of Endophyte Colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) Plants on the Life–History of Leafminer Parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akutse, Komivi S.; Fiaboe, Komi K. M.; Van den Berg, Johnnie; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1) and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1) on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2nd and 3rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68) and D. isaea (p = 0.45) and adult' survival times (p = 0.06). The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001) in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54) was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression. PMID:25338084

  12. Novel insect leaf-mining after the end-Cretaceous extinction and the demise of cretaceous leaf miners, Great Plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Michael P; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C; Johnson, Kirk R; Peppe, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma) in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia. PMID:25058404

  13. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

    PubMed

    Pocock, Michael J O; Evans, Darren M

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people with

  14. The Success of the Horse-Chestnut Leaf-Miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK Revealed with Hypothesis-Led Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Pocock, Michael J. O.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the ‘Conker Tree Science’ project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people

  15. Novel Insect Leaf-Mining after the End-Cretaceous Extinction and the Demise of Cretaceous Leaf Miners, Great Plains, USA

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Michael P.; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Johnson, Kirk R.; Peppe, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma) in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia. PMID:25058404

  16. Control of the Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Open-Field Tomatoes by Indigenous Natural Enemies Occurring in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shaltiel-Harpaz, Liora; Gerling, Dan; Graph, Shaul; Kedoshim, Hendrika; Azolay, Lotem; Rozenberg, Tamir; Nachache, Yaakov; Steinberg, Shimon; Allouche, Arnon; Alon, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), had established in Israel by 2010, attacking both open-field tomatoes and greenhouse crops.We searched for its natural enemies in open-field tomatoes, and tried to determine their potential for controlling this pest. We surveyed the local natural enemies in open tomato fields and measured their impact on pest populations in an unsprayed field. We assessed the suppressive ability of the dominant hemipteran predator, Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter, against T. absoluta under controlled laboratory conditions and evaluated the impact of its augmentation on T. absoluta control in open-field tomatoes. We found five natural enemy species:the predator, N. tenuis, two braconids, and two eulophids. Predation accounted for 64.5±9.2% (mean ± SE) of T. absoluta larval mortality, whereas parasitism accounted for 20.96±7.5%. Together, they eliminated the pest population at tomato harvest time. Under controlled conditions, predation by N. tenuis rose from 58 to 72% with increased density of T. absoluta, suggesting positive density dependence. The reduction of T. absoluta (83%) by N. tenuis was higher than that of Bemisia tabaci (32%), suggesting a preference of N. tenuis for T. absoluta. Augmentation of N.tenuis was as effective as conventional treatment insecticide treatment, and plant damage was low and did not seem to affect yield. Results indicate that reduced pesticide use enables indigenous natural enemies, particularly N.tenuis, to successfully control T. absoluta and prevent crop damage in open-field tomatoes. PMID:26567332

  17. Does citrus leaf miner impair hydraulics and fitness of citrus host plants?

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Fabio; Trifilò, Patrizia; Gullo, Maria A Lo

    2013-12-01

    Gas exchange and hydraulic features were measured in leaves of three different Citrus species (Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon L., Citrus  ×  paradisii Macfad) infested by Phyllocnistis citrella Staiton, with the aim to quantify the impact of this pest on leaf hydraulics and, ultimately, on plant fitness. Infested leaves were characterized by the presence on the leaf blade of typical snake-shaped mines and, in some cases, of a crumpled leaf blade. Light microscopy showed that leaf crumpling was induced by damage to the cuticular layer. In all three Citrus species examined: (a) the degree of infestation did not exceed 10% of the total surface area of infested plants; (b) control and infested leaves showed similar values of minimum diurnal leaf water potential, leaf hydraulic conductance and functional vein density; and (c) maximum diurnal values of stomatal conductance to water vapour, transpiration rate and photosynthetic rate (An) were similar in both control leaves and the green areas of infested leaves. A strong reduction of An was recorded only in mined leaf areas. Our data suggest that infestation with P. citrella does not cause conspicuous plant productivity reductions in young Citrus plants, at least not in the three Citrus species studied here. PMID:24319027

  18. LEAFMINER-RESISTANT SPINACH GERMPLASM 03-04-63

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) breeding line 03-04-63. 03-04-63 is a semi-flat type of spinach with dark green, semi-erect leaves. The line may be suitable for commercial production, and is suitable...

  19. Release of Spinach Germplasm With Resistance to Leafminers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) breeding line 03-04-63. 03-04-63 is a semi-flat type of spinach with dark green, semi-erect leaves. The line may be suitable for commercial production, and is suitable...

  20. Defense by volatiles in leaf-mining insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Boevé, Jean-Luc; Sonet, Gontran; Nagy, Zoltán Tamás; Symoens, Françoise; Altenhofer, Ewald; Häberlein, Christopher; Schulz, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    The defense strategy of an insect toward natural enemies can include a trait that appears at first sight to contradict its defensive function. We explored phylogeny, chemistry, and defense efficiency of a peculiar group of hymenopteran sawfly larvae where this contradiction is obvious. Pseudodineurini larvae live in leaf mines that protect them from some enemies. Disturbed larvae also emit a clearly perceptible lemon-like odor produced by ventral glands, although the mine hampers the evaporation of the secretion. The mine could also lead to autointoxication of a larva by its own emitted volatiles. Citral was the major component in all Pseudodineurini species, and it efficiently repels ants. We conclude that full-grown larvae that leave their mine to pupate in the soil benefit from citral by avoiding attacks from ground-dwelling arthropods such as ants. In some species, we also detected biosynthetically related compounds, two 8-oxocitral diastereomers (i.e., (2E,6E)- and (2E,6Z)-2,6-dimethylocta-2,6-dienedial). Synthetic 8-oxocitral proved to be a potent fungicide, but not an ant repellent. The discrete distribution of 8-oxocitral was unrelated to species grouping in the phylogenetic tree. In contrast, we discovered that its presence was associated with species from humid and cold zones but absent in species favoring warm and dry environments. The former should be protected by 8-oxocitral when faced with a fungal infestation while crawling into the soil. Our work shows the importance of integrating knowledge about behavior, morphology, and life history stages for understanding the complex evolution of insects and especially their defense strategies. PMID:19390895

  1. Checklist of the leaf-mining flies (Diptera, Agromyzidae) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. 279 (or 280) species are currently known from the country. Phytomyza linguae Lundqvist, 1947 is recorded as new to Finland. PMID:25337025

  2. Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, M.A.; Jeyaprakash, A.; Clarke-Harris, D.

    2007-03-15

    These data indicate that the population of A. citricola in Jamaica probably originated from the Australian (Thailand), rather than from the Taiwan, population. This is consistent with what is currently known about the origin of the established Ageniaspis population in Florida (Alvarez 2000). It is not known when, or how, A. citricola arrived in Jamaica, although the CLM was detected there in 1994. The fortuitous establishment of A. citricolaon the CLM in Jamaica is not the only such establishment of a natural enemy discovered during this 2004 survey of citrus. The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) was found attacking the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Hoy et al., unpublished data), and the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia radiata Waterston was found attacking the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The fact that 3 natural enemies of 3 invasive citrus pests were found in Jamaica, none of which were purposefully imported and released, suggests that pest-infested citrus trees were imported into Jamaica without going through appropriate quarantine procedures. Because each pest arrived at different times, the parasitoids probably arrived at different times, as well. This indicates that an analysis is needed to identify the critical control points within those services in Jamaica that support border protection, and that procedures may require strengthening. (author)

  3. Leaf-Mining and Gall-Forming Insects: Tools for Teaching Population Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Valerie K.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the use of leaf mines (formed by larvae of small moths or flies) and galls (wasps' larvae) in various insect population studies. Also considers the advantages of using these structures for instructional purposes. (DH)

  4. Genes Involved in the Evolution of Herbivory by a Leaf-Mining, Drosophilid Fly

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Noah K.; Gloss, Andrew D.; Sackton, Timothy B.; Groen, Simon C.; Humphrey, Parris T.; Lapoint, Richard T.; Sønderby, Ida E.; Halkier, Barbara A.; Kocks, Christine; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Pierce, Naomi E.

    2012-01-01

    Herbivorous insects are among the most successful radiations of life. However, we know little about the processes underpinning the evolution of herbivory. We examined the evolution of herbivory in the fly, Scaptomyza flava, whose larvae are leaf miners on species of Brassicaceae, including the widely studied reference plant, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Scaptomyza flava is phylogenetically nested within the paraphyletic genus Drosophila, and the whole genome sequences available for 12 species of Drosophila facilitated phylogenetic analysis and assembly of a transcriptome for S. flava. A time-calibrated phylogeny indicated that leaf mining in Scaptomyza evolved between 6 and 16 million years ago. Feeding assays showed that biosynthesis of glucosinolates, the major class of antiherbivore chemical defense compounds in mustard leaves, was upregulated by S. flava larval feeding. The presence of glucosinolates in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants reduced S. flava larval weight gain and increased egg–adult development time relative to flies reared in glucosinolate knockout (GKO) plants. An analysis of gene expression differences in 5-day-old larvae reared on WT versus GKO plants showed a total of 341 transcripts that were differentially regulated by glucosinolate uptake in larval S. flava. Of these, approximately a third corresponded to homologs of Drosophila melanogaster genes associated with starvation, dietary toxin-, heat-, oxidation-, and aging-related stress. The upregulated transcripts exhibited elevated rates of protein evolution compared with unregulated transcripts. The remaining differentially regulated transcripts also contained a higher proportion of novel genes than the unregulated transcripts. Thus, the transition to herbivory in Scaptomyza appears to be coupled with the evolution of novel genes and the co-option of conserved stress-related genes. PMID:22813779

  5. Developing and implementing mating disruption for area-wide control of citrus leafminer and citrus canker disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful development and commercial launch of the first semiochemical-based control method for a major exotic insect pest and associated disease of citrus in Florida have resulted from vigorous collaboration between university and government researchers with support from private industry and innov...

  6. Can the parasitoid Necremnus tutae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) improve existing biological control of the tomato leafminer Tuta aboluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)?

