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Sample records for leakage test evaluation

  1. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE DELTA Q TEST FOR DUCT LEAKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2003-05-01

    Using a residential-size duct system in a controlled laboratory setting, the repeatability and accuracy of the Delta Q test for air leakage in residential duct systems have been measured. More than 100 Delta Q tests were performed. These were compared with results using fan pressurization and also with results of a procedure (Delta Q Plus) that uses leakage hole-size information to select the leakage pressures to be used in the Delta Q algorithm. The average error in supply or return leakage for the fan-pressurization test was 6.4% of system fan flow. For the Delta Q test it was 3.4% of fan flow, while for Delta Q Plus it was 1.9% of fan flow.

  2. Evaluation of particulate filtering respirators using inward leakage (IL) or total inward leakage (TIL) testing--Korean experience.

    PubMed

    Han, Don-Hee; Lee, Jinheon

    2005-10-01

    Korean certification regulation for particulate filtering respirators requires inward leakage (IL) or total inward leakage (TIL) testing according to European Standard EN 13274-1, and the standard levels of compliance are similar to those of the European Standard. This study was conducted to evaluate particulate filtering respirators being commercially used in the Korean market using an IL or TIL test and the validity of standard level in Korea. Three half masks and 10 filtering facepieces (two top class, four 1st class and four 2nd class)-a total of 13 brand name respirators-were selected for the test with panels of 10 subjects. Each subject was classified with nine facial dimension grid squares in accordance with face length and lip length. IL or TIL testing was conducted at the laboratory of the 3M Innovation Center in which the experimental instruments and systems were established in compliance with European standards. The testing procedure followed EN 13274-1 (2001). As expected, leakages of half masks were less than those of filtering facepieces and the latter were significantly different among brands. TILs of the 1st class filtering facepieces were found to be much more than those of the 2nd class and the result may cause a wearer to get confused when selecting a mask. The main route leakage for filtering facepieces may not be the filter medium but the face seal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop well-fitting filtering facepieces for Koreans. Because leakages were significantly different for different facial dimensions, a defined test panel for IL or TIL testing according to country or race should be developed. A more precise method to demonstrate fit, for example, fit testing such as in the US regulations, will be needed before IL or TIL testing or when selecting a respirator. Another finding implies that geometric mean of five exercises for IL or TIL may be better than arithmetic mean to establish a standard individual subject mean. PMID:16126767

  3. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  4. EVALUATION OF LEAKAGE FROM FUME HOODS USING TRACER GAS, TRACER NANOPARTICLES AND NANOPOWDER HANDLING TEST METHODOLOGIES

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kevin H.; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R.; Bennett, James S.; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 feet/minute) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust air flows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  5. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  6. TWO NEW DUCT LEAKAGE TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Two variations on the tests for duct leakage currently embodied in ASHRAE Standard 152P (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) are presented. Procedures are derived for calculating supply and return duct leakage to/from outside using these new variations. Results of these tests are compared with the original ones in Standard 152P on the basis of data collected in three New York State homes.

  7. Two New Duct Leakage Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Two variations on the tests for duct leakage currently embodied in ASHRAE Standard 152P (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) are presented. Procedures are derived for calculating supply and return duct leakage to/from outside using these new variations. Results of these tests are compared with the original ones in Standard 152P on the basis of data collected in three New York State homes.

  8. LEAKAGE TESTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.

    1958-08-12

    A method of testing containers for leaks is described, particularly the testing of containers or cans in which the uranium slugs for nuelear reactors are jacketed. This method involves the immersion of the can in water under l50 pounds of pressure, then removing, drying, and coating the can with anhydrous copper sulfate. Amy water absorbed by the can under pressure will exude and discolor the copper sulfate in the area about the leak.

  9. Transport analysis of measured neutron leakage spectra from spheres as tests of evaluated high energy cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, D. D.; Shook, D. F.; Fieno, D.

    1973-01-01

    Integral tests of evaluated ENDF/B high-energy cross sections have been made by comparing measured and calculated neutron leakage flux spectra from spheres of various materials. An Am-Be (alpha,n) source was used to provide fast neutrons at the center of the test spheres of Be, CH2, Pb, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W. The absolute leakage flux spectra were measured in the energy range 0.5 to 12 MeV using a calibrated NE213 liquid scintillator neutron spectrometer. Absolute calculations of the spectra were made using version 3 ENDF/B cross sections and an S sub n discrete ordinates multigroup transport code. Generally excellent agreement was obtained for Be, CH2, Pb, and Mo, and good agreement was observed for Nb although discrepancies were observed for some energy ranges. Poor comparative results, obtained for Ta and W, are attributed to unsatisfactory nonelastic cross sections. The experimental sphere leakage flux spectra are tabulated and serve as possible benchmarks for these elements against which reevaluated cross sections may be tested.

  10. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  11. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Vacuum test fixture improves leakage rate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, H.; Marx, H.

    1966-01-01

    Cylindrical chamber, consisting of two matching halves, forms a vacuum test fixture for measuring leakage rates of individual connections, brazed joints, and entrance ports used in closed fluid flow line systems. Once the chamber has been sufficiently evacuated, atmospheric pressure holds the two halves together.

  13. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  14. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  15. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  16. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  17. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  18. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.348-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  19. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.347-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  20. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.347-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  1. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... is equipped with vapor recovery equipment may be leakage tested in accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e). To satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph, the test specified in 40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted using air. The hydrostatic test alternative permitted under Appendix A to 40 CFR...

  2. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... is equipped with vapor recovery equipment may be leakage tested in accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e). To satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph, the test specified in 40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted using air. The hydrostatic test alternative permitted under Appendix A to 40 CFR...

  3. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.347-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  4. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... is equipped with vapor recovery equipment may be leakage tested in accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e). To satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph, the test specified in 40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted using air. The hydrostatic test alternative permitted under Appendix A to 40 CFR...

  5. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.348-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  6. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... is equipped with vapor recovery equipment may be leakage tested in accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e). To satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph, the test specified in 40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted using air. The hydrostatic test alternative permitted under Appendix A to 40 CFR...

  7. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.348-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  8. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.348-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  9. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.347-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  10. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.348-5 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b)...

  11. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.347-5 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b)...

  12. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... adjacent cargo tanks empty and at atmospheric pressure. Each closure, except pressure relief devices and... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure and leakage tests. 178.345-13 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a)...

  13. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adjacent cargo tanks empty and at atmospheric pressure. Each closure, except pressure relief devices and... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure and leakage tests. 178.345-13 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a)...

  14. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... adjacent cargo tanks empty and at atmospheric pressure. Each closure, except pressure relief devices and... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure and leakage tests. 178.345-13 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a)...

  15. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adjacent cargo tanks empty and at atmospheric pressure. Each closure, except pressure relief devices and... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure and leakage tests. 178.345-13 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a)...

  16. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  17. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  18. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  19. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b)...

  20. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to...

  1. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to...

  2. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to...

  3. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to...

  4. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84.158 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage...

  5. Reducing Uncertainty for the DeltaQ Duct Leakage Test

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2004-05-01

    The thermal distribution system couples the HVAC components to the building envelope, and shares many properties of the buildings envelope including moisture, conduction and most especially air leakage performance. Duct leakage has a strong influence on air flow rates through building envelopes (usually resulting in much greater flows than those due to natural infiltration) because unbalanced duct air flows and leaks result in building pressurization and depressurization. As a tool to estimate this effect, the DeltaQ duct leakage test has been developed over the past several years as an improvement to existing duct pressurization tests. It focuses on measuring the air leakage flows to outside at operating conditions that are required for envelope infiltration impacts and energy loss calculations for duct systems. The DeltaQ test builds on the standard envelope tightness blower door measurement techniques by repeating the tests with the system air handler off and on. The DeltaQ test requires several assumptions to be made about duct leakage and its interaction with the duct system and building envelope in order to convert the blower door results into duct leakage at system operating conditions. This study examined improvements to the DeltaQ test that account for some of these assumptions using a duct system and building envelope in a test laboratory. The laboratory measurements used a purpose-built test chamber coupled to a duct system typical of forced air systems in US homes. Special duct leaks with controlled air-flow were designed and installed into an airtight duct system. This test apparatus allowed the systematic variation of the duct and envelope leakage and accurate measurement of the duct leakage flows for comparison to DeltaQ test results. This paper will discuss the laboratory test apparatus design, construction and operation, the various analysis techniques applied to the calculation procedure and present estimates of uncertainty in measured duct

  6. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those found in

  7. Predicting Leakage in Labyrinth Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Rhode, D. L.; Cogan, K. C.; Chi, D.; Demko, J.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical and empirical methods evaluated. 264-page report presents comprehensive information on leakage in labyrinth seals. Summarizes previous analyses of leakage, reviews leakage tests conducted by authors and evaluates various analytical and experimental methods of determining leakage and discusses leakage prediction techniques.

  8. Expedient methods of respiratory protection. II. Leakage tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.W.; Hinds, W.C.; Price, J.M.; Weker, R.; Yee, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The following readily-available materials were tested on a manikin connected to a breathing simulator to determine the fraction of an approximately 2-..mu..m-diameter aerosol that would leak around the seal of the materials to the manikin's face: cotton/polyester shirt material, cotton handkerchief material, toweling (a wash cloth), a surgical mask (Johnson and Johnson Co., model HRI 8137), and a NIOSH-approved disposable face mask (3M, model number 8710). The leakage tests were performed to supplement the measurements of penetration through the materials, conducted as the first phase of this investigation. The leakage tests were performed with the materials held on to the face by three methods, leakage fractions being determined from comparisons with the penetration of the same aerosol for the materials fully taped to the face. At a breathing rate of 37 liters per minute, mean leakages ranged from 0.0 percent to 63 percent. Mean penetrations exclusive of leakage ranged from 0.6 percent to 39 percent. Use of nylon hosiery material (panty hose) to hold the handkerchief material or the disposable face mask to the face was found to be very effective in preventing leakage. Such a combination could be expected to reduce leakage around the handkerchief to about ten percent or less in practice, and around the mask to less than one percent, offering substantial protection from accidentally generated aerosols. The reduction in leakage around the mask provided by the hosiery material suggests the adaptation and use of such an approach in regular industrial hygiene practice. The third and final phase of this investigation is underway, in which the penetration of the materials by particles with diameters between 0.05 and 0.5 ..mu..m is being measured and the effectiveness of the methods for dose reduction in the presence of radioactive aerosols is being modeled.

  9. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 63.425(e). To satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph, the test specified in 40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted using air. The hydrostatic test alternative permitted under Appendix A to 40 CFR Part 60 (“Method 27—Determination of Vapor Tightness of Gasoline Delivery Tank...

  10. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be tested with the adjacent cargo tanks empty and at atmospheric pressure. Each closure, except... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure and leakage tests. 178.345-13 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and...

  11. Method and apparatus for container leakage testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-10-18

    This invention is an apparatus for use in 100% leak testing of food containers used in conjunction with a tracer gas. It includes a shell with entrance and exit air locks to create a controlled atmosphere through which a series of containers is conveyed by a conveyor belt. Pressure in the shell is kept lower than that in the containers and the atmosphere is made to flow with the containers so that a tracer gas placed in the packages before sealing them will leak more readily, but the leaked tracer gas will remain associated with the leaking package as it moves through the shell. The leaks are detected with a sniffer probe in fluid communication with a gas chromatograph (GC). The GC issues a signal when it detects a leak to an ejector that eject the leaking container from the conveyor. The system is timed so that the series of containers can move continuously into and out of the shell, past the probe and the ejector, without stopping, yet each package is tested for leaks and removed if leaking.

  12. Method and apparatus for container leakage testing

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for use in one-hundred percent leak testing of food containers used in conjunction with a tracer gas. The apparatus includes a shell with entrance and exit air locks to create a controlled atmosphere through which a series of containers is conveyed by a conveyor belt. The pressure in the shell is kept lower than the pressure in the containers and the atmosphere is made to flow with the containers so that a tracer gas placed in the packages before sealing them will leak more readily, but the leaked tracer gas will remain associated with the leaking package as it moves through the shell. The leaks are detected with a sniffer probe in fluid communication with a gas chromatograph. The gas chromatograph issues a signal when it detects a leak to an ejector that will eject the leaking container from the conveyor. The system is timed so that the series of containers can move continuously into and out of the shell, past the probe and the ejector, without stopping, yet each package is tested for leaks and removed if leaking.

  13. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks §...

  14. The SSME seal test program: Leakage tests for helically-grooved seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Helically grooved annular seal configurations were tested in highly turbulent flow to determine if reduced leakage and enhanced stability would result from the pumping action of the seal. It was found that: (1) leakage of a helically grooved seals decreases with running speed; (2) leakage reduction due to increased running speed is greater at lower values of R sub a; (3) an asymptote for leakage reduction is indicated with increasing running speed; (4) leakage is reduced by reducing the ridge (minimum) and average clearances; (5) leakage increases with increasing pitch angles and with increasing groove depth. Plain seals with smooth rotors and stators will leak more than a helically grooved seal. It was also found that plain seals with a rough rotor and a rough stator leak less than a properly designed helically grooved seal. A properly designed helically grooved seal consumes at least twice as much power as a conventional annular seal.

  15. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  17. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  18. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  19. Leakage testing of packagings with three-O-ring closure seals

    SciTech Connect

    Oras, J.J.; Towell, R.H.; Wangler, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    Both the American National Standard for Radioactive Materials--Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment (ANSI N14.5) and the ISO 12807:1996 Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials--Leakage Testing on Packages provide guidance for leakage rate testing to show that a particular packaging complies with regulatory requirements; both also provide guidance for determining appropriate acceptance criteria. Recent radioactive packaging designs have incorporated three-O-ring closure seals, the middle O-ring being the containment seal. These designs have the potential for false positive results in leakage rate tests. The volume between the containment O-ring and the inner O-ring is used for the helium gas required for the leakage rate tests, in order to reduce both the amount of helium used and the time required to conduct the tests. A leak detector samples the evacuated volume between the outer O-ring and the containment O-ring. False positive results can have two causes: a large leakage in the containment seal or leakage in the inner seal. This paper describes the problem, together with possible solutions and areas that should be addressed in a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) before a particular packaging design can be certified for transport. Ultimately, the SARP should provide justification that the requirements for leakage rate testing procedures, including the length of time needed to conduct the tests, will ensure that the containment closure seal is properly tested.

  20. 77 FR 14445 - Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... in the Federal Register on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11288) for a 60 days public comment period. The... COMMISSION Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commission) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide 7.4, ``Leakage Tests on Packages for...

  1. Solid oxidized fuel cells seals leakage setup and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.

    2004-01-01

    As the world s reserves of fossil fuels are depleted, the U.S. Government, as well as other countries and private industries, is researching solutions for obtaining power, answers that would be more efficient and environmentally friendly. For a long time engineers have been trying to obtain the benefits of clean electric power without heavy batteries or pollution-producing engines. While some of the inventions proved to be effective (i.e. solar panels or windmills) their applications are limited due to dependency on the energy source (i.e. sun or wind). Currently, as energy concerns increase, research is being carried out on the development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The United States government is taking a proactive role in expanding the technology through the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, which is coordinated by the Department of Energy. into an electrical energy. This occurs by the means of natural tendency of oxygen and hydrogen to chemically react. While controlling the process, it is possible to harvest the energy given off by the reaction. SOFCs use currently available fossil fuels and convert a variety of those fuels with very high efficiency (about 40% more efficient than modem thermal power plants). At the same time they are almost entirely nonpolluting and due to their size they can be placed in remote areas. The main fields where the application of the fuel cells appears to be the most useful for are stationary energy sources, transportation, and military applications. structure and materials must be resolved. All the components must be operational in harsh environments including temperatures reaching 800 C and cyclic thermal- mechanical loading. Under these conditions, the main concern is the requirement for hermetic seals to: (1) prevent mixing of the fuel and oxidant within the stack, (2) prevent parasitic leakage of the fuel from the stack, (3) prevent contamination of the anode by air leaking into the stack, (4

  2. SENSITIVITY OF THE HOUSE PRESSURE TEST FOR DUCT LEAKAGE TO VARIATIONS IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF AIR LEAKAGE IN THE HOUSE ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1998-12-01

    The house pressure test for air leakage in ducts calculates the signed difference between the supply and return leakage from the response of the air pressure in the house to operation of the system fan. The currently accepted version of this calculation was based on particular assumptions about how the house envelope leakage is distributed between the walls, ceiling, and floor. This report generalizes the equation to account for an arbitrary distribution of envelope leakage. It concludes that the currently accepted equation is usually accurate to within {+-}5%, but in a small proportion of cases the results may diverge by 50% or more.

  3. Sensitivity of the house pressure test for duct leakage to variations in the distribution of air leakage in the house envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1998-12-01

    The house pressure test for air leakage in ducts calculates the signed difference between the supply and return leakage from the response of the air pressure in the house to operation of the system fan. The currently accepted version of this calculation was based on particular assumptions about how the house envelope leakage is distributed between the walls, ceiling, and floor. This report generalizes the equation to account for an arbitrary distribution of envelope leakage. It concludes that the currently accepted equation is usually accurate to within {+-}5%, but in a small proportion of cases the results may diverge by 50% or more.

  4. FIELD EVALUATION OF IMPROVED METHODS FOR MEASURING THE AIR LEAKAGE OF DUCT SYSTEMS UNDER NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS IN 51 HOMES

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Francisco; Larry Palmiter; Erin Kruse; Bob Davis

    2003-10-18

    Duct leakage in forced-air distribution systems has been recognized for years as a major source of energy losses in residential buildings. Unfortunately, the distribution of leakage across homes is far from uniform, and measuring duct leakage under normal operating conditions has proven to be difficult. Recently, two new methods for estimating duct leakage at normal operating conditions have been devised. These are called the nulling test and the Delta-Q test. Small exploratory studies have been done to evaluate these tests, but previously no large-scale study on a broad variety of homes has been performed to determine the accuracy of these new methods in the field against an independent benchmark of leakage. This sort of study is important because it is difficult in a laboratory setting to replicate the range of leakage types found in real homes. This report presents the results of a study on 51 homes to evaluate these new methods relative to an independent benchmark and a method that is currently used. An evaluation of the benchmark procedure found that it worked very well for supply-side leakage measurements, but not as well on the return side. The nulling test was found to perform well, as long as wind effects were minimal. Unfortunately, the time and difficulty of setup can be prohibitive, and it is likely that this method will not be practical for general use by contractors except in homes with no return ducts. The Delta-Q test was found to have a bias resulting in overprediction of the leakage, which qualitatively confirms the results of previous laboratory, simulation, and small-scale field studies. On average the bias was only a few percent of the air handler flow, but in about 20% of the homes the bias was large. A primary flaw with the Delta-Q test is the assumption that the pressure between the ducts and the house remain constant during the test, as this assumption does not hold true. Various modifications to the Delta-Q method were evaluated as

  5. Combination Of Thermography And Pressure Tests To Combat Air Leakage Problems In Building Enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruin, W. G.

    1987-05-01

    Uncontrolled air leakage in a building enclosure is the main component of space heating and cooling costs. In Atlantic Canada, Public Works Canada has combined thermography and pressure testing to identify design and construction problems in new construction and to identify specific areas of air leakage in existing housing stock. A study case shows how thermography and pressure testing has been utilized to locate and compare specific areas of air leakage in a residence before and after air sealing. The study provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence of how air sealing increases the air tightness in building enclosures.

  6. Leakage test concerns for packagings with three-O-ring closure seals

    SciTech Connect

    Oras, J.J.; Towell, R.H.; Wangler, M.E.

    1997-07-01

    Recent radioactive packagings with three-O-ring closure seals, the middle O-ring being the containment seal, have the potential for false positive results from leakage rate tests. The volume between the containment O-ring and the inner O-ring is used for the helium gas required for the leakage rate tests, to reduce both the amount of helium used and the time for the tests. False positive results can be caused by either a large leakage in the containment sea/l or a leakage in the inner seal. This paper describes the problem, together with possible solutions/areas that need to be addressed in a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging.

  7. Regulatory concerns for leakage testing of packagings with three O-ring closure seals

    SciTech Connect

    Oras, J.J.; Towell, R.H.; Wangler, M.E.

    1997-09-01

    The American National Standard for Radioactive Materials--Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment (ANSI N14.5) provides guidance for leakage rate testing to show that a particular packaging complies with regulatory requirements and also provides guidance in determining appropriate acceptance criteria. Recent radioactive packagings designs have incorporated three O-ring closure seals, the middle O-ring being the containment seal. These designs have the potential for false positive results of leakage rate tests. The volume between the containment O-ring and the inner O-ring is used for the helium gas required for the leakage rate tests to reduce both the amount of helium used and the time required to conduct the tests. A leak detector samples the evacuated volume between the outer O-ring and the containment O-ring. False positive results can be caused in two ways, a large leakage in the containment seal or leakage in the inner seal. This paper will describe the problem together with possible solutions/areas that need to be addressed in a Safety Analysis Report for Packagings before a particular packaging design can be certified for transport.

  8. Characterization of aqueous silver nitrate solutions for leakage tests

    PubMed Central

    COSTA, José Ferreira; SIQUEIRA, Walter Luiz; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro Dourado; REIS, Alessandra; de OLIVEIRA, Elizabeth; ALVES, Cláudia Maria Coelho; BAUER, José Roberto de Oliveira; GRANDE, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the pH over a period of 168 h and the ionic silver content in various concentrations and post-preparation times of aqueous silver nitrate solutions. Also, the possible effects of these factors on microleakage test in adhesive/resin restorations in primary and permanent teeth were evaluated. Material and Methods A digital pHmeter was used for measuring the pH of the solutions prepared with three types of water (purified, deionized or distilled) and three brands of silver nitrate salt (Merck, Synth or Cennabras) at 0, 1, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h after preparation, and storage in transparent or dark bottles. Ionic silver was assayed according to the post-preparation times (2, 24, 48, 72, 96, 168 h) and concentrations (1, 5, 25, 50%) of solutions by atomic emission spectrometry. For each sample of each condition, three readings were obtained for calculating the mean value. Class V cavities were prepared with enamel margins on primary and permanent teeth and restored with the adhesive systems OptiBond FL or OptiBond SOLO Plus SE and the composite resin Filtek Z-250. After nail polish coverage, the permanent teeth were immersed in 25% or 50% AgNO3 solution and the primary teeth in 5% or 50% AgNO3 solutions for microleakage evaluation. ANOVA and the Tukey's test were used for data analyses (α=5%). Results The mean pH of the solutions ranged from neutral to alkaline (7.9±2.2 to 11.8±0.9). Mean ionic silver content differed depending on the concentration of the solution (4.75±0.5 to 293±15.3 ppm). In the microleakage test, significant difference was only observed for the adhesive system factor (p=0.000). Conclusions Under the tested experimental conditions and based on the obtained results, it may be concluded that the aqueous AgNO3 solutions: have neutral/alkaline pH and service life of up to 168 h; the level of ionic silver is proportional to the concentration of the solution; even at 5% concentration, the solutions were capable of

  9. An evaluation of irritant smoke to detect exhalation valve leakage in respirators.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Erin M; McKay, Roy T

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluated the ability of a qualitative fit-test method (irritant smoke) to detect known exhalation valve leakage. The OSHA protocol for the irritant smoke test mandates the use of a low flow air pump at 200 mL/minute or an aspirator squeeze bulb. Many commercial test kits include an aspirator bulb, which is subject to variation in frequency, depth of squeeze, fatigue rate, and individual hand strength. Previous studies on irritant smoke used a handheld squeeze bulb. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a low flow pump for irritant smoke fit-testing. Twenty subjects wearing North 7600 series full-face respirators equipped with P100 filters were fit-tested with a Portacount Plus to ensure adequate fit. After successful fit was demonstrated, the exhalation valve was replaced with a damaged valve and/or rotated approximately 90 degrees to produce a fit factor below 100. Having induced an exhalation valve leak, the irritant smoke fit-test was performed using the OSHA irritant smoke protocol. To avoid introducing additional unknown leakage, all head movement exercises were replaced with the head straight, normal breathing maneuver. Irritant smoke did not detect 40 percent of respirators with leaking exhalation valves. Sixty percent of the subjects were able to detect the irritant smoke. Test sensitivity was 60 percent, well below the recommended 95 percent criterion. Of the 12 subjects that detected irritant smoke, none detected the smoke in less than a minute; the average detection time was 3 min 5 s. Some subjects were able to suppress the cough reflex. These findings suggest that qualitative fit-testing using irritant smoke with a 200 ml/min continuous flow pump does not have adequate sensitivity to detect fit factors less than 100. PMID:12909538

  10. Continued Investigation of Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

    2007-01-01

    Seal leakage decreases with increasing surface speed due to reduced clearances from disk centrifugal growth. Annular and labyrinth seal leakage are 2-3 times greater than brush and finger seal leakage. Seal leakage rates increase with increasing temperature because of seal clearance growth due to different coefficients of thermal expansion between the seal and test disk. Seal power loss is not strongly affected by inlet temperature. Seal power loss increases with increasing surface speed, seal pressure differential, mass flow rate or flow factor, and radial clearance. The brush and finger seals had nearly the same power loss. Annular and labyrinth seal power loss were higher than finger or brush seal power loss. The brush seal power loss was the lowest and 15-30% lower than annular and labyrinth seal power loss.

  11. Numerical and experimental evaluation of a new low-leakage labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, D. L.; Ko, S. H.; Morrison, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a recently developed leakage model for evaluating new design features of most seals is demonstrated. A preliminary assessment of the present stator groove feature shows that it gives approximately a 20 percent leakage reduction with no shaft speed effects. Also, detailed distributions of predicted streamlines, axial velocity, relative pressure and turbulence energy enhance one's physical insight. In addition, the interesting measured effect of axial position of the rotor/stator pair on leakage rate and stator wall axial pressure distribution is examined.

  12. Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Delgado, Irebert R.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced brush and finger seal technologies offer reduced leakage rates over conventional labyrinth seals used in gas turbine engines. To address engine manufacturers concerns about the heat generation and power loss from these contacting seals, brush, finger, and labyrinth seals were tested in the NASA High Speed, High Temperature Turbine Seal Test Rig. Leakage and power loss test results are compared for these competing seals for operating conditions up to 922 K (1200 F) inlet air temperature, 517 KPa (75 psid) across the seal, and surface velocities up to 366 m/s (1200 ft/s).

  13. Error analysis for duct leakage tests in ASHRAE standard 152P

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents an analysis of random uncertainties in the two methods of testing for duct leakage in Standard 152P of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The test method is titled Standard Method of Test for Determining Steady-State and Seasonal Efficiency of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems. Equations have been derived for the uncertainties in duct leakage for given levels of uncertainty in the measured quantities used as inputs to the calculations. Tables of allowed errors in each of these independent variables, consistent with fixed criteria of overall allowed error, have been developed.

  14. Biliary reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation with dye injection leakage test and without stent use.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, T; Nishizaki, T; Kishikawa, K; Nomoto, K; Uchiyama, H; Ohta, R; Hiroshige, S; Sugimachi, K

    2001-01-01

    Biliary complication remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in living donor liver transplantation. From October 1996 to December 1999, 34 patients underwent 35 living donor liver transplantations at Kyushu University Hospital. In the initial twenty cases, anastomotic internal stents were placed. In the most recent fifteen cases, no internal stent was inserted and routine postreconstruction dye injection leakage tests were administered. In recipient biliary reconstruction, hepaticojejunostomy was performed using interrupted sutures without an anastomotic stent. After an intestinal clamp was applied at the anal side of the hepaticojejunostomy, leakage test was done using diluted indigocarmine solution injected into the jejunal loop lumen. Two (13%) of the fifteen recent patients suffered from biliary complications, whereas eight patients (40%) from the former twenty patients suffered from biliary complications. We conclude that the use of the stent was not useful, but the application of the dye injection leakage test was useful. PMID:11813578

  15. Evaluation of the leakage behavior of pressure-unseating equipment hatches and drywell heads

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, M.B.; Walther, H.P.; Lambert, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent research program to investigate the leakage behavior of pressure unseating equipment hatches. A total of thirteen tests have been conducted under various conditions to determine the pressure and temperature at which leakage through unseating equipment hatches would occur. A simple analytical model is presented that provides a good estimate of the leakage onset pressure for these tests. Because of the similarity in the sealing mechanism between unseating equipment hatches and drywell heads, the results of this program also provide insight into the leakage behavior of drywell heads. The research activities described herein are a part of the Containment Integrity Programs, which are managed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 16 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Evaluation Method of Gas Leakage Flow Through Small Clearances in CO2 Scroll Compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Noriaki; Oku, Tatsuya; Anami, Keiko; Sawai, Kiyoshi; Sano, Kiyoshi; Morimoto, Takashi

    This study presents an evaluation method of leakage flow through small axial and radial clearances between the orbiting and fixed scrolls of scroll compressors, where empirical friction factors were addressed. Leakage flow experiments were conducted for two refrigerants, CO2 and R22, flowing through the small axial and radial clearance models with a thin rectangular cross-sectional opening. The pressure drop in a pressurized closed vessel, due to leakage, was measured at a variety of initial pressure up to 3 MPa for CO2 and 0.6 MPa for R22. Darcy-Weisbach equation for the incompressible viscous fluid flow through the circular pipe was successfully applied to calculate the pressure drop due to leakage through the thin rectangular cross-section, where the empirical friction factors were determined and plotted on a Moody diagram. It was concluded that the working fluids are compressible and the leakage flow through the small clearances can be treated as the incompressible viscous fluid, where both the axial and radial clearance leakage flows can be represented by the same friction factor for both CO2 and R22 refrigerants, despite the significantly different working pressures. In addition it was addressed that the empirical friction factors were strongly dependent on the relative roughness of leakage channel surface.

  17. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America-funded research by teams and national laboratories that resulted in the development of an ASHRAE standard and a standardized testing method for testing the air leakage of HVAC air handlers and furnace cabinets and has spurred equipment manufacturers to tighten the cabinets they use for residential HVAC systems.

  18. Development and Application of the Reactor Coolant On-Line Leakage Evaluation Model for Pressurized Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Thomas K.S.; Hung, H.-J.; Chang, C.-J.

    2001-12-15

    With the consideration of mass unbalance, coolant shrinking, and compressibility, a model for reactor coolant leakage evaluation has been developed to quantify on-line the system leakage rate with conventional system measurements, regardless of where the leak occurs. This model has been derived from the system of total continuity, and it divides the reactor coolant system (RCS) into two regions, namely, the saturated and subcooled regions. The pressurizer is considered as a saturated region, and the remaining part of the RCS is regarded as a subcooled region. Taking the on-line measurements of the RCS including the RCS pressure, temperature, pressurizer water level, and charging and letdown flow rates, this model can directly evaluate on-line the RCS leakage rate. It is noted that this model is applicable only if the RCS remains subcooled. To verify the applicability of this model, data generated by RELAP5/MOD3 simulation and experimental measurements from the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, Integral System Test Facility were adopted to assess this model. With further on-line verification against the Maanshan training simulator, this model was finally delivered to the Maanshan nuclear power plant (a three-looped Westinghouse pressurized water reactor) to assist the operator training and on-line evaluation of the RCS leakage rate. The smallest amount of leak flow that can be detected by the ROCK model is 3 gal/min.

  19. On the Fluid Leakage Rate and Pressure Evaluation of Abandoned Non-Penetrating Wells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, J.; Zhan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding flow leakage through abandoned wells that are potential pathways of contamination due to injecting unwanted fluids in geologically deep storage aquifers have become an intensively investigated subject in the subsurface hydrology and petroleum engineering. This study represents a semi-analytical transient solution for estimating leakage rate by pressure change evaluation through an abandoned non-penetrating well (ANW) coupled with an injection well. The leakage rate can be estimated using the Darcy's law by evaluating pressure change between the upper and the lower aquifers through ANW. The analysis was conducted by solving the diffusivity equations of fluid flow in the aquifer coupled with the pipe flow through ANW. The single-phase flow is considered in this study that is capable of explaining both fluid and CO2 plume flow in an aquifer system by neglecting the variable density effect. The result is compared with that of Avci's (1994) which dealt with an abandoned fully penetrating well. The result indicates the similar type of curve trend, which is observed by applying a range of aquifer properties as well as distance between the injection and leakage pathway. The important finding is that the leakage rate through ANW is about 50% compared to the fully penetrating well of Avci's (1994). The sensitivity analyses indicate that parameter leakage coefficient (A), transmissivity ratio (TD) and radial distance (R) between injection and ANW are the most sensitive to the leakage rate and the rest of the parameters are less sensitive. Because of availability of limited analytical and complex numerical solution, this simple new approach is going to provide a simple means to estimate leakage flow for realistic field condition.

  20. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. 84.1150 Section 84.1150 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide;...

  1. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. 84.182 Section 84.182 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying...

  2. Comparison of fluid filtration and bacterial leakage techniques for evaluation of microleakage in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Saeed; Lomee, Mahdi; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apical leakage assessment is a way to compare the efficiency of a filling material to seal the apical region of the tooth. Many microleakage testing techniques have been introduced through the years, but there has been no agreement as to which technique gives the most accurate results. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of fluid filtration and bacterial leakage techniques in the assessment of the apical sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM). Materials and Methods: A sample of 34 extracted single-rooted human teeth were selected and prepared. The samples were divided in to 2 experimental groups. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected at 90° to its long axis and root end preparation was done with ultrasonic tips to a depth of 3 mm and filled with MTA and CEM, respectively. Assessment of apical sealing ability was done with fluid filtration technique and bacterial leakage technique along 90 days with Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. Mann-Whitney U-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data using SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). P less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was no significant difference in apical sealing ability between MTA and CEM in bacterial leakage and fluid filtration techniques. Samples which had bacterial leakage showed higher leakage values by fluid filtration technique. Conclusion: Both techniques showed same results and there was no significant difference between fluid filtration and bacterial leakage techniques in assessment of apical microleakage. PMID:25878674

  3. A harmonic pulse testing method for leakage detection in deep subsurface storage formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Alexander Y.; Lu, Jiemin; Hovorka, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Detection of leakage in deep geologic storage formations (e.g., carbon sequestration sites) is a challenging problem. This study investigates an easy-to-implement frequency domain leakage detection technology based on harmonic pulse testing (HPT). Unlike conventional constant-rate pressure interference tests, HPT stimulates a reservoir using periodic injection rates. The fundamental principle underlying HPT-based leakage detection is that leakage modifies a storage system's frequency response function, thus providing clues of system malfunction. During operations, routine HPTs can be conducted at multiple pulsing frequencies to obtain experimental frequency response functions, using which the possible time-lapse changes are examined. In this work, a set of analytical frequency response solutions is derived for predicting system responses with and without leaks for single-phase flow systems. Sensitivity studies show that HPT can effectively reveal the presence of leaks. A search procedure is then prescribed for locating the actual leaks using amplitude and phase information obtained from HPT, and the resulting optimization problem is solved using the genetic algorithm. For multiphase flows, the applicability of HPT-based leakage detection procedure is exemplified numerically using a carbon sequestration problem. Results show that the detection procedure is applicable if the average reservoir conditions in the testing zone stay relatively constant during the tests, which is a working assumption under many other interpretation methods for pressure interference tests. HPT is a cost-effective tool that only requires periodic modification of the nominal injection rate. Thus it can be incorporated into existing monitoring plans with little additional investment.

  4. Continued Investigation of Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

    2006-01-01

    Secondary seal leakage in jet engine applications results in power losses to the engine cycle. Likewise, seal power loss in jet engines not only result in efficiency loss but also increase the heat input into the engine resulting in reduced component lives. Experimental work on labyrinth and annular seals was performed at NASA Glenn Research Center to quantify seal leakage and power loss at various temperatures, seal pressure differentials, and surface speeds. Data from annular and labyrinth seals are compared with previous brush and finger seal test results. Data are also compared to literature. Annular and labyrinth seal leakage rates are 2 to 3 times greater than brush and finger seal rates. Seal leakage decreases with increasing speed but increases with increasing test temperature due to thermal expansion mismatch. Also seal power loss increases with surface speed, seal pressure differential, mass flow rate, and radial clearance. Annular and labyrinth seal power losses were higher than those of brush or finger seal data. The brush seal power loss was 15 to 30 percent lower than annular and labyrinth seal power loss.

  5. Space Station Freedom delta pressure leakage rate comparison test data analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, E. B.

    1992-01-01

    Results are provided of a series of tests performed to identify the relationship between gas leakage rates across a seal at various internal to external pressure ratios. The results complement and provide insight into the analysis technique used to obtain the results presented in MSFC SSF/DEV/EL91-008, 'Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) Seal Flaw Study with Delta Pressure Leak Rate Comparison Test Report.'

  6. Comparison of Two Techniques for Evaluation of Coronal Leakage Along of a Glass Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Sadighpour, L.; Rezaei, S.; Geramipanah, F.; Mohammadi, M.; Choubchian, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contradictory results have been reported over microleakage studies of restorative materials and methods. Despite the number of publications on leakage there are few evidences comparing the different microleakage evaluation methods. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clearing technique and longitudinal sectioning in the evaluation of dye penetration along a glass fiber post. Materials and Methods: Fifteen single-rooted human teeth were endontically prepared and obturated with gutta percha points and a resin based sealer (AH26). A glass fiber post (Glassix) was cemented into each post space with a dual polymerizing resin cement (Varilink II) and the composite core (Tetric Ceram) was fabricated. Specimens were immersed in Indian ink solution for 72 hours after completion of 1500 cycles of thermal cycling. Then demineralized, cleared and evaluated for the deepest length of dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. Specimens were then cut longitudinally and the length of penetration was measured again by the same instrument. The mean difference of the penetrated length was analyzed by two methods using the paired t test and an analysis of correlation (α = 0.05). Results: No significant difference was found in the mean microleakage measured by the two methods (P= 0.07). Significant correlation was found between them (P=0.0001, r= 0.9) Conclusion: The clearing technique and longitudinal sectioning showed the same results in microleakage of Glassix post and composite core within the limitation of the present study. PMID:21998786

  7. Annular honeycomb seals: Test results for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients - Comparisons to labyrinth and smooth configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D.; Elrod, D.; Hale, K.

