Senf, Gerald M., Ed.
Discussed are some negative implications of the final federal rules for evaluating specific learning disabilities (Federal Register, December 29, 1977), which conceptually redefined learning disabilities to mean an "underachievement." (DLS)
... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Learning Disabilities Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities are disorders that affect the ability ...
Hill, John W.
Unrecognized learning disabilities in adulthood can also be viewed as concepts fundamental to change. These disabilities may include: (1) not being able to make appropriate choices and decisions; (2) not utilizing strategies such as checking things out with people, and monitoring one's own performance; (3) not being able to transfer learning from…
Clow, John, Ed.; Woolschlager, Ruth B., Ed.
The learning disabilities monograph contains five brief articles dealing with various aspects of learning disabilities as they related to business education. "Learning Disabilities: A Challenge for the Vocational Business Educator" (Dorothy Munger) concerns screening students with learning disabilities into rather than out of business education…
Sittiprapaporn, Wichian, Ed.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner. Depending on the type and severity of the disability, interventions may be used to help the individual learn strategies that will foster future success. Some interventions can be quite simplistic, while others are…
Lyon, G R
Approximately 5% of all public school students are identified as having a learning disability (LD). LD is not a single disorder, but includes disabilities in any of seven areas related to reading, language, and mathematics. These separate types of learning disabilities frequently co-occur with one another and with social skill deficits and emotional or behavioral disorders. Most of the available information concerning learning disabilities relates to reading disabilities, and the majority of children with learning disabilities have their primary deficits in basic reading skills. An important part of the definition of LD is its exclusions: learning disabilities cannot be attributed primarily to mental retardation, emotional disturbance, cultural difference, or disadvantage. Thus, the concept of LD focuses on the notion of a discrepancy between a child's academic achievement and his or her apparent capacity to learn. Recent research indicates, however, that disability in basic reading skills is primarily caused by deficits in phonological awareness, which is independent of any achievement-capacity discrepancy. Deficits in phonological awareness can be identified in late kindergarten and first grade using inexpensive, straightforward testing protocol. Interventions have varying effectiveness, depending largely on the severity of the individual child's disability. The prevalence of learning disability identification has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. The "real" prevalence of LD is subject to much dispute because of the lack of an agreed-upon definition of LD with objective identification criteria. Some researchers have argued that the currently recognized 5% prevalence rate is inflated; others argue that LD is still underidentified. In fact, it appears that there are both sound and unsound reasons for the increase in identification rates. Sound reasons for the increase include better research, a broader definition of disability in reading, focusing on
The cognitive approach to education is briefly summarized, and its implications for learning disabilities considered. The approach, which includes the genetic epistemology espoused by J. Piaget and information processing theory, proposes the importance of active involvement and control processes. (CL)
ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.
This digest defines learning disabilities, cites their prevalence, describes typical characteristics of learning-disabled students, outlines educational implications of learning disabilities, and lists several printed and organizational resources for further information. (JDD)
Covington, Linda Eastwick
The heterogeneous nature of learning disabilities has led to confusion regarding their definition and their intervention. Although the law protects adults with learning disabilities both in the workplace and classroom, it provides only a broad definition that has been subject to many interpretations. There is a paucity of longitudinal research on…
Lyon, G. Reid, Ed.; And Others
This book examines critical issues in classification and definition of learning disabilities; the development of theory in learning disabilities; the development of cognitive, developmental, and educational models of learning disabilities; and social and public policy in learning disabilities. After an introductory chapter by G. Reid Lyon and…
Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.
The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…
... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Learning Disabilities: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are learning disabilities? Learning disabilities are conditions that affect how a ...
Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2012
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) affirms that the construct of learning disabilities represents a valid, unique, and heterogeneous group of disorders, and that recognition of this construct is essential for sound policy and practice. An extensive body of scientific research on learning disabilities continues to support…
Chapman, Melanie; Gledhill, Paul; Jones, Phillip; Burton, Mark; Soni, Saroj
This paper describes the findings of a survey into prescribing of psychotropic medication with adults with learning disabilities in a British city. A self-completion questionnaire was sent to staff in dispersed housing and community learning disability teams to gather information about the number of people prescribed psychoactive medication, the…
Sundheim, Suzanne T P V; Voeller, Kytja K S
This article reviews the relationship between different learning disabilities, language disorders, and the psychiatric disorders that are commonly associated with learning disabilities and language disorder: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders, depression, and conduct or antisocial personality disorder. The complex associations between language disorders and specific learning disabilities--dyslexia, nonverbal learning disorder, dyscalculia--and the various psychiatric disorders are discussed. Clinical vignettes are presented to highlight the impact of these disorders on a child's social and psychological development and the importance of early recognition and treatment. PMID:15559896
Watson, Silvana M. R.; Gable, Robert A.
In this article, we provide an overview of current knowledge on the underlying cognitive deficits associated with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). We highlight difficulties surrounding the identification of MLD that include inconsistency in defining MLD, comorbidity with other disabilities, problems associated with assessment tools and…
Moyer, Margaret B.; Moyer, John C.
The need of learning-disabled students for more than extensive practice is discussed. The rigid thinking and error reinforcement that may result are noted, and a solution involving the analysis of students' needs is described in some detail. (MNS)
Caffrey, Erin; Fuchs, Douglas
We reviewed eight studies that described learning differences between students with learning disabilities (LD) and students with mild mental retardation (MMR). A total of 639 students, 6-20 years old, participated in these studies. Study authors examined students' inductive reasoning and their performance during guided inquiry and more lengthy…
Grant, Kevin T.
Students with learning disabilities (LD) are part of the largest and most rapidly expanding population of college students (Burgstahler & Moore, 2009; Garrison-Wade & Lehmann, 2009; Foley 2006; Chew, Jensen, & Rosen, 2009; Thomas, 2000). Current estimations show approximately one and a half million college students have a documented…
Hock, Michael F.
Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level.…
Blasi, Joyce F.
Discussed are characteristics of criterion referenced reading tests for use with learning disabled (LD) children, and analyzed are the Basic Educational Skills Inventory (BESI), the Prescriptive Reading Inventory (PRI), and the Cooper-McGuire Diagnostic Work-Analysis Test (CooperMcGuire). Criterion referenced tests are defined; and problems in…
Reid, D. Kim; Valle, Jan Weatherly
This article serves as an invitation to rethink and to broaden the scope of learning disabilities (LD) research and practice. We begin with 3 assumptions: Education in a representative democracy is inevitably a political enterprise; social justice is everyone's responsibility, but educators have a special role to play; and segregated schooling is…
Hofmeister, Alan M.; Lubke, Margaret M.
The article examines characteristics and present or potential applications of expert systems technology for diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities. Preliminary findings indicate that expert systems can perform as well as humans in specific areas, and that the process of organizing knowledge bases for expert systems helps clarify existing…
Henry, Stephan A.; Wittman, Robert D.
The study examined the use of A. Bannatyne's Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) subtest score recategorization hierarchy in identifying elementary students with learning disabilities (LD). The results indicated that Bannatyne's pattern was of little value in differentiating between LD students and nonLD students and, if…
Erin, J N; Koenig, A J
Existing studies indicate that between 14% and 65% of students with visual disabilities also have learning disabilities. The similar symptoms of the two conditions and the earlier identification of a visual disability often mask the presence of a learning disability. This article addresses definition, assessment, intervention, and future implications related to educational practices with students who have both learning and visual disabilities. The definitions of the two conditions are compared, emphasizing features that make identification difficult. The article examines common assessment procedures, describing approaches that are inappropriate for students who have low vision or blindness. Intervention approaches are described, including adaptations of the environment, enhancement of vision, instruction in compensatory skills, the use of learning strategies, and the availability of learning opportunities. Future directions include refinement of diagnostic approaches, and research related to the characteristics and instructional needs of students who have both visual and learning disabilities. PMID:9146097
Shepard, Lorrie A.
The assessment and diagnosis of learning disabilities (LD) in the school is problematic. How do educators determine who is learning disabled? What practices are recommended? The main focus of the paper is on specific, relatively technical points that influence the validity of assessment. Since technical concerns are only one of the factors…
Cramer, Shirley C., Ed.; Ellis, William, Ed.
This book contains papers on learning disabilities based on presentations made at the "Summit on Learning Disabilities: A National Responsibility," held in September 1994. The first section provides an overview and includes "The State of Research" (G. Reid Lyon). The second section focuses on education and includes: "Preventing Early Reading…
Gerber, Paul J., Ed.; Brown, Dale S., Ed.
This book provides information on preparing individuals with learning disabilities for the challenges of employment and outlines the rights of those with learning disabilities in the workplace. Introductory chapters in Part 1 include: "Life after School: Challenges in the Workplace" (Paul J. Gerber); "The New Economy in the 21st Century:…
Hynd, George W.; Obrzut, John E.
Recent research employing more direct measures of central functional asymmetry suggests that a reconceptualization of the notion of cerebral dominance may be in order. A rationale for this reconceptualization is provided and the implications for children with learning disorders is discussed. (Author)
Children with learning disabilities form a large pool of patients seen by neurologists for help in understanding the disability and deciding which forms of remediation are appropriate. Learning disabilities may accompany a large variety of other neurologic disabilities, but the usual child with such a problem is in excellent health. A thorough office evaluation for possible medical problems is always necessary, but most children do not require laboratory testing. All children with learning disabilities, whether or not they have accompanying neurologic problems, should be seen for psychological and/or educational evaluation. Some children may also benefit from an evaluation by a speech and language pathologist, occupational therapist, or ophthalmologist. The neurologist, alone or in association with a child psychologist, should also investigate the possible association of learning disabilities with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is only for children with this component of learning problems that the possibility of medication arises. Working closely with the family, the child's school system, and other involved professionals becomes an important aspect of providing full and necessary help to children with learning disabilities. A caring physician can be a major help to the child and his family in understanding this disorder and supporting them during a difficult time. PMID:2034911
Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover.
This report responds to Delaware state legislation requiring the development of proposed revised regulations for the classification of students as learning disabled (LD). The report first describes the current system, noting that in 1997 15 percent of the student population were served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and over…
Kulkarni, M; Kalantre, S; Upadhye, S; Karande, S; Ahuja, S
Learning disabilities (LD) is one of the important causes of poor academic performance in school going children. Learning disabilities are developmental disorders that usually manifest during the period of normal education. These disabilities create a significant gap between the true potential and day to day performance of an individual. Dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia denote the problem related to reading, writing and mathematics. Perinatal problems are certain neurological conditions, known to be associated with LD; however, genetic predisposition seems to be the most probable etiological factors. Evaluation of a child suspected to be having LD consists of medical examination, vision and hearing test analysis of school performance. The psycho-behaviour assessment and education testing are essential in the process of diagnosis. The experienced persons in the field of LD should interpret the results of such tests. With Individualized Remedial Education Plan (IEP) most children learn to cope up with disability and may get integrated in a regular steam. PMID:11450386
Saenz, Tracy Johnson
The current study was an exploratory study to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and IQ scores in a research sample of students with learning disabilities. Emotional intelligence (EI) may provide information about non-intellective factors in the achievement and adjustment of students with learning disabilities. The…
Fitzgerald, Suzanne; Gray, Nicola S.; Snowden, Robert J.