    PubMed

    Calvo, F J; Soriano, J D; Stansly, P A; Belda, J E

    2016-08-01

    Necremnus tutae is native to the Mediterranean region where it has been observed in greenhouses parasitizing the invasive Tuta absoluta on tomato. The objective of the present study was to determine whether augmentative releases of N. tutae can improve existing biological control of T. absoluta based on predation by Nesidicoris tenuis. Two experiments were carried out, of which the first evaluated different N. tutae release rates (1 and 2 N. tutae m-2 week-1). The parasitoid reduced plant and fruit damage, especially at the higher rate. However, such reduction was considered insufficient given the large numbers of parasitoids needed and still unacceptable level of fruit damage. The second experiment focused on combining the most efficient rate of N. tutae of those evaluated during the first experiment, with the pre- and post-planting release of N. tenuis and supplemental additions of Ephestia kuehniella eggs. Addition of N. tutae decreased leaf damage by T. absoluta regardless the release method for N. tenuis, but the pre-plant release of N. tenuis alone was sufficient to prevent fruit damage by T. absoluta. This suggested that the addition of N. tutae may not be necessary to obtain satisfactory control of T. absoluta following pre-plant application of N. tenuis, although different options for using N. tutae in commercial crops may still be possible. PMID:27121181

  7. Repeated Climate-linked host shifts have promoted diversification in a temperate clade of leaf-mining flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A central but little-tested prediction of "escape and radiation" coevolution is that colonization of novel, chemically defended host plant clades accelerates insect herbivore diversification. That theory, in turn, exemplifies one side of a broader debate about the relative influence on clade dynami...

  8. Redescription of immatures and bionomy of the Palaearctic species dicladispa testacea (Linnaeus, 1767) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Hispini), a leaf-mining hispine beetle.

    PubMed

    Swiętojańska, Jolanta; Borowiec, Lech; Stach, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Dicladispa testacea (Linnaeus, 1767) is a member of the tribe Hispini Gyllenhal, 1813 associated with plants of the family Cistaceae Juss. and is widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin. Immature stages are described in detail, including line drawings, chaetotaxy, sculpture of integument, and SEM photos of morphological details. This is the first detailed description of immatures in the tribe Hispini, and this can be regarded as a model description for studies of other species in the tribe. Diagnostic characters for this species in comparison with other described larvae and pupae of the genus Dicladispa and the sympatric Hispa atra Linnaeus, 1767 are discussed. Some remarks on the biology of Dicladispa testacea, such as host plants, feeding patterns of adults, structure of larval and pupal mines, are also given. PMID:24943146

  9. The leafmining Leurocephala schinusae (Lepidoptera Gracillariidae): Not suitable for the biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales Anacardiaceae)in continental USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leurocephala schinusae Davis & Mc Kay (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was studied to assess its suitability as a biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), a serious environmental weed in the USA and elsewhere in the world. The host range was determined by ...

  10. Phylogeny and host-plant relationships of the Australian Myrtaceae leafmining moth genus Pectinivalva (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae), with new subgenera and species

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Robert J.B.; van Nieukerken, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The phylogeny of the mainly Australian nepticulid genus Pectinivalva Scoble, 1983 is investigated on the basis of morphology, and a division into three monophyletic subgenera is proposed on the basis of these results. These subgenera (Pectinivalva, Casanovula Hoare, subgen. n. and Menurella Hoare, subgen. n. ) are described and diagnosed, the described species of Pectinivalva are assigned to them, and representative new species are described in each: Pectinivalva (Pectinivalva) mystaconota Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Casanovula) brevipalpa Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Casanovula) minotaurus Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Menurella) scotodes Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Menurella) acmenae Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Menurella) xenadelpha Van Nieukerken & Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Menurella) quintiniae Hoare & Van Nieukerken, sp. n., and Pectinivalva (Menurella) tribulatrix Van Nieukerken & Hoare, sp. n. Pectinivalva (Menurella) quintiniae (from Quintinia verdonii, Paracryphiaceae) is the first known member of the genus with a host-plant not belonging to Myrtaceae. Pectinivalva (Menurella) xenadelpha from Mt Gunung Lumut, Kalimantan, Borneo, is the first pectinivalvine reported from outside Australia. Keys to the subgenera of Nepticulidae known from Australia, based on adults, male and female genitalia, and larvae, are presented. Host-plant relationships of Pectinivalva are discussed with relation to the phylogeny, and a list of known host-plants of Pectinivalva, including hosts of undescribed species, is presented. DNA barcodes are provided for most of the new and several unnamed species. PMID:23794827

  11. A new genus and species of leaf-mining moth from the French Alps, Mercantouria neli gen. n., sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Peter; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Triberti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Alps are a hotspot of biodiversity in Europe with many Lepidoptera species still to be discovered. Here we describe a new gracillariid genus and species, Mercantouria neli gen. n. and sp. n. The morphology of the male genitalia is highly differentiated with unique features. DNA barcodes show that its nearest neighbor is the North American species ‘Caloptilia’ scutellariella (Braun, 1923). Mercantouria neli is known from four adults (two males and two females) collected at two localities in the French Alps. Its host plant and life cycle remain unknown. PMID:27199612

  12. A new Brazilian Passiflora leafminer: Spinivalva gaucha, gen. n., sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Gracillariinae), the first gracillariid without a sap-feeding instar.

    PubMed

    Brito, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Vargas, Hector A; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2013-01-01

    Male, female, pupa, larva and egg of a new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Gracillariinae), Spinivalva gaucha Moreira and Vargas from southern Brazil are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences including members of related lineages is also provided. The immature stages are associated with Passiflora actinia, Passiflora misera and Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae), and build mines on the adaxial leaf surface. Initially the mines are serpentine in shape, but later in larval ontogeny become a blotch type. Although the larvae are hypermetamorphic as in other Gracillariidae, there is no sap-feeding instar in Spinivalva gaucha; the larva feeds on the palisade parenchyma, thus producing granular frass during all instars. Pupation occurs outside the mine; prior to pupating, the larva excretes numerous bubbles that are placed in rows on the lateral margins of the cocoon external surface. This is the second genus of gracillariid moth described for the Atlantic Rain Forest, and the second gracillariid species known to be associated with Passifloraceae. PMID:23794860

  13. A new Brazilian Passiflora leafminer: Spinivalva gaucha, gen. n., sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Gracillariinae), the first gracillariid without a sap-feeding instar

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Vargas, Hector A.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Male, female, pupa, larva and egg of a new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Gracillariinae), Spinivalva gaucha Moreira and Vargas from southern Brazil are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences including members of related lineages is also provided. The immature stages are associated with Passiflora actinia, Passiflora misera and Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae), and build mines on the adaxial leaf surface. Initially the mines are serpentine in shape, but later in larval ontogeny become a blotch type. Although the larvae are hypermetamorphic as in other Gracillariidae, there is no sap-feeding instar in Spinivalva gaucha; the larva feeds on the palisade parenchyma, thus producing granular frass during all instars. Pupation occurs outside the mine; prior to pupating, the larva excretes numerous bubbles that are placed in rows on the lateral margins of the cocoon external surface. This is the second genus of gracillariid moth described for the Atlantic Rain Forest, and the second gracillariid species known to be associated with Passifloraceae. PMID:23794860

  14. Biology and systematics of the leafmining Gracillariidae of Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, with descriptions of a new genus and four new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent surveys in southern Florida, USA, Brazil and Argentina, for biological control agents to assist in the control of the invasive Brazilian peppertree, have discovered several previously unknown species of plant mining Lepidoptera of the family Gracillariidae. Morphological descriptions with sum...

  15. Biological Control of Fenusa pusilla (Birch Leafminer) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in the Northeastern United States: A thirty-four year perspective on efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitoid releases against Fenusa pusilla (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in eastern North America began in 1974, with releases in eastern Canada, followed by others in the Middle Atlantic States and New England. Of four parasitoids released, only one – the ichneumonid Lathrolestes nigri...

  16. Pesticide compatibility with natural enemies for pest management in greenhouse gerbera daisies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Cheri M; Braman, S K; Oetting, R D; Hinkle, N C

    2013-08-01

    Pesticides commonly used in commercial greenhouse management were evaluated for compatibility with two biological control agents: a leafminer parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea [Walker]), and a predatory mite (Neoseiulus californicus [McGregor]). These natural enemies were exposed to miticides, fungicides, and insecticides targeting leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies, according to label directions in laboratory vial assays, after which mortality at 12, 24, and 48 h was recorded. Greater mortality of predatory mites than leafminer parasitoids was observed overall, illustrating that fewer pesticides were compatible with predatory mites compared with the parasitoid. However, some commonly used pesticides were found to cause high mortality to both the leafminer parasitoid and predatory mites. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestations often disrupt leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]) biocontrol programs. Therefore, potentially compatible miticides (bifenazate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, acequinocyl, etoxazole, and clofentezine) identified in laboratory trials were also evaluated in a greenhouse study and found to be compatible with leafminer biocontrol. PMID:24020270

  17. New neotropical species of Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) reared from fruit-infesting and leaf-mining Tephritidae (Diptera) with comments on the  Diachasmimorpha mexicana species group and the genera Lorenzopius and Tubiformopius

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Robert; Ward, Lauren; Miko, Istvan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of opiine Braconidae are described from Mexico. These are Diachasmimorpha martinalujai Wharton reared from Rhagoletis infesting fruits of Crataegus spp., Diachasmimorpha norrbomi Wharton reared from Euphranta mexicana infesting fruits of Ribes pringlei, Eurytenes (Stigmatopoea) norrbomi Wharton reared from Trypeta concolor mining leaves of Barkleyanthus salicifolia and Eurytenes (Stigmatopoea) maya Wharton reared from Rhagoletis pomonella infesting apples and fruits of Crataegus spp. Morphological features of the first metasomal segment and occipital carina, useful for placement of these species, are discussed relative to the genera Diachasmimorpha, Eurytenes, Lorenzopius, Tubiformopius, and Opius s.l. Descriptions and diagnoses are referenced to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. The following represent new combinations: Diachasmimorpha hildagensis, Lorenzopius euryteniformis, and Tubiformopius tubibasis. Revised diagnoses are provided for Diachasmimorpha hildagensis, Diachasmimorpha mexicana, Diachasmimorpha sanguinea, Eurytenes (Stigmatopoea), Lorenzopius, Lorenzopius euryteniformis, Tubiformopius, Tubiformopius tubigaster, Tubiformopius tubibasis, Opius incoligma, and Opius rugicoxis. Two species groups are delineated within Lorenzopius and a key to species of Diachasmimorpha occurring in the New World is provided. PMID:23818811

  18. Phytomyza omlandi spec. nov. – the first species of Agromyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora) reared from the family Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of leafmining fly in the genus Phytomyza Fallén (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is described from Gelsemium Juss, representing the first known instance of an agromyzid feeding on Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae). The host plant, G. sempervirens (L.) (the “evening trumpetflower”), and possibly also G. r...