    1989-01-01

    Test results are presented for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients for seven honeycomb seals. All seals have the same radius, length, and clearance; however, the cell depths and diameters are varied. Rotordynamic data, which are presented, consist of the direct and cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and the direct damping coefficients. The rotordynamic-coefficient data show a considerable sensitivity to changes in cell dimensions; however, no clear trends are identifiable. Comparisons of test data for the honeycomb seals with labyrinth and smooth annular seals shows the honeycomb seal had the best sealing (minimum leakage) performance, followed in order by the labyrinth and smooth seals. For prerotated fluids entering the seal, in the direction of shaft rotation, the honeycomb seal has the best rotordynamic stability followed in order by the labyrinth and smooth. For no prerotation, or fluid prerotation against shaft rotation, the labyrinth seal has the best rotordynamic stability followed in order by the smooth and honeycomb seals.

  8. Annular honeycomb seals: Test results for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients; comparisons to labyrinth and smooth configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Dara W.; Elrod, David; Hale, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Test results are presented for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients for seven honeycomb seals. All seals have the same radius, length, and clearance; however, the cell depths and diameters are varied. Rotordynamic data, which are presented, consist of the direct and cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and the direct damping coefficients. The rotordynamic-coefficient data show a considerable sensitivity to changes in cell dimensions; however, no clear trends are identifiable. Comparisons of test data for the honeycomb seals with labyrinth and smooth annular seals show the honeycomb seal had the best sealing (minimum leakage) performance, followed in order by the labyrinth and smooth seals. For prerotated fluid entering the seal, in the direction of shaft rotation, the honeycomb seal has the best rotordynamic stability followed in order by the labyrinth and smooth. For no prerotation, or fluid prerotation against shaft rotation, the labyrinth seal has the best rotordynamic stability followed in order by the smooth and honeycomb seals.

  9. Thermal-hydraulic analysis for changing feedwater check valve leakage rate testing methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, R.; Harrell, J.

    1996-12-01

    The current design and testing requirements for the feedwater check valves (FWCVs) at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station are established from original licensing requirements that necessitate extremely restrictive air testing with tight allowable leakage limits. As a direct result of these requirements, the original high endurance hard seats in the FWCVs were modified with elastomeric seals to provide a sealing surface capable of meeting the stringent air leakage limits. However, due to the relatively short functional life of the elastomeric seals compared to the hard seats, the overall reliability of the sealing function actually decreased. This degraded performance was exhibited by frequent seal failures and subsequent valve repairs. The original requirements were based on limited analysis and the belief that all of the high energy feedwater vaporized during the LOCA blowdown. These phenomena would have resulted in completely voided feedwater lines and thus a steam environment within the feedwater leak pathway. To challenge these criteria, a comprehensive design basis accident analysis was developed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 thermal-hydraulic code. Realistic assumptions were used to more accurately model the post-accident fluid conditions within the feedwater system. The results of this analysis demonstrated that no leak path exists through the feedwater lines during the reactor blowdown phase and that sufficient subcooled water remains in various portions of the feedwater piping to form liquid water loop seals that effectively isolate this leak path. These results provided the bases for changing the leak testing requirements of the FWCVs from air to water. The analysis results also established more accurate allowable leakage limits, determined the real effective margins associated with the FWCV safety functions, and led to design changes that improved the overall functional performance of the valves.

  10. Leakage tests reduce the frequency of biliary fistulas following hydatid liver cyst surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Aydin, Cemalettin; Olmez, Aydemir; Isik, Sevil; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Biliary fistulas are the most common morbidity (8.2-26%) following hydatid liver surgery. The aim of our study was to reduce the incidence of postoperative biliary fistulas after the suturing of cystobiliary communications by applying a bile leakage test. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 133 hydatid liver cysts from 93 patients were divided into two groups, according to whether the test was performed. Tests were performed on 56 cysts from 34 patients, and the remaining 77 cysts from 59 patients were treated without the test. In both groups, all visible biliary orifices in the cysts were suture ligated, and drains were placed in all cysts. The visibility of the biliary orifices and postoperative biliary drainage through the drains were recorded. Patients in both groups were also compared with respect to the number of days living with the drains, the length of the hospital stay, and secondary interventions related to biliary complications. RESULTS: Biliary orifices were more visible in the tested cysts (13% vs. 48%; P <0.001). Fewer biliary complications occurred in the tested patients (8.8% vs. 27.7%, P = 0.033). The mean drain removal time (4.1±3.3 days vs. 6.8±8.9 days, P<0.05) and the length of the hospital stay (6.7±2.7 days vs. 9.7±6.3 days, P<0.01) were shorter for the tested patients. None of the patients in the test group required postoperative Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) or nasobiliary drainage (0.0% vs. 8.4%, P  =  0.09). There were no long-term biliary complications for either group after three years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of biliary orifices with a bile leakage test and the suturing of cystobiliary communications significantly reduced postoperative biliary complications following hydatid liver surgery. PMID:21552666

  11. Evaluation of Information Leakage from Cryptographic Hardware via Common-Mode Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yu-Ichi; Homma, Naofumi; Mizuki, Takaaki; Sugawara, Takeshi; Kayano, Yoshiki; Aoki, Takafumi; Minegishi, Shigeki; Satoh, Akashi; Sone, Hideaki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    This paper presents a possibility of Electromagnetic (EM) analysis against cryptographic modules outside their security boundaries. The mechanism behind the information leakage is explained from the view point of Electromagnetic Compatibility: electric fluctuation released from cryptographic modules can conduct to peripheral circuits based on ground bounce, resulting in radiation. We demonstrate the consequence of the mechanism through experiments where the ISO/IEC standard block cipher AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is implemented on an FPGA board and EM radiations from power and communication cables are measured. Correlation Electromagnetic Analysis (CEMA) is conducted in order to evaluate the information leakage. The experimental results show that secret keys are revealed even though there are various disturbing factors such as voltage regulators and AC/DC converters between the target module and the measurement points. We also discuss information-suppression techniques as electrical-level countermeasures against such CEMAs.

  12. Evaluation of Information Leakage via Electromagnetic Emanation and Effectiveness of Tempest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    It is well known that there is relationship between electromagnetic emanation and processing information in IT devices such as personal computers and smart cards. By analyzing such electromagnetic emanation, eavesdropper will be able to get some information, so it becomes a real threat of information security. In this paper, we show how to estimate amount of information that is leaked as electromagnetic emanation. We assume the space between the IT device and the receiver is a communication channel, and we define the amount of information leakage via electromagnetic emanations by its channel capacity. By some experimental results of Tempest, we show example estimations of amount of information leakage. Using the value of channel capacity, we can calculate the amount of information per pixel in the reconstructed image. And we evaluate the effectiveness of Tempest fonts generated by Gaussian method and its threshold of security.

  13. Evaluation of leakage from a metal machining center using tracer gas methods: a case study.

    PubMed

    Heitbrink, W A; Earnest, G S; Mickelsen, R L; Mead, K R; D'Arcy, J B

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of engineering controls in reducing worker exposure to metalworking fluids, an evaluation of an enclosure for a machining center during face milling was performed. The enclosure was built around a vertical metal machining center with an attached ventilation system consisting of a 25-cm diameter duct, a fan, and an air-cleaning filter. The evaluation method included using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas to determine the ventilation system's flow rate and capture efficiency, a respirable aerosol monitor (RAM) to identify aerosol leak locations around the enclosure, and smoke tubes and a velometer to evaluate air movement around the outside of the enclosure. Results of the tracer gas evaluation indicated that the control system was approximately 98% efficient at capturing tracer gas released near the spindle of the machining center. This result was not significantly different from 100% efficiency (p = 0.2). The measured SF6 concentration when released directly into the duct had a relative standard deviation of 2.2%; whereas, when releasing SF6 at the spindle, the concentration had a significantly higher relative standard deviation of 7.8% (p = 0.016). This increased variability could be due to a cyclic leakage at a small gap between the upper and lower portion of the enclosure or due to cyclic stagnation. Leakage also was observed with smoke tubes, a velometer, and an aerosol photometer. The tool and fluid motion combined to induce a periodic airflow in and out of the enclosure. These results suggest that tracer gas methods could be used to evaluate enclosure efficiency. However, smoke tubes and aerosol instrumentation such as optical particle counters or aerosol photometers also need to be used to locate leakage from enclosures. PMID:10635544

  14. A method for evaluating aerosol leakage through the interface between protective suits and full-face respirators.

    PubMed

    Arnoldsson, Kristina; Danielsson, Signar; Thunéll, Marianne

    2016-05-01

    Military personnel and first responders use a range of personal equipment including protective suits, gloves, boots, and respirators to prevent exposure of their skin and airways to hazardous chemical, biological, radiological, and/or nuclear substances. Although each individual item of personal protective equipment is well tested against existing standards, it is also necessary to consider the performance of the interfaces between items in terms of prevention from exposure, and the protection system as a whole. This article presents an aerosol challenge method for assessing the performance of the interface between a respirator and the hood of a protective suit. The interface is formed between the sealing strip of the hood and the surface of the respirator's outer sealing area and is affected by how well the sealing strip can cover and adapt to the sealing area. The method evaluates the leakage of particles of different sizes into the hood via the interface by particle counting at sampling points around the respirator's perimeter. Three different respirators were tested together with a single hood having a tight-fitting seal. The method variation between measurements was low but increased appreciably when the protective ensemble was re-dressed between measurements. This demonstrates the difficulty of achieving a reliable and reproducible seal between respirator and hood under normal conditions. Different leakage patterns were observed for the three respirators and were linked to some specific design features, namely the respirator's sealing area at the chin and its width at cheek level. Induced leak experiments showed that to detect substantial particle leakage, channels at the hood-respirator interface must be quite large. The method outlined herein provides a straightforward way of evaluating hood-respirator interfaces and could be useful in the further development of personal protective equipment. PMID:26695112

  15. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Leakage in Multiple Enteric Inflammation Models in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Vicuña, Eduardo A.; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Téllez, Guillermo I.; Hargis, Billy M.; Bielke, Lisa R.

    2015-01-01

    Enteric inflammation models can help researchers’ study methods to improve health and performance and evaluate various growth promoters and dietary formulations targeted to improve performance in poultry. Oral administration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d; 3–5 kDa) and its pericellular mucosal epithelial leakage are an established marker to evaluate enteric inflammation in multiple species. The present study evaluated different methods to induce gut inflammation in poultry based on FITC-d leakage. Four independent experiments were completed with different inflammation treatment groups, and serum FITC-d and/or retention of FITC-d in GI tract were determined. In experiment 1 (n = 10 birds/treatment, broilers, processed at 14 days), groups included control (CON), dextran sodium sulfate (DSS; drinking water at 0.75%) and feed restriction (FRS; 24 h before processing). Experiment 2 (n = 14 birds/treatment, leghorns, processed at 7 days) included CON, DSS, FRS, and rye-based diet (RBD). In experiments 3 and 4 (n = 15 birds/treatment, broilers, processed at 7 days), groups were CON, DSS, high fat diet (HFD), FRS, and RBD. In all experiments, FRS and RBD treatments showed significantly higher serum FITC-d levels compared to the respective CON. This indicates that FRS and RBD results in disruption of the intact barrier of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), resulting in increased gut permeability. DSS and HFD groups showed elevation of serum FITC-d levels although the magnitude of difference from respective CON was inconsistent between experiments. FRS was the only treatment which consistently showed elevated retention of FITC-d in GIT in all experiments. The results from present studies showed that FRS and RBD, based on serum FITC-d levels, can be robust models to induce gut leakage in birds in different age and species/strains. PMID:26697435

  16. Application of Buckmaster Electrolyte Ion Leakage Test to Woody Biofuel Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Thomas F; Dooley, James H

    2014-08-28

    In an earlier ASABE paper, Buckmaster reported that ion conductivity of biomass leachate in aqueous solution was directly correlated with activity access to plant nutrients within the biomass materials for subsequent biological or chemical processing. The Buckmaster test involves placing a sample of the particles in a beaker of constant-temperature deionized water and monitoring the change in electrical conductivity over time. We adapted the Buckmaster method to a range of woody biomass and other cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks. Our experimental results suggest differences of electrolyte leakage between differently processed woody biomass particles may be an indicator of their utility for conversion in bioenergy processes. This simple assay appears to be particularly useful to compare different biomass comminution techniques and particle sizes for biochemical preprocessing.

  17. ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTIES IN THE NULLING TEST FOR AIR LEAKAGE FROM RESIDENTIAL DUCTS.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2001-04-01

    An analysis of measurement uncertainties in a recently proposed method of measuring air leakage in residential duct systems has been carried out. The uncertainties in supply and return leakage rates are expressed in terms of the value of the envelope leakage flow coefficient and the uncertainties in measured pressures and air flow rates. Results of the analysis are compared with data published by two research groups.

  18. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a...

  19. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a...

  20. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a...

  1. Space Station Freedom seal leakage rate analysis and testing summary: Air leaks in ambient versus vacuum exit conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P. I.; Markovitch, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report is intended to reveal the apparent relationship of air seal leakage rates between 2 atmospheres (atm) to 1 atm and 1 atm to vacuum conditions. Gas dynamics analysis is provided as well as data summarizing the MSFC test report, 'Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) Seal Flaw Study With Delta Pressure Leak Rate Comparison Test Report'.

  2. A Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Leakage of Different Restorative Materials in Deciduous Molars: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rehani, Usha; Rana, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Context: Microleakage around dental restorative materials is a major problem in clinical dentistry. Inspite of many new restorative materials available in the market very few actually bond to the tooth surface. Aims: The aims of this study were: (1) To evaluate and compare the marginal leakage of newer restorative materials viz colored compomer, ormocer, giomer and RMGIC in class I restoration of deciduous molars. (2) To compare the microleakage scores between the groups of: Colored compomer and ormocer, giomer and RMGIC, ormocer with giomer and RMGIC, giomer with RMGIC. Materials and methods: A total of 40 primary molars were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each. Class I cavities were prepared and the cavities were restored with colored compomer (Group A), Ormocer (Group B), Giomer (Group C) and RMGIC (Group D). The teeth were thermocycled and subjected to 0.5% basic fuchsin dye penetration followed by sectioning. The cut sections were evaluated under a stereomicroscope and the data was subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical analysis used: Mann-Whitney U test and Student t-test. Results: No significant difference was observed when colored compomer was compared to ormocer, giomer and RMGIC. Ormocer showed significantly lower microleakage when compared to giomer. However, no significant difference was observed when ormocer was compared to RMGIC. No significant difference between giomer and RMGIC was found. Conclusion: Ormocer has proven to be an excellent restorative material as it showed least microleakage followed by colored compomer, giomer and RMGIC in increasing order. How to cite this article: Yadav G, Rehani U, Rana V. A Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Leakage of Different Restorative Materials in Deciduous Molars: An in vitro Study . Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):101-107. PMID:25206147

  3. Microbial Stimulation and Succession following a Test Well Injection Simulating CO₂ Leakage into a Shallow Newark Basin Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    O’Mullan, Gregory; Dueker, M. Elias; Clauson, Kale; Yang, Qiang; Umemoto, Kelsey; Zakharova, Natalia; Matter, Juerg; Stute, Martin; Takahashi, Taro; Goldberg, David

    2015-01-01

    In addition to efforts aimed at reducing anthropogenic production of greenhouse gases, geological storage of CO2 is being explored as a strategy to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas emission and mitigate climate change. Previous studies of the deep subsurface in North America have not fully considered the potential negative effects of CO2 leakage into shallow drinking water aquifers, especially from a microbiological perspective. A test well in the Newark Rift Basin was utilized in two field experiments to investigate patterns of microbial succession following injection of CO2-saturated water into an isolated aquifer interval, simulating a CO2 leakage scenario. A decrease in pH following injection of CO2 saturated aquifer water was accompanied by mobilization of trace elements (e.g. Fe and Mn), and increased bacterial cell concentrations in the recovered water. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence libraries from samples collected before and after the test well injection were compared to link variability in geochemistry to changes in aquifer microbiology. Significant changes in microbial composition, compared to background conditions, were found following the test well injections, including a decrease in Proteobacteria, and an increased presence of Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and microbial taxa often noted to be associated with iron and sulfate reduction. The concurrence of increased microbial cell concentrations and rapid microbial community succession indicate significant changes in aquifer microbial communities immediately following the experimental CO2 leakage event. Samples collected one year post-injection were similar in cell number to the original background condition and community composition, although not identical, began to revert toward the pre-injection condition, indicating microbial resilience following a leakage disturbance. This study provides a first glimpse into the in situ successional response of microbial communities to CO2 leakage after subsurface

  4. Microbial stimulation and succession following a test well injection simulating CO2 leakage into a shallow Newark basin aquifer.

    PubMed

    O'Mullan, Gregory; Dueker, M Elias; Clauson, Kale; Yang, Qiang; Umemoto, Kelsey; Zakharova, Natalia; Matter, Juerg; Stute, Martin; Takahashi, Taro; Goldberg, David

    2015-01-01

    In addition to efforts aimed at reducing anthropogenic production of greenhouse gases, geological storage of CO2 is being explored as a strategy to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas emission and mitigate climate change. Previous studies of the deep subsurface in North America have not fully considered the potential negative effects of CO2 leakage into shallow drinking water aquifers, especially from a microbiological perspective. A test well in the Newark Rift Basin was utilized in two field experiments to investigate patterns of microbial succession following injection of CO2-saturated water into an isolated aquifer interval, simulating a CO2 leakage scenario. A decrease in pH following injection of CO2 saturated aquifer water was accompanied by mobilization of trace elements (e.g. Fe and Mn), and increased bacterial cell concentrations in the recovered water. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence libraries from samples collected before and after the test well injection were compared to link variability in geochemistry to changes in aquifer microbiology. Significant changes in microbial composition, compared to background conditions, were found following the test well injections, including a decrease in Proteobacteria, and an increased presence of Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and microbial taxa often noted to be associated with iron and sulfate reduction. The concurrence of increased microbial cell concentrations and rapid microbial community succession indicate significant changes in aquifer microbial communities immediately following the experimental CO2 leakage event. Samples collected one year post-injection were similar in cell number to the original background condition and community composition, although not identical, began to revert toward the pre-injection condition, indicating microbial resilience following a leakage disturbance. This study provides a first glimpse into the in situ successional response of microbial communities to CO2 leakage after subsurface

  5. Evaluation of Coronal Leakage Following Different Obturation Techniques and in-vitro Evalution Using Methylene Blue Dye Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rachit; Sharma, Medhavi; Sharma, Deepak; Raisingani, Deepak; Vishnoi, Suchita; Singhal, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronal and apical leakage still remains one of the most important cause for endodontic failure in spite of the presence of advanced endodontic materials. The cause may attribute to different filling techniques, physical and chemical properties of sealers and presence or absence of smear layer assessment of coronal or apical leakage is used as a research method to compare the sealing ability of different techniques and endodontic materials. Aim To compare the coronal bacterial leakage using methylene blue in four different obturation techniques after protaper hand instrumentation. Materials and Methods Ninety extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented to an apical preparation size F3 Protaper hand files. Twenty teeth were randomly obturated with lateral compaction, 20 with vertical compaction, 20 with combination of vertical and lateral compaction and 20 with Thermafil. Ten teeth were used for positive and negative controls (five teeth in each group). Teeth were kept in 100% humidity for 90 days, and then subjected coronally to Proteus vulgaris for 21 days to assess bacterial leakage. After bacterial challenge, methylene blue was placed coronally for another 21 days, and then scoring was done according to depth of dye leakage. Chi-square test was done for statistical analysis. Results Leakage as observed with combination of vertical and lateral compaction was significantly less than vertical compaction, lateral compaction and thermafil carriers during bacterial challenge. However, when dye was used it also showed statistically significant results with thermafil carriers showing the least leakage in comparison to vertical condensation, lateral condensation and combined groups. Conclusion The study concludes that two different methods i.e. bacterial and dye leakage revealed considerable variation on the same substrate Thus, due to the presence of variability among the results obtained by two different analytical methods used in the present study

  6. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water power... CFR 50.12, are still applicable to Option B of this appendix if necessary, unless specifically revoked... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water power... CFR 50.12, are still applicable to Option B of this appendix if necessary, unless specifically revoked... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water power... CFR 50.12, are still applicable to Option B of this appendix if necessary, unless specifically revoked... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water power... CFR 50.12, are still applicable to Option B of this appendix if necessary, unless specifically revoked... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water power... CFR 50.12, are still applicable to Option B of this appendix if necessary, unless specifically revoked... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for...

  11. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices...

  12. Neural network-based inversion algorithms in magnetic flux leakage nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish S.

    2003-05-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) methods are commonly used in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of ferromagnetic materials. An important problem in MFL NDE is the determination of flaw parameters such as the flaw length, depth, and shape (profile) from the measured values of the flux density B. Commonly used methods use a forward model in a loop to determine B for a given set of flaw parameters. This approach iteratively adjusts the flaw parameters to minimize the error between the measured and predicted values of B. This article proposes the use of neural networks as forward models. The proposed approach uses two neural networks in feedback configuration—a forward network and an inverse network. The second network is used to predict the profile given the measured value of B, and acts to constrain the solution space. Results of applying these methods to MFL data obtained from a two-dimensional finite-element model, with rectangular flaws of various dimensions, are presented.

  13. Evaluation of Apical Micro-leakage of Different Endodontic Sealers in the Presence and Absence of Moisture.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Dehghani, Atena; Abesi, Farida; Khafri, Soraya; Ghadiri Dehkordi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. With availability of hydrophilic sealers, drying of the canals before endodontic obturation is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the apical micro-leakage of AH26, Excite DSC, MTA Fillapex, and ZOE sealers in dry and moist root canals. Materials and methods. This experimental study was performed on 90 extracted maxillary central incisors. Rotary files were used for preparation of the canals. Root canals were filled with a single gutta percha cone, using one of the four sealers, under dry and moist root canal conditions (10 teeth in each group). Orifices were sealed with glue wax and all root surfaces were covered with nail polish except the positive control group. After ten days in 100% humidity, teeth were placed in methylene blue, and then were cut in longitudinal axis. Blue color permeability was measured by stereomicroscope in micrometers. Data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test using SPSS V.18 software at P < 0.05. Results. Mean apical micro-leakage was significantly lower in the dry groups (P < 0.001). Minimum and maximum micro-leakage was seen in AH26 and ZOE, respectively. MTA Fillapex did not exhibit a significant difference in apical micro-leakage between dry and moist conditions (P > 0.05). Apical micro-leakage was significantly higher in the Excite DSC groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion. AH26 provided the least apical micro-leakage under dry conditions while ZOE had the highest micro-leakage under moist conditions. MTA Fillapex provided acceptable apical seal regardless of moisture. PMID:25346829

  14. Evaluation and Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... University of Utah Research News Make a Difference Evaluation + Tests Print This Page Before diagnosing peripheral neuropathy, ... from any type of neuropathy or neurological disorder. Evaluation A neurological evaluation consists of a physical exam ...

  15. Inward Leakage Variability between Respirator Fit Test Panels - Part I. Deterministic Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Liu, Yuewei; Coffey, Christopher C; Miller, Colleen; Szalajda, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Inter-panel variability has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the variability between different anthropometric panels used to determine the inward leakage (IL) of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs). A total of 144 subjects, who were both experienced and non-experienced N95 FFR users, were recruited. Five N95 FFRs and five N95 EHRs were randomly selected from among those models tested previously in our laboratory. The PortaCount Pro+ (without N95-Companion) was used to measure IL of the ambient particles with a detectable size range of 0.02 to 1 μm. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard fit test exercises were used for this study. IL test were performed for each subject using each of the 10 respirators. Each respirator/subject combination was tested in duplicate, resulting in a total 20 IL tests for each subject. Three 35-member panels were randomly selected without replacement from the 144 study subjects stratified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health bivariate panel cell for conducting statistical analyses. The geometric mean (GM) IL values for all 10 studied respirators were not significantly different among the three randomly selected 35-member panels. Passing rate was not significantly different among the three panels for all respirators combined or by each model. This was true for all IL pass/fail levels of 1%, 2%, and 5%. Using 26 or more subjects to pass the IL test, all three panels had consistent passing/failing results for pass/fail levels of 1% and 5%. Some disagreement was observed for the 2% pass/fail level. Inter-panel variability exists, but it is small relative to the other sources of variation in fit testing data. The concern about inter-panel variability and other types of variability can be alleviated by properly selecting: pass/fail level (IL 1-5%); panel size (e.g., 25 or 35); and minimum number of subjects

  16. Inward Leakage Variability between Respirator Fit Test Panels – Part I. Deterministic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Liu, Yuewei; Coffey, Christopher C.; Miller, Colleen; Szalajda, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Inter-panel variability has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the variability between different anthropometric panels used to determine the inward leakage (IL) of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs). A total of 144 subjects, who were both experienced and non-experienced N95 FFR users, were recruited. Five N95 FFRs and five N95 EHRs were randomly selected from among those models tested previously in our laboratory. The PortaCount Pro+ (without N95-Companion) was used to measure IL of the ambient particles with a detectable size range of 0.02 to 1 μm. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard fit test exercises were used for this study. IL test were performed for each subject using each of the 10 respirators. Each respirator/subject combination was tested in duplicate, resulting in a total 20 IL tests for each subject. Three 35-member panels were randomly selected without replacement from the 144 study subjects stratified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health bivariate panel cell for conducting statistical analyses. The geometric mean (GM) IL values for all 10 studied respirators were not significantly different among the three randomly selected 35-member panels. Passing rate was not significantly different among the three panels for all respirators combined or by each model. This was true for all IL pass/fail levels of 1%, 2%, and 5%. Using 26 or more subjects to pass the IL test, all three panels had consistent passing/failing results for pass/fail levels of 1% and 5%. Some disagreement was observed for the 2% pass/fail level. Inter-panel variability exists, but it is small relative to the other sources of variation in fit testing data. The concern about inter-panel variability and other types of variability can be alleviated by properly selecting: pass/fail level (IL 1–5%); panel size (e.g., 25 or 35); and minimum number of subjects

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 180 - Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied Compressed Gases B Appendix B to Part 180... Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied Compressed Gases For internal self-closing stop...

  18. Inward leakage variability between respirator fit test panels - Part II. Probabilistic approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuewei; Zhuang, Ziqing; Coffey, Christopher C; Rengasamy, Samy; Niezgoda, George

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the variability between different anthropometric panels in determining the inward leakage (IL) of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs). We enrolled 144 experienced and non-experienced users as subjects in this study. Each subject was assigned five randomly selected FFRs and five EHRs, and performed quantitative fit tests to measure IL. Based on the NIOSH bivariate fit test panel, we randomly sampled 10,000 pairs of anthropometric 35 and 25 member panels without replacement from the 144 study subjects. For each pair of the sampled panels, a Chi-Square test was used to test the hypothesis that the passing rates for the two panels were not different. The probability of passing the IL test for each respirator was also determined from the 20,000 panels and by using binomial calculation. We also randomly sampled 500,000 panels with replacement to estimate the coefficient of variation (CV) for inter-panel variability. For both 35 and 25 member panels, the probability that passing rates were not significantly different between two randomly sampled pairs of panels was higher than 95% for all respirators. All efficient (passing rate ≥80%) and inefficient (passing rate ≤60%) respirators yielded consistent results (probability >90%) for two randomly sampled panels. Somewhat efficient respirators (passing rate between 60% and 80%) yielded inconsistent results. The passing probabilities and error rates were found to be significantly different between the simulation and binomial calculation. The CV for the 35-member panel was 16.7%, which was slightly lower than that for the 25-member panel (19.8%). Our results suggested that IL inter-panel variability exists, but is relatively small. The variability may be affected by passing level and passing rate. Facial dimension-based fit test panel stratification was also found to have significant impact on inter-panel variability, i.e., it can reduce alpha

  19. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  20. Groundwater modeling to evaluate interaquifer leakage in the Floridan aquifer system near Hunter Army Airfield and Fort Stewart

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations using a modified regional groundwater- flow model were used to determine the amount of leakage from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) through the Lower Floridan confining unit (LFC) into the Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) resulting from pumping about 1 million gallons per day at newly constructed LFA production wells at Hunter Army Airfield and Fort Stewart in coastal Georgia. Simulated steadystate drawdown at each of the LFA production wells closely matched observed drawdown during a 72-hour aquifer test with the observed water levels reaching steady-state by the end of the test period. However, simulated drawdown was greater than observed drawdown in the UFA because of the short duration of the aquifer test and the time required for groundwater movement through the LFC into the LFA. Steadystate simulations provide an estimate of leakage based on the long-term continuous operation of each production well. Results of model simulations indicate that interaquifer leakage accounts for 48 percent of the flow to the well at Hunter Army Airfield, and 98 percent of the flow to the well at Fort Stewart. Simulated results near the Hunter Army Airfield production well indicated that 65 percent of the leakage from the UFA to the LFA occurs within a 1-mile radius, whereas simulated results near the Fort Stewart production well indicated 80-percent leakage from the UFA to the LFA within the same radius. The greater amount of leakage to the production well near Fort Stewart can be attributed to the higher transmissivity of the UFA and higher vertical hydraulic conductivity in the LFC near the well.

  1. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 180 - Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve... Pt. 180, App. B Appendix B to Part 180—Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied Compressed Gases For internal self-closing stop valve leakage...

  2. Evaluating and quantifying the potential for CO2 leakage through the caprock during carbon sequestration using a Risk Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlmann, K.

    2012-04-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 in deep aquifers or depleted oil/gas reservoirs is considered a solution for reducing excess CO2 currently being emitted to the atmosphere. Low permeability cap rocks trap the CO2 that is then sequestered in the underlying porous reservoir or aquifer rock. The long term dependability of CO2 sequestration is directly linked to the integrity of the caprock seals effectively trapping the CO2. Evaluation and quantification of all of the possible CO2 leakage risks and their severity and probability throughout the life of the carbon sequestration timescale is essential. This study aims to identify the CO2 leakage risks, analyse them and then evaluate the impact of each risk - will it cause leakage, how will it leak and how much will it leak? The risks assessed covered all factors that may lead to CO2 leakage including those associated with matrix permeability, CO2 diffusion, aquifer flow, scCO2 flow properties, capillary transport, effective and relative permeability of the scCO2 / brine / pore system, migration through fracture and microfracture network both existing and induced, geological discontinuities and the wellbore and drilling environment. The risks were assessed by assigning a severity and probability to each identified risk. Severity was ranked from 1 to 5; where 1 was mm scale intrusion and 5 was leakage above the top caprock. Probability was also ranked from 1 to 5; where 1 was likelihood of happening after 10,000 years and 5 was likelihood of it happening during injection. A risk matrix was produced which highlights the risks that will have the most significant impact on CO2 sequestration reliability.

  3. Evaluating the impact of caprock and reservoir properties on potential risk of CO2 leakage after injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Rockhold, Mark L.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2012-01-05

    Numerical models are essential tools for CO2 sequestration projects and should be included in the life cycle of a project. Common practice involves modeling the behavior of CO2 during and after injection using site-specific reservoir and caprock properties. Little has been done to systematically evaluate and compare the effects of a broad but realistic range of reservoir and caprock properties on potential CO2 leakage through caprock. Broad-based research addressing the impacts of caprock properties and their heterogeneity on seal permeation is absent. Efforts along this direction require obtaining information about the physically reasonable range of caprock and reservoir properties, effectively sampling the parameter space to fully explore the range of these properties, and performing flow and transport calculations using reliable numerical simulators. In this study, we identify the most important factors affecting CO2 leakage through intact caprock and try to understand the underlying mechanisms. We use caprock and reservoir properties from various field sites and literature data to identify the range of caprock thickness, permeability, and porosity that might occur. We use a quasi Monte Carlo sampling approach to ensure that the full range of caprock and seal properties is evaluated without bias. For each set of sampled properties, the migration of injected CO2 is simulated for up to 200 years using the water-salt-CO2 operational mode of the STOMP simulator. Preliminary results show that critical factors determining CO2 leakage rate through intact caprock are, in decreasing order of significance, the caprock thickness, caprock permeability, reservoir permeability, caprock porosity, and reservoir porosity. This study provides a function for prediction of potential CO2 leakage risk due to permeation of intact caprock, and identifies a range of acceptable seal thicknesses and permeability for sequestration projects. As a byproduct, the dependence of CO2 injectivity

  4. Microbial succession and stimulation following a test well injection simulating CO2 leakage into shallow Newark Basin aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M.; Clauson, K.; Yang, Q.; Umemoto, K.; Seltzer, A. M.; Zakharova, N. V.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Takahashi, T.; Goldberg, D.; O'Mullan, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    Despite growing appreciation for the importance of microbes in altering geochemical reactions in the subsurface, the microbial response to geological carbon sequestration injections and the role of microbes in altering metal mobilization following leakage scenarios in shallow aquifers remain poorly constrained. A Newark Basin test well was utilized in field experiments to investigate patterns of microbial succession following injection of CO2 saturated water into isolated aquifer intervals. Additionally, laboratory mesocosm experiments, including microbially-active and inactive (autoclave sterilized) treatments, were used to constrain the microbial role in mineral dissolution, trace metal release, and gas production (e.g. hydrogen and methane). Hydrogen production was detected in both sterilized and unsterilized laboratory mesocosm treatments, indicating abiotic hydrogen production may occur following CO2 leakage, and methane production was detected in unsterilized, microbially active mesocosms. In field experiments, a decrease in pH following injection of CO2 saturated aquifer water was accompanied by mobilization of trace elements (e.g. Fe and Mn), the production of hydrogen gas, and increased bacterial cell concentrations. 16S ribosomal RNA clone libraries, from samples collected before and after the test well injection, were compared in an attempt to link variability in geochemistry to changes in aquifer microbiology. Significant changes in microbial composition, compared to background conditions, were found following the test well injection, including a decrease in Proteobacteria, and an increased presence of Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria and other microbes associated with iron reducing and syntrophic metabolism. The concurrence of increased microbial cell concentration, and rapid microbial community succession, with increased concentrations of hydrogen gas suggests that abiotically produced hydrogen may serve as an ecologically-relevant energy

  5. Evaluating diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ashley Graham

    2016-08-01

    Although much has been written on the role of randomized controlled trials and mechanistic reasoning in the evaluation of therapeutic treatments, philosophers of medicine have not yet turned their attention to the question of how diagnostic tests and procedures should be evaluated. I aim to begin to fill this gap by examining each of the following questions: What is the best way to determine the accuracy of a diagnostic test? What is the best way to determine the clinical effectiveness of a diagnostic test? Can an accurate diagnostic test be considered medically valuable even if it is not clinically effective? I argue that while diagnostic accuracy is a minimum requirement for both clinical effectiveness and medical value, accuracy and effectiveness are not sufficient for determining the value of a diagnostic test, because diagnostic value extends beyond patient outcomes. PMID:27091221

  6. Nanoparticle-based evaluation of blood brain-barrier leakage during the foreign body response

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Andrew J.; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The brain foreign body response (FBR) is an important process that limits the functionality of electrodes that comprise the brain-machine interface. Associated events in this process include leakage of the blood brain barrier (BBB), reactive astrogliosis, recruitment and activation of microglia, and neuronal degeneration. Proper BBB function is also integral to maintaining neuronal health and function. Previous attempts to characterize BBB integrity have shown homogeneous leakage of macromolecules up to 10 nm in size. In the present study, we describe a new method of measuring BBB permeability during the foreign body response in a mouse model. Approach Fluorescent nanoparticles were delivered via the tail vein into implant-bearing mice. Tissue sections were then analyzed using fluorescence microscopy to observe nanoparticles in the tissue. Gold nanoparticles were also used in conjunction with TEM to confirm the presence of nanoparticles in the brain parenchyma. Main results By using polymer nanoparticle tracers, which are significantly larger than conventional macromolecular tracers, we show near-implant BBB gaps of up to 500 nm in size that persist for at least 4 weeks after implantation. Further characterization of the BBB illustrates that leakage during the brain FBR is heterogeneous with gaps between at least 10 and 500 nm. Moreover, electron microscopy was used to confirm that the nanoparticle tracers enter into the brain parenchyma near chronic brain implants. Significance Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the FBR-induced BBB leakage is characterized by larger gaps and is of longer duration than previously thought. This technique can be applied to examine the BBB in other disease states as well as during induced, transient, BBB opening. PMID:23337399

  7. Numerical simulation approaches to evaluate nitrate contamination of groundwater through leakage well in layered aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, E.; Lee, E.; Lee, K.

    2013-12-01

    The layered aquifer system (i.e. perched and regional aquifers) is locally observed in Gosan area of Jeju Island, Korea due to scattered distributions of an impermeable clay layer. In the Gosan area, farming is actively performed and nitrate contamination has been frequently reported in groundwater of regional aquifer which is sole water resource in the island. Water quality of the regional groundwater is impacted by inflows of the nitrate-rich perched groundwater, which is located above the impermeable layer and directly affected by surface contaminants. A poorly grouted well penetrating the impermeable layer provides a passage of contaminated groundwater through the impermeable layer. Such a hydrogeological characteristic consequently induces nitrate contamination of the regional aquifer in this region. To quantify the inflows of the perched groundwater via leakage wells, a numerical model was developed to calculate leakage amounts of the perched groundwater into the regional groundwater. This perched groundwater leakages were applied as point and time-variable contamination sources during the solute transport simulation process for the regional aquifer. This work will provide useful information to suggest effective ways to control nitrate contamination of groundwater in the agricultural field.