Background: Whether the Flynn effect (the increase in the populations' IQ over time) affects the IQ scores of people with learning disability or borderline learning disability remains unclear. The issue is important as the Flynn effect should alter the number of people eligible for health service resources. A comparison of the Wechsler Adult…
Hock, Michael F
Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level. In addition, large numbers of adults perform at the lowest skill levels on quantitative tasks. Clearly, significant instructional challenges exist for adults who struggle with literacy issues, and those challenges can be greater for adults with LD. In this article, the literature on adults with LD is reviewed, and evidenced-based instructional practices that significantly narrow the literacy achievement gap for this population are identified. Primary attention is given to instructional factors that have been shown to affect literacy outcomes for adults with LD. These factors include the use of explicit instruction, instructional technology, and intensive tutoring in skills and strategies embedded in authentic contexts. PMID:22064951
Briney, Marilou S.; Satcher, Jamie
This paper discusses the relationship between students with learning disabilities and delinquency and the implications for the vocational rehabilitation process. Learning disabilities and juvenile delinquency are defined to establish a theoretical and conceptual framework. Four hypotheses that have been proposed to explain why individuals with…
Kavale, Kenneth A.; Forness, Steven R.
This analysis of the politics of learning disabilities finds that the balance between political and scientific aspects of learning disabilities has been disturbed, with political aspects being overly influential. Discussed in detail are the scientific side of learning disabilities, politics as advocacy, politics as ideology (especially Marxism),…
Knowledgeable persons within the field frequently criticize definitions of "learning disabilities" for the choice of vocabulary, phrasing and implied ideas. Although there may never be a universally accepted definition, a definition that reflects current research is used in this article to make evident some of the cognitive and behavioral…
The relationship between learning disabilities and psychological development is a complex, ongoing intrapsychic and psychosocial process. The results of two clinical-psychological investigations about a group of learning-disabled children and a group of learning-disabled adolescents is summarized. Although the learning-disabled youngsters were psychologically more heterogeneous than homogeneous, several common configurations emerged that characterized these children and adolescents: (1) problems in work and learning (due to the learning disability itself and to psychogenic factors related directly and/or indirectly to the disability); (2) chronic, low-level depression and relatively high, free floating anxiety; (3) characteristic unconscious concerns about self and others. In addition, learning disabilities organize psychological development in determining strengths, weaknesses, interests, and defensive strategies. And, the intermittent nature of mild to moderately severe learning disabilities seems to contribute to a sense of being traumatized and to character riqidity. The educational and clinical implications are briefly discussed. PMID:24243465
This collection of articles on gifted learning disabled students begins with an explanation of the philosophy of the Center for Talented Youth at Johns Hopkins University (Maryland), a list of characteristics of gifted disabled students, and three definitions of learning disabilities. The following papers are then provided: "Gifted but Learning…
Pedigree analysis of 12 young adults (9 of whom had learning disabilities) indicated that learning disability (LD) was strongly familial but that the type of disability (reading or math) was not directly inherited. Autoimmune disorders were significantly correlated with LD. In seven of the LD families, adults failed to overcome earlier reading and…
Gilles, Dorothy Cordes
The perceptual and cognitive processes involved in learning to play the piano are examined as sources of confusion and problems which might be encountered by the young learning disabled piano student. The paper is reported to be based on personal observations during private piano instruction, published and unpublished literature, and a summer…
Bacon, Ansley; Walker, Hill M.; Schwartz, Allen A.; O'Hara, David M.; Calkins, Carl; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
The public's increasing demands for greater accountability and a better return on investment from research supported by federal funding requires that organizations studying and solving problems in areas like health, education, disability, and child mental health document the impact of their work. Human service and educational professionals agree…
Fore, Cecil, III; Riser, Susan; Boon, Richard
Cooperative learning is an instructional model that draws extensively on contributions of multiple theorists, including Piaget, Vygotsky, Carroll and other researchers. Many different cooperative learning arrangements have been developed and researched. The most extensively researched and evaluated cooperative learning arrangements is by Robert…
Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is described as a subtype of specific learning disability where the source of the disability is a difficulty in processing nonverbal information. The child with NLD presents with problems in visual, spatial, and tactile perception but with strengths in rote verbal skills. Traditionally, these children were recognized by their difficulties in arithmetic which presented a stark contrast with their strengths in spelling and decoding text. They also exhibited a split between their verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores with the VIQ being significantly higher than PIQ. Over time, however, diagnostic criteria have evolved and the broadened definition of the NLD syndrome has led many to question the utility and uniqueness of the NLD diagnosis. In addition, shifting diagnostic standards have made research results difficult to replicate. In short, the research to date leaves many unanswered questions about (1) the definition of the NLD syndrome, (2) the pervasiveness of the academic, social and psychopathological difficulties, (3) the source of the NLD syndrome, and (4) the degree to which it overlaps with other conditions. This chapter outlines a brief history of the NLD syndrome, how it is currently conceptualized, and some of the current debate about the unanswered questions above. PMID:23622171
Cawley, John F.; Parmar, Rene S.
Describes program alternatives in science for students with learning disabilities and their implications for reading and writing. Reviews opportunity to learn, the science performance of students with learning disabilities, science textbook instruction, literacy and science, and alternatives to read-dependent science programs. Presents an…
Higbee, Jeanne L.; And Others
Information on types of learning disabilities (i.e. dyslexia and dyscalculia) is presented to help professionals in the field of higher education learn about how to identify learning disabled (LD) students, appropriate accommodations and modifications, special services, resources for referral, policy implications, and legal issues. Due to improved…
... purchases to benefit LDA. Shop Now Healthy Children Project Learning Disabilities Association of America created the Healthy Children Project to raise awareness, promote policies and practices, and ...
Spalding, Norma V.
Information in this paper is presented to help college instructors identify and assist learning disabled (LD) students. The paper first explains what learning disabilities are, emphasizing that while LD students exhibit a discrepancy between apparent learning ability and actual academic achievement, they are not mentally retarded or emotionally…
Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda
This book offers an overview and a context for understanding learning disabilities in a regular education setting. An initial section offers perspectives for understanding the nature and scope of learning problems and learning disabilities. An overview of intervention is then presented, exploring each phase of the process, the types of programs…
Chase, C H
Learning disabilities are the product of neurological damage which occurs during fetal development. The malformations produced are unique to each individual and do not resemble acquired neurological damage. Consequently, models of developmental disorders must be developed independently and cannot be based on acquired adult aphasia or dyslexia literature. Neurological conditions of adults with developmental disorders are difficult to interpret since aberrations that occur early during fetal development can have a cascading effect, disrupting neural organization in other brain regions. An appreciation of basic concepts of brain development suggests treatment interventions that will modify neurophysiological functioning. PMID:8912434
Watson, Silvana M. R.; Gable, Robert A.; Gear, Sabra B.; Hughes, Kimberly C.
Reading comprehension is a complex skill that places significant demands on students, beginning with elementary school and continuing through the secondary grades. In this article, we provide an overview of possible factors associated with problems in reading comprehension among secondary students with learning disabilities. Discussion underscores…
Star, Nonnie; Shadoff, Sander
This guide is designed to assist people with learning disabilities to recognize their disabilities and the connection between learning disabilities and substance abuse. It begins by defining learning disabilities and providing a self-test checklist for common signs and symptoms of learning disabilities. Difficulties with organization, memory,…
Discusses the following topics: identification and classification of learning disabilities (LD), effects of LD on nursing students, teaching and learning, LD legislation, and academic interventions for nursing students with LD. (SK)
Currie, Paula S.; Wadlington, Elizabeth M.
This book is designed to help clinicians and teachers work more effectively with people with learning disabilities and their families. Chapter 1 provides an overview of learning disabilities. It presents commonly accepted medical and educational definitions, prevalence figures, and possible etiological explanations for various disorders. Chapter 2…
Stanovich, Keith E.
Discusses how the Guckenberger v Boston University case illustrates the interaction of the psychometrics of ability differences with the concept of learning disability and with the sociopolitics of schooling and society. Urges a more inclusive definition of learning disability which abandons aptitude-achievement discrepancy requirements and a more…
Zollinger, Ruth H., Ed.; Klein, Nancy K., Ed.
Presented are six papers originally delivered at a colloquium series on the problems of the learning disabled child, with emphasis on a multidisciplinary perspective. In "One Psychologist's Perspective on Learning Disabilities," J. Kessler provides an overview of the field with sections on definition and identification, etiology, testing as a…
Schoenbrodt, L; Kumin, L; Sloan, J M
This article describes the characteristics of language disorders that occur with learning disabilities. In this context, formal and naturalistic language, including specific standardized test batteries and curriculum-based language assessment, portfolio assessment, and others, are discussed. In addition, service delivery models and interventions that focus on the enhancement of semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic development are presented. Finally, future directions for research in the area of learning disabilities and secondary language disorders are suggested. Intervention strategies, including supportive scaffolding, whole language, and collaborative consultation, are reviewed; and implications for language assessment, intervention, and future research are discussed. PMID:9146094
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate on issues related to the reliability and validity of measurement of challenging behaviour (behavioural difficulties) in learning disability. A number of practical, theoretical and methodological issues are discussed that have significance for the nurse both as practitioner and/or researcher in learning disability. These issues are equally important to both provider and purchaser of health care in order that resources can be most effectively targeted. The term 'challenging behaviour' would appear to be used both in literature and research synonymously with behavioural difficulties, this has implications for nurses in both their clinical practice and/or research. The author concludes by identifying a need to replace the term challenging behaviour, with 'behavioural difficulties'. It is argued that such a term is much more explicit in meaning and amenable to operational definition, thus enabling empirical study. Such a proposal will not be accepted by all as justifiable; this is because some might argue that adopting the term behavioural difficulties may be a retrograde step that perpetuates negative imagery and inappropriate labelling of people with a learning disability. PMID:8696593
Cruickshank, William M.