  19. New contributions to Pseudonapomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Spain: addition of three new species.

    PubMed

    Gil-Ortiz, Ricardo; Martinez, Michel; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The genus Pseudonapomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) includes the main leafminer pests for monocots. Three new species are described that were captured using Malaise traps in "Tinença de Benifassà", "Font Roja" and "Lagunas de La Mata-Torrevieja" (Spain) Natural Parks: Pseudonapomyza curvata n. sp., P. longitata n. sp., and P. sicicornis n. sp. Systematics. Ecological data are discussed. PMID:21062209

  20. Integrated Management of Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2012, crop losses in Hamlin f...

  1. Research progress for integrated canker management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2013, crop losses in Hamlin f...

  2. Plants Attract Parasitic Wasps to Defend Themselves against Insect Pests by Releasing Hexenol

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianing; Wang, Lizhong; Zhu, Junwei; Zhang, Sufang; Nandi, Owi I.; Kang, Le

    2007-01-01

    Background Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z)-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be used to improve the

  3. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America.

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Remeikis, Andrius; Davis, Donald R; Solis, M Alma; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe six new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis: S. emarginatae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. bipartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. tripartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. latifoliae Remeikis, Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. baccharicola Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. confertae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The remaining two taxa are left unnamed. All taxa are illustrated with photographs of adults, their genitalia, and their leaf-mines. Additionally, leaf-mines on Baccharis salicifolia are documented. PMID:27395706

  4. First discovery of Quercus feeding Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) in Central America.

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Schuster, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high taxonomic diversity of oaks in Mexico and Central America, no Quercus feeding Nepticulidae have ever been recorded from the region. Here, we present seven species whose larvae are leaf-miners of Quercus (section Lobatae) in Guatemala. Except Stigmella nigriverticella (Chambers 1875), which was previously known from the United States, all other discovered species are new. We describe and name five new species (Stigmella jaguari Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. lauta Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. sublauta Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. aurifasciata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. guatemalensis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.); the remaining new species is described but left unnamed because of lack of adults (i. e. moths and genitalia are described from developed pupae). All seven treated species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, adults, and genitalia. PMID:25112733

  5. New Contributions to Pseudonapomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Spain: Addition of Three New Species

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Ortiz, Ricardo; Martinez, Michel; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The genus Pseudonapomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) includes the main leafminer pests for monocots. Three new species are described that were captured using Malaise traps in “Tinença de Benifassà”, “Font Roja” and “Lagunas de La Mata-Torrevieja” (Spain) Natural Parks: Pseudonapomyza curvata n. sp., P. longitata n. sp., and P. sicicornis n. sp. Systematics. Ecological data are discussed. PMID:21062209

  6. Differential Effects of Pesticide Applications on Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and its Parasitoids on Pea in Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Guantai, M M; Ogol, C P K O; Salifu, D; Kasina, J M; Akutse, K S; Fiaboe, K K M

    2015-04-01

    Three Liriomyza species [Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard), Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), and Liriomyza sativae Blanchard] have been reported as the most important leafminer pests in vegetable production systems in Africa. In Kenya, farmers rely on indiscriminate synthetic insecticides use. On-farm field investigations were set up at three different locations (Sagana, Kabaru, and Naromoru) in central Kenya to determine the effect of pesticide application on the abundance of leafminers and their parasitoids under three management practices, namely: farmer practice (FP), reduced pesticide use (RP), and a control with no use of pesticides (CO). In addition, laboratory experiments were designed to test the effect of commonly used pesticides in pea production systems in central Kenya--Dimethoate, Dynamec, Thunder, Cyclone, Bestox, Folicur, Milraz, and Bulldock--on L. huidobrensis and two of its parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea Walker and Phaedrotoma scabriventris Nixon. The mean numbers of leafminer flies in control treatment were higher than in RP and FP in both first and second seasons across all sites, but RP and FP did not differ significantly. Parasitoid numbers were very low and there was no much variation between treatments at each location in both first and second seasons. No significant differences were observed between the three management practices with regards to the yield measurements. In the laboratory, the estimated LD50 values for L. huidobrensis larvae were all more than two times higher than the recommended dosages, while the LD50 of adults were below the recommended dosages. The estimated LD50 values for the parasitoids were much lower than recommended dosages for all pesticides except Thunder. This study, therefore, demonstrates that the pesticides currently used do not control the Liriomyza leafminer larvae that constitute the most destructive stage of the pest, but are rather detrimental to their parasitoids. In addition, the current low level of

  7. Biological object recognition in μ-radiography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, A.; Dammer, J.; Weyda, F.; Sopko, V.; Benes, J.; Zeman, J.; Jandejsek, I.

    2015-03-01

    This study presents an applicability of real-time microradiography to biological objects, namely to horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and following image processing focusing on image segmentation and object recognition. The microradiography of insects (such as horse chestnut leafminer) provides a non-invasive imaging that leaves the organisms alive. The imaging requires a high spatial resolution (micrometer scale) radiographic system. Our radiographic system consists of a micro-focus X-ray tube and two types of detectors. The first is a charge integrating detector (Hamamatsu flat panel), the second is a pixel semiconductor detector (Medipix2 detector). The latter allows detection of single quantum photon of ionizing radiation. We obtained numerous horse chestnuts leafminer pupae in several microradiography images easy recognizable in automatic mode using the image processing methods. We implemented an algorithm that is able to count a number of dead and alive pupae in images. The algorithm was based on two methods: 1) noise reduction using mathematical morphology filters, 2) Canny edge detection. The accuracy of the algorithm is higher for the Medipix2 (average recall for detection of alive pupae =0.99, average recall for detection of dead pupae =0.83), than for the flat panel (average recall for detection of alive pupae =0.99, average recall for detection of dead pupae =0.77). Therefore, we conclude that Medipix2 has lower noise and better displays contours (edges) of biological objects. Our method allows automatic selection and calculation of dead and alive chestnut leafminer pupae. It leads to faster monitoring of the population of one of the world's important insect pest.

  8. Evaluation of the community of native eulophid parasitoids on Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-10-01

    The parasitoid complex associated with the exotic leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), which attacks horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), was studied in the urban environment of Turin (northern Italy). The studies were carried out over 5 yr after the first detection of the pest in our region in 1999. To evaluate parasitism, 438,029 leaf mines were examined over the 5-yr period, of which 29,033 were found to be parasitized (6.6%). Also, ornamental broadleaf trees attacked by other native gracillariid leafminers and located in the proximity of the target horse chestnut trees were sampled. A total of 11 parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were recorded on C. ohridella, and the most common species were Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees), Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, and Pnigalio agraules (Walker). The first species accounted for >77.5% of all parasitoids collected. Cirrospilus talitzkii Boucek was found for the first time in 2005. The high population level of the pest and the low parasitism rate show that the parasitoid complex is currently inadequate to contain C. ohridella populations effectively. The most frequent parasitoids of the moth were also found on the most common broadleaf trees in the studied area, showing how native leafminer parasitoid species are able to switch to other hosts. These results show that both native and broadleaf plants species may potentially provide an important reservoir of parasitic wasps to help protect a simple biotope, such as the urban environment, from pests. PMID:18284739

  9. Complex Feeding Tracks of the Sessile Herbivorous Insect Ophiomyia maura as a Function of the Defense against Insect Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Ueno, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    Because insect herbivores generally suffer from high mortality due to their natural enemies, reducing the risk of being located by natural enemies is of critical importance for them, forcing them to develop a variety of defensive measures. Larvae of leaf-mining insects lead a sedentary life inside a leaf and make conspicuous feeding tracks called mines, exposing themselves to the potential risk of parasitism. We investigated the defense strategy of the linear leafminer Ophiomyia maura Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae), by focusing on its mining patterns. We examined whether the leafminer could reduce the risk of being parasitized (1) by making cross structures in the inner area of a leaf to deter parasitoids from tracking the mines due to complex pathways, and (2) by mining along the edge of a leaf to hinder visually searching parasitoids from finding mined leaves due to effective background matching of the mined leaves among intact leaves. We quantified fractal dimension as mine complexity and area of mine in the inner area of the leaf as interior mine density for each sample mine, and analyzed whether these mine traits affected the susceptibility of O. maura to parasitism. Our results have shown that an increase in mine complexity with the development of occupying larvae decreases the probability of being parasitized, while interior mine density has no influence on parasitism. These results suggest that the larval development increases the host defense ability through increasing mine complexity. Thus the feeding pattern of these sessile insects has a defensive function by reducing the risk of parasitism. PMID:22393419

  10. Complex feeding tracks of the sessile herbivorous insect Ophiomyia maura as a function of the defense against insect parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Ueno, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    Because insect herbivores generally suffer from high mortality due to their natural enemies, reducing the risk of being located by natural enemies is of critical importance for them, forcing them to develop a variety of defensive measures. Larvae of leaf-mining insects lead a sedentary life inside a leaf and make conspicuous feeding tracks called mines, exposing themselves to the potential risk of parasitism. We investigated the defense strategy of the linear leafminer Ophiomyia maura Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae), by focusing on its mining patterns. We examined whether the leafminer could reduce the risk of being parasitized (1) by making cross structures in the inner area of a leaf to deter parasitoids from tracking the mines due to complex pathways, and (2) by mining along the edge of a leaf to hinder visually searching parasitoids from finding mined leaves due to effective background matching of the mined leaves among intact leaves. We quantified fractal dimension as mine complexity and area of mine in the inner area of the leaf as interior mine density for each sample mine, and analyzed whether these mine traits affected the susceptibility of O. maura to parasitism. Our results have shown that an increase in mine complexity with the development of occupying larvae decreases the probability of being parasitized, while interior mine density has no influence on parasitism. These results suggest that the larval development increases the host defense ability through increasing mine complexity. Thus the feeding pattern of these sessile insects has a defensive function by reducing the risk of parasitism. PMID:22393419

