Clow, John, Ed.; Woolschlager, Ruth B., Ed.
The learning disabilities monograph contains five brief articles dealing with various aspects of learning disabilities as they related to business education. "Learning Disabilities: A Challenge for the Vocational Business Educator" (Dorothy Munger) concerns screening students with learning disabilities into rather than out of business education…
Lyon, G. Reid, Ed.; And Others
This book examines critical issues in classification and definition of learning disabilities; the development of theory in learning disabilities; the development of cognitive, developmental, and educational models of learning disabilities; and social and public policy in learning disabilities. After an introductory chapter by G. Reid Lyon and…
Hayes, Marnell L.; Sloat, Robert S.
This paper cites studies on the interaction of depression and learning disability, examines the question of whether depression is a result or a cause of learning disability, emphasizes the importance of proper diagnosis of depression versus learning disability, and reviews the incidence of suicide-related events among the learning-disabled.…
The activities of the Specific Learning Disabilities Program and its model demonstration centers are reviewed, the term "specific learning disabilities" is operationally defined, and special education issues (such as the need for research on methodologies and curricula) are listed. (SBH)
Orzek, Ann M.
Proposes the use of peer support groups as an effective intervention for dealing with personal and academic needs of college students who have learning disabilities. By considering Chickering's vectors of development, special concerns for the student can be generated. (JAC)
Caffrey, Erin; Fuchs, Douglas
We reviewed eight studies that described learning differences between students with learning disabilities (LD) and students with mild mental retardation (MMR). A total of 639 students, 6-20 years old, participated in these studies. Study authors examined students' inductive reasoning and their performance during guided inquiry and more lengthy…
Epstein, Michael H.; And Others
Focuses on characteristics of learning disabled children, definitions and etiologies of learning disabilities, and screening and intervention procedures. Also reviews recent research on learning disabilities, and suggests future directions for child welfare professionals. (CM)
Woodward, J; Noell, J
Designing appropriate content area instruction for secondary students with learning disabilities is a challenging endeavor. Even if these students are mainstreamed into algebra, history, or science classes, special educators are likely to expect only a minimal grasp of the material. To go beyond this, to teach higher order thinking through these subjects, would be regarded by most practitioners as too labor-intensive. The authors of this article argue that, through a comprehensive revision of traditional materials, secondary students with learning disabilities can learn content area subjects--earth science and introductory chemistry, particularly--in an integrated manner. These students can achieve a firm understanding of the subject, as well as learn how to solve complex, domain-specific problems. For this kind of integrated instruction to be feasible, the curriculum must be designed and field-tested by professional curriculum developers. PMID:2045724
Grant, Kevin T.
Students with learning disabilities (LD) are part of the largest and most rapidly expanding population of college students (Burgstahler & Moore, 2009; Garrison-Wade & Lehmann, 2009; Foley 2006; Chew, Jensen, & Rosen, 2009; Thomas, 2000). Current estimations show approximately one and a half million college students have a documented…
Blasi, Joyce F.
Discussed are characteristics of criterion referenced reading tests for use with learning disabled (LD) children, and analyzed are the Basic Educational Skills Inventory (BESI), the Prescriptive Reading Inventory (PRI), and the Cooper-McGuire Diagnostic Work-Analysis Test (CooperMcGuire). Criterion referenced tests are defined; and problems in…
Hock, Michael F.
Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level.…
Cramer, Shirley C., Ed.; Ellis, William, Ed.
This book contains papers on learning disabilities based on presentations made at the "Summit on Learning Disabilities: A National Responsibility," held in September 1994. The first section provides an overview and includes "The State of Research" (G. Reid Lyon). The second section focuses on education and includes: "Preventing Early Reading…
Shepard, Lorrie A.
The assessment and diagnosis of learning disabilities (LD) in the school is problematic. How do educators determine who is learning disabled? What practices are recommended? The main focus of the paper is on specific, relatively technical points that influence the validity of assessment. Since technical concerns are only one of the factors…
Gerber, Paul J., Ed.; Brown, Dale S., Ed.
This book provides information on preparing individuals with learning disabilities for the challenges of employment and outlines the rights of those with learning disabilities in the workplace. Introductory chapters in Part 1 include: "Life after School: Challenges in the Workplace" (Paul J. Gerber); "The New Economy in the 21st Century:…
This collection of articles on gifted learning disabled students begins with an explanation of the philosophy of the Center for Talented Youth at Johns Hopkins University (Maryland), a list of characteristics of gifted disabled students, and three definitions of learning disabilities. The following papers are then provided: "Gifted but Learning…
Presents answers to common questions on meeting the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) in regular classrooms. Describes LD, offers instructional strategies, and discusses teaching abstract concepts, student self-esteem, student depression, teacher emotions, inclusive education, how to tell whether someone has LD, and where to get…
Williams, Carrie Wehmann; Hounshell, Paul B.
Addresses the dearth of materials in science for the learning disabled student. Suggests some teaching strategies such as a student assignment journal, the usefulness of mnemonics, and incorporating technology such as computers as much as possible. Also discusses classroom organization, assessment strategies, and how to build confidence. (AIM)
Someone who has a learning disability has difficulty in perceiving, understanding, and using information from the environment. This disability can cause problems in reading, listening, speaking, writing, spelling, or performing mathematics. Furthermore, learning disabilities may affect motor functioning, memory, and attention. Because a growing…
Pedigree analysis of 12 young adults (9 of whom had learning disabilities) indicated that learning disability (LD) was strongly familial but that the type of disability (reading or math) was not directly inherited. Autoimmune disorders were significantly correlated with LD. In seven of the LD families, adults failed to overcome earlier reading and…
Fore, Cecil, III; Riser, Susan; Boon, Richard
Cooperative learning is an instructional model that draws extensively on contributions of multiple theorists, including Piaget, Vygotsky, Carroll and other researchers. Many different cooperative learning arrangements have been developed and researched. The most extensively researched and evaluated cooperative learning arrangements is by Robert…
Zollinger, Ruth H., Ed.; Klein, Nancy K., Ed.
Presented are six papers originally delivered at a colloquium series on the problems of the learning disabled child, with emphasis on a multidisciplinary perspective. In "One Psychologist's Perspective on Learning Disabilities," J. Kessler provides an overview of the field with sections on definition and identification, etiology, testing as a…
Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia
The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities--language…
Gerber, Paul J.
This introductory article on adults with learning disabilities considers historical antecedents, the role of public policy (the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act), the movement within the field of learning disabilities emphasizing transition to adulthood, and the continuance of public policy…
Burns, Matthew K.
Curriculum-based assessment assesses the match between curriculum and student skill by computing the percentage of known words in a reading task and comparing it to the instructional level criterion of 93% to 97% known. The current study examined the effect of preteaching unknown words to 29 third-grade children identified as learning disabled…
Sight-Saving Review, 1971
A joint organizational statement on vision and therapy for learning disabilities and dyslexia is presented by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, and the American Association of Ophthalmology. (CB)
Lubar, Joel F.
The use of neurometric techniques for screening of learning disabilities and the subsequent use of electroencephalogram biofeedback techniques provides a solid foundation for helping children with attention deficit disorders to improve markedly their ability to learn and to obtain significant improvements in school performance. (MT)
Summarizes key themes described in the learning organization literature and discusses ways in which each theme illuminates how schools might be better organized to deliver services for students with disabilities. Addresses organizational learning, knowledge, authentic communication, vision, steward leadership, systems perspective, and…
Smith, Robert T., Ed.
Eleven brief articles focus on specific learning disabilities with emphasis on programs in New York State and City. Articles have the following titles and authors: "The History of Learning Disabilities Revisited" (J. Wiederholt, G. Hale); "The Learning in Learning Disability--Ask What, Not Why" (R. Schworm) which stresses the need to identify…
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat
This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2005
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) is a national committee representing 11 organizations concerned about individuals with learning disabilities. The NJCLD considers and discusses contemporary issues in learning disabilities and develops and disseminates reports and statements related to these issues to influence policy…
Krasnoff, Margaret J., Ed.
Presented are ten papers given at a 1974 conference focusing on realistic goals for serving learning disabled children in the decade ahead. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Introduction and Overview of the Problem of the Conference" (W. Cruickshank); "Concepts of Vision in Relation to Perception" (G. Getman); "Motor Activities and…
Kappelman, Murray M.
The author advocates an interdisciplinary team approach to diagnosis and prescription for the elementary school learning disabled (LD) child. Described is a 5-year project, funded under Title VI, operating within 11-18 elementary schools surrounding the University of Maryland Hospital. Biweekly services are offered to participating schools by a…
... In Memory of Janet Lerner It is with deep sadness that we share with you that Dr. Janet Lerner passed away on May 26, 2015. Janet was a long-time supporter of Learning Disability Association’s since the late 1960’s, speaking at ...
Dwyer, Kevin P.; Kegley, John F.
Describes a pilot project in Montgomery County, Maryland aimed at developing a clear, functional procedure for identification of specific learning disabilities. An interdisciplinary team is used to interpret test scores that compare intelligence and achievement, and serves as a consultant to school staff members. (JAC)
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly
The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a…
Leko, Melinda M.; Griffin, Cynthia C.
In a 1986 study published in the "Learning Disability Quarterly," Simmons and Kame'enui examined information found in popular periodicals about learning disabilities (LD) in an effort to understand what people learn about LD from these high-readership sources. After more than 20 years, advances in technology have brought significant changes to how…
Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…
...2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300...Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A...
Bryant, Brian R.; Seay, Penny Crews
Discusses implications of the Technology-Related Assistance to Individuals with Disabilities Act (1988, 1994) for people with learning disabilities. It discusses the rationale for the act; its provisions and goals; and systems change and advocacy activities of state projects concerning policy analysis, funding, interagency collaboration, consumer…
Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.
This volume presents 10 papers on research and methodology in learning and behavioral disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Memory Judgments and Allocation of Study Times in Good and Poor Comprehenders" (Ombretta Papetti et al.); "Diagnostic Spelling Analysis Within Curriculum-Based Measurement: Implications for Students…
Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.
One presentation in the area of learning disabilities by Emily Sheldon considers the structure of an educational program with teachers and parents in rural areas. A plan for thorough diagnosis and suggested classroom modifications and treatment is described. Conclusions, offering specific educational implications, are presented. A second report by…
Weller, Carol; Strawser, Sherr
The unique adaptive behavior characteristics of five subtypes of students identified as learning disabled (LD) are described: (1) non-LD (though classified as such); (2) production deficits; (3) verbal organization disorders; (4) nonverbal organization disorders; (5) global functional disorders. Implications for assessment, programming, and…
Ruth D. Nass
Boys more often than girls are affected by all the cognitive developmental disorders of childhood. Differences in the etiology\\u000a of learning disabilities as well as general sex differences in learning styles in boys versus girls may explain the male preponderance\\u000a in the prevalence of learning disabilities. The effects on learning of hormonal sex differences, maturation rate differences,\\u000a and differences in
Fletcher, Jack M.; Lyon, G. Reid; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Barnes, Marcia A.
Evidence based and comprehensive, this important work offers a new approach to understanding and intervening with students with learning disabilities. The authors--leading experts in neuropsychology and special education--present a unique model of learning disabilities that integrates the cognitive, neural, genetic, and contextual factors…
Tarver, Sara; Maggiore, Ronald
The findings provide evidence that the learning disabled develop most cognitive abilities in a manner similar to that of their normal counterparts, though perhaps slightly delayed, and that by adolescence, development in the learning disabled approaches that of normals. (Author/DLS)
Tarver, Sara G.
Based on an empirical study of over 3,000 learning disabled children and on a review of research, the paper outlines intellectual, attention and verbal mediation, social-affective, and oral and written characteristics of learning disabled students. Among the findings reported are the following: the median educational retardation is one grade below…
Loewenstein, Andrea Freud
Various kinds of learning disabilities confronted by Andrea Loewenstein in her school days are mentioned. These days there are learning disabilities of various kinds, though they are reserved for middle-class children, special provisions involving extra time and help are mandated.
Brewer, Vickie R.; Moore, Bartlett D., III; Hiscock, Merrill
This study investigated the incidence of learning disabilities in 105 children (ages 6-18) with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1). Results found that nearly 70% of the subjects were academically deficient and 42% met the criteria for learning disabilities. A low incidence of visuospatial-constructional deficits was also found. (Author/CR)
A study examined alternative instructional materials and strategies for learning disabled college students and strategies for locating and mainstreaming these students. Site visits were made to programs for learning-disabled college students in the Houston, Texas, area to determine their scope and the strategies that they used. Additional…
Recent changes in legislation (IDEA) have implications for the changing role of the school psychologist, specifically in the evaluation of students with learning disabilities. There is a need to examine the attitudes and practices of school psychologists regarding specific learning disability identification as there is little consistency in how…
Pintrich, P R; Anderman, E M; Klobucar, C
The present study examines several cognitive and motivational variables that distinguish children with learning disabilities (n = 19) from children without learning disabilities (n = 20). The total sample included 30 males and 9 females and was composed of white, fifth-grade students from a middle-class community in the Midwest. Results showed that although the students with learning disabilities displayed lower levels of metacognitive knowledge and reading comprehension, they did not differ from the students without learning disabilities on self-efficacy, intrinsic orientation, or anxiety. In addition, they did not show any signs of learned helplessness, although they did tend to attribute success and failure to external causes more often than the students without learning disabilities. Using a cluster analysis that grouped individuals, we found that differences in the motivational and cognitive variables cut across a priori categories of children with and without learning disabilities. Three clusters were formed: one with high comprehension, motivation, and metacognition (mostly children without learning disabilities); one with low levels of comprehension and metacognition but high intrinsic motivation (all children with learning disabilities); and one with low intrinsic motivation but average comprehension, metacognition, and attributional style (approximately equal numbers of children with and without learning disabilities). Implications for diagnosis and intervention for students with learning disabilities are discussed. PMID:8051509
Ho, Fuk-chuen; Siegel, Linda
This paper consists of three studies. The first study aimed to identify sub-types of students with learning disabilities in reading. Based on the dual-route model of reading, words may be read using either a lexical (words are recognized as wholes) or a sub-lexical (words are recognized through grapheme-phoneme correspondence) procedure. Castles…
Willis, Diane S.
Changes in the living circumstances of people with learning disabilities have seen responsibility for their health become the provenance of paid-and family-carers. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with three family-carers and ten paid-carers. Findings revealed that the role of these carers was undefined, leading to difficulty in…
Dexter, Douglas D.; Park, Youn J.; Hughes, Charles A.
This article presents a meta-analysis of experimental and quasi-experimental studies in which intermediate and secondary students with learning disabilities were taught science content through the use of graphic organizers (GOs). Following an exhaustive search for studies meeting specified selection criteria, 23 standardized mean effect sizes were…
PAULA J. CAPLAN; LINDA DINARDO
It has been suggested that there is a relationship between child abuse and learning disability. Perhaps child abuse causes learning disability; perhaps learning disability places a child at particular risk for being abused; perhaps both are true. No adequate investigation of the possible relationship(s) of child abuse to learning disability can be carried out in the absence of adequate, consensual
Lewis, Katherine E.
Mathematical learning disability (MLD) research often conflates low achievement with disabilities and focuses exclusively on deficits of students with MLDs. In this study, the author adopts an alternative approach using a response-to-intervention MLD classification model to identify the resources students draw on rather than the skills they lack.…
Steele, Marcee M.
Students with learning disabilities (LD) frequently take general education science classes because their disabilities are very mild. Sometimes, however, it is difficult for students with LD to succeed in the classes and pass the related high-stakes assessments mandated by No Child Left Behind (NCLB). In this article, the author reviews typical LD…
Anderson, Peggy L.; And Others
This article discusses aspects of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) which may be of particular interest to individuals with learning disabilities preparing for employment. Case studies are presented to illustrate applications of the ADA to typical workplace situations, and suggestions are given with regard to employment preparation…
This article advocates an approach to supporting students who experience difficulties in learning, irrespective of nosology, particularly in the key areas of literacy and numeracy. In the state of Queensland, Australia, a distinction has been made between students' experiencing learning difficulties and those who have learning disabilities (LD).…
Scott-Little, Catherine; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Frelow, Victoria Stebbins; Reid, Jeanne
Early learning guidelines (ELGs)--documents that describe the skills, characteristics, and dispositions adults seek to foster in young children--are increasingly common. Although less prevalent than ELGs for 3- and 4-year-old children, ELGs for infants and toddlers have been developed in more than half of the 50 states. Given this momentum, a…
Atkinson, Terry S.; Wilhite, Kathi L.; Frey, Laura M.; Williams, Sarah C.
This article discusses the difficulties in meeting the needs of diverse student populations including those with learning and/or behavioral difficulties while meeting the demands of standards and accountability. It stresses the importance of matching the reading instructional program to the specific needs of the student and fine-tuning strategies…
The career "cascade" approach to career education for learning disabled students is described. The model is developed on the belief that career education must be life centered, developmental, and individually designed. (PHR)
Bigler, Erin D.; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Howes, Nancy-Louise
Reviews recent neuroradiologic and brain imaging techniques in the assessment of learning disability. Technologies reviewed include computerized tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; electrophysiological and metabolic imaging; computerized electroencepholographic studies of evoked potentials, event-related potentials, spectral analysis, and…
Messerer, Jeffrey; Lerner, Janet W.
Instructional strategies for teaching learning-disabled students to use word processing for writing are considered. The features of three word processing programs useful for these students are compared for usefulness in a variety of curriculum applications. (Author/DB)
Godsell, M; Scarborough, K
Patients with learning disabilities have higher healthcare risks than the general population. Health professionals need to develop skills that enable them to communicate effectively with this patient group. Identifying barriers to communication is the first step to reducing or removing them. Suggested strategies to improve healthcare access for patients with learning disabilities include: developing individualised health action plans, simplifying communication styles and providing accessible facilities and tailored resources. PMID:16623294
Rand, Carol Crumm
JUDGMENT OF EMOTION BY LEARNING DISABLED ADOLESCENTS A Thesis by CAROL CRUMM RAND Subm1tted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulf111ment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major... Subject: Educational Psychology JUDGMENT OF EMOTION BY LEARNING DISABLED ADOLESCENTS A Thesis by CAROL CRUMM RAND Approved as to styie and content by: '7 (Chairman of Committee) Head o Department Member Member December 1978 ABSTRACT Judgment...
Peg Brigham Alden
Due to increasingly widespread inclusion practices and more thorough identification procedures, students with documented learning disabilities (LD) are becoming a larger percentage of the science classroom. Because many practicing science teachers have little training or experience in identifying and meeting the needs of students with disabilities, this article outlines basic educational principles that support the unique learning needs of these students. Each principle is accompanied by examples of how a science instructor might put the principle, "science for all students," into practice.
Force, Crista Marie
Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.
Brief Guidelines for Documentation of Learning Disabilities (LD) Harvard University Division your clinician in preparing documentation of your disability in order to help determine the appropriate accommodation. Please forward documentation that meets these guidelines to the Disability Services Coordinator
Guyer, Barbara P.; Guyer, Kenneth E.
This article discusses the characteristics of the medical students and physicians who have been diagnosed as having learning disabilities and/or attention deficit disorders and suggests appropriate accommodations that should be made by medical schools and testing agencies. The organization Medical H.E.L.P. (Higher Education for Learning Problems)…
Ross, Samuel B., Jr.
A visual literacy program may be helpful in reaching the "learning disabled" (youngsters of average or above average intelligence who are not achieving on or above grade level). To carry out a good visual literacy program it is necessary to have many kinds of arts and crafts materials, a supply of newspapers and magazines in a learning resource…
Manners, Paula Jean; Russ, Marina
This article is about the feelings of powerlessness that professionals feel to cure learning disability and to answer questions such as "why do I have a learning disability?". We describe how Emma showed us through role play what it was like to have learning difficulties. This article is interesting to people with learning disabilities because…
Cole, Terry Stokes
Science teachers have long noticed the fact that their students come to school with their own concepts, produced from daily experiences and interactions with the world around them. Sometimes these ideas are in agreement with accepted scientific theories, but often they are not. These "incorrect" ideas, or "misconceptions" have been the focus of many studies, which can be helpful to teachers when planning their lessons. However, there is a dearth of information that is geared specifically to students with learning disabilities. These students generally have deficits in areas of perception and learning that could conceivably influence the way they formulate concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the concepts held by students with learning disabilities on the causes of the day/night cycle, the phases of the moon, and the seasons. An interview format was judged to be the best method of ensuring that the students' ideas were clearly documented. The subjects were five, sixth-grade students in a city school, who had been determined to have a learning disability. In examining the results, there did not seem to be any direct link between the type of misconception formed and the learning deficit of the child. It seemed more likely that students formed their concepts the way students usually do, but the various disabilities they exhibited interfered with their learning of more appropriate conceptions. The results of this study will be helpful to science teachers, curriculum planners, or anyone who works with students who have learning disabilities. It is hoped that this will begin to fill a void in the area of learning disabilities research.