  8. Evaluation of gastrointestinal leakage using serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan in a Clostridium difficile murine model.

    PubMed

    Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Panpetch, Wimonrat; Worasilchai, Navaporn; Somparn, Poorichaya; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Nilgate, Sumanee; Finkelman, Malcolm; Chindamporn, Ariya; Tumwasorn, Somying

    2016-09-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) leakage in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is well known but is not routinely assessed in clinical practice. Serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG), a fungal cell wall component used as a biomarker for invasive fungal disease, was tested in a CDAD mouse model with and without probiotics. Higher serum fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran) and spontaneous gram-negative bacteremia, GI leakage indicators, were frequently found in CDAD mice, which died compared with those which survived. BG, serum macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and FITC-dextran but not quantitative blood bacterial count differentiated the clinical severity. Interestingly, a specific dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 attenuated CDAD and decreased serum BG and FITC-dextran, but not other parameters. BG also showed a higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for 7-day mortality than FITC-dextran. Fifty-five percent of CDAD mice with BG ≥ 60 pg/ml (the human negative cut-off value for invasive fungal disease) at 1 day after C. difficile gavage died within 7 days. In conclusion, S: erum BG was elevated in mice with severe CDAD, an established model of GI leakage with a strong association with mortality rate. BG monitoring in patients with CDAD is of interest as both a potential prognostic tool and a therapeutic efficacy indicator. PMID:27573235

  9. Hydrogeology from 10,000 ft below: lessons learned in applying pulse testing for leakage detection in a carbon sequestration formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Lu, J.; Hovorka, S. D.; Freifeld, B. M.; Islam, A.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring techniques capable of deep subsurface detection are desirable for early warning and leakage pathway identification in geologic carbon storage formations. This work investigates the feasibility of a leakage detection technique based on pulse testing, which is a traditional hydrogeological characterization tool. In pulse testing, the monitoring reservoir is stimulated at a fixed frequency and the acquired pressure perturbation signals are analyzed in the frequency domain to detect potential deviations in the reservoir's frequency domain response function. Unlike traditional time-domain analyses, the frequency-domain analysis aims to minimize the interference of reservoir noise by imposing coded injection patterns such that the reservoir responses to injection can be uniquely determined. We have established the theoretical basis of the approach in previous work. Recently, field validation of this pressure-based, leakage detection technique was conducted at a CO2-EOR site located in Mississippi, USA. During the demonstration, two sets of experiments were performed using 90-min and 150-min pulsing periods, for both with and without leak scenarios. Because of the lack of pre-existing leakage pathways, artificial leakage CO2 was simulated by rate-controlled venting from one of the monitoring wells. Our results show that leakage events caused a significant deviation in the amplitude of the frequency response function, indicating that pulse testing may be used as a cost-effective monitoring technique with a strong potential for automation.

  10. Human subject testing of leakage in a loose-fitting PAPR.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur T; Koh, Frank C; Jamshidi, Shaya; Rehak, Timothy E

    2008-05-01

    Leakage from loose-fitting PAPRs (powered air-purifying respirators) can compromise the safety of wearers. The Martindale Centurion MAX multifunction PAPR is a loose-fitting PAPR that also incorporates head, eye, and ear protection. This respirator is used in mines where coal dust usually is controlled by ventilation systems. Should the respirator be depended on for significant respiratory protection? Ten human volunteers were asked to wear the Centurion MAX inside a fog-filled chamber. Their inhalation flow rates were measured with small pitot-tube flowmeters held inside their mouths. They were video imaged while they breathed deeply, and the points at which the fog reached their mouths were determined. Results showed that an average of 1.1 L could be inhaled before contaminated air reached the mouth. As long as the blower purges contamination from inside the face piece during exhalation, the 1.1 L acts as a buffer against contaminants leaked due to overbreathing of blower flow rate. PMID:18348078

  11. Human subject testing of leakage in a loose-fitting PAPR

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.T.; Koh, F.C.; Jamshidi, S.; Rehak, T.E.

    2008-07-01

    Leakage from loose-fitting PAPRs (powered air-purifying respirators) can compromise the safety of wearers. The Martindale Centurion MAX multifunction PAPR is a loose-fitting PAPR that also incorporates head, eye, and ear protection. This respirator is used in mines where coal dust usually is controlled by ventilation systems. Should the respirator be depended on for significant respiratory protection? Ten human volunteers were asked to wear the Centurion MAX inside a fog-filled chamber. Their inhalation flow rates were measured with small pitot-tube flowmeters held inside their mouths. They were video imaged while they breathed deeply, and the points at which the fog reached their mouths were determined. Results showed that an average of 1.1 L could be inhaled before contaminated air reached the mouth. As long as the blower purges contamination from inside the face piece during exhalation, the 1.1 L acts as a buffer against contaminants leaked due to overbreathing of blower flow rate.

  12. Evaluation of Marginal Leakage and Shear Bond Strength of Bonded Restorations in Primary Teeth after Caries Removal by Conventional and Chemomechanical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pravin Maru, Viral; Shakuntala, Bethur Siddaiah; Dharma, Nagarathna

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose. To evaluate and compare the marginal leakage and shear bond strength between conventional and Papacarie techniques of caries removal in primary molars. Materials and Methods. Sixty freshly extracted human carious primary molars were randomly divided into two groups: group I—caries removal by conventional method and group II—caries removal using Papacarie. After bonded restorations, both groups were further randomly subdivided into four subgroups for marginal leakage and shear bond strength evaluation. Results. Papacarie treated teeth (46.70%) showed less marginal leakage when compared to conventionally treated teeth (86.70%) for caries removal. The mean shear bond strength was found more in Papacarie treated teeth (12.91 MPa) than in those treated conventionally (9.64 MPa) for caries removal. Conclusion. Papacarie showed less marginal leakage and more shear bond strength when compared to those treated conventionally for caries removal.

  13. Methodology of full-core Monte Carlo calculations with leakage parameter evaluations for benchmark critical experiment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sboev, A. G.; Ilyashenko, A. S.; Vetrova, O. A.

    1997-02-01

    The method of bucking evaluation, realized in the MOnte Carlo code MCS, is described. This method was applied for calculational analysis of well known light water experiments TRX-1 and TRX-2. The analysis of this comparison shows, that there is no coincidence between Monte Carlo calculations, obtained by different ways: the MCS calculations with given experimental bucklings; the MCS calculations with given bucklings evaluated on base of full core MCS direct simulations; the full core MCNP and MCS direct simulations; the MCNP and MCS calculations, where the results of cell calculations are corrected by the coefficients taking into the account the leakage from the core. Also the buckling values evaluated by full core MCS calculations have differed from experimental ones, especially in the case of TRX-1, when this difference has corresponded to 0.5 percent increase of Keff value.

  14. Remote sensing and hydrogeological methodologies for irrigation canal leakage detection: the Osasco and Fossano test sites (NorthWestern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Luigi; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Seventy percent of global fresh water is usually used for irrigation. This rate is three times the amount of water used by industry and ten times the amount used in domestic and urban environment (Hotchkiss et al., 2001). However, the average efficiency of the water transport for agricultural purposes in different contexts (at world scale) is variable between 30% and 80%. Studies conducted in Italy confirms that rates are similar from the case studies abroad. In this research, satellite image analysis and hydrological-hydrogeological methods were used in two pilot sites (Osasco channel and Fossano channel, in the Noth-Western Italy) to identify the areas most prone to this problem and to quantify the losses. The aim of the study is to define a multidisciplinary approach in order to identify the critical situations of irrigation channels for a sustainable water resource use and management. The use of remote sensing techniques can identify, on a regional scale and at relative low cost, the channels section potentially critical upon which focus the attention and perform in-situ investigation. The presence of leakage from the irrigation canals, indeed, tends to induce variations of moisture on the surface ground. These variations affect the vegetation (e.g. vegetation state), and certain physical characteristics of the soil (e.g. the capacity and thermal conductivity). The analysis of these anomalies, conducted with digital image processing techniques (with infrared spectrum bands particularly sensitive to the above indicators) help to identify those areas with anomalies related to increased losses (Huang and Fipps, 2002). The use of satellite imagery in the proposed approach is an innovative application of Earth Observation for land and water monitoring (Huang et al., 2005). After the identification of anomalies, hydrological-hydrogeological methods were applied to evaluate the losses. At fist an hydrogeological characterisation of the study area and the bottom of the

  15. Psychological Testing in Vocational Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botterbusch, Karl F.

    This publication is designed to help vocational evaluators wisely select and use tests within the context of the referral questions and the individualized evaluation plan. The first of two parts contains information on why tests are used in evaluation, problems with tests, and how to select tests. Part 2 contains a review of specific tests that…

  16. Evaluation of Impacts of Permeability and Porosity of Storage Formations on Leakage Risk of Deep Groundwater and Carbon Dioxide Due to Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Park, J. Y.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of analysis modeling was performed using a behavior prediction model and a leakage risk analysis model to evaluate quantitatively impacts of hydrogeologic properties (intrinsic permeability and porosity) of storage formations (reservoir rocks) on leakage risk of deep groundwater (brine) and carbon dioxide (CO2) due to geologic CO2 storage. In this study, an abandoned well and a fault are considered as leakage pathways for deep groundwater and CO2 leakage from a storage formation into an overlying near-surface aquifer. A series of prediction modeling of behavior of deep groundwater and CO2 in the storage formation was performed first using a behavior prediction model TOUGH2 (Pruess et al., 1999, 2012) to obtain spatial and temporal distributions of the pressure, temperature, and saturation of deep groundwater and CO2 as well as the mass fraction (solubility) of CO2 in deep groundwater along the upper boundary of the storage formation beneath the overlying cap rock. These spatial and temporal distributions are used as input data in the next leakage risk analysis modeling. A series of analysis modeling of leakage risk of deep groundwater and CO2 through either the abandoned well or the fault was then performed using a leakage risk analysis model CO2-LEAK (Kim, 2012). The analysis modeling results show that CO2 injection can cause deep groundwater (brine) and CO2 (both free fluid and aqueous phases) leakage into the overlying near-surface aquifer through either the abandoned well or the fault. In that case, brine leaks first, aqueous phase of CO2 then leaks, and free fluid phase of CO2 leaks finally, whereas their leakage rates and amounts through the fault is much greater than those through the abandoned well. The analysis modeling results also reveal that the leakage rate and amount of deep groundwater are almost independent of permeability and porosity of the storage formation. However, the leakage rate and amount of CO2 are dependent on and inversely

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacterial Leakage at Implant-Abutment Connection: An 11-Degree Morse Taper Compared to a Butt Joint Connection

    PubMed Central

    Khorshidi, Hooman; Raoofi, Saeed; Moattari, Afagh; Bagheri, Atoosa; Kalantari, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The geometry of implant-abutment interface (IAI) affects the risk of bacterial leakage and invasion into the internal parts of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of an 11-degree Morse taper IAI with that of a butt joint connection. Materials and Methods. Two implants systems were tested (n = 10 per group): CSM (submerged) and TBR (connect). The deepest inner parts of the implants were inoculated with 2 μL of Streptococcus mutans suspension with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL. The abutments were tightened on the implants. The specimens were stored in the incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 14 days and the penetration of the bacterium in the surrounding area was determined by the observation of the solution turbidity and comparison with control specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was traced for the estimation of bacterial leakage and the results between two groups of implants were statistically analyzed by chi-square test. Results. No case of the implant system with the internal conical connection design revealed bacterial leakage in 14 days and no turbidity of the solution was reported for it. In the system with butt joint implant-abutment connection, 1 case showed leakage on the third day, 1 case on the eighth day, and 5 cases on the 13th day. In total, 7 (70%) cases showed bacterial leakage in this system. Significant differences were found between the two groups of implants based on the incidence of bacterial leakage (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The 11-degree Morse taper demonstrated better resistance to microbial leakage than butt joint connection. PMID:27242903

  18. Chamber leakage effects on measured gas concentrations during contained demilitarization tests at NTS X-Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher R. Shadix; Joel Lipkin

    1999-11-01

    A series of contained explosive detonation and propellant burn experiments was conducted during 1996 and 1997 using a specially constructed, large, underground chamber located in the X-tunnel complex at Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  19. Application of Pressure Pulse Test Analysis in CO2 Leakage Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakiba, M.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, numerous research and industrial projects have been devoted to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of carbon dioxide capture, storage, and utilization. Besides the studies over the characteristics of candidate formations for CO2 injection, much attention has been paid to answer the environmental concerns regarding the CO2 leak to overlying formations. To first detect and then track a possible CO2 leak, different techniques have been proposed in the literature; however, most of them examine only a small portion of the formation and have a low resolution for early leak detection. To further increase the extent of the investigation zone and to monitor a large section of the formation in more detail, multi-well testing techniques have received a significant attention. Pressure pulse testing is a multi-well test technique in which a pressure signal generated by periods of injection and shut-in from a pulser well is propagated inside the formation, and the corresponding response is recorded at the observer wells. The recorded pressure response is then analyzed to measure the rock and fluid properties and to monitor the possible changes over the time. In this research study, we have applied frequency methods as well as superposition principle to interpret the pressure pulse test data and monitor the changes in transmissibility and storativity of the formation between the well pairs. We have used synthetic reservoir models and numerical reservoir simulations to produce the pressure pulse test data. The analysis of the simulation results indicated that even a small amount of CO2 leak in the investigation zone can have a measurable effect on the calculated storativity and transmissibility factors. This can be of a great importance when an early leak detection is of interest. Moreover, when multiple wells are available in the formation, the distribution of the calculated parameters can visualize the extent of CO2 leak, which has a great

  20. Estimation of Ground-Level Radioisotope Distributions for Underground Nuclear Test Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, James H.; Fast, James E.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2009-06-19

    On-site inspections (OSI) will be an important process to deter and help verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An important tool in narrowing the possible locations to collect evidence of a nuclear test during an on-site inspection may be over-flights of the general area using aerial gamma spectroscopy which can measure the energy and intensity of gamma radiation and help identify areas that may warrant further investigation of areas of high concentrations of radioactivity. This paper will investigate the capabilities of gamma ray detectors that are typically used in aerial searches. Modeling and simulation results of the detector response for radionuclide species for an OSI will be presented for a variety of assumed releases, depositions on the ground, and times after a suspected Treaty violation for typical over flight heights and speeds. This data will provide information on the possible applicability for airborne spectroscopy and the challenges and limitations of this tool for OSI. Of particular interest will be analysis of the data for gross count, regions of interest, and isotope identification types of algorithms and the characteristics of each.

  1. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 180 - Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied Compressed Gases B Appendix B to Part 180 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 180 - Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pressure by-pass port. (a) Meter Creep Test. 1. An operator of a cargo tank equipped with a calibrated meter may check the internal self-closing stop valve for leakage through the valve seat using the meter... established, the operator closes the internal self-closing stop valve and monitors the meter flow. The...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 180 - Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied Compressed Gases B Appendix B to Part 180 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  4. Alternator insulation evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

  5. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  6. Air gun test evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Carleton, J.J. II; Fox, L.; Rudy, C.R.

    1992-01-15

    A mechanical shock testing apparatus is used for testing the response of components subject to large accelerations in hostile environments. The test acceleration is provided by the impact of a bullet against a plate on which the component to be tested is mounted. This report describes a series of experiments that were performed to determine the dependence of the air gun test apparatus performance on incremental changes in the hardware configurations, changes in the pressure used to drive the bullet, and different accelerometers. The effect of variation of these experimental factors on the measured acceleration was determined using a Taguchi screening experimental design. Experimental settings were determined that can be used to operate the tester with a measured output within acceleration specifications.

  7. a Real-Time GIS Platform for High Sour Gas Leakage Simulation, Evaluation and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Liu, H.; Yang, C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of high-sulfur gas fields, also known as sour gas field, is faced with a series of safety control and emergency management problems. The GIS-based emergency response system is placed high expectations under the consideration of high pressure, high content, complex terrain and highly density population in Sichuan Basin, southwest China. The most researches on high hydrogen sulphide gas dispersion simulation and evaluation are used for environmental impact assessment (EIA) or emergency preparedness planning. This paper introduces a real-time GIS platform for high-sulfur gas emergency response. Combining with real-time data from the leak detection systems and the meteorological monitoring stations, GIS platform provides the functions of simulating, evaluating and displaying of the different spatial-temporal toxic gas distribution patterns and evaluation results. This paper firstly proposes the architecture of Emergency Response/Management System, secondly explains EPA's Gaussian dispersion model CALPUFF simulation workflow under high complex terrain and real-time data, thirdly explains the emergency workflow and spatial analysis functions of computing the accident influencing areas, population and the optimal evacuation routes. Finally, a well blow scenarios is used for verify the system. The study shows that GIS platform which integrates the real-time data and CALPUFF models will be one of the essential operational platforms for high-sulfur gas fields emergency management.

  8. Energy Efficient High-Pressure Turbine Leakage Technology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    The leakage test program was one of such supporting technology programs structured to provide guidance to the Energy Efficient Engine High Pressure Turbine Component Design Effort. Leakage reduction techniques were identified and evaluated. Test models were used to simulate component leak paths and to evaluate leakage reduction techniques. These models simulated the blade/disk attachment, the vane inner platform attachment, and the vane outer platform attachment combined with the blade outer airseal. Disk blade attachment testing indicated that leakage in this area could be reduced to very low levels by paying careful attention to the tolerances along the contact surface between the blade vibration damper and the blade platform contact surface. The aim of feather seal testing was to achieve a goal for an effective leakage gap of one mil (.001 inch) per inch of feather seal length. Results indicated that effective gaps even below the goal level were achievable by (1) maintaining close tolerances between feather seals and their slots to minimize end gaps and limit seal rotation, (2) avoiding feather seal overlap, and (3) minimizing feather seal intersections. W seals were shown to be effective leakage control devices. Wire rope, in its present state of development, was shown not to be an effective sealing concept for application to the component design.

  9. Integrated Tests and Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bixby, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has developed a project plan to address issues related to UAS access to the NAS The plan is being formulated with inputs from our stakeholders. NASA will work with our stakeholders to develop ConOps and a national roadmap to determine key research technologies and policy issues to enable UAS access to the NAS. NASA will use ConOps and roadmap to either validate current NASA research investment areas and make any necessary changes to proposed UAS research portfolio. NASA will conduct integration and testing of key research areas to enable UAS access to the NAS. Use phase I to do detailed test planning for phase II Assist subelements with test planning Assist with documenting test objectives, data and facilities/infrastructure requirements, and detailed test planning Provide facilities/infrastructure to meet test requirements Provide interfaces between tools Develop, document, and execute data handling and dissemination plans Provide a test engineer to facilitate scheduling of facilities, support specific equipment and software needs, track schedule progress, and monitor changes to schedule Provide guidance for alternative facilities or equipment to mitigate risk associated with loss of availability Provide opportunities for subelements to gather data in relevant and increasingly complex environments

  10. Evaluating software testing strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, R. W., Jr.; Basili, V. R.; Page, J.; Mcgarry, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The strategies of code reading, functional testing, and structural testing are compared in three aspects of software testing: fault detection effectiveness, fault detection cost, and classes of faults detected. The major results are the following: (1) Code readers detected more faults than did those using the other techniques, while functional tester detected more faults than did structural testers; (2) Code readers had a higher fault detection rate than did those using the other methods, while there was no difference between functional testers and structural testers; (3) Subjects testing the abstract data type detected the most faults and had the highest fault detection rate, while individuals testing the database maintainer found the fewest faults and spent the most effort testing; (4) Subjects of intermediate and junior expertise were not different in number or percentage of faults found, fault detection rate, or fault detection effort; (5) subjects of advanced expertise found a greater number of faults than did the others, found a greater percentage of faults than did just those of junior expertise, and were not different from the others in either fault detection rate or effort; and (6) Code readers and functional testers both detected more omission faults and more control faults than did structural testers, while code readers detected more interface faults than did those using the other methods.

  11. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-03-20

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AX-B Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the transfer line addition. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  12. Damage evaluation for crops exposed to a simulated leakage of geologically stored CO2 using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burud, Ingunn; Moni, Christophe; Flø, Andreas; Rolstad Denby, Cecilie; Rasse, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, even though the risk is of low probability, the precautionary principle requires that near surface environments that might be at risk be thoroughly monitored to detect a leak, were it to happen. Among all currently proposed monitoring methods, only hyperspectral imaging of vegetation stress response allows one to scan large areas rapidly and in detail. Until now, however, only a handful of studies have been carried out on using this novel technology. The aim of the present communication was to characterize the impacts that a simulated CO2 leak might have on the hyperspectral signature of a Norwegian oats crop. In order to test the effects of different intensity of leakage, a CO2 exposure field experiment was designed to create a longitudinal CO2 gradient. For this purpose a gas supply pipe was inserted at one end of a 6m by 3m experimental plot at the base of a 45 cm thick layer of sand buried 40 cm below the surface under a silt loam plough layer. CO2 was then injected at a rate of 2l.min-1 just after the oats had germinated at the end of June, and Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, even though the risk is of low probability, the precautionary principle requires that near surface environments that might be at risk be thoroughly monitored to detect a leak, were it to happen. Among all currently proposed monitoring methods, only hyperspectral imaging of vegetation stress response allows one to scan large areas rapidly and in detail. Until now, however, only a handful of studies have been carried out on using this novel technology. The aim of the present communication was to characterize the impacts that a

  13. Damage evaluation for crops exposed to a simulated leakage of geologically stored CO2 using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burud, Ingunn; Moni, Christophe; Flø, Andreas; Rolstad Denby, Cecilie; Rasse, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, even though the risk is of low probability, the precautionary principle requires that near surface environments that might be at risk be thoroughly monitored to detect a leak, were it to happen. Among all currently proposed monitoring methods, only hyperspectral imaging of vegetation stress response allows one to scan large areas rapidly and in detail. Until now, however, only a handful of studies have been carried out on using this novel technology. The aim of the present communication was to characterize the impacts that a simulated CO2 leak might have on the hyperspectral signature of a Norwegian oats crop. In order to test the effects of different intensity of leakage, a CO2 exposure field experiment was designed to create a longitudinal CO2 gradient. For this purpose a gas supply pipe was inserted at one end of a 6m by 3m experimental plot at the base of a 45 cm thick layer of sand buried 40 cm below the surface under a silt loam plough layer. CO2 was then injected at a rate of 2l.min-1 just after the oats had germinated at the end of June, and Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, even though the risk is of low probability, the precautionary principle requires that near surface environments that might be at risk be thoroughly monitored to detect a leak, were it to happen. Among all currently proposed monitoring methods, only hyperspectral imaging of vegetation stress response allows one to scan large areas rapidly and in detail. Until now, however, only a handful of studies have been carried out on using this novel technology. The aim of the present communication was to characterize the impacts that a

  14. Measurement of leakage neutron spectra from graphite cylinders irradiated with D-T neutrons for validation of evaluated nuclear data.

    PubMed

    Luo, F; Han, R; Chen, Z; Nie, Y; Shi, F; Zhang, S; Lin, W; Ren, P; Tian, G; Sun, Q; Gou, B; Ruan, X; Ren, J; Ye, M

    2016-10-01

    A benchmark experiment for validation of graphite data evaluated from nuclear data libraries was conducted for 14MeV neutrons irradiated on graphite cylinder samples. The experiments were performed using the benchmark experimental facility at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The leakage neutron spectra from the surface of graphite (Φ13cm×20cm) at 60° and 120° and graphite (Φ13cm×2cm) at 60° were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. The obtained results were compared with the measurements made by the Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP-4C with the ENDF/B-VII.1, CENDL-3.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries. The results obtained from a 20cm-thick sample revealed that the calculation results with CENDL-3.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries showed good agreements with the experiments conducted in the whole energy region. However, a large discrepancy of approximately 40% was observed below the 3MeV energy region with the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. For the 2cm-thick sample, the calculated results obtained from the abovementioned three libraries could not reproduce the experimental data in the energy range of 5-7MeV. The graphite data in CENDL-3.1 were verified for the first time and were proved to be reliable. PMID:27620063

  15. Sealing ability of MTA and amalgam in different root-end preparations and resection bevel angles: an in vitro evaluation using marginal dye leakage.

    PubMed

    Post, Letícia Kirst; Lima, Fábio Garcia; Xavier, Cristina Braga; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Gerhardt-Oliveira, Marília

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of different apicoectomy angles, instruments used in root-end preparation, and dental materials used in retrofilling on apical sealing. Root ends were resected at 45 or 90 degrees in 80 single-rooted teeth. For each type of apicoectomy, root-end cavities were prepared with either a round carbide #2 bur or an S12/90D ultrasonic tip. The root-end cavities in each subgroup (apicoectomy + root-end preparation) were filled with silver amalgam without zinc (Am) or with gray mineral trioxide aggregate -Angelus (MTA), and the specimens were immediately immersed in 0.2% rhodamine B for 24 h. Sealing was evaluated based on the dyed cross-sectional dentin area. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level. No group showed complete sealing of root-end areas. The only significant factor affecting microleakage was dental material, with MTA exhibiting less leakage. PMID:21180797

  16. A field control release test for assessing plausibility of dissolved CO2 measurements for CO2 leakage detection in a shallow aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Delgado, J.; Philips, S. B.; Mickler, P. J.; Guzman, N.

    2013-12-01

    Detecting Co2 leakage signals in the shallow aquifer is one of the most changing issues because of high variability in groundwater chemistry and also interactions among CO2, aquifer materials and groundwater. This study presents a novel technology for detecting CO2 leakage by measuring dissolved CO2 in groundwater using an optical CO2 sensor. The control release test was conducted in the field laboratory, Brackenridge Field Lab where shallow aquifer is unconfined with bedrock at the depth of 6 m below surface. Several groundwater wells were drilled and screened at depths from 3 m to 6 m. Fiber optic distributed sensors for dissolved CO2 monitoring were installed in a well bore and connected to a computer for automatically measuring dissolved CO2 gas in groundwater for every 30 seconds. CO2 gas was bubbled into a well bore for about two hours and then was stopped. In addition, Nabr solution was added to the wellbore and Br was used as a tracer. Groundwater samples were collected periodically from the well for measuring groundwater pH, titrating alkalinity and analyzing DIC and concentrations of major ions. A reactive transport model by considering water-rock-CO2 interactions was used to simulate the control release test. Both field and modeling results show that dissolved CO2 measurements with an optical Co2 sensor can be used for detecting CO2 leakage in groundwater.

  17. Modelling of illuminated current–voltage characteristics to evaluate leakage currents in long wavelength infrared mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, Vishnu E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Qiu, WeiCheng; Hu, Weida E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn

    2014-11-14

    The current–voltage characteristics of long wavelength mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors have been studied using a recently suggested method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. Diodes fabricated on in-house grown arsenic and vacancy doped epitaxial layers were evaluated for their leakage currents. The thermal diffusion, generation–recombination (g-r), and ohmic currents were found as principal components of diode current besides a component of photocurrent due to illumination. In addition, both types of diodes exhibited an excess current component whose growth with the applied bias voltage did not match the expected growth of trap-assisted-tunnelling current. Instead, it was found to be the best described by an exponential function of the type, I{sub excess} = I{sub r0} + K{sub 1} exp (K{sub 2} V), where I{sub r0}, K{sub 1}, and K{sub 2} are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. A study of the temperature dependence of the diode current components and the excess current provided the useful clues about the source of origin of excess current. It was found that the excess current in diodes fabricated on arsenic doped epitaxial layers has its origin in the source of ohmic shunt currents. Whereas, the source of excess current in diodes fabricated on vacancy doped epitaxial layers appeared to be the avalanche multiplication of photocurrent. The difference in the behaviour of two types of diodes has been attributed to the difference in the quality of epitaxial layers.

  18. Evaluation of Apical Leakage in Root Canals Obturated with Three Different Sealers in Presence or Absence of Smear Layer

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Shahi, Shahriar; Janani, Maryam; Reyhani, Mohammad Frough; Mokhtari Zonouzi, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Saeed; Sadr Kheradmand, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Microleakage can result in failure of endodontic treatment. An important characteristic of endodontic sealer is sealing ability. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the apical leakage of teeth obturated with gutta-percha and three different sealers (resin- and zinc oxide eugenol-based) with/without smear layer (SL). Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 single-rooted teeth were used after cutting off their crowns. Cleaning and shaping was carried out with step-back technique and the samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=30) which were then divided into two subgroups (n=15) according to the presence/absence of SL. Two negative and positive control groups (n=5) were also prepared. In the various groups, the canals were obturated with gutta-percha and either of the test sealers (AH-26, Adseal or Endofill). The samples were submerged in India ink for 72 h. Then they were longitudinally sectioned and observed under a stereomicroscope at 20× magnification. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods and one-way ANOVA. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The mean penetration length of dye in AH-26, Adseal and Endofill samples were 2.53, 2.76 and 3.03 mm, respectively. The differences between three groups were not significant (P>0.05); also, the mean dye penetration in AH-26, Adseal and Endofill samples in presence or absence of the SL was not significantly different. Conclusion: AH-26, Adseal and Endofill were similarly effective in prevention of apical microleakage. Differences in the mean dye penetration between the groups with/without the SL were not statistically significant. PMID:25834599

  19. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1997-12-09

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ``lower tier`` document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the modifications of the AN-A valve pit. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the modifications to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  20. Report of Field Test Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Regional Instructional Materials Center for Handicapped Children and Youth.

    Reported by the Great Lakes Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center are field test evaluation of 18 auditory instructional materials for use with handicapped children who learn best through the auditory modality. Among materials evaluated are a taped program on use of the abacus and a cassette audiotape on bird habits and sounds.…

  1. Evaluation of modal testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-C.

    1984-01-01

    Modal tests are playing an increasingly important role in structural dynamics efforts which are in need of analytical model verification or trouble shootings. In the meantime, the existing modal testing methods are undergoing great changes as well as new methods are being created. Although devoted advocates of each method can be found to argue the relative advantages and disadvantages, the general superiority, if any, of one or the other is not yet evident. The Galileo spacecraft, a realistic, complex structural system, will be used as a test article for performing modal tests by various methods. The results will be used to evaluate the relative merits of the various modal testing methods.

  2. Evaluation of Groundwater Leakage into a Drainage Tunnel in Jinping-I Arch Dam Foundation in Southwestern China: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Feng; Hong, Jia-Min; Zheng, Hua-Kang; Li, Yi; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2016-03-01

    The Jinping-I double-curvature arch dam, located in the middle reach of Yalong River and with a maximum height of 305 m, is the world's highest dam of this type that has been completed. Since the second stage of reservoir impounding, after which the reservoir water level was gradually raised by about 232 m, a significant amount of leakage was observed from the drainage holes drilled in the lowest drainage tunnel at the left bank abutment at an elevation of 1595 m a.s.l. (above sea level), with an observed maximum pressure of about 0.3 MPa. A number of investigations, including water quality analysis, digital borehole imaging, tunnel geological mapping, and in situ groundwater monitoring, were performed to examine the source of leaking, the groundwater flow paths, and the performance of the grouting curtains. By defining two objective functions using the in situ time series measurements of flow rate and hydraulic head, respectively, a multiobjective inverse modeling procedure was proposed to evaluate the permeability of the foundation rocks that was underestimated in the design stage. This procedure takes advantage of the orthogonal design, finite element forward modeling of the transient groundwater flow, artificial neural network, and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, hence significantly reducing the computational cost and improving the reliability of the inversed results. The geological structures that lead to the leakage were identified and the seepage flow behaviors in the dam foundation and the left bank abutment were assessed. Based on the field measurements and the inverse modeling results, the effects of the engineering treatments of the leakage event on the dam safety were analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the seepage control system is effective in lowering the groundwater level and limiting the amount of seepage in the dam foundation, and the leakage event does not pose a threat to the safety of the dam.

  3. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  4. Session: Test and Evaluation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.; Hanley, C.

    2008-04-01

    The overall goal of this presentation is: (1) provide test and evaluation of PV cells/modules/systems to TPP participants, other PV industry, labs, and universities in support of technology optimization efforts sponsored by DOE's Solar Program and the SAI; (2) support commercial and emerging technology development; (3) provide component and system performance data to improve and validate system performance models; (4) provide T and E support for reliability activities; and (5) priority is placed on TPP's and other solicitations.

  5. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  6. Kinetic evaluation of free malondialdehyde and enzyme leakage as indices of iron damage in rat hepatocyte cultures. Involvement of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Morel, I; Lescoat, G; Cillard, J; Pasdeloup, N; Brissot, P; Cillard, P

    1990-06-01

    The present study relates to the effect of ferric iron supplementation on lipid peroxidation of adult rat hepatocyte pure cultures. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by free malondialdehyde (MDA) using size exclusion chromatography (HPLC) as a specific and sensitive method. The ferric iron used under its complexed form with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) exhibited a prooxidant activity corresponding to an increase of free MDA recovery in the cells and in the culture medium. This enhancement of lipid peroxidation in the hepatocyte cultures supplemented with ferric iron was correlated with an intracellular enzyme leakage (lactate dehydrogenase and transaminase), suggesting that lipid peroxidation and enzyme release represented good parameters for cytotoxicity evaluation. The toxic effect of Fe-NTA on hepatocyte cultures was a function of the incubation time (from 0 to 48 hr) and of the concentration of ferric iron loading (i.e. 5, 20 and 100 microM). The mechanism by which Fe-NTA induced cellular damage involved free radical production, as increasing amounts of free radical scavengers corresponded to diminishing rates of both total free MDA and enzyme release. However, this reducing capacity varied from one scavenger to another, where they exhibited preferentially a decrease in lipid peroxidation or in enzyme leakage. This suggested a dissociation between the two parameters of cytotoxicity considered. Lipid peroxidation corresponding to alterations of both inner membranes and the plasma membrane, whereas enzyme release mainly corresponded to the damage of plasma membrane. Subsequently, some scavengers (superoxide dismutase, mannitol, alpha tocopherol, beta carotene) presented an intracellular activity, as they reduced mostly lipid peroxidation. Other ones (catalase, dimethylpyrroline N-oxide, thiourea) seemed essentially efficient in protecting the external plasma membrane, as shown an important decrease in enzyme leakage. PMID:2344365

  7. Detection of CO2 leakage by the surface-soil CO2-concentration monitoring (SCM) system in a small scale CO2 release test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Gitak; Yu, Soonyoung; Sung, Ki-Sung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Park, Jinyoung; Han, Raehee; Kim, Jeong-Chan; Park, Kwon Gyu

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of CO2 release through the ground surface is essential to testify the safety of CO2 storage projects. We conducted a feasibility study of the multi-channel surface-soil CO2-concentration monitoring (SCM) system as a soil CO2 monitoring tool with a small scale injection. In the system, chambers are attached onto the ground surface, and NDIR sensors installed in each chamber detect CO2 in soil gas released through the soil surface. Before injection, the background CO2 concentrations were measured. They showed the distinct diurnal variation, and were positively related with relative humidity, but negatively with temperature. The negative relation of CO2 measurements with temperature and the low CO2 concentrations during the day imply that CO2 depends on respiration. The daily variation of CO2 concentrations was damped with precipitation, which can be explained by dissolution of CO2 and gas release out of pores through the ground surface with recharge. For the injection test, 4.2 kg of CO2 was injected 1 m below the ground for about 30 minutes. In result, CO2 concentrations increased in all five chambers, which were located less than 2.5 m of distance from an injection point. The Chamber 1, which is closest to the injection point, showed the largest increase of CO2 concentrations; while Chamber 2, 3, and 4 showed the peak which is 2 times higher than the average of background CO2. The CO2 concentrations increased back after decreasing from the peak around 4 hours after the injection ended in Chamber 2, 4, and 5, which indicated that CO2 concentrations seem to be recovered to the background around 4 hours after the injection ended. To determine the leakage, the data in Chamber 2 and 5, which had low increase rates in the CO2 injection test, were used for statistical analysis. The result shows that the coefficient of variation (CV) of CO2 measurements for 30 minutes is efficient to determine a leakage signal, with reflecting the abnormal change in CO2

  8. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, Omari; Griffiths, Dianne

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  9. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, O.; Arena, L.; Griffiths, D.

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.

  10. 49 CFR 230.78 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.78 Leakage. (a) Main reservoirs and related piping. Leakage from main reservoir and related piping shall be tested at every 92 service day inspection and shall not exceed an...

  11. 49 CFR 230.78 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.78 Leakage. (a) Main reservoirs and related piping. Leakage from main reservoir and related piping shall be tested at every 92 service day inspection and shall not exceed an...

  12. Improving stopping construction to minimize leakage

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Roy H.; Mazzella, Andrew L.; Martikainen, Anu L.

    2015-01-01

    The proper sealing of stoppings is an important step in reducing leakage from the intake to the return airways. Leakage and the subsequent loss of ventilation resulting from improperly sealed stoppings can lead to unhealthy and unsafe working conditions. The research presented in this paper investigates the total leakage of a stopping, including air leakage through the stopping, at the stopping perimeter, and through the coalbed. The study also examines sealing considerations for stoppings that are constructed under roof control screen, the effects that wooden wedges had on inhibiting efficient application of polyurethane foam sealant, and airflow leakage through the surrounding coal. The work involved building a stopping in a dead end room of the NIOSH Safety Research Coal Mine and then pressurising the room using compressed air. Stopping leakage was evaluated by measuring air pressure loss in the enclosed room due to the air leakage. Part of the research utilises a diluted soap solution that was applied to the stopping and the surrounding coal to detect air leakage signified by bubble formations. The results show that stopping leakage can be minimised with proper sealing PMID:26379366

  13. 40 CFR 91.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the...

  14. 40 CFR 91.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the...

  15. 40 CFR 91.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the...

  16. 40 CFR 91.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the...

  17. 40 CFR 91.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the...