  11. A new species of Japanagromyza Sasakawa (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from the Brazilian Amazon with notes on biology.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Nilton Juvencio Santiago; Carvalho-Filho, Fernando Da Silva; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Japanagromyza sasakawai sp. n. is described from the Brazilian Amazon, based on the male, female, third instar larva and puparium. This species is a leaf-miner of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae), which is an introduced plant from the Old World tropics used in Brazil as an ornamental. The male aedeagus of J. sasakawai sp. n. differs from other species mainly in having the mesophallus covered with many spine-like processes. This is the third record of Japanagromyza Sasakawa in Brazil and first in the Brazilian Amazon. The key to Neotropical species of Japanagromyza by Sousa & Couri (2014) is modified to include this new species. PMID:25781139

  12. Additive effects of vertebrate predators on insects in a Puerto Rican coffee plantation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borkhataria, R.R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A variety of studies have established the value of shaded coffee plantations as habitat for birds. While the value of birds as biological controls in coffee has received some attention, the interactions between birds and other predators of insects have not been tested. We used exclosures to examine the effects of vertebrate predators on the arthropods associated with coffee, in particular the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera coffeella) and the flatid planthopper Petrusa epilepsis, in a shaded coffee plantation in Puerto Rico. We used a 2 x 2 factorial design with four treatments: exclusion of birds, lizards, birds and lizards, and control (no exclusion). Abundance of insects >5 mm increased when birds or both birds and lizards were removed. Birds and lizards had an additive effect for insects <5 mm and for all insects combined. Coffee leafminers showed a weak response to removal of predators while planthopper abundance increased significantly in the absence of avian predators. Arthropod predators and parasitoids did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings suggest that vertebrate insectivores have an additive effect on insects in coffee and may help control abundances of some coffee pests. Equally important, we present evidence suggesting that they do not interfere with other known natural enemies of coffee pests. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Impulsive spatial control of invading pests by generalist predators.

    PubMed

    Aniţa, Sebastian; Casas, Jérôme; Suppo, Christelle

    2014-09-01

    We model the conditions for pest eradication in a reaction-diffusion system made of a prey and a generalist predator through spatial impulsive control within a bounded domain. The motivating example is the control of the invasive horse chestnut leafminer moth through the yearly destruction of leaves in autumn, in which both the pest and its parasitoids overwinter. The model is made of two integro-partial differential equations, the integral portion describing the within-year immigration from the whole domain. The problem of pest eradication is strongly related to some appropriate eigenvalue problems. Basic properties of the principal eigenvalues of these problems are derived by using of Krein-Rutman's theorem and of comparison results for parabolic equations with non-local terms. Spatial control of the pest can be achieved, if one of these principal eigenvalues is large enough, at an exponential rate. This is true without and with parasitoids, the latter case being of course more rapid. We discuss the possible implementation of these results to the leafminer invasion problem and discuss complementary methods. PMID:23788257

  14. Additive effects of vertebrate predators on insects in a Puerto Rican coffee plantation.

    PubMed

    Borkhataria, Rena R; Collazo, Jaime A; Groom, Martha J

    2006-04-01

    A variety of studies have established the value of shaded coffee plantations as habitat for birds. While the value of birds as biological controls in coffee has received some attention, the interactions between birds and other predators of insects have not been tested. We used exclosures to examine the effects of vertebrate predators on the arthropods associated with coffee, in particular the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera coffeella) and the flatid planthopper Petrusa epilepsis, in a shaded coffee plantation in Puerto Rico. We used a 2 x 2 factorial design with four treatments: exclusion of birds, lizards, birds and lizards, and control (no exclusion). Abundance of insects > 5 mm increased when birds or both birds and lizards were removed. Birds and lizards had an additive effect for insects < 5 mm and for all insects combined. Coffee leafminers showed a weak response to removal of predators while planthopper abundance increased significantly in the absence of avian predators. Arthropod predators and parasitoids did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings suggest that vertebrate insectivores have an additive effect on insects in coffee and may help control abundances of some coffee pests. Equally important, we present evidence suggesting that they do not interfere with other known natural enemies of coffee pests. PMID:16711056

  15. Oxygen enhances phosphine toxicity for postharvest pest control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2011-10-01

    Phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels (oxygenated phosphine fumigations) were significantly more effective than the fumigations under the normal 20.9% atmospheric oxygen level against western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] adults and larvae, leafminer Liriomyza langei Frick pupae, grape mealybug [Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn)] eggs, and Indianmeal moth [Plodia interpunctella (Hübner)] eggs and pupae. In 5-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C, mortalities of western flower thrips increased significantly from 79.5 to 97.7% when oxygen was increased from 20.9 to 40% and reached 99.3% under 80% O2. Survivorships of leafminer pupae decreased significantly from 71.2% under 20.9% O2 to 16.2% under 40% O2 and reached 1.1% under 80% O2 in 24-h fumigations with 500 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C. Complete control of leafminer pupae was achieved in 24-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C under 60% O2 or higher. Survivorships of grape mealybug eggs also decreased significantly in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 2 degrees C under 60% O2 compared with the fumigations under 20.9% O2. Indian meal moth egg survivorships decreased significantly from 17.4 to 0.5% in responses to an oxygen level increase from 20.9 to 40% in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and reached 0.2% in fumigations under 80% O2. When the oxygen level was reduced from 20.9 to 15 and 10% in fumigations, survivorships of Indianmeal moth eggs increased significantly from 17.4 to 32.9 and 39.9%, respectively. Increased O2 levels also resulted in significantly lower survival rates of Indianmeal moth pupae in response to 24-h fumigations with 500 and 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and a complete control was achieved in the 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigations under 60% O2. Oxygenated phosphine fumigations have marked potential to improve insecticidal efficacy. Advantages and limitations of oxygenated

  16. Perspectives for the biological control of Cameraria ohridella.

    PubMed

    Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Volter, Lubomír; Weyda, Frantisek; Skuhravý, Václav

    2007-01-01

    The horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) is a serious invasive pest of Aesculus hippocastanum in Europe. The larvae of this species feed on leaf parenchyma and can reduce the tree growth. We studied the impact of parasitoids on C. ohridella in the Czech Republic and also searched for entomopathogenic fungi associated with this pest. The results showed that the rate of parasitism varied between 5% and 15% in most cases. The most parasitized stages of C. ohridella were spinning stages and especially pupae. The most abundant parasitoid species were Minotetrastichus frontalis, Pnigalio sp. and Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). All species are polyphagous. Using the Galleria-bait method we isolated many strains of entomopathogenic fungi. Dominant species were Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces farinosus and Beauveria bassiana. The perspectives of fungal bioagents in control of C. ohridella is discussed. PMID:18399483

  17. Achrysocharoides Girault (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) new to tropical America, with eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The genus Achrysocharoides Girault is here reported for the first time from tropical America. Included are ten species, eight newly described: Achrysocharoides asperulus, Achrysocharoides callisetosus, Achrysocharoides cuspidatus, Achrysocharoides foveatus, Achrysocharoides infuscus, Achrysocharoides mediocarinatus, Achrysocharoides purpureus, Achrysocharoides sulcatus, and two already known: Achrysocharoides ecuadorensis (Hansson) and Achrysocharoides gliricidiae (Hansson & Cave). All species are included in an identification key, diagnosed, described and illustrated. Only one of the species, Achrysocharoides gliricidiae, has a host record, an endoparasitoid in a leafmining Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) on Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae), thus conforming to the biology of extralimital Achrysocharoides species. The genus Kratoysma Bouček is here established as a junior synonym of Achrysocharoides, and the following species previously in Kratoysma are here recombined to Achrysocharoides: Kratoysma citri Bouček, Kratoysma ecuadorensis Hansson, Kratoysma gliricidiae Hansson & Cave, Kratoysma longifacies Hansson, Kratoysma nepalensis Hansson, Derostenus usticrus Erdös. PMID:22448120

  18. [Analysis and identification of Liriomyza sativae-attractants from cowpea and kidney bean volatiles].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming; Deng, Xiaojun; Du, Jiawei

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, the volatiles from cowpea and kidney bean, the main host plants of American leafminer Liriomyza sativae, were collected and extracted by a self-designed device and solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique, and analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that the volatiles from the two beans had the same components mainly consisted of 2-hexenal, 3-Hexen-1-ol, 2-Hexen-1-ol, 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-Hexenol acetate, alpha-Ionone and beta-Ionone. The lure made of the seven components was attractive to L. sativae in field trapping trials. Detailed analyses indicated that alpha-Ionone and beta-Ionone might play important roles in the searching behavior of L. sativae for host plants. PMID:16110669

  19. Genetic mechanisms preventing the fusion of ecotypes even in the face of gene flow

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Issei

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the genetics behind adaptation and reproductive isolation contributes to our knowledge about how biodiversity is created and maintained. Host races of phytophagous insects are host-associated ecotypes and have been considered as candidates for ecological speciation, but very little is known about the genetic backgrounds of host adaptations. A leaf-mining moth, Acrocercops transecta, consists of Juglans- and Lyonia-associated host races. This study assesses the genetic bases of oviposition preference and larval performance using F1, F2 and backcross hybrids between the two host races. Segregation patterns in the hybrid generations revealed that larval performance on Juglans is dominant, but oviposition preference for Lyonia is dominant. This result indicates that genetic components introgressed from the Lyonia race are removed from the Juglans race even though hybrid larvae are viable on Juglans. Thus, simple genetic controls with contrasting dominance directions in host-adaptation traits function as barriers to prevent a fusion of host races. PMID:22792438

  20. [Does vegetational diversification reduce coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) attack?].