Talbot, Jenny; Riley, Chris
The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court…
Geoff Ruggeri-Stevens; Susan Goodwin
Purpose – The paper alerts small business employers to new dictates of the Disability Discrimination Act (2005) as it applies to learning disabilities. Then the “Learning to Work” project featured in the paper offers small business employers a set of approaches and methods for the identification of a learning-disabled young adult candidate's training needs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interviews were carried out
Fahey, David A.
Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)
Mathews, R. Mark; Whang, Paula L.; Fawcett, Stephen B.
This study, using direct observation and measurement techniques, analyzed the differences in occupational skills among learning disabled youths and their non-learning disabled peers . The results showed low levels of ...
Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel
This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)
Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Thompson, Richard E.
The aim of the present study was to address how to effectively predict mathematics learning disability (MLD). Specifically, we addressed whether cognitive data obtained during kindergarten can effectively predict which children will have MLD in third grade, whether an abbreviated test battery could be as effective as a standard psychoeducational assessment at predicting MLD, and whether the abbreviated battery corresponded to the literature on MLD characteristics. Participants were 226 children who enrolled in a 4-year prospective longitudinal study during kindergarten. We administered measures of mathematics achievement, formal and informal mathematics ability, visual-spatial reasoning, and rapid automatized naming and examined which test scores and test items from kindergarten best predicted MLD at grades 2 and 3. Statistical models using standardized scores from the entire test battery correctly classified ~80–83 percent of the participants as having, or not having, MLD. Regression models using scores from only individual test items were less predictive than models containing the standard scores, except for models using a specific subset of test items that dealt with reading numerals, number constancy, magnitude judgments of one-digit numbers, or mental addition of one-digit numbers. These models were as accurate in predicting MLD as was the model including the entire set of standard scores from the battery of tests examined. Our findings indicate that it is possible to effectively predict which kindergartners are at risk for MLD, and thus the findings have implications for early screening of MLD. PMID:20084182
The use of microcomputers to help the learning disabled increase their arithmetic skills is examined. The microcomputer should be used to aid the learning disabled student to practice the concepts taught by the teacher. Computer-aided instruction such as drill and practice may help the learning disabled student because it gives immediate feedback…
Kupper, Lisa, Ed.
This information brief describes some of the most common learning disabilities that can cause reading problems and lists organizations that can provide help. The paper first looks at types of learning disabilities in children and youth, categorized as input, integration, memory, and output disabilities. Methods of detecting and treating learning…
Leam A. Craig; Roger B. Hutchinson
While the literature on the assessment, treatment and management of non-learning disabled sexual offenders is well established, it is only in recent years that researchers and clinicians have focused on sexual offenders with learning disabilities. In contrast to mainstream sex offender treatment programmes, there are few evaluated community-based treatment programmes for sexual offenders with learning disabilities, and of the small
Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie
This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…
Independently, learning disabilities (LD) and involvement in bullying each pose a risk for social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Based on the research to date and on the characteristics common to children with LD and children who are bullied, there is reason to be- lieve that children with LD are at increased risk of victimization. However, there is little research on
Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.
The use of the "keyword" method as a tool for improving memory in learning disabled students is explained. The keyword method consists of two stages: an acoustical link stage and a stage in which the student is provided with a picture of the keyword interacting with the appropriate response term. The method can be modified for use in vocabulary…
Schoenbrodt, Lisa; And Others
A discussion of language disorders that often occur with learning disabilities focuses on definitions, characteristics, alternative assessment methods, and service delivery models and interventions. Use of standardized test batteries, curriculum-based language assessment, and portfolio assessment is reviewed. Principles and methods to enhance…
Vogel, Susan A., Ed.; Reder, Stephen, Ed.
This book deals with the long-neglected problem of learning disabilities (LDs) and the relationship of LDs to difficulties in the acquisition of literacy. Its 17 chapters are divided into 5 sections that begin with an opener to help the reader identify the main themes and content of each chapter in the section. Four chapters in Section I address…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others
In two experiments, students (10 learning disabled ninth graders and 45 nondisabled seventh graders) were taught the hardness levels of minerals according to either a keyword-pegword mnemonic, a questioning procedure, or free study. Mnemonic students significantly outrecalled both questioning and free-study students regardless of students'…
Lowey, Elizabeth L.
Suggests a project in creative stitchery, with yarn and burlap, as a way to relax learning disabled students and to help them with fine motor coordination, directionality, and self-image. Methods, objectives, and benefits of the project are listed. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (SJL)
Vigilante, Florence Wexler
Addresses problem areas encountered by families with learning-disabled children: parental self-blame and mourning, family life, the child's biological-psychological-social growth, and the child's achievement of independence. Argues that social workers have skills needed for effective remedial intervention. (RH)
BEERY, KEITH E.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS INITIAL REPORT OF A FOUR-YEAR PROJECT WERE (1) TO DEMONSTRATE A METHOD FOR THE PREDICTION AND PREVENTION OF LEARNING DISABILITIES, (2) TO FOSTER UNDERSTANDING OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT AMONG TEACHERS, PARENTS, AND PHYSICIANS. SUBJECTS WERE THE 3 1/2 TO 5 1/2 YEAR OLD CHILDREN OF AN ENTIRE SCHOOL DISTRICT. RESEARCHERS WERE…
Rourke, Byron P.
Some of the issues that dominated, or at least held sway, in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities (LD) in the 1970s included: the definition of LD, whether there are reliable and valid subtypes of LD, whether and to what extent LD are related to cerebral dysfunction, and whether LD are related to types and/or degrees of psychosocial…
Wirths, Claudine G.; Leonard, Steven
A project of the University of Maryland has developed a driver education curriculum for the learning disabled. Several states are making efforts to improve driver education, including rewriting materials and providing oral tests for drivers' licenses. Options for future safety programs include parent-student seminars, multidiscipline teaching, and…
Lopez, Mike; Clyde-Snyder, Myrtle
Describes the operation of Project HELDS (Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students) on one campus. Evaluation results showed the use of existing university resources such as tutoring and taping books and lectures had a meaningful impact on the academic achievement of the 27 participants. (JAC)
Sieben, Robert L.
The author presents a critical review of popular medical treatments for children with learning disabilities, including dietary treatment (food additives theories, brain allergies, hypoglycemia, megavitamin therapy, and trace mineral tests) and neurophysiologic retraining (patterning, sensory integrative therapy, and optometric training). (IM)
Ryan, Ann Grasso; Heikkila, M. Kathleen
This paper offers a critical examination of common misconceptions concerning college students with learning disabilities (LD), including, among others: LD college students are older versions of high school LD students, college entrance data can accurately predict LD student success, and LD students disclose their handicaps to institutions of…
Grumbine, Rich; Alden, Peg Brigham
One of the four guiding principles of the National Science Education Standards is simply "science for all students" (NRC 1996). This principle underscores the belief that all students, regardless of race, gender, or disability, should have the opportunity to learn and understand the essential science content described in the Standards. Because of…
McNutt, Gaye; Heller, Ginger
A survey of 301 randomly selected local education agencies was undertaken in order to estimate the availability and types of special services currently provided to specific learning disabled adolescents, the identification and placement procedures used, and the primary problems in service delivery. (PHR)
Michaels, Craig A., Ed.
This collection of 10 papers focuses on the transition of students with learning disabilities from secondary education to employment, postsecondary education, independent living, and full social integration. The text concentrates on systemic transition problems that prevent successful communication, coordination, goal setting, and appropriate…
The paper describes strategies for teaching six different handwriting skills to learning disabled (LD) elementary students. A rationale for each strategy precedes step-by-step procedural descriptions. Strategies in the following areas are described: (1) introducing LD children with motor coordination deficits to alphabetic symbols using sandpaper…
Johnson, Kathryn King
Describes how, at a school in Texas, Shakespeare becomes a teaching vehicle for learning-disabled students as they engage in a year-long class that studies Shakespeare and his times, as well as produce an entire play. Argues that the experience works so successfully because it is student-centered, collaborative, and experiential. (SR)
Price, Lynda A.; Gerber, Paul J.
Previous findings on employer knowledge about learning disabilities were compared to 25 employers from Pennsylvania and Virginia. Findings indicate that employers are continuing to make efforts to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 regulations but have little knowledge or experience with it in terms of learning disabilities.…
Price, Lynda; Patton, James R.
This article explores new connections between the current literature base on adult developmental theory and the field of learning disabilities. Emphasis is on theory and practice in self-determination and adult development. Implications for special education, vocational education, general education, and adult learning are discussed. (Contains…
Johnson, D J
In general, people with learning disabilities are a heterogeneous population that require a multidisciplinary evaluation and careful, well-planned intervention. Despite this heterogeneity, patterns of problems often co-occur. Therefore, diagnosticians and educators should look beyond single areas of achievement such as reading or arithmetic. In addition, problems in one area of learning typically have secondary impacts on higher levels of learning. That is, comprehension problems typically interfere with expression. Every effort should be made to examine patterns of problems and to avoid fragmentation of services so that each area of underachievement is not treated separately. Although learning disabilities usually interfere with school performance, they are not simply academic handicaps. They interfere with certain social activities as well as occupational pursuits. In many instances, they impact on mental health and self-esteem. Therefore, students need multiple services. And, as emphasized throughout this journal issue, learning disabled individuals may have comorbid conditions such as attention deficit disorder, depression, and neurologic problems. Furthermore, the problems may change over time. Children may first be identified because of language comprehension problems but later have reading or mathematics difficulty. With intervention, oral expressive problems may be alleviated but may be manifested later in written language. PMID:7751550
Cullinan, John; Gannon, Brenda; O'Shea, Eamon
Recent data analysed for Ireland suggest a strong link between disability status and household poverty, while there exists substantial evidence to suggest that disability is highly prevalent among persons of older age. Within this context, this paper estimates the welfare implications of disability for older people in Ireland. We define and estimate models of the private costs borne by households with older persons who have a disability in Ireland, both in general and by severity of illness or condition. Our modelling framework is based on the standard of living approach to estimating the cost of disability. The model quantifies the extra costs of living associated with disability and is estimated by comparing the standard of living of households with and without disabled members at a given income, controlling for other sources of variation. The analysis suggests that the estimated economic cost of disability for older people in Ireland is significant and varies by severity of disability, as well as by household type. The results also suggest that the cost of disability increases in proportionate terms as the number of people in the household decreases. Our results are important when considering the effectiveness of policies that aim to address the economic problems associated with disability for older people, suggesting that current policy in Ireland does not go far enough. They indicate that older people face a double jeopardy through age and disability, which is not reflected in official poverty rates and support the case for the introduction of disability-adjusted poverty payments. PMID:21984224
Cutting, Laurie E.; Clements, Amy M.; Lightman, Andrea D.; Yerby-Hammack, Pamula D.; Denckla, Martha Bridge
The cognitive profiles of children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1) have many similarities to those observed in learning disabilities in the general school population, as well as some distinct features. Approximately 30-65 percent of children with NF-1 have learning disabilities; most commonly, they have language and reading disabilities,…
Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.
This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…
Robert Henley Woody
This article provides a review of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–596) and discusses its implications for family therapy. Consideration is given to the family therapist's proper form of advocacy of rights and therapeutic usage of the Act for empowering the individual with a disability and his or her family.
Woody, Robert Henley
Provides a review of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-596) and discusses its implications for family therapy. Consideration is given to the family therapist's proper form of advocacy of rights and therapeutic usage of the act for empowering the individual with a disability and his or her family. (Author)
Tyler, Janet Siantz; Colson, Steven
This paper presents definitions of common pediatric disabilities and information about incidence, causes, diagnosis, common characteristics, complications with educational implications, and multidisciplinary intervention approaches. It covers the following conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, fragile…
...reading, writing, spelling or doing mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, and aphasia. (b) An evaluation team may recommend that a child be classified as having a learning disability...
Bryant, N. Dale; Kass, Corrine E.
Provided are the appendixes to the final report of the Leadership Training Institute (LTI) in Learning Disabilities at the University of Arizona. Sections cover the following areas: (1) reports of LTI meetings and conferences; (2) contracted papers on research in the field of learning disabilities (such as "Neurological Factors in Learning…
This article appraises the report Strengthening the Commitment, which is a UK-wide review of learning disabilities nursing by the UK's four chief nursing officers. Strengthening the Commitment has strategic importance in reviewing progress in the care of people with learning disabilities in the UK. It also has a role in helping to guide future strategies and initiatives addressing the continuing health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities throughout the UK. PMID:24985304
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2007
This report by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) outlines important concerns about documentation issues related to students with disabilities as they transition from high school to postsecondary settings. These issues center on the "disconnect" between the nature and extent of disability documentation generated during a…
McKenzie, Karen; Michie, Amanda; Murray, Aja; Hales, Charlene
The study assessed the validity of an intellectual disability screening tool, the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ), in three forensic settings: a community intellectual disability forensic service; a forensic in-patient secure unit and a prison, using data for 94 individuals. A significant positive relationship was found between…
DeBrosse, Marion, Ed.; And Others
Presented are 12 papers from a conference on the issues of secondary learning disability. Following an introduction are the texts of discussions from the conference's four sections covering an overview of the central issues, definition and identification, learner characteristics, educational priorities and objectives, remedial strategies, model…
Snider, Vicki E.; Tarver, Sara G.
This article considers the ramifications of early reading failure within the context of J. Chall's five-stage model of reading development: (1) initial decoding, (2) fluency, (3) reading for meaning, (4) relationships and viewpoints, and (5) synthesis. Instructional implications include learning disabled students' special need for good instruction…
Anderson, Lisa K.; And Others
Past research has demonstrated a relationship between children's physical attractiveness and their self-esteem. Other research has found that learning disabled children are at risk for having low self-esteem. This study examined the relationship between self-esteem and facial attractiveness in learning disabled children. Subjects were 20 diagnosed…
A scheme of classification is suggested for physicians faced with various prescriptions for remediation of children with learning disabilities. Three models of the causes of learning disability are suggested: (1) the difference model which stresses normal variability in the pattern of development of mental abilities; (2) the deficit model which…
Manhattan Adult Learning and Resource Center, KS.
Intended to help educators develop a philosophy and understanding for working with learning disabled adults, this document consists of an introduction, 11 chapters, a 76-item bibliography, materials and resource suggestions, and three appendices. The introduction provides an overview of learning disabled adults. The chapters include (1)…
Preston Lewis; Steve Noble; Neil Soiffer
Math is a subject that most students in K-12 participate in every school day. This includes students with learning disabilities as they are equally accountable to meeting general math curriculum requirements. Project SMART provided digital versions of math textbooks modified to include MathML for use by eighth grade students with various learning disabilities. A goal of Project SMART was to
Martin, Larry L.; And Others
The report presents a model for appraisal and individualized educational programing for learning disabled children at the School of Education, Auburn University, Alabama. Descriptions by clinic staff of visitations to exemplary models and a summary of a regional conference on learning disabilities introduce the report. The clinic model is…
Rodgers, Jackie; Lipscombe, Jo; Santer, Miriam
Background: Menstruation appears to be problematic for women with learning disabilities, yet there has been little quantitative research on their experiences, or comparisons with other groups of women. This paper considers the nature and extent of menstrual problems experienced by women with learning disabilities. Methods: The data reported here…
Olmeda, Rosa E.; Trent, Stanley C.
Sociocultural contexts influence social behaviors in ways that may not always be reflective of majority-culture norms. They also may vary the impact social skills training (SST) programs have on minority students with learning disabilities. To better understand culturally sensitive and effective SST for students with learning disabilities, it is…
Donahue, Mavis; And Others
Describes a study which examined learning disabled children's understanding of conversational rules for initiating repair of a communication breakdown. Results show learning disabled children were less likely to request clarification of inadequate messages and made fewer correct referent choices than normal children, but analyses suggest this…
How many adults with literacy problems actually have learning disabilities (LD)? Do most adults with severe literacy problems actually have a learning disability? What data exist to support the claims? How is LD being defined? Is the label overused? Is social/economic disadvantage misinterpreted as LD? What technologies and software exist to…
Discusses the major elements of writing process instruction and the positive influence they have on learning-disabled and inner-city high-risk students. Argues that such process-writing programs might serve as a preventative measure for children likely to be categorized as learning disabled in the future. (HTH)
A large percent of the population is affected by learning disabilities, which significantly impacts individuals and families. Much research has been done to identify effective ways to best help the students with learning disabilities. One of the more promising strategies is the use of visual supports to enhance these students' understanding…
Alber, Sheila R.; Foil, Carolyn R.
This article reviews "Facing Learning Disabilities in the Adult Years" by Joan Shapiro and Rebecca Rich, a book that discusses the definitions, causes, and characteristics of learning disabilities as well as many interventions for successful adult adjustment. The information is aimed at helping families and professionals, as well as the adults…
Williams, Val; Ponting, Lisa; Ford, Kerrie; Rudge, Philippa
For people with learning disabilities to have control over their lives, the quality of their support staff matters. This paper reports on an inclusive research study, which used video analysis to study the communication skills of personal assistants (PAs) who worked with people with learning disabilities. The findings reveal some of the fine…
McLoughlin, James A.; Netick, Anne
The definition of learning disabilities (LD) by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities emphasizes severity and heterogeneity; focuses attention on the internal nature; eliminates exclusive focus on psychological processing disorders; stresses the cognitive, linguistic, and academic nature of LD; and denies direct causation to other…
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) makes it unlawful to discriminate in all employee practices such as recruitment, hiring, promotion, training, benefits, pay, firing, job assignment, leave, lay-off, and all other employment-related activities. (PAM)
Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep
Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. PMID:24913752
Khan, A; Cowan, C; Roy, A
The prevalence of personality disorders has been determined by studies of both the general population and mental handicap hospitals. The present study attempts to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample and to check the implications for treatment. A community sample of learning disability service users was surveyed by obtaining a rating from a good informant to establish demographic data, level of functioning and the nature of personality disorders, if any, using the ICD-10 version of the Standardized Assessment of Personality (SAP). Fifty per cent of the sample had personality abnormalities, and 31% had sufficient impairment of the social and occupational domains and personal distress to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. These findings are compared with previous studies. Paranoid, schizoid, impulsive and dissocial personality abnormalities were seen to be associated with a high referral rate to psychiatric services and needed considerable therapeutic input. The prevalence of personality abnormalities in community populations with a learning disability is high. The SAP is a useful instrument for screening. This subpopulation makes significant demands on community psychiatric services. PMID:9297610
Miller, Christina R.
A qualitative exploration of a service-learning program for high school students with disabilities is presented. Focus groups with (n = 15) students and interviews with (n = 3) service-learning teachers at multiple service-learning sites were conducted to explore the perceptions of students and service-learning teachers regarding the impact of the…
Lightner, Kirsten L.; Kipps-Vaughan, Deborah; Schulte, Timothy; Trice, Ashton D.
We interviewed 42 students with a learning disability attending a large competitive state university about their reasons for seeking disability services (DS) when they did and their transition services in high school. Students who sought services earlier performed better academically than students who postponed seeking services. All but eight…
Scholarships for Students with Disabilities For Students with Learning Disabilities Website Deadline Amount Awarded The Anne Ford and Allegra Ford Scholarship http://www.ncld.org/about-us/scholarships-aamp- awards/the-anne-ford-and-allegra-ford-scholarship-award Mid December $10,000.00 Anne and Matt Harbison
This article reviews employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and concludes that, to take advantage of the law's provisions, youth with learning disabilities who are making the transition from school to employment need to be prepared in the areas of self-knowledge, knowledge of specific jobs, and self-advocacy. (DB)
ODS DOCUMENTATION GUIDELINES: LEARNING DISABILITY/ADD/ADHD All students with disabilities who-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fifth Edition. Achievement: Assessment of academic ability in the areas of reading, writing of Achievement (W-J-III); Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II); Stanford Test of Academic Skills (TASK
Bell, Tamekia R.
Clients with learning disabilities constitute a cultural group that has not been extensively studied. The professional literature has found that counselors have reported the need for additional training in working with clients with disabilities. This study explored counselors' beliefs and perceived knowledge regarding counseling clients with…
Patterson, Margaret Becker
This study identifies adult education program characteristics associated with learning disability (LD) prevalence through statistical analyses of data from a single U.S. state (Kansas). Data indicate that several variables at the adult education (AE) program level are linked to LD prevalence, including disability incidence, educational background…
Guerrera, Claudia Patrizia
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) with learning-disabled (LD) students. Twenty-four students (12 dyads) classified as LD and attending a school for the learning-disabled participated in the study. Students engaged in either a computer-based environment involving BioWorld, a hospital simulation designed to teach biology students problem-solving skills, or a paper-and-pencil version based on the computer program. A hybrid model of learning was adopted whereby students were provided with direct instruction on the digestive system prior to participating in a problem-solving activity. Students worked in dyads and solved three problems involving the digestive system in either a computerized or a paper-and-pencil condition. The experimenter acted as a coach to assist students throughout the problem-solving process. A follow-up study was conducted, one month later, to measure the long-term learning gains. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze three types of data: process data, outcome data, and follow-up data. Results from the process data showed that all students engaged in effective collaboration and became more systematic in their problem solving over time. Findings from the outcome and follow-up data showed that students in both treatment conditions, made both learning and motivational gains and that these benefits were still evident one month later. Overall, results demonstrated that the computer facilitated students' problem solving and scientific reasoning skills. Some differences were noted in students' collaboration and the amount of assistance required from the coach in both conditions. Thus, PBL is an effective learning approach with LD students in science, regardless of the type of learning environment. These results have implications for teaching science to LD students, as well as for future designs of educational software for this population.
Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl
The article validates an Internet-administered version of Adult Learning Disabilities Screening (ALDS), e-ALDS, by comparing 122 adult education participants who completed the ALDS in paper-and-pencil vs. Internet formats. Adults with undiagnosed...
Describes common signs and symptoms of learning disabilities in college students and suggests guidelines for identifying such students. An understanding of how cognitive, neuropsychological, and psychodynamic factors contribute to academic problems allows for sophisticated and responsible recommendations. (JAC)
Learning disabilities, including reading disabilities, are commonly diagnosed in children. Their etiologies are multifactorial, reflecting genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Learning disabilities are complex problems that require complex solutions. Early recognition and referral to qualified educational professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments seem necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Most experts believe that dyslexia is a language-based disorder. Vision problems can interfere with the process of learning; however, vision problems are not the cause of primary dyslexia or learning disabilities. Scientific evidence does not support the efficacy of eye exercises, behavioral vision therapy, or special tinted filters or lenses for improving the long-term educational performance in these complex pediatric neurocognitive conditions. Diagnostic and treatment approaches that lack scientific evidence of efficacy, including eye exercises, behavioral vision therapy, or special tinted filters or lenses, are not endorsed and should not be recommended. PMID:19651597
The concept of learning disability is less absolute than is usually realized. In a nonliterate society only the advantages of many dyslexics may be evident without the disadvantages. By contrast markedly unmusical individuals can go through modern educational systems with little difficulty, although in some particular social conditions they could correctly be regarded as severely learning disabled. These considerations lead to a fresh look at the evolutionary significance of brain changes found in learning disorders, and their relationship not only to disability, but also to giftedness. This paper considers many of these issues in the context of the life of an individual who is not at all dyslexic but suffers from a severe form of another neglected learning disability, i.e., dysmusia. PMID:24243310
Alley, Gordon R.; Deshler, Donald D.; Warner, Michael M.
The identification of learning disabled adolescents for program placement is a major concern of school personnel. The identification model discussed in this article addresses an array of problems associated with identification of LD populations...
De Weerdt, Frauke; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert
Children with reading disabilities (RD, n = 17), mathematical disabilities (MD, n = 22), combined reading and mathematical disabilities (RD + MD, n = 28) and control peers (n = 45) were tested on behavioral inhibition with a Go/no-go task in a picture, letter and digit-modality. In contrast to children without RD, children with RD made…
Corn, Juliana, Ed.; And Others
This handbook was developed as one of the objectives of a 3-year federally-funded model project to teach remedial mathematics to community college students with learning disabilities (LD). The underlying theme of this document is to provide a comprehensive plan to assist faculty, tutors, learning center personnel and others engaged in the effort…
Johnston, Robert B.
Basic neurological facts pertinent to learning disabilities are reviewed, and the nature, significance, and limitations of the neurological assessment presently utilized in clinical practice are addressed. A brief review is presented of some of the classification attempts that highlight difficulties arising from the heterogeneity of learning…
Deshler, Donald D.
Historically, most of the professional literature in the field as well as federal funding initiatives in research and program development have been directed at younger students with learning disabilities (LD). The prevailing assumption (or hope) has been that if intervention took place at a young age, many of the manifestations of the learning…
Keel, Marie C.; Slaton, Deborah Bott; Blackhurt, A. Edward
This study compared effects of two variations of the constant-time-delay (CTD) procedure on the observational learning of content area vocabulary by seven primary grade students with learning disabilities in a small group instructional setting. Both conditions (every student writes all words or only target student writes) were equally effective…
Silver, Archie A.
The paper describes Florida's SEARCH and TEACH program designed to prevent learning disabilities and their emotional consequences in children. SEARCH, a scanning test to identify kindergarten children at risk for problems with academic learning, is based upon the importance of age appropriate functions of spatial orientation and temporal…
Moore-Brown, Barbara; Huerta, Maria; Uranga-Hernandez, Yvana; Pena, Elizabeth D.
Dynamic assessment uses a test-teach-retest approach that can assist clinicians in differentiating between children with learning disabilities and children with learning differences. This article describes a model of dynamic assessment of narratives and its use with children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Case studies…
Hashey, Andrew I.; Stahl, Skip
The growing presence of K-12 online education programs is a trend that promises to increase flexibility, improve efficiency, and foster engagement in learning. Students with disabilities can benefit from dynamic online educational environments, but only to the extent that they can access and participate in the learning process. As students with…
Davis, Veronica Ladell
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS IN MENTALLY RETARDED AND LEARNING DISABLED VERSUS NORMAL SUBJECTS: AN ATTRIBUTIONAL APPROACH A Thesis by VERONICA LADELL DAVIS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1981 Major Subject: Psychology LEARNED HELPLESSNESS IN MENTALLY RETARDED AND LEARNING DISABLED VERSUS NORMAL SUBJECTS: AN ATTRIBUTIONAL APPROACH A Thesis by VERONICA LADELL DAVIS Approved...
Mafuba, Kay; Gates, Bob
International studies have shown poor uptake of public health initiatives by people with learning disabilities. In addition, studies have shown that people with learning disabilities experience poor access to public health services. The contribution of community learning disability nurses in meeting the public health needs of people with learning…
In this study, a mixed methods approach was used to gather descriptive exploratory information regarding the teaching of science to middle grades students with learning disabilities within a general education classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and their practices concerning providing equitable opportunities for students with learning disabilities in a general education science classroom. Equitable science teaching practices take into account each student's differences and uses those differences to inform instructional decisions and tailor teaching practices based on the student's individualized learning needs. Students with learning disabilities are similar to their non-disabled peers; however, they need some differentiation in instruction to perform to their highest potential achievement levels (Finson, Ormsbee, & Jensen, 2011). In the quantitative phase, the purpose of the study was to identify patterns in the beliefs of middle grades science teachers about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom. In the qualitative phase, the purpose of the study was to present examples of instruction in the classrooms of science education reform-oriented middle grades science teachers. The quantitative phase of the study collected data from 274 sixth through eighth grade teachers in the State of Florida during the 2007--2008 school year using The Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory. Overall, the quantitative findings revealed that middle grades science teachers held positive beliefs about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education science classroom. The qualitative phase collected data from multiple sources (interviews, classroom observations, and artifacts) to develop two case studies of reform-oriented middle grades science teachers who were expected to provide equitable science teaching practices. Based on their responses to The Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory, the case study teachers demonstrated characteristics of successful teachers of diverse learners developed by Lynch (2000). Overall, the qualitative findings revealed that the case study teachers were unsure how to provide equitable science teaching practices to all students, particularly to students with learning disabilities. They provided students with a variety of learning experiences that entailed high expectations for all; however, these experiences were similar for all students. Had the teachers fully implemented equitable science teaching practices, students would have had multiple options for taking in the information and making sense of it in each lesson. Teaching that includes using a variety of validated practices that take into account students' individualized learning needs can promote aspects of equitable science teaching practices. Finally, this study provides implications for teacher education programs and professional development programs. As teachers implement science education reform efforts related to equitable science teaching practices, both teacher education programs and professional development programs should include opportunities for teachers to reflect on their beliefs about how students with learning disabilities learn and provide them with a variety of validated teaching practices that will assist them in teaching students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom while implementing science reform efforts.
Starrett, Barbara E.; de Boer, Sonja R.; Tollefson, Julie M.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 (IDEA 1997) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004) define specific learning disabilities in a similar manner. "The term "specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in…
Diana L. Sauter; Donna McPeek
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) insures greater accessibility of disabled persons to the workplace. This\\u000a includes persons with dyslexia and other learning disabilities. The ADA requires reasonable accommodations for persons with\\u000a disabilities, yet it is different in its mandates from many other federal laws addressing disability-related issues.\\u000a \\u000a This article reviews some of the critical provisions of the
Little, Sara S.
This article presents an overview of literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities subtype. The article addresses the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning, generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity. (Author/JDD)
Alley, Gordon R.; Deshler, Donald D.; Mellard, Daryl F.; Warner, Michael M.
Three related studies were designed to address some key issues confronting the learning disability field concerning the identification of learning disabled adolescents. The first study (Research Report No. 9) addressed the question of which group...
Learning Support Services The Center for Disability Resources (CDR) offers a variety of learning consultation sessions allow students to meet with a learning specialist on a wide array of topics. When meeting with individual students, the learning specialist is able to discuss targeted compensatory strategies to meet
Gerber, Paul J.; Batalo, Cecilia G.; Achola, Edwin O.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and its amendments have been in existence for a little more than twenty years. Title One, which pertains to employment, has had a bearing on employment for persons with disabilities, particularly the high incidence category of learning disabilities, who for the most part work in competitive…
Claudia Patrizia Guerrera
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) with learning-disabled (LD) students. Twenty-four students (12 dyads) classified as LD and attending a school for the learning-disabled participated in the study. Students engaged in either a computer-based environment involving BioWorld, a hospital simulation designed to teach biology students problem-solving skills, or a paper-and-pencil version
Sigmon, Scott B.
This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…
Young, Glenn; Gerber, Paul J.; Reder, Stephen; Cooper, Richard
The four papers that make up this document report on poverty issues as they pertain to adults with learning disabilities. "Programmatic Response to Welfare Clients with Learning Disabilities" (Glenn Young) describes steps in the Learning Disabilities Initiative that works with federal agencies, states, local governments, and nonprofit…
Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan
We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…
Kataoka, Mika; van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Elkins, John
In this study, perceptions of learning disabilities were obtained from 128 principals and 123 teachers in the Nara Prefecture, Japan. A factor analysis indicated that five factors underlie perceptions of learning disabilities: changes in the family and social situation, insufficient knowledge of and support for learning disabilities, teachers'…
Lamberg, Catherine Denise
Learning-disabled students face ongoing challenges in higher education. Despite efforts to promote recruitment and retention of students with learning disabilities to trade schools, colleges, and universities, barriers to enrollment and academic achievement persist. Barriers for learning-disabled students are not fully understood and might be…
Grosshans, Judd; Kiger, Martha
The purpose of this article is to offer insights into the complex area of learning disabilities, to provide tips on how to recognize children with various types of learning disabilities, and to offer suggestions for teaching students who are learning disabled. The hope is that with some information and "teaching tips" in this area, more and more…
Lyon, G. Reid, Ed.
This book offers 27 papers addressing critical issues in the assessment of students with all kinds of learning disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Critical Issues in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (G. Reid Lyon); "A Matrix of Decision Points in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (Barbara K. Keogh);…
Learning disabilities (LD) has been recognized as a category of special education in Taiwanese law since 1984, and policies ensure educational services for children and youth who have LD. The official definition and identification criteria established in Taiwan's laws closely correspond with those of the United States, but practice differs,…
Dinero, Thomas E.; And Others
The responses on the Slingerland Screening Tests for identifying children with specific learning disabilities of 29 learning disabled and 11 nondisabled children in Grade 1 distinguished the two groups, except for copying (near vision). Copying (far vision) and auditory, visual, and kinesthetic perception and discrimination together were the…
Research is reviewed on the emotional and social needs of learning disabled students, including difficulties in understanding nonverbal communication, rejection by peers and others, impulsivity, pervasively negative moods, and difficulties in role-taking. Teacher education should increase emphasis on direct instruction of social skills and…
Cooper, Patricia S.
A total of 55 learning-disabled children ages 8 to 13 years completed a self-esteem measure, and photographs of their faces were rated for attractiveness by adults and peers. Found relationships between children's facial attractiveness and self-esteem and between adult and peer ratings of facial attractiveness. Found no gender differences in…
Tomblin, J. Bruce
Research on learning disabilities (LD) depends upon a conceptual framework that specifies what it should explain, what kinds of data are needed, and how these data are to be arranged in order to provide a meaningful explanation. An argument is made that LD are no different in this respect than any other form of human illness. In this article, a…
Maloy, Christopher F.; Sattler, Jerome M.
Compares motor and cognitive skills of learning disabled and normal boys on the Modified Lincoln-Oberetsky Motor Development Scale and on the WISC-R Vocabulary and Block Design subtests. Suggests a common factor relating to perceptual-motor coordination and efficiency may be involved on the Lincoln-Oberetsky and Block Design subtest for young…
Mallett, Christopher A.
Adolescents becoming formally involved with a juvenile court because of school-related behavior and discipline problems is a phenomenon known as the school-to-prison pipeline. Adolescents with learning disabilities are disproportionately represented within this pipeline. A study was conducted to review the outcomes for a population of youthful…
Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl
Identifying individuals with specific learning disabilities (SLD) is a complex task, particularly for adult populations. Adult agencies such as vocational rehabilitative services or adult basic education often use different SLD definitions and criteria, are often understaffed, have limited resources, and have a shortage of staff trained on SLD…
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Gischlar, Karen L.
The authors encourage those in the field of school psychology to consider the use of learning disabilities assessment practices in relation to specific American Psychological Association and National Association of School Psychologists ethical codes and in regard to the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association,…
Kennedy, Michael J.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lloyd, John Wills
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were…
Speece, Deborah L.
Empirical, multivariate classification techniques were used to form subtypes of learning disabled readers (N=59) based on their performance on information processing tasks. A six-cluster solution with good internal validity was achieved with several subtype patterns tending to support hypotheses linking information processing deficits with reading…
Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.
Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities are considered in this 10-chapter volume. Contents include: "Developmental Language Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" (Cynthia A. Riccio and George W. Hynd); "Self-Regulated Strategy Development: A Theoretical and Practical Perspective" (Lisa P. Case et al.); "Mapping the…
Jacobs, Patricia; Fu, Danling
This article presents a case study on two fourth grade students with learning disabilities in two different writing situations: writing for test preparation and writing for digital stories. The students' writing behaviors, processes, and products in these two settings are contrasted. The differences in the students' writing experiences…
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…
Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.
The ten conference papers on learning and language disabilities begin with discussions of staff development procedures for teachers of language handicapped children, methods of instructional intervention for such children, and the comparative utility of the limited, intensive, and comprehensive methods of identification and evaluation of language…
Fuller, Peter W.
Parieto-occipital electroencephalograms were recorded during resting baseline intervals, during an initial instruction period, and during active performance on mental arithmetic and immediate recall tasks to determine if 10 learning disabled boys (10-12 years old) would show less alpha attenuation than 11 normal controls. (Author/CL)
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Speece, Deborah L.
This article examines a 1995 treatment validity model as a framework for identifying learning disabilities. This model: (1) examines both student performance and responsiveness to instruction; (2) delays special education referral until the effects of individual student adaptations in the regular classroom have been explored; and (3) verifies that…
Hayes, Marnell L.; Sloat, Robert S.
Learning-disabled students may have some characteristics that make them particularly vulnerable to suicide. This article describes common misconceptions about suicide, discusses danger signs indicative of suicide risk, outlines steps in crisis intervention, and lists suggested information pamphlets and films. (JDD)
Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi
This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…
Carter, Jade K.
Discusses the challenges of sexuality education for students with specific learning disabilities and reviews the content of a program designed to teach human sexuality to this population. The critical role of parents/families is discussed, a course outline is provided, and a list of possible resources is given. (Author/CR)
This paper describes the once-weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a girl, called Ellie, aged eight at the start of her treatment. Ellie had a learning disability and displayed difficult behaviour at school and at home. In her therapy, Ellie grew in emotional intelligence, more in touch with and able to express her feelings. Her behaviour…
Olmeda, Rosa E.; Trent, Stanley C.
A review of 13 studies on social skills training (SST) and learning disabilities found none of the studies included ethnic minority participants exclusively, there were no significant differences in types of SST programs used in studies with and without ethnic minorities, and findings were not reported by ethnicity. (Contains references.) (CR)
Goodman, Marvin; Mina, Elias
Variability in diagnostic procedures and a lack of valid and reliable measures led to the development of a comprehensive battery, which incorporated an operational definition of learning disabilities. The battery consisted of forms for observing these functions: intelligence, academic achievement, gross and fine motor control, visual perception,…
Test, David W.; Heward, William L.
Eight learning disabled males (16 to 17 years old) participated in a driver education unit via a visual response system, allowing students greater response and feedback. After the conclusion of the unit, all Ss scored above the criterion established by the Digest of Ohio Motor Vehicle Laws. (CL)
Dunn, Michael W.
A debate exists in the research community about replacing the traditional IQ/achievement discrepancy method for learning disability identification with a "response-to-intervention model". This new assessment paradigm uses a student's level of improvement with small-group or individual programming to determine a possible need for classification and…
Gerber, Paul J., Ed.; Reiff, Henry B., Ed.
This book provides a multifaceted view of learning disabilities in adulthood through the efforts of many contributors who offer a diversity of perceptions and expertise. The focus spans from young to late adulthood and reflects state-of-the-art knowledge and the best practices of the field. The topic areas are clustered into psychological,…
Pasta, Tiziana; Mendola, Manuela; Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura Elvira; Gastaldi, Francesca Giovanna Maria
Introduction: The literature highlights that pupils with Specific Learning Disability (SLD) often reveal a poor meta-cognitive system, with low levels of attribution to internal factors like diligence and personal skill, and high levels of attribution to external factors like ease of task, luck or help from others. Methods: This study aims to…
Simoncelli, Andrew; Hinson, Janice
This research details the methodologies that could be used to better deliver online course content to students with learning disabilities. Research has shown how the design of the course affects the students' attitudes and performance. This article details the methodology and pedagogical side of the delivery including instructional methods that…
Colbourn, Marlene Jones
A computer based diagnostic system to assist educators in the assessment of learning disabled children aged 8 to 10 years in the area of reading is described and evaluated. The system is intended to guide the diagnosis of reading problems through step by step analysis of available data and requests for additional data. The system provides a…
The literature review examines the issue of whether categorical differentiation and placement of mentally retarded and learning disabled students is educationally warranted. First, the two conditions are defined; next, a comparison between the two on psychological, behavioral-social, and educational characteristics usually ascribed to children so…
The report has a threefold focus: (1) it describes a university-affiliated summer program for learning disabled children (ages 4-to-14 years); (2) it discusses benefits of the program from the perspectives of both parent and teacher trainee; (3) it points out some problems with the program. (Author/PHR)
Nee, Elizabeth A.
The increasing number of students with learning disabilities (SLDs) attending higher education institutions is well documented (Brinkerhoff, McGuire, & Shaw, 2002; Goodnough, 2011; Hasselbring & Glaser, 2000; Raskind, & Higgins, 1999). E-texts are considered a reasonable accommodation and may help improve reading and comprehension…
Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Carvalho, Kathleen
In this article, the authors assess the evidence related to various instructional styles for teaching reading to children with learning disabilities. Results of the literature review indicate that whole language and direct instruction are the two major approaches to teaching reading. Whole language has proven successful for many students with…
Waggoner, Karen; Wilgosh, Lorraine
Parents of learning-disabled children from eight families were interviewed. Seven fields of concern emerged, including parental involvement in education, parent-school relationships, support for parents, social concerns for the child, concern for the child's future, emotional strains of parenting, and effects on the family. (Author/PB)
Mitchell, Alice A.; Sedlacek, William E.
A study profiled freshmen with diagnosed learning disabilities at a large, state-supported university. Results are summarized concerning this population's educational aspirations, self-reported study habits and academic weaknesses, decision to attend college, adjustment expectations, anticipated involvement or affiliation with campus groups, study…
This article describes a privately operated residential program called College Living Experience, a for-profit company, caters to a growing number of students with learning disabilities, Asperger's syndrome, and various emotional or behavioral disorders. The program has a team of full-time staff members helping students with their social and…
And Others; Tarver, Sara G.
Learning disabled (LD) and nondisabled (ND) students (N=128) at four grade levels (1, 3, 5, and 7) were compared on 10 measures of figural and verbal creativity. Originality was greater for the LD children at all grade levels, while elaboration was greater for the ND children at all grade levels. (Author/PHR)
Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Schweck, Kelly B.
The Common Core Standards require demonstration of conceptual knowledge of numbers, operations, and relations between mathematical concepts. Supplemental instruction should explicitly guide students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) in these skills. In this article, we illustrate implementation of the concrete-representational-abstract…
Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini
Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…
Ryan, Ann Grasso; And Others
This comparison of 39 college freshmen with learning disabilities (LD) and 33 nondisabled freshmen found that LD students were becoming more dependent on their families, spent less time in study, exhibited greater pessimism about success in coursework, and were dissatisfied with the social climate on campus. Actual grade attainment of both groups…
Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Zirkel, Perry A.; Danielson, Louis
Specific learning disability (SLD) identification and eligibility practices are evolving and sometimes contentious. This article describes the historical context and current status of the SLD definition, legislation, regulation, and case law related to the identification of students eligible for special education services. The first part traces…
Reschly, Daniel J.