  18. Blower-door techniques for measuring interzonal leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The standard blower door test methods, such as ASTM E779, describe how to use a single blower door to determine the total leakage of a single-zone structure such as a detached single-family home. There are no standard test methods for measuring interzonal leakage in a two-zone or multi-zone building envelope such as might be encountered in with an attached garage or in a multifamily building. Some practitioners have been using techniques that involve making multiple measurements with a single blower door as well as combined measurements using multiple blower doors. Even for just two zones there are dozens of combinations of one-door and two-door test protocols that could conceivably be used to determine the interzonal air tightness. We examined many of these two-zone configurations using both simulation and measured data to estimate the accuracy and precision of each technique for realistic measurement scenarios. We also considered the impact of taking measurements at a single pressure versus over multiple pressures. We compared the various techniques and evaluated them for specific uses. Some techniques work better in one leakage regime; some are more sensitive to wind and other noise; some are more suited to determining only a subset of the leakage values. This paper makes recommendations on which techniques to use or not use for various cases and provides data that could be used to develop future test methods.

  19. In vitro evaluation of the effect of deproteinization on the marginal leakage of resin restorations using three bonding agents

    PubMed Central

    Ravishanker, Padmanabhan; Chaitanya, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The perfect sealing of the tooth/restoration interface is important to prevent bacteria penetration that may lead to secondary caries and also, when dentin is involved, prevent excessive fluid movement in the dentinal tubules that may cause hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of deproteinization and application of reducing agent on the marginal integrity of composite restorations using three different bonding agents (Prime & Bond NT, AdheSE and G-Bond). Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of 90 recently extracted human premolars and were divided into three groups (I, II, and III) based on the adhesives. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of 10 each according to the surface treatment: application according to clinical protocol; etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds/5% NaOCl; 10% sodium ascorbate after etching/NaOCl. The cavities were restored with Filtek Z 350 nanocomposite. The specimens were sectioned and evaluated under stereomicroscope. The morphology of the resin-dentin interface was visualized using SEM. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA followed by a Mann-Whitney U- test (P<0.05). Results: Group I showed significantly least microleakage among the groups. No significant difference in microleakage was found between groups I and II. Within the subgroups for each group, no significant difference in microleakage scores was observed. SEM micrographs presented gap free areas in group I and varying degrees of gaps in the other two groups. Conclusion: Etch and rinse adhesives were tenable for deproteinization than self etch adhesives. PMID:23162588

  20. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  1. Understanding and evaluating bovine testes.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, John P

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to briefly review bovine testes and how they are assessed, with an emphasis on articles from Theriogenology. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most common method to assess testicular size; it varies among individual bulls and breeds and is highly heritable. In general, a large SC is associated with early puberty, more sperm, a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and better reproductive performance in closely related females. Consequently, there are minimum requirements for SC for breeding soundness. In prepubertal bull calves, there is an early rise (10-20 weeks of age) in LH, which is critically related to onset of puberty and testicular development. Feeding bulls approximately 130% of maintenance requirements of energy and protein from approximately 8 to 30 weeks of age increased LH release during the early rise, hastened puberty (approximately 1 month), and increased mature testis size and sperm production (approximately 20%-30%). However, high-energy diets after weaning (>200 days) often reduced sperm production and semen quality. A bull's testes and scrotum have opposing (complementary) temperature gradients, which keep the testicular temperature 2 °C to 6 °C cooler than core body temperature for production of fertile sperm (increased testicular temperature reduces semen quality). Infrared thermography, a quick and noninvasive method of assessing scrotal surface temperature, may be beneficial for evaluations of breeding soundness. The primary clinical use of ultrasonography in assessment of reproductive function in the bull is characterization of grossly detectable lesions in the testes and scrotum. In conclusion, testis size and function are critical for bull fertility, affected by nutrition, and readily assessed clinically. PMID:24274406

  2. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and its risk of transmission... examination and by a water leak test method, using 1,000 milliliters (ml) of water. (i) Units examined. Each... appearance of water on the outside of the glove. This emergence of water from the glove constitutes...

  3. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  4. A STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF OHMSETT TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program was initiated to provide a statistical evaluation of performance data generated at the USEPA's Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT). The objective was to investigate the value of replicate testing in developing efficient test progra...

  5. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of Gulton Industries, Incorporated, 9.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes for the small astronomy Satellite (SAS-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation test program was conducted to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open-circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. Tests and results are described.

  6. Shroud leakage flow discouragers

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, Jeremy Clyde; Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2002-01-01

    A turbine assembly includes a plurality of rotor blades comprising a root portion, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall, and a top portion having a cap. An outer shroud is concentrically disposed about said rotor blades, said shroud in combination with said tip portions defining a clearance gap. At least one circumferential shroud leakage discourager is disposed within the shroud. The leakage discourager(s) increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the clearance gap to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  7. Leakage Currents and Gas Generation in Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Currently, military grade, established reliability wet tantalum capacitors are among the most reliable parts used for space applications. This has been achieved over the years by extensive testing and improvements in design and materials. However, a rapid insertion of new types of advanced, high volumetric efficiency capacitors in space systems without proper testing and analysis of degradation mechanisms might increase risks of failures. The specifics of leakage currents in wet electrolytic capacitors is that the conduction process is associated with electrolysis of electrolyte and gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure in the parts. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. In this work, in Part I, leakages currents in various types of tantalum capacitors have been analyzed in a wide range of voltages, temperatures, and time under bias. Gas generation and the level of internal pressure have been calculated in Part II for different case sizes and different hermeticity leak rates to assess maximal allowable leakage currents. Effects related to electrolyte penetration to the glass seal area have been studied and the possibility of failures analyzed in Part III. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  8. Lidar technologies application to leakage detection in oil product pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petoukhov, Valery M.; Petoukhova, Zaytuna K.; Akhtiamov, Rishad A.; Il'in, German I.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Pol'ski, Yuri E.

    1999-02-01

    Most of oil product pipelines have a design life from 20 till 25 years. The first attributes of their destruction are leakage of oil products. In our paper we try to discuss advantages and disadvantages of one of the main nondestructive techniques to oil product pipelines testing-- lidar technologies and its application to leakage detection. We consider applications of two basical lidars--IR-cw--LFM lidar (DIAL-system) for methane determining and pulsed lidar based on YAG:Nd3+ laser for registration of liquid oil products fluoristation. Set-ups for both lidars were made in Tupolev Kazan State Technical University and were used on the area of Sredne-Volgsk TransNefteProduct oil company for pipelines testing. Theoretical considerations and experimental results are presented. Some technical problems of specified lidars and their decisions are discussed. Particularly we present two frequency technique for He-Ne-DIAL-system and peculiarities of pumping source with high repetition range for pulsed laser. Its allow to improve characteristics of lidars. Possibilities of computerized leak detection system based on two specified lidars are discussed. It is shown that system can analyze leakage of different oil products, can determine leakage location (the second function of lidars-laser locator), can evaluate degree of damages. The structure of system and its peculiarities are shown.

  9. Air leakage of newly instaled residential windows

    SciTech Connect

    Weidt, J.; Weidt, J.

    1980-06-01

    The air-leakage characteristics of five major window designs were measured in a field survey conducted in Twin Cities, Minnesota. A total of 192 windows (16 manufacturers) were tested at 58 sites representing a cross-section of single-family homes, townhouses, low- and high-rise apartments, and condominiums. Air-leakage measurements of the installed windows were compared with the current standard used by industry and government of 0.50 ft/sup 3//min/linear ft of crack. Other parameters studied were: effect of sash and frame material, effect of leakage between window frame and wall, differences among the product lines of a single manufacturer and between manufacturers, effect of installation practices, effect of cold weather on performance, change in performance over time for older windows, and performance of fixed glazing. Based on industry and government standards, 40% of all windows tested showed air-leakage characteristics higher than the 0.50 cfm/lfc standard, and 60% exceeded manufacturers' specifications for performance which in some cases were lower than the general industry standard. Analysis of the impact of various parameters on air-leakage performance showed that the operational design of the window was the most critical determinant although the ranking changes if performance is expressed in cfm/unit area or cfm/opening area. Air leakage was measured using a portable pressurization chamber. Smoke pencils, thermographic techniques and extensive photographic documentation provided additional data as to the location and cause of air leakage problems.

  10. Improving Beta Test Evaluation Response Rates: A Meta-Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene; Preskill, Hallie

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a meta-evaluation of a beta-test of a customer service training program. The initial evaluation showed a low response rate. Therefore, the meta-evaluation focused on issues related to the conduct of the initial evaluation and reasons for nonresponse. The meta-evaluation identified solutions to the nonresponse problem as related…

  11. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The most common method of measuring air leakage is to perform single (or solo) blower door pressurization and/or depressurization test. In detached housing, the single blower door test measures leakage to the outside. In attached housing, however, this "solo" test method measures both air leakage to the outside and air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces. Although minimizing leakage to neighboring units is highly recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly overpredicted if the solo air leakage number is used in the energy analysis. Guarded blower door testing is more appropriate for isolating and measuring leakage to the outside in attached housing. This method uses multiple blower doors to depressurize adjacent spaces to the same level as the unit being tested. Maintaining a neutral pressure across common walls, ceilings, and floors acts as a "guard" against air leakage between units. The resulting measured air leakage in the test unit is only air leakage to the outside. Although preferred for assessing energy impacts, the challenges of performing guarded testing can be daunting.

  12. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  13. [Tests for evaluating tobacco dependence].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Le Houezec, J; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G

    2012-04-01

    The primary reason why there is such a heavy burden of tobacco smoking induced illness and death is dependence on nicotine which makes it difficult for smokers to quit. For clinical or research purposes, the degree of dependence, the intensity of the withdrawal syndrome and/or craving have been evaluated by different scales. This review provides a list of questionnaires that are used in smoking cessation. It pays particular attention to the validated and translated resources that are available in French. Research should be conducted in order to provide French speaking smoking cessation specialists with all the relevant scales allowing better evaluation of tobacco dependence. PMID:22542405

  14. Evaluating Content Alignment in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Webb, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    The alignment between a test and the content domain it measures represents key evidence for the validation of test score inferences. Although procedures have been developed for evaluating the content alignment of linear tests, these procedures are not readily applicable to computerized adaptive tests (CATs), which require large item pools and do…

  15. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing. (DLC)

  16. HIV testing, staging, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carla V; Horberg, Michael A

    2014-09-01

    HIV testing and incidence are stable, but trends for certain populations are concerning. Primary prevention must be reinvigorated and target vulnerable populations. Science and policy have progressed to improve the accuracy, speed, privacy, and affordability of HIV testing. More potent and much better tolerated HIV treatments and a multidisciplinary approach to care have increased adherence and viral suppression. Changes to health care law in the United States seek to expand the affordability and access of improved HIV diagnostics and treatment. Continued challenges include improving long-term outcomes in people on lifetime regimens, reducing comorbidities associated with those regimens, and preventing further transmission. PMID:25151560

  17. An In Vitro Evaluation of Leakage of Two Etch and Rinse and Two Self-Etch Adhesives after Thermocycling

    PubMed Central

    Geerts, Sabine; Bolette, Amandine; Seidel, Laurence; Guéders, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Our experiment evaluated the microleakage in resin composite restorations bonded to dental tissues with different adhesive systems. 40 class V cavities were prepared on the facial and lingual surfaces of each tooth with coronal margins in enamel and apical margins in cementum (root dentin). The teeth were restored with Z100 resin composite bonded with different adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP), a 3-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT (SB1), a 2-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, AdheSE One (ADSE-1), a 1-step Self-Etch adhesive, and AdheSE (ADSE), a 2-step Self-Etch adhesive. Teeth were thermocycled and immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution. When both interfaces were considered, SBMP has exhibited significantly less microleakage than other adhesive systems (resp., for SB1, ADSE-1 and ADSE, P = 0.0007, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001). When enamel and dentin interfaces were evaluated separately, (1) for the Self-Etch adhesives, microleakage was found greater at enamel than at dentin interfaces (for ADSE, P = 0.024 and for ADSE-1, P < 0.0001); (2) for the Etch and Rinse adhesive systems, there was no significant difference between enamel and dentin interfaces; (3) SBMP was found significantly better than other adhesives both at enamel and dentin interfaces. In our experiment Etch and Rinse adhesives remain better than Self-Etch adhesives at enamel interface. In addition, there was no statistical difference between 1-step (ADSE-1) and 2-step (ADSE) Self-Etch adhesives. PMID:22675358

  18. Zero leakage sealings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotesovec, Bernhard; Steinrück, Herbert

    2010-11-01

    The piston rod of a reciprocating compressor is sealed with elastic cylindrical sealing elements. Across the sealings the pressure drops from the operating pressure to the ambient pressure. The lubrication gap between the elastic sealing and reciprocating piston rod is studied with the aim to find conditions of a leakage free sealing. The flow in the lubrication gap and the elastic deformation of the sealing are determined simultaneously. The net-flow during one cycle of the reciprocating piston rod is calculated. It turns out that maintaining zero leakage is very sensible. Indeed the outbound flow during out-stroke has to be equal the inbound flow during the in-stroke. By prescribing a special shape of the undeformed sealing zero leakage can be attained - at least theoretically for certain operating conditions. It turns out that temperature dependent material data and a model for cavitation is necessary. The model, its numerical implementation and results will be discussed.

  19. Evaluation of the use of reach transmissivity to quantify leakage beneath Levee 31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemeth, Mark S.; Wilcox, Walter M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2000-01-01

    A coupled ground- and surface-water model (MODBRANCH) was developed to estimate ground-water flow beneath Levee 31N in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and to simulate hydrologic conditions in the surrounding area. The study included compilation of data from monitoring stations, measurement of vertical seepage rates in wetlands, and analysis of the hydrogeologic properties of the ground-water aquifer within the study area. In addition, the MODBRANCH code was modified to calculate the exchange between surface-water channels and ground water using a relation based on the concept of reach transmissivity. The modified reach-transmissivity version of the MODBRANCH code was successfully tested on three simple problems with known analytical solutions. It was also tested and determined to function adequately on one field problem that had previously been solved using the unmodified version of the software. The modified version of MODBRANCH was judged to have performed satisfactorily, and it required about 60 percent as many iterations to reach a solution. Additionally, its input parameters are more physically-based and less dependent on model-grid spacing. A model of the Levee 31N area was developed and used with the original and modified versions of MODBRANCH, which produced similar output. The mean annual modeled ground-water heads differed by only 0.02 foot, and the mean annual canal discharge differed by less than 1.0 cubic foot per second. Seepage meters were used to quantify vertical seepage rates in the Everglades wetlands area west of Levee 31N. A comparison between results from the seepage meters and from the computer model indicated substantial differences that seemed to be a result of local variations in the hydraulic properties in the topmost part of the Biscayne aquifer. The transmissivity of the Biscayne aquifer was estimated to be 1,400,000 square feet per day in the study area. The computer model was employed to simulate seepage of ground water beneath Levee 31N

  20. Using Educational Test Scores To Evaluate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandiani, John A.; Simon, Monica M.; Banks, Steven M.

    This paper reports on an ongoing effort of the Vermont Mental Health Performance Indicator Project (PIP) to examine the relevance and utility of standardized test scores for evaluating community mental health programs. This analysis is of test scores from Vermont's first four years of statewide testing. The study is examining anonymous…

  1. Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex - NPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-10

    The Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex, or NPTEC, is the world's largest facility for open air testing of hazardous toxic materials and biological simulants. NPTEC is used for testing, experimentation, and training for technologies that require the release of toxic chemicals or biological simulants into the environment.

  2. Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex - NPTEC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    The Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex, or NPTEC, is the world's largest facility for open air testing of hazardous toxic materials and biological simulants. NPTEC is used for testing, experimentation, and training for technologies that require the release of toxic chemicals or biological simulants into the environment.

  3. Evaluation of Cleanliness Test Methods for Spacecraft PCB Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegehall, P.-E.; Dunn, B. D.

    2006-10-01

    Ionic contamination on printed-circuit-board assemblies may cause current leakage and short-circuits. The present cleanliness requirement in ECSS-Q-70-08, "The manual soldering of high-reliability electrical connections", is that the ionic contamination shall be less than 1.56 fl-glcm2 NaCI equivalents. The relevance of the method used for measurement of the ionic contamination level, resistivity of solvent extract, has been questioned. Alternative methods are ion chromatography and measurement of surface insulation resistance, but these methods also have their drawbacks. These methods are first described and their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. This is followed by an experimental evaluation of the three methods. This was done by soldering test vehicles at four manufacturers of space electronics using their ordinary processes for soldering and cleaning printed board assemblies. The experimental evaluation showed that the ionic contamination added by the four assemblers was very small and well below the acceptance criterion in ECSS-Q-70-80. Ion-chromatography analysis showed that most of the ionic contamination on the cleaned assembled boards originated from the hot-oil fusing of the printed circuit boards. Also, the surface insulation resistance was higher on the assembled boards compared to the bare printed circuit boards. Since strongly activated fluxes are normally used when printed circuit boards are hot-oil fused, it is essential that they are thoroughly cleaned in order to achieve low contamination levels on the final printed-board assemblies.

  4. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Arthur W; Diehl, J Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C

    2012-05-01

    Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 × 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 20–30% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

  5. Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John

    2011-10-01

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

  6. High-Speed, High-Temperature Finger Seal Test Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.

    2003-01-01

    A finger seal, designed and fabricated by Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services, was tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center at surface speeds up to 1200 ft/s, air temperatures up to 1200 F, and pressures across the seal of 75 psid. These are the first test results obtained with NASA s new High-Temperature, High-Speed Turbine Seal Test Rig (see the photograph). The finger seal is an innovative design recently patented by AlliedSignal Engines, which has demonstrated considerably lower leakage than commonly used labyrinth seals and is considerably cheaper than brush seals. The cost to produce finger seals is estimated to be about half of the cost to produce brush seals. Replacing labyrinth seals with fingers seals at locations that have high-pressure drops in gas turbine engines, typically main engine and thrust seals, can reduce air leakage at each location by 50 percent or more. This directly results in a 0.7- to 1.4-percent reduction in specific fuel consumption and a 0.35- to 0.7-percent reduction in direct operating costs . Because the finger seal is a contacting seal, this testing was conducted to address concerns about its heat generation and life capability at the higher speeds and temperatures required for advanced engines. The test results showed that the seal leakage and wear performance are acceptable for advanced engines.

  7. Risk effectiveness evaluation of surveillance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Martorell, S.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1992-07-20

    In nuclear power plants surveillance tests are required to detect failures in standby safety system components as a means of assuring their availability in case of an accident. However, the performance of surveillance tests at power may have adverse impact on safety as evidenced by the operating experience of the plants. The risk associated with a test includes two different aspects: (1) a positive aspect, i.e., risk contribution detected by the test, that results from the detection of failures which occur between tests and are detected by the test, and (2) a negative aspect, i.e., risk contribution caused by the test, that includes failures and degradations which are caused by the test or are related to the performance of the test. In terms of the two different risk contributions, the risk effectiveness of a test can be simply defined as follows: a test is risk effective if the risk contribution detected by the test is greater than the risk contribution caused by the test; otherwise it is risk ineffective. The methodology presentation will focus on two important kinds of negative test risk impacts, that is, the risk impacts of test-caused transients and equipment wear-out. The evaluation results of the risk effectiveness of the test will be presented in the full paper along with the risk assessment methodology and the insights from the sensitivity analysis. These constitute the core of the NUREG/CR-5775.

  8. Flows with tip leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John

    The flow development within the tip gap and the flow tip leakage, applying Navier-Stokes codes, are discussed. The loss production, the turbine inefficiency and the heat transfer to the blade tip, are considered. The measurements and calculations used demonstrate features of the flow, such as separation and reattachment on the blade tip, shock formation in the tip gap, and formation and dissipation of tip gap secondary kinetic energy. A procedure for calculating turbine blade tip temperatures is included. The results for a centrifugal compressor show the interaction of the tip leakage and passage flows. The radial blackflow near the shroud wall at low off-design flow rates is considered. The calculations demonstrate the potential use of a computational fluid dynamics code for predicting a centrifugal compressor map.

  9. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  10. Tests, testing, and tested - we need to critically evaluate the meaning of tests in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Berger, Douglas M

    2013-04-01

    This article describes clinical pitfalls in our concepts of what it means for an illness, diagnosis, or evaluation and treatment methods to say that they have been "tested". This articles begins with the problems encountered in newborn testing for Krabbe Disease of the nervous system in New York State over the last few years as an example of a test that did not live up to its promise to help the society. Next, the article gives 3 examples of testing in psychiatry, 1. Psychological testing to make treatment decisions in children with depression, 2. Patient's and parents who have been told, or believe, that they have Asperger's disorder, and 3. The conclusions made about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy based on clinical studies. The article's conclusion sums up these examples as reasons why we need to have a more practical and scientific approach to our understanding and implementation of tests used in our field. PMID:23825862

  11. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

  12. EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL DISPERSANT TESTING REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program evaluates the cost effectiveness of the procedures for testing oil spill dispersants as specified in Annex X of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. The testing procedure is described in detail in the Standard Dispersant Effec...

  13. Flowing electrolyte battery testing and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.; Miller, D.; Verardo, A.

    1982-08-01

    A laboratory to evaluate the performance and cycle life of flowing electrolyte battery systems has been established at Sandia National Laboratories. Four unique flow batteries are being tested in the laboratory using a four-variable two-level factorial experimental plan. Two Exxon zinc bromine batteries and one Gould zinc bromine battery are under test. One NASA Redox battery is on test. This paper describes results obtained to date from the test program. Cycle history, efficiency values, and general performance observations for these batteries are reported. The factorial test program and available statistical results are also discussed.

  14. Flowing-electrolyte-battery testing and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.; Miller, D.W.; Verardo, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A laboratory to evaluate the performance and cycle life of flowing electrolyte battery systems has been established at Sandia National Laboratories. Four unique flow batteries are being tested in the laboratory using a four-variable two-level factorial experimental plan. Two Exxon zinc bromine batteries and one Gould zinc bromine battery are under test. One NASA Redox battery is on test. This paper describes results obtained to date from the test program. Cycle history, efficiency values, and general performance observations for these batteries are reported. The factorial test program and available statistical results are also discussed.

  15. Flowing electrolyte battery testing and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. C.; Miller, D. W.; Verardo, A. E.

    A laboratory to evaluate the performance and cycle life of flowing electrolyte battery systems has been established at Sandia National Laboratories. Four unique flow batteries are being tested in the laboratory using a four-variable two-level factorial experimental plan. Two Exxon zinc bromine batteries and one Gould zinc bromine battery are under test. One NASA Redox battery is on test. This paper describes results obtained to date from the test program. Cycle history, efficiency values, and general performance observations for these batteries are reported. The factorial test program and available statistical results are also discussed.

  16. Determination of leakage areas in nuclear piping

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, E.

    1997-04-01

    For the design and operation of nuclear power plants the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) behavior of a piping component has to be shown. This means that the length of a crack resulting in a leak is smaller than the critical crack length and that the leak is safely detectable by a suitable monitoring system. The LBB-concept of Siemens/KWU is based on computer codes for the evaluation of critical crack lengths, crack openings, leakage areas and leakage rates, developed by Siemens/KWU. In the experience with the leak rate program is described while this paper deals with the computation of crack openings and leakage areas of longitudinal and circumferential cracks by means of fracture mechanics. The leakage areas are determined by the integration of the crack openings along the crack front, considering plasticity and geometrical effects. They are evaluated with respect to minimum values for the design of leak detection systems, and maximum values for controlling jet and reaction forces. By means of fracture mechanics LBB for subcritical cracks has to be shown and the calculation of leakage areas is the basis for quantitatively determining the discharge rate of leaking subcritical through-wall cracks. The analytical approach and its validation will be presented for two examples of complex structures. The first one is a pipe branch containing a circumferential crack and the second one is a pipe bend with a longitudinal crack.

  17. A test battery for the ecotoxicological evaluation of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Repetto, G; Jos, A; Hazen, M J; Molero, M L; del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Castillo, P D; Rodríguez-Vicente, M C; Repetto, M

    2001-01-01

    Experimental bioassays are currently used in ecotoxicology and environmental toxicology to provide information for risk assessment evaluation of new chemicals and to investigate their effects and mechanisms of action; in addition, ecotoxicological models are used for the detection, control and monitoring of the presence of pollutants in the environment. As a single bioassay will never provide a full picture of the quality of the environment, a representative, cost-effective and quantitative test battery should be developed. The effects of pentachlorophenol were studied using a battery of ecotoxicological model systems, including immobilization of Daphnia magna, bioluminiscence inhibition in the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, growth inhibition of the alga Chlorella vulgaris, and micronuclei induction in the plant Allium cepa. The inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction were investigated in Vero cells. Neutral red uptake, cell growth, MTT reduction, lactate dehydrogenase leakage and activity were studied in the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2, derived from the gonad of rainbow trout. Pentachlorophenol was very toxic for all biota and cells. The system most sensitive to pentachlorophenol, was micronuclei induction in A. cepa, followed by D. magna immobilization, bioluminescence inhibition in V. fischeri bacteria at 60 min and cell proliferation inhibition of RTG-2 cells at 72 h. Inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction on Vero monkey cells showed intermediate sensitivity. PMID:11566584

  18. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  19. SEC sensor parametric test and evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This system provides the necessary automated hardware required to carry out, in conjunction with the existing 70 mm SEC television camera, the sensor evaluation tests which are described in detail. The Parametric Test Set (PTS) was completed and is used in a semiautomatic data acquisition and control mode to test the development of the 70 mm SEC sensor, WX 32193. Data analysis of raw data is performed on the Princeton IBM 360-91 computer.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    The most common method of measuring air leakage is to perform single (or solo) blower door pressurization and/or depressurization test. In detached housing, the single blower door test measures leakage to the outside. In attached housing, however, this “solo” test method measures both air leakage to the outside and air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces. In an attempt to create a simplified tool for predicting leakage to the outside, Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) performed a preliminary statistical analysis on blower door test results from 112 attached dwelling units in four apartment complexes. Although the subject data set is limited in size and variety, the preliminary analyses suggest significant predictors are present and support the development of a predictive model. Further data collection is underway to create a more robust prediction tool for use across different construction types, climate zones, and unit configurations.

  1. Optical imaging to map blood-brain barrier leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffer, Hayder; Adjei, Isaac M.; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2013-11-01

    Vascular leakage in the brain is a major complication associated with brain injuries and certain pathological conditions due to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have developed an optical imaging method, based on excitation and emission spectra of Evans Blue dye, that is >1000-fold more sensitive than conventional ultraviolet spectrophotometry. We used a rat thromboembolic stroke model to validate the usefulness of our method for vascular leakage. Optical imaging data show that vascular leakage varies in different areas of the post-stroke brain and that administering tissue plasminogen activator causes further leakage. The new method is quantitative, simple to use, requires no tissue processing, and can map the degree of vascular leakage in different brain locations. The high sensitivity of our method could potentially provide new opportunities to study BBB leakage in different pathological conditions and to test the efficacy of various therapeutic strategies to protect the BBB.

  2. Electrical leakage detection circuit

    DOEpatents

    Wild, Arthur

    2006-09-05

    A method is provided for detecting electrical leakage between a power supply and a frame of a vehicle or machine. The disclosed method includes coupling a first capacitor between a frame and a first terminal of a power supply for a predetermined period of time. The current flowing between the frame and the first capacitor is limited to a predetermined current limit. It is determined whether the voltage across the first capacitor exceeds a threshold voltage. A first output signal is provided when the voltage across the capacitor exceeds the threshold voltage.

  3. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of Eagel-Picher Industries, Incorporated, 20.0 amphere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation test of the 20.0 ampere-hour cells was conducted to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality. This is accomplished by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. The results obtained in the test are given, as well as the recommendations based on these findings.

  4. 49 CFR 230.78 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of 3 psi per minute in a test of 3 minutes duration that is made after the pressure has been reduced to 60 percent of the maximum operating pressure. (b) Brake cylinders. Leakage from brake cylinders... pipe pressure, and with communication to the brake cylinders closed, the brakes on the steam...

  5. 49 CFR 230.78 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of 3 psi per minute in a test of 3 minutes duration that is made after the pressure has been reduced to 60 percent of the maximum operating pressure. (b) Brake cylinders. Leakage from brake cylinders... pipe pressure, and with communication to the brake cylinders closed, the brakes on the steam...

  6. Proficiency Testing for Evaluating Aerospace Materials Test Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, D.; Motto, S.; Peyton, S.; Beeson, H.

    2006-01-01

    ASTM G 86 and ASTM G 74 are commonly used to evaluate materials susceptibility to ignition in liquid and gaseous oxygen systems. However, the methods have been known for their lack of repeatability. The inherent problems identified with the test logic would either not allow precise identification or the magnitude of problems related to running the tests, such as lack of consistency of systems performance, lack of adherence to procedures, etc. Excessive variability leads to increasing instances of accepting the null hypothesis erroneously, and so to the false logical deduction that problems are nonexistent when they really do exist. This paper attempts to develop and recommend an approach that could lead to increased accuracy in problem diagnostics by using the 50% reactivity point, which has been shown to be more repeatable. The initial tests conducted indicate that PTFE and Viton A (for pneumatic impact) and Buna S (for mechanical impact) would be good choices for additional testing and consideration for inter-laboratory evaluations. The approach presented could also be used to evaluate variable effects with increased confidence and tolerance optimization.

  7. 40 CFR 89.316 - Analyzer leakage and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Equipment Provisions § 89.316 Analyzer leakage and response time. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results must be checked. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for...

  8. 40 CFR 89.316 - Analyzer leakage and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Equipment Provisions § 89.316 Analyzer leakage and response time. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results must be checked. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for...

  9. 40 CFR 90.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.324 Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being...

  10. 40 CFR 89.316 - Analyzer leakage and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Equipment Provisions § 89.316 Analyzer leakage and response time. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results must be checked. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for...

  11. 40 CFR 90.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.324 Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being...

  12. 40 CFR 90.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.324 Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being...

  13. 40 CFR 90.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.324 Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being...

  14. 40 CFR 89.316 - Analyzer leakage and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Provisions § 89.316 Analyzer leakage and response time. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results must be checked. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for...

  15. 40 CFR 90.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.324 Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being...

  16. 40 CFR 89.316 - Analyzer leakage and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Equipment Provisions § 89.316 Analyzer leakage and response time. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results must be checked. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for...

  17. Testing and Evaluation of Multifunctional Smart Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    A smart coating system, based on pH sensitive microcontainers (microparticles and microcapsules) has been developed. Various corrosion inhibitors have been encapsulated and incorporated into commercial and formulated coatings to test the functionality imparted on the coating by the incorporation of the inhibitor microcontainers. Coated carbon steel and aluminum alloy panels were tested using salt immersion, salt fog, and coastal atmospheric exposure conditions. This paper provides the details on coating sample preparation, evaluation methods, as well as test results of the inhibiting function of smart coatings.

  18. Waste Handling Equipment Devleopment Test and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Tome

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify candidate Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface waste handling equipment for development testing. This study will also identify strategies for performing the development tests. Development testing shall be implemented to support detail design and reduce design risks. Development testing shall be conducted to confirm design concepts, evaluate alternative design concepts, show the availability of needed technology, and provide design documentation. The candidate equipment will be selected from MGR surface waste handling equipment that is the responsibility of the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Surface Design Department. The equipment identified in this study is based on Viability Assessment (VA) design. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test and Evaluation Plan'' (MGR T&EP), Reference 5.1, was used as a basis for this study. The MGR T&EP reflects the extent of test planning and analysis that can be conducted, given the current status of the MGR requirements and latest VA design information. The MGR T&EP supports the appropriate sections in the license application (LA) in accordance with 10 CFR 60.2 1(c)(14). The MGR T&EP describes the following test activities: site characterization to confirm, by test and analysis, the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for housing a geologic repository; development testing to investigate and document design concepts to reduce risk; qualification testing to verify equipment compliance with design requirements, specifications, and regulatory requirements; system testing to validate compliance with MGR requirements, which include the receipt, handling, retrieval, and disposal of waste; periodic performance testing to verify preclosure requirements and to demonstrate safe and reliable MGR operation; and performance confirmation modeling, testing, and analysis to verify adherence to postclosure regulatory requirements. Development test activities can be planned and

  19. The Test and Evaluation Facility, Cincinnati, Ohio

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Test and Evaluation Facility (T&E) is located on the grounds of Cincinnati’s Mill Creek wastewater treatment plant. There, studies are conducted on new treatment technologies for contaminants in water and wastewater for EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NR...

  20. SINGLE LABORATORY EVALUATION OF PHYTOTOXICITY TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phytotoxicity method is a screening test used to predict the potential impact of chemicals on seed germination and early seedling growth. An evaluation of the procedure was conducted in order to establish the data quality that could be achieved within a single laboratory and ...

  1. Accuracy test procedure for image evaluation techniques.

    PubMed

    Jones, R A

    1968-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to determine the accuracy of image evaluation techniques. In the procedure, a target having orthogonal test arrays is photographed with a high quality optical system. During the exposure, the target is subjected to horizontal linear image motion. The modulation transfer functions of the images in the horizontal and vertical directions are obtained using the evaluation technique. Since all other degradations are symmetrical, the quotient of the two modulation transfer functions represents the modulation transfer function of the experimentally induced linear image motion. In an accurate experiment, any discrepancy between the experimental determination and the true value is due to inaccuracy in the image evaluation technique. The procedure was used to test the Perkin-Elmer automated edge gradient analysis technique over the spatial frequency range of 0-200 c/m. This experiment demonstrated that the edge gradient technique is accurate over this region and that the testing procedure can be controlled with the desired accuracy. Similarly, the test procedure can be used to determine the accuracy of other image evaluation techniques. PMID:20062421

  2. Interbull validation test for genomic evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations (GEBV) can be validated by comparing GEBVs of bulls in the youngest age classes to the daughter yield deviations (DYD) that the bulls will receive later. The GEBV are calculated from truncated data where the last four years of phenotypic data are removed. The test consists of w...

  3. Vibroacoustic test plan evaluation: Parameter variation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloef, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    Statistical decision models are shown to provide a viable method of evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternate vibroacoustic test plans and the associated test levels. The methodology developed provides a major step toward the development of a realistic tool to quantitatively tailor test programs to specific payloads. Testing is considered at the no test, component, subassembly, or system level of assembly. Component redundancy and partial loss of flight data are considered. Most and probabilistic costs are considered, and incipient failures resulting from ground tests are treated. Optimums defining both component and assembly test levels are indicated for the modified test plans considered. modeling simplifications must be considered in interpreting the results relative to a particular payload. New parameters introduced were a no test option, flight by flight failure probabilities, and a cost to design components for higher vibration requirements. Parameters varied were the shuttle payload bay internal acoustic environment, the STS launch cost, the component retest/repair cost, and the amount of redundancy in the housekeeping section of the payload reliability model.

  4. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  5. Leakage Sign for Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hirohata, Masaru; Nakamura, Yukihiko; Takeshige, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Takachika; Hattori, Gousuke; Sakata, Kiyohiko; Abe, Toshi; Uchiyama, Yuusuke; Sakamoto, Teruo; Morioka, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Recent studies of intracerebral hemorrhage treatments have highlighted the need to identify reliable predictors of hematoma expansion. Several studies have suggested that the spot sign on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a sensitive radiological predictor of hematoma expansion in the acute phase. However, the spot sign has low sensitivity for hematoma expansion. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of a novel predictive method, called the leakage sign. Methods— We performed CTA for 80 consecutive patients presenting with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Two scans were completed: CTA phase and delayed phase (5 minutes after the CTA phase). By comparing the CTA phase images, we set a region of interest with a 10-mm diameter and calculated the Hounsfield units. We defined a positive leakage sign as a >10% increase in Hounsfield units in the region of interest. Additionally, hematoma expansion was determined on plain computed tomography at 24 hours in patients who did not undergo emergent surgery. Results— Positive spot signs and leakage signs were present in 18 (22%) patients and 35 (43%) patients, respectively. The leakage sign had higher sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (88.9%) for hematoma expansion than the spot sign. The leakage sign, but not the spot sign, was significantly related with poor outcomes (severely disabled, vegetative state, and death) in all of the patients (P=0.03) and in patients with a hemorrhage in the putamen (P=0.0016). Conclusions— The results indicate that the leakage sign is a useful and sensitive method to predict hematoma expansion. PMID:26931155

  6. A high fill-factor low dark leakage CMOS image sensor with shared-pixel design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Min-Woong; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Kawahito, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    We have developed and evaluated the high responsivity and low dark leakage CMOS image sensor with the ring-gate shared-pixel design. A ring-gate shared-pixel design with a high fill factor makes it possible to achieve the low-light imaging. As eliminating the shallow trench isolation in the proposed pixel, the dark leakage current is significantly decreased because one of major dark leakage sources is removed. By sharing the in-pixel transistors such as a reset transistor, a select transistor, and a source follower amplifier, each pixel has a high fill-factor of 43 % and high sensitivity of 144.6 ke-/lx·sec. In addition, the effective number of transistors per pixel is 1.75. The proposed imager achieved the relatively low dark leakage current of about 104.5 e-/s (median at 60°C), corresponding to a dark current density Jdark_proposed of about 30 pA/cm2. In contrast, the conventional type test pixel has a large dark leakage current of 2450 e-/s (median at 60°C), corresponding to Jdark_conventional of about 700 pA/cm2. Both pixels have a same pixel size of 7.5×7.5 μm2 and are fabricated in same process.

  7. Effects of flow separation and cove leakage on pressure and heat-transfer distributions along a wing-cove-elevon configuration at Mach 6.9. [Langley 8-ft high temperature tunnel test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveikis, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    External and internal pressure and cold-wall heating-rate distributions were obtained in hypersonic flow on a full-scale heat-sink representation of the space shuttle orbiter wing-elevon-cove configuration in an effort to define effects of flow separation on cove aerothermal environment as a function of cove seal leak area, ramp angle, and free-stream unit Reynolds number. Average free-stream Mach number from all tests was 6.9; average total temperature from all tests was 3360 R; free-stream dynamic pressure ranged from about 2 to 9 psi; and wing angle of attack was 5 deg (flow compression). For transitional and turbulent flow separation, increasing cove leakage progressively increased heating rates in the cove. When ingested mass flow was sufficient to force large reductions in extent of separation, increasing cove leakage reduced heating rates in the cove to those for laminar attached flow. Cove heating-rate distributions calculated with a method that assumed laminar developing channel flow agreed with experimentally obtained distributions within root-mean-square differences that varied between 11 and 36 percent where cove walls were parallel for leak areas of 50 and 100 percent.