    PubMed

    Amaral, Dany S; Venzon, Madelaine; Pallini, Angelo; Lima, Paulo C; Desouza, Og

    2010-01-01

    The effects of increasing plant diversity on the population of the coffee leaf-miner Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville) were investigated in two organic coffee production systems. One system consisted of coffee intercropped with banana trees (shaded system) and the other one of coffee intercropped with pigeon pea (unshaded system). The increase in plant diversity on both systems was achieved via introduction of green manures such a perennial pea nut, sunn hemp and Brazilian lucerne. The population of L. coffeella, predation and parasitism of L. coffeella mines were biweekly evaluated during eight months. The increase in plant diversity on both systems did not affect the attack of L. coffeella on coffee leaves and the mine parasitism rate. However, there was a positive and significant relationship between increasing plant diversity and coffee leaf mine predation by wasps on unshaded coffee system and a negative relationship on shaded coffee system. PMID:20877989

  1. Determining Plant – Leaf Miner – Parasitoid Interactions: A DNA Barcoding Approach

    PubMed Central

    Derocles, Stéphane A. P.; Evans, Darren M.; Nichols, Paul C.; Evans, S. Aifionn; Lunt, David H.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in network ecology is to describe the full-range of species interactions in a community to create highly-resolved food-webs. We developed a molecular approach based on DNA full barcoding and mini-barcoding to describe difficult to observe plant – leaf miner – parasitoid interactions, consisting of animals commonly regarded as agricultural pests and their natural enemies. We tested the ability of universal primers to amplify the remaining DNA inside leaf miner mines after the emergence of the insect. We compared the results of a) morphological identification of adult specimens; b) identification based on the shape of the mines; c) the COI Mini-barcode (130 bp) and d) the COI full barcode (658 bp) fragments to accurately identify the leaf-miner species. We used the molecular approach to build and analyse a tri-partite ecological network of plant – leaf miner – parasitoid interactions. We were able to detect the DNA of leaf-mining insects within their feeding mines on a range of host plants using mini-barcoding primers: 6% for the leaves collected empty and 33% success after we observed the emergence of the leaf miner. We suggest that the low amplification success of leaf mines collected empty was mainly due to the time since the adult emerged and discuss methodological improvements. Nevertheless our approach provided new species-interaction data for the ecological network. We found that the 130 bp fragment is variable enough to identify all the species included in this study. Both COI fragments reveal that some leaf miner species could be composed of cryptic species. The network built using the molecular approach was more accurate in describing tri-partite interactions compared with traditional approaches based on morphological criteria. PMID:25710377

  2. Large-scale analysis of differential gene expression in coffee genotypes resistant and susceptible to leaf miner–toward the identification of candidate genes for marker assisted-selection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A successful development of herbivorous insects into plant tissues depends on coordination of metabolic processes. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to recognize such attacks, and to trigger a defense response. To understand the transcriptional basis of this response, we compare gene expression profiles of two coffee genotypes, susceptible and resistant to leaf miner (Leucoptera coffella). A total of 22000 EST sequences from the Coffee Genome Database were selected for a microarray analysis. Fluorescence probes were synthesized using mRNA from the infested and non-infested coffee plants. Array hybridization, scanning and data normalization were performed using Nimble Scan® e ArrayStar® platforms. Genes with foldchange values +/-2 were considered differentially expressed. A validation of 18 differentially expressed genes was performed in infected plants using qRT-PCR approach. Results The microarray analysis indicated that resistant plants differ in gene expression profile. We identified relevant transcriptional changes in defense strategies before insect attack. Expression changes (>2.00-fold) were found in resistant plants for 2137 genes (1266 up-regulated and 873 down-regulated). Up-regulated genes include those responsible for defense mechanisms, hypersensitive response and genes involved with cellular function and maintenance. Also, our analyses indicated that differential expression profiles between resistant and susceptible genotypes are observed in the absence of leaf-miner, indicating that defense is already build up in resistant plants, as a priming mechanism. Validation of selected genes pointed to four selected genes as suitable candidates for markers in assisted-selection of novel cultivars. Conclusions Our results show evidences that coffee defense responses against leaf-miner attack are balanced with other cellular functions. Also analyses suggest a major metabolic reconfiguration that highlights the complexity of this response. PMID

  3. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    PubMed

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-01-01

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous

  4. Bayesian analysis of the species-specific lengthening of the growing season in two European countries and the influence of an insect pest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Annette; Estrella, Nicole; Heitland, Werner; Susnik, Andreja; Schleip, Christoph; Dose, Volker

    2008-01-01

    A recent lengthening of the growing season in mid and higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere is reported as a clear indicator for climate change impacts. Using data from Germany (1951-2003) and Slovenia (1961-2004), we study whether changes in the start, end, and length of the growing season differ among four deciduous broad-leaved tree species and countries, how the changes are related to temperature changes, and what might be the confounding effects of an insect attack. The functional behaviour of the phenological and climatological time series and their trends are not analysed by linear regression, but by a new Bayesian approach taking into account different models for the functional description (one change-point, linear, constant models). We find advanced leaf unfolding in both countries with the same species order (oak > horse chestnut, beech, and birch). However, this advance is non linear over time and more apparent in Germany with clear change-points in the late 1970s, followed by marked advances (on average 3.67 days decade-1 in the 2000s). In Slovenia, we find a more gradual advance of onset dates (on average 0.8 days decade-1 in the 2000s). Leaf colouring of birch, beech, and oak has been slightly delayed in the last 3 decades, especially in Germany, however with no clear functional behaviour. Abrupt changes in leaf colouring dates of horse chestnut with recent advancing onset dates can be linked across countries to damage by a newly emerging pest, the horse chestnut leaf-miner ( Cameraria ohridella). The lengthening of the growing season, more distinct in Germany than in Slovenia (on average 4.2 and 1.0 days decade-1 in the 2000s, respectively), exhibits the same species order in both countries (oak > birch > beech). Damage by horse chestnut leaf-miner leads to reduced lengthening (Germany) and drastic shortening (Slovenia) of the horse chestnut growing season (-12 days decade-1 in the 2000s). Advanced spring leaf unfolding and lengthening of the

  5. Changes in host-parasitoid food web structure with elevation.

    PubMed

    Maunsell, Sarah C; Kitching, Roger L; Burwell, Chris J; Morris, Rebecca J

    2015-03-01

    Gradients in elevation are increasingly used to investigate how species respond to changes in local climatic conditions. Whilst many studies have shown elevational patterns in species richness and turnover, little is known about how food web structure is affected by elevation. Contrasting responses of predator and prey species to elevation may lead to changes in food web structure. We investigated how the quantitative structure of a herbivore-parasitoid food web changes with elevation in an Australian subtropical rain forest. On four occasions, spread over 1 year, we hand-collected leaf miners at twelve sites, along three elevational gradients (between 493 m and 1159 m a.s.l). A total of 5030 insects, including 603 parasitoids, were reared, and summary food webs were created for each site. We also carried out a replicated manipulative experiment by translocating an abundant leaf-mining weevil Platynotocis sp., which largely escaped parasitism at high elevations (≥ 900 m a.s.l.), to lower, warmer elevations, to test if it would experience higher parasitism pressure. We found strong evidence that the environmental change that occurs with increasing elevation affects food web structure. Quantitative measures of generality, vulnerability and interaction evenness decreased significantly with increasing elevation (and decreasing temperature), whilst elevation did not have a significant effect on connectance. Mined plant composition also had a significant effect on generality and vulnerability, but not on interaction evenness. Several relatively abundant species of leaf miner appeared to escape parasitism at higher elevations, but contrary to our prediction, Platynotocis sp. did not experience greater levels of parasitism when translocated to lower elevations. Our study indicates that leaf-mining herbivores and their parasitoids respond differently to environmental conditions imposed by elevation, thus producing structural changes in their food webs. Increasing

  6. Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage. PMID:18232410

  7. A Burst of miRNA Innovation in the Early Evolution of Butterflies and Moths

    PubMed Central

    Quah, Shan; Hui, Jerome H.L.; Holland, Peter W.H.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. Because several miRNAs are known to affect the stability or translation of developmental regulatory genes, the origin of novel miRNAs may have contributed to the evolution of developmental processes and morphology. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) is a species-rich clade with a well-established phylogeny and abundant genomic resources, thereby representing an ideal system in which to study miRNA evolution. We sequenced small RNA libraries from developmental stages of two divergent lepidopterans, Cameraria ohridella (Horse chestnut Leafminer) and Pararge aegeria (Speckled Wood butterfly), discovering 90 and 81 conserved miRNAs, respectively, and many species-specific miRNA sequences. Mapping miRNAs onto the lepidopteran phylogeny reveals rapid miRNA turnover and an episode of miRNA fixation early in lepidopteran evolution, implying that miRNA acquisition accompanied the early radiation of the Lepidoptera. One lepidopteran-specific miRNA gene, miR-2768, is located within an intron of the homeobox gene invected, involved in insect segmental and wing patterning. We identified cubitus interruptus (ci) as a likely direct target of miR-2768, and validated this suppression using a luciferase assay system. We propose a model by which miR-2768 modulates expression of ci in the segmentation pathway and in patterning of lepidopteran wing primordia. PMID:25576364

  8. Spatial patterns of parasitism of the solitary parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Norma E; Pereyra, Patricia C; Luna, María G

    2009-04-01

    We examined the interaction between the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a key pest of tomato crops in South America, and its main solitary larval parasitoid, Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The pattern of parasitism of T. absoluta by the parasitoid was studied at three scales on tomato crops: plant, leaf, and leaflet. Host density, spatial distributions of both host and parasitoid, percentages of parasitism, variation in the probability and risk of parasitism in relation to host density, and the spatial density dependence were assessed in a horticultural region in Argentina. The spatial distribution of T. absoluta was clumped at all sites and scales, whereas that of P. dignus was much more variable, fitting to negative, positive binomial distributions and to Poisson series. Percentages of parasitism were as follows: site 1, 17.06%; site 2, 27.53%; site 3, 26.47%; site 4, 45.95%. Parasitoid aggregation in relation to host density was found at leaf and leaflet scales. However, the proportion of parasitized hosts was independent of host density. The variability of parasitism rates exhibited at the three spatial scales seems to result in partial refuges for the host, which might contribute to the persistence of the interaction between host and parasitoid. We discuss our field observations in relation to ecological theory and its potential application to the biological control of T. absoluta on tomato. PMID:19389284

  9. The relationship between variable host grouping and functional responses among parasitoids of Antispila nysaefoliella (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae).