The use of response-to-intervention (RTI) to identify children and youth with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) is described with multiple illustrations. Essential components of the RTI process are specified at multiple tiers of intervention, each essential to valid SLD identification. The RTI goals are prevention in general education, early…
Quick, Carol; Mandell, Colleen
The relationship between recurrent otitis media (middle ear infection characterized by the presence of middle ear fluid and possibly leading to a temporary conductive hearing loss) and learning disabilities (LD) is examined. Traditional treatment approaches (antibiotic medication and surgery) are reviewed. The definition of LD is presented and the…
Bos, Candace S.; And Others
Assessment of learning disabilities is traced. Among the critical issues examined are definitions, eligibility criteria, placement bias, and interpretation of P.L. 94-142 (The Education for All Handicapped Children Act) guidelines. Recommendations are offered for an adequate definition and determination of LD. Future directions, including…
Zigmond, N; Baker, J
Mainstream Experiences for the Learning Disabled (MELD) was developed to accommodate students with learning disabilities in the mainstream. This article reports the progress of 13 students at the end of 1 year of planning and 1 year of implementing the MELD model in one urban elementary school. Observational and school adjustment data from the implementation year suggest that although the MELD model was not fully incorporated into the mainstream classes, students with learning disabilities adjusted well to a less individualized and more demanding mainstream program. They came to school regularly, did not present serious behavior problems, and spent as much of reading class and more of math class on task as they had in special education. These students in the mainstream were assigned more opportunities to work with text materials rather than workbooks in reading and spent significantly more reading time in teacher-directed lessions. Nevertheless, the students made no significant progress in reading or math and earned lower grades during the implementation year. The authors suggest that students with learning disabilities will not succeed in the mainstream if teachers continue "business as usual" in mainstream classes. PMID:2249708
Bates, Belinda, Ed.
This issue of "Linkages" addresses the need for adult literacy programs to go beyond teaching basic academic skills to adults with learning disabilities to teaching skills in goal setting, problem solving, and self-advocacy that will assist adult learners in their transition into the workforce. Articles include: "Transition: Adult Literacy and…
Madaus, Joseph W.; Zhao, Jiarong; Ruban, Lilia
Because of its significant impact on overall life satisfaction, employment satisfaction is one marker for determining successful adult outcomes. The present investigation reports the perceptions of employment satisfaction for 500 graduates with learning disabilities from three postsecondary institutions. The graduates reported high levels of…
Mangrum, Charles T.; Strichart, Stephen S.
Increased postsecondary opportunities for learning disabled (LD) students have resulted from such factors as extension of secondary LD programs, advocates' pressure, and federal legislation. Characteristics of LD college students are summarized from the research. Steps in program development, from convincing the adminstration through funding the…
Sheridan, Lynnaire; Kotevski, Suzanne
This research examines the learning experience of university students who were tutored by a teacher with quadriplegia mixed type cerebral palsy. It was inspired by Pritchard's [2010. "Disabled People as Culturally Relevant Teachers." "Journal of Social Inclusion" 1 (1): 43-51] argument that the presence of people with a…
An in-service program for secondary learning disabilities teachers was based on three premises: adolescents can be motivated, and instruction can be individualized with innovative curriculum materials; contingency management can improve social conduct and academic achievement; and expensive gadgets and large consulting staffs are not prerequisties…
Mendez, Laura; Lacasa, Pilar; Matusov, Eugene
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a sociocultural approach to studying disability in educational contexts grounded in the cultural-historical and activity theory approaches. From the sociocultural viewpoint, disability is regarded as being located in particular types of activity systems and learning cultures rather than within an…
Amael André; Pascale Deneuve; Benoit Louvet
This study examined the effect of cooperative learning on the acceptance of mainstream students with academic learning disabilities in physical education and the links between their athletic abilities and the acceptance by their regular counterparts. Eight sixth grade classes (Mage = 11.8 years) practiced either in a cooperative learning structure (n = 105) or individual structure (n = 112). The
Dean, Raymond S.
Assessed the prediction of learning proficiency on the basis of scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) with children (N=60) referred for learning disabilities. The WISC-R Coding accounted for over 50 percent of the variance in a controlled nonverbal paired associate learning measure and was the single best…
Shamir, Adina; Lazerovitz, Tamar
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a peer mediation intervention on self-regulated learning of students with learning disabilities. The research captured both process and outcomes of peer tutoring following the tutors' experience of the intervention programme. Tutors' self-regulated learning was measured by…
Steele, Sara C.; Watkins, Ruth V.
This study investigated whether children with language learning disability (LLD) differed from typically-developing peers in their ability to learn meanings of novel words presented during reading. Fifteen 9-11-year-old children with LLD and 15 typically-developing peers read four passages containing 20 nonsense words. Word learning was assessed…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need for accessible learning within the online environment by investigating disabled students' levels of engagement with a virtual learning environment (VLE) and the extent to which lecturers' use of the VLE made learning accessible. Design/methodology/approach: A small focus group of…
The nutritional program used at the Pediatric Language Laboratory--a day care center for preschool children with language-learning disabilities is discussed. Some "do's" and "don'ts" regarding appropriate nutrition are presented. (Author)
Hovey, Toni; Cheswick, Claire
The NHS Plan, Department of Health (2000) made a commitment that patients should be able to receive copies of clinicians' letters about them as a right in order to improve communication and enable patients to participate in their care. In South Gloucestershire, the opinions of local service users with learning disabilities, their carers, and…
Englert, Carol Sue; Mariage, Troy V.; Okolo, Cynthia M.; Shankland, Rebecca K.; Moxley, Kathleen D.; Courtad, Carrie Anna; Jocks-Meier, Barbara S.; O'Brien, J. Christian; Martin, Nicole M.; Chen, Hsin-Yuan
This study focuses on an examination of the learning-to-learn strategies of seventh-grade students as they highlight, take notes, plan, organize, and write expository texts. Participants consist of 125 students, 41 with disabilities and 84 without disabilities. The results reveal that the students with disabilities have more difficulties in using…
Cox, Lakeshia L. Ligon
The practice of service-learning is growing. However, service-learning activities seldom involve high school students with moderate mental disabilities working with peers without disabilities. The purpose of this case study was to gain an understanding of the experiences of personnel who work in partnership with students with disabilities and…
Nganji, Julius T.; Brayshaw, Mike; Tompsett, Brian
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how personalisation of learning resources and services can be achieved for students with and without disabilities, particularly responding to the needs of those with multiple disabilities in e-learning systems. The paper aims to introduce ONTODAPS, the Ontology-Driven Disability-Aware Personalised…
Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy
Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD subtypes. This study examined abilities of adolescents with NVLD, with general learning disabilities (GLD), and without LD to recognize, express, and understand facial expressions of emotion. Adolescents were grouped into those with NVLD, with GLD, and without LD using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (short form) and Wide Range Achievement Test-Third Edition. The adolescents completed neuropsychological, recognition, expression, and understanding measures. It is intriguing that the GLD group was significantly less accurate at recognizing and understanding facial expressions compared with the NVLD and NLD groups, who did not differ. Implications are explored with regard to the need to consider possible deficits in recognition and understanding of emotion in adolescents with LD in schools. PMID:19843659
Lewis, R B
Many forms of technology, both "high" and "low," can help individuals with learning disabilities capitalize on their strengths and bypass, or compensate for, their disabilities. This article surveys the current status of assistive technology for this population and reflects on future promises and potential problems. In addition, a model is presented for conceptualizing assistive technology in terms of the types of barriers it helps persons with disabilities to surmount. Several current technologies are described and the research supporting their effectiveness reviewed: word processing, computer-based instruction in reading and other academic areas, interactive videodisc interventions for math, and technologies for daily life. In conclusion, three themes related to the future success of assistive technology applications are discussed: equity of access to technology; ease of technology, use; and emergent technologies, such as virtual reality. PMID:9455174
Toll, Sylke W M; Van der Ven, Sanne H G; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van Luit, Johannes E H
In the past years, an increasing number of studies have investigated executive functions as predictors of individual differences in mathematical abilities. The present longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether the executive functions shifting, inhibition, and working memory differ between low achieving and typically achieving children and whether these executive functions can be seen as precursors to math learning disabilities in children. Furthermore, the predictive value of working memory ability compared to preparatory mathematical abilities was examined. Two classifications were made based on (persistent) mathematical ability in first and second grade. Repeated measures analyses and discriminant analyses were used to investigate which functions predicted group membership best. Group differences in performance were found on one inhibition and three working memory tasks. The working memory tasks predicted math learning disabilities, even over and above the predictive value of preparatory mathematical abilities. PMID:21177978
Patterson, Margaret Becker; Mellard, Daryl
Contrasting adult literacy learners with and without specific learning disabilities This study of 311 adult education (AE) learners found 29% self-reported having a specific learning disability (SLD). Significant differences in demographic, academic, and life experience variables between the adult learners with and without SLD included: prior participation in special education, having both an SLD diagnosis and a high school diploma, low reading scores, middle age, and negative perceptions about limitations due to reading abilities. A post-hoc regression analysis found SLD status significantly contributes to variance in reading level when controlling for age and IQ. From these findings we conclude that SLD status should be considered an educationally relevant variable in adult education that warrants a diagnostic or clinical teaching approach. PMID:22140297
Moore, Francis X., III
Discusses the effects of section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and various state laws on the foreign language requirements of Virginia college and university programs. Foreign language instructors and departments need to be aware of their responsibilities in accommodating learning-disabled…
Harrison, Allyson G.; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John
This study examined the effects of participation in the Learning Opportunities Task Force (LOTF) programs on postsecondary students with learning disabilities (LDs). Data regarding 969 students from 6 colleges and 4 universities in Ontario were evaluated to investigate rates of academic success and increased self-awareness. Participants had a…
Michele M. M. Mazzocco; Richard E. Thompson
The aim of the present study was to address how to effectively predict mathematics learning dis- ability (MLD). Specifically, we addressed whether cognitive data obtained during kindergarten can effectively predict which children will have MLD in third grade, whether an abbreviated test battery could be as effective as a standard psychoeducational assessment at predicting MLD, and whether the abbreviated battery
Carlson, Jerry S.
The final report describes a project investigating the utility of dynamic assessment in measuring the cognitive functioning and learning characteristics of children with specific learning disabilities. Subjects were 229 fourth and fifth grade children with 75 of these diagnosed as children with specific learning disabilities. Measures of cognitive…
Burke, Lisa A.; Friedl, John; Rigler, Michelle
The Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act (ADAAA), which became effective at the beginning of 2009, is poised to have potentially wide-reaching implications for higher education. The article reviews the recent amendments to the original Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990), summarizes the relevant Supreme Court cases that have…
Alter, Margaret M; Borrero, John C
Stimulus equivalence procedures have been used to teach course material in higher education in the laboratory and in the classroom. The current study was a systematic replication of Walker, Rehfeldt, and Ninness (2010), who used a stimulus equivalence procedure to train information pertaining to 12 disorders. Specifically, we conducted (a) a written posttest immediately after each training unit and (b) booster training sessions for poor performers. Results showed immediate improvement from pretest to posttest scores after training, but problems with maintenance were noted in the final examination. Implications of poor maintenance are discussed in the context of the current study and stimulus equivalence research in higher education generally. PMID:25917124
Lall, Geeta Rani
The etiology and identification of learning disabilities are summarized and a team approach in assessment and treatment is suggested. Topics covered include definition of learning disabilities (definitions which refer to central nervous system functioning and definitions which emphasize the learning and behavior disorders without central nervous…
Gray, Patricia Jean
Students with learning disabilities present a diverse spectrum of learning needs; research suggest they may have difficulty making the transition to the postsecondary environment. Learning disabled students at the subject high school were not successfully making the transition from the secondary to the postsecondary environment. This study was…
Smith, Douglas K.
Three studies were designed to explore the pattern of scores on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) by 18 students in elementary level learning disability (LD) resource programs (Study 1), 133 elementary level students referred for learning problems (Study 2), and 67 elementary students referred for severe learning disabilities…
Cline, Beverly Vineyard; Billingsley, Bonnie S.
High school learning disabilities teachers (n=325) and special education supervisors (n=145) were surveyed concerning secondary learning disabilities programs. Although program emphases have not changed over the past decade, educators' priorities changed, calling for less content area instruction, more career/vocational and learning strategies…
Wagner, Richard K.; Francis, David J.; Morris, Robin D.
The need for effective approaches for identifying English language learners with learning disabilities is great and growing. Meeting this need is complicated by recent developments in the field of learning disabilities that are unrelated to the English language learning status, and by limitations in existing knowledge specific to the…
Bloomquist, Lorraine E.
While athletes with disabilities may not be injured any more often than other athletes, the types of injuries they sustain are specific to their disabilities and chosen sports. Characteristic injuries are described, and preventive measures are suggested. (Author/MT)
Little, S S
Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of subtyping techniques for research and treatment of learning disabilities (LD). This article presents an overview of the current literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) subtype. Research on the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning is critically reviewed. Issues of generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity are addressed. Emphasis is on findings that are most likely to have direct relevance for practitioners. PMID:8151205
Rwey-Lin Shiah; Margo Mastropieri; Thomas Scruggs; Barbara J. Mushinski Fulk
Students with learning disabilities have documented difficulties in solving mathematical word problems. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has been documented as an alternative instructional mode which has facilitated the performance of students with learning disabilities in various content areas. This study was intended to determine: (a) whether students with learning disabilities could benefit from a computer-assisted instructional tutorial program to learn math
New Hampshire, University of
Question How does immigrating to the United States and learning the English language impact family for Migrating to the U.S. Daily life as a Hispanic Immigrant English Language Acquisition Loss of NativeThe Implications of Learning English on Family Dynamics among Hispanic Immigrants Karin Hakala
Miller, Rachel Nottingham
The number of students with disabilities arriving on college and university campuses is increasing. Of those students reporting a disability, over half of them state they have a learning disability. Unlike high school, the burden is on the student in college to demonstrate the need for services and communicate this need to the institution in a…
Watkins, Marley W.; Kush, Joseph C.; Glutting, Joseph J.
Tests of the validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Third Edition Arithmetic, Coding, Information, and Digit Span (ACID) profile among 612 students with learning disabilities revealed that the ACID profile does not efficiently separate children with disabilities from those without disabilities. No ACID cutting score significantly…
Mahama, Edward Salifu
Purpose: In spite of extensive literature on disability studies, little has been done on disability and development, more so the role of language and learning technologies in all of this. The purpose of this paper therefore is to focus on the crucial role language plays in the inclusion or exclusion of people with disabilities in development and…
The Individual with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA) 2007, a federal special education law, states that students with disabilities requiring special education services can use accommodations or adaptations of the curriculum to access the general education curriculum. A shortened assignment, as an accommodation, can help learning disabled…
Desoete, Annemie; Praet, Magda; Titeca, Daisy; Ceulemans, Annelies
The sensitivity of number sense as cognitive phenotype for mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) was assessed in siblings of children with MLD (n = 9) and age matched children without family members with MLD (n = 63). A number line estimation paradigm was used as a measure of children's early number sense. In line with the triple code model of Dehaene (1992), three different presentation formats were presented. The results of the study confirmed that number line estimation was related to early arithmetic achievement in kindergarten. In addition siblings were less proficient in number line placements compared to non-siblings, with a larger effect size for symbolic and especially number word estimation compared to the non-symbolic results. Siblings also differed from non-siblings on procedural and conceptual counting skills and logical thinking in kindergarten. Moreover MLD had a familial aggregation, since about three out of five sibling girls had clinical scores on an Early Numeracy Test in kindergarten, pointing to a risk to develop MLD themselves. Implications of the study to our understanding of MLD are discussed. PMID:23023299
Shifrer, Dara; Muller, Chandra; Callahan, Rebecca
The disproportionate identification of learning disabilities among certain socio-demographic subgroups, typically groups who are already disadvantaged, is perceived as a persistent problem within the education system. The academic and social experiences of students who are misidentified with a learning disability may be severely restricted, while students with a learning disability who are never identified are less likely to receive the accommodations and modifications necessary to learn at their maximum potential. We use the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 to describe national patterns in learning disability identification. Results indicate that socio-demographic characteristics are predictive of identification with a learning disability. While some conventional areas of disproportionality are confirmed (males and language minorities), differences in SES entirely account for African-American and Hispanic disproportionality. Discrepancy between the results of bivariate and multivariate analyses confirms the importance of employing multivariate multilevel models in investigation of disproportionality. PMID:20587753
The article examines the potential impact of computer-based text technologies, called hypermedia, on disabled readers. Discussed are hypertext, the hypercard, and implications of metacognitive research (such as author versus user control over text manipulations), instructional implications, and instructional text engineering. (DB)
Haire, A R; Flavill, Jenny; Groom, W D; Dhandapani, B
Nine boys of secondary school age were referred with undescended testes (UDT) to paediatric surgeons over a period of 8?years. All were referred from the same community paediatric clinic for children with severe learning disabilities. UDT cause concern because of a threefold increase in the incidence of cancer. Cosmesis and reduced fertility were seen as less relevant issues for these boys. The late identification and incidence of UDT are discussed. It is suggested that awareness of this issue should be raised and screening introduced. Advice is needed on the appropriate management of UDT in this group of boys. PMID:25643706
Hummel, Jeffrey W.
An ecological approach considering the interaction between specific in-child factors and the two most important learning environments (home and school) is suggested for better understanding the learning problems of the disabled child. (MP)
Karen Benn Marshall
The lack of research studies that examine the use of technology as a tool to support the learning of science among the learning disabled is an important limitation of research in science teaching. This chapter focuses on the use of computer technology and has three objectives: (1) to summarize technology and science education research of the last decade as it relates to the learning disabled, (2) to identify potential computer technology tools that can be best used to support the learning of science by the learning disabled, and (3) to provide some recommendations for postsecondary science educators.
Mellard, Daryl; Johnson, Richard
The Road to Success (RtS) program was designed to introduce hard-to-employ adults with learning disabilities and other cognitive barriers to ways of learning that are will enable them to learn the skills and knowledge they will need as employees and in their everyday lives. Originally developed to serve welfare recipients in Kansas, RtS was…
Raad, Jennifer Marie
Specific learning disabilities are one of the most common and debilitating disorders experienced by children and adolescents, and students with specific learning disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to anxiety. The Revised Children's Manifest...
Alster, E H
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of extended time on the algebra test performance of community college students with and without learning disabilities. Forty-four students with learning disabilities and 44 students without learning disabilities attending five California community colleges participated in the study. The students each took an algebra test under timed conditions and a comparable test under extended-time conditions. The main results were that the students with learning disabilities scored significantly lower than the students without learning disabilities under timed conditions, the scores of the students with learning disabilities increased significantly with extended time, and the scores of the students with learning disabilities under extended-time conditions did not differ significantly from the timed or extended-time scores of the students without learning disabilities. PMID:9066283
Sheehy, Kieron; Budiyanto
The Indonesian education system is striving for an inclusive approach and techniques are needed which can support children with severe learning disabilities and their peers in this context. Manually signed language has proved useful both in supporting the development and empowerment of children with severe learning disabilities and supporting…
Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy
Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…
Pottstown YWCA Adult Literacy Center, PA.
This report describes a project to develop a tutor training model for teaching adults who manifested signs of learning disabilities. A needs assessment was done by surveying previously trained tutors. Existing adult literacy materials and instructional materials specifically developed for individuals with learning disabilities were reviewed and…
Apprentices with a learning disability can face significant barriers to completing their training. This paper explores what these apprentices, their lecturers and disability support staff see as the most effective strategies for helping them to overcome these difficulties. Instructional approaches which accommodate students' learning styles,…
Barnard, Louise; Muldoon, Kevin; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory; Stewart, Mary
Executive dysfunction is thought to be primary to autism. We examined differences in executive function between 20 adults with autism and learning disability and 23 individuals with learning disabilities outside the autistic spectrum. All participants were matched for chronological age and full-scale IQ, and were given a battery of tasks assessing…
Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz
Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…
Conder, Jennifer; Mirfin-Veitch, Brigit; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn
For adults with learning disabilities, becoming a parent can fulfil childhood dreams to take their place in society through a highly valued social role. Recent research aimed at describing the experience of parents with a learning disability suggests that there are barriers to successful planning for both pregnancy and parenthood. However, with…
Barrocas, Lisa; Cramer, Elizabeth D.
This study examined achievement gains in reading and math for Hispanic middle school students with specific learning disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings in a large urban school district. The authors report learning gains for students with and without disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings. Results indicate no…
Prangnell, Simon J.; Green, Karen
Dental anxiety is a common form of anxiety problem, and research suggests that more people with learning disabilities experience dental anxiety than in the general population. Very little work has been done to investigate effective non-medical approaches for supporting people with a learning disability and dental anxiety to access dental care.…
Vicky Turk; Sarah Burchell
This article argues for the introduction of patient-held health care records for people with learning disabilities. The evidence reviewed demonstrates that people with learning disabilities have more health care needs than other adults in society but receive less health care than others. The rationale for implementing hand-held records is considered from three perspectives: a consumer point of view, an analysis
Omizo, Michael M.; And Others
Investigated effects of a rational-emotive education (REE) program on learning-disabled adolescents' (N=60) self-concept and locus of control. Results suggest that the REE intervention strategy is an effective approach to helping learning-disabled adolescents enhance some aspects of self-concept and develop a more internal locus of control…
Klassen, Robert M.; Neufeld, Paul; Munro, Fiona
School psychologists in North America are facing a transformation of their professional practices brought about by impending changes in operational definitions of learning disabilities (LD). This multimethod study explores the learning disabilities-related beliefs and practices of school psychologists in Western Australia, where these changes have…
Heath, Nancy Lee; Wiener, Judith
Nonacademic subscales (social acceptance, athletic ability, physical appearance, and behavioral conduct) of the Self-Perception Profile for Learning Disabled Students and the Children's Depression Inventory were administered to 83 fifth graders and 88 eighth graders (66 with learning disabilities). Self-perceived social acceptance was related to…
Almond, Louise; Giles, Susan
The study examines 102 young people with Learning Disabilities (n = 51) and without a learning disability (NLD; n = 51) to explore ways in which LD young people with harmful sexual behaviours (HSB) should be recognized as a subgroup requiring specialized treatment and intervention. Throughout this comparison of perpetrator, victim and abuse…
Obringer, S. J.; Isonhood, Judith B.