The author reviews the controversy over definitions of learning disabilities and posits two "givens" in any defintion of the condition: that all learning is neurological, and that learning is conditioning. He proposes a definition based on neuropsychological dysfunction which can be translated into an educational regimen. (CL)
Stanovich, K E
The Boston University (BU) case illustrates how the psychometrics of ability differences interact with the concept of learning disability and with the sociopolitics of schooling and society. It also illustrates that learning disabilities advocacy will not be on a sound footing as long as the field refuses to rid itself of its IQ fetishism, refuses to jettison its fixation on aptitude-achievement discrepancy, and fails to free clinical practice from the pseudoscientific neurology that plagued the field in the 1970s. A more inclusive definition of learning disability--one that abandons discrepancy notions--and a more self-critical attitude toward its own claims would advance the field of learning disabilities and help to rid it of distractions such as the BU case. PMID:15508475
Sight-Saving Review, 1971
A joint organizational statement on vision and therapy for learning disabilities and dyslexia is presented by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, and the American Association of Ophthalmology. (CB)
Jukes, Mark; Aspinall, Susan-Louise
Leadership is seen as critical for the transformation of learning disability services and has been further emphasised since the publication of Transforming Care, the Department of Health's response to the review of events at Winterbourne View. What is clear within learning disability nursing and services is the demand for leadership in the quest for improving the quality and effectiveness of services across health and social care. This article discusses the challenges for the undergraduate learning disability nurse with the recommendation to pursue a framework that promotes and focuses on integrating knowledge transfer into services for people with a learning disability. It explores practice change using the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework, and the example of the involvement of service users in practitioner training on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and consent and capacity to consent for treatment. PMID:26450672
Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology
Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses
This author recently spent a year studying best practices in serving students with learning and other disabilities, and, surprisingly, the experience altered his thinking in significant ways. He came to this study not as a specialist in disabilities but as an academic administrator with years of faculty experience, and that perspective helped him…
Clare, I C; Gudjonsson, G H
In order to assess a criminal suspect's ability to make a reliable statement, performance on three measures--interrogative suggestibility, confabulation and acquiescence--may be used. This paper presents preliminary data on these measures for people with mild learning disabilities (Full Scale IQ [FSIQ]: 57-75). It was found that they were more suggestible than their average ability counterparts (FSIQ: 83-111) because they were much more susceptible to 'leading questions'. They also confabulated more and were more acquiescent. Overall, the data emphasized their potential vulnerability to giving erroneous testimony during interrogations. PMID:8251959
Fletcher, Jack M.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Boudousquie, Amy
Reviews implications of the three primary components of the federal definition of learning disabilities (discrepancy, heterogeneity, and exclusion) for the assessment of children with learning disabilities (LD). Also proposes a rationale and procedures for more efficient approaches to the identification of children as learning disabled that are…
Donfrancesco, Renato; Mugnaini, Daniele; Dell'Uomo, Andrea
Many studies on cognitive impulsivity in learning disabled children have been criticized for their methodological limitations, and they have not dealt with the different types of learning disability. The aim of this study was to overcome these limitations and to assess if there was a significant cognitive impulsivity in reading disorder and/or spelling disorder by using the 20-item Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFF20). A total of 110 children (second through eighth grades) were recruited from a cohort of children assessed for the first time in a National Health clinic specialized in the study of specific learning disabilities. In all, 30 dyslexic children and 25 children with spelling disorder (all children without an ADHD comorbidity) were compared with 55 children of a control group on the MMF20 (accuracy and time latency). Results showed that the children with reading disorder were less accurate than the children with spelling disability (p<0.05). Both these groups performed less accurately than the control group. Subjects with dyslexia were faster than both the other groups in response time (p<0.05), clearly showing a significantly higher cognitive impulsivity than the other groups. Hence, data seem to confirm the idea that, similar to ADHD children, dyslexic children have impaired frontal/prefrontal functions. Clinical and treatment implications are discussed. PMID:15981139
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2005
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) is a national committee representing 11 organizations concerned about individuals with learning disabilities. The NJCLD considers and discusses contemporary issues in learning disabilities and develops and disseminates reports and statements related to these issues to influence policy…
Zavala, Jesus; Mims, Joan
The study compared 10 learning disabled and 10 non-learning disabled limited English proficient Mexican American elementary grade children. Six tests were identified as predicting learning disabilities including the Prueba de Lectura y Lenguaje Escrito and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. (Author/DB)
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat
This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…
Heisler, Alice B.
Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)
Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.
Suggests that federal definition of learning disabilities is wrong and represents politically expedient decisions rather than fundamental knowledge about psychology and education. Discusses why federal definition is erroneous. Offers seven recommendations to change the current system of identification and instruction of students with learning…
Gold, Sandra; Sherry, Lee
A review of research on the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant women supports the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning about the possible negative effects (learning disabilities, hyperactivity, short attention span, and emotional liability) of children. (Author/CL)
Lerner, J W
Child psychiatrists and other mental health professionals play a key role in recognizing, diagnosing, and planning treatment for children and adolescents with learning disabilities. A review of educational issues related to diagnosis and educational interventions for the preschooler, elementary school child, and adolescent is presented. PMID:2661524
Krasnoff, Margaret J., Ed.
Presented are ten papers given at a 1974 conference focusing on realistic goals for serving learning disabled children in the decade ahead. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Introduction and Overview of the Problem of the Conference" (W. Cruickshank); "Concepts of Vision in Relation to Perception" (G. Getman); "Motor Activities and…
Given, Barbara K.
This paper proposes that mild learning disability may often be more the result of teaching which ignores individual differences in learning style than the result of psychological processing and/or central nervous system disorders that are characteristic of true learning disabilities. A brief overview of learning disability identification explains…
Cook, L D
The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and a specific program described. PMID:525512
Cook, Louisa D.
The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and the summer residential program at Goddard College described. (Author)
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly
The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a…
Leko, Melinda M.; Griffin, Cynthia C.
In a 1986 study published in the "Learning Disability Quarterly," Simmons and Kame'enui examined information found in popular periodicals about learning disabilities (LD) in an effort to understand what people learn about LD from these high-readership sources. After more than 20 years, advances in technology have brought significant changes to how…
Dikitanan, Rosefren C.
Noting that the existence of learning disabilities after high school is considered problematical, a study determined the presence of learning disabilities among freshmen at Kean College of New Jersey and whether a specific set of learning characteristics exist which interfere with the successful completion of the college curricula. Subjects, 404…
Could learning disability nurses hold the key to a new direction of care and leadership? Jim Blair, writing in Learning Disability Practice, says there must be a response to the inquiry into premature deaths of people with learning disabilities. One way for a new form of leadership could be band 8 nurses practising at consultant level. With their experiences of caring for people with learning disabilities, nurse consultants can shape service delivery and pathways to enhance quality of care, reduce poor practices and avoidable deaths. PMID:27380709
Accardo, P; Haake, C; Whitman, B
Developmental pediatricians are being consulted by medical school promotion committees with regard to the course of action to be taken with learning-disabled medical students experiencing academic difficulties. Faculty attitude, a difficulty understanding the nature of learning disabilities, appears to be a major contributor to poor medical school performance on the part of learning-disabled adults. Utilizing the sequential-simultaneous information processing model as a simplified introduction to learning disability patterns, the authors argue that recommending intensive remediation of rote spelling and writing skills in students engaged in graduate education represents both a waste of time and a further emotional trauma to these young professionals. PMID:2808719
Rivera, Diane Pedrotty, Ed.
This book addresses teaching mathematics to students with learning disabilities, including characteristics and assessment of mathematics learning disabilities, mathematics programming and interventions, and teacher preparation. Chapters include: (1) "Mathematics Education and Students with Learning Disabilities: Instruction" (Diane Pedrotty…
Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…
The article examines the characteristics of students with both learning disabilities and giftedness. Typical traits of this population are considered in terms of measured IQ, academic achievement, cognitive skills, interests, creativity, personality, and learning styles. (CL)
DiNapoli, Nicholas Paul; And Others
The Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) (Boehm, 1971) was administered to 99 children (ages 7-10) who had been diagnosed as learning disabled and attended special schools in the New York area. It was hypothesized that the learning disabled children would exhibit a delay in the acquisition of the basic concepts, but would display a similar order of…
Central Point School District 6, OR.
The operations handbook for Project HEELD (Helping Eliminate Early Learning Disabilities) describes procedures used to identify and remediate learning disabilities among 5-year-old children in an Oregon school district. Described are the following project phases: selection of participants and training of staff, special class instruction for…
Andrulis, Richard S.; Alio, Jeanne P.
In 1974-1975, a preliminary study was undertaken to investigate the presence of learning disabilities in adults. Previously completed research studies have focused entirely upon the child and adolescent, with a direct concentration on remediation of this problem. Learning disabilities, currently estimated to afflict ten million school-aged…
In order to foster awareness of the auditory characteristics of learning disabled students and the essential skills involved in effective listening, this paper suggests teaching strategies to improve listening skills that include both individual and whole class activities specifically geared to learning disabled students. The first section of the…
Fiedorowicz, C.; Benezra, E.; MacDonald, W.; McElgunn, B.; Wilson, A.; Kaplan, B.
This article reviews recent research in the field of learning disabilities and, in particular, dyslexia. It summarizes findings from numerous studies employing widely divergent methodologies that have attempted to establish the neurobiological correlates of learning disabilities and concludes that it is impossible to deny a neurobiological basis…
Green, Ravonne A.
This article describes the characteristics of patrons with learning disabilities (LD) and how these characteristics might affect library use. The lack of services for college patrons who have learning disabilities (LD) in this decade is much like the lack of adequate and appropriate services for high school patrons with LD in previous decades. The…
Swanson, H. Lee
The National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities' definition of learning disabilities is presented, followed by a discussion of parameters to be considered in operationalizing the definition. Major definitional issues are then explored, including using testable and meaningful constructs, linking definitions to neuropsychological evidence,…
Hammill, Donald D.
This article reviews the efforts made since 1962 to define learning disabilities, discusses 11 prominent definitions, identifies important conceptual elements on which the definitions differ, and calls for a consensual acceptance of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities definition. (PB)
Included in the training kit for teachers in the area of learning disabilities are materials developed by Project Lighthouse for experimental field usage to test the materials. The problem of educating children with learning disabilities is summarized, as is Piaget's model of logical activity. The major divisions of the text then deal with the…
... of that disability. Children being taught in a second language that they are learning sometimes act in ways that are similar to ... account whether a student is bilingual or a second language learner. Below are some common learning disabilities and the signs associated with them: Dyslexia ...
Grey House Publishing, 2010
Published for over a decade, this directory continues to be a successful, sought-after resource, providing valuable information to professionals, families, and individuals in the learning disabilities community. Supported by the National Center for Learning Disabilities, this 2011 edition brings together the most up-to-date information on LD…
Owen, Sara; Standen, Penny
Recruitment onto pre-registration learning disability nursing courses has decreased considerably over the last decade. This paper reports the findings of the first stage of a longitudinal study that investigated the factors that influence students to train as learning disability nurses, and those that influence their decision to continue or leave…
Patton, James R., Ed.; Polloway, Edward A., Ed.