  8. Development and evaluation of endurance test system for ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Sumikura, Hirohito; Homma, Akihiko; Ohnuma, Kentaro; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mukaibayashi, Hiroshi; Katano, Kazuo; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2013-06-01

    We developed a novel endurance test system that can arbitrarily set various circulatory conditions and has durability and stability for long-term continuous evaluation of ventricular assist devices (VADs), and we evaluated its fundamental performance and prolonged durability and stability. The circulation circuit of the present endurance test system consisted of a pulsatile pump with a small closed chamber (SCC), a closed chamber, a reservoir and an electromagnetic proportional valve. Two duckbill valves were mounted in the inlet and outlet of the pulsatile pump. The features of the circulation circuit are as follows: (1) the components of the circulation circuit consist of optimized industrial devices, giving durability; (2) the pulsatile pump can change the heart rate and stroke length (SL), as well as its compliance using the SCC. Therefore, the endurance test system can quantitatively reproduce various circulatory conditions. The range of reproducible circulatory conditions in the endurance test circuit was examined in terms of fundamental performance. Additionally, continuous operation for 6 months was performed in order to evaluate the durability and stability. The circulation circuit was able to set up a wide range of pressure and total flow conditions using the SCC and adjusting the pulsatile pump SL. The long-term continuous operation test demonstrated that stable, continuous operation for 6 months was possible without leakage or industrial device failure. The newly developed endurance test system demonstrated a wide range of reproducible circulatory conditions, durability and stability, and is a promising approach for evaluating the basic characteristics of VADs. PMID:23400569

  9. Evaluation of diagnostic tests for human leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M A; Brandão, A P; Romero, E C

    1996-06-01

    The IgM-PK-ELISA, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin M employing a proteinase K-treated antigen, and the "Leptoteste-S" macroagglutination test were evaluated for use in a rapid serodiagnosis of human leptospirosis. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was used as reference. The three serological tests were applied to serum samples from patients with leptospirosis (N = 89), typhoid fever (N = 8), malaria (N = 19), syphilis (N = 20), hepatitis (N = 16) and from clinically healthy donors (N = 92). The overall results of the IgM-PK-ELISA and the "Leptoteste-S" are comparable to those of the MAT. However, both tests differed statistically from MAT in terms of the positivity of the acute-phase sera, with approximately 38% of the patients with leptospirosis being identified earlier than when MAT was used. The IgM-PK-ELISA, with 89.9% sensitivity and 97.4% specificity, could be the test of choice for those laboratories which are equipped to perform ELISA. The "Leptoteste-S", with 89.9% sensitivity and 94.8% specificity, seems to be easier to perform and the most accessible to peripheral laboratories for rapid screening of human sera. Both techniques present the important characteristic of detecting early antibodies against leptospires, thus providing a diagnosis during the early stages of the disease. PMID:9070390

  10. The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1986-01-01

    The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

  11. Benchmark testing of {sup 233}U evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.Q.; Leal, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the adequacy of available {sup 233}U cross-section data (ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3) for calculation of critical experiments. An ad hoc revised {sup 233}U evaluation is also tested and appears to give results which are improved relative to those obtained with either ENDF/B-VI or JENDL-3 cross sections. Calculations of k{sub eff} were performed for ten fast benchmarks and six thermal benchmarks using the three cross-section sets. Central reaction-rate-ratio calculations were also performed.

  12. Pre-test evaluation of LLTR Series II Test A-6. [Large Leak Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, D

    1980-11-01

    Purpose of this report is to present pre-test predictions of pressure histories for the A6 test to be conducted in the Large Leak Test Facility (LLTF) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center. A6 is part of a test program being conducted to evaluate the effects of leaks produced by a double-ended guillotine rupture of a single tube. A6 will provide data on the CRBR prototypical double rupture disc performance.

  13. Thermionic system evaluated test (TSET) facility description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Jerry F.; Koonmen, James P.; Thome, Frank V.

    1992-01-01

    A consortium of US agencies are involved in the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) which is being supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO). The project is a ground test of an unfueled Soviet TOPAZ-II in-core thermionic space reactor powered by electrical heat. It is part of the United States' national thermionic space nuclear power program. It will be tested in Albuquerque, New Mexico at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute complex by the Phillips Laboratoty, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the University of New Mexico. One of TSET's many objectives is to demonstrate that the US can operate and test a complete space nuclear power system, in the electrical heater configuration, at a low cost. Great efforts have been made to help reduce facility costs during the first phase of this project. These costs include structural, mechanical, and electrical modifications to the existing facility as well as the installation of additional emergency systems to mitigate the effects of utility power losses and alkali metal fires.

  14. Heat pipe fatigue test specimen: Metallurgical evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walak, Steven E.; Cronin, Michael J.; Grobstein, Toni

    1992-01-01

    An innovative creep/fatigue test was run to simulate the temperature, mechanical load, and sodium corrosion conditions expected in a heat pipe designed to supply thermal energy to a Stirling cycle power converter. A sodium-charged Inconel 718 heat pipe with a Nickel 200 screen wick was operated for 1090 hr at temperatures between 950 K (1250 F) and 1050 K (1430 F) while being subjected to creep and fatigue loads in a servo-hydraulic testing machine. After testing, the heat pipe was sectioned and examined using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis with wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The analysis concentrated on evaluating topographic, microstructural, and chemical changes in the sodium exposed surfaces of the heat pipe wall and wick. Surface changes in the evaporator, condenser, and adiabatic sections of the heat pipe were examined in an effort to correlate the changes with the expected sodium environment in the heat pipe. This report describes the setup, operating conditions, and analytical results of the sodium heat pipe fatigue test.

  15. Neutrino Leakage and Supernova Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Dao-Bing; Zhang, Miao-Jing; Li, Yan; Pan, Jiang-Hong; Chen, Xiu

    2015-04-01

    In the process of supernova explosion the leakage of neutrinos is very important. Adopting an one-dimensional spherically symmetrical model, and under the different neutrino leakage modes, the explosion processes of type II supernovae with masses of 12 M⊙, 14 M⊙, and 15 M⊙ are simulated numerically. The results indicate that all these different neutrino leakage modes have influences on the supernova collapse, shock propagation, and supernova explosion. The best values of the related parameters which are propitious for the type II supernova explosion are given. In addition, the impacts of the equation of state and the compression modulus on the simulated results are discussed.

  16. Wall surface leakage effects on MHD power generator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pian, C.C.P.; Schmitt, E.W.

    1994-12-31

    Internal surface leakage effects on the MHD generator performance were studied using a combined experimental and analytical approach. A method to determine the wall resistances and slag layer conductivities from seed shut-off test data is introduced. These measured resistance values are then utilized in generator performance analyses. Calculated results were compared with measured data from MHD generator tests to verify the modeling approach. Finally, these calculated results were used to investigate the distribution of internal leakage currents as a function of generator size, generator operating conditions, and iron oxide injection rates. An advantage of this analysis methodology is the ability to differentiate between wall leakage and apparent leakage effects in the measured test data.

  17. Criteria evaluation for cleanliness testing phase 0

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, Michael; Koester, Carolyn; Stefanni, Chris

    1999-02-04

    The Boeing Company (Boeing) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop criteria for evaluating the efficacy of its parts cleaning processes. In particular, LLNL and Boeing are attempting to identify levels of contamination that lead to parts failures. Sufficient contamination to cause impairment of anodizing, alodining, painting, or welding operations is considered a "part failure." In the "Phase 0" part of the project that was recently completed, preliminary analyses of aluminum substrates were performed as a first step in determining suitable cleanliness criteria for actual Boeing parts made from this material. A wide spread of contamination levels was specified for the Phase 0 test coupons, in the hopes of finding a range in which an appropriate cleanliness specification might lie. It was planned that, based on the results of the Phase 0 testing, further more detailed analyses ("Phase 1 testing") would be performed in order to more accurately identify the most appropriate criteria. For the Phase 0 testing, Boeing supplied LLNL with 3" x 6" and 3" x 10" aluminum test panels which LLNL contaminated with measured amounts of typical hydrocarbon substances encountered in Boeing' s fabrication operations. The panels were then subjected by Boeing to normal cleaning procedures, after which they went through one of the following sets of operations: l anodizing and primer painting . alodining (chromating) and primer painting l welding The coatings or welds were then examined by both Boeing and LLNL to determine whether any of the operations were impaired, and whether there was a correlation between contamination level and damage to the parts. The experimental approach and results are described in detail.

  18. Remote Sensing And Surface Hydrocarbon Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, M. D.; Jones, V. T.; Richers, D. M.

    1984-08-01

    The Geosat oil and gas test site program stimulated interest in the interaction between surface hydrocarbon concentrations and interpretation of remote sensing data. The test case results suggested that lineaments correspond to avenues of preferential hydrocarbon seepage and that this seepage affects vegetation health and populations at Patrick Draw field in Wyoming and potentially at Lost River field, West Virginia. These two areas were selected for additional surface hydrocarbon surveys in order to test these hypotheses. The Patrick Draw study shows that a zone of stressed vegetation, visible on thematic mapper data, definitely coincides with an area of marked leakage of hydrocarbons and that the composition of these gases would predict an intermediate type oil and gas reservoir such as exists in the area. The study further indicates that the leakage is in large part controlled by the presence of fractures/faults recognized as lineaments on the remote sensing images. The Lost River study specifically investigated the possible existence of hydrocarbon leakage causing anomalous populations of maple trees in a climax oak forest. These maples were first recognized by study of thematic mapper simulator data. The soil gas hydrocarbon concentrations are above average in several of the maple anomalies over the field. This supports the inference that the maples are present because they are more tolerant of soil conditions where hydrocarbon seepage is active. The crest of the field has low soil gas magnitudes, but high values occur to the updip eastern edge of the field along a fault/fracture that was detected in the seismic data. The conclusion that preferential pathways of hydrocarbon leakage are recognized in spectral and textural analysis of remote sensing data is supported by other studies and integrated into a suggested exploration/hydrocarbon migration model.

  19. Theory and Application of Magnetic Flux Leakage Pipeline Detection

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Jia, Guanwei

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection is one of the most popular methods of pipeline inspection. It is a nondestructive testing technique which uses magnetic sensitive sensors to detect the magnetic leakage field of defects on both the internal and external surfaces of pipelines. This paper introduces the main principles, measurement and processing of MFL data. As the key point of a quantitative analysis of MFL detection, the identification of the leakage magnetic signal is also discussed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different identification methods are analyzed. Then the paper briefly introduces the expert systems used. At the end of this paper, future developments in pipeline MFL detection are predicted. PMID:26690435

  20. Theory and Application of Magnetic Flux Leakage Pipeline Detection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Jia, Guanwei

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection is one of the most popular methods of pipeline inspection. It is a nondestructive testing technique which uses magnetic sensitive sensors to detect the magnetic leakage field of defects on both the internal and external surfaces of pipelines. This paper introduces the main principles, measurement and processing of MFL data. As the key point of a quantitative analysis of MFL detection, the identification of the leakage magnetic signal is also discussed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different identification methods are analyzed. Then the paper briefly introduces the expert systems used. At the end of this paper, future developments in pipeline MFL detection are predicted. PMID:26690435

  1. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Seal Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, John R.; Underwood, Steve D.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1999-01-01

    Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM provides the structural interface between separate International Space Station (ISS) elements, such as the Laboratory and Node modules. The CBM consists of an active and a passive half that join together with structural bolts. The seal at this interface is the CBM-to-CBM molded seal. The CBM-to-CBM interface is assembled on orbit, thus the seals can be exposed to the space environment for up to 65 hours. Atomic Oxygen/Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation (AO/VUV) in space is a potential hazard to the seals. Testing was conducted to determine the effect on leakage of the CBM-to-CBM seal material exposed to AO/VUV. The sealing materials were S383 silicone and V835 fluorocarbon material. Control samples, which were not exposed to the AO/VUV environment, were used to ensure that ff any changes in leakage occurred, they could be attributed to the AO/VUV exposure. After exposure to the AO/VUV environment the leakage increase was dramatic for the fluorocarbon. This testing was a major contributing factor in selecting silicone as the CBM-to-CBM seal material.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Seal Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, John R.; Underwood, Steve D.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1998-01-01

    Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) provides the structural interface between separate International Space Station (ISS) elements, such as the Laboratory and Node modules. The CBM consists of an active and a passive half that join together with structural bolts. The seal at this interface is the CBM-to-CBM molded seal. The CBM-to-CBM interface is assembled on orbit, thus the seals can be exposed to the space environment for up to 65 hours. Atomic Oxygen/Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation (AO/VUV) in space is a potential hazard to the seals. Testing was conducted to determine the effect on leakage of the CBM-to-CBM seal material exposed to AO/VUV. The sealing materials were S383 silicone and V835 fluorocarbon material. Control samples, which were not exposed to the AO/VUV environment, were used to ensure that if any changes in leakage occurred, they could be attributed to the AO/VUV exposure. After exposure to the AO/VUV environment the leakage increase was dramatic for the fluorocarbon. This testing was a major contributing factor in selecting silicone as the CBM-to-CBM seal material.

  3. Spacecraft Fire Suppression: Testing and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Wu, Ming-Shin

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project is the testing and evaluation of the effectiveness of a variety of fire suppressants and fire-response techniques that will be used in the next generation of spacecraft (Crew Exploration Vehicle, CEV) and planetary habitats. From the many lessons learned in the last 40 years of space travel, there is common agreement in the spacecraft fire safety community that a new fire suppression system will be needed for the various types of fire threats anticipated in new space vehicles and habitats. To date, there is no single fire extinguishing system that can address all possible fire situations in a spacecraft in an effective, reliable, clean, and safe way. The testing conducted under this investigation will not only validate the various numerical models that are currently being developed, but it will provide new design standards on fire suppression that can then be applied to the next generation of spacecraft extinguishment systems. The test program will provide validation of scaling methods by conducting small, medium, and large scale fires. A variety of suppression methods will be tested, such as water mist, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen with single and multiple injection points and direct or distributed agent deployment. These injection methods cover the current ISS fire suppression method of a portable hand-held fire extinguisher spraying through a port in a rack and also next generation spacecraft units that may have a multi-point suppression delivery system built into the design. Consideration will be given to the need of a crew to clean-up the agent and recharge the extinguishers in flight in a long-duration mission. The fire suppression methods mentioned above will be used to extinguish several fire scenarios that have been identified as the most relevant to spaceflight, such as overheated wires, cable bundles, and circuit boards, as well as burning cloth and paper. Further testing will be conducted in which obstructions and

  4. Detection of gas leakage

    DOEpatents

    Thornberg, Steven M; Brown, Jason

    2015-02-17

    A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as a device, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), provides a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement. The PPM is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr) using a venturi pump, perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

  5. Detection of gas leakage

    DOEpatents

    Thornberg, Steven; Brown, Jason

    2012-06-19

    A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as an apparatus, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), that is a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement, where the invention is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr), perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

  6. Evaluating effective reaction rates of kinetically driven solutes in large-scale, anisotropic media: human health risk implications in CO2 leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siirila, E. R.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The role of high and low hydraulic conductivity (K) regions in heterogeneous, stratified and non-stratified flow fields and the subsequent effect of rate dependent geochemical reactions are investigated with regards to mobilized arsenic from CO2 leakage at a Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) site. Following the methodology of previous work, human health risk is used as an endpoint for comparison via a two-stage or nested Monte Carlo scheme, explicitly considering joint uncertainty and variability for a hypothetical population of individuals. This study identifies geo-hydrologic conditions where solute reactions are either rate limited (non-reactive), in equilibrium (linear equilibrium assumption, LEA, is appropriate), or are sensitive to time-dependent kinetic reaction rates. Potential interplay between multiple parameters (i.e. positive or negative feedbacks) is shown utilizing stochastic ensembles. In particular, the effect of preferential flow pathways and solute mixing on the field-scale (macrodispersion) and sub-grid (local dispersion) is examined for varying degrees of stratification and regional groundwater velocities. Results show effective reaction rates of kinetic ensembles are dissimilar from LEA ensembles with the inclusion of local dispersion, resulting in an additive tailing effect of the solute plume, a retarded peak time, and an increased cancer risk. This discrepancy between kinetic and LEA ensembles is augmented in highly anisotropic media, especially at intermediate regional groundwater velocities. The distribution, magnitude, and associated uncertainty of cancer risk are controlled by these factors, but are also strongly dependent on the regional groundwater velocity. We demonstrate a higher associated uncertainty of cancer risk in stratified domains is linked to higher aquifer connectivity and less macrodispersion in the flow field. This study has implications in CCS site selection and groundwater driven risk assessment modeling.

  7. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the

  8. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, O.; Griffiths, D.

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the 2013 research project was to develop the model for predicting fully guarded test results (FGT), using unguarded test data and specific building features of apartment units. The model developed has a coefficient of determination R2 value of 0.53 with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.13. Both statistical metrics indicate that the model is relatively strong. When tested against data that was not included in the development of the model, prediction accuracy was within 19%, which is reasonable given that seasonal differences in blower door measurements can vary by as much as 25%.

  9. Ex vivo study of bacterial coronal leakage in indirect pulp treatment

    PubMed Central

    Baca, Pilar; Pardo-Ridao, Maria M.; Arias-Moliz, Maria T.; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, ex vivo, bacterial coronal leakage with different antimicrobial agents applied to the dentine for indirect pulp treatment (IPT). Study Design: Sixty extracted teeth were prepared and randomly distributed into 5 groups (n=10): Group 1: no antimicrobial dentine treatment; group 2: 1% chlorhexidine (CHX)+1% thymol varnish (Cervitec®); group 3: 2 % CHX solution; group 4: 40% CHX varnish (EC40™) and group 5: Clearfil™ Protect Bond (CPB). Ten teeth served as controls. The teeth were restored using a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC) and then mounted in a two-chamber device. The coronal access was exposed to Streptococcus mutans for 45 days. The appearance of turbidity in the BHI broth of the lower chamber was considered as specimen leakage. Results: Survival analysis, determined by non parametric Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests, showed that the best results were for groups EC40™+GIC and GIC alone; yet there were not statistically significant differences between them. All specimens of CPB+GIC and 2% CHX+GIC, leaked at 45 days. Conclusions: In IPT the use of GIC without pretreatment of the dentine and pretreatment with 40% CHX varnish resulted in a significant delay of bacterial coronal leakage. Key words:Streptococcus mutans, bacterial leakage, resin-modified glass ionomer cement, indirect pulp treatment. PMID:23229261

  10. A laboratory assessment of bacterial leakage in MTA apical plugs exposed to phosphate-buffered saline.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Josiane; Pimenta, Andrea L; Felippe, Wilson T

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the exposure of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) - with and without calcium chloride (CaCl2) -to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) on apical microleakage. Sixty root segments were divided into 4 experimental groups (n=15). Apical cavities were filled with MTA with or without CaCl2, and the root canals dressed with a moistened cotton pellet or PBS: 1) MTA/cotton pellet; 2) MTA/PBS; 3) MTA+ 10%CaCl2/cotton pellet; 4) MTA+10%CaCl2/PBS. After 2 months, E. faecalis penetration was analyzed along the apical plugs. Samples were observed weekly for 70 days, and leakage was detected by turbidity of the medium in contact with the root segment. Teeth in the control groups (n=2) were either made completely impermeable or kept without an apical plug. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival and the Logrank test was used to compare the survival curves (p<0.05). All specimens in the positive control group showed evidence of leakage within 24h, while none in the negative control group showed leakage up to 70 days. There was no statistically significant difference among the experimental groups (p=0.102). The use of PBS as intracanal dressing may improve MTA sealing ability, but cannot prevent bacterial leakage. The addition of CaCl2 to the MTA did not improve MTA sealing ability. PMID:26355884

  11. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  12. Influence of the length of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation on the coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Mozini, Alexandra Conca Alves; Vansan, Luis P.; Sousa Neto, Manoel D.; Pietro, Rosimeire

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of different lengths of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation against coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis. Forty-one roots of maxillary incisors were biomechanically prepared, maintaining standardized canal diameter at the middle and coronal thirds. The roots were autoclaved and all subsequent steps were undertaken in a laminar flow chamber. The canals of 33 roots were obturated with AH Plus sealer and gutta-percha. The root canal fillings were reduced to 3 predetermined lengths (n=11): G1=6 mm, G2=4 mm and G3=2 mm. The remaining roots served as positive and negative controls. Bacterial leakage test apparatuses were fabricated with the roots attached to Eppendorf tubes keeping 2 mm of apex submerged in BHI in glass flasks. The specimens received an E. faecalis inoculum of 1 x 107 cfu/mL every 3 days and were observed for bacterial leakage daily during 60 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey’s test and Fisher’s test. At 60 days, G1 (6 mm) and G2 (4 mm) presented statistically similar results (p>0.05) (54.4% of specimens with bacterial leakage) and both groups differed significantly (p<0.01) from G3 (2 mm), which presented 100% of specimens with E. faecalis leakage. It may be concluded that the shortest endodontic obturation remnant leaked considerably more than the other lengths, although none of the tested conditions avoids coronal leakage of E. faecalis. PMID:24031339

  13. Gaseous hydrogen leakage optical fibre detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouillet, Alain; Veillas, Colette; Sigronde, E.; Gagnaire, Henri; Clement, Michel

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen has been intensively used in aerospace applications during the past forty years and is of great interest for fuel cells technologies and future automotive applications. Following upon major explosive risks due to the use of hydrogen in air, previous studies were carried out in our laboratory in order to develop optical fiber sensors for the detection of hydrogen leakage. This communication is aimed towards a prototype optical fiber system designed for the detection of gaseous hydrogen leakage near the conecting flanges of the liquid hydrogen pipes on the test bench of the engine Vulcain of the rocket ARIANE V. Depending on the configuration, the prototype sensor provides a two-level alarm signal and the detection of gaseous hydrogen leakage is possible for concentrations lower than the lower explosive limit in air (between 0.1 and 4%) with alarm response times lower than 10 seconds in a wide range of temperatures between -35°C and 300°C. The sensing principle based on palladium-hydrogen interaction is presented as well as the detection system composed of an optical fiber probe and an optoelectronic device.

  14. A MODEL FOR THE EVALUATION OF A TESTING PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COX, RICHARD C.; UNKS, NANCY J.

    THE EVALUATION OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM TYPICALLY IMPLIES MEASUREMENT. MEASUREMENT, IN TURN, IMPLIES TESTING IN ONE FORM OR ANOTHER. IN ORDER TO CARRY OUT THE TESTING NECESSARY FOR THE EVALUATION OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM, RESEARCHERS OFTEN DEVELOP A COMPLETE TESTING SUB-PROGRAM. THE EVALUATION OF THE TOTAL PROJECT MAY DEPEND UPON THE TESTING…

  15. Tests and Measurements for Vocational Evaluators. April 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botterbusch, Karl F.

    The purpose of the document is to help fill the gap between the use of psychological tests by evaluators and evaluators' feelings about their competence in using these devices. The first section contains descriptions of 33 tests and instruments presently used in evaluation facilities serving a wide variety of clients. These tests are divided…

  16. An evaluation of commercial water irrigation systems used for caloric testing.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, J E; Maguire, M H

    1992-10-01

    The post-1982 Grant Caloric Test Apparatus, and the Atmos Variotherm were evaluated and compared to BS5724 Part 1 (1989). Quality of construction is satisfactory, but design features may result in failure of tests for which this type of equipment should conform; namely splash, liquid leakage and spillage. For the Variotherm the proximity of the water piping to the electrical parts could result in wetting of the electrical units in the event of a leakage. The large vents in the Grant tanks allow easy access of water to electrical parts in the event of splashing. Both sets of equipment fail BS5724 Part 1 (1989) with respect to labelling. The Grant irrigation nozzle is well designed, but the Variotherm nozzles are not so, as they can accidentally pass down the external auditory meatus causing meatal wall or tympanic membrane damage. Both sets of equipment passed on electrical safety test for Class I Type B equipment. Cut-outs are fitted to prevent heating in the absence of water or over-heating of the water. The 44 degrees C Grant tank cut out after 20 s in the absence of water and at 49 degrees C as the water temperature rose above the operating temperature. The Variotherm heater did not operate in the absence of a water supply. The Variotherm thermal cut-out was not assessed. The force of the water at recommended flow rates using the Variotherm 'standard' metal nozzle was considered to pose a potential hazard of tympanic membrane perforation, and has subsequently been withdrawn by the supplier. The plastic nozzle minimized any such risk. The Variotherm is easier to use due to the well-designed trigger handle for controlling water delivery. Both sets of equipment performed at the correct temperature to within +/- 0.5 degrees C and achieved a flow rate of 250 ml in 30 s. PMID:1486357

  17. Evaluation of a quantitative fit testing method for N95 filtering facepiece respirators.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Larry; Luinenburg, Michael D; Mullins, Haskell E; Danisch, Susan G; Nelson, Thomas J

    2003-01-01

    A method for performing quantitative fit tests (QNFT) with N95 filtering facepiece respirators was developed by earlier investigators. The method employs a simple clamping device to allow the penetration of submicron aerosols through N95 filter media to be measured. The measured value is subtracted from total penetration, with the assumption that the remaining penetration represents faceseal leakage. The developers have used the clamp to assess respirator performance. This study evaluated the clamp's ability to measure filter penetration and determine fit factors. In Phase 1, subjects were quantitatively fit-tested with elastomeric half-facepiece respirators using both generated and ambient aerosols. QNFT were done with each aerosol with both P100 and N95 filters without disturbing the facepiece. In Phase 2 of the study elastomeric half facepieces were sealed to subjects' faces to eliminate faceseal leakage. Ambient aerosol QNFT were performed with P100 and N95 filters without disturbing the facepiece. In both phases the clamp was used to measure N95 filter penetration, which was then subtracted from total penetration for the N95 QNFT. It was hypothesized that N95 fit factors corrected for filter penetration would equal the P100 fit factors. Mean corrected N95 fit factors were significantly different from the P100 fit factors in each phase of the study. In addition, there was essentially no correlation between corrected N95 fit factors and P100 fit factors. It was concluded that the clamp method should not be used to fit-test N95 filtering facepieces or otherwise assess respirator performance. PMID:12908863

  18. MANUAL FOR THE EVALUATION OF LABORATORIES PERFORMING AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes guidelines and standardized procedures for conducting on-site audits and evaluations of laboratories performing toxicity tests. ncluded are pre-survey information activities, on-site evaluation activities, evaluation criteria, organizational history and labo...

  19. Robust characterization of leakage errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallman, Joel J.; Barnhill, Marie; Emerson, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Leakage errors arise when the quantum state leaks out of some subspace of interest, for example, the two-level subspace of a multi-level system defining a computational ‘qubit’, the logical code space of a quantum error-correcting code, or a decoherence-free subspace. Leakage errors pose a distinct challenge to quantum control relative to the more well-studied decoherence errors and can be a limiting factor to achieving fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we present a scalable and robust randomized benchmarking protocol for quickly estimating the leakage rate due to an arbitrary Markovian noise process on a larger system. We illustrate the reliability of the protocol through numerical simulations.

  20. Leakage currents in SOI MOSFETS

    SciTech Connect

    Annamala, N.K.; Biwer, M.C.

    1988-12-01

    Total dose response of both NMOS and PMOS FETs fabricated on SOI substrates was studied. Two types of back-channel leakage currents were identified. A back-channel leakage due to MOSFET action uses the substrate bias as the gate bias. The other component is due to soft reverse characteristics of the body-drain junction. The back-channel leakage due to MOSFET action varies with the substrate bias and hence varies with irradiation due to threshold voltage shift. The soft reverse characteristics are a function of drain-body voltage and hence vary with substrate bias and irradiation. I-V characteristics and subthreshold currents of both front and back channels as a function of total dose were obtained.

  1. Test and evaluation capabilities at NAVELEXCEN Charleston

    SciTech Connect

    Stalvey, T.W.; Anderson, G.B.; Hinson, T.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Systems and Instrumentation Engineering Department is located within the Special Programs Directorate of the Naval Electronic Systems Engineering Center (NAVELEXCEN Charleston). This Center is an echelon 4 Command under the Naval Command Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, San Diego (NCCOSC). NCCOSC is an echelon 3 Command under the Space and Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) which is located in Washington DC. Radiation Detection, Indication and Computation (RDIAC) equipment life-cycle management for the entire Navy falls under the auspices of the Naval Sea Systems Command (SEA 04R). The RADIAC Program provides centralized management for the execution of research, development, test, evaluation, maintenance, procurement, allowance, and equipment support for all Navy RADIAC instrumentation and assigned special monitoring equipments. RADIAC equipment is used throughout the Navy to support various functions associated with radioactivity, potential contamination, and personnel exposure to sources of ionizing radiation. Common sources in today`s Navy include nuclear reactors, nuclear weapons, industrial radiography, and nuclear medicine. Types of radiation includes gamma, x-ray, alpha, and beta.

  2. Field size dependent mapping of medical linear accelerator radiation leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vũ Bezin, Jérémi; Veres, Attila; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Deutsch, Eric; de Vathaire, Florent; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a graphics library based model for the assessment of linear accelerator radiation leakage. Transmission through the shielding elements was evaluated using the build-up factor corrected exponential attenuation law and the contribution from the electron guide was estimated using the approximation of a linear isotropic radioactive source. Model parameters were estimated by a fitting series of thermoluminescent dosimeter leakage measurements, achieved up to 100 cm from the beam central axis along three directions. The distribution of leakage data at the patient plane reflected the architecture of the shielding elements. Thus, the maximum leakage dose was found under the collimator when only one jaw shielded the primary beam and was about 0.08% of the dose at isocentre. Overall, we observe that the main contributor to leakage dose according to our model was the electron beam guide. Concerning the discrepancies between the measurements used to calibrate the model and the calculations from the model, the average difference was about 7%. Finally, graphics library modelling is a readily and suitable way to estimate leakage dose distribution on a personal computer. Such data could be useful for dosimetric evaluations in late effect studies.

  3. TESTING AND EVALUATION IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NELSON, CLARENCE H.

    THIS REPORT OF THE CUEBS PANEL ON EDUCATION AND TESTING SERVES AS A RESOURCE FOR THE INSTRUCTOR PREPARING COURSE EXAMINATIONS. THE MAJOR TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE PROCEDURES IN PREPARING AN ACHIEVEMENT TEST, (2) THE CATEGORIZATION AND CODING OF TEST ITEMS, AND (3) THE ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF VARIOUS TESTING PROCEDURES. OVER 1300 OBJECTIVE…

  4. Evaluating Criterion-referenced Tests. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.

    Criterion-referenced tests (CRTs) are constructed to permit the interpretation of examinee tests performance in relation to a set of well-defined competencies. CRTs are currently used extensively in schools, industry, and the armed services because they provide valuable and different information from norm-referenced tests. Test publishers, school…

  5. Surveillance systems test and evaluation facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jere J.; Dawbarn, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    In January of 1983, a team was formed to explore test methodologies and test facility concepts required to meet the needs of space-based surveillance systems. The output of this study was a road map of test methodologies and test facilities that will aid the development of this country's critical space-based sensor assets. A condensation of those results is given.

  6. 76 FR 27016 - Evaluating Test Procedures for Voting Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Evaluating Test Procedures for Voting Systems AGENCY... assess NIST's test procedures for voting equipment. Manufacturers interested in participating in this... for certification) by the Election Assistance Commission to develop and assess NIST test protocols...

  7. Test techniques for evaluating flight displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Newman, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid development of graphics technology allows for greater flexibility in aircraft displays, but display evaluation techniques have not kept pace. Historically, display evaluation has been based on subjective opinion and not on the actual aircraft/pilot performance. Existing electronic display specifications and evaluation techniques are reviewed. A display rating technique analogous to handling qualities ratings was developed and is recommended for future evaluations. The choice of evaluation pilots is also discussed and the use of a limited number of trained evaluators is recommended over the use of a large number of operational pilots.

  8. Sealing ability of MTA, CPM, and MBPc as root-end filling materials: a bacterial leakage study.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Paulo Leal; Bernardineli, Norberti; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Torres, Sérgio Aparecido; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Marciano, Marina Angélica

    2016-04-01

    Objectives To evaluate the sealing ability of three root-end filling materials (white MTA, CPM, and MBPc) using an Enterococcus faecalis leakage model. Material and Methods Seventy single-root extracted human teeth were instrumented and root-ends were resected to prepare 3 mm depth cavities. Root-end preparations were filled with white MTA, CPM, and MBPc cements. Enterococcus faecalis was coronally introduced and the apical portion was immersed in BHI culture medium with phenol red indicator. The bacterial leakage was monitored every 24 h for 4 weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-Gehan test (p<0.05). Results All cements showed bacterial leakage after 24 hours, except for the negative control group. The MBPc showed significantly less bacterial leakage compared with the MTA group (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between the CPM and the other groups. Conclusions The epoxy resin-based cement MBPc had lower bacterial leakage compared with the calcium silicate-based cements MTA and CPM. PMID:27119763

  9. Sealing ability of MTA, CPM, and MBPc as root-end filling materials: a bacterial leakage study

    PubMed Central

    MEDEIROS, Paulo Leal; BERNARDINELI, Norberti; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; TORRES, Sérgio Aparecido; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; MARCIANO, Marina Angélica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the sealing ability of three root-end filling materials (white MTA, CPM, and MBPc) using an Enterococcus faecalis leakage model. Material and Methods Seventy single-root extracted human teeth were instrumented and root-ends were resected to prepare 3 mm depth cavities. Root-end preparations were filled with white MTA, CPM, and MBPc cements. Enterococcus faecalis was coronally introduced and the apical portion was immersed in BHI culture medium with phenol red indicator. The bacterial leakage was monitored every 24 h for 4 weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-Gehan test (p<0.05). Results All cements showed bacterial leakage after 24 hours, except for the negative control group. The MBPc showed significantly less bacterial leakage compared with the MTA group (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between the CPM and the other groups. Conclusions The epoxy resin-based cement MBPc had lower bacterial leakage compared with the calcium silicate-based cements MTA and CPM. PMID:27119763

  10. Time Prediction Model for Pipeline Leakage Based on Grey Relational Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Kang; Zhi-Hong, Zou

    Water leakage management is required for urban water supply industry to minimize water loss and yield good economic benefit. There are many factors that influence urban pipeline leakage. To study these pipeline leakage factors, Grey relational analysis(GRA) is proposed to analyze and evaluate all the factors and draw a order of factors influencing on pipeline leakage. According to the order, a prediction model on some important factors is set up for the leakage by means of the multiple linear regress analysis and the prediction was made for the initial leakage time after the supply networks came into use. It will contribute to the change of passive management mode in water supply industry, so that the leakage can be prevented and controlled as early as possible.

  11. Automated Detection of Leakage in Fluorescein Angiography Images with Application to Malarial Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yitian; J. C. MacCormick, Ian; G. Parry, David; Leach, Sophie; A. V. Beare, Nicholas; P. Harding, Simon; Zheng, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The detection and assessment of leakage in retinal fluorescein angiogram images is important for the management of a wide range of retinal diseases. We have developed a framework that can automatically detect three types of leakage (large focal, punctate focal, and vessel segment leakage) and validated it on images from patients with malarial retinopathy. This framework comprises three steps: vessel segmentation, saliency feature generation and leakage detection. We tested the effectiveness of this framework by applying it to images from 20 patients with large focal leak, 10 patients with punctate focal leak, and 5,846 vessel segments from 10 patients with vessel leakage. The sensitivity in detecting large focal, punctate focal and vessel segment leakage are 95%, 82% and 81%, respectively, when compared to manual annotation by expert human observers. Our framework has the potential to become a powerful new tool for studying malarial retinopathy, and other conditions involving retinal leakage. PMID:26030010

  12. Test definitions for the evaluation of infrasound sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, Richard Paul; Hart, Darren M.; Harris, James Mark

    2007-07-01

    Most test methodologies referenced in this Test Definition and Test Procedures were designed by Sandia specifically for geophysical instrumentation evaluation. When appropriate, test instrumentation calibration is traceable to the National Institute for Standards Technology (NIST). The objectives are to evaluate the overall technical performance of the infrasound sensor. The results of these evaluations can be compared to the manufacturer's specifications and any relevant application requirements or specifications.

  13. Alternatives for evaluating daughter performance of progeny-test bulls between official evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August 2007, USDA changed from calculating official genetic evaluations quarterly to triannually to coincide with the schedule for international evaluations. Industry cooperators requested that unofficial interim evaluations be initiated between official evaluations for progeny-test (PT) bulls to...

  14. Air-leakage control manual

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, J.