    PubMed

    Low, Candace; Scheffer, Sonja J; Lewis, Matthew L; Gates, Michael W

    2012-12-01

    Our study investigated the importance of variability in the parasitoid community as a source of selection on host group size using a field population of the tupelo leafminer, Antispila nysaefoliella Clemens, which specializes on tupelo, Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Larvae were collected from leaves with variable numbers of larvae and screened for parasitism using polymerase chain reaction of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I using markers designed specifically for amplifying parasitoid DNA while excluding host DNA. This method of selective PCR was effective for detecting the presence and identifying species of immature stages of three hymenopteran superfamilies: Chalcidoidea, Ichneumonoidea and Platygastroidea, which represented 83.4%, 16.0% and 0.6% of the total detectable parasitism, respectively. Our resulting sequences were then calibrated with sequences from identified adult parasitoids that had been either reared or field-captured. A cluster analysis revealed 10 distinct clades that showed differences in attack patterns with respect to host traits and season. Total parasitism followed an inverse density-dependent or density-independent pattern with respect to host density (number per leaf). However, when parasitoid taxa were considered separately, one clade, which could be a cryptic species of Pnigalio maculipes Crawford (Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae), was found to increase its per leaf attack rate with host density. Our results suggest that parasitoid community composition and differences among species in their attack strategies can play a large role in determining the adaptive advantage of host grouping. PMID:23094653

  10. Evolution of herbivory in Drosophilidae linked to loss of behaviors, antennal responses, odorant receptors, and ancestral diet

    PubMed Central

    Goldman-Huertas, Benjamin; Mitchell, Robert F.; Lapoint, Richard T.; Faucher, Cécile P.; Hildebrand, John G.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory is a key innovation in insects, yet has only evolved in one-third of living orders. The evolution of herbivory likely involves major behavioral changes mediated by remodeling of canonical chemosensory modules. Herbivorous flies in the genus Scaptomyza (Drosophilidae) are compelling species in which to study the genomic architecture linked to the transition to herbivory because they recently evolved from microbe-feeding ancestors and are closely related to Drosophila melanogaster. We found that Scaptomyza flava, a leaf-mining specialist on plants in the family (Brassicaceae), was not attracted to yeast volatiles in a four-field olfactometer assay, whereas D. melanogaster was strongly attracted to these volatiles. Yeast-associated volatiles, especially short-chain aliphatic esters, elicited strong antennal responses in D. melanogaster, but weak antennal responses in electroantennographic recordings from S. flava. We sequenced the genome of S. flava and characterized this species’ odorant receptor repertoire. Orthologs of odorant receptors, which detect yeast volatiles in D. melanogaster and mediate critical host-choice behavior, were deleted or pseudogenized in the genome of S. flava. These genes were lost step-wise during the evolution of Scaptomyza. Additionally, Scaptomyza has experienced gene duplication and likely positive selection in paralogs of Or67b in D. melanogaster. Olfactory sensory neurons expressing Or67b are sensitive to green-leaf volatiles. Major trophic shifts in insects are associated with chemoreceptor gene loss as recently evolved ecologies shape sensory repertoires. PMID:25624509

  11. Inventarisation of natural enemies in witloof chicory fields: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Casteels, H; Hubrechts, W; Desmet, D

    2007-01-01

    Due to residues on the witloof chicory heads the use of insecticides is forbidden during forcing. At this moment a suitable chemical control of the leafminer Napomyza cichorii is carried out in the field, based on the phenology and the population density and taking into account the economic threshold level. No chemical treatment is recognized against the root aphid Pemphigus bursarius. For monitoring these pests during the growing season water traps were placed on observation fields, scattered over the Belgian endive production area. The large numbers and the wide variety of other insects caught in the traps in recent years indicate that there is a potential of natural enemies. An inventarisation of the native enemies in witloof chicory fields was started recently using yellow-coloured water traps and pitfall traps; at the same time field observations were done. In all the observation fields we found besides Carabidae and Staphilinidae also Coccinellidae and Syrphidae in large numbers. The numbers and the diversity of Hymenoptera in the water traps were very large. Apart from the field observations witloof chicory heads were investigated during harvest. Parasitized pupae were collected and kept in a climate room. Dacnusa leptogaster (Braconidae), a specific parasite of the witloof chicory fly, hatched. This parasite was also found in the water traps during the growing season. PMID:18399482

  12. Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeny, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

  13. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays to distinguish Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from associated species on lettuce cropping systems in Italy.

    PubMed

    Masetti, Antonio; Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara; Burgio, Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a serious insect pest infesting open field lettuce plantings in northern Italy. In these cropping systems, it coexists with several other agromyzid species that have negligible economic importance on open field vegetables. The rapid detection of L. huidobrensis is crucial for effective management strategies, but the identification of agromyzids to species can be very difficult at adult as well at immature stages. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay is proposed to separate L. huidobrensis from Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach), Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), and Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau), which usually occur in the same lettuce plantings. An approximately 1,031-bp region of the mitochondrial genome encompassing the 3' region of cytochrome oxidase I, the whole leucine tRNA, and all of the cytochrome oxidase II was amplified by PCR and digested using the enzymes PvuII and SnaBI separately. Both endonucleases cut the amplicons of L. huidobrensis in two fragments, whereas the original band was not cleaved in the other analyzed species. The presence of Dacnusa spp. DNA does not bias the assay, because the PCR conditions and the primer set here described do not amplify any tract of this endoparasitic wasp genome. PMID:16937681

  14. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in an ELISA for Detecting an Invasive Pest Insect, Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, W C; Shang, H W; Guo, W; Xu, D; Huang, T Y; Zhu, L X

    2015-04-01

    A monoclonal antibody was prepared by the hybridoma technology. It reacted only with the protein of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and not with that of Chromatomyia horticola Goureau or Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was effective even after being diluted more than 8.192×10(6)-fold. The detection sensitivity of the antibody was 31.3 µg/ml under controlled conditions. Positive reaction was achieved with all laboratory-reared L. trifolii samples, including larvae, pupae, and adults. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was successfully established to detect L. trifolii in the field. This antibody was successfully used to determine the L. trifolii collected in different locations, from different host plants, and in different seasons. More than 50% of leafminers collected on Brassica chinensis var chinensis, Apium graveolens (Miller) Persoon, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Lactuca sativa L., and Chrysanthemum coronarium (L.) Cassini ex Spach were L. trifolii, indicating that those six plant species might be the preference host plants of L. trifolii. Population of L. trifolii peaked in September, October, or November in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. These results suggest a great potential of using this McAb for precisely identifying L. trifolii and monitoring the population dynamics of L. trifolii in the field. PMID:26470159

  15. An updated checklist of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) of the Crimea, Sub-Mediterranean SE Europe.

    PubMed

    Navickaitė, Asta; Diškus, Arūnas; Stonis, Jonas R

    2014-01-01

    This updated checklist is intended to be a collaborative effort by a team of taxonomists to present a hitherto little known diversity of the Nepticulidae of the Crimea. A total of 64 species of Nepticulidae are listed. The following 26 species are recorded for the first time from the Crimea: Stigmella confusella (Wood & Walsingham, 1894), S. tiliae (Frey, 1856), S. microtheriella (Stainton, 1854), S. alnetella (Stainton, 1854), S. glutinosae (Stainton, 1858), S. desperatella (Frey, 1856), S. torminalis (Wood, 1890), S. crataegella (Klimesch, 1936), S. hahniella (Wörz, 1937), S. catharticella (Stainton, 1853), S. malella (Stainton, 1854), S. rhamnella (Herrich-Schäffter, 1860), S. ulmivora (Fologne, 1860), S. trimaculella (Haworth, 1828), S. obliquella (Heinemann, 1862), S. tityrella (Stainton, 1854), S. carpinella (Heinemann, 1862), S. lemniscella (Zeller, 1839), S. plagicolella (Stainton, 1854), S. samiatella (Zeller, 1939), Bohemannia pulverosella (Stainton, 1849), Ectoedemia mahalebella (Klimesch, 1936), Fomoria septembrella (Stainton, 1849), Trifurcula silviae van Nieukerken, 1990, T. macedonica Z. Laštůvka & A. Laštůvka, 1998, T. eurema (Tutt, 1899). One species, Ectoedemia spinosella (Joannis, 1908), is excluded here from the list of the Nepticulidae of the Crimea. Thirty-nine selected species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, and forty-five species with photographs of genitalia.  PMID:25112333

  16. Systematics and biology of some species of Micrurapteryx Spuler (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) from the Holarctic Region, with re-description of M. caraganella (Hering) from Siberia.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Triberti, Paolo; Mutanen, Marko; Magnoux, Emmanuelle; Landry, Jean-François; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    During a DNA barcoding campaign of leaf-mining insects from Siberia, a genetically divergent lineage of a gracillariid belonging to the genus Micrurapteryx was discovered, whose larvae developed on Caragana Fabr. and Medicago L. (Fabaceae). Specimens from Siberia showed similar external morphology to the Palearctic Micrurapteryx gradatella and the Nearctic Parectopa occulta but differed in male genitalia, DNA barcodes, and nuclear genes histone H3 and 28S. Members of this lineage are re-described here as Micrurapteryx caraganella (Hering, 1957), comb. n., an available name published with only a brief description of its larva and leaf mine. Micrurapteryx caraganella is widely distributed throughout Siberia, from Tyumen oblast in the West to Transbaikalia in the East. Occasionally it may severely affect its main host, Caragana arborescens Lam. This species has been confused in the past with Micrurapteryx gradatella in Siberia, but field observations confirm that Micrurapteryx gradatella exists in Siberia and is sympatric with Micrurapteryx caraganella, at least in the Krasnoyarsk region, where it feeds on different host plants (Vicia amoena Fisch. and Vicia sp.). In addition, based on both morphological and molecular evidence as well as examination of type specimens, the North American Parectopa occulta Braun, 1922 and Parectopa albicostella Braun, 1925 are transferred to Micrurapteryx as Micrurapteryx occulta (Braun, 1922), comb. n. with albicostella as its junior synonym (syn. n.). Characters used to distinguish Micrurapteryx from Parectopa are presented and illustrated. These findings provide another example of the potential of DNA barcoding to reveal overlooked species and illuminate nomenclatural problems. PMID:27110203

  17. Shared weapons of blood- and plant-feeding insects: Surprising commonalities for manipulating hosts.

    PubMed

    Guiguet, Antoine; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Harris, Marion O; Appel, Heidi M; Schultz, Jack C; Pereira, Marcos H; Giron, David