This collection of 13 essays focuses on the many challenges that adults with learning disabilities face in educational, work, and social settings. The essays are: (1) "Adults with Learning Disabilities: An Emerging Area of Professional Interest and Public Attention" (James R. Patton and Edward A. Polloway); (2) "Adult Development Theories: An…
Bates, Belinda, Ed.; Riviere, Adrienne, Ed.
This guide contains a selection of national resources to assist adults who suspect they may have a learning disability. The guide begins with information on assessing learning disabilities, recommendations for locating a qualified professional to conduct assessments appropriate for adults, and a list of questions to ask qualified professionals. A…
Wald, Mike; Draffan, E. A.; Seale, Jane
This article provides an overview and initial findings of the LExDis project which is exploring the e-learning experiences of disabled learners within a UK university in order to increase understanding of the many complex issues and interactions introduced by disabled learners' requirements for accessible e-learning, compatible assistive…
Pihl, R. O.; Parkes, M.
Hair samples from 31 learning disabled and 22 normal children were analyzed. Significant group differences were determined and a discriminant function was computed which separated the groups with 98 percent accuracy. Elevated lead and cadmium content in the learning disabled group is viewed as being of particular importance. (Author/SL)
Whyte, Lillian A.
Describes characteristics of learning disabled teenagers. Describes results of a study of 331 secondary students who completed a self-report inventory showing that childhood learning disability characteristics persist into adolescence, most seriously in the areas of visual perception, fine motor skills, and the ability to write and make spatial…
Brown, Edward K.
Although a lot of data on the psychological characteristics of children having learning disabilities have been gathered, not very much has been done to discover the underlying mechanisms, processes, or phenomenon of learning disability. Without more investigations which attempt to get at these, we will continue to be at a loss to prescribe…
Bonnet, Kenneth A.
The mechanisms of both language-based and non-language-based learning disabilities are presented within the framework of central nervous system development and the compromises to that development that arise from genetic, hormonal, antibody, medication, and postnatal compromises. Also reviewed is the need for a taxonomy of learning disabilities.…
Stein, Sharon E.; Safran, Stephen P.
This paper summarizes and evaluates the research on the relationship between allergies and learning disabilities. The paper considers definitional and conceptual issues, anecdotal reports, experimental studies, and the Feingold hypothesis. It concludes that the role that allergies play in learning disability is complex and interrelated with other…
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC. National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center.
This fact sheet provides a definition of learning disability (LD) in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults. The background of the concept of "learning disability" is briefly reviewed, followed by the definition of the Interagency Committee on…
Fletcher, Jack M.; Lyon, G. Reid; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Barnes, Marcia A.
Evidence based and comprehensive, this important work offers a new approach to understanding and intervening with students with learning disabilities. The authors--leading experts in neuropsychology and special education--present a unique model of learning disabilities that integrates the cognitive, neural, genetic, and contextual factors…
Tagg, Lisa; Kenny, Gerard
Parents who have learning difficulties pose profound questions to the philosophy and practice of family nursing. Failure to recognise how care delivery needs to change in the context of parents with a learning disability can perpetuate discrimination and inequalities for adults and their children. In this paper we explore the neglected topic of adults who have learning disabilities and the problems they face when they become parents. We examine the issue of the rights of adults with learning disabilities and illustrate that when these rights are not upheld they increase the vulnerability of the adults and their children. The implications of these issues are highlighted in the context of children's nursing practice. PMID:16544798
McKenzie, Karen; Michie, Amanda; Murray, Aja; Hales, Charlene
The study assessed the validity of an intellectual disability screening tool, the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ), in three forensic settings: a community intellectual disability forensic service; a forensic in-patient secure unit and a prison, using data for 94 individuals. A significant positive relationship was found between full scale IQ and LDSQ score, indicating convergent validity. Discriminative validity was indicated by, firstly, a significant difference in the LDSQ scores between those with and without an intellectual disability, with those with a diagnosis of intellectual disability, scoring significantly lower. Secondly, a ROC analysis indicated that the sensitivity and specificity of the LDSQ were both above 80%. The screening tool was found to have lower sensitivity in the forensic populations than was obtained in the original community standardisation sample, but had slightly higher specificity. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed. PMID:22245728
Seidenberg, Pearl L.
The paper examines current research on the social and personal competence of learning disabled (LD) adolescents and young adults, revealing two major lines of inquiry: (1) interpersonal environment (perceptions by others, sociometric status, social behavior deficits, verbal and nonverbal communication skills), and (2) affective status…
Ho, Fuk-chuen; Siegel, Linda
This paper consists of three studies. The first study aimed to identify sub-types of students with learning disabilities in reading. Based on the dual-route model of reading, words may be read using either a lexical (words are recognized as wholes) or a sub-lexical (words are recognized through grapheme-phoneme correspondence) procedure. Castles…
Willis, Diane S.
Changes in the living circumstances of people with learning disabilities have seen responsibility for their health become the provenance of paid-and family-carers. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with three family-carers and ten paid-carers. Findings revealed that the role of these carers was undefined, leading to difficulty in…
Gittins, Deborah; Rose, Nikki
An audit was carried out to gain an overview of the profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) population in a local health trust to inform current and future service provision. An overview of the issues faced in developing clear defining criteria is presented. Published definitions of PMLD were used to identify clients from data held on…
Mann, Lester; And Others
In an attempt to clarify the phenomena of psychological "process" variables, as applied to children with learning disabilities, a study was made of sensory modality preferences in 64 kindergarten and 64 first grade children. Ss were given a battery of seven measures grouped under the following four headings: standardized test approach; controlled…
Dexter, Douglas D.; Park, Youn J.; Hughes, Charles A.
This article presents a meta-analysis of experimental and quasi-experimental studies in which intermediate and secondary students with learning disabilities were taught science content through the use of graphic organizers (GOs). Following an exhaustive search for studies meeting specified selection criteria, 23 standardized mean effect sizes were…
Sparks, Richard L.
Conventional wisdom in education has suggested that students who are classified as learning disabled (LD) will exhibit inordinate difficulties learning a foreign language (FL). Even when not explicitly stated, the notion that those classified as LD have a disability for FL learning is implied. However, while beliefs about this purported disability…
Atkinson, Terry S.; Wilhite, Kathi L.; Frey, Laura M.; Williams, Sarah C.
This article discusses the difficulties in meeting the needs of diverse student populations including those with learning and/or behavioral difficulties while meeting the demands of standards and accountability. It stresses the importance of matching the reading instructional program to the specific needs of the student and fine-tuning strategies…
Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.
The Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities' definition of learning disabilities implies that the presence of social skills deficits alone suffices for diagnosis, even in the absence of academic difficulties. Overlaps between this criterion and eligibility criteria for emotional disturbance are discussed along with implications for…
Recent changes in legislation (IDEA) have implications for the changing role of the school psychologist, specifically in the evaluation of students with learning disabilities. There is a need to examine the attitudes and practices of school psychologists regarding specific learning disability identification as there is little consistency in how…
Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…
Bazna, Maysaa; Reid, D. Kim
Learning disabilities education in Kuwait grew from Kuwaiti's wholesale importation of the Western, medical model of disability--a model basically incompatible with Kuwaiti culture. Conflicting factors include its problematic normal/abnormal binary, its assumption that the "deficit" is located in the student and the segregation of students by…
Lewis, Katherine E.
Mathematical learning disability (MLD) research often conflates low achievement with disabilities and focuses exclusively on deficits of students with MLDs. In this study, the author adopts an alternative approach using a response-to-intervention MLD classification model to identify the resources students draw on rather than the skills they lack.…
Hayes, Cheryl W.
The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…
Impecoven-Lind, Linda S.; Foegen, Anne
Algebra is a gateway to expanded opportunities, but it often poses difficulty for students with learning disabilities. Consequently, it is essential to identify evidence-based instructional strategies for these students. The authors begin by identifying three areas of algebra difficulty experienced by students with disabilities: cognitive…
This article advocates an approach to supporting students who experience difficulties in learning, irrespective of nosology, particularly in the key areas of literacy and numeracy. In the state of Queensland, Australia, a distinction has been made between students' experiencing learning difficulties and those who have learning disabilities (LD).…
Gargiulo, Richard M.; Warniment, Judith
Reactions of parents of learning disabled children are examined through answers of three parents to ten questions concerning attitudes, emotional adjustment, marital problems, sources of professional help, educational treatment, and advice for other parents. (DB)
How can nurses meet the healthcare needs of people with learning disabilities in the community? Solutions include addressing communication difficulties and issues of consent, and developing professionals' education. PMID:27484571
... frustrated with schoolwork, which can lead to low self-esteem, depression, and other problems. 1 Usually, experts work ... with a learning disability may struggle with low self-esteem, frustration, and other problems. Mental health professionals can ...
Bigler, Erin D.; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Howes, Nancy-Louise
Reviews recent neuroradiologic and brain imaging techniques in the assessment of learning disability. Technologies reviewed include computerized tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; electrophysiological and metabolic imaging; computerized electroencepholographic studies of evoked potentials, event-related potentials, spectral analysis, and…
Dangel, Harry L.; And Others
A survey of 30 former teachers of learning disabled students indicated that excessive paperwork, desire for more money, lack of growth opportunity, and personal factors were cited most often as reasons for leaving the profession. (Author/DB)
Lewandowski, Lawrence J.