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the ``how and why`` of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the ``Simple Caulk and Seal`` (SIMPLE{center_dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center_dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  15. Air-Leakage Control Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Jim; Washington State Energy Office; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the how and why'' of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the Simple Caulk and Seal'' (SIMPLE{center dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  16. Evaluation of sampling probes for fit testing n95 filtering facepiece respirators.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Michael S; Viscusi, Dennis J; Zhuang, Ziqing; Newcomb, William E

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a sampling probe bias for measuring fit factors (FFs) in respirator facepieces. This study was conducted to evaluate three sampling probes for fit testing NIOSH-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Two phases of fit test experiments were conducted incorporating 'side-by-side' probe mounting: (i) flush probe versus deep probe and (ii) flush probe versus disc probe. Seven test subjects in Phase 1 and six subjects in Phase 2 were fit tested with one to three N95 FFR models for a total of 10 subject/FFR model combinations for each phase. For each experimental condition, induced faceseal leakage (IFSL) through an induced leak was measured using a PORTACOUNT® Plus model 8020A Respirator Fit Tester with a model 8095 N95-Companion™ accessory. For Phase 1, the mean IFSL of all flush probe measurements (3.6%) was significantly greater than (P < 0.05) the mean IFSL of all deep probe measurements (3.3%). For Phase 2, the mean IFSL of all flush probe measurements (8.5%) was not significantly greater than (P > 0.05) the mean IFSL of all disc probe measurements (8.3%). Results indicate that some leak site and subject/FFR model/leak site combination comparisons (flush probe versus deep probe or flush probe versus disc probe) were statistically different (P < 0.05). The overall mean IFSL for subject/FFR model/leak site combinations differed by 14 and 4% for the flush probe versus deep probe and the flush probe versus disc probe, respectively; however, from a practical standpoint, there is little difference between the flush probe tests compared with the deep probe or disc probe tests. Overall, IFSL measured using the flush probe is higher (resulting in a more conservative measure of faceseal leakage) compared with either the deep probe or disc probe. The more conservative results obtained using the flush probe provide support for its common usage for fit testing cup-shaped FFRs in the USA and potential use for fit testing FFRs in

  17. Decreased leakage rate of colonic anastomoses by tachosil coating: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic coating has been proposed as a means to lower the leakage rate. Prior to clinical testing, coating materials need thorough experimental evaluation to ensure safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate Tachosil as an anastomotic coating agent. Technically insufficient colon anastomoses were created in 80 C57BL/6 mice, and in half of the animals the anastomoses were covered with Tachosil. The animals were examined for clinical signs of anastomotic leakage, and the breaking strength of the anastomoses was evaluated. The number of leakages was reduced by Tachosil coating (10/40 versus 20/40 in controls; P=0.037). However, more cases of large bowel obstruction were found in the Tachosil group (12/40 versus 0/40 in controls; P<0.0005). Breaking strength was comparable between the Tachosil and control groups (0.49 N versus 0.52 N, respectively; P=0.423). Clinical studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of Tachosil anastomotic coating. PMID:25058765

  18. The effect of base/liner use on restoration leakage.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Marshall, K R; Holman, B G

    2006-01-01

    Central to the success of a restoration is the quality of the restoration-dentin interfacial seal; any compromise of the seal can lead to secondary or recurrent decay. Class V restorations have a high leakage propensity and this study evaluates the effect of base/liner placement on leakage behavior. Class V intracoronal half enamel/half dentin preparations (3.0 x 2.0 x 2.0 mm) were cut in four groups (n = 10) of extracted human teeth with a new bur used for each cavity preparation. All teeth were single-rooted, single-canal anterior teeth. Base/liner usage differed between each group. The first group of teeth had no liner or base, while a liner was placed in the second group of teeth prior to conditioning and restoration. A base was placed in the third group of cavity preparations and both the base and liner were placed in the fourth group. After preparation, a small diameter bare-end PVC-insulated copper wire was inserted within the root canal of each tooth from the apex to firm contact with the pulp chamber roof. The tooth-wire interface and root surface was sealed and leakage was followed electrochemically for 35 days in 0.9% NaCl solution. All of the teeth leaked to some degree; however, teeth that were restored without liner or base demonstrated the smallest amount of leakage. The greatest leakage was noted in teeth restored with both a base and a liner; teeth restored with only a base showed greater leakage than those restored with only a liner. The findings indicate that the presence of a base and/or a liner results in greater leakage compared with intracoronal Class V preparations that were conditioned and restored only. The data suggest that placing both a base and a liner increases restoration leakage significantly. PMID:16689065

  19. Evaluating Metal Probe Meters for Soil Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Inexpensive metal probe meters that are sold by garden stores can be evaluated by students for their accuracy in measuring soil pH, moisture, fertility, and salinity. The author concludes that the meters are inaccurate and cannot be calibrated in standard units. However, the student evaluations are useful in learning the methods of soil analysis…

  20. A Method of Evaluating Shorthand Dictation Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallion, Leona M.; Kavan, C. Bruce

    In order to determine whether students transcribe the same number of words regardless of the speed of the dictation, dictation tests were administered to students enrolled in beginning Gregg shorthand at the secondary level. Test batteries were administered at three different times throughout the first semester of shorthand instruction. The…

  1. Empirical Evaluation of Directional-Dependence Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoemmes, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Testing of directional dependence is a method to infer causal direction that recently has attracted some attention. Previous examples by e.g. von Eye and DeShon (2012a) and extensive simulation studies by Pornprasertmanit and Little (2012) have demonstrated that under specific assumptions, directional-dependence tests can recover the true causal…

  2. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Dhiman, Radha K; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-04-01

    Incidentally detected abnormality in liver function tests is a common situation encountered by physicians across all disciplines. Many of these patients do not have primary liver disease as most of the commonly performed markers are not specific for the liver and are affected by myriad factors unrelated to liver disease. Also, many of these tests like liver enzyme levels do not measure the function of the liver, but are markers of liver injury, which is broadly of two types: hepatocellular and cholestatic. A combination of a careful history and clinical examination along with interpretation of pattern of liver test abnormalities can often identify type and aetiology of liver disease, allowing for a targeted investigation approach. Severity of liver injury is best assessed by composite scores like the Model for End Stage Liver Disease rather than any single parameter. In this review, we discuss the interpretation of the routinely performed liver tests along with the indications and utility of quantitative tests. PMID:26842972

  3. Test-Ease: An Innovative Evaluation Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bill; And Others

    1976-01-01

    With the aid of funds received through a Title III ESEA, Section 306 grant, the San Juan Board of Cooperative Services (Colorado) has developed a system to aid teachers in evaluating their students. (Author)

  4. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square... shall remain applied at least 5 minutes. (d) Leakage from control air reservoir, related piping,...

  5. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square... shall remain applied at least 5 minutes. (d) Leakage from control air reservoir, related piping,...

  6. Strip cell test and evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The performance characteristics of alkaline fuel cells to be used for space power systems were tested. Endurance tests were conducted on the cells during energy conversion operations. A feature of the cells fabricated and tested was the capability to evaporate the product water formed during the energy conversion reaction directly to space vacuum. A fuel cell powerplant incorporating these cells does not require a condenser and a hydrogen recirculating pump water separator to remove the product water. This simplified the fuel cell powerplant system, reduced the systems weight, and reduced the systems parasite power.

  7. Intermediate load modules for test and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic modules were tested for qualification. Tests involved the following: (1) delivery of 20 solar cells for use as reference cells; (2) module documentation and inspection plans specifying the 10 Group I modules; (3) design review of module documentation from Group I modules; (4) revise module documentation to overcome any problems of deficiencies associated with the Group I modules; (5) delivery of 10 Group II modules built to revised specifications; (6) testing of Group II modules to the criteria as outlined in qualification specification. It is found that the solarvolt MSP43E40B satisfies the design criteria of qualification specification for intermediate load modules. Design changes were made in the Group I modules to overcome the deficiencies which allowed Group II modules to pass the qualification tests.

  8. Tests evaluate equipment to locate subsea lines

    SciTech Connect

    Bickham, K.L.

    1988-06-06

    Field tests of four pipe-locating sensors in the Gulf of Mexico indicate that a magnetic gradiometer array (GA) positioned by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) can locate either buried or exposed pipelines in water as deep at 900 m (2,952 ft). The tests further led to recommendations for improvements in deploying equipment and operational procedures, especially for use in seas up to 2 m.

  9. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  10. "Geyser" leakage on fluorescein angiography.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jaime; Fagan, Xavier J; Lifshitz, Tova; Schneck, Marina

    2013-01-01

    An 82-year-old patient with diabetes was followed up due to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema in the right eye. Visual acuity was 6/36. Focal macular laser was conducted (A). Three years later, the patient presented with blurry vision in the right eye. Visual acuity was 3/60. Vitreous hemorrhage was observed (B), and neovascularization of the disc was suspected (C). Fluorescein angiography (D, mid venous phase; E-F, recirculation phase) confirmed neovascularization of the disc and depicted a striking vertical leakage. Panretinal photocoagulation was started. Possible explanations for the "geyser" leakage may be either a partial posterior vitreous detachment allowing the fluorescein to track upwards but not elsewhere or a pocket of syneretic vitreous allowing the fluorescein passage in which to diffuse, much like the passage the blood would have taken. PMID:24548789

  11. Explosive materials equivalency, test methods and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koger, D. M.; Mcintyre, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to concepts of explosive equivalency of energetic materials based on specific airblast parameters. A description is provided of a wide bandwidth high accuracy instrumentation system which has been used extensively in obtaining pressure time profiles of energetic materials. The object of the considered test method is to determine the maximum output from the detonation of explosive materials in terms of airblast overpressure and positive impulse. The measured pressure and impulse values are compared with known characteristics of hemispherical TNT data to determine the equivalency of the test material in relation to TNT. An investigation shows that meaningful comparisons between various explosives and a standard reference material such as TNT should be based upon the same parameters. The tests should be conducted under the same conditions.

  12. An Evaluation of Saxon's Algebra Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale M.; Smith, Blaine

    1987-01-01

    John Saxon's incremental development model has been proclaimed as a superior teaching strategy for mathematics. This study evaluated the Saxon approach and textbook using 276 Algebra I students in experimental and control groups. The groups were compared in cognitive and affective areas. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  13. Laboratory testing for secondary osteoporosis evaluation.

    PubMed

    Adler, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Osteoporosis has been classified into primary and secondary forms. All patients with osteoporosis should have measurements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum and urine calcium, and some estimation of renal function. There are a wide variety of disorders that lead to secondary osteoporosis, and the tests that confirm these diagnoses are described herein. Making the specific diagnosis is important because treatment of the underlying condition may be sufficient to lessen fracture risk, although some patients may also need usual treatment for osteoporosis. Laboratory testing in addition to a careful history and physical examination will often lead to diagnoses of treatable conditions. PMID:22333732

  14. OCOD-CTTP Test Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorey, Leonard

    Tests in social studies and integrated science given in Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica were analyzed by the Organization for Co-operation in Overseas Development (OCOD) Comprehensive Teacher Training Program (CTTP) for discrimination, difficulty, and reliability, as well as other characteristics. There were 767 examinees for the…

  15. Interactive Test Analysis: Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipe, Gary

    An interactive test analysis system was developed which interfaces a 3M DATRONICS system with a XEROX Sigma 9 computer. The computer programs were written in A Programming Language (APL). The current implementation of the program is characterized by its capability to: read responses from a DATRONIC answer sheet; allow the faculty member the option…

  16. Evaluation of SSME test data reduction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Accurate prediction of hardware and flow characteristics within the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during transient and main-stage operation requires a significant integration of ground test data, flight experience, and computational models. The process of integrating SSME test measurements with physical model predictions is commonly referred to as data reduction. Uncertainties within both test measurements and simplified models of the SSME flow environment compound the data integration problem. The first objective of this effort was to establish an acceptability criterion for data reduction solutions. The second objective of this effort was to investigate the data reduction potential of the ROCETS (Rocket Engine Transient Simulation) simulation platform. A simplified ROCETS model of the SSME was obtained from the MSFC Performance Analysis Branch . This model was examined and tested for physical consistency. Two modules were constructed and added to the ROCETS library to independently check the mass and energy balances of selected engine subsystems including the low pressure fuel turbopump, the high pressure fuel turbopump, the low pressure oxidizer turbopump, the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, the fuel preburner, the oxidizer preburner, the main combustion chamber coolant circuit, and the nozzle coolant circuit. A sensitivity study was then conducted to determine the individual influences of forty-two hardware characteristics on fourteen high pressure region prediction variables as returned by the SSME ROCETS model.

  17. Evaluation of SSME test data reduction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1994-10-01

    Accurate prediction of hardware and flow characteristics within the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during transient and main-stage operation requires a significant integration of ground test data, flight experience, and computational models. The process of integrating SSME test measurements with physical model predictions is commonly referred to as data reduction. Uncertainties within both test measurements and simplified models of the SSME flow environment compound the data integration problem. The first objective of this effort was to establish an acceptability criterion for data reduction solutions. The second objective of this effort was to investigate the data reduction potential of the ROCETS (Rocket Engine Transient Simulation) simulation platform. A simplified ROCETS model of the SSME was obtained from the MSFC Performance Analysis Branch . This model was examined and tested for physical consistency. Two modules were constructed and added to the ROCETS library to independently check the mass and energy balances of selected engine subsystems including the low pressure fuel turbopump, the high pressure fuel turbopump, the low pressure oxidizer turbopump, the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, the fuel preburner, the oxidizer preburner, the main combustion chamber coolant circuit, and the nozzle coolant circuit. A sensitivity study was then conducted to determine the individual influences of forty-two hardware characteristics on fourteen high pressure region prediction variables as returned by the SSME ROCETS model.

  18. An Investigation of Tendon Corrosion-Inhibitor Leakage into Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.F.; Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1999-07-05

    During inspections performed at US nuclear power plants several years ago, some of the prestressed concrete containment had experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler. A study was conducted to indicate the extent of the leakage into the concrete and its potential effects on concrete properties. Concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant. Examination and testing of the core samples indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the surface was due to leakage of the filler from the conduits and its subsequent migration to the concrete surface through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks with no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength tests indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased relative to the strength at 28 days age.

  19. Use of Soil-Gas, Gas Flux, and Ground-Water Monitoring to Evaluate Potential Leakage to Underground Sources of Drinking Water, the Atmosphere, and Buildings during Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is widely acknowledged that leakage through transmissive faults (and associated fractures) and well penetrations (operational, non-operational, and abandoned wells) are the most likely pathways for migration out of a storage formation at sites selected for geological sequestra...

  20. Hydrophobic cyanine dye-doped micelles for optical in vivo imaging of plasma leakage and vascular disruption.

    PubMed

    Botz, Bálint; Bölcskei, Kata; Kemény, Ágnes; Sándor, Zoltán; Tékus, Valéria; Sétáló, György; Csepregi, Janka; Mócsai, Attila; Pintér, Erika; Kollár, László; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    Vascular leakage is an important feature of various disease conditions. In vivo optical imaging provides a great opportunity for the evaluation of this phenomenon. In the present study, we focus on the development and validation of a near-infrared (NIR) imaging formula to allow reliable, cost-efficient evaluation of vascular leakage in diverse species using the existing small-animal fluorescence imaging technology. IR-676, a moderately hydrophobic NIR cyanine dye, was doped into self-assembling aqueous micelles using a widely employed and safe nonionic emulsifier (Kolliphor HS 15), and was tested in several acute and chronic inflammatory disease models in both mice and rats. The imaging formula is stable and exerts no acute toxic effects in vitro. It accumulated specifically in the inflamed regions in all models, which could be demonstrated by both conventional epifluorescence imaging, and fluorescence tomography both as a standalone technique and also by merging it with computed tomography scans. Ex vivo verification of dye accumulation by confocal fluorescence microscopy was also possible. The present formula allows sensitive and specific detection of inflammatory plasma leakage in diverse models. Its potential for imaging larger animals was also demonstrated. IR-676-doped micelles offer an excellent opportunity to image inflammatory vascular leakage in various models and species. PMID:25629290

  1. Hydrophobic cyanine dye-doped micelles for optical in vivo imaging of plasma leakage and vascular disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botz, Bálint; Bölcskei, Kata; Kemény, Ágnes; Sándor, Zoltán; Tékus, Valéria; Sétáló, György, Jr.; Csepregi, Janka; Mócsai, Attila; Pintér, Erika; Kollár, László; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    Vascular leakage is an important feature of various disease conditions. In vivo optical imaging provides a great opportunity for the evaluation of this phenomenon. In the present study, we focus on the development and validation of a near-infrared (NIR) imaging formula to allow reliable, cost-efficient evaluation of vascular leakage in diverse species using the existing small-animal fluorescence imaging technology. IR-676, a moderately hydrophobic NIR cyanine dye, was doped into self-assembling aqueous micelles using a widely employed and safe nonionic emulsifier (Kolliphor HS 15), and was tested in several acute and chronic inflammatory disease models in both mice and rats. The imaging formula is stable and exerts no acute toxic effects in vitro. It accumulated specifically in the inflamed regions in all models, which could be demonstrated by both conventional epifluorescence imaging, and fluorescence tomography both as a standalone technique and also by merging it with computed tomography scans. Ex vivo verification of dye accumulation by confocal fluorescence microscopy was also possible. The present formula allows sensitive and specific detection of inflammatory plasma leakage in diverse models. Its potential for imaging larger animals was also demonstrated. IR-676-doped micelles offer an excellent opportunity to image inflammatory vascular leakage in various models and species.

  2. "Authenticity" in Language Testing: Evaluating Spoken Language Tests for International Teaching Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekje, Barbara; Linnell, Kimberly

    1994-01-01

    Bachman's framework of language testing and standard of authenticity for language testing instruments were used to evaluate three instruments--the SPEAK (Spoken Proficiency English Assessment Kit) test, OPI (Oral Proficiency Interview), and a performance test--as language tests for nonnative-English-speaking teaching assistants. (Contains 53…

  3. In vitro leakage susceptibility of tracheoesophageal shunt prostheses in the absence and presence of a biofilm.

    PubMed

    Oosterhof, Janine J H; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Free, Rolien H; Kaper, Hans J; van Weissenbruch, Ranny; Albers, Frans W J

    2005-04-01

    Although leakage through a tracheoesophageal shunt prosthesis is the main cause of prosthesis failure in a laryngectomy patient, this has never been the subject of in vitro evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare three commercially available voice prostheses by comparison of their in vitro leakage patterns, in absence or presence of a biofilm. To compare in vitro leakage patterns, a model comprised of an artificial throat equipped with a single prosthesis coupled to a water reservoir was developed. By varying the height of the water reservoir, different pressures on the voice prosthesis can be obtained. Both in absence and presence of a biofilm, the Blom Singer voice prosthesis demonstrated the lowest leakage, followed by Groningen Low Resistance. The Provox2 showed significantly the most leakage, however, in presence of a biofilm the leakage of the Provox2 significantly decreased. Regular airflow during biofilm formation significantly increased leakage through the Provox2. Out of 746 clinical replacements, Provox2 showed 76% and Groningen Low Resistance 57% replacements due to leakage. The model used in this study showed significant differences in leakage of the three types of voice prostheses used. Leakage occurred more readily through Provox2 than through Groningen Low Resistance and Blom Singer prostheses, which is in line with clinical observations and enforces the model. PMID:15660395

  4. Evaluation of 2D multiband EPI imaging for high-resolution, whole-brain, task-based fMRI studies at 3T: Sensitivity and slice leakage artifacts.

    PubMed

    Todd, Nick; Moeller, Steen; Auerbach, Edward J; Yacoub, Essa; Flandin, Guillaume; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that require high-resolution whole-brain coverage have long scan times that are primarily driven by the large number of thin slices acquired. Two-dimensional multiband echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences accelerate the data acquisition along the slice direction and therefore represent an attractive approach to such studies by improving the temporal resolution without sacrificing spatial resolution. In this work, a 2D multiband EPI sequence was optimized for 1.5mm isotropic whole-brain acquisitions at 3T with 10 healthy volunteers imaged while performing simultaneous visual and motor tasks. The performance of the sequence was evaluated in terms of BOLD sensitivity and false-positive activation at multiband (MB) factors of 1, 2, 4, and 6, combined with in-plane GRAPPA acceleration of 2× (GRAPPA 2), and the two reconstruction approaches of Slice-GRAPPA and Split Slice-GRAPPA. Sensitivity results demonstrate significant gains in temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) and t-score statistics for MB 2, 4, and 6 compared to MB 1. The MB factor for optimal sensitivity varied depending on anatomical location and reconstruction method. When using Slice-GRAPPA reconstruction, evidence of false-positive activation due to signal leakage between simultaneously excited slices was seen in one instance, 35 instances, and 70 instances over the ten volunteers for the respective accelerations of MB 2×GRAPPA 2, MB 4×GRAPPA 2, and MB 6×GRAPPA 2. The use of Split Slice-GRAPPA reconstruction suppressed the prevalence of false positives significantly, to 1 instance, 5 instances, and 5 instances for the same respective acceleration factors. Imaging protocols using an acceleration factor of MB 2×GRAPPA 2 can be confidently used for high-resolution whole-brain imaging to improve BOLD sensitivity with very low probability for false-positive activation due to slice leakage. Imaging protocols using higher acceleration factors (MB 3 or MB 4

  5. Evaluation of a shorter methionine loading test.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Robert; Griffioen, Pieter H; van Zelst, Bertrand; Brouns, R Montserrate; Visser, Willy; Lindemans, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We validated whether a shorter methionine loading test is as accurate as the original 6-h test in identifying hyperhomocysteinemic patients and investigated determinants of fasting and post-load homocysteine concentration. Plasma homocysteine was determined in EDTA-blood from women with a history of pre-eclampsia (n=106) after 12 h fasting and 3 and 6 h after an oral methionine load (0.1 g/kg body weight). The 677C>T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and creatinine were measured as determinants of homocysteine concentration. Good correlation and agreement between 3-h and 6-h plasma concentration of post-load (r=0.93, Kendall's tau-b=0.85) and delta (post-load minus the fasting value; r=0.90, Kendall's tau-b=0.79) homocysteine was observed and gross misclassification did not occur after division of 3-h and 6-h homocysteine scores into quartiles. Multiple linear regression revealed MTHFR 677 TT (p=0.01), folate (p=0.04) and vitamin B12 (p=0.06) as determinants of fasting homocysteine concentration; only MTHFR 677TT was related to 3-h (p=0.04) and 6-h (p=0.004) post-load homocysteine concentration. The MTHFR 677TT genotype resulted in >30% higher fasting and 3-h and 6-h post-load homocysteine concentrations compared to the wild-type CC genotype. This study shows that the 3-h methionine loading test is as good as the 6-h methionine loading test in identifying hyperhomocysteinemic patients. Furthermore, remethylation parameters (MTHFR 677C>T) strongly affect both fasting and post-load homocysteine. PMID:15497468

  6. Pumping test evaluation of stream depletion parameters.

    PubMed

    Lough, Hilary K; Hunt, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions are given of a pumping test and a corresponding analysis that permit calculation of all five hydrogeological parameters appearing in the Hunt (2003) solution for stream depletion caused by ground water abstraction from a well beside a stream. This solution assumes that flow in the pumped aquifer is horizontal, flow in the overlying aquitard or system of aquitards is vertical, and the free surface in the top aquitard is allowed to draw down. The definition of an aquitard in this paper is any layer with a vertical hydraulic conductivity much lower than the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the pumped aquifer. These "aquitards" may be reasonably permeable layers but are distinguished from the pumped aquifer by their hydraulic conductivity contrast. The pumping test requires a complete set of drawdown measurements from at least one observation well. This well must be deep enough to penetrate the pumped aquifer, and pumping must continue for a sufficient time to ensure that depleted streamflow becomes a significant portion of the well abstraction rate. Furthermore, two of the five parameters characterize an aquitard that overlies the pumped aquifer, and values for these parameters are seen to be dependent upon the initial water table elevation in the aquitard. The field test analyzed herein used a total of eight observation wells screened in the pumped aquifer, and measurements from these wells gave eight sets of parameters that are used in a sensitivity analysis to determine the relative importance of each parameter in the stream depletion calculations. PMID:16857031

  7. Evaluation and testing of computed radiography systems.

    PubMed

    Charnock, P; Connolly, P A; Hughes, D; Moores, B M

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of film replacement digital radiographic imaging systems throughout Europe is now gathering momentum. Such systems create the foundations for totally digital departments of radiology, since radiographic examinations constitute the most prevalent modality. Although this type of development will lead to improvements in the delivery and management of radiological service, such widespread implementation of new technology must be carefully monitored. The implementation of effective QA tests on installation, at periodic intervals and as part of a routine programme will aid this process. This paper presents the results of commissioning tests undertaken on a number of computed radiography imaging systems provided by different manufacturers. The aim of these tests was not only to provide baseline performance measurements against which subsequent measurements can be compared but also to explore any differences in performance, which might exist between different units. Results of measurements will be presented for (1) monitor and laser printer set-up; (2) imaging plates, including sensitivity, consistency and uniformity; (3) resolution and contrast detectability; and (4) signal and noise performance. Results from the latter are analysed in relationship with both system and quantum noise components. PMID:15933109

  8. Foucault test: a quantitative evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Gustavo; Villa, Jesús; Ivanov, Rumen; González, Efrén; Martínez, Geminiano

    2016-08-01

    Reliable and accurate testing methods are essential to guiding the polishing process during the figuring of optical telescope mirrors. With the natural advancement of technology, the procedures and instruments used to carry out this delicate task have consistently increased in sensitivity, but also in complexity and cost. Fortunately, throughout history, the Foucault knife-edge test has shown the potential to measure transverse aberrations in the order of the wavelength, mainly when described in terms of physical theory, which allows a quantitative interpretation of its characteristic shadowmaps. Our previous publication on this topic derived a closed mathematical formulation that directly relates the knife-edge position with the observed irradiance pattern. The present work addresses the quite unexplored problem of the wavefront's gradient estimation from experimental captures of the test, which is achieved by means of an optimization algorithm featuring a proposed ad hoc cost function. The partial derivatives thereby calculated are then integrated by means of a Fourier-based algorithm to retrieve the mirror's actual surface profile. To date and to the best of our knowledge, this is the very first time that a complete mathematical-grounded treatment of this optical phenomenon is presented, complemented by an image-processing algorithm which allows a quantitative calculation of the corresponding slope at any given point of the mirror's surface, so that it becomes possible to accurately estimate the aberrations present in the analyzed concave device just through its associated foucaultgrams. PMID:27505659

  9. Extensive CO2 Leakage From Extinct and Modern CO2 Reservoirs in New Mexico and Arizona: Evaluating the Role of Seal Bypass and Large-Volume Travertine Deposition With Implications For CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priewisch, A.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Mozley, P.

    2014-12-01

    Quaternary large-volume travertine deposits in New Mexico and Arizona occur along the Rio Grande rift and on the southeastern Colorado Plateau. Travertines are natural analogues for CO2 leakage along fault systems because they form due to the degassing of CO2 from carbonic groundwater that migrates up fault systems. Travertine volumes can be used to infer integrated CO2 leakage along faults, which includes: (1) CO2 that becomes fixed in CaCO3/travertine (tons of carbon converted into tons of carbonate), (2) the amount of CO2 that degassed into the atmosphere (twice the amount of (1), based on reaction stoichiometry), (3) dissolved CO2 that is carried away with the water discharging from a spring (based on modern spring discharge and dissolved carbon content), and (4) CO2 that escapes through the soil (based on modern soil flux measurements). The total CO2 leakage (1 and 2) calculated in this study is estimated as ~6 Gt (gigatons) whereas the integrated CO2 leakage (1-4) is estimated as ~128 Gt over ~450,000 years of travertine accumulation. U-series dating of the travertines shows that the deposits formed episodically which implies that CO2 leakage occurred episodically. Better understanding of integrated CO2 leakage along fault systems is needed to better constrain global estimates of natural CO2 fluxes, and to help in risk assessment of CO2 sequestration sites designed to effectively store anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface.

  10. 40 CFR 610.25 - Evaluation of test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 610.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Analysis § 610.25 Evaluation of test data. Valid manufacturer-furnished test data will be evaluated with... effects on fuel economy, and on emissions, with statistical or other caveats as established by the...

  11. 40 CFR 610.25 - Evaluation of test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 610.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Analysis § 610.25 Evaluation of test data. Valid manufacturer-furnished test data will be evaluated with... effects on fuel economy, and on emissions, with statistical or other caveats as established by the...

  12. 40 CFR 610.25 - Evaluation of test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 610.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Analysis § 610.25 Evaluation of test data. Valid manufacturer-furnished test data will be evaluated with... effects on fuel economy, and on emissions, with statistical or other caveats as established by the...

  13. 30 CFR 14.3 - Observers at tests and evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Observers at tests and evaluations. 14.3 Section 14.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR...

  14. 30 CFR 14.3 - Observers at tests and evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observers at tests and evaluations. 14.3 Section 14.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR...

  15. 30 CFR 14.3 - Observers at tests and evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Observers at tests and evaluations. 14.3 Section 14.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR...

  16. 30 CFR 14.3 - Observers at tests and evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Observers at tests and evaluations. 14.3 Section 14.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR...

  17. 30 CFR 14.3 - Observers at tests and evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Observers at tests and evaluations. 14.3 Section 14.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR...

  18. Apical leakage of four endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Pommel, Ludovic; About, Imad; Pashley, David; Camps, Jean

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing properties of four root canal sealers. Forty-eight maxillary central incisors were instrumented with Profile rotary instruments. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12) and filled using lateral condensation with one of the four sealers: Sealapex, Pulp Canal Sealer, AH 26, and Ketac-Endo. The apical leakage was measured with a fluid filtration method and expressed as L s(-1) KPa(-1). The teeth filled with Sealapex displayed a higher apical leakage (8.42 +/- 4.2 10(-11) L s(-1) KPa(-1)) than those filled with AH 26 (2.10 +/- 1.39 10(-11) L s(-1) KPa(-1)), Pulp Canal Sealer (0.17 +/- 0.09 10(-11) L s(-1) KPa(-1)) or Ketac-Endo (0.32 +/- 0.24 10(-1) L s(-1) KPa(-1)) (p < 0.01). No statistically significant difference was found among AH 26, Pulp Canal Sealer, and Ketac-Endo. No correlation was found between the sealing efficiency of the four sealers and their adhesive properties recorded in a previous study. PMID:12669883

  19. Extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnan, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits was twofold: (1) To ascertain the long life capability of complementary MOS devices. (2) To assess the objectivity and reliability of various accelerated life test methods as an indication or prediction tool. In addition, the determination of a suitable life test sequence for these devices was of importance. Conclusions reached based on the parts tested and the test results obtained was that the devices were not acceptable.

  20. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C. ); Todosow, M. )

    1992-09-22

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized.

  1. Experimental Investigation of CO2 Trapping and Leakage Mechanisms in Deep Geologic Formations for Model Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, T. H.; Trevisan, L.; Agartan, E.; Vargas-Johnson, J.; Plampin, M. R.; Pini, R.; Pawar, R.; Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Zhou, Q.

    2014-12-01

    A fundamental and a comprehensive understanding of trapping and leakage processes will be of value to develop strategies for efficient and secure storage of CO2 in deep geologic formations and assess environmental and ecological risks associated with potential leakage. It is our contention that to make observations and collect data to obtain a fundamental understanding of how the natural formation heterogeneity manifested at all scales affects trapping is highly challenging or impossible to obtain in real field settings in deep geologic formations. A test scale intermediary between small laboratory columns and field scales that is referred to as "intermediate scale" provides an attractive alternative to investigate these processes under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Heterogeneities at all needed test scales can be designed using soils with known properties and experiments can be conducted under controlled conditions to obtain accurate data. Conducting intermediate scale laboratory experiments under ambient pressure and temperature conditions to understand the processes that occur in deep formations with very higher pressures and drastically different temperatures pose many challenges. This paper presents the approaches that were used to conduct multi-scale experiments from column to intermediate scale to understand the factors that contribute to capillary and dissolution trapping using surrogate fluids for supercritical CO2 and saline water combination. In addition, experiments were conducted in soil columns and two-dimensional tanks to study the effects of formation heterogeneity on CO2 gas evolution during leakage of water with dissolved CO2. The results from these experiments are presented to show how the new insights have helped to improve the conceptual understanding of effects of heterogeneity on CO2 trapping and leakage. This understanding has helped to improve numerical models that can be used to better engineer CO2 storage systems for permanence

  2. Experimental and numerical investigations on the leakage flow characteristics of labyrinth seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Wen, Kesong; Wang, Shizhu; Jiang, Shengke; Kong, Xianglin

    2013-07-01

    Experimental measurements and numerical simulations were conducted to analyze the leakage flow characteristics of the labyrinth seals in this work. Rotating seal test rig was used to measure the leakage flow rate of the labyrinth seals. The detailed leakage flow fields of the labyrinth seals at the experimental measurement conditions were investigated by solving three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and k- turbulent model. Effects of the pressure ratio and rotational speed on the leakage flow characteristics of labyrinth seals were studied using the experimental and numerical approaches. The obtained results show that the rotational speed has little influence on the leakage flow rate of the labyrinth seal. The leakage flow rate of the labyrinth seal linearly increase with increasing the pressure ratio at the same sealing clearance and rotational speed. The flow pattern of the labyrinth seal was also illustrated.

  3. Evaluation of the concept of pressure proof testing fuselage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Orringer, Oscar

    1991-01-01

    The FAA and NASA have recently completed independent technical evaluations of the concept of pressure proof testing the fuselage of commercial transport airplanes. The results of these evaluations are summarized. The objectives of the evaluations were to establish the potential benefit of the pressure proof test, to quantify the most desirable proof test pressure, and to quantify the required proof test interval. The focus of the evaluations was on multiple-site cracks extending from adjacent rivet holes of a typical fuselage longitudinal lap splice joint. The FAA and NASA do not support pressure proof testing the fuselage of aging commercial transport aircraft. The argument against proof testing is as follows: (1) a single proof test does not insure an indefinite life; therefore, the proof test must be repeated at regular intervals; (2) for a proof factor of 1.33, the required proof test interval must be below 300 flights to account for uncertainties in the evaluation; (3) conducting the proof test at a proof factor of 1.5 would considerably exceed the fuselage design limit load; therefore, it is not consistent with accepted safe practices; and (4) better safety can be assured by implementing enhanced nondestructive inspection requirements, and adequate reliability can be achieved by an inspection interval several times longer than the proof test interval.

  4. Test definitions for the evaluation of digital waveform recorders.

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, Richard Paul; Hart, Darren M.; Harris, James Mark

    2007-07-01

    This Test Definition for the Evaluation of Digitizing Waveform Recorders (DWR) defines the process that can be performed as part of the evaluation and testing of geophysical sensors, digitizers, sensor subsystems and geophysical station/array systems. The objectives are to (1) evaluate the overall technical performance of the DWR, measure the distortions introduced by the high resolution digitizers and provide a performance check of the internal calibrator if provided and (2) evaluate the technical performance of the DWR for a specific sensor application. The results of these evaluations can be compared to the manufacturer's specifications and any relevant application requirements or specifications.

  5. Evaluation of LLTR series II test A-7 results. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, D.E.; Amos, J.C.; Yang, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    This report evaluates the test A-7 data and assesses the capability of the analytical methodology (as a result of Series I program) to predict the thermal/hydraulic phenomena associated with a large SWR event occurring after the sodium system pressure has increased to near the rupture disc burst pressure due to a smaller size leak event. Evaluation of intertest examination data to determine the extent of test article damage resulting from test A-7 is also included.

  6. Leakage neutron radiation in a medical electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, Lydia; Balcazar, Miguel; Genis, Roberto; Ortiz, Raúl

    2001-10-01

    A simple method was used for the calculation of neutron yield produced by main components of medical electron accelerator head, using a simplified geometric model with spherical-shell for the head shielding made of different materials. The leakage neutron radiation on the patient plane and outside the patient plane at one meter from the x-ray target for a Varian accelerator model Clinac 2100C was evaluated experimentally, using Panasonic UD-802 and UD-809 thermoluminescent dosimeters and CR-39 nuclear track dosimeters. The measured values of leakage neutron radiation were lower than the limits specified in the NCRP-102 and IEC 60601-2-1-Ed.2.0 reports.

  7. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jung Suk Lee, Hae Giu Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

  8. Handbook of test methods for evaluating chemical deicers

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelow, C.C.; McElroy, A.D.; Blackburn, R.R.; Darwin, D.; de Noyelles, F.G.

    1992-11-01

    The handbook contains a structured selection of specific test methods for complete characterization of deicing chemicals. Sixty-two specific test methods are defined for the evaluation of chemical deicers in eight principal property performance areas: (1) physicochemical characteristics; (2) deicing performance; (3) compatibility with bare and coated metals; (4) compatibility with metals in concrete; (5) compatibility with concrete and nonmetals; (6) engineering parameters; (7) ecological effects; and (8) health and safety aspects. The 62 specific chemical deicer test methods are composed of 12 primary and 50 supplementary test methods. The primary test methods, which were developed for conducting the more important evaluations, are identified in the report.

  9. Integrated test evaluation decision framework for the Yucca Moutain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, B.R.; Hoxie, D.T.; Mattson, S.R.; Younker, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    An Integrated Test Evaluation decision framework and computer model were developed to help prioritize site-characterization tests at Yucca Mountain. An initial application of the framework evaluated studies described in the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan. Priorities were based on the ability of tests to detect unsuitable site conditions, to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements, and to build confidence and support within the scientific community. Testing costs were also considered. Results showed priorities to depend most on estimates of the abilities of tests to build scientific confidence and least on estimates of the ability to detect unsuitable site conditions.

  10. Test and evaluation of a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report documents results of evaluation tests performed on components of commerical solar heating and hot water system. Subsystems tested include flat plate solar collector, energy transport module, and control panel. Tests conducted include snow and wind loads, flame spread, and smoke classification as well as solar heating operation.

  11. Evaluation of the Longeot Test of Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Charles R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated is the Longeot test, a paper and pencil test designed to measure various aspects of formal and concrete operational thought. Information from over 500 subjects (ages 17 to 20) indicated the test to be reliable and classifications from it correlated with classifications mode using Piagetian tasks. (DS)

  12. The Development and Evaluation of a Computerized Adaptive Testing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de-la-Torre, Roberto; Vispoel, Walter P.