    2016-01-01

    Insects that reprogram host plants during colonization remind us that the insect side of plant-insect story is just as interesting as the plant side. Insect effectors secreted by the salivary glands play an important role in plant reprogramming. Recent discoveries point to large numbers of salivary effectors being produced by a single herbivore species. Since genetic and functional characterization of effectors is an arduous task, narrowing the field of candidates is useful. We present ideas about types and functions of effectors from research on blood-feeding parasites and their mammalian hosts. Because of their importance for human health, blood-feeding parasites have more tools from genomics and other - omics than plant-feeding parasites. Four themes have emerged: (1) mechanical damage resulting from attack by blood-feeding parasites triggers "early danger signals" in mammalian hosts, which are mediated by eATP, calcium, and hydrogen peroxide, (2) mammalian hosts need to modulate their immune responses to the three "early danger signals" and use apyrases, calreticulins, and peroxiredoxins, respectively, to achieve this, (3) blood-feeding parasites, like their mammalian hosts, rely on some of the same "early danger signals" and modulate their immune responses using the same proteins, and (4) blood-feeding parasites deploy apyrases, calreticulins, and peroxiredoxins in their saliva to manipulate the "danger signals" of their mammalian hosts. We review emerging evidence that plant-feeding insects also interfere with "early danger signals" of their hosts by deploying apyrases, calreticulins and peroxiredoxins in saliva. Given emerging links between these molecules, and plant growth and defense, we propose that these effectors interfere with phytohormone signaling, and therefore have a special importance for gall-inducing and leaf-mining insects, which manipulate host-plants to create better food and shelter. PMID:26705897

  18. Interrelated responses of tomato plants and the leaf miner Tuta absoluta to nitrogen supply.

    PubMed

    Larbat, R; Adamowicz, S; Robin, C; Han, P; Desneux, N; Le Bot, J

    2016-05-01

    Plant-insect interactions are strongly modified by environmental factors. This study evaluates the influence of nitrogen fertilisation on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Santa clara and the leafminer (Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Greenhouse-grown tomato plants were fed hydroponically on a complete nutrient solution containing either a high nitrogen concentration (HN) sustaining maximum growth or a low nitrogen concentration (LN) limiting plant growth. Insect-free plants were compared with plants attacked by T. absoluta. Seven and 14 days after artificial oviposition leading to efficacious hatching and larvae development, we measured total carbon, nitrogen and soluble protein as well as defence compounds (phenolics, glycoalkaloids, polyphenol oxidase activity) in the HN versus LN plants. Only in the HN treatment did T. absoluta infestation slightly impair leaf growth and induce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in the foliage. Neither the concentration of phenolic compounds and proteins nor the distribution of nitrogen within the plant was affected by T. absoluta infestation. In contrast, LN nutrition impaired T. absoluta-induced PPO activity. It decreased protein and total nitrogen concentration of plant organs and enhanced the accumulation of constitutive phenolics and tomatine. Moreover, LN nutrition impaired T. absoluta development by notably decreasing pupal weight and lengthening the development period from egg to adult. Adjusting the level of nitrogen nutrition may thus be a means of altering the life cycle of T. absoluta. This study provides a comprehensive dataset concerning interrelated responses of tomato plants and T. absoluta to nitrogen nutrition. PMID:26661406

  19. Are Tree Species Diversity and Genotypic Diversity Effects on Insect Herbivores Mediated by Ants?

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Navarrete, María José; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Parra-Tabla, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Plant diversity can influence predators and omnivores and such effects may in turn influence herbivores and plants. However, evidence for these ecological feedbacks is rare. We evaluated if the effects of tree species (SD) and genotypic diversity (GD) on the abundance of different guilds of insect herbivores associated with big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) were contingent upon the protective effects of ants tending extra-floral nectaries of this species. This study was conducted within a larger experiment consisting of mahogany monocultures and species polycultures of four species and –within each of these two plot types– mahogany was represented by either one or four maternal families. We selected 24 plots spanning these treatment combinations, 10 mahogany plants/plot, and within each plot experimentally reduced ant abundance on half of the selected plants, and surveyed ant and herbivore abundance. There were positive effects of SD on generalist leaf-chewers and sap-feeders, but for the latter group this effect depended on the ant reduction treatment: SD positively influenced sap-feeders under ambient ant abundance but had no effect when ant abundance was reduced; at the same time, ants had negative effects on sap feeders in monoculture but no effect in polyculture. In contrast, SD did not influence specialist stem-borers or leaf-miners and this effect was not contingent upon ant reduction. Finally, GD did not influence any of the herbivore guilds studied, and such effects did not depend on the ant treatment. Overall, we show that tree species diversity influenced interactions between a focal plant species (mahogany) and ants, and that such effects in turn mediated plant diversity effects on some (sap-feeders) but not all the herbivores guilds studied. Our results suggest that the observed patterns are dependent on the combined effects of herbivore identity, diet breadth, and the source of plant diversity. PMID:26241962

  20. Volatile emissions from Aesculus hippocastanum induced by mining of larval stages of Cameraria ohridella influence oviposition by conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Johne, A Bettina; Weissbecker, Bernhard; Schütz, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Larval stages of the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella can completely destroy the surface of horse chestnut leaves, Aesculus hippocastanum. This study investigated the effect of the degree of leaf browning caused by the insect's larvae on olfactory detection, aggregation, and oviposition of C. ohridella adults. The influence of A. hippocastanum flower scent on oviposition of the first generation was also evaluated. Utilizing gas chromatography coupled with parallel detection by mass spectrometry and electroantennography (GC-MS/EAD), more than 30 compounds eliciting responses from antennae of C. ohridella were detected. Oviposition and mining by C. ohridella caused significant changes in the profile of leaf volatiles of A. hippocastanum. After oviposition and subsequent mining by early larval stages (L1-L3), substances such as benzaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, methyl salicylate, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene were emitted in addition to the compounds emitted by uninfested leaves. Insects were able to detect these compounds. The emitted amount of these substances increased with progressive larval development. During late larval stages (L4, L5) and severe loss of green leaf area, (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal, (E/Z)-linalool oxide (furanoid), nonanal, and decanal were also released by leaves. These alterations of the profile of volatiles caused modifications in aggregation of C. ohridella on leaves. In choice tests, leaves in early infestation stages showed no significant effect on aggregation, whereas insects avoided leaves in late infestation stages. Further choice tests with leaves treated with single compounds led to the identification of substances mediating an increase or decrease in oviposition. PMID:17001531

  1. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)-tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    PubMed

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia. Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would benefit from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitism of five Trichogramma species-strains on the pest-plant system T. absoluta-tomato, and 2) assessed various biological traits of parasitoids, mass-reared on a factitious host (Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), when developing on T. absoluta. In addition, we evaluated the overall efficiency of two specific Trichogramma species when released under greenhouse conditions in combination with a common natural enemy in tomato crop, the predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Parasitoids emerging from T. absoluta on tomato showed lower parasitism rates and poor biological traits, for example, wing deformations, reduced longevity, when compared with the control reared on the factitious host. Under greenhouse conditions, the parasitoids that developed on T. absoluta after initial releases contributed little to biological control of T. absoluta, and parasitism tended to be lower when the predator was present. However, a slightly higher T. absoluta control level was achieved by combining the predator and release of the parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti. This study shows that Trichogramma parasitoids may not build up populations on the T. absoluta-tomato system, but that Trichogramma parasitoids can be used in combination with M. pygmaeus to enhance biological control of the pest in tomato crops. PMID:24498728

  2. Population Development of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under Simulated UK Glasshouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G.S.; Mathers, James J.; Blackburn, Lisa F.; Korycinska, Anastasia; Luo, Weiqi; Jacobson, Robert J.; Northing, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of tomato plants in South America. It was first recorded in the UK in 2009 where it has been subjected to eradication policies. The current work outlines T. absoluta development under various UK glasshouse temperatures. The optimum temperature for Tuta development ranged from 19–23 °C. At 19 °C, there was 52% survival of T. absoluta from egg to adult. As temperature increased (23 °C and above) development time of the moth would appear to decrease. Population development ceases between 7 and 10 °C. Only 17% of eggs hatched at 10 °C but no larvae developed through to adult moths. No eggs hatched when maintained at 7 °C. Under laboratory conditions the total lifespan of the moth was longest (72 days) at 13 °C and shortest (35 days) at both 23 and 25 °C. Development from egg to adult took 58 days at 13 °C; 37 days at 19 °C and 23 days at 25 °C. High mortality of larvae occurred under all temperatures tested. First instar larvae were exposed on the leaf surface for approximately 82 minutes before fully tunnelling into the leaf. Adult longevity was longest at 10 °C with moths living for 40 days and shortest at 19 °C where they survived for 16 days. Generally more males than females were produced. The potential of Tuta absoluta to establish populations within UK protected horticulture is discussed. PMID:26464384

  3. Ecological modulation of environmental stress: interactions between ultraviolet radiation, epibiotic snail embryos, plants and herbivores.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Martin

    2008-05-01

    1. The distribution of egg masses of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus on the undersides of water lily leaves (e.g. Nuphar lutea) is related to the prevalence of the leaf-mining beetle Galerucella nymphaeae. 2. When given the choice, Planorbarius significantly avoids leaves that were infested by the mining beetle. Conversely, Lymnaea did not discriminate against mined leaves. 3. Intact Nuphar leaves block over 95% of incident ultraviolet radiation. Yet, ultraviolet transmission reaches almost 100% under beetle mining scars. These are several times wider than snail embryos. 4. When exposed to natural sunlight, Lymnaea embryos proved to be resistant to ambient ultraviolet, while Planorbarius embryos were rapidly killed. Thus, one selective advantage of Planorbarius discrimination against mined leaves when depositing its eggs could be the avoidance of ultraviolet radiation passing through mining scars. 5. Other mining-related modifications of the leaves, reduced area, decreased longevity, altered aufwuchs (i.e. biofilm and epibionts) are discussed but seem less relevant for the oviposition preference of Planorbarius. 6. The discriminatory behaviour of this snail species was triggered by water-borne cues emitted by the damaged leaf, not by the eggs or larvae of the beetle. 7. This study illustrates how environmental stress on a given species, ultraviolet radiation in this case, can be ecologically buffered (shading by Nuphar) or enhanced (reduction of Nuphar shading through beetle mining) by associated species. It highlights how the impact of a given stress depends on the identity of the target species as well as on the identity and role of other species in the community. PMID:18217942