The study investigated the social and vocational adjustment of 25 learning disabled young adults who received services in a Specific Learning Disability program during their elementary or secondary school years. Personal interviews were conducted using a 32-item questionnaire. Among findings were that 56% were living in their parents' homes; 60%…
Scholz, Markus; Niesch, Harald; Steffen, Olaf; Ernst, Baerbel; Loeffler, Markus; Witruk, Evelin; Schwarz, Hans
The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefit of chess in mathematics lessons for children with learning disabilities based on lower intelligence (IQ 70-85). School classes of four German schools for children with learning disabilities were randomly assigned to receive one hour of chess lesson instead of one hour of regular mathematics lessons…
Marwood, Hayley; Hewitt, Olivia
The effectiveness of group therapy for people with learning disabilities and anxiety management issues is reviewed. People with learning disabilities face increased levels of psychological distress compared to the general population, yet are often faced with a lack of social support and poor coping techniques to manage their distress. A 6-week…
Many people with learning disabilities are not well supported when someone close to them dies. This can make it an even more difficult time than it needs to be. This is about how staff can help people with learning disabilities when somebody close to them dies. It has some questions for them to think about. It is well documented that the death of…
Mason, Paul; Timms, Ken; Hayburn, Tracey; Watters, Camilla
Background: For many people with learning disabilities, friendships can be limited or restricted, with loneliness being a significant problem. Although much research has been undertaken exploring these issues, little attention has been given to what people with learning disabilities themselves have to say about friendship. The aim of this study is…
This article discusses basic learning processes utilized by children with profound intellectual disabilities, including classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and habituation. The article also explores how these learning processes may be used in assessing the capabilities and preferences of children with profound intellectual disabilities.…
Lorraine Culley; Nicky Genders
This article discusses some of the findings of a research project which was designed to examine the role of community learning disability nurses in supporting people with learning disabilities who become parents. The need for information and help with the experience of pregnancy, childbirth, becoming parents and bringing up children has been highlighted in a recently issued guide for commissioning
Tarver, Sara G.; Ellsworth, Patricia S.
To test the hypothesis that the developmental lag in verbal rehearsal which has been documented for the learning disabled is due to a naming speed deficit (i.e., slow retrieval of stimulus names), the serial recall performance of 64 learning disabled children at four grade levels (1, 3, 5, and 7) was compared under three stimulus presentation…
Tarver, Sara G.; And Others
Two experiments investigated the development of verbal rehearsal strategies and selective attention in learning disabled children. In Experiment 1, Hagen's Central-Incidental task was administered to younger learning disabled and normal boys. In Experiment 2 the task was given to intermediate and older boys along with an experimentally induced…
Canadian Council on Learning, 2009
If stronger skills and more education are key to greater labour force participation, then it is important to identify critical barriers to education and training for Canadians with disabilities. In 2008, the Canadian Council on Learning's Adult Learning Knowledge Centre funded a "Community Outreach Initiative for Learner's with Disabilities" that…
Irene C. Mammarella; Francesca Pazzaglia
Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and visual perception were examined in two groups aged 11–13, one with children displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning disability (NLD) (n = 18) and the other a control group without learning disabilities (n = 18). The two groups were matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. The children were presented with VSWM tests
Notes trends in definitions and theories on learning disabilities as recorded in articles in Canadian journals from 1989-2000. Examines current definitions of learning disabled (LD) used by ministries of education and compares them with proposed changes in current research. Discusses the shift in LD identification practices away from IQ cutoffs…
Franklin, Anderson J.; Frumkin, Yvette J.
In this pilot study, the effect of experimenter cuing on recall and organization of response was analyzed and compared between subjects identified as learning disabled with an isolated memory impairment (LDMI), learning disabled without an isolated memory impairment (LDO), and normal controls (N). Six subjects were selected for each group after…
Varghese, Susan; Banerjee, Subimal
The aim of the audit was to evaluate the current clinical practice for learning-disabled individuals with psychotic disorders. We evaluated the existing clinical practice in 910 individuals who were under the care of learning disability psychiatrists in Buckinghamshire (population of 480 000). This was compared with the National Institute for…
This article considers the aesthetics of applied performance with people with learning disabilities. Focusing on the integrated punk band Heavy Load, it explores how the aesthetic structure reconstructs notions of learning disability and intervenes in its social experience. It argues that this is facilitated through the punk form which positions…
Williams, Donna Elizabeth
Preparation, Development, and Transition of Learning-Disabled Students for Workforce Success. Donna Elizabeth Williams, 2011: Applied Dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Abraham S. Fischler School of Education. ERIC Descriptors: Learning Disabilities, Community Based Instruction, Academic Advising, Career Counseling, Career Planning. This…
Swartz, Stanley L.; Wall, Sherrill A.
Sixty-two adolescents, including 28 learning disabled (LD) and 34 nonLD Ss, participated in an examination of the relationship between social class indicators and delinquency. A review of the literature relating social class variables to school achievement, learning disabilities, and juvenile delinquency resulted in the selection of 14 social…
Ortiz, Cheryl L.
The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to explore if there was a difference in terms of scores, of English Language Learners with learning disabilities and monolingual English speaking students with learning disabilities. The assessments were the Wilson Assessment of Decoding and Encoding reading scores, Measures of Academic…
This report describes activities and accomplishments of a four-year project to develop a doctoral program at the University of Kansas Medical Center to prepare teacher educators, researchers, supervisors/managers, and clinicians in programs in either deafness or learning disabilities and in a combined deafness and learning disabilities program.…
Therrien, William J.; Zaman, Maliha; Banda, Devender R.
Meta-analysis is considered an acceptable method to evaluate research studies for evidence-based practices. The purpose of this review is to examine the applicability of using meta-analyses in the learning disability field to guide classroom practice. The authors evaluated 15 learning disability meta-analyses in three domains: large-scale…
Blankenship, M. Elise; And Others
Describes some academic and social behaviors typical of learning disabled students and suggests ideas for developing and modifying lessons appropriate to students' needs. The characteristics of folk and fairy tales that offer valuable literary opportunities for learning disabled students are discussed and methods for helping students deal with the…
Campbell, Alison; Bell, Dorothy
This case study considers the psychological assessment, formulation and treatment of Hannah, a woman with a learning disability who recently experienced the death of her mother. Death still remains a challenging and often taboo subject. Moreover, when the grief is of a person with a learning disability, this combines with underlying difficulties…
Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John
People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…
The self-advocacy of people with learning disabilities is an issue of the most current importance. At the most restricted end of the communication spectrum, people with learning disabilities may often be seen as silent members of their communities. The development of accessible communication methods during the design process of outdoor environments will create a precedent for successful public participation in
Blanks, A. Brooke; Smith, J. David
Religious beliefs permeate many aspects of culture. Often, however, educators are reluctant to discuss religious beliefs when working with children with developmental and intellectual disabilities and their families. Ignoring the salience of religious teachings about the nature and meaning of disabilities as they relate to both individuals and…
Versnel, Joan; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Munby, Hugh; Chin, Peter
This paper describes cases of two adolescents with learning disabilities working in automotive repair businesses as part of a work-based education program. Neither adolescent was judged to have been successful by the workplace supervisors. The frameworks chosen for analyzing these cases draw upon recent work in self-determination, workplace…
A packet for parents of middle school children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) was developed and field tested with 54 parents and teachers. The packet consisted of two booklets in question and answer form explaining SLD, reviewing spcific terms used to describe the condition, and discussing parent rights (including in the development of…
McCann, B S; Roy-Byrne, P
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder which begins in childhood. It is now recognized that ADHD persists into adolescence and adulthood in the majority of cases. Significant psychiatric comorbidity, particularly substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder, and mood and anxiety disorders occurs in adolescent and adult ADHD. Perhaps one fifth of childhood cases of ADHD may also have co-morbid learning disorder. Significant legal, academic, social, and occupational problems have been observed in adults with ADHD. The clinician faces a diagnostic and treatment challenge in trying to determine whether ADHD and learning disabilities (LDs) are present in the adult patient. Treatment and recommendations for accommodations in institutions of higher education and the workplace may rest on accurate discrimination between ADHD and LD. PMID:11291014
Satcher, Jamie F.; Dooley-Dickey, Katherine
This paper provides a basic overview of the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), which mandates equal access, protection, and opportunity for persons with disabilities in four major areas: employment, telecommunication, transportation, and public services and accommodations. It notes that the employment…
Patrick Watts; Karen Walker; Lyn Beck
Purpose To test the potential ability of the MTI photoscreener to facilitate screening for significant refractive errors in children and young adults with severe learning disabilities.Methods Thirty-eight patients with severe learning disabilities from a special school were examined with the photoscreener, and underwent cycloplegic refraction, an ophthalmological and an orthoptic examination. The age at examination, the cause of learning disability,
Maria Alejandra Reyes-Bonilla
This study sought to determine the instructional effects of the Natural Approach on the English oral communication skills of third-grade learning disabled students. Subjects included 20 learning disabled students in a self-contained class who received the Natural Approach (NAT) as an experimental group. The control group consisted of 20 learning disabled mainstreamed students who received the English through Audiolingual Approach
Britz, R.; Bester, M. J.; da Silva, A.; Motsoane, N. A.; Marx, J.; Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.
The use of pharmaceutical products such as Piracetam (Nootropil[R]) for the treatment of learning disabilities is becoming increasingly prevalent, and some studies have shown successful treatment of learning disabilities in children. This research article will discuss traditional uses of Piracetam, as well as uses in learning disabilities, with…
The increasing life expectancy of people with learning disabilities makes it imperative that families plan for the future. The number of people with learning disabilities over the age of 65 is predicted to double over the next two decades. The greatest increase in life expectancy will be amongst people with mild learning disabilities who will have…
Pilling, Rachel F.
Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…
Mittan, Robert J.
This is a six part article intended to give parents the information and strategies they need to cope with their child with epilepsy who may have school learning problems. Epilepsy and seizures affect the classroom in unique ways that can make the learning experience especially challenging for some kids. Fortunately, much can be done to give the…
Vannest, Kimberly J.; Mason, Benjamin A.; Brown, Leanne; Dyer, Nicole; Maney, Shell; Adiguzel, Tufan
Finding appropriate instructional settings in science for students with disabilities is challenging, and the range of services or placements used is currently unknown. This study identifies administrative structures, instructional settings, and special/general education teacher roles in teaching science to students with disabilities. A phone survey was conducted with special education coordinators of fifth graders in 137 districts in Texas. Survey data indicated that while nearly all districts reported special education settings for the instruction of science for students with disabilities, some districts provided only general education settings. Theoretical and practical implications for teacher preparation are discussed.
Hebron, Preston T., Jr.
In this practicum, 15 learning-disabled pupils in grades two and three participated in an individualized program featuring mastery learning, a personalized system of instruction, attention to learning style and modality, and behavior modification, in order to improve reading levels and poor behavior. Program components included learning stations,…
The process of a successful undergraduate student-faculty research collaboration involving a student with documented learning disabilities is detailed. As the student developed research skills, she also learned how to develop her own learning strategies. At the same time, the faculty member learned strategies adaptable to all student-faculty…
The process of a successful undergraduate student-faculty research collaboration involving a student with documented learning disabilities is detailed. As the student developed research skills, she also learned how to develop her own learning strategies. At the same time, the faculty member learned strategies adaptable to all student-faculty research collaborations.
Low, W Y; Zubir, T N
Sexuality of persons with spinal cord injury has received increased attention especially in the Western countries. However, in the local context, studies pertaining to the sexuality of the disabled are almost nil. This paper utilized a qualitative approach in assessing sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of persons with spinal cord injury. Eight focus group discussions consisting of 28 adult spinal cord injured persons were carried out. The results showed that the frequency of sexual activity decreased following injury. The disabled themselves have a negative self-concept and a low self-esteem and this affects their attitudes towards sexuality and their sexual behaviour. Health care professionals tend to neglect this issue perhaps due to their insensitivity to the sexual needs for the disabled or a lack of understanding and expertise in this area. A need for sexual information related to their disability is warranted in the areas of reproduction, contraception and their ability/disability in achieving an erection or ejaculation. This study indicated a need for more comprehensive research in this neglected area of sexual issues of persons with disabilities. Public health education and counseling is deemed necessary for the disabled themselves so as to accommodate their sexual lives to their physical capabilities and desires. Attitudes and misconceptions of the public need to be corrected. Above all, there is a need for education and training for health care professionals in the area of sexual rehabilitation, which is currently non-existent in the country. Perhaps, it is timely to incorporate sexual rehabilitation as part of a holistic medical rehabilitation of the disabled. PMID:11338746
Criu, Roxana; Ceobanu, Ciprian
If a few decades ago, "the education received in school could be in most of the cases enough to go with for the rest of one's entire life," today the situation has changed dramatically. The individual has to be prepared for a new type of life and training, namely lifelong learning. The individual's survival in society could…
Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Al Snih, Soham
Summary Obesity is a worldwide problem with increasing prevalence and incidence in both developed and developing countries. In older adults, excess weight is associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease, several important cancers, and numerous other medical conditions. Obesity has been also associated with increased functional limitations, disability, and poorer quality of life. Additionally, obesity has been independently associated with all-cause mortality. The obesity epidemic has important social and economic implications, representing an important source of increased public health care costs. The aim of this review is to report the epidemiology of obesity world-wide and the implications of obesity on disability and chronic diseases. PMID:22345902
Lawrence J. Raifman; McCay Vernon
Increased implementation of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), which empowered persons who have disabilities, has begun in earnest with recent federal court action. Three legal opinions have far-reaching implications for psychologists whose practices include disabled clients. These implications are especially true for those psychologists who are most likely to work at least occasionally with deaf, hard-of-hearing, or
Bjelland, Melissa J.; von Schrader, Sarah; Houtenville, Andrew J.; Ruiz-Quintanilla, Antonio; Webber, Douglas A.
Introduction As concerns grow that a thinning labor force due to retirement will lead to worker shortages, it becomes critical to support positive employment outcomes of groups who have been underutilized, specifically older workers and workers with disabilities. Better understanding perceived age and disability discrimination and their intersection can help rehabilitation specialists and employers address challenges expected as a result of the evolving workforce. Methods Using U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Integrated Mission System data, we investigate the nature of employment discrimination charges that cite the Americans with Disabilities Act or Age Discrimination in Employment Act individually or jointly. We focus on trends in joint filings over time and across categories of age, types of disabilities, and alleged discriminatory behavior. Results We find that employment discrimination claims that originate from older or disabled workers are concentrated within a subset of issues that include reasonable accommodation, retaliation, and termination. Age-related disabilities are more frequently referenced in joint cases than in the overall pool of ADA filings, while the psychiatric disorders are less often referenced in joint cases. When examining charges made by those protected under both the ADA and ADEA, results from a logit model indicate that in comparison to charges filed under the ADA alone, jointly-filed ADA/ADEA charges are more likely to be filed by older individuals, by those who perceive discrimination in hiring and termination, and to originate from within the smallest firms. Conclusion In light of these findings, rehabilitation and workplace practices to maximize the hiring and retention of older workers and those with disabilities are discussed. PMID:19680793
Self-directed learning (SDL) has numerous implications for understanding adult learners and for improving their museum experiences. Through a review of the conceptual and empirical literature, the relationship between SDL and education within a museum setting is explored in this article. Discussion includes an overview of SDL, inquiry into two…
Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit
This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security scale and the children's self-control scale. Study results demonstrated major difficulties in SIP, lower attachment security, and less ER in children with LD compared to children without LD. Attachment as well as the interaction between attachment and ER emerged as important contributors to most SIP steps, suggesting that children with higher security who also have better ER skills will have better SIP capabilities along the different steps, beyond group inclusion. Results were discussed in terms of practical and clinical implications regarding the importance of mother-child attachment and ER skills for social cognitive capabilities in children with LD. PMID:18443148
Berkeley, Sheri; Mastropieri, Margo A; Scruggs, Thomas E
A pre-post experimental design with 6-week delayed posttest was implemented to investigate the effects of reading comprehension strategy (RCS) instruction with and without attribution retraining (AR) on reading outcomes for seventh, eighth, and ninth graders with learning and other mild disabilities. Students were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: RCS+AR, RCS, or a Read Naturally (Ihnot, 1992) comparison condition. Results indicated that compared to the comparison group, both strategy instruction groups performed better on a summarization measure of comprehension after treatment producing large effect sizes. Both groups also performed better after a 6-week delay; however, only the RCS+AR group maintained a large effect size. In addition, RCS+AR students displayed higher attributions for reading success at post- and delayed posttesting. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:21335506
Orraca-Castillo, Miladys; Estévez-Pérez, Nancy; Reigosa-Crespo, Vivian
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a genetic condition generally associated with intellectual deficiency and learning disabilities. Although there have been groundbreaking advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and neural systems underlying learning deficits associated to NF1 in animal models, much remains to be learned about the spectrum of neurocognitive phenotype associated with the NF1 clinical syndrome. In the present study, 32 children with NF1 ranging from 7 to 14 years were evaluated with neurocognitive tests dedicated to assess basic capacities which are involved in reading and mathematical achievement. Deficits in lexical and phonological strategies and poor number facts retrieval were found underlying reading and arithmetic disorders, respectively. Additionally, efficiencies in lexical/phonological strategies and mental arithmetic were significant predictors of individual differences in reading attainment and math. However, deficits in core numeric capacities were not found in the sample, suggesting that it is not responsible for calculation dysfluency. The estimated prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia was 18.8%, and the male:female ratio was 5:1. On the other hand, the prevalence of Developmental Dyslexia was almost 3 times as high (50%), and no gender differences were found (male: female ratio = 1:1). This study offers new evidence to the neurocognitive phenotype of NF1 contributing to an in depth understanding of this condition, but also to possible treatments for the cognitive deficits associated with NF1. PMID:24936179
Siegel, L S; Feldman, W
A common presenting problem of children in pediatric practice is the constellation of symptoms involving difficulty in completing assignments, trouble with written work, and organizational problems. Typically, these children do not have difficulty with reading but show problems with academic achievement. We have recently studied 29 children, aged 7 to 13, referred for learning problems. They were not dyslexic, that is their reading abilities were normal, but they had significant difficulty with written tests and assignments and problems with arithmetic. In addition to difficulty with eye-hand coordination as measured by a test of visual motor integration, these children showed poor performance on short-term memory tasks when compared with children who do not have writing or arithmetic problems. Suggested treatments include the use of tape recorders, typewriters, and calculators to help compensate for the writing and short-term memory difficulties associated with these learning problems. The pediatrician, acting as child advocate, can exert influence within the traditional school system to gain acceptance for use of learning aids by children with a developmental output disability. PMID:6825370
Silver, L B
It is estimated that between 3% and 7% of children and adolescents in this country--up to 4 million--are learning disabled. Of this group, about 20% also have attention deficit disorder. Many professionals in multiple disciplines have proposed treatment approaches. When research has been done to support the approach, the reports and data may be published in journals not normally read by the practicing physician. When research data are not available, the information may be in a popular book, newspapers, or lay magazines or on television. Thus, parents may know of ideas and suggestions before the professional in clinical practice. These acceptable and controversial approaches to treatment are reviewed. It is understandable that a parent would seek out improved ways of helping his or her child. I reviewed the significant literature in an effort to assist the practicing physician in providing appropriate parental guidance and clinical interventions. PMID:2875647
Ginsburg, H P
U.S. education suffers from shortcomings that put even children possessing adequate intellectual abilities at risk for low mathematics achievements. Consequently, identifying and understanding children whose academic failure is influenced by a genuine learning disability requires a complex "developmental" research agenda. This perspective suggests the use of sensitive research methods--clinical interviews, ethnographies--to examine the development of children's construction of knowledge in the context of schooling. Researchers should consider such factors as the adequacy of classroom instruction, the availability in children of informal knowledge, the role of motivation, the effects of specific interventions, the role and operation of different cognitive processes in constructing mathematical understanding, children's difficulties across different areas of mathematics, and the development of children's thinking throughout the school years. PMID:9009878
Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities. PMID:21700421
Dinero, T E; Donah, C H; Larson, G L
The responses on the Slingerland tests of 29 learning disabled and 11 nondisabled children in Grade 1 distinguished the two groups, except for copying (near vision). Copying (far vision) and auditory, visual, and kinesthetic perception and discrimination together were the strongest predictors of group membership. PMID:530798
Zhang, Chun; Bennett, Tess
This article discusses the complex belief systems and values affecting the perception of disability for families from culturally diverse backgrounds, including the influence of traditional and spiritual beliefs, beliefs about health and healing, religion, belief about folk medicine and folk healers, and expectations of a child's social roles.…
Osborne, Allan G.; Battaglino, Lisa
Courts have ruled that age-limitation rules for high school athletes, generally 19 years, are reasonable. Courts have been fairly consistent in holding that waiving academic requirements would not be unreasonable. Courts are mixed concerning whether students with physical disabilities should be allowed to participate in contact sports. (37…
Parker, David R.; White, Cheri E.; Collins, Laura; Banerjee, Manju; McGuire, Joan M.