    The development and preliminary evaluation of the Computerized Adaptive Testing System (CATSYS), a new testing package for IBM-compatible microcomputers, are described. CATSYS can be used to administer and score operational adaptive tests or to conduct on-line computer simulation studies. The package incorporates several innovative features,…

  13. Marking Strategies in Metacognition-Evaluated Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Ju; Ho, Rong-Guey; Yen, Yung-Chin

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of marking and metacognition-evaluated feedback (MEF) in computer-based testing (CBT) on student performance and review behavior. Marking is a strategy, in which students place a question mark next to a test item to indicate an uncertain answer. The MEF provided students with feedback on test results…

  14. Diagnosis and Tests: Evaluating a Fall or Risk of Falling

    MedlinePlus

    ... order blood and urine tests to check for things like electrolyte balance and the possibility of infection. You may also be evaluated using the “Get Up and Go” test, the Berg Balance Scale, or similar simple tests of mobility and balance. ...

  15. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF A FIELD TEST KIT FOR LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hach Lead-Trak(R) test kit for lead in water was tested in a laboratory evaluation. onsidered were: perator bias, precision, accuracy, linear calibration range, and potential drinking water interferences. nterferences tested were realistic levels off: a, Mg, Ni, Sb, Mn, Cd, C...

  16. Engineering evaluation of 24 channel multispectral scanner. [from flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambeck, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.

  17. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Ohigashi, N.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Imasaki, K.

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  18. Radio frequency leakage current from unipolar laparoscopic electrocoagulators.

    PubMed

    DiNovo, J A

    1983-09-01

    Radio frequency (RF) leakage current has been suspected of causing accidental tissue burns associated with laparoscopic electrocoagulation used for tubal sterilization. A study was done to determine the levels of capacitively coupled RF leakage current from six unipolar laparoscopes manufactured by five companies. Leakage current values ranging from less than 100 mA to over 550 mA were measured at electrosurgical unit power settings of up to 150 w into 1,000 ohms. These levels represent 24-62% of the total electrosurgical current generated by the electrosurgical units. Using a criterion for tissue injury of 100 mA/sq cm applied for ten seconds, leakage current levels exceeding 400 mA are capable of producing burns either at the abdominal wall or to internal organs that accidentally come into contact with the body of the laparoscope. One of the six devices tested had leakage current levels higher than 400 mA at power settings lower than 100 w. Capacitance measurements between the unipolar laparoscope body and the forceps ranged from 53 to 140 picofarads. PMID:6226780

  19. Measured effect of step axial location on labyrinth seal leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.L.; Rhode, D.L. )

    1992-12-01

    An advanced, finite volume code has been extensively used in a parametric design study of simple stepped seals, in order to ascertain a leakage-minimizing optimal design and test it, in conjunction with the baseline case of the wear-ring seal of a high pressure pump. It is found that a significant leakage effect arises from this shifting of the rotor and stator sealing surfaces; at extremely low rpm, a significant shaft speed effect occurs for the optimized design in some shaft locations. 3 refs.

  20. Measured effect of step axial location on labyrinth seal leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Rhode, D. L.

    1992-12-01

    An advanced, finite volume code has been extensively used in a parametric design study of simple stepped seals, in order to ascertain a leakage-minimizing optimal design and test it, in conjunction with the baseline case of the wear-ring seal of a high pressure pump. It is found that a significant leakage effect arises from this shifting of the rotor and stator sealing surfaces; at extremely low rpm, a significant shaft speed effect occurs for the optimized design in some shaft locations.

  1. Measured effect of step axial location on labyrinth seal leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Rhode, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    An advanced, finite volume code has been extensively used in a parametric design study of simple stepped seals, in order to ascertain a leakage-minimizing optimal design and test it, in conjunction with the baseline case of the wear-ring seal of a high pressure pump. It is found that a significant leakage effect arises from this shifting of the rotor and stator sealing surfaces; at extremely low rpm, a significant shaft speed effect occurs for the optimized design in some shaft locations.

  2. Test methods for evaluating reformulated fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Croudace, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced regulations in the 1989 Clean Air Act Amendment governing the reformulation of gasoline and diesel fuels to improve air quality. These statutes drove the need for a fast and accurate method for analyzing product composition, especially aromatic and oxygenate content. The current method, gas chromatography, is slow, expensive, non portable, and requires a trained chemist to perform the analysis. The new mid-infrared spectroscopic method uses light to identify and quantify the different components in fuels. Each individual fuel component absorbs a specific wavelength of light depending on the molecule`s unique chemical structure. The quantity of light absorbed is proportional to the concentration of that fuel component in the mixture. The mid-infrared instrument has significant advantages; it is easy to use, rugged, portable, fully automated and cost effective. It can be used to measure multiple oxygenate or aromatic components in unknown fuel mixtures. Regulatory agencies have begun using this method in field compliance testing; petroleum refiners and marketers use it to monitor compliance, product quality and blending accuracy.

  3. Evaluation of Apoptosis in Immunotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu; Vakharia, Dilip; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunotoxicity testing is important in determining the toxic effects of chemical substances, medicinal products, airborne pollutants, cosmetics, medical devices, and food additives. The immune system of the host is a direct target of these toxicants, and the adverse effects include serious health complications such as susceptibility to infections, cancer, allergic reactions, and autoimmune diseases. One way to investigate the harmful effects of different chemicals is to study apoptosis in immune cell populations. Apoptosis is defined as the programmed cell death, and in general, this process helps in development and maintains homeostasis. However, in the case of an insult by a toxicant, apoptosis of the immune cells can lead to immunosuppression resulting in the development of cancer and the inability to fight infections. Apoptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, changes in cell membrane and mitochondria, DNA fragmentation into 200 base oligomers, and protein degradation by caspases. Various methods are employed in order to investigate apoptosis. These methods include direct measurement of apoptotic cells with flow cytometry and in situ labeling, as well as RNA, DNA, and protein assays that are indicative of apoptotic molecules. PMID:19967519

  4. Development of a field test for evaluating aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Mikawa, K; Yano, Y; Senjyu, H

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproducibility and utility of a standardised and externally paced field test (15-m Incremental Shuttle Walk and Run Test [15 mISWRT]) to assess aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults. 14 middle-aged participants performed the 15-m ISWRT 3 times within one week (Test 1, Test 2, Test 3). Reproducibility of the 15-m ISWRT was tested by comparing 15-m ISWRT performance (distance completed), HRmax, and VO 2max for each test. The utility of the 15-m ISWRT for evaluating VO 2max over a wide range in middle-aged adults was tested by comparing the range of VO 2max obtained from the portable expired gas analyzer with the VO 2max reference values and ranges for health promotion published by Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. A multiple comparison of distance completed in the 15-m ISWRT Test 1, Test 2, and Test 3 found no significant difference between Test 2 and Test 3. The ICC was 0.99 for Test 2 vs. Test 3. VO 2max measured from the 15-m ISWRT in Test 3 had a minimum value of 22.8 ml/kg/min and a maximum value of 38.7 ml/kg/min. In conclusion, the 15-m ISWRT is reliable and useful for evaluating VO 2max in middle-aged adults. PMID:22377946

  5. Simulating CO₂ leakages from CCS to determine Zn toxicity using the marine microalgae Pleurochrysis roscoffensis.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Chamizo, Esther; De Orte, Manoela Romanó; DelValls, Tomás Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    Due to the current climate change and ocean acidification, a new technology for CO2 mitigation has been proposed, the Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS). However, there is an ecological risk associated with potential CO2 leakages from the sub-seabed storages sites. To evaluate the effects related to CO2 leakages, laboratory-scales experiments were performed using the marine microalgae Pleurochrysis roscoffensis. Five Zn concentrations were tested at different pHs to study Zn toxicity under acidified conditions. Seawater was collected and submitted to acidification by means of CO2 injection and by HCl addition. Results showed differences between both acidification techniques: while microalgae growth was enhanced by CO2 supply, reaching the optimal growth at pH 6.5 and full inhibition at pH 5.5, HCl acidification growth was inhibited at pH 6.5. Although small concentrations of Zn were positive for P. roscoffensis growth, Zn toxicity increased at lower pHs, and more severely on samples acidified with HCl. The conclusions obtained in this work are useful to address the potential effects on the marine ecosystem related to changes in metal bioavailability during CO2 leakages scenarios. PMID:26432538

  6. Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Benney

    2009-11-30

    The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be done to

  7. Design, testing and evaluation of latching end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B.; Vandersluis, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Latching End Effector (LEE) forms part of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) for which Spar Aerospace Ltd, Space Systems Division is the prime contractor. The design, testing and performance evaluation of the Latching End Effector mechanisms is the subject of this paper focusing on: (1) ambient, thermal and vibration testing; (2) snare/rigidize performance testing and interaction during payload acquisition; and (3) latch/umbilical test results and performance.

  8. A simple test for thermomechanical evaluation of ceramic fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1991-01-01

    A simple bend stress relaxation (BSR) test was developed to measure the creep related properties of ceramic fibers and whiskers. The test was applied to a variety of commercial and developmental Si based fibers to demonstrate capabilities and to evaluate the relative creep resistance of the fibers at 1200 to 1400 C. The implications of these results and the advantages of the BSR test over typical tensile creep tests are discussed.

  9. Visual Inspection of Water Leakage from Ground Penetrating Radar Radargram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimshah, N. N.; Yusup, A.; Mat Amin, Z.; Ghazalli, M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD) of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  10. Estimating sewer leakage from continuous tracer experiments.

    PubMed

    Rieckermann, Jörg; Bares, Vojtech; Kracht, Oliver; Braun, Daniel; Gujer, Willi

    2007-05-01

    Direct measurements of sewer leakage with continuous dosing of tracers are often considered too imprecise for practical applications. However, no mathematical framework for data analysis is reported in literature. In this paper, we present an improved experimental design and data analysis procedure together with a comprehensive framework for uncertainty assessment. Test runs in a 700 m-long watertight sewer showed no significant bias and a very high precision of the methodology. The standard error in the results was assessed to 2.6% of the labeled flow with a simplified model. It could be reduced to 1.2% when a dynamic data analysis procedure was applied. The major error contribution was caused by transient transport phenomena, which suggests that careful choosing of the experimental time is more important than the choice of a very specific tracer substance. Although the method is not intended to replace traditional CCTV inspections, it can provide complementary information for rational rehabilitation planning. PMID:17363025

  11. BOBCAT Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Hodge

    2008-03-01

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as “Pagers.” This test, “Bobcat,” was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

  12. Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich

    2007-07-09

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  14. Zero leakage separable and semipermanent ducting joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischel, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    A study program has been conducted to explore new methods of achieving zero leakage, separable and semipermanent, ducting joints for space flight vehicles. The study consisted of a search of literature of existing zero leakage methods, the generation of concepts of new methods of achieving the desired zero leakage criteria and the development of detailed analysis and design of a selected concept. Other techniques of leak detection were explored with a view toward improving this area.

  15. A linear model of the effects of disturbance on dissolved nitrogen leakage from forested watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, Keith N.

    2000-11-01

    The leakage of dissolved nitrogen (N), primarily in the form of nitrate, from forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region has important water quality ramifications for small acid-sensitive streams and for downstream receiving waters such as Chesapeake Bay. Dissolved N leakage is a common, well-documented response of forested watersheds to forest management practices such as clear-cutting. Patterns of N leakage from mid-Appalachian watersheds during the late 1980s and early 1990s have also been shown to display considerable temporal and spatial synchrony with outbreaks of defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larva (a nonnative forest insect pest). This evidence suggests that forest disturbance may be an important contributor to N leakage in the mid-Appalachian region. A logical first step in testing this hypothesis is evaluating the ability of a simple, unit nitrogen export response function (UNERF) model to explain temporal changes in annual N export from gaged forested watersheds in the years following disturbance. Annual N export data from seven such watersheds were analyzed as part of the study: two small (<0.5 km2) watersheds subjected to deforestation and five larger (1.6-12.6 km2) watersheds subjected to repetitive defoliation by the gypsy moth larva. Several forms of linear UNERF models, parameterized by deconvolution of annual time series of N export using linear programming or by a least squares method, were generally found to be minimally biased and to explain high percentages (38-98%) of the total variation in annual N export. Despite their neglect of spatial and temporal ecosystem nonlinearities these linear models appear reasonably robust, making them at least as useful as their more complex nonlinear brethren for purposes of regionalization.

  16. Evaluation criteria and test methods for electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W. ); Lampert, C.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Report summarizes the test methods used for evaluating electrochromic (EC) windows, and summarizes what is known about degradation of their performance, and recommends methods and procedures for advancing EC windows for buildings applications. 77 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: EVALUATION OF TESTING PROCEDURES WITH METHYLAZOXYMETHANOL AND METHYLMERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing procedures that allow for early, rapid and cost-effective investigation of potential developmental neurotoxicants were evaluated using two prototypical developmental neurotoxicants, methylazoxymethanol (MAM) and methylmercury (MeHg). valuation of offspring of Long-Evans r...

  18. TEST AND EVALUATION OF POTASSIUM SENSORS IN FRESH AND SALTWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three types of potassium ion-selective electrodes were evaluated for suitability in monitoring or in-situ measurement applications. Each sensor was tested for the following parameters: accuracy, precision, temperature dependence, short and long-term stability, durability, sensiti...

  19. 30 CFR 15.3 - Observers at tests and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... General Provisions § 15.3 Observers at tests and evaluation. Only personnel of MSHA, designees of MSHA, representatives of the applicant, and such other persons as agreed upon by MSHA and the applicant shall be...

  20. Effects of Bulk Microdefects and Metallic Impurities on p-n Junction Leakage Currents in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Salk; Moon, Byeong-sam; Kang, Hee-Bok; Park, Jea-gun; Lee, Bo-Young

    2010-03-01

    The effects of bulk microdefects and metallic impurities on leakage currents at p-n junctions have been evaluated quantitatively by relating leakage currents with bulk defects and metallic impurities, and the results are reported. Bulk defects and metallic impurities, which were introduced by appropriate thermal treatment and intentional contamination by spin-coating metal ion solutions onto the silicon surfaces, were shown to induce heavy leakage currents at p-n junctions, which had been manufactured by boron implantation and phosphorus diffusion. We found the bulk microdefects to be critical in causing leakage currents to flow and propose that their measurements be used as a means for the determination of the bulk defect densities. Die failure rates were also used for the evaluation of the effects of metallic impurities such as Cu, Ni, and Fe on the leakage currents.

  1. Leakage-current properties of encapsulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical modeling of leakage current in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) modules is being developed and is described. The modeling effort derives mathematical relationships for the bulk and surface conductivites of EVA and PVB, the surface conductivities of glass and polymeric films, and the EVA and PVB pottants, all as functions of environmental parameters. Results from the modeling indicate that for glass/EVA, the glass surface controls the interfacial conductivity, although EVA bulk conductivity controls total leakage current. For PVB/glass, the interface conductivity controls leakage currents for relative humidity (RH) less than 40 to 50%, but PVB bulk conductivity controls leakage current above 50% RH.

  2. Guide to Program Evaluation K-4. New York State Program Evaluation Test in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This guide provides information on conducting a detailed program analysis using the New York State Program Evaluation Test in Science. The test consists of two required components (Objective Test and Manipulative Skills Test) and five optional components (Student Science Attitudes Survey; Student Science Program Environment Survey; Administrator…

  3. Evaluation of an Interactive Tutorial for Teaching Hypothesis Testing Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aberson, Christopher L.; Berger, Dale E.; Healy, Michael R.; Romero, Victoria L.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we describe and evaluate a Web-based interactive tutorial used to present hypothesis testing concepts. The tutorial includes multiple-choice questions with feedback, an interactive applet that allows students to draw samples and evaluate null hypotheses, and follow-up questions suitable for grading. Students either used the…

  4. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-28

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  5. Test and evaluation facility for THAAD IR seekers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, Arthur R.; Watson, W.; Florie, D.; Colosimo, J.; Hoschette, John A.; Murphy, G.

    1995-05-01

    The high performance requirements for the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Seeker required the build and verification of a state-of-the-art infrared seeker test and evaluation facility. The test and evaluation facility is completely enclosed in a class 10,000 clean room and is divided into four major areas. These areas are the build and assembly area, goniometric test area, boresight test area, and analysis area. The build and assembly area is where parts are inspected, cleaned, kitted and finally assembled. After assembly is complete, the seeker is moved to the goniometric and boresight test areas for calibration and test. The goniometric/radiometric test area is where seeker gain and offset, IFOV, FOV, FOR, PSF's, dynamic range and uniformity tests are performed. The boresight test area is where the seeker boresight and servo rate tests are conducted. The seeker operation and performance is controlled and monitored via the Seeker Test Set (STS). The STS provides seeker power, controls all seeker functions, collects simultaneous servo and image data and controls table movements and blackbody target temperatures. For storage and further analysis of data, the STS has been networked via an ethernet connection to the data analysis area. The analysis area contains an off-line data processing and reduction lab consisting of networked high performance PC's. This paper discusses the test facility created for the THAAD IR seeker including requirements, layout and unique functionality.

  6. Evaluation of methods for nondestructive testing of brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanno, A.

    1968-01-01

    Evaluation of nondestructive methods of testing brazed joints reveals that ultrasonic testing is effective in the detection of nonbonds in diffusion bonded samples. Radiography provides excellent resolutions of void or inclusion defects, and the neutron radiographic technique shows particular advantage for brazing materials containing cadmium.

  7. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  8. Evaluation of verification and testing tools for FORTRAN programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Two automated software verification and testing systems were developed for use in the analysis of computer programs. An evaluation of the static analyzer DAVE and the dynamic analyzer PET, which are used in the analysis of FORTRAN programs on Control Data (CDC) computers, are described. Both systems were found to be effective and complementary, and are recommended for use in testing FORTRAN programs.

  9. A Graphical Approach to Evaluating Equating Using Test Characteristic Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Reckase, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    An essential concern in the application of any equating procedure is determining whether tests can be considered equated after the tests have been placed onto a common scale. This article clarifies one equating criterion, the first-order equity property of equating, and develops a new method for evaluating equating that is linked to this…

  10. Development of a test protocol for evaluating EVA glove performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Testing gloved hand performance involves work from several disciplines. Evaluations performed in the course of reenabling a disabled hand, designing a robotic end effector or master controller, or hard-suit design have all yielded relevant information, and, in most cases, produced performance test methods. Most times, these test methods have been primarily oriented toward their parent discipline. For space operations, a comparative test which would provide a way to quantify pressure glove and end effector performance would be useful in dividing tasks between humans and robots. Such a test would have to rely heavily on sensored measurement, as opposed to questionnaires, to produce relevant data. However, at some point human preference would have to be taken into account. This paper presents a methodology for evaluating gloved hand performance which attempts to respond to these issues. Glove testing of a prototype glove design using this method is described.

  11. 500-kW DCHX pilot-plant evaluation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hlinak, A.; Lee, T.; Loback, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S.; Roberts, G.; Werner, D.

    1981-10-01

    Field tests with the 500 kW Direct Contact Pilot Plant were conducted utilizing brine from well Mesa 6-2. The tests were intended to develop comprehensive performance data, design criteria, and economic factors for the direct contact power plant. The tests were conducted in two phases. The first test phase was to determine specific component performance of the DCHX, turbine, condensers and pumps, and to evaluate chemical mass balances of non-condensible gases in the IC/sub 4/ loop and IC/sub 4/ in the brine stream. The second test phase was to provide a longer term run at nearly fixed operating conditions in order to evaluate plant performance and identify operating cost data for the pilot plant. During these tests the total accumulated run time on major system components exceeded 1180 hours with 777 hours on the turbine prime mover. Direct contact heat exchanger performance exceeded the design prediction.

  12. Environment-sensitive fracture: Evaluation and comparison of test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, S.W.; Pugh, E.N.; Ugiansky, G.M

    1984-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on metal fracture mechanics. Titles include: A Fracture Mechanics Model for Iodine Stress Corrosion Crack Propagation in Zircaloy Tubing; Evaluation of SCC Test Methods for Inconel 600 in Low-temperature Aqueous Solutions; Automated Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Testing in Pressurized Water Environments; and use of a constant /Delta//kappa/ test method in the investigation of fatigue crack growth in 288/sup 0/C water environments.

  13. Multi-mode optical sensor (B) evaluation test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation test series was performed on the unit to develop realistic specifications for a similar device for use on the orbiter vehicle. Tests included sensitivity, target dynamic range, tracking angular rate, external magnetic field effects, and photocathode uniformity. Several demonstrations of operation under automatic control were also prepared, using a desk calculator for numerical control and for subsequent reduction of data derived from the test.

  14. Evaluation of infrared collimators for testing thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2007-06-01

    Infrared reflective collimators are important components of expensive sophisticated test systems used for testing thermal imagers. Too low quality collimators can become a source of significant measurement errors and collimators of too high quality can unnecessarily increase cost of a test system. In such a situation it is important for test system users to know proper requirements on the collimator and to be able to verify its performance. A method for evaluation of infrared reflective collimators used in test systems for testing thermal imagers is presented in this paper. The method requires only easily available optical equipment and can be used not only by collimator manufactures but also by users of test equipment to verify performance of the collimators used for testing thermal imagers.

  15. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Blower-Door-Directed Infiltration Reduction Procedure, Field Test Implementation and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.B.

    2001-05-21

    A blower-door-directed infiltration retrofit procedure was field tested on 18 homes in south central Wisconsin. The procedure, developed by the Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation, includes recommended retrofit techniques as well as criteria for estimating the amount of cost-effective work to be performed on a house. A recommended expenditure level and target air leakage reduction, in air changes per hour at 50 Pascal (ACH50), are determined from the initial leakage rate measured. The procedure produced an average 16% reduction in air leakage rate. For the 7 houses recommended for retrofit, 89% of the targeted reductions were accomplished with 76% of the recommended expenditures. The average cost of retrofits per house was reduced by a factor of four compared with previous programs. The average payback period for recommended retrofits was 4.4 years, based on predicted energy savings computed from achieved air leakage reductions. Although exceptions occurred, the procedure's 8 ACH50 minimum initial leakage rate for advising retrofits to be performed appeared a good choice, based on cost-effective air leakage reduction. Houses with initial rates of 7 ACH50 or below consistently required substantially higher costs to achieve significant air leakage reductions. No statistically significant average annual energy savings was detected as a result of the infiltration retrofits. Average measured savings were -27 therm per year, indicating an increase in energy use, with a 90% confidence interval of 36 therm. Measured savings for individual houses varied widely in both positive and negative directions, indicating that factors not considered affected the results. Large individual confidence intervals indicate a need to increase the accuracy of such measurements as well as understand the factors which may cause such disparity. Recommendations for the procedure include more extensive training of retrofit crews, checks for minimum air exchange rates to insure air quality

  16. The Evaluation of Flammability Properties Regarding Testing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osvaldová, Linda Makovická; Gašpercová, Stanislava

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we address the historical comparison methods with current methods for the assessment of flammability characteristics for materials an especially for wood, wood components and wooden buildings. Nowadays in European Union brings harmonization in evaluated of standards into each European country and try to make one concept of evaluated the flammability properties. In each European country to the one standard level which will be used by evaluation of materials regarding flammability. In our article we focused mainly on improving the evaluation methods in terms of flammability characteristics of using materials at building industry. In the article we present examples of different assessment methods at their own test methods in terms of fire prevention. On the base of old compared of materials by STN, BS and DIN methods for testing materials on fire and new methods of evaluating the flammability properties regarding EU standards before and after starting the flash over.

  17. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be...

  18. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be...

  19. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be...

  20. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be...

  1. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be...

  2. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across...

  3. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across...

  4. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across...

  5. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across...

  6. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across...

  7. Evaluation of a steady state MPD thruster test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.B.; Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.; Doss, E.D.; Kilgore, O.

    1985-01-01

    The successful development of multimegawatt MPD thrusters depends, to a great extent, on testing them under steady state high altitude space conditions. Steady state testing is required to provide thermal characteristics, life cycle, erosion, and other essential data. the major technical obstacle for ground testing of MPD thrusters in a space simulation facility is the inability of state-of-the-art vacuum systems to handle the tremendous pumping speeds required for multimegawatt MPD thrusters. This is true for other types of electric propulsion devices as well. This paper discusses the results of the first phase of an evaluation of steady state MPD thruster test facilities. The first phase addresses the conceptual design of vacuum systems required to support multimegawatt MPD thruster testing. Three advanced pumping system concepts were evaluated and are presented here.

  8. Evaluating genomic tests from bench to bedside: a practical framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The development of genomic tests is one of the most significant technological advances in medical testing in recent decades. As these tests become increasingly available, so does the need for a pragmatic framework to evaluate the evidence base and evidence gaps in order to facilitate informed decision-making. In this article we describe such a framework that can provide a common language and benchmarks for different stakeholders of genomic testing. Each stakeholder can use this framework to specify their respective thresholds for decision-making, depending on their perspective and particular needs. This framework is applicable across a broad range of test applications and can be helpful in the application and communication of a regulatory science for genomic testing. Our framework builds upon existing work and incorporates principles familiar to researchers involved in medical testing (both diagnostic and prognostic) generally, as well as those involved in genomic testing. This framework is organized around six phases in the development of genomic tests beginning with marker identification and ending with population impact, and highlights the important knowledge gaps that need to be filled in establishing the clinical relevance of a test. Our framework focuses on the clinical appropriateness of the four main dimensions of test research questions (population/setting, intervention/index test, comparators/reference test, and outcomes) rather than prescribing a hierarchy of study designs that should be used to address each phase. PMID:23078403

  9. Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staats, Matt; Whalen, Michael W.; Heindahl, Mats P. E.; Rajan, Ajitha

    2010-01-01

    In black-box testing, the tester creates a set of tests to exercise a system under test without regard to the internal structure of the system. Generally, no objective metric is used to measure the adequacy of black-box tests. In recent work, we have proposed three requirements coverage metrics, allowing testers to objectively measure the adequacy of a black-box test suite with respect to a set of requirements formalized as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) properties. In this report, we evaluate the effectiveness of these coverage metrics with respect to fault finding. Specifically, we conduct an empirical study to investigate two questions: (1) do test suites satisfying a requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than randomly generated test suites of approximately the same size?, and (2) do test suites satisfying a more rigorous requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying a less rigorous requirements coverage metric? Our results indicate (1) only one coverage metric proposed -- Unique First Cause (UFC) coverage -- is sufficiently rigorous to ensure test suites satisfying the metric outperform randomly generated test suites of similar size and (2) that test suites satisfying more rigorous coverage metrics provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying less rigorous coverage metrics.

  10. A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fellenstein, J.A.; DellaCorte, C.

    1994-10-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  11. A New Tribological Test for Candidate Brush Seal Materials Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700 C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  12. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 26.5 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes for the TIROS-N and NOAA-A satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    This evaluation test program had the purpose to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open-circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. Test limits specify those values at which a cell is to be terminated from charge or discharge. Requirements are referenced to as normally expected values based on past performance of aerospace nickel-cadmium cells with demonstrated life characteristics. A requirement does not constitute a limit for discontinuance from test.

  13. A novel micropump with fixed-geometry valves and low leakage flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Il-Han; An, Jae-Yong; Ko, Kwang-Hee; Shin, Sang-Mo; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2007-08-01

    A novel micropump with fixed-geometry valves was designed and tested with a leakage barrier to reduce leakage flow. Conventional micropumps with fixed-geometry valves have achieved net positive fluid flow from different fluid resistances in diffuser/nozzle channels. However, those micropumps are susceptible to leakage flow even at low pressure differences between the inlet and the outlet because the channels remain normally open state when the pumps are not in operation. Therefore, a leakage barrier in the chamber was designed to reduce leakage flow without interfering with the net positive fluid flow of the diffuser/nozzle channels. The diffuser/nozzle channels, the chamber and the leakage barrier were fabricated on the silicon substrate by KOH etching and the silicon substrate was anodically bonded with a Pyrex glass plate. A PZT disk was bonded on the glass plate by epoxy and was actuated to oscillate the glass diaphragm for flow generation. When the micropump is not operating, the leakage barrier removes most of the gap between the glass plate and the bottom of the chamber. It was experimentally confirmed that the leakage barrier reduced the leakage flow by 96% compared to the case of no leakage barrier at a pressure difference of -400 Pa. Moreover, by applying the holding dc voltage to the PZT disk, a smaller gap can be obtained reducing the leakage flow further down to 0.043 µL min-1 at a holding dc voltage of 100 V. The maximum flow rate was 3.9 µL min-1 at a peak-to-peak driving voltage of 150 V at 20 Hz with a maximum back pressure of around 800 Pa. The approximate device size was 18 × 25 mm2.

  14. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCNO device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  15. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of the each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  16. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  17. Automation and Evaluation of the SOWH Test with SOWHAT.

    PubMed

    Church, Samuel H; Ryan, Joseph F; Dunn, Casey W

    2015-11-01

    The Swofford-Olsen-Waddell-Hillis (SOWH) test evaluates statistical support for incongruent phylogenetic topologies. It is commonly applied to determine if the maximum likelihood tree in a phylogenetic analysis is significantly different than an alternative hypothesis. The SOWH test compares the observed difference in log-likelihood between two topologies to a null distribution of differences in log-likelihood generated by parametric resampling. The test is a well-established phylogenetic method for topology testing, but it is sensitive to model misspecification, it is computationally burdensome to perform, and its implementation requires the investigator to make several decisions that each have the potential to affect the outcome of the test. We analyzed the effects of multiple factors using seven data sets to which the SOWH test was previously applied. These factors include a number of sample replicates, likelihood software, the introduction of gaps to simulated data, the use of distinct models of evolution for data simulation and likelihood inference, and a suggested test correction wherein an unresolved "zero-constrained" tree is used to simulate sequence data. To facilitate these analyses and future applications of the SOWH test, we wrote SOWHAT, a program that automates the SOWH test. We find that inadequate bootstrap sampling can change the outcome of the SOWH test. The results also show that using a zero-constrained tree for data simulation can result in a wider null distribution and higher p-values, but does not change the outcome of the SOWH test for most of the data sets tested here. These results will help others implement and evaluate the SOWH test and allow us to provide recommendations for future applications of the SOWH test. SOWHAT is available for download from https://github.com/josephryan/SOWHAT. PMID:26231182

  18. Automation and Evaluation of the SOWH Test with SOWHAT

    PubMed Central

    Church, Samuel H.; Ryan, Joseph F.; Dunn, Casey W.

    2015-01-01

    The Swofford–Olsen–Waddell–Hillis (SOWH) test evaluates statistical support for incongruent phylogenetic topologies. It is commonly applied to determine if the maximum likelihood tree in a phylogenetic analysis is significantly different than an alternative hypothesis. The SOWH test compares the observed difference in log-likelihood between two topologies to a null distribution of differences in log-likelihood generated by parametric resampling. The test is a well-established phylogenetic method for topology testing, but it is sensitive to model misspecification, it is computationally burdensome to perform, and its implementation requires the investigator to make several decisions that each have the potential to affect the outcome of the test. We analyzed the effects of multiple factors using seven data sets to which the SOWH test was previously applied. These factors include a number of sample replicates, likelihood software, the introduction of gaps to simulated data, the use of distinct models of evolution for data simulation and likelihood inference, and a suggested test correction wherein an unresolved “zero-constrained” tree is used to simulate sequence data. To facilitate these analyses and future applications of the SOWH test, we wrote SOWHAT, a program that automates the SOWH test. We find that inadequate bootstrap sampling can change the outcome of the SOWH test. The results also show that using a zero-constrained tree for data simulation can result in a wider null distribution and higher p-values, but does not change the outcome of the SOWH test for most of the data sets tested here. These results will help others implement and evaluate the SOWH test and allow us to provide recommendations for future applications of the SOWH test. SOWHAT is available for download from https://github.com/josephryan/SOWHAT. PMID:26231182

  19. Pacemaker failures characterized by continuous direct current leakage.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J D; Furman, S; Parker, B; Escher, D J

    1976-06-01

    Pulse generator failure caused by continuous leakage of direct current through an output capacitor has not previously been appreciated. Routine post-explant electronic evaluation has identified the defect in six implanted and one external pulse generator. The constant direct current in the implantable units, 0.14 to 0.26 milliamperes, is in the range that produces ventricular arrhythmias in dogs although this did not occur in our patients. Evidence of local myocardial damage existed in four cases and of electrode deterioration in three. The implant failures occurred without warning and in four cases within 2 weeks of demonstrated normal function, blunting the predictive benefits of pacemaker monitoring programs. Capacitor discharge circuits used in many pacers are inherently capable of developing direct current leakage in the event of output capacitor short circuit. In one model of pacemakers such continuous direct current leakage caused 8.3 percent (3 of 36) of pulse generator failures, widely scattered in time at 23, 27 and 46 months after implant. Capacitor short circuit causing constant direct current leakage can masquerade as primary battery failure and should be suspected when cessation of pacer function is associated with increased threshold or poor myocardial electrogram without evidence of wire break or displacement. PMID:1274862

  20. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

  1. A new sensor for detection of coolant leakage in nuclear power plants using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lim; Park, Hyunmin; Kim, Taek-Soo; Ko, Kwang-Hoon; Jeong, Do-Young

    2012-06-01

    A new sensor based on laser absorption spectroscopy was developed for the detection of coolant leakage which may happen in pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). Off-axis integrated output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) technique was adopted for developing a simple and robust sensor with sufficient sensitivity. Leak events could be monitored by detecting a small change in semi-heavy water (HDO) concentration induced by the exchange reaction of leaked heavy water (D2O) with light water (H2O). From the results of feasibility tests, we have shown that the measured area of absorption features was linearly correlated with HDO concentration, and the minimum detectable change of HDO concentration with the developed sensor was evaluated as 3.2 ppm. This new sensor is expected to be a reliable and promising device for the detection of coolant leakage since it has some advantages on real-time monitoring and early detection for nuclear safety.

  2. Evaluation and testing of semiconductor laser reliability in optic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenyan; Fan, Xianguang; Sun, Heyi

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of an optic system, a new evaluation and testing methodology for the light source which uses semiconductor laser is presented. A new system, combining high accuracy source and measure capabilities for pulsed testing, is developed to achieve the aim of automatic measurement of Light-Current-Power (LIV) for semiconductor laser. The test can provide customer with L-I, V-I curves and other correlative parameters, such as the threshold current and slope efficiency, and so on. Meanwhile, the change of environment temperature versus lasing wavelength under pulse injection is discussed, and the relationship between the lasing wavelength and the width and cycle of injection pulse is obtained. The temperature character of packaged laser unit is measured conveniently. Making use of the above examined curves and parameters, the reliability of semiconductor laser and quality of device can be compared directly and evaluated accurately. The technique is successfully applied for the evaluation of semiconductor laser reliability.

  3. Leak testing of bubble-tight dampers using tracer gas techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lagus, P.L.; DuBois, L.J.; Fleming, K.M.

    1995-02-01

    Recently tracer gas techniques have been applied to the problem of measuring the leakage across an installed bubble-tight damper. A significant advantage of using a tracer gas technique is that quantitative leakage data are obtained under actual operating differential pressure conditions. Another advantage is that leakage data can be obtained using relatively simple test setups that utilize inexpensive materials without the need to tear ducts apart, fabricate expensive blank-off plates, and install test connections. Also, a tracer gas technique can be used to provide an accurate field evaluation of the performance of installed bubble-tight dampers on a periodic basis. Actual leakage flowrates were obtained at Zion Generating Station on four installed bubble-tight dampers using a tracer gas technique. Measured leakage rates ranged from 0.01 CFM to 21 CFM. After adjustment and subsequent retesting, the 21 CFM damper leakage was reduced to a leakage of 3.8 CFM. In light of the current regulatory climate and the interest in Control Room Habitability issues, imprecise estimates of critical air boundary leakage rates--such as through bubble-tight dampers--are not acceptable. These imprecise estimates can skew radioactive dose assessments as well as chemical contaminant exposure calculations. Using a tracer gas technique, the actual leakage rate can be determined. This knowledge eliminates a significant source of uncertainty in both radioactive dose and/or chemical exposure assessments.

  4. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-02-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  5. An evaluation of the liquid oxygen mechanical impact test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, Gary E.; Schmidt, Naomi E.; Pedley, Michael D.; Linley, Larry J.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the repeatability of the ambient LO2 mechanical impact test used by NASA to screen materials for oxygen service (NHB 8060.1B Test 12 Part 1, which is based on the ASTM method). Four materials were tested: Teflon, Vespel SP-21, Viton A, and nylon 6/6. Each test material was subjected to several series of tests that were conducted at different impact energy levels. The results show that the variability from series to series in the reaction threshold energy level is within the precision statement of the ASTM method. However, this precision is considerably broader than the reaction threshold implied by the NHB 8060.1B test criteria.

  6. Evaluation of Test/Analysis Correlation Methods for Crash Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Bark, Lindley W.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2001-01-01

    A project has been initiated to improve crash test and analysis correlation. The work in this paper concentrated on the test and simulation results for a fuselage section. Two drop tests of the section were conducted. The first test was designed to excite the linear structural response for comparison with finite element modal analysis results. The second test was designed to provide data for correlation with crash simulations. An MSC.Dytran model was developed to generate nonlinear transient dynamic results. Following minor modifications, the same model was executed in MSC.Nastran to generate modal analysis results. The results presented in this paper concentrate on evaluation of correlation methodologies for crash test data and finite element simulation results.

  7. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  8. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  9. Leakage Characteristics of Dual-Cannula Fenestrated Tracheostomy Tubes during Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Bench Study.