  4. Systematics and biology of some species of Micrurapteryx Spuler (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) from the Holarctic Region, with re-description of M. caraganella (Hering) from Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Triberti, Paolo; Mutanen, Marko; Magnoux, Emmanuelle; Landry, Jean-François; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During a DNA barcoding campaign of leaf-mining insects from Siberia, a genetically divergent lineage of a gracillariid belonging to the genus Micrurapteryx was discovered, whose larvae developed on Caragana Fabr. and Medicago L. (Fabaceae). Specimens from Siberia showed similar external morphology to the Palearctic Micrurapteryx gradatella and the Nearctic Parectopa occulta but differed in male genitalia, DNA barcodes, and nuclear genes histone H3 and 28S. Members of this lineage are re-described here as Micrurapteryx caraganella (Hering, 1957), comb. n., an available name published with only a brief description of its larva and leaf mine. Micrurapteryx caraganella is widely distributed throughout Siberia, from Tyumen oblast in the West to Transbaikalia in the East. Occasionally it may severely affect its main host, Caragana arborescens Lam. This species has been confused in the past with Micrurapteryx gradatella in Siberia, but field observations confirm that Micrurapteryx gradatella exists in Siberia and is sympatric with Micrurapteryx caraganella, at least in the Krasnoyarsk region, where it feeds on different host plants (Vicia amoena Fisch. and Vicia sp.). In addition, based on both morphological and molecular evidence as well as examination of type specimens, the North American Parectopa occulta Braun, 1922 and Parectopa albicostella Braun, 1925 are transferred to Micrurapteryx as Micrurapteryx occulta (Braun, 1922), comb. n. with albicostella as its junior synonym (syn. n.). Characters used to distinguish Micrurapteryx from Parectopa are presented and illustrated. These findings provide another example of the potential of DNA barcoding to reveal overlooked species and illuminate nomenclatural problems. PMID:27110203

  5. Are Tree Species Diversity and Genotypic Diversity Effects on Insect Herbivores Mediated by Ants?

    PubMed

    Campos-Navarrete, María José; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Parra-Tabla, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Plant diversity can influence predators and omnivores and such effects may in turn influence herbivores and plants. However, evidence for these ecological feedbacks is rare. We evaluated if the effects of tree species (SD) and genotypic diversity (GD) on the abundance of different guilds of insect herbivores associated with big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) were contingent upon the protective effects of ants tending extra-floral nectaries of this species. This study was conducted within a larger experiment consisting of mahogany monocultures and species polycultures of four species and -within each of these two plot types- mahogany was represented by either one or four maternal families. We selected 24 plots spanning these treatment combinations, 10 mahogany plants/plot, and within each plot experimentally reduced ant abundance on half of the selected plants, and surveyed ant and herbivore abundance. There were positive effects of SD on generalist leaf-chewers and sap-feeders, but for the latter group this effect depended on the ant reduction treatment: SD positively influenced sap-feeders under ambient ant abundance but had no effect when ant abundance was reduced; at the same time, ants had negative effects on sap feeders in monoculture but no effect in polyculture. In contrast, SD did not influence specialist stem-borers or leaf-miners and this effect was not contingent upon ant reduction. Finally, GD did not influence any of the herbivore guilds studied, and such effects did not depend on the ant treatment. Overall, we show that tree species diversity influenced interactions between a focal plant species (mahogany) and ants, and that such effects in turn mediated plant diversity effects on some (sap-feeders) but not all the herbivores guilds studied. Our results suggest that the observed patterns are dependent on the combined effects of herbivore identity, diet breadth, and the source of plant diversity. PMID:26241962

  6. Mutation (G275E) of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit is associated with high levels of resistance to spinosyns in Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Wellington M; Berger, Madeleine; Bass, Chris; Williamson, Martin; Moura, Danielle M N; Ribeiro, Lílian M S; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2016-07-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta, now a major pest of tomato crops worldwide, is primarily controlled using chemical insecticides. Recently, high levels of resistance to the insecticide spinosad have been described in T. absoluta populations in Brazil. Selection of a resistant field-collected strain led to very high levels of resistance to spinosad and cross-resistance to spinetoram, but not to other insecticides that target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In this study the mechanisms underlying resistance to spinosad were investigated using toxicological, biochemical and molecular approaches. Inhibition of metabolic enzymes using synergists and biochemical assessment of detoxification enzyme activity provided little evidence of metabolic resistance in the selected strain. Cloning and sequencing of the nAChR α6 subunit from T. absoluta, the spinosad target-site, from susceptible and spinosad-resistant strains were done to investigate the role of a target-site mechanism in resistance. A single nucleotide change was identified in exon 9 of the α6 subunit of the resistant strain, resulting in the replacement of the glycine (G) residue at position 275 observed in susceptible T. absoluta strains with a glutamic acid (E). A high-throughput DNA-based diagnostic assay was developed and used to assess the prevalence of the G275E mutation in 17 field populations collected from different geographical regions of Brazil. The resistant allele was found at low frequency, and in the heterozygous form, in seven of these populations but at much higher frequency and in the homozygous form in a population collected in the Iraquara municipality. The frequency of the mutation was significantly correlated with the mortality of these populations in discriminating dose bioassays. In summary our results provide evidence that the G275E mutation is an important mechanism of resistance to spinosyns in T. absoluta, and may be used as a marker for resistance monitoring in

  7. Differential Responses of Herbivores and Herbivory to Management in Temperate European Beech

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M.; Pašalić, Esther; Lange, Markus; Lange, Patricia; Boch, Steffen; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Müller, Jörg; Socher, Stephanie A.; Fischer, Markus; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Forest management not only affects biodiversity but also might alter ecosystem processes mediated by the organisms, i.e. herbivory the removal of plant biomass by plant-eating insects and other arthropod groups. Aiming at revealing general relationships between forest management and herbivory we investigated aboveground arthropod herbivory in 105 plots dominated by European beech in three different regions in Germany in the sun-exposed canopy of mature beech trees and on beech saplings in the understorey. We separately assessed damage by different guilds of herbivores, i.e. chewing, sucking and scraping herbivores, gall-forming insects and mites, and leaf-mining insects. We asked whether herbivory differs among different forest management regimes (unmanaged, uneven-aged managed, even-aged managed) and among age-classes within even-aged forests. We further tested for consistency of relationships between regions, strata and herbivore guilds. On average, almost 80% of beech leaves showed herbivory damage, and about 6% of leaf area was consumed. Chewing damage was most common, whereas leaf sucking and scraping damage were very rare. Damage was generally greater in the canopy than in the understorey, in particular for chewing and scraping damage, and the occurrence of mines. There was little difference in herbivory among differently managed forests and the effects of management on damage differed among regions, strata and damage types. Covariates such as wood volume, tree density and plant diversity weakly influenced herbivory, and effects differed between herbivory types. We conclude that despite of the relatively low number of species attacking beech; arthropod herbivory on beech is generally high. We further conclude that responses of herbivory to forest management are multifaceted and environmental factors such as forest structure variables affecting in particular microclimatic conditions are more likely to explain the variability in herbivory among beech forest

  8. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers reveal a Balkan origin for the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    Valade, R; Kenis, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A; Augustin, S; Mari Mena, N; Magnoux, E; Rougerie, R; Lakatos, F; Roques, A; Lopez-Vaamonde, C

    2009-08-01

    Biological invasions usually start with a small number of founder individuals. These founders are likely to represent a small fraction of the total genetic diversity found in the source population. Our study set out to trace genetically the geographical origin of the horse-chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella, an invasive microlepidopteran whose area of origin is still unkown. Since its discovery in Macedonia 25 years ago, this insect has experienced an explosive westward range expansion, progressively colonizing all of Central and Western Europe. We used cytochrome oxidase I sequences (DNA barcode fragment) and a set of six polymorphic microsatellites to assess the genetic variability of C. ohridella populations, and to test the hypothesis that C. ohridella derives from the southern Balkans (Albania, Macedonia and Greece). Analysis of mtDNA of 486 individuals from 88 localities allowed us to identify 25 geographically structured haplotypes. In addition, 480 individuals from 16 populations from Europe and the southern Balkans were genotyped for 6 polymorphic microsatellite loci. High haplotype diversity and low measures of nucleotide diversities including a significantly negative Tajima's D indicate that C. ohridella has experienced rapid population expansion during its dispersal across Europe. Both mtDNA and microsatellites show a reduction in genetic diversity of C. ohridella populations sampled from artificial habitats (e.g. planted trees in public parks, gardens, along roads in urban or sub-urban areas) across Europe compared with C. ohridella sampled in natural stands of horse-chestnuts in the southern Balkans. These findings suggest that European populations of C. ohridella may indeed derive from the southern Balkans. PMID:19627490

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, plant chemistry, and aboveground herbivory on Senecio jacobaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidinger, Stefan; Eschen, René; Gange, Alan C.; Finch, Paul; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect insect herbivores by changing plant growth and chemistry. However, many factors can influence the symbiotic relationship between plant and fungus, potentially obscuring experimental treatments and ecosystem impacts. In a field experiment, we assessed AMF colonization levels of individual ragwort ( Senecio jacobaea) plants growing in grassland plots that were originally sown with 15 or 4 plant species, or were unsown. We measured the concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), and assessed the presence of aboveground insect herbivores on the sampled plants. Total AMF colonization and colonization by arbuscules was lower in plots sown with 15 species than in plots sown with 4 species and unsown plots. AMF colonization was positively related to the cover of oxeye daisy ( Leucanthemum vulgare) and a positive relationship between colonization by arbuscules and the occurrence of a specialist seed-feeding fly ( Pegohylemyia seneciella) was found. The occurrence of stem-boring, leaf-mining and sap-sucking insects was not affected by AMF colonization. Total PA concentrations were negatively related to colonization levels by vesicles, but did not differ among the sowing treatments. No single factor explained the observed differences in AMF colonization among the sowing treatments or insect herbivore occurrence on S. jacobaea. However, correlations across the treatments suggest that some of the variation was due to the abundance of one plant species, which is known to stimulate AMF colonization of neighbouring plants, while AMF colonization was related to the occurrence of a specialist insect herbivore. Our results thus illustrate that in natural systems, the ecosystem impact of AMF through their influence on the occurrence of specialist insects can be recognised, but they also highlight the confounding effect of neighbouring plant species identity. Hence, our results emphasise the importance of field