Today's college students are expected to utilize a variety of learning technologies to succeed in higher education. Students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) can encounter barriers to equal access and effective learning in this new digital environment, including the development of proficiency…
Brown, Freddy Jackson; Cooper, Kate; Diebel, Tara
People with learning disabilities have higher levels of health needs compared with the general population (Nocon, 2006, Background evidence for the DRC's formal investigation into health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities or mental health problems. London and Manchester, Disability Rights Commission). Research has shown…
Carlson, Janet F.; Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas
Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the development and use of tests in school settings are enumerated. We predict increased demand for behavioural assessments that consider a person's activities, participation and person-environment interactions, including measures that: (a) address…
This article reviews the literature on peer relations and social skills of children with learning disabilities (LD). Two risk models are discussed. The single-risk model suggests that for some children with LD, social skills deficits are inherent in the disability. These deficits lead to problems with social relationships, which foster…
A study investigated both quantitative and qualitative differences between learning disabled (LD) and nonlearning disabled (NLD) subjects across three grade levels on two tasks requiring active processing of story grammar. Twelve LD and 12 NLD subjects were randomly selected from grades 4-5, 7-8, and 10-11 in a southwestern Florida school…
Harding, Celia; Lindsay, Gemma; O'Brien, Aoife; Dipper, Lucy; Wright, Julie
There is a developing research base to support the rationale underpinning augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for people with learning disabilities. However, there is a paucity of research examining the process involved in implementing AAC support for people who have profound disabilities. This paper seeks to explore the processes…
Geary, David C.
Gersten, Jordan, and Flojo (in this issue) provide the beginnings of an essential bridge between basic research on mathematical disabilities (MD) in young children and the application of this research for the early identification and remediation of these forms of learning disability. As they acknowledge, the field of MD is in the early stages of…
This article reviews critical issues with integrating different procedures for identifying children with specific learning disabilities permitted in the federal regulations of the 2004 Individual With Disabilities Education Act 2004. Theoretical differences between behavioral approaches that focus on recording behavioral responses based on…
Bright, Tony Dale
The impact of learning disabilities (LD) on behavioral work styles was examined by studying 32 African American high school students (with and without disabilities) enrolled in a career and technical education skills center. Also examined were the relationships between behavioral work styles and these two dependent variables: (1) student's…
Despite the UK's recent history of promoting the social inclusion and equality of men and women with learning disabilities they remain a significantly disadvantaged group. Compared with their non-disabled peers they are more likely to be unemployed, less likely to own their own homes and are at a significantly greater risk of physical and mental…
Despite the UK’s recent history of promoting the social inclusion and equality of men and women with learning disabilities they remain a significantly disadvantaged group. Compared with their non?disabled peers they are more likely to be unemployed, less likely to own their own homes and are at a significantly greater risk of physical and mental ill health. The first part
Maag, John W.; Reid, Robert
Ninety-five secondary students with learning disabilities (LDs) and 126 nondisabled students were assessed for depression. The prevalence of depression for both students with and without LDs was 10%. No difference in prevalence or severity of depression was noted for disability or gender. Subscales of the Self-Esteem Inventory and Adolescent…
Torres-Burgo, Nydia I.; Reyes-Wasson, Pamela; Brusca-Vega, Rita
A survey of 50 Hispanic and non-Hispanic parents of children with learning disabilities examined treatment of the two groups of parents in the special education process, parents' involvement in the process, and how parental treatment compared to the mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA). Strategies are suggested to maximize…
Chiviacowsky, S.; Wulf, G.; Avila, L. T. G.
Background: The present study examined whether the learning benefits of an external focus of attention (i.e. on the movement effect) relative to an internal focus (i.e. on the movement), found previously in non-disabled children and adults would also be found in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods: Participants ("n" =…
Mercer, Kerri A.
Although there has been legislation that has improved access for students with disabilities, many students are choosing not to pursue postsecondary education. The rate of postsecondary attendance for students with learning disabilities and attention disorders has increased, but they are still enrolling in postsecondary education less frequently…
Brooks, B. A.; Floyd, F.; Robins, D. L.; Chan, W. Y.
Background: Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill…
Steffes, Laurie A.
The Individuals with Disabilities Educational Act requires all students with learning disabilities (LD) be given accommodations in general education classes to help balance their educational opportunities. In secondary public schools, the primary educators of students with LD are general education teachers; as such they are responsible for…
Cant, Richard; Standen, Penny
There is evidence that people with learning disabilities who offend are treated differently within the criminal justice system compared to non-disabled offenders. As their treatment depends on decisions made by professionals within the criminal justice system, this study set out to explore the attitudes of these professionals. Semi-structured…
Murphy, Melissa M.
The prevalence rate of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) among children with fragile X syndrome who do not meet criteria for intellectual and developmental disabilities ([approximately equal to] 50% of female children) exceeds the rate reported in the general population. The purpose of this article is two-fold: (1) to review the findings on…
Marianne S. Meyer
Federal legislation of the 1960s and 1970s extending educational services to learning disabled children contained a criterion requiring a severe discrepancy between an child's ability and achievement. Following a discussion of the historical context related to this decision, research related to discrepancy is reviewed using reading disabilities or dyslexia as the prototype. Topics examined include the relationship of IQ to
Irvin, Matthew J.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Weiss, Margaret P.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong; McConnell, Bethany M.; Petrin, Robert A.
This study examined the school perceptions and educational aspirations of 6,599 rural high school students, a sample that included 428 students with learning disabilities (LD). Regardless of disability status, rural high school students who had negative perceptions of school had less well-defined postsecondary educational plans and less often…
Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Bianco, Margarita
The identification of children who are twice-exceptional--those who are gifted and have concomitant learning disabilities (LDs)--has historically posed a number of challenges for school psychologists and other school personnel. With the reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and the shift to the use of a…
Schultz, Edward Karl; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Lynch, Sharon
The 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) and subsequent regulations published in 2006 have significantly changed the identification process for students suspected of having specific learning disabilities. Rather than using a discrepancy model contrasting intellectual and achievement test results, assessment…
Susan Musante (American Institute of Biological Sciences; )
The article tells the story of a university professor, a student with severe disabilities, and how they worked together. In the end, not only did the student successfully complete the course, but the professor learned a great deal too. It describes steps all faculty should take to make sure that all students can learn and provides resources for further learning.
This paper presents information to assist students with learning disabilities (LD), counselors, and employers in building a bridge between community college and employment. It argues that students must learn to articulate how their LD affects them in a variety of situations, especially those requiring learning and performing work related tasks.…
Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. PMID:23649222
This paper examines the relationship between epidemiological and intervention research with learning disabled adolescents. Several historical trends and contemporary issues (e.g., the importance of prevention as opposed ...
The effects of errorless discrimination training (Sulzer and Mayer) on visual and auditory discrimination of digraphs of a learning disabled eight-year-old female resulted in a successful technique for digraph discrimination. (Author/PN)
Denckla, Martha Bridge; And Others
Most of 32 learning disabled children (seven to 14 years old) with neurological lateralization characteristics marked by right and left hemispheres had a normal CT (computerized tomography) scan. (CL)
Introduction: People with a learning disability are members of a stigmatised group and research has shown that stigmatisation can have a negative impact on psychological wellbeing. The process of social comparison has ...
Tarver, Sara G.
Six hypotheses regarding the attention behaviors of learning disabled children are reviewed and current findings discussed. Hypotheses concern hyperresponsiveness and distractibility; underselective attention; verbal rehearsal deficit; metacognition deficit; word retrieval/naming; speed deficit; and creative ability. (CL)
Hill, Colleen Evelyn
) Colleen Evelyn Hill, B. Ed. , University of Alberta Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Daniel L. Householder Industrial arts teachers are expected to provide effective instruction for substantial numbers of learning disabled students who are mainstreamed...
Meyen, Edward L.; Schiefelbusch, Richard L.; Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Moran, Mary Ross; Clark, Frances L.
This paper details the assumptions about learning disabled adolescents and young adults as well as assumptions about conducting research with this population held by researchers at the Kansas Institute. Strategies developed ...
Sikora, D M; Plapinger, D S
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of standardized psychoeducational diagnostic instruments to identify learning disabilities in students with sensorineural hearing impairments. Nineteen students were evaluated: 14 males and 5 females between the ages of 7 and 13. Results indicated that 12 were functioning at grade level, 2 had cognitive delays, and 2 had learning disabilities. Of the 3 remaining students, 2 had unilateral hearing loss and 1 had a precipitous high-frequency hearing loss; these students were used as controls. Students with hearing impairment were found to demonstrate learning disabilities with a frequency similar to that found in students with normal hearing. These results suggest that standardized instruments can be used effectively to identify learning disabilities in students with sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:8051508
Strichart, S S
This investigation established the reliability of the Jordan Left-Right Reversal Test for learning disabled children. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .89 to .92 for a sample of 91 children, 5 through 12 yr., attending private schools for children with learning disabilities. Reversal errors decreased with age for boys and girls, although girls 9 through 12 made significantly fewer errors than did boys in the same age range. Learning disabled children made more errors at all ages than normal children. This test instrument was determined to be a measure of the global tendency to make visual reversal errors and was viewed as an appropriate part of the learning disabilities diagnostic procedure. PMID:745916
Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Warner, Michael M.; Schumaker, Jean B.
While most efforts in programming for learning disabled adolescents have been directed to the content of instructional offering, the authors identify procedures to promote acquisition and generalization of skills . Exemplified ...
Hooker, Veronica; Foster, Ann
Elementary and secondary education services available to learning disabled students in the Vancouver school system are described, including teaching and evaluation centers and an extended skills development center. (CL)
Twill, Sarah E.; Guzzo, Gaetano R.
In the summer of 2009, a two-week study abroad program was specifically designed and executed to include students with disabilities. Recruitment efforts resulted in 11 student participants, six of who were identified as having a disability by the University's Office of Disability Services. Students participated in a two-course academic program;…
Hill, Colleen Evelyn
MAINSTREAMING LEARNING DISABLED STUDENTS: AN INSERVICE MODULE FOR INDUSTRIAL ARTS TEACHERS A Thesis by COLLEEN EVELYN HILL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirments for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Industrial Education MAINSTREAMING LEARNING DISABLED STUDENTS: AN INSERVICE MODULE FOR INDUSTRIAL ARTS TEACHERS A Thesis by COLLEEN EVELYN HILL Approved as to style and content by: Daniel...
Thomas A. Blakely; Francis M. Crinella; Todd D. Fisher; Lorraine Champaigne; Frances W. Beck
Since Samuel Orton's (1937) assertion that dyslexia reflects abnormal brain organization, the relationship of learning disabilities\\u000a to brain dysfunction has been the topic of considerable debate. Recently, learning-disabled individuals have been studied\\u000a in conjunction with those known to have neurological dysfunction, in a search for common subtypes. In the present study, a\\u000a population of 177 children, ages 9-0 to 14-0,
Eleanor L. Higgins; Jennifer C. Zvi
The article reports on a support services program for postsecondary students with learning disabilities that was found to\\u000a be particularly conducive to the conversion of research findings into practical applications in such a way that it measurably\\u000a enhanced students’ immediate and long-term academic performance. The results of both clinical and controlled research on persons\\u000a with learning disabilities were applied to:
Williams, Peter; Hennig, Christian
Much relevant internet-mediated information is inaccessible to people with learning disabilities because of difficulties in navigating the web. This paper reports on the methods undertaken to determine how information can be optimally presented for this cohort. Qualitative work is outlined where attributes relating to site layout affecting usability were elicited. A study comparing web sites of different design layouts exhibiting these attributes is discussed, with the emphasis on methodology. Eight interfaces were compared using various combinations of menu position (vertical or horizontal), text size and the absence or presence of images to determine which attributes of a site have the greatest performance impact. Study participants were also asked for their preferences, via a ‘smiley-face’ rating scale and simple interviews. ‘Acquiescence bias’ was minimised by avoiding polar (‘yes/no’) interrogatives, achieved by asking participants to compare layouts (such as horizontal versus vertical menu), with reasons coaxed from those able to articulate them. Preferred designs were for large text and images. This was the reverse of those facilitating fastest retrieval times, a discrepancy due to preferences being judged on aesthetic considerations. Design recommendations that reconcile preference and performance findings are offered. These include using a horizontal menu, juxtaposing images and text, and reducing text from sentences to phrases, thus facilitating preferred large text without increasing task times.
Priestley, Mark; Waddington, Lisa; Bessozi, Carlotta
This paper addresses the challenges of building capacity for collaborative participatory research with disabled people's organisations in European countries. The paper presents initial findings from the project "European Research Agendas for Disability Equality" (EuRADE), which seeks to build the capacity of civil society organisations to…
Karmel, Tom; Nguyen, Nhi
In 2005, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) produced a statistical compendium examining vocational education and training (VET) students with a disability as a whole group; it also compared different disability groups, focusing on their participation levels, achievements and outcomes from VET in 2003 (Cavallaro et al.…
English National Board for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, London.
A research project examined the current roles of learning disability nurses within multi-professional and multi-agency teams in a range of care settings in the United Kingdom (UK). It also studied the effectiveness of current educational provision for this branch of nursing, in terms of current roles and activities, and the perceived needs of…
Abu Bakar, Nurul Farhana; Chen, Ai-Hong
Context: Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) and Ishihara's Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test) between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes) matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. ‘Unable to test’ was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. Results: The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes (P < 0.001) but not in Cambridge Crowding Cards, Lang Stereo test II and CVTME. Conclusion: Non verbal or “matching” approaches were found to be more superior in testing visual functions in children with learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities. PMID:24008790
Davis, Veronica Ladell
one comes into contact with a specific stimulus). The present study investigates the susceptibility to helplessness induction of children between the ages of six and fifteen, in a retarded and learning disabled population and a nonretarded.../her some puzzles to see how long he/she will work on them. Any quest1ons that you have concerning this study, I will be happy to answer. You may contact me at (713) 775-0698. If your child would like to discontinue part1cipat1on at any time dur1ng...
Molloy, Geoffrey N.; Das, J. P.
The paper traces the development of an integrated model of cognition stemming from Soviet neuropsychology and reviews recent research on simultaneous and successive syntheses. Implications for mental retardation, learning disability, hyperactivity, and reading disability are given. (Author/CL)
Cohen, Julie S; Srivastava, Siddharth; Farwell, Kelly D; Lu, Hsiao-Mei; Zeng, Wenqi; Lu, Hong; Chao, Elizabeth C; Fatemi, Ali
Elongator is a multi-subunit protein complex essential to transcription elongation, histone acetylation, and tRNA modification. The complex consists of six highly conserved protein subunits, called Elongator Proteins (ELP) 1-6. Apart from an association with intellectual disability (ID), there is limited clinical information about patients with ELP2 variants. Here we report on two brothers with severe ID, spastic diplegia, and self-injury whose presentation eluded a diagnosis for over 20 years. In both brothers, whole exome sequencing revealed a likely pathogenic, compound heterozygous missense variant in ELP2. We describe the phenotype and natural history of the ELP2-related disorder in these brothers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25847581
Austin; Cherkes-Julkowski; Ford
PURPOSE: Learning disabilities (LD) are among the most common developmental and psychiatric disorders encountered by pediatricians, yet many children are not adequately diagnosed or treated in elementary school when intervention is most effective. Because of the well-known co-morbidity between psychosocial problems and LD, this pilot study sought to utilize psychosocial "markers" to screen for unidentified LD among all fifth graders in three urban/suburb Connecticut elementary schools.METHODS: 115 fifth graders, representing a 71% response rate, agreed to participate in the study and were screened using standardized psychosocial questionnaires administered to parents (Child Behavior Checklist), students (Youth Self Report), and teachers (Teacher Report Form). Psychosocial symptom scores and associated t-scores were obtained for three types of problems; "internalizing," "attention" and "externalizing." 28 students with high levels (t > 60) of internalizing or attention problems, were selected along with a sample of 22 "normal" students with no evidence of psychosocial impairment. These 50 students were given an individually administered battery of ability, performance and cognitive processing tests to determine the presence of unidentified LD. Performance tests included standardized tests of reading, writing and mathematics. All test scores were normed with a mean of 100 and a SD of 15. LD was determined to be present if the student had a 1.5 SD or greater discrepancy between ability and performance in any of the three academic areas, and evidence of a cognitive processing deficit.RESULTS: The results indicated that 14 of the 50 students tested (28%) had evidence of undiagnosed LD. No significant difference was found in the proportion of undiagnosed LD among psychosocially impaired versus normal students. However regression analysis suggested that this finding was misleading. Controlling for ability, attention problems reported by the parent, were found to be significant (p < 0.05) predictors of lowered test scores, whereas internalizing problems were found to be predictive of increased test scores. Students with both internalizing and attention problems did not differ significantly from psychologically unimpaired students.CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study indicates that better screening methods are needed to identify the likely high proportion of elementary school children with undiagnosed learning difficulties and co-morbid psychosocial problems. PMID:11018435
Skinner, Michael E.; Smith, Allison T.
The number of students with learning disabilities (LD) attending postsecondary institutions has increased steadily over the past two decades. Many of these students have language-based learning difficulties that create barriers to success in foreign language (FL) courses. Many institutions have responded by providing these students with exemptions…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others
Learning-disabled junior high school students (N-36) were taught three dichotomous classifications for each of eight minerals; hardness level (hard-soft), color (pale-dark), and common use (home-industry). Ss were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions in order to learn this information. In the direct instruction condition, Ss were…
Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto
ATTENTION: Incoming First Year Students with a Learning Disability COME TO THE SUMMER STARTUP PROGRAM!!! WHAT IS THE SUMMER STARTUP? It is a program designed to: Enhance learning skills and study% of the 2011 STARTUP participants recommend the program to other students with LDs WHEN IS IT? Wednesday July
ATTENTION: Incoming First Year Students with a Learning Disability COME TO THE SUMMER STARTUP PROGRAM!!! WHAT IS THE SUMMER STARTUP? It is a program designed to: Enhance learning skills and study 100% of the 2012 STARTUP participants recommend the program to other students with LDs WHEN IS IT
ATTENTION: Incoming First Year Students with a Learning Disability COME TO THE SUMMER STARTUP PROGRAM!!! WHAT IS THE SUMMER STARTUP? It is a program designed to: Enhance learning skills and study 100% of the 2013 STARTUP participants recommend the program to other students with LDs WHEN IS IT
Subrahmaniyan, Neeraja; Krishnaswamy, Swetha; Chowriappa, Ashirwad; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Bisantz, Ann; Shriber, Linda; Kesavadas, Thenkurussi
Research has shown that children with learning disabilities exhibit considerable challenges with visual motor integration. While there are specialized Occupational Therapy interventions aimed at visual motor integration, computer games and virtual toys have now become increasingly popular, forming an integral part of children's learning and play.…
Burgess, Geoffrey; Alden, Peg
This article describes one professor's attempt to use an evolving series of course websites to improve learning outcomes and foster participation with a group of college students with learning disabilities. Spurred by an initial "failure," the authors share the process of coming to better understand the conditions needed in order for students with…
Dick, Katie; Gleeson, Kate; Johnstone, Lucy; Weston, Clive
Staff beliefs about self-harm can influence staff responses to the behaviour. Existing research into staff beliefs about self-harm by people with learning disabilities is limited, with qualitative research restricted to forensic services. The aim of this study was to use Q-methodology to explore staff beliefs about why people with learning…
Silliman, Elaine R.
In honor of Dr. Katherine Butler's extraordinary leadership of "Topics in Language Disorders," this article takes up her 1982 challenge to reach toward greater understanding of individual differences in the use of oral and written language by children with language learning disability. The article focuses on 3 interconnected dimensions of learning…
Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger
This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…
Hill, Nancy C.; And Others
The study investigated three variables--juvenile delinquency, academic achievement, and attention span--with 77 incarcerated juveniles [18 emotionally handicapped (EH), 20 learning disabled (LD), 19 educable mentally retarded (EMR), and 20 nonidentified]. The Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude were used for testing in the areas of visual and…
Ferguson, Morag; Jarrett, Dominic; Terras, Melody
People with learning disabilities have fewer choice opportunities than the general population. Existing research provides some insight, but the choice-making experiences of those who do not always utilise available healthcare remains under-explored. This research explored the choice-making experiences of two groups of individuals with a learning…
Chapman, Cathy; Dalheim, Zoe; LaRocque, Barbara; Mauke, Martha; Risley, Cynthia; Smith, Margaret
This two-volume notebook is part of a three-volume set containing strategies developed by experienced adult basic education (ABE) teachers in response to learning problems observed in their classrooms. Instructions on how to use the notebook with students with learning disabilities (LD) begin each volume. Volume 1 consists of these seven sections:…
Kendall, William S.