Four physiological conditions associated with later learning disabilities are noted: Turner Syndrome (a chromosomal abnormality), preterm children with intracranial hemorrhage, children with incompletely developed connecting fibers between the cerebral hemispheres, and children with acquired brain injury. (CL)
Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L; Crowell, E W
Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children ages 8 to 16 years who were evaluated in a child diagnostic clinic. A learning disability (LD) was present in 70% of the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a learning disability in written expression two times more common (65%) than a learning disability in reading, math, or spelling. Children with LD and ADHD had more severe learning problems than children who had LD but no ADHD, and the former also had more severe attention problems than children who had ADHD but no LD. Further, children with ADHD but no LD had some degree of learning problem, and children with LD but no ADHD had some degree of attention problem. Results suggest that learning and attention problems are on a continuum, are interrelated, and usually coexist. PMID:15495544
The purpose of this paper was to track the history of learning disabilities and collect intervention theories which might be helpful for adult college students suffering from any number of learning disabilities (LD). There is a vast difference between a learning difficulty and a learning disability; an individual with learning difficulty can learn…
Long, Ellen Moynihan
Due in part to legislation that was enacted over the last 25 years, the numbers of students with learning disabilities (LD) on college campuses are increasing. With these increasing numbers, it has become apparent that there is a need to focus on the post school outcomes of individuals with learning disabilities, particularly those who attend…
Southern, W. Thomas; And Others
This column offers two articles: one on problems in identifying students who are gifted and learning disabled and recommendations for working with this population; a second article describes a resource program for students in grades six through eight who are gifted and learning disabled, involving collaboration through weekly team meetings. (SW)
Sparks, Richard L
Recently, talk of a new type of learning disability (LD)--a foreign language learning disability, or FLLD--has made its way into the LD and foreign language (FL) literature. However, no empirical evidence has been published to support the concept of a "disability" for FL learning by those professionals who use the term. In this article, the author takes the position that there is not a distinct "disability" that can be called an FLLD. He reviews several years of research evidence indicating that any proposal for such a distinct entity is problematic. To support his position, he reviews problems with the current definition and diagnostic criteria for LD. He then cites the many difficulties inherent in the development and use of (a) a logically consistent, easily operationalized, and empirically valid definition of and (b) diagnostic criteria for the FLLD concept. The author then discusses how FL learning problems occur along a continuum of very strong to very poor language learners, and he explains how the proponents of an FLLD misuse the concept of FL aptitude. Finally, the author cites implications resulting from the research evidence on FL learning problems and use of the term FLLD. PMID:17165621
DeFries, J. C.; And Others
Results obtained from the center's six research projects are reviewed, including research on psychometric assessment of twins with reading disabilities, reading and language processes, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and executive functions, linkage analysis and physical mapping, computer-based remediation of reading disabilities, and…
Force, Crista Marie
beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.
Grey House Publishing, 2006
This is the thirteenth edition of the most comprehensive reference book covering the wide range of learning disabilities resources available nationwide. This directory contains well over 7,000 entries and covers the schools, learning centers, vocational training programs, associations and organizations, and government agencies involved in learning…
Dolly, John P.; Pittman, Bettie R.
Considered in the paper are the contributions of behaviorally and accountability based instruction and therapy approaches to the education of learning disabled students. Pointed out in a section on individualized instruction are advantages (such as shared knowledge of learning goals and ease of evaluation) as well as disadvantages (including…
Nass, Ruth D.
This review of the male preponderance in the prevalence of learning disabilities examines such factors as gender-related etiology differences and learning style differences; complications of pregnancy and infancy; effects of male hormones on the nervous system; and sex differences in maturity rates. (JDD)
Gore, Robert C.
In fall 1992, Del Mar College (DMC), in Corpus Christi, Texas, offered for the first time a college-level composition class for students clinically diagnosed as learning disabled (LD), with the rationale that if LD students were first grouped together to learn the fundamentals of college-level writing and find success among their peers, they would…
Myers, Karen A.
"Who is responsible for developing, ensuring, and assessing learning outcomes--student affairs, academic affairs, or both?" This question yielded a spirited debate between faculty members and student affairs professionals in the author's course Disability in Higher Education and Society. The author was prompted to learn more about this issue at…
Nyhan, W L; Wulfeck, B B; Tallal, P; Marsden, D L
To summarize, the neuropsychologic findings in MSUD and MMA children in both groups demonstrated deficits in cognitive/language areas, but interesting individual differences existed. For example, a marked contrast in abilities existed between NT and GV, even taking into account the age difference between these children with MSUD. While NT's general intellectual functioning was within the low-average range, GV was severely impaired. In more specific areas of cognitive functioning, NT had an uneven performance profile with areas of strengths and weaknesses, while GV evidenced a flat profile with significant impairment in all areas. NT demonstrated mild delay in visual-spatial processing, articulation development, motor-speech abilities, and selective attention and concentration; however, his language and psychosocial development were within the broad range of normality. In contrast, GV exhibited severe dysfunction in speech, language, and perceptual/conceptual development. The three children with MMA also exhibited a range of disabilities in cognitive functioning. TJ and SH contrasted in the degree of developmental delay across language and cognitive domains. Both were distractible and exhibited very short attention spans but there was a measurable difference in the extent of their speech, language, visual-spatial development. CH was markedly delayed in all areas of cognitive development, which is consistent with global retardation. The severity of her disease and its probable impact on brain development were undoubtedly related to her intellectual impairment. These datasets illustrate the challenges we face, because within each group we see a range of impairment. Nevertheless, we are optimistic that our efforts to relate metabolic, anatomic and neuropsychologic findings for such children will lead to a better understanding of these disorders. We are hopeful that this will result in new advances in diagnosis and intervention, which will ultimately improve the
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly
The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a comparison group of children with no learning disabilities to assess their comprehension of humor. The humor test was composed of a joke and cartoon section. No group differences in humor comprehension were found when the NVLD group was defined as having visual-spatial and visual reasoning deficits. However, when the NVLD group was divided into children with and without social perceptual difficulties as defined by a direct measure of social comprehension, significant group differences were found in the levels of humor comprehension. These results support the association of humor comprehension with social perception and lend tentative support to the hypothesis that children with NVLD may not be a homogenous group. Future study directions include further exploration into the nature of the association between humor comprehension and social perception as well as closer examination of the heterogeneity of NVLD. PMID:18726696
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2011
Parents are often worried when their child has learning problems in school. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a specific learning disability. Children with learning disabilities can have intelligence in the normal range but the specific learning disability may make teachers and parents concerned about their general…
Hayes, Marnell L.
Written for adults with learning disabilities, this book is based on the premise that learning disabilities are not outgrown and thus adults need to learn practical strategies and coping mechanisms. Some of the topics addressed in the book are: what a learning disability (LD) is, terminology, inheritance of LD, kinds of LD, discovering the…
Manners, Paula Jean; Russ, Marina
This article is about the feelings of powerlessness that professionals feel to cure learning disability and to answer questions such as "why do I have a learning disability?". We describe how Emma showed us through role play what it was like to have learning difficulties. This article is interesting to people with learning disabilities because…
Backenson, Erica M; Holland, Sara C; Kubas, Hanna A; Fitzer, Kim R; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A; Fraccaro, Rebecca L; Smith, Amanda D; Macoun, Sarah J; Harrison, Gina L; Hale, James B
Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent comprehensive evaluations for learning and/or behavior problems in two Pacific Northwest school districts. Using concordance-discordance model (C-DM) processing strengths and weaknesses SLD identification criteria, results revealed working memory SLD (n = 20), processing speed SLD (n = 30), executive SLD (n = 32), and no disability groups (n = 41). Of the SLD subtypes, repeated measures MANOVA results revealed the processing speed SLD subtype exhibited the greatest psychosocial and adaptive impairment according to teacher behavior ratings. Findings suggest processing speed deficits may be behind the cognitive and psychosocial disturbances found in what has been termed "nonverbal" SLD. Limitations, implications, and future research needs are addressed. PMID:24300589
O'Hara, David M.; Levy, Judith M.
The article reviews literature pertaining to general effects of a developmentally disabled child on a family with particular emphasis on implications for families with learning disabled children. Covered are aspects of individual and family life cycles during various life stages, sibling adjustment, and intervention approaches with the child and…
... Cognitive Difﬁculties in NF1 Common Cognitive Difﬁculties Visual Perception Skills Language Executive Functions Attention Motor Skills If ... handwriting. 11 COMMON COGNITIVE DIFFICULTIES IN NF1 Visual Perception Behavior Language Disabilities Motor Skills Attention Executive Functions ...
Talbot, Jenny; Riley, Chris
The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court…
Harwell, Joan M.
The 16 chapters of this comprehensive guide to teaching students with learning disabilities cover the following topics: (1) an overview of the field of learning disabilities (characteristics, causes, prevalence, prognosis, and resources); (2) research in the field of learning disabilities (how the brain works, how children learn); (3) relevant…
Ruggeri-Stevens, Geoff; Goodwin, Susan
Purpose: The paper alerts small business employers to new dictates of the Disability Discrimination Act (2005) as it applies to learning disabilities. Then the "Learning to Work" project featured in the paper offers small business employers a set of approaches and methods for the identification of a learning-disabled young adult candidate's…
Markos, Patricia A.; Strawser, Sherri
This article describes the relationship between learning disabilities (LD) and homelessness. Research describing the connection between disabilities and homelessness has focused on individuals presenting with disabilities such as mental illness, physical disabilities, medical disabilities, or substance abuse. At this time, the presence of LD in…
Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will
In order to gain access to accommodations and services at colleges and universities, students with learning disabilities must provide documentation of their disabilities, and as students with learning disabilities access higher education at increasing rates, the need for documentation of their disabilities and its impact becomes even more…
Defines learning disabilities and delineates characteristics of learning disabled students. Outlines steps to be taken by college geography departments for students who enroll in introductory-level geography classes. (SLM)
Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel
This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)
Feingold, Benjamin F.
The author replies to the article titled "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities" (R. Sieben), and discusses research on the relationship between food additives and hyperactivity, and dietary treatments for learning disabled children. (IM)
Mauk, Gary W.; Mauk, Pamela P.
This paper presents a definition of deaf and hard of hearing children with learning disabilities; notes the incidence of children with both disabilities; outlines roadblocks to learning; describes screening, diagnosis, and assessment practices; and offers suggestions for educational programming. (JDD)
Learning Disability Quarterly, 1983
Problems with the current definition of learning disabilities (LD) include its misinterpretation, failure to recognize the developmental nature of LD, and lack of statement about etiology. The definition offered by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities is presented. (CL)
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1987
The position paper of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities provides five criticisms of the definition of learning disabilities developed in 1967 by the National Advisory Committee on Handicapped Children and proposes an alternative definition. (DB)
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with §...
Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie
This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…
Hayes, Susan Carol
Of the 4000 women and girls in custody in England and Wales, an unknown proportion will have a learning disability. Most research on the plight of offenders or accused persons with a learning disability has focussed on men because women form a small proportion of the prison population, and women with learning disabilities are an even smaller…
Mathew, Saramma T.
The Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES) was developed for educators to identify students with learning disabilities using observations. The instrument consists of 88 items arranged on seven subscales based on the federal government's definition of Learning Disabilities. This review is an attempt to describe the strengths and weaknesses of…
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with §...
Jordan, Nancy C., Ed.; Goldsmith-Phillips, Josephine, Ed.
This collection of original papers synthesizes research on learning disabilities in school-age children, with the theme of connecting learning disabilities research with assessment and practice. The volume begins with a paper by Howard S. Adelman titled "Learning Disabilities: On Interpreting Research Translations." Part I of the collection then…
Krochak, Linda A.; Ryan, Thomas G.
The following contemporary review illuminates several of the "best methods" to accurately identify gifted/learning disabled (GLD) students? Explanations which clearly define what it means to be gifted, learning disabled (LD) and gifted/learning disabled (GLD) are included and incorporated into a typology of three identities of GLD students.…
Marlowe, Mike; And Others
This study investigated the relationship between hair mineral elements and childhood learning disabilities and determined which minerals, if any, separated 26 learning disabled children with 24 normal controls. The learning disabled group had significantly raised hair-lead concentrations. There were also differences in the mean levels of 10 other…
Sparks, Richard L.