    PubMed

    Berlet, Thomas; Marchon, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the leakage characteristics of different types of dual-cannula fenestrated tracheostomy tubes during positive pressure ventilation. Fenestrated Portex® Blue Line Ultra®, TRACOE® twist, or Rüsch® Traceofix® tracheostomy tubes equipped with nonfenestrated inner cannulas were tested in a tracheostomy-lung simulator. Transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates were measured during positive pressure ventilation. The impact of different ventilation modes, airway pressures, temperatures, and simulated static lung compliance settings on leakage characteristics was assessed. We observed substantial differences in transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates. The leakage rates of the best performing tubes were <3.5% of the delivered minute volume. At body temperature, the leakage rates of these tracheostomy tubes were <1%. The tracheal tube design was the main factor that determined the leakage characteristics. Careful tracheostomy tube selection permits the use of fenestrated tracheostomy tubes in patients receiving positive pressure ventilation immediately after stoma formation and minimises the risk of complications caused by transfenestration gas leakage, for example, subcutaneous emphysema. PMID:27073395

  10. Leakage Characteristics of Dual-Cannula Fenestrated Tracheostomy Tubes during Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Bench Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the leakage characteristics of different types of dual-cannula fenestrated tracheostomy tubes during positive pressure ventilation. Fenestrated Portex® Blue Line Ultra®, TRACOE® twist, or Rüsch® Traceofix® tracheostomy tubes equipped with nonfenestrated inner cannulas were tested in a tracheostomy-lung simulator. Transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates were measured during positive pressure ventilation. The impact of different ventilation modes, airway pressures, temperatures, and simulated static lung compliance settings on leakage characteristics was assessed. We observed substantial differences in transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates. The leakage rates of the best performing tubes were <3.5% of the delivered minute volume. At body temperature, the leakage rates of these tracheostomy tubes were <1%. The tracheal tube design was the main factor that determined the leakage characteristics. Careful tracheostomy tube selection permits the use of fenestrated tracheostomy tubes in patients receiving positive pressure ventilation immediately after stoma formation and minimises the risk of complications caused by transfenestration gas leakage, for example, subcutaneous emphysema. PMID:27073395

  11. Uncertainty Analysis for Assessing Leakage Through Water Tunnels: A Case from Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, Krishna Kanta; Nilsen, Bjørn

    2010-09-01

    Water leakage problems in unlined or shotcrete lined water tunnels are not new issues. In many occasions severe water leakage problems have been faced that not only have reduced the stability of the rock mass, but also have caused valuable water to be lost from it, causing safety risk as well as huge economic loss to the projects. Hence, making tunnels water tight plays an important role in improving stability and safety of underground excavations. The real challenge is however accurate prediction and quantification of possible water leakage, so that cost consequences can be incorporated during planning of a water conveying tunnel project. The main purposes of this paper are to analyze extensive data on leakage test carried out through exploratory drillhole used to define the need for pre-injection grouting of Khimti headrace tunnel and to carry out probabilistic approach of uncertainty analysis based on relationship established between leakage, hydrostatic head and selected Q-value parameters. The authors believe that the new approach regarding uncertainty analysis of leakage presented in this paper will improve the understanding of leakage characteristics of the rock mass, and hope this will lead to a better understanding concerning quantification of possible water leakage from unlined and shotcrete lined water tunnels.

  12. Particle size-dependent leakage and losses of aerosols in respirators.

    PubMed

    Holton, P M; Tackett, D L; Willeke, K

    1987-10-01

    Measuring particle size-dependent leakage into and losses inside a respirator reveals the deposition mechanisms occurring at the leak site and the flow dynamics inside the respirator. This study investigated particle size-dependent leakage and deposition within the mask by examining the leakage into the mask for different hole locations, probe locations, hole shapes, hole lengths and hole sizes. The shape of the leak has an effect on particle size-dependent leakage. Probe and leak location tests indicated that not only does the total measured leakage change but also the size-dependence of the leakage changes depending on the leak and probe locations. When the leak site is in the chin area, the clean air entering through the filters at the chin helps to carry the inward leakage into the breathing zone. Particle size-dependent leakage does occur and is due to both inertial entry losses at the leak site and within the mask, and diffusional losses within the mask and leak site. Particle size-dependent curves change shape as the hole size changes with relatively more larger particles entering through the small hole size. PMID:3687729

  13. Development of Testing Methodologies to Evaluate Postflight Locomotor Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Crewmembers experience locomotor and postural instabilities during ambulation on Earth following their return from space flight. Gait training programs designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a transition to a gravitational environment need to be accompanied by relevant assessment methodologies to evaluate their efficacy. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the operational validity of two tests of locomotor function that were used to evaluate performance after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS).

  14. Operational test and evaluation of the meter engineering development model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damore, R. J.; Mah, C. P.

    1982-11-01

    The Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) of the Meaning Etraction Through Estimated Relevance (METER) System was conducted at Hq Military Airlift Command, Scott AFB, ILL. The Two year effort provided for continuing enhancement of the METER system, as well as tailoring it to interface with the operational message processing system. Analyst training and evaluation of METER's potential utility to the intelligence community were covered.

  15. Structural evaluation and testing of swept compressor rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Aksoy, S.; Mitlin, B.; Borowy, H. )

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes specific critical issues encountered in the structural analysis of a swept first-stage compressor blade of a gas turbine engine and the results of the test to evaluate the accuracy of the modeling and surface stress prediction procedure. The surface stresses of a three-dimensional structure were obtained using membrane elements attached to the surface of solid elements. Steady stress measurements were then made during accelerations and decelerations to and from design speed. The test was conducted in an evacuated spin rig. The measurements were used to evaluate the validity of the stress precision from finite element analysis.

  16. General test plan redundant sensor strapdown IMU evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwell, T.; Irwin, H. A.; Miyatake, Y.; Wedekind, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    The general test plan for a redundant sensor strapdown inertial measuring unit evaluation program is presented. The inertial unit contains six gyros and three orthogonal accelerometers. The software incorporates failure detection and correction logic and a land vehicle navigation program. The principal objective of the test is a demonstration of the practicability, reliability, and performance of the inertial measuring unit with failure detection and correction in operational environments.

  17. Evaluation of WES one-dimensional dynamic soil testing procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, L.

    1983-06-01

    The Geomechanics Division of the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) tests soils to provide material property data for ground motion calculations in support of high explosives experiments. Thus, the validity of the ground motion predictions depends greatly on the WES material properties used. The usual WES experiments are uniaxial strain (UX) and triaxial shear (TX) tests that can be performed at static testing rates and at dynamic rates with rise times down to about one millisecond. However, in the field experiments being simulated, the measured rise times are often 0.01 ms up to 0.1 ms. Recently, an effort has been made to obtain test data in UX and TX devices with rise times of about 0.1 ms. Some of the test data obtained at these very high rates have appeared to be anomalous, suggesting that wave propagation or other effects may be invalidating the data. Because of these questions about the high rate soils test data, WES asked SRI to evaluate the testing methods used at WES and the data reduction device. This report documents an evaluation of laboratory test data obtained from the explosive-loaded uniaxial strain device developed at WES and the data analysis procedures currently being used.

  18. Evaluation of the phenol red thread tear test in falconiformes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen P; Barbon, Alberto Rodriguez; Forbes, Neil A

    2015-03-01

    Falconiformes are active searchers and hunters that require visual precision to catch their prey and survive in the wild. Despite this, ocular disease is likely to be underdiagnosed in these species, at least in part because of limited proven diagnostic methods and lack of published scientific data. Tear film deficiency is recognized as an important ocular surface disease in dogs but has not been well evaluated in birds. To evaluate the phenol red thread (PRT) tear test as an alternative method to the Schirmer tear test (STT) for determining tear production in Falconiformes, we assessed the PRT tear test twice for each eye in 21 birds from the genus Falco. The mean PRT test values for the right (OD) and left (OS) eyes were OD=30.2±4.6 mm/15 s and OS=29.1±3.7 mm/15 s, with an overall PRT test value for both eyes (OU) of 30.6±4.2 mm/15 s. Good reproducibility was seen with the PRT test as shown by the strong positive correlation between the first and second tests in the birds. The PRT test method provides repeatable results that are easy to obtain, easy to read, and achieved under the same conditions as the STT. PMID:25867663

  19. EVALUATING AND TESTING EMERGENCY TESTING MONITORING DEVICES IN EXTREME COLD TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Identifier: F8P11070
    Title: Evaluating and Testing Emergency Testing Monitoring Devices in Extreme Cold Temperatures
    Fellow (Principal Investigator): Tyler S. O’Dell
    Institution: Lake Superior State University
    EPA GRANT Represent...

  20. (De)Grading the Standardized Test: Can Standardized Testing Evaluate Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nicola E.

    2004-01-01

    Standardized testing is an assessment strategy that evaluates all students and all schools on the same basic skills and, therefore, might reasonably indicate which schools are high performers and which are not. Standardized testing is not a new strategy for providing this proof. The United States has produced reams of articles criticizing…

  1. Evaluation of irradiated fuel during RIA simulation tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, R.O.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1996-08-01

    A critical assessment of the RIA-simulation experiments performed to date on previously irradiated test rods is presented. Included in this assessment are the SPERT-CDC, the NSRR, and the CABRI REP Na experimental programs. Information was collected describing the base irradiation, test rod characterization, and test procedures and conditions. The representativeness of the test rods and test conditions to anticipated LWR RIA accident conditions was evaluated using analysis results from fuel behavior and three-dimensional spatial kinetics simulations. It was shown that the pulse characteristics and coolant conditions are significantly different from those anticipated in an LWR-Furthermore, the unrepresentative test conditions were found to exaggerate the mechanisms that caused cladding failure. The data review identified several test rods which contained unusual cladding damage incurred prior to the RIA-simulation test that produced the observed failures. The mechanisms responsible for the observed test rod failures have been shown to result from processes that have a second order effect of burnup. A correlation with burnup could not be appropriately established for the fuel enthalpy at failure. However, the successful test rods can be used to construct a conservative region of success for fuel rod behavior during an RIA event.

  2. Evaluation of gamma interferon and antibody tuberculosis tests in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Shelley; Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-γ and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-γ test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-γ test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-γ positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-γ test with two antibody tests in a "test package," although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

  3. Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-γ and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-γ test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-γ test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-γ positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-γ test with two antibody tests in a “test package,” although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

  4. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  5. Test and evaluation plan for the composite bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.G.; Dumlao, C.; Ciolko, A.T.; Pfister, T.J.; Schmeckpeper, E.R.

    1997-04-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMC) are entering the nation`s infrastructure as alternatives to conventional materials. Working with the Federal Highway Administration and Department of Energy, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is testing and evaluating a PMC structure for use in bridge rehabilitation and replacement. A 30-foot PMC bridge, designed and built by Lockheed Martin Missile and Space, will be field tested in Idaho. The design of this bridge represents simple support bridges in the 120-foot span category. This report describes the construction, transportation, installation, testing, and material properties for this PMC structure.

  6. 21 CFR 890.1925 - Isokinetic testing and evaluation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isokinetic testing and evaluation system. 890.1925 Section 890.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  7. 21 CFR 890.1925 - Isokinetic testing and evaluation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isokinetic testing and evaluation system. 890.1925 Section 890.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  8. 21 CFR 890.1925 - Isokinetic testing and evaluation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isokinetic testing and evaluation system. 890.1925 Section 890.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  9. 21 CFR 890.1925 - Isokinetic testing and evaluation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isokinetic testing and evaluation system. 890.1925 Section 890.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  10. Toxicity testing and instream biological monitoring in evaluating municipal effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, K.; Pontasch, K.

    1995-12-31

    Twelve streams receiving municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents were evaluated in riffle areas above and below the outfall using the Environmental Protection Agency`s Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBPs) for benthic macroinvertebrates. Eight of the sites evaluated using RBP 1 exhibited stream health in the downstream riffles equaling or exceeding the upstream riffles. RBP 1 results suggested possible impacts at the remaining four sites, and these sites were more intensely evaluated using RBPs 2 and 3, acute effluent toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, and quantification of periphytic chlorophyll a and ash free dry weight (AFDW). Results from RBP 2 indicated three of the four sites evaluated have similar taxonomic richness above and below the outfall, while one site is heavily impacted by organic pollutants. Toxicity tests with 100% effluent resulted in no mortality with any of the four effluents tested. Relative to the respective upstream sites, chlorophyll a was significantly increased at one downstream site and significantly reduced at another. AFDW was similar above and below the outfalls in all streams. These results suggest that laboratory toxicity tests may not always be adequate predictors of instream biological effects.

  11. 21 CFR 890.1925 - Isokinetic testing and evaluation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isokinetic testing and evaluation system. 890.1925 Section 890.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  12. CONSTRUCTION AND EVALUATION OF A FLOW TEST STAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test stand for the examination of flow monitors in a 3-inch pipe was designed, constructed, and evaluated. The calculations necessary for the proper design are based on empirical data and are described in detail. A statistical analysis was used to estimate the error generated f...

  13. Test-Based Teacher Evaluations: Accountability vs. Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolyard, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    Gert Biesta contends that managerial accountability, which focuses on efficiency and competition, dominates the current political arena in education. Such accountability has influenced states' developments of test-based teacher evaluations in an attempt to quantify teachers' efficacy on student learning. With numerous state policies requiring the…

  14. ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING TEST REPORTS FOR EVALUATING VOC CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report outlines the approach taken by EPA to review existing test reports for evaluating volatile organic compound (VOC) control device effectiveness and identifying missing control device effectiveness information. A format is presented to provide guidance and serve as the b...

  15. Product evaluation of in situ vitrification engineering, Test 4

    SciTech Connect

    Loehr, C.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Bates, S.O.

    1991-09-01

    This report is one of several that evaluates the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Engineering-Scale Test 4 (ES-4). This document describes the chemical and physical composition, microstructure, and leaching characteristics of ES-4 product samples; these data provide insight into the expected performance of a vitrified product in an ISV buried waste application similar to that studied in ES-4.

  16. Students' Ways of Testing: Transforming the Structures of Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Rhonda Hustedt

    Fifteen college classes were identified via standardized student ratings as having had superior testing procedures. Instructors in those classes were asked to describe their evaluation procedures, and interviews were conducted with 27 students randomly selected from the classes. Interviewed students stressed the "communicative" dimension of…

  17. Evaluation of Criteria Associated with Abdominal Fitness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Loarn D.; Magnusdottir, Hjordis

    1987-01-01

    The use of the timed sit up as a measure of abdominal fitness has been challenged. This article describes experiments designed to evaluate a modified curl up test as an alternative. Subjects were 20 college students averaging 25.3 years of age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  18. Wavefront error simulator for evaluating optical testing instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    A wavefront error simulator has been designed and fabricated to evaluate experimentally test instrumentation for the Large Space Telescope (LST) program. The principal operating part of the simulator is an aberration generator that introduces low-order aberrations of several waves magnitude with an incremented adjustment capability of lambda/100. Each aberration type can be introduced independently with any desired spatial orientation.

  19. Evaluating the Instructional Sensitivity of Four States' Student Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2016-01-01

    As state tests of student achievement are used for an increasingly wide array of high- and low-stakes purposes, evaluating their instructional sensitivity is essential. This article uses data from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Project to examine the instructional sensitivity of 4 states' mathematics and English…

  20. Automated Non-Destructive Testing Array Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T; Zavaljevski, N; Bakhtiari, S; Miron, A; Kupperman, D

    2004-12-24

    Automated Non-Destructive Testing Array Evaluation System (ANTARES) sofeware alogrithms were developed for use on X-probe(tm) data. Data used for algorithm development and preliminary perfomance determination was obtained for USNRC mock-up at Argone and data from EPRI.

  1. Performance evaluation of infrared imaging system in field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chensheng; Guo, Xiaodong; Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Zhi-jie

    2014-11-01

    Infrared imaging system has been applied widely in both military and civilian fields. Since the infrared imager has various types and different parameters, for system manufacturers and customers, there is great demand for evaluating the performance of IR imaging systems with a standard tool or platform. Since the first generation IR imager was developed, the standard method to assess the performance has been the MRTD or related improved methods which are not perfect adaptable for current linear scanning imager or 2D staring imager based on FPA detector. For this problem, this paper describes an evaluation method based on the triangular orientation discrimination metric which is considered as the effective and emerging method to evaluate the synthesis performance of EO system. To realize the evaluation in field test, an experiment instrument is developed. And considering the importance of operational environment, the field test is carried in practical atmospheric environment. The test imagers include panoramic imaging system and staring imaging systems with different optics and detectors parameters (both cooled and uncooled). After showing the instrument and experiment setup, the experiment results are shown. The target range performance is analyzed and discussed. In data analysis part, the article gives the range prediction values obtained from TOD method, MRTD method and practical experiment, and shows the analysis and results discussion. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of this evaluation tool, and it can be taken as a platform to give the uniform performance prediction reference.

  2. Alternative magnetic flux leakage modalities for pipeline inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Katragadda, G.; Lord, W.; Sun, Y.S.; Udpa, S.; Udpa, L.

    1996-05-01

    Increasing quality consciousness is placing higher demands on the accuracy and reliability of inspection systems used in defect detection and characterization. Nondestructive testing techniques often rely on using multi-transducer approaches to obtain greater defect sensitivity. This paper investigates the possibility of taking advantage of alternative modalities associated with the standard magnetic flux leakage tool to obtain additional defect information, while still using a single excitation source.

  3. Evaluation of thermographic phosphor technology for aerodynamic model testing

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, M.R.; Tobin, K.W.; Smith, D.B.

    1990-08-01

    The goal for this project was to perform technology evaluations applicable to the development of higher-precision, higher-temperature aerodynamic model testing at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Tullahmoa, Tennessee. With the advent of new programs for design of aerospace craft that fly at higher speeds and altitudes, requirements for detailed understanding of high-temperature materials become very important. Model testing is a natural and critical part of the development of these new initiatives. The well-established thermographic phosphor techniques of the Applied Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are highly desirable for diagnostic evaluation of materials and aerodynamic shapes as studied in model tests. Combining this state-of-the-art thermographic technique with modern, higher-temperature models will greatly improve the practicability of tests for the advanced aerospace vehicles and will provide higher precision diagnostic information for quantitative evaluation of these tests. The wavelength ratio method for measuring surface temperatures of aerodynamic models was demonstrated in measurements made for this project. In particular, it was shown that the appropriate phosphors could be selected for the temperature range up to {approximately}700 {degree}F or higher and emission line ratios of sufficient sensitivity to measure temperature with 1% precision or better. Further, it was demonstrated that two-dimensional image- processing methods, using standard hardware, can be successfully applied to surface thermography of aerodynamic models for AEDC applications.

  4. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, J.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Evaluating coronary artery disease noninvasively--which test for whom?

    PubMed Central

    Chou, T M; Amidon, T M

    1994-01-01

    The generally accepted indications for stress testing in patients with coronary artery disease include confirming the diagnosis of angina, determining the limitation of activity caused by angina, assessing prognosis in patients with known coronary artery disease, assessing perioperative risk, and evaluating responses to therapy. In patients with a clinical scenario strongly suggestive of angina, testing is not necessary to diagnose coronary artery disease. The exercise treadmill-electrocardiogram test is the oldest and most extensively used stress test and can be reliably performed in patients who are clinically stable and who have an interpretable resting electrocardiogram. The addition of myocardial imaging agents such as thallium 201, technetium Tc 99m sestamibi, and technetium Tc 99m teboroxime increases the sensitivity and specificity for detecting coronary disease. Pharmacologic agents such as dipyridamole, adenosine, and dobutamine may be used in patients who cannot exercise adequately. Myocardial ischemia can also be evaluated by echocardiography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging, especially when additional information such as left ventricular and valvular function is desired. We review the indications for the noninvasive evaluation of coronary artery disease and the rationale for selecting a diagnostic test. PMID:7941543

  6. Developing, testing, evaluating, and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991 to 92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

  7. Tests and evaluation of multihundred watt thermoelectric generators at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouklove, P.

    1977-01-01

    The multihundred watt (MHW) thermoelectric generator, based on silicon-germanium thermoelectric technology, delivers a nominal power output of 150 watts with an efficiency of about 6%. The two Voyager space probes each use three such generators assembled in tandem on a boom. A total of seven MHW type thermoelectric generators were tested at JPL in support of the Voyager project. The tests consisted of: (1) parametric evaluation of the electrical characteristics of the devices over a wide range of output voltage for different values of input power, different operating ambients (air, vacuum), and different internal environments (argon, helium, xenon, mixture of these gases, and vacuum) at different pressures to allow evaluation of the influences of both gas and pressure on the performance of the generator; (2) tests to determine the transient behavior of the generators; and (3) operation of the generator in conjunction with the Voyager spacecraft.

  8. Applied methods of testing and evaluation for IR imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiao-yue; Lu, Jin

    2009-07-01

    Different methods of testing and evaluation for IR imaging system are used with the application of the 2nd and the 3rd generation infrared detectors. The performance of IR imaging system can be reflected by many specifications, such as Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD), Nonuniformity, system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD), and Minimum Detectable Temperature Difference (MRTD) etc. The sensitivity of IR sensors is estimated by NETD. The sensitivity of thermal imaging sensors and space resolution are evaluated by MRTD, which is the chief specification of system. In this paper, the theoretical analysis of different testing methods is introduced. The characteristics of them are analyzed and compared. Based on discussing the factors that affect measurement results, an applied method of testing NETD and MRTD for IR system is proposed.

  9. Test and evaluation of the HIDEC engine uptrim algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Myers, L. P.

    1986-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine-airframe control systems. Performance improvements will result from an adaptive engine stall margin mode, a highly integrated mode that uses the airplane flight conditions and the resulting inlet distortion to continuously compute engine stall margin. When there is excessive stall margin, the engine is uptrimmed for more thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR). The EPR uptrim logic has been evaluated and implemented into computer simulations. Thrust improvements over 10 percent are predicted for subsonic flight conditions. The EPR uptrim was successfully demonstrated during engine ground tests. Test results verify model predictions at the conditions tested.

  10. Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-24

    The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

  11. Evaluation of a virucidal quantitative carrier test for surface disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Rabenau, Holger F; Steinmann, Jochen; Rapp, Ingrid; Schwebke, Ingeborg; Eggers, Maren

    2014-01-01

    Surface disinfectants are part of broader preventive strategies preventing the transmission of bacteria, fungi and viruses in medical institutions. To evaluate their virucidal efficacy, these products must be tested with appropriate model viruses with different physico-chemical properties under conditions representing practical application in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate a quantitative carrier assay. Furthermore, different putative model viruses like adenovirus type 5 (AdV-5) and different animal parvoviruses were evaluated with respect to their tenacity and practicability in laboratory handling. To evaluate the robustness of the method, some of the viruses were tested in parallel in different laboratories in a multi-center study. Different biocides, which are common active ingredients of surface disinfectants, were used in the test. After drying on stainless steel discs as the carrier, model viruses were exposed to different concentrations of three alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA) or glutaraldehyde (GDA), with a fixed exposure time of 5 minutes. Residual virus was determined after treatment by endpoint titration. All parvoviruses exhibited a similar stability with respect to GDA, while AdV-5 was more susceptible. For PAA, the porcine parvovirus was more sensitive than the other parvoviruses, and again, AdV-5 presented a higher susceptibility than the parvoviruses. All parvoviruses were resistant to alcohols, while AdV-5 was only stable when treated with 2-propanol. The analysis of the results of the multi-center study showed a high reproducibility of this test system. In conclusion, two viruses with different physico-chemical properties can be recommended as appropriate model viruses for the evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of surface disinfectants: AdV-5, which has a high clinical impact, and murine parvovirus (MVM) with the highest practicability among the parvoviruses tested. PMID:24475079

  12. Evaluation of a Virucidal Quantitative Carrier Test for Surface Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Rabenau, Holger F.; Steinmann, Jochen; Rapp, Ingrid; Schwebke, Ingeborg; Eggers, Maren

    2014-01-01

    Surface disinfectants are part of broader preventive strategies preventing the transmission of bacteria, fungi and viruses in medical institutions. To evaluate their virucidal efficacy, these products must be tested with appropriate model viruses with different physico-chemical properties under conditions representing practical application in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate a quantitative carrier assay. Furthermore, different putative model viruses like adenovirus type 5 (AdV-5) and different animal parvoviruses were evaluated with respect to their tenacity and practicability in laboratory handling. To evaluate the robustness of the method, some of the viruses were tested in parallel in different laboratories in a multi-center study. Different biocides, which are common active ingredients of surface disinfectants, were used in the test. After drying on stainless steel discs as the carrier, model viruses were exposed to different concentrations of three alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA) or glutaraldehyde (GDA), with a fixed exposure time of 5 minutes. Residual virus was determined after treatment by endpoint titration. All parvoviruses exhibited a similar stability with respect to GDA, while AdV-5 was more susceptible. For PAA, the porcine parvovirus was more sensitive than the other parvoviruses, and again, AdV-5 presented a higher susceptibility than the parvoviruses. All parvoviruses were resistant to alcohols, while AdV-5 was only stable when treated with 2-propanol. The analysis of the results of the multi-center study showed a high reproducibility of this test system. In conclusion, two viruses with different physico-chemical properties can be recommended as appropriate model viruses for the evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of surface disinfectants: AdV-5, which has a high clinical impact, and murine parvovirus (MVM) with the highest practicability among the parvoviruses tested. PMID:24475079

  13. Determination of canal leakage potential using continuous resistivity profiling techniques, Interstate and Tri-State Canals, western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Kress, Wade H.; Steele, Gregory V.; Cannia, James C.; Andersen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    In the North Platte River Basin, a ground-water model is being developed to evaluate the effectiveness of using water leakage from selected irrigation canal systems to enhance ground-water recharge. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, used land-based capacitively coupled and water-borne direct-current continuous resistivity profiling techniques to map the lithology of the upper 8 meters and to interpret the relative canal leakage potential of 110 kilometers of the Interstate and Tri-State Canals in western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming. Lithologic descriptions from 25 test holes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of both techniques for indicating relative grain size. An interpretive color scale was developed that symbolizes contrasting resistivity features indicative of different grain-size categories. The color scale was applied to the vertically averaged resistivity and used to classify areas of the canals as having either high, moderate, or low canal leakage potential. When results were compared with the lithologic descriptions, both land-based and water-borne continuous resistivity profiling techniques were determined to be effective at differentiating coarse-grained from fine-grained sediment. Both techniques were useful for producing independent, similar interpretations of canal leakage potential.

  14. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36

  15. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a

  16. Early Alzheimer's Linked to Brain 'Leakage'

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159116.html Early Alzheimer's Linked to Brain 'Leakage' Normally, blood-brain barrier ... HealthDay News) -- People in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease may have more "leaks" in the barrier ...

  17. Composite seal reduces alkaline battery leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Plitt, K. F.

    1965-01-01

    Composite seal consisting of rubber or plastic washers and a metal washer reduces alkaline battery leakage. Adhesive is applied to each washer interface, and the washers are held together mechanically.

  18. Early Alzheimer's Linked to Brain 'Leakage'

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159116.html Early Alzheimer's Linked to Brain 'Leakage' Normally, blood-brain barrier prevents this from happening To use the ... more "leaks" in the barrier that separates the brain from the bloodstream, a small study suggests. Known ...

  19. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  20. Parking and routing information system phase 1 evaluation -- Individual evaluation test plans

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    A parking and routing information system (PARIS) is being designed and deployed at a test site on the Mountain Home Veterans Administration campus in Johnson City, Tennessee using three sensor technologies. The purpose of the PARIS project is to demonstrate innovative integration of vehicle sensing technologies with parking management strategies to improve mobility and relieve congestion associated with a growing medical/technology complex. This technical memorandum presents the four individual evaluation test plans, System Performance Individual Evaluation Test Plan, User Acceptance Individual Evaluation Test Plan, Institutional and Business Issues Individual Evaluation Test Plan, and Transportation Systems Individual Evaluation Test Plan, which were developed to support ORNL`s responsibilities and functions during the four studies. The plans define the level of effort required to satisfy the data collection, processing, and analysis requirements for the assessment of the system performance, user acceptance, institutional and business issues, and transportation systems components of the PARIS phase 1 evaluation. Each plan is divided into three subsections: executive summary, detailed study design, and study management.

  1. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures in EPA Method 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 to determine an oxygen correction factor if... performance test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies....

  2. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures in EPA Method 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 to determine an oxygen correction factor if... performance test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies....

  3. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures in EPA Method 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 to determine an oxygen correction factor if... performance test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies....

  4. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures in EPA Method 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 to determine an oxygen correction factor if... test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to you... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies....

  5. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to you... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies. (c... and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies. (d) You may not...

  6. SHEAR STRENGTH MEASURING EQUIPMENT EVALUATION AT THE COLD TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-09-09

    Retrievals under current criteria require that approximately 2,000,000 gallons of double-shell tank (DST) waste storage space not be used to prevent creating new tanks that might be susceptible to buoyant displacement gas release events (BDGRE). New criteria are being evaluated, based on actual sludge properties, to potentially show that sludge wastes do not exhibit the same BDGRE risk. Implementation of the new criteria requires measurement of in situ waste shear strength. Cone penetrometers were judged the best equipment for measuring in situ shear strength and an A.P. van den berg Hyson 100 kN Light Weight Cone Penetrometer (CPT) was selected for evaluation. The CPT was procured and then evaluated at the Hanford Site Cold Test Facility. Evaluation demonstrated that the equipment with minor modification was suitable for use in Tank Farms.

  7. Measuring Heat-Exchanger Water Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zampiceni, J.

    1986-01-01

    Water leakage in heat exchanger measured directly with help of electroytic hygrometer. In new technique, flow of nitrogen gas set up in one loop of heat exchanger. Other loop filled with water under pressure. Water concentration produced by leakage of water into nitrogen flow measured by hygrometer. New measurement method determines water concentrations up to 2,000 parts per million with accuracy of +/- 5 percent.

  8. An evaluation of the K2 asbestos screening test.

    PubMed

    Oestenstad, R K; Rose, V E

    1986-05-01

    The predictive ability of the K2 Asbestos Screening Test was determined by comparing the results obtained with the test and confirming analysis by polarizing light microscopy on 90 bulk insulation samples. The test yielded 38.9% true positives, 4.4% true negatives, 56.7% false positives and 0% false negatives. The proportion of false positives was significantly different from that reported by the researchers who developed the test and found that the test would not yield false positives. The results of this study are similar to those reported in a previous evaluation of the test. It was concluded that the screening test is not an effective screening tool because of the high proportion of false positives, as reflected by marginal values of specificity and positive predictive value. It was noted that problems with the test might result from failure of the wash steps to adequately remove positive interferences apparently associated with gypsum and mineral wool. Problems in interpreting color changes were noted also. PMID:3717007

  9. thin films toward less leakage currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Cong; Li, Yang; Kim, Hong-Ki; Kim, Nam-Young

    2014-08-01

    To prepare high-density integrated capacitors with low leakage currents, 0.2-μm-thick BaTiO3 thin films were successfully deposited on integrated semiconductor substrates at room temperature by the aerosol deposition (AD) method. In this study, the effects of starting powder size were considered in an effort to remove macroscopic defects. A surface morphology of 25.3 nm and an interface roughness of less than 50 nm were obtained using BT-03B starting powder. The nano-crystalline thin films achieved after deposition were annealed at various temperatures to promote crystallization and densification. Moreover, the influence of rapid thermal annealing process on the surface morphology and crystal growth was evaluated. As the annealing temperature increased from room temperature to 650°C, the root mean square (RMS) roughness decreased from 25.3 to 14.3 nm. However, the surface was transformed into rough performance at 750°C, which agreed well with the surface microstructure trend. Moreover, the crystal growth also reveals the changes in surface morphology via surface energy analysis.

  10. Leakage Suppression in the Toric Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchara, Martin; Cross, Andrew; Gambetta, Jay

    2015-03-01

    Quantum codes excel at correcting local noise but fail to correct leakage faults that excite qubits to states outside the computational space. Aliferis and Terhal have shown that an accuracy threshold exists for leakage faults using gadgets called leakage reduction units (LRUs). However, these gadgets reduce the threshold and increase experimental complexity, and the costs have not been thoroughly understood. We explore a variety of techniques for leakage resilience in topological codes. Our contributions are threefold. First, we develop a leakage model that differs in critical details from earlier models. Second, we use Monte-Carlo simulations to survey several syndrome extraction circuits. Third, given the capability to perform 3-outcome measurements, we present a dramatically improved syndrome processing algorithm. Our simulations show that simple circuits with one extra CNOT per qubit reduce the accuracy threshold by less than a factor of 4 when leakage and depolarizing noise rates are comparable. This becomes a factor of 2 when the decoder uses 3-outcome measurements. Finally, when the physical error rate is less than 2 ×10-4 , placing LRUs after every gate may achieve the lowest logical error rate. We expect that the ideas may generalize to other topological codes.

  11. Materials Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04, 05, and 06

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Ingram, C; Simmons, L; Arganbright, R; Lyle, J; Wong, K

    2006-03-23

    The purpose of this work is to examine the environmental, safety, health and operational aspects of detonating a confined explosive test apparatus that has been designed to maximize the dynamics of impact on beryllium metal components for Contained Firing Facility (CFF) applications. A combination of experimental collection and evaluation methods were designed and implemented to provide an evaluation of immediately postdetonation by-products reflecting a potential worst-case scenario beryllium aerosolization explosive event. The collective Material Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04 - 06 provided explosive devices designed to scale for the dedicated METS firing tank that would provide a post-detonation internal environment comparable to the CFF. The experimental results provided appropriate information to develop operational parameters to be considered for conducting full-scale beryllium-containing experimental tests with similar designs within CFF and B801A. These operational procedures include the inclusion of chelating agents in pre-shot CFF cardboard containers with a minimum of 600 gallons content, an extended time period post-test before purging the CFF chamber, and an adaptation of approaches toward applications of the scrubber and HEPA systems during the post-shot sequence for an integrated environmental, safety, and health approach. In addition, re-entry and film retrieval procedures will be adapted, in line with abatement techniques for cleaning the chamber, that will be required for work inside a CFF that will contain an elevated concentration of spherical and highly aerosolizable beryllium particulate.

  12. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    SciTech Connect

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-12-17

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site

  13. Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity?

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs = -0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = -0.82) and bench press (rs = -0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.83) and bench press (rs = -0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = -0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = -0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  14. Development of a Test Facility for Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Sao-Dung; Lin, Amy; Campbell, Melissa; Smith, Frederick; Curley, Su

    2007-01-01

    Development of new air revitalization system (ARS) technology can initially be performed in a subscale laboratory environment, but in order to advance the maturity level, the technology must be tested in an end-to-end integrated environment. The Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation Facility (ARTEF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center serves as a ground test bed for evaluating emerging ARS technologies in an environment representative of spacecraft atmospheres. At the center of the ARTEF is a hypobaric chamber which serves as a sealed atmospheric chamber for closed loop testing. A Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) was custom-built to simulate the consumption of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide, moisture and heat of up to eight persons. A multitude of gas analyzers and dew point sensors are used to monitor the chamber atmosphere upstream and downstream of a test article. A robust vacuum system is needed to simulate the vacuum of space. A reliable data acquisition and control system is required to connect all the subsystems together. This paper presents the capabilities of the integrated test facility and some of the issues encountered during the integration.

  15. Quality Evaluation By Acousto-Ultrasonic Testing Of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1989-01-01

    Promising nondestructive-testing method based on ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. Report reviews acousto-ultrasonic technology for nondestructive testing. Discusses principles, suggests advanced signal-analysis schemes for development, and presents potential applications. Acousto-ultrasonics applied principally to assess defects in laminated and filament-wound fiber-reinforced composite materials. Technique used to determine variations in such properties as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and reductions in strength and toughness caused by defects. Also used to evaluate states of cure, porosities, orientation of fibers, volume fractions of fibers, bonding between fibers and matrices, and qualities of interlaminar bonds.

  16. Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

  17. Issues concerning the evaluation and regulation of predictive genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Zimmern, R L

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a précis of my keynote address at the Symposium on Predictive Genetic Testing organised by the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin. The talk is based on reflections which I have had over a number of years on genetic testing and its evaluation and regulation. It presents a thesis, which I hope will generate discussion and comment. A theme which will run through the paper is the need for precise definition of terms before making any normative statement about such terms. Our failure to do so in genetic discourse is at best confusing and at worst capable of resulting in inappropriate (and sometimes harmful) regulatory responses. PMID:22773250

  18. Flight-Test Evaluation of Flutter-Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, RIck; Brenner, Marty

    2003-01-01

    The flight-test community routinely spends considerable time and money to determine a range of flight conditions, called a flight envelope, within which an aircraft is safe to fly. The cost of determining a flight envelope could be greatly reduced if there were a method of safely and accurately predicting the speed associated with the onset of an instability called flutter. Several methods have been developed with the goal of predicting flutter speeds to improve the efficiency of flight testing. These methods include (1) data-based methods, in which one relies entirely on information obtained from the flight tests and (2) model-based approaches, in which one relies on a combination of flight data and theoretical models. The data-driven methods include one based on extrapolation of damping trends, one that involves an envelope function, one that involves the Zimmerman-Weissenburger flutter margin, and one that involves a discrete-time auto-regressive model. An example of a model-based approach is that of the flutterometer. These methods have all been shown to be theoretically valid and have been demonstrated on simple test cases; however, until now, they have not been thoroughly evaluated in flight tests. An experimental apparatus called the Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) was developed to test these prediction methods.

  19. Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan

    2007-08-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign.

  20. INEL test plan for evaluating waste assay systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mandler, J.W.; Becker, G.K.; Harker, Y.D.; Menkhaus, D.E.; Clements, T.L. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    A test bed is being established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These tests are currently focused on mobile or portable radioassay systems. Prior to disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), radioassay measurements must meet the quality assurance objectives of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. This test plan provides technology holders with the opportunity to assess radioassay system performance through a three-tiered test program that consists of: (a) evaluations using non-interfering matrices, (b) surrogate drums with contents that resemble the attributes of INEL-specific waste forms, and (c) real waste tests. Qualified sources containing a known mixture and range of radionuclides will be used for the non-interfering and surrogate waste tests. The results of these tests will provide technology holders with information concerning radioassay system performance and provide the INEL with data useful for making decisions concerning alternative or improved radioassay systems that could support disposal of waste at WIPP.