Thirty learning disabled (LD) students enrolled in secondary regular classes, 30 LD Ss in vocational training classes, and 30 LD Ss integrated in regular secondary classes and receiving additional assistance in learning resource centers were compared on measures of self concept and career attitudes. Results from the Attitude Scale of the Career…
Thinking dispositions are defined as “inclinations and habits of the mind that benefit productive thinking” (Tishman, Perkins, and Jay 1995, 37). As a special needs teacher for 13 years, I have observed that learning disabled students who have not acquired certain thinking dispositions often encounter great difficulty learning skills and strategies that aid them in successful task completion. I believe
McMullen, Rebecca C.; Shippen, Margaret E.; Dangel, Harry L.
The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the specific classroom organizational behaviors that middle school inclusive teachers report as expectations for students with learning disabilities. Practicing middle school science and social studies teachers (n = 12) responded to a survey about organization behaviors of students with learning…
Orr, Ann C.; Goodman, Nicole
With poor retention and degree completion rates, students with learning disabilities present special challenges for postsecondary faculty. Although certain teaching strategies and accommodations have been found to ameliorate learning outcomes, little is known or understood about the lived experiences of this group of students. Faculty doubt their…
Li, Yan; Meloni, Edward G.; Carlezon, William A.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Pitman, Roger K.; Nader, Karim; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.
Synaptic mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation after retrieval are largely unknown. Here we report that synapses in projections to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala implicated in auditory fear conditioning, which are potentiated by learning, enter a labile state after memory reactivation, and must be restabilized through a postsynaptic mechanism implicating the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase-dependent signaling. Fear-conditioning–induced synaptic enhancements were primarily presynaptic in origin. Reconsolidation blockade with rapamycin, inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin kinase activity, suppressed synaptic potentiation in slices from fear-conditioned rats. Surprisingly, this reduction of synaptic efficacy was mediated by post- but not presynaptic mechanisms. These findings suggest that different plasticity rules may apply to the processes underlying the acquisition of original fear memory and postreactivational stabilization of fear-conditioning–induced synaptic enhancements mediating fear memory reconsolidation. PMID:23487762
Li, Yan; Meloni, Edward G; Carlezon, William A; Milad, Mohammed R; Pitman, Roger K; Nader, Karim; Bolshakov, Vadim Y
Synaptic mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation after retrieval are largely unknown. Here we report that synapses in projections to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala implicated in auditory fear conditioning, which are potentiated by learning, enter a labile state after memory reactivation, and must be restabilized through a postsynaptic mechanism implicating the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase-dependent signaling. Fear-conditioning-induced synaptic enhancements were primarily presynaptic in origin. Reconsolidation blockade with rapamycin, inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin kinase activity, suppressed synaptic potentiation in slices from fear-conditioned rats. Surprisingly, this reduction of synaptic efficacy was mediated by post- but not presynaptic mechanisms. These findings suggest that different plasticity rules may apply to the processes underlying the acquisition of original fear memory and postreactivational stabilization of fear-conditioning-induced synaptic enhancements mediating fear memory reconsolidation. PMID:23487762
Brown, Freddy Jackson; Hooper, Sian
This case study describes how the ACT model was adapted to treat anxious and obsessive thoughts in a young person with moderate/severe learning disabilities. Using mindfulness and ACT-based experiential activities, the client learned to notice her thoughts and distance herself from their literal content. The negative impact that the client's anxious thoughts had on her life was reduced and she was able to return to a part-time college course. The article describes how the client engaged with some ACT-based activities, such as mindfulness and defusion exercises. The outcome suggests that the experiential, activity-based nature of ACT may offer a more accessible intervention model for learning disabled people than traditional CBT models based on verbal reasoning skills. However, the intervention also required considerable individual adaptation and it is likely that this will be the case in work with people with learning disabilities. PMID:19786502
Lewandowski, Lawrence; Cohen, Justin; Lovett, Benjamin J.
Students with disabilities often receive test accommodations in schools and on high-stakes tests. Students with learning disabilities (LD) represent the largest disability group in schools, and extended time the most common test accommodation requested by such students. This pairing persists despite controversy over the validity of extended time…
Rousselle, Laurence; Noel, Marie-Pascale
Forty-five children with mathematics learning disabilities, with and without comorbid reading disabilities, were compared to 45 normally achieving peers in tasks assessing basic numerical skills. Children with mathematics disabilities were only impaired when comparing Arabic digits (i.e., symbolic number magnitude) but not when comparing…
Pizzamiglio, Maria Rosa; Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Canzano, Loredana; Palermo, Liana; Fusco, Francesca; D'Antuono, Giovanni; Gelmini, Chiara; Garavelli, Livia; Ursini, Matilde Valeria
Studies suggest that genetic factors are associated with the etiology of learning disabilities. Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP, OMIM#308300), which is caused by mutations of the IKBKG/NEMO gene, is a rare X-linked genomic disorder (1:10000/20:000) that affects the neuroectodermal tissues. It always affects the skin and sometimes the hair, teeth, nails, eyes and central nervous system (CNS). Data from IP patients demonstrate the heterogeneity of the clinical phenotype; about 30% have CNS manifestations. This extreme variability suggests that IP patients might also have learning disabilities. However, no studies in the literature have evaluated the cognitive profile of IP patients. In fact, the learning disability may go unnoticed in general neurological analyses, which focus on major disabling manifestations of the CNS. Here, we investigated the neuropsychological outcomes of a selected group of IP-patients by focusing on learning disabilities. We enrolled 10 women with IP (7 without mental retardation and 3 with mild to severe mental retardation) whose clinical diagnosis had been confirmed by the presence of a recurrent deletion in the IKBKG/NEMO gene. The participants were recruited from the Italian patients' association (I.P.A.SS.I. Onlus). They were submitted to a cognitive assessment that included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale and a battery of tests examining reading, arithmetic and writing skills. We found that 7 patients had deficits in calculation/arithmetic reasoning and reading but not writing skills; the remaining 3 had severe to mild intellectual disabilities. Results of this comprehensive evaluation of the molecular and psychoneurological aspects of IP make it possible to place "learning disabilities" among the CNS manifestations of the disease and suggest that the IKBKG/NEMO gene is a genetic determinant of this CNS defect. Our findings indicate the importance of an appropriate psychoneurological evaluation of IP patients, which includes early assessment of learning abilities, to prevent the onset of this deficit. PMID:24489960
Jimenez, Juan E.; de la Cadena, Claudia Garcia
The main purposes of this research were twofold. We examined the samenesses about learning disabilities (LD) in Guatemala and Spain, two countries with the same language but cultural, political, and educational differences, first analyzing data about the prevalence of reading and spelling disabilities in Guatemala City and the Spanish region of…
Objective To further our understanding of the association between self-reported childhood learning disabilities (LDs) and atypical dementia phenotypes (Atypical Dementia), including logopenic primary progressive aphasia (L-PPA), Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA), and Dysexecutive-type Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Methods This retrospective case series analysis of 678 comprehensive neuropsychological assessments compared rates of self-reported LD between dementia patients diagnosed with Typical AD and those diagnosed with Atypical Dementia. 105 cases with neuroimaging or CSF data available and at least one neurology follow-up were identified as having been diagnosed by the neuropsychologist with any form of neurodegenerative dementia. These cases were subject to a consensus diagnostic process among three dementia experts using validated clinical criteria for AD and PPA. LD was considered Probable if two or more statements consistent with prior LD were documented within the Social & Developmental History of the initial neuropsychological evaluation. Results 85 subjects (Typical AD n=68, Atypical AD n=17) were included in the final analysis. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, handedness, education and symptom duration, patients with Probable LD, compared to patients without Probable LD, were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with Atypical Dementia vs. Typical AD (OR 13.1, 95% CI 1.3-128.4). All three of the L-PPA cases reporting a childhood LD endorsed childhood difficulty with language. By contrast, both PCA cases reporting Probable childhood LD endorsed difficulty with attention and/or math. Conclusions In people who develop dementia, childhood LD may predispose to atypical phenotypes. Future studies are required to confirm whether atypical neurodevelopment predisposes to regional-specific neuropathology in AD and other dementias. PMID:26106899
Ferri, B A; Gregg, N; Heggoy, S J
The purpose of this study was to analyze the assessment profiles of two groups of adults with learning disabilities. The first group comprised 48 adults (34 men and 14 women) demonstrating giftedness and a learning disability profile (G/LD). The second group of 46 adults (31 men and 15 women) demonstrated a learning disabled profile without giftedness (NG/LD). Both groups of participants were either attending or planning to attend college and sought testing at a university-affiliated learning disabilities center. Participants' mean age was 20 years, and all were White and from middle to upper-middle class backgrounds. Findings indicate that, as a group, the adults demonstrating a G/LD profile tended to be identified later and have more discrepancy among cognitive assessment profile scores than the NG/LD group. Cognitive subtest scores showed significant differences between the groups, but also several areas of weakness evident in both groups regardless of the presence of giftedness. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying the presence of learning disabilities among gifted populations. PMID:9293237
The current study evaluated the extent to which 191 university students with learning disabilities (LD) differed from 190\\u000a students without disabilities in terms of their perceived social support, stress and sense of coherence. The study also investigated\\u000a students’ perceptions of their academic success at university as compared with their rating of their struggles and failures.\\u000a Findings indicated that students with
This article discusses the dilemmas encountered by non-disabled performance researchers and practitioners working with learning-disabled people. I demonstrate how the ‘accounts’ of empirical social scientists informed my PARIP [practice-as-research-in-performance] project, BluYesBlu, and how Judith Butler's reformulation of the concept of ethics, from the responsibility of the individual to negotiations within social relations, has revealed the complexity of the tensions between
Ayala, Vivian Luz
In today's schools there are by far more students identified with learning disabilities (LD) than with any other disability. The U.S. Department of Education in the year 1997--98 reported that there are 38.13% students with LD in our nations' schools (Smith, Polloway, Patton, & Dowdy, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Of those, 1,198,200 are considered ELLs with LD (Baca & Cervantes. 1998). These figures which represent an increase evidence the need to provide these students with educational experiences geared to address both their academic and language needs (Ortiz, 1997; Ortiz, & Garcia, 1995). English language learners with LD must be provided with experiences in the least restrictive environment (LRE) and must be able to share the same kind of social and academic experiences as those students from the general population (Etscheidt & Bartlett, 1999; Lloyd, Kameenui, & Chard, 1997) The purpose of this research was to conduct a detailed qualitative study on classroom interactions to enhance the understanding of the science curriculum in order to foster the understanding of content and facilitate the acquisition of English as a second language (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000). This study was grounded on the theories of socioconstructivism, second language acquisition, comprehensible input, and classroom interactions. The participants of the study were fourth and fifth grade ELLS with LD in a science elementary school bilingual inclusive setting. Data was collected through observations, semi-structured interviews (students and teacher), video and audio taping, field notes, document analysis, and the Classroom Observation Schedule (COS). The transcriptions of the video and audio tapes were coded to highlight emergent patterns on the type of interactions and language used by the participants. The findings of the study intend to provide information for teachers of ELLs with LD about the implications of using classroom interactions point to: students more actively engaged, an increase in the acquisition of L2, development of science content vocabulary, and a willingness of students to take risks.
Thank you for publishing Ken Mack's letter (March 5) drawing attention to the suffering and distress caused by welfare reforms and cutbacks, and how people with disabilities and their families are being hit particularly hard. PMID:24617400
For more than twenty years, researchers in the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group (UMd-PERG) have been developing a theoretical framework for trying to understand how students think about and learn physics - Resources. The Resources Framework provides tools for interpreting how our students respond to our instruction. What may appear on the surface to be serious misconceptions can turn out to have a subtler explanation once one takes into account the roles played in student thinking by (1) experiential knowledge, (2) the dynamic character of their cognitive responses, (3) epistemological assumptions and expectations, (4) framing of the activity along multiple dimensions. The Resources Framework also provides tools to help us understand what knowledge our students bring into our classes and how they use that knowledge to interpret what they are learning. What we have learned in this research has powerful implications for instruction, especially in service courses where an expert is charged with teaching a discipline to students from a different discipline, such as when physicists teach physics to biologists or engineers. For more than a decade, the UMd-PERG and our collaborators have been studying how life science students respond to physics instruction. We have found many surprising results by listening carefully to what students say: Often, ``student errors'' turn out to be failures of communication between teacher and student. Many common practices turn out to be counterproductive and misleading. I will give examples from NEXUS/Physics, an introductory physics class for life science students, and I will suggest implications for instruction and curriculum development. Support gratefully acknowledged for multiple NSF grants.
Harding, Celia; Cockerill, Helen
People who work with children who have neurological and learning disabilities frequently need to manage the health and emotional risks associated with eating, drinking and swallowing (dysphagia). Some approaches can support children to develop oral feeding competence or to maximise their ability to maintain some oral intake supplemented with tube feeding. However, some clinicians feel that oral-motor exercises can support eating and drinking skills as well as speech and language development, whereas there is little evidence to support this.The implied "beneficial" association between oral-motor exercises, speech and swallowing skills gives a false impression in terms of future outcomes for parents and carers of children with learning disabilities. This paper considers oral-motor approaches in the remediation of dysphagia and the need for a cultural shift away from this view. Realistic and useful outcomes for people with learning disabilities need to be an essential part of therapeutic intervention. PMID:24414040
Chiang, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Chien-Hsiou
Using assistive reading software may be a cost-effective way to increase the opportunity for independent learning in students with learning disabilities. However, the effectiveness and perception of assistive reading software has seldom been explored in English-as-a-second language students with learning disabilities. This research was designed to explore the perception and effect of using assistive reading software in high school students with dyslexia (one subtype of learning disability) to improve their English reading and other school performance. The Kurzweil 3000 software was used as the intervention tool in this study. Fifteen students with learning disabilities were recruited, and instruction in the usage of the Kurzweil 3000 was given. Then after 2 weeks, when they were familiarized with the use of Kurzweil 3000, interviews were used to determine the perception and potential benefit of using the software. The results suggested that the Kurzweil 3000 had an immediate impact on students' English word recognition. The students reported that the software made reading, writing, spelling, and pronouncing easier. They also comprehended more during their English class. Further study is needed to determine under which conditions certain hardware/software might be helpful for individuals with special learning needs. PMID:22256668
Masters, Kenneth; Gibbs, Trevor
Background There is an apparent disjuncture between the requirements of the medical spiral curriculum and the practice of replacing previous online material in undergraduate courses. This paper investigates the extent to which students revisit previous online material for the purposes of building the educational spiral, and the implications for the implementation of a Faculty's Learning Management System implementation. Methods At the University of Cape Town, medical students' last date of access to 16 previous online courses was determined. Students completed a survey to determine their reasons for revisiting this material and the perceived benefits of this availability. Results 70% of the students revisited their previous online courses. The major reasons were to review lecture presentations, lectures notes, and quizzes. The perceived benefits were for understanding new material, preparation for assessments, and convenience. Although student comments were not always in line with the concept of the spiral curriculum, most referred to processes of building on previous work, and some mentioned the spiral curriculum specifically. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of replacing previous online courses may hinder rather than support student learning. Although students visit previous material for ranges of reasons, a large number are aware of the spiral curriculum, and use the online environment to build upon previous material. Any practice, which entails replacing material and redesigning curricula content may be detrimental to the students' future learning needs, and such activities may need revision. PMID:18154654
Bauer, James J.
This book is specifically written for dyslexic or learning disabled individuals seeking insight into their disorder and its effects on their lives. The material is divided into 52 chapters, which are written expressly so that they will not be intimidating to learning disabled individuals. The chapters are drawn from issues that the author is asked…
Castles, Amy; Bailey, Carol; Gates, Bob; Sooben, Roja
It has been well documented that people with learning disabilities receive poor care in acute settings. Over the last few years, a number of learning disability liaison nurse services have developed in the United Kingdom as a response to this, but there has been a failure to systematically gather evidence as to their effectiveness. This article…
Chapman, James W.; Boersma, Frederic J.
Academic self-concept as measured by the Student's Perception of Ability Scale (SPAS) was compared for 81 learning disabled and 81 normally-achieving control children. The results show that learning disabled children hold more negative self-perceptions of ability in reading, spelling, and arithmetic than do controls. (Author)
Weiser, Beverly L.; Reed, Deborah K.; Kethley, Caroline I.; Mathes, Patricia G.
In October 2011, Council for Learning Disabilities' (CLD's) research committee members (i.e., authors of this article) presented their "Must Reads" at the organization's 33rd Annual International Conference on Learning Disabilities. In this article, the presenters summarize a few of their selected articles and state why each article is a "Must…
"Secret Loves, Hidden Lives?" was a piece of research which explored the lives and loves of gay, lesbian and bisexual people with learning disabilities. The research arguably influenced the development of policy in that same sex relationships were subsequently mentioned in English government policy on learning disability. The research…
Kennard, Betsy D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Silver, Cheryl H.; Emslie, Graham J.
Learning disabled students (N=22) with documented learning disabilities on standardized tests at beginning and end of one school year were evaluated. Neuropsychological measures were also administered. Subjects demonstrated impairment on neuropsycholgical measures. By the end of the year subjects had improved in written language. Results suggest…
Parkes, Charles; Samuels, Sarah; Hassiotis, Angela; Lynggaard, Henrik; Hall, Ian
During the 1990s, a decision was made within the Learning Disabilities services of Camden & Islington to develop a local integrated service for people requiring an acute psychiatric admission. There had been little research at the time on the experiences of people with learning disabilities within the type of inner London acute mental health…
Goddard, Yvonne L.; Sendi, Carole
This study assessed the effects of self-monitoring on the quantity and quality of creative writing of fourth-grade students with learning disabilities. The participants, four fourth-grade students with identified learning disabilities, self-monitored both the quantity and quality of their writing. Results show a statistically significant increase…
Heslop, Pauline; Marriott, Anna
The Confidential Inquiry into premature deaths of people with learning disabilities (CIPOLD) was commissioned by the Department of Health in England in 2010 to investigate the avoidable or premature deaths of people with learning disabilities through retrospective reviews of deaths. Both the process of conducting CIPOLD and the findings of the…
Frizzo, Ana C. F.
The information presented in this paper demonstrates the author’s experience in previews cross-sectional studies conducted in Brazil, in comparison with the current literature. Over the last 10 years, auditory evoked potential (AEP) has been used in children with learning disabilities. This method is critical to analyze the quality of the processing in time and indicates the specific neural demands and circuits of the sensorial and cognitive process in this clinical population. Some studies with children with dyslexia and learning disabilities were shown here to illustrate the use of AEP in this population.
Cornoldi, Cesare; Giofrè, David; Orsini, Arturo; Pezzuti, Lina
The WISC-IV was used to compare the intellectual profile of two groups of children, one with specific learning disorders (SLDs), the other with intellectual disabilities (ID), with a view to identifying which of the four main factor indexes and two additional indexes can distinguish between the groups. We collected information on WISC-IV scores for 267 children (Mage=10.61 [SD=2.51], range 6-16 years, females=99) with a diagnosis of either SLD or ID. Children with SLD performed better than those with ID in all measures. Only the SLD children, not the ID children, revealed significant differences in the four main factor indexes, and their scores for the additional General Ability Index (GAI) were higher than for the Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI). Children with a diagnosis of SLD whose Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) was <85 showed a similar pattern. Our findings confirm the hypothesis that children with SLD generally obtain high GAI scores, but have specific deficiencies relating to working memory and processing speed, whereas children with ID have a general intellectual impairment. These findings have important diagnostic and clinical implications and should be considered when making diagnostic decisions in borderline cognitive cases. PMID:24927516
Geary, David C.; Bailey, Drew H.; Littlefield, Andrew; Wood, Phillip; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara
Kindergarten to 3rd grade mathematics achievement scores from a prospective study of mathematical development were subjected to latent growth trajectory analyses (n = 306). The four corresponding classes included children with mathematical learning disability (MLD, 6% of sample), and low (LA, 50%), typically (TA, 39%) and high (HA, 5%) achieving children. The groups were administered a battery of intelligence (IQ), working memory, and mathematical-cognition measures in 1st grade. The children with MLD had general deficits in working memory and IQ, and potentially more specific deficits on measures of number sense. The LA children did not have working memory or IQ deficits, but showed moderate deficits on these number sense measures and for addition fact retrieval. The distinguishing features of the HA children were a strong visuospatial working memory, a strong number sense, and frequent use of memory-based processes to solve addition problems. Implications for the early identification of children at risk for poor mathematics achievement are discussed. PMID:20046817
Taft, Raol J.; Mason, Linda H.
Writing is an important foundational skill, critical for success in school. Unfortunately, many students, including students with disabilities, have difficulties with written language production. These students lack knowledge of writing processes and employ deficient strategies for organization, planning, goal implementation, and self-regulation.…
Sparks, Richard L.