Recently, talk of a new type of learning disability (LD)--a foreign language learning disability, or FLLD--has made its way into the LD and foreign language (FL) literature. However, no empirical evidence has been published to support the concept of a "disability" for FL learning by those professionals who use the term. In this article, the author…
Kavale, Kenneth A.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Beam, Andrea P.
Unlike other special education categories defined in U.S. law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), the definition of specific learning disability (SLD) has not changed since first proposed in 1968. Thus, although the operational definition of SLD has responded to new knowledge and understanding about the construct, the formal definition…
Cahan, Sorel; Fono, Dafna; Nirel, Ronit
The regression-based discrepancy definition of learning disabilities has been suggested by Rutter and Yule as an improvement of the well-known and much criticized achievement-intelligence discrepancy definition, whereby the examinee's predicted reading attainment is substituted for the intelligence score in the discrepancy expression. Even though the regression-based discrepancy definition has been with us for more than 30 years, critical examination of this approach is scarce. This article fills this lacuna by examining the implications of two variables in the model on the diagnosis of learning disabilities: (a) the effect of predictive validity on the proportion of examinees identified as learning disabled, and (b) the effect of the predictor's identity on the identity of the examinees diagnosed with learning disabilities. Implications of these effects concerning the validity of the regression-based discrepancy model and of the results of its implementation are discussed. PMID:20375287
Hartman, Rhona C.; Krulwich, Maxine T.
Options in postsecondary education for adults and young adults with learning disabilities (LD) are examined. An introductory section considers characteristics of LD that present special problems, including difficulties in reading, writing, spelling, and/or using numerical concepts; distractability; difficulties with understanding or following…
Samuels, Christina A.
After decades of what seemed to be an inexorable upward path, the number of students classified as learning-disabled declined from year to year over much of the past decade--a change in direction that is spurring debates among experts about the reasons why. The percentage of 3- to 21-year-old students nationwide classified as having a "specific…
Lopez, Mike; Clyde-Snyder, Myrtle
Describes the operation of Project HELDS (Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students) on one campus. Evaluation results showed the use of existing university resources such as tutoring and taping books and lectures had a meaningful impact on the academic achievement of the 27 participants. (JAC)
MacInnes, Maryhelen; Broman, Clifford L.
It is well established that children and adolescents with learning disabilities are more likely to experience depressed mood than are their peers. Many scholars explain this relationship as resulting from low self-esteem, stress, or social isolation. However, little work has explored whether this relationship continues to exist into young…
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
BEERY, KEITH E.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS INITIAL REPORT OF A FOUR-YEAR PROJECT WERE (1) TO DEMONSTRATE A METHOD FOR THE PREDICTION AND PREVENTION OF LEARNING DISABILITIES, (2) TO FOSTER UNDERSTANDING OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT AMONG TEACHERS, PARENTS, AND PHYSICIANS. SUBJECTS WERE THE 3 1/2 TO 5 1/2 YEAR OLD CHILDREN OF AN ENTIRE SCHOOL DISTRICT. RESEARCHERS WERE…
Enell, Nancy C.; Lee, Peter
During the spring of 1981, a San Juan Task force of special education staff members developed revised criteria for the identification of students with specific learning disabilities (SLD). This report covers the second year of discrepancy criteria implementation. It examines the identification of 225 students with SLD during the first semester of…
Michaels, Craig A., Ed.
This collection of 10 papers focuses on the transition of students with learning disabilities from secondary education to employment, postsecondary education, independent living, and full social integration. The text concentrates on systemic transition problems that prevent successful communication, coordination, goal setting, and appropriate…
Describes an integrative, multisystem clinical approach to the psychological and relational problems that develop around learning disabilities. The therapist uses expert knowledge to help members of the treatment system transform blaming, helpless, or hopeless interpretations of the problem into more helpful constructions, which support healthy…
Wirths, Claudine G.; Leonard, Steven
A project of the University of Maryland has developed a driver education curriculum for the learning disabled. Several states are making efforts to improve driver education, including rewriting materials and providing oral tests for drivers' licenses. Options for future safety programs include parent-student seminars, multidiscipline teaching, and…
Sieben, Robert L.
The author presents a critical review of popular medical treatments for children with learning disabilities, including dietary treatment (food additives theories, brain allergies, hypoglycemia, megavitamin therapy, and trace mineral tests) and neurophysiologic retraining (patterning, sensory integrative therapy, and optometric training). (IM)
Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others
In two experiments, students (10 learning disabled ninth graders and 45 nondisabled seventh graders) were taught the hardness levels of minerals according to either a keyword-pegword mnemonic, a questioning procedure, or free study. Mnemonic students significantly outrecalled both questioning and free-study students regardless of students'…
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Thompson, Richard E.
The aim of the present study was to address how to effectively predict mathematics learning disability (MLD). Specifically, we addressed whether cognitive data obtained during kindergarten can effectively predict which children will have MLD in third grade, whether an abbreviated test battery could be as effective as a standard psychoeducational…
Shaw, S F; Cullen, J P; McGuire, J M; Brinckerhoff, L C
Past, present, and future concerns regarding the definition of learning disabilities (LD) are documented. Research on efforts to clarify the LD label is discussed, with a focus on the questionable utility of the discrepancy model. Finally, an approach to operationalizing the NJCLD definition of LD is presented and applied. PMID:8530902
Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn
Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…
The adolescent and adult population with learning disabilities (LD) continues to be underserved and underprepared to meet the demands of postsecondary education. Evidence pertaining to postsecondary education outcomes for the population with LD is extremely bleak. One purpose of this article is to situate thinking about adolescents and adults with…
MYKLEBUST, HELMER R., ED.
THE FIRST OF A SERIES DEALING WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES FROM A PSYCHONEUROLOGICAL STANDPOINT, THE VOLUME CONTAINS CURRENT DISCUSSIONS AND RESEARCH REPORTS. TEN AUTHORS FROM A VARIETY OF FIELDS CONTRIBUTE CHAPTERS, EACH WITH AN ACCOMPANYING LIST OF REFERENCES. THE EDITOR, H.R. MYKLEBUST, PROVIDES THE OPENING ARTICLE ON "LEARNING…
Forgrave, Karen E.
Discusses three technological innovations that hold promise for middle and high school students with learning disabilities in reading and writing: speech synthesis programs (text-to-speech); organizational software; and voice recognition software. Examines advantages and disadvantages of each. Outlines considerations for the successful adoption of…
Swanson, H. Lee, Ed.; Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.
Widely regarded as the standard reference in the field, this comprehensive handbook presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the nature and classification of learning disabilities (LD), their causes, and how individuals with these difficulties can be identified and helped to succeed. Best practices are described for supporting student performance…
Longo, Judith A.
Defines learning disabled (LD) and discusses problems related to the identification and accommodation of LD students on college campuses. Reviews approaches that have been taken to modify instructional practices and possible solutions to meeting the needs of LD students. Addresses considerations in college selection. (DMM)
In East Asia, Taiwan is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In Taiwan, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…
Brigham, Frederick J.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Mastropieri, Margo A.
Students with learning disabilities (LD) are increasingly expected to master content in the general education curriculum, making the need for effective instructional supports more important than ever before. Science is a part of the curriculum that can be particularly challenging to students with LD because of the diverse demands it places on…
Schoenbrodt, Lisa; And Others
A discussion of language disorders that often occur with learning disabilities focuses on definitions, characteristics, alternative assessment methods, and service delivery models and interventions. Use of standardized test batteries, curriculum-based language assessment, and portfolio assessment is reviewed. Principles and methods to enhance…
Shalev, Ruth S.; Manor, Orly; Kerem, Batsheva; Ayali, Mady; Badichi, Navah; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gross-Tsur, Varda
Siblings and parents of 39 children with dyscalculia were assessed for arithmetic, reading, and attention disorders. Findings indicated a familial prevalence of dyscalculia almost tenfold higher than expected for the general population and suggest that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, has a significant familial aggregation,…
Corrigan, Sandra M.; Gilbert, Gail F.
Compared was the academic performance in the third grade of 75 children who had participated in the Complete Communication Development Program, a learning disabilities kindergarten, with the performance of 75 children in regular kindergartens. Stanford Achievement Test scores indicated that the Ss in the special class performed significantly lower…
Lowey, Elizabeth L.
Suggests a project in creative stitchery, with yarn and burlap, as a way to relax learning disabled students and to help them with fine motor coordination, directionality, and self-image. Methods, objectives, and benefits of the project are listed. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (SJL)
Rubino, Thomas J.; And Others
The handbook presents guidelines for the learning disabilities teacher-consultant (LDT-C) in evaluative and integrative consultation, educational plan development, instructional leadership, and educational assessment including an historical perspective of the development of this group of professionals in New Jersey and a description of their…
Benton, Curtis D., Jr.
In the rebuttal to charges made by Nathan Flax, an optometrist, regarding the joint organizational statement of three medical associations concerning treatment of dyslexia and related learning disabilities, the author discusses the five controversial points and largely reaffirms the statement's conclusions. (MC)
Jung, Dae Young
In the context of the educational system and the nature of special education in South Korea, I describe policy, practice, and research about children with learning disabilities (LD). Recently, the study of LD has attracted professionals from multiple disciplines including general and special education, medicine, psychology, and social work. In…
Presents findings from several sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. Examines vitamin therapy in learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. Concludes that holistic approach to treatment is needed and that vitamin therapy, if proven…
Nutter, Norma; Safran, Stephen P.
Theory and research indicated that sentence-combining exercises (SCE's) might be effective for improving the writing of learning disabled (LD) pupils. Seven college seniors in special education were trained to implement SCE's naturalistically in tutoring 13 LD pupils in grades 1-6 over a 10 week period, with a control group of 8 seniors tutoring…
This paper discusses the characteristics, identification, and curriculum needs of gifted students who also have learning disabilities. Three different subgroups of twice-exceptional students are described: (1) students who have been identified as gifted yet are exhibiting difficulties in school; (2) students identified as having learning…
Cahn, Lorynne D.
The relationship between the teacher of piano and the learning disabled student and some issues in piano instruction for such students are examined. Perceptual deficiencies and perceptual motor problems are noted. Techniques for dealing with poor visual discrimination are suggested; these include doing the simplest type of theory work to help the…
The increase in the number of slow learners and children with learning disabilities in schools in Africa has become a major issue and concern. The situation is reflected in various school-leaving examinations, where an average of 30 percent of the results are below average or failures each year. Although there are no statistical records available…
Boudah, Daniel J.; Weiss, Margaret P.
This digest of what is currently known about learning disabilities (LD) begins with a brief vignette and then notes that individuals with LD generally have average or above average intelligence, yet underachieve in academics. Five common problem areas for individuals with LD are also examined: reading, written language, math, memory, and…
Chen, Charles P.; Chan, Janice
Learning disabilities (LDs) describe a number of disorders that affect the way information is acquired, retained, organized, and understood. This article aims to address the critical issue of improving the career well-being of LD youth. It first examines several critical issues that affect LD high school students/youth in their career development.…
Rourke, Byron P.
Some of the issues that dominated, or at least held sway, in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities (LD) in the 1970s included: the definition of LD, whether there are reliable and valid subtypes of LD, whether and to what extent LD are related to cerebral dysfunction, and whether LD are related to types and/or degrees of psychosocial…
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data…
In this paper the small body of research which looks at how people labelled as having learning disabilities view this social identity is considered. The author argues that this research has implications for our assumptions about self-advocacy groups for people with learning disabilities.
Hearne, D; Stone, S
The field of learning disabilities, like education in the main, is undergoing calls for reform and restructuring, an upheaval brought on in great part by the forces of opposing paradigms--reductionism and constructivism. In reexamining our past, we must begin to address the failures of traditional deficit models and their abysmally low "cure" rate. Several new theories have arisen that challenge traditional practices in both general and special education classrooms. Particularly influential has been the work of Howard Gardner, whose theory of multiple intelligences calls for a restructuring of our schools to accommodate modes of learning and inquiry with something other than deficit approaches. At least some current research in the field of learning disabilities has begun to focus on creativity and nontraditional strengths and talents that have not been well understood or highly valued by the schools. In this article, we briefly summarize the findings in our search for the talents of students labeled learning disabled, evidence of their abilities, implications of these for the schools, and a beginning set of practical recommendations. PMID:7673790
Johnson, D J
In general, people with learning disabilities are a heterogeneous population that require a multidisciplinary evaluation and careful, well-planned intervention. Despite this heterogeneity, patterns of problems often co-occur. Therefore, diagnosticians and educators should look beyond single areas of achievement such as reading or arithmetic. In addition, problems in one area of learning typically have secondary impacts on higher levels of learning. That is, comprehension problems typically interfere with expression. Every effort should be made to examine patterns of problems and to avoid fragmentation of services so that each area of underachievement is not treated separately. Although learning disabilities usually interfere with school performance, they are not simply academic handicaps. They interfere with certain social activities as well as occupational pursuits. In many instances, they impact on mental health and self-esteem. Therefore, students need multiple services. And, as emphasized throughout this journal issue, learning disabled individuals may have comorbid conditions such as attention deficit disorder, depression, and neurologic problems. Furthermore, the problems may change over time. Children may first be identified because of language comprehension problems but later have reading or mathematics difficulty. With intervention, oral expressive problems may be alleviated but may be manifested later in written language. PMID:7751550
Berch, Daniel B.
Drawing on various approaches to the study of mathematics learning, Gersten, Jordan, and Flojo (in this issue) explore the implications of this research for identifying children at risk for developing mathematical disabilities. One of the key topics Gersten et al. consider in their review is that of "number sense." I expand on their preliminary…
Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata
The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…
Shafrir, Uri; Siegel, Linda S.
This study found that 331 Toronto (Ontario, Canada) adolescent and adult subjects with learning disabilities could be grouped into three subtypes: (1) arithmetic disability, (2) reading disability, and (3) reading and arithmetic disabilities. Each group differed significantly from the others on tests of reading, spelling, memory, and other…
... the details of a story's plot or a classroom lecture Reading and comprehending material Learning words to ... stories to the child? Observe the child during classroom activities. Evaluate the child's ability to understand verbal ...
... School psychologists are trained in both education and psychology. They can help to identify students with learning ... 2012, from http://www.nasponline.org/about-school-psychology/who-are-school-psychologists [top] American Speech-Language- ...
Bender, W N; Smith, J K
Meta-analysis was used to review the results of 25 studies that compared the classroom behavior of children and adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) to children without learning disabilities. The data were analyzed from several different methodological perspectives. Results showed that both methodologically strong and weak studies demonstrated significant behavioral deficits of children with learning disabilities compared to their nondisabled peers in each of five overall areas: on-task behavior, off-task behavior, conduct disorders, distractibility, and shy/withdrawn behavior. Both observational and teacher rating data demonstrated these differences. Effect sizes for both groups of studies seemed to cluster around 1 standard deviation, suggesting noticeable and educationally significant impairment in the behavior of children with disabilities. Analysis of grade-level effect sizes suggests some explanation for the large number of referrals often witnessed during the elementary school years. Educational implications of these behavioral differences in terms of implications for mainstreaming are discussed. PMID:2140396
Winsor, Pamela J. T.
Four children's books on learning disabilities are profiled: "Trouble with School: A Family Story about Learning Disabilities" (Kathryn and Allison Dunn); "The Don't Give-up Kid" (Jeanne Gehret); "Keeping a Head in School: A Student's Book about Learning Abilities and Learning Disorders" (Mel Levine); and "What Do You Mean I Have a Learning…
Tyler, Janet Siantz; Colson, Steven
This paper presents definitions of common pediatric disabilities and information about incidence, causes, diagnosis, common characteristics, complications with educational implications, and multidisciplinary intervention approaches. It covers the following conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, fragile…
There are a number of disabilities that music educators may never encounter among their students in the music classroom; however, all music educators will have students with learning disabilities. Students with learning disabilities may have a variety of "presenting problems" that limit their academic and social success in the music classroom. The…
Weinfeld, Rich; Barnes-Robinson, Linda; Jeweler, Sue; Shevitz, Betty
This article discusses a comprehensive program for gifted students with learning disabilities in Maryland's Montgomery Country Public Schools (MCPS). MCPS has developed special self-contained classes for gifted students with severe learning disabilities while those with moderate and mild disabilities receive gifted instruction and services in…
Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.
This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…
Jingree, Treena; Finlay, W M L
Over the last decade the UK Government has made proposals to empower individuals with learning disabilities. Strategies have been implemented to reduce institutionalisation and social segregation. Consequently, some learning disability services are being phased out and the focus of care has moved away from institutions and into the community and family domain. Focusing on discourse as a site for social action and identity construction, we used critical discursive psychology to examine focus group discussions between family carers about facilitating the independence of adult family members with learning disabilities. Unlike official UK Government and learning disability services' constructions of empowerment policy, we found that parents invoked empowerment talk: (1) as a resource to construct the facilitation of independence as an abstract, irresponsible, politically correct professional trend; (2) dilemmatically with meritocratic or practical arguments to undermine notions of facilitating choices; and (3) as a resource to construct new service developments as contrary to the preferences of people with learning disabilities. Parents also described individuals with learning disabilities as unable to cope, and drew stark contrasts between their practice and those of service-professionals when expressing concerns about empowerment. We discuss possible implications of such discourses and contrasts on opportunities for empowering individuals with learning disabilities. PMID:21834940
Learning Disabilities Association of America, 2010
This White Paper project was undertaken to address the Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA) concerns regarding the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) of 2004 statutory and regulatory requirements for the identification of Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD), and the subsequent U. S. Department of…
During the 1970s, vitamins and vitamin therapy became household words. Vitamin therapy, better known as "orthomolecular psychiatry," is both appealing and very popular. The question that must be asked is: Does this popularity and appeal validate this form of therapy? This paper presents findings from various sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. The following categories are examined: learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. PMID:2963502
Dyspraxia is a non verbal neuropsychological dysfunction still unrecognized but which can generate scholar learning and behavioural disabilities. We propose, at first time, to do a state of art with the various terminologies and typologies which lead to put together clumsiness, motor coordination disorder and the different types of dyspraxia. Then, we will bring an integrative model and clinical data in children with developmental dyspraxia, allowing a better pointing, to make a diagnostic and then we suggest some advices for remediations. PMID:17964127
It is without doubt that people with learning difficulties are considered vulnerable and meeting the healthcare needs of this group in society is now recognised as a challenging task. This case study examines the implications of life with a stoma for one particular man with learning difficulties and reflects on the key issues that have influenced his care: stigma and isolation, general healthcare needs for people with learning disabilities and the association with stoma care, and the provision of care and whose role it is. Key findings include inconsistencies between primary, secondary and social care, resulting in lack of integration and flexibility in provision of care; lack of responsibility for care, with a 'pass the buck' response; lack of knowledge about stoma care in most care settings; and, as a stoma care nurse, the importance of personal instinct, along with persistence in advocating appropriate levels of care for vulnerable ostomists. PMID:23123618
Shogren, Karrie A.; Bovaird, James A.; Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
Previous research has suggested differences in the locus of control (LOC) orientations of students with intellectual disability, learning disabilities, and no disabilities, although this research has been characterized by methodological limitations. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of LOC orientations in students with…
Vaughn, Sharon; Danielson, Louis; Zumeta, Rebecca; Holdheide, Lynn
The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs now requires states to fully disclose the precise steps they will take to ensure better outcomes for students with disabilities. This new requirement can aid educators in implementing effective practices for providing deeper learning opportunities for these students. With the…
Wood, Karen D.; And Others
Discusses the definition of cooperative learning; cooperative-learning groups and learning disabilities; cooperative-learning methods used in reading and in writing; and perspectives on cooperative-learning groups. (RS)
This paper is designed to help parents in laying a solid foundation of learning experiences for their child with learning disabilities. It introduces three strategies, a rationale, and examples for each strategy that may help parents promote future school success for their child with learning disabilities. The first strategy urges parents to…
Reichert, Jacqueline A.
Ninety teachers of students with learning disabilities were asked their opinions on one of three research-based interventions for learning disabilities: Cooperative Learning, Story Retelling and School-Home Notes (Rathvon, 1999). The purpose of the study was to measure teacher acceptance ratings of these interventions and whether teacher…
Zitani, E. Alfredo
Learning disability is suggested to be a dissociative reaction (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime requiring appropriate theoretical and remedial approaches. Psychoanalytic and learning theory viewpoints are applied to the nature of learning disabilities. Also considered are the relation of anxiety to achievement and hypnosis to…
Waber, Deborah P.
Experts have yet to reach consensus about what a learning disability is, how to determine if a child has one, and what to do about it. Leading researcher and clinician Deborah Waber offers an alternative to the prevailing view of learning disability as a problem contained within the child. Instead, she shows how learning difficulties are best…
Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen
This article focusses on the review of research studies done on the area of learning disabilities and the need to conduct more research studies in this area. School children are seen to have different types of learning difficulties with regard to academics. Children with learning disability, who occupy the largest number receiving special…
This article gives a short overview of some basic facts about people with learning disabilities. The prevalence (1-3% worldwide) and stability of the incidence are described, as well as the causes and possible medical comorbidities.- People with learning disabilities are at significantly greater risk of developing cognitive and medical problems compared with the average population. Lastly, an overview of actual chronic care costs is given, as well as actual participation possibilities for people with learning disabilities. PMID:25534270
Whinnery, Keith W.