Despite the lack of empirical evidence, the term "foreign language learning disability" (FLLD) has become popular in the learning disabilities (LD) and foreign language literature. I contend that there is not a unique "disability" for foreign language learning and suggest instead that foreign language skills run along a continuum of very strong to…
James H. Rimmer; Jennifer L. Rowland
Developing innovative strategies that promote health among people with disabilities has emerged as an important public health priority. People with disabilities report fewer healthy days than the general population and lower rates of health-promoting behaviors (eg, physical inactivity and poor nutritional intake). One of the major priorities in health promotion for people with disabilities is to prevent secondary conditions. Secondary
Dörscheln, Iris; Lachetta, Raphael; Schulz, Michael; Tacke, Doris
People with learning and physical disabilities require special attention and nursing care during hospitalisation. A systematic literature research in the databases PUBMED, CINAHL and Cochrane Library (1990-2011) was conducted, 17 relevant publications could be found. The following problems were identified. The situation of people with learning disabilities in hospital is characterised by communication barriers between patients and health care professionals. Furthermore, the emotional situation of patients has to be emphasised. In the foreign environment of a hospital, they suffer from fear and uncertainty. Both phenomena interact with each other and are influenced by conditions such as time, continuity of care, professional competence, and attitudes towards disabled people. Family members are able to calm the patients. They take on the task of translating. Clinical Nurse Specialists are familiar with these problems. They improve the situation of learning disabled patients in the hospital. The studies show small samples and the results need further verification. Results out of Germany, Austria and Switzerland are not available. Therefore, in these countries further empirical research on this topic is strongly recommended. The results indicate the importance of obtaining comprehensive information about needs of disabled patients before their hospital stay. Family members should be involved in nursing care during a hospital stay. PMID:23384844
Leo, Jennifer; Goodwin, Donna
Disability simulations have been used as a pedagogical tool to simulate the functional and cultural experiences of disability. Despite their widespread application, disagreement about their ethical use, value, and efficacy persists. The purpose of this study was to understand how postsecondary kinesiology students experienced participation in disability simulations. An interpretative phenomenological approach guided the study's collection of journal entries and clarifying one-on-one interviews with four female undergraduate students enrolled in a required adapted physical activity course. The data were analyzed thematically and interpreted using the conceptual framework of situated learning. Three themes transpired: unnerving visibility, negotiating environments differently, and tomorrow I'll be fine. The students described emotional responses to the use of wheelchairs as disability artifacts, developed awareness of environmental barriers to culturally and socially normative activities, and moderated their discomfort with the knowledge they could end the simulation at any time. PMID:24762388
Roper, Emily Ann; Santiago, José A
Employing a grounded theory approach, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the influence of service-learning (SL) on undergraduate kinesiology students' attitudes toward and experiences working with P-12 students with disabilities. Fourteen (9 female, 5 male) kinesiology students enrolled in an adapted physical education class participated in one of three focus group interviews regarding their experiences of working with P-12 students with disabilities. All interview data were analyzed following procedures outlined by Strauss and Corbin (1998). The following five themes represent the participants' experiences and attitudes toward P-12 students with disabilities after their involvement in a SL project: (a) initial reactions, (b) selection of P-12 students, (c) preconceived attitudes, (d) the benefits of SL, and (e) positive experience. All 14 of the participants who volunteered to share their experiences indicated that the SL experience positively affected their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities. PMID:24762389
Donahue, Mavis L.; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.
This commentary on C. Addison Stone's paper on the scaffolding metaphor for learning disabilities first suggests the flying buttress, which becomes integrated into a new structure, as a better metaphor. It suggests that scaffolded instruction depends on sophisticated shared assumptions about the conversational process. Evidence that some children…
In order to improve services to learning disabled (LD) students in a California community college setting (and to recruit new students as well as carry out ongoing curriculum adaptations), the study sought to identify sources of referral of LD students to the college special education department. Following a review of relevant literature, data…
Johnson, Evelyn S.
Learning disabilities (LDs) have long been presumed to be a neurological disorder resulting from a deficit in 1 or more cognitive processes. Although the emphasis on cognitive processing disorders has been included in the definition since the term was coined, and although it arguably represents the key distinguishing characteristic of LDs, it also…
Accommodating adult basic education (ABE) learners with learning disabilities (LD) is common practice across many instructional, testing, and work settings. However, the results from this literature search indicate that very few empirically based studies are available to support or reject the effectiveness of a great deal of accommodation…
Newman, Jane L.; Zupko, Sue
Educators agree that a student can display gifted behavior and learning disabilities (GLD) simultaneously. Some of these students thrive when exploring advanced level investigative projects which require higher order thinking skills (HOTS) and creation of an original product. This article presents a GLD case story as an example of successful…
Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world most affected by HIV & AIDS, accounting for two-thirds of the global burden of the pandemic. People with disabilities are regarded as a high-risk group for HIV but have been largely neglected in programmes of education, treatment and support. This paper examines the possibilities for a learning…
Endo, Yasuko Amy
This study examines the effects of topic interest on the vocabulary learning and retention in third grade students with and without learning disabilities. All students learned 12 unfamiliar vocabulary words in three different vocabulary learning conditions: High-interest topic vocabulary, low-interest topic vocabulary, and vocabulary words without…
McClimens, Alex; Scott, Rachel
Learning disability nurse education, with a current emphasis on inclusive practice and a history of listening to the person with the disability, is well placed to take advantage of more 'experimental' forms of classroom teaching. In this article we argue for the use of forum theatre as a method of addressing topics from practice within an educational setting. Based on our emergent and exploratory work with students we detail at length the theoretical background that supports such an approach and contextualise the issues with reference to a short piece of drama we have used successfully with different student groups. We feel that the success of this method is due to the involvement of students in directing their own education as well as the inclusion of individuals labelled with learning disability as an integral part of the process. PMID:16790301
Ashkenazi, Sarit; Black, Jessica M.; Abrams, Daniel A.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Menon, Vinod
The primary goal of this review is to highlight current research and theories describing the neurobiological basis of math (MD), reading (RD), and comorbid math and reading disability (MD+RD). We first describe the unique brain and cognitive processes involved in acquisition of math and reading skills, emphasizing similarities and differences in…
David C. Geary; Mary K. Hoard
Recent findings regarding the understanding of number concepts and counting principles, and the simple arithmetic competencies of normal and mathematically disabled (MD) children are reviewed. Differences across these groups are evident in the understanding of counting concepts and for several features of arithmetic skill development. In comparison to normal children, many children with MD show a developmental delay in the
Patterson, Margaret; Mellard, Daryl F.
as andragogy, transformational learning, and self-directed learning (Baumgartner, Lee, Birden, & Flowers, 2003; Boyd, 1989; Daloz, 1999; Freire, 2000; Knowles, 1980; Merriam & Caffarella, 1999; Mezirow, 2000), in which adults take responsibility for and direct...
We live in an increasingly sexualised society, and the buying and selling of sex is a feature of this society. The laws about prostitution are complex, but the act of selling or buying sex is in itself not illegal. The author has extensive clinical experience of hearing the stories of men with learning disabilities who do use commercial sex…
Shin, Mikyung; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty
The purpose of this study was to synthesize the findings from 23 articles that compared the mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities (LD) to (a) students with LD in mathematics and reading, (b) age- or grade-matched students with no LD, and (c) mathematical-ability-matched younger students with no…
Shifrer, Dara; Callahan, Rebecca M.; Muller, Chandra
Placement of some students into the courses needed only for high school graduation and others into those that prepare them for college constitutes academic stratification. This study uses data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 to investigate whether students labeled with learning disabilities complete fewer academic courses by the end…
Isaacson, Stephen; Mattoon, Cynthia Burt
Forty-two inner city intermediate-grade learning-disabled students wrote fables when provided with the following stimuli: story starter, story ending with story content, and story ending with rhetorical purpose. The story ending groups did more story development planning than the story starter group, but composition quality was not significantly…
Teachers are one of the most important factors in successful inclusion of students with a learning disability in mainstream classrooms. Attitudes towards inclusion of certain students in classrooms have been mixed, and many attitudes are often developed during the pre-service training and early teaching years. This study investigated the attitudes…
Policies on the inclusion of students with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms have focused attention on how general education teachers perceive these students. Furthermore with specific learning disabilities forming a large group of diverse students, and teachers' attitudes often not changing over the career span, preparing…
Mammarella, Irene C.; Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gitti, Filippo; Gomez, Claudia; Cornoldi, Cesare
This study aims to investigate the types of difficulty encountered by children with nonverbal (visuospatial) learning disabilities (NLD) during the processing of spatial information derived from descriptions. Two spatial descriptions--one in survey, one in route perspective--and one nonspatial description were orally presented to children aged…
This study explored children's secure attachment with both parents versus one parent, as well as the unique role of children's patterns of close relationships with father and mother, for a deeper understanding of maladjustment problems among children with learning disabilities (LD). Specifically, this study identified subgroups of children with…
Sideris, Georgios D.; Tsorbatzoudis, Charalambos
The purpose of the present study was to profile, using a K-means cluster analysis, the cognitive, motivational, affective, and goal orientation characteristics of elementary school students with and without learning disabilities (LD). Participants were 58 fifth and 6 sixth graders (29 typical and 29 LD) selected using stratified random procedures.…
Swanson, H. Lee; Malone, Sharon
Conducted meta-analysis of studies concerning social skills of children with learning disabled (LD). Children with LD were less liked and more likely to be rejected than normal achieving children. Children with LD were more likely to be rated as aggressive, immature, suffering personality problems, and having difficulty attending. Variations were…
Miciak, Jeremy; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Tolar, Tammy D.
Few empirical investigations have evaluated learning disabilities (LD) identification methods based on a pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses (PSW). This study investigated the reliability and validity of two proposed PSW methods: the concordance/discordance method (C/DM) and cross battery assessment (XBA) method. Cognitive assessment…
Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Kaye, Alyssa D.; Lockhart, L. Leland; Beretvas, S. Natasha
Many students with learning disabilities (SLD) participate in standardized assessments using test accommodations such as extended time, having the test items read aloud, or taking the test in a separate setting. Yet there are also aspects of the test items themselves, particularly the language demand, which may contribute to the effects of test…
Foley, Regina M.; Epstein, Michael H.
Sixty-five pairs of teachers and parents of elementary and secondary school learning-disabled students completed the Homework Problem Checklist (HPC). The HPC demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Acceptable levels of internal consistency were reported for both teacher and parent ratings. (JDD)
Mashal, Nira; Kasirer, Anat
Previous studies have shown metaphoric comprehension deficits in children with learning disabilities. To understand metaphoric language, children must have enough semantic knowledge about the metaphorical terms and the ability to recognize similarity between two different domains. In the current study visual and verbal metaphor understanding was…
Hadley, Wanda M.; Satterfield, James W.
This study examined how traditional-aged, first-year college students with specific learning disabilities adjusted to academic expectations as they moved from high school to a less monitored collegiate environment. Results of the study indicated that these students had difficulty moving beyond their established high school patterns by…
Hunt, Jessica H.; Vasquez, Eleazar, III
Students with mathematics learning disabilities have a weak understanding of mathematical concepts that underlie success in Algebra I, such as ratios and proportional reasoning. In this study, researchers used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of a intervention based on a instructional trajectory of how…
Glover, Patti; McLaughlin, Thomas; Derby, K. Mark; Gower, Jan
Introduction: The use of Direct Instruction (DI) flashcards has been suggested as an effective classroom intervention procedure. The present case report examined the use of DI flashcards with two adolescents with learning disabilities. Objectives: The purpose of this research was to increase the correct rate and decrease the error rate for…
Speece, Deborah; McKinney, James D.
The purposes of this study were to use empirical, multivariate classification techniques to form subtypes of learning disabled readers (N=59) on a select sample of information processing skills and to validate the subtypes on reading achievement subskills. Hierarchical cluster analysis techniques resulted in a six-cluster solution which…
Lubar, J. F.; And Others
Power Spectral Fast Fourier analysis of the scalp electroencephalogram was obtained from six locations in 69 children with learning disabilities without hyperactivity and 34 control children, during baseline and while performing reading, arithmetical, and spatial tasks. Significant EEG power and percent differences for specific frequencies were…
Naour, Paul; Martin, Daniel
Twelve learning disabled (9-12 years old) boys were identified according to special class placement, WISC-R (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised) and performance measures. A group demonstrating a verbal WISC-R deficit was sex- and age-matched with a normal group. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were collected while these individuals…
Hall-Mills, Shannon; Apel, Kenn
We evaluated the narrative and expository writing samples of 12 adolescents with language-learning disabilities (LLD) in Grades 6 to 12 for elements of microstructure (e.g., productivity, grammatical complexity) and macrostructure (genre-specific text structure elements) using an experimental measure. Writing samples were elicited with…
Estell, David B.; Jones, Martin H.; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard
Close friendships are important for children's academic achievement and social-emotional adaptation. Extant literature indicates students with learning disabilities are at increased risk for isolation, although little research has been done to examine the development of reciprocated friendships across late elementary school. This 2-year study…
Roualdes, Melissa Merle
Students with varying backgrounds and learning disabilities enter today's classrooms. Teachers may not be prepared to recognize and handle the needs of these students. The purpose of this study is to examine the research on teacher preparedness with the goal of increasing public awareness of the needs of this student population. A review of the…
The primary focus of this study was to examine the attitudes of the secondary mathematics teachers toward the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general mathematics classroom. Specifically, this study was concerned with the influence of selected demographic variables and school variables on the attitudes of secondary…
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas
Proposes a treatment-validity model for the identification of learning disabilities. The four-phase eligibility-assessment process would include evaluating adaptations in the regular classroom and verifying the effectiveness of special education before placement. Considers the technical requirements of this alternative eligibility process, and the…
Sindelar, Paul T.; And Others
Resource and special class teachers of learning disabled (LD) and behaviorally disordered elementary and secondary students rated behaviorally disordered Ss as exhibiting more of five patterns of deviant behavior than LD Ss. Secondary Ss exhibited more rule breaking than elementary Ss; and special class Ss, more anxious, fearful behavior than…
Mason, Linda H.; Hedin, Laura R.
In science classes, teachers must consider the need for explicit, systematic reading instruction for students with learning disabilities (LD) while navigating the constructivist and activity-oriented methods typically employed in science instruction. The complexity of scientific information conveyed through print may make reading science texts the…
This study describes the experiences of a researcher negotiating consent with people with learning disabilities to become participants in a research study. The study was about how the Mental Capacity Act (MCA) was applied to everyday decision-making in social care settings. However, before data collection could begin, the researcher had to follow…
Hines, Sara J.
Many adolescents, especially those with learning disabilities, lack basic word identification skills. Finding motivating instructional techniques to improve word-level reading skills is increasingly difficult as students move through the grades. One technique that holds promise in motivating adolescents involves using song lyrics from their…
Junior and senior high school social studies teachers and teachers of the mildly handicapped (primarily learning disabled) in New Jersey (N=195) responded to a social issues survey. For each of 14 social issues, they were asked to indicate the frequency with which the issue was included in the instructional program, its importance, their own level…
Janice McGhee; Susan Hunter
Parents with learning disabilities are over-represented in child care proceedings and are more likely to lose their children to state care. Evidence from Anglophone countries suggests that the adversarial forum of the court disadvantages these parents and limits their direct participation in the process. This exploratory study examines whether the Scottish children's hearings tribunal system could promote greater responsiveness to
Eapen, Valsamma; Crncec, Rudi; McPherson, Sarah; Snedden, Corina
Tics are involuntary movements or sounds. Tourette syndrome is one of a family of tic disorders that affect around 1% of the population but which remains underrecognised in the community. In paediatric special education learning disability classes, the prevalence of individuals with tic disorders is around 20-45%--higher still in special education…
McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.
Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…
Goodwin, Julian; Mason, Victoria; Williams, Val; Townsley, Ruth
This paper discusses the provision of easy information about research to people with learning disabilities, their families and supporters. We explore some different ways we have used over the past 25 years, to make sure that research has the greatest impact both in the UK and abroad. We discuss first the process of providing easy-read versions of…
Doren, Bonnie; Murray, Christopher; Gau, Jeff M.
The purpose of this study was to identify the unique contributions of a comprehensive set of predictors and the most salient predictors of school dropout among a nationally representative sample of students with learning disabilities (LD). A comprehensive set of theoretically and empirically relevant factors was selected for examination. Analyses…
Blake, Ruth; And Others
This study investigated the effect of FM (frequency modulation) auditory trainer use on attending behaviors of 36 students (ages 5-10) with learning disabilities. Children wearing the auditory trainers scored better than control students on eye contact, having body turned toward sound source, and absence of extraneous body movement and vocal…
The study involving 20 learning disabled (LD) and 20 normal Ss at the fourth, seventh, and tenth grade levels was conducted to determine if normal and LD students differ in reading flexibility. To measure reading flexibility, the dependent variables--elapsed time and comprehension--were assessed under two conditions. For Condition 1, Ss were asked…
McGlade, Anne; Bickerstaff, David; Lindsay, Jennifer; McConkey, Roy; Jackson, Jonathan
This article discusses the findings from a study to assess the impact of corrective eye treatment in adults with a learning disability. The Special Visual Assessment Clinic (SVAC) is an optometry led multi professional service delivered in a Resource Centre in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The study, which included user and carer input in its design,…
Lee, Theodore T. H.; So, Winnie W. M.
This study investigates the use of inquiry learning (IL) approach for intellectually disabled (ID) students. It draws on findings from the trial lessons of 6 classes of ID students in a project developing an adapted General Studies Curriculum for ID students at primary level. Data analysis focuses on examining how IL was employed for ID students.…
Corley, Mary Ann; Tibbetts, John
This field-tested training packet, which was designed for adult literacy providers, contains preparation materials, facilitator's notes, handout masters, and transparency masters for two 3-hour sessions on learning disabilities (LD) in the workplace. (At the end of the first session supported by the packet, participants will be able to do the…
While special education law has been amended several times since the statutory definition of a Specific Learning Disability (SLD) was created in 1968, there continues to be ambiguity within the field regarding the definition as well as the diagnostic criteria. This inevitably leads to a lack of consistency in diagnosis within states and among…
Dean, Raymond S.; Jacobson, Beverly P.
Compared the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profiles for the parents of 90 preadolescent children. Data indicated that mothers of children with conduct disorders were more introverted and depressed; mothers of learning-disabled and personality-disordered children were rather defensive. The results for fathers were unremarkable.…
Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of…
Gordon, Helen H.; Hall, Lincoln H.
Writing samples of 50 learning disabled college students were analyzed for fluency and errors of 14 types: omission of words and/or letters, noun plurals, syntax, subject-verb agreement, verb forms and tense, pronoun reference, shifts in person, fused or spliced sentences, fragments, punctuation, capitalization, usage, spelling, and apostrophe…
Francis, David J.; And Others
This article considers issues concerning the use of IQ tests for identifying children with learning and/or language disabilities and concludes that the historically prominent role of IQ tests for identification of these children is conceptually and psychometrically unwarranted. (DB)
Hoy, Cheri; Gregg, Noel; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Manglitz, Elaine; King, Michael; Moreland, Elaine
This study examined the incidence of depression and anxiety in 184 college students with learning disabilities (LD), 57 young adults with LD receiving rehabilitation services, and 140 college students without LD. Females with LD in the rehabilitation setting showed a higher incidence of depression and college students with LD demonstrated…
Womack, Sue A.; Marchant, Michelle; Borders, Deah
Social skill deficits and learning disabilities often coexist. Academic work is negatively impacted by students' lack of social skills. Remediation of these deficits in pull-out programs has not generally resulted in transfer to real-world settings. Embedding social skills instruction within literature during a read-aloud session taught in the…
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008
This book provides an internationally comparable set of indicators on educational provision for students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages (DDD). It highlights the number of students involved, where they are educated--special schools, special classes or regular classes--and in what phases of education--pre-primary,…
Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris
A previous project by the Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities analysed data that had been collected by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) in 1999 in their survey of the mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. The Foundation found that in this nationally representative sample of just over 10,000 children, 39%…
Hewett, J. Barry; Bolen, Larry M.
Measured performance changes on the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement: Brief Form over a three-year retest interval. Learning-disabled students (n=52) were retested following 3 years of special education services. Results showed an average decrease of 3.33 points in Battery Composite, Math, Reading, and Spelling. Presents other results and…
This study compared emotional and coping resources of two parent groups with children ages 8 to 12 years--children with learning disabilities (LD) versus with typical development--and explored how mothers' and fathers' emotional resources (low anxious/avoidant attachment, low negative affect, and high positive affect) may explain differences in…
Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.
Secondary education of students with learning and behavioral disabilities is an issue of great importance. Unlike elementary schools, secondary schools require substantially more independent functioning, assume the effective use of student planning and study skills, and often lack the classes in basic skills needed by some learners. Further, new…
Braunberger, Alfred Hal
This study sought to determine if eight selected variables would discriminate between the remediated reading group and the not-remediated reading group of 1,224 learning disabled children involved in an individualized diagnostic reading program, in grades one to six. The Slosson Intelligence Test was administered prior to placement in the program.…