A college preparation curriculum relevant to the needs of students with learning disabilities is presented, focusing on early planning, instructional modifications, strategy instruction, and support services. (JDD)
Pieper, Edward L.; Deshler, Donald D.
Forty-three junior high learning disabilities programs were surveyed to identify students either specifically disabled in arithmetic (SLDARITH, N=30) or specifically disabled in reading (SLDREAD, N=30). Three types of data were analyzed: size of LD program and school, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) Verbal and Performance scores,…
Lau, Won-Fong K.; Ortega, Karina; Sharkey, Jill
Students with learning disabilities have been found to lack self-awareness about their disability, likely contributing to several challenges they experience, such as social skill deficits. At the same time, there is limited research investigating interventions to effectively increase disability self-awareness among this population. The current…
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2007
This report by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) outlines important concerns about documentation issues related to students with disabilities as they transition from high school to postsecondary settings. These issues center on the "disconnect" between the nature and extent of disability documentation generated during a…
Valle, Jan; Solis, Santiago; Volpitta, Donna; Connor, David
This study investigates the factors that influence whether teachers with learning disabilities (LD) choose to disclose their disability status within public school settings. Four special education teachers who self-identify as having LD identify and clarify the complex, ongoing issues that "disability disclosure" raises in educational…
McKenzie, Karen; Michie, Amanda; Murray, Aja; Hales, Charlene
The study assessed the validity of an intellectual disability screening tool, the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ), in three forensic settings: a community intellectual disability forensic service; a forensic in-patient secure unit and a prison, using data for 94 individuals. A significant positive relationship was found between…
This review surveys the empirical literature for assessments of learning problems in children from a neuropsychological perspective. An evaluation of children with learning problems must consider measures of working memory, attention, executive function, and comprehension (listening and written), particularly for children who do not respond to intervention. These constructs must be tied to intervention techniques, and their connections must be empirically verified. The response-to-intervention (RTI) perspective provides excellent support for the process in young children but is still developing the process for students above the second grade. This review provides information about the existing research on neurobiological correlates of learning disabilities, possible areas for further evaluation, and the link to the RTI movement. PMID:16392699
Retzlaff, Rüdiger; Brazil, Susanne; Goll-Kopka, Andrea
Multifamily therapy is an evidence-based method used in the treatment and prevention of severe psychiatric disorders, behavioral problems and physical illnesses in children, adolescents and adults. For preventive family-oriented work with children with learning disorders there is a lack of therapeutic models. This article presents results from an innovative pilot project--multiple family groups for families with a learning disabled child of primary school age (six to eleven years old). Based on a systemic approach, this resource-oriented program integrates creative, activity-based interventions and group therapy techniques and conveys a comprehensive understanding of the challenges associated with learning disorders. Because of the pilot character of the study and the small sample size, the results have to be interpreted with care. The results do however clearly support the wider implementation and evaluation of the program in child guidance clinics, social-pediatric centers, as well as child and adolescent clinics and schools. PMID:18605438
Gurecka, Louis E.; Gent, Pamela J.
Asserts that many service learning projects are rife with disablism, a set of assumptions and practices that promote the differential or unequal treatment of people because of actual or presumed disabilities. Discusses four common images about people with disabilities that may guide selection of service projects for them. Offers suggestions to…
Learning Disability Quarterly, 1999
This document offers a framework for use by education agencies in developing rules and guidelines for use of paraprofessionals within programs serving individuals with learning disabilities. Separate sections address principles, definitions, ethical responsibilities, education requirements for paraprofessionals, roles and responsibilities of…
Washington, Michael H.
A systems approach was used to assess, remediate, and/or develop compensatory strategies in learning disabled college students. The approach consisted of four components: an analysis of the educational task, preparation of criterion measures, preparation of behavioral objectives, and preparation of instructional sequences. A task analysis was…
Recent research demonstrates that despite increased attention and awareness by politicians and decision-makers, people with learning disabilities are still disadvantaged when engaging with the criminal justice system. It has been argued that shortcomings in providing support are because of criminal justice professionals lacking necessary skills…
May, Alison L.; Stone, C. Addison
To explore possible reasons for low self-identification rates among undergraduates with learning disabilities (LD), we asked students (38 with LD, 100 without LD) attending two large, public, research-intensive universities to respond to a questionnaire designed to assess stereotypes about individuals with LD and conceptions of ability. Responses…
Lock, Robin H.; Layton, Carol A.
Examined the ability of the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) to differentiate between postsecondary populations with and without learning disabilities. Found that the LDDI is a reliable method for identifying the possibility of a learning disability in postsecondary students. (EV)
Dipeolu, Abiola; Reardon, Robert; Sampson, James; Burkhead, Jane
College students with learning disabilities (n=153) and without (n=595) completed the Career Thoughts Inventory. The learning disabilities group had fewer dysfunctional career thoughts, less career decision-making confusion, and less commitment anxiety, but more dysfunctional thoughts related to external conflict. As dysfunctional thoughts…
Learning disabled youth in the Child and Young Adult samples of the NLSY79 are "more" likely to graduate from high school than peers with the same measured cognitive ability, a difference that cannot be explained by differences in noncognitive skills, families, or school resources. Instead, I find that learning disabled students graduate from high…
Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep
Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. PMID:24913752
Differences in the learning styles of students with and without learning disabilities (LD) at a distance-learning university were examined. Two hundred and twelve students answered self-report questionnaires on their learning styles. Results revealed that students with LD preferred to use more stepwise processing, including memorizing and…
Duane, Drake D.
Reflections on the meaning and uses of science and observations about its implications in the study of learning disabilities are offered in this paper. The distinction between science and technology is examined and difficulties with society's absorption in pseudoscience or in science that has been oversimplified are discussed. The field of left…
Blackhurst, A. Edward
This article describes how concepts related to the use of technology in education have evolved with particular emphasis on their implications for people with learning disabilities (LD). The article reflects the personal perceptions of the author as a "participant observer" in a variety of activities related to technology applications in special…
Self-efficacy has been reported to play a significant role in stress levels of parents facing challenging behaviours of their children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has also been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. To understand the implications of staff self-efficacy in…
Rodgers, Jackie; Namaganda, Syson
This paper begins with a discussion of what we mean by easy information. It then describes the methods employed in a project to create guidance on making information easier for people with learning disabilities. Researchers and people with learning disabilities worked together to interview information providers about approaches they had used and…
Maki, Kathrin E.; Floyd, Randy G.; Roberson, Triche
For many decades, discussions regarding the definition and identification of learning disabilities have been contentious; one result is the varied practices across states and school districts. This study reviewed learning disability (LD) regulations and guidelines from the 50 United States and the District of Columbia that were employed during…
Zitani, E. Alfredo
Learning disability is seen to be a dissociative disorder (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime. The shell shock model is explained to focus diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities around the dynamics of the predisposing unconscious conflict, the dynamics in the environment, the mechanism which allows these two conditions to…
Sams, Kathryn; Collins, Suzanne; Reynolds, Shirley
Background: There is a need to develop and adapt therapies for use with people with learning disabilities who have mental health problems. Aims: To examine the performance of people with learning disabilities on two cognitive therapy tasks (emotion recognition and discrimination among thoughts, feelings and behaviours). We hypothesized that…
Curtis, Mary G.
Dr. Tanis Bryan graduated from Northwestern University during the beginning of the field of learning disabilities. From this beginning, Tanis has provided invaluable insight into the field through her desire to understand the social dimensions of learning disabilities. The author wishes to thank Tanis for her assistance with this interview.
Senf, Gerald M.
This document describes the present federal effort on behalf of learning disabled children, beginning with its recent history. It traces the field of learning disabilities as a subspecialty within education from 1963, when a steering committee was appointed to organize a symposium on "The Child with Minimal Brain Dysfunction," through the Learning…
Rodgers, Jackie; Lipscombe, Jo; Santer, Miriam
Background: Menstruation appears to be problematic for women with learning disabilities, yet there has been little quantitative research on their experiences, or comparisons with other groups of women. This paper considers the nature and extent of menstrual problems experienced by women with learning disabilities. Methods: The data reported here…
Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.
This report discusses outcomes of a study that conducted telephone interviews with 1,000 adults to investigate their awareness and attitudes toward learning disabilities and attitudinal changes since 1995, to explore parents' recognition of various behaviors or symptoms as indicators of possible learning disabilities, and to determine what level…
This book offers a British perspective on ways of conceptualizing, assessing, and intervening in the challenging behavior of people with severe learning disabilities, with emphasis on the types of technical support needed. An introductory chapter explains why the term "learning disability" is used rather than mental handicap, mental retardation,…
Peterson, Patricia; Johnson, Gae; Showalter, Stephen
Students with learning disabilities have significantly lower achievement in math and science than students from the general population. If these students with learning disabilities also are English Learners, the challenges for success in math and science are even more difficult. Teachers need to infuse best practices into their classrooms to…
Raskind, Marshall H.; Gerber, Paul J.; Goldberg, Roberta J.; Higgins, Eleanor L.; Herman, Kenneth L.
Synthesizes information from a 1995 international symposium on longitudinal research in learning disabilities. Discussion of generic considerations of longitudinal research is followed by examination of issues specific to learning disabilities including definition, attrition, composition of research teams, ethical concerns, data collection, and…
Ensminger, E. Eugene, Ed.; Smiley, Lydia R., Ed.
Presented are 11 papers from a seminar entitled Secondary Programs for the Adolescent with Learning Disabilities. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Parent-Adolescent Interaction" (D. Ellis); "The Development of the Adolescent Self-Concept" (M. Smith); "The Self-Concept of the Learning Disabled Adolescent" (B. Lockett); "Brief…
Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Watt, Sarah J.; Therrien, William J.
As a growing number of students with learning disabilities (LD) receive science instruction in general education settings, students with LD continue to perform significantly lower than their non-disabled peers. The shift from textbook-driven instruction to inquiry-based approaches to science learning supports students who struggle with reading.…
Sayeski, Kristin L.
Difficulty with spelling is a perennial challenge for students with learning disabilities. Several decades of research, however, have identified both fundamental linguistic concepts and instructional approaches that, when understood by a teacher, can be applied to teach students with learning disabilities to spell. In this article, a brief history…
Anderson, Lisa K.; And Others
Past research has demonstrated a relationship between children's physical attractiveness and their self-esteem. Other research has found that learning disabled children are at risk for having low self-esteem. This study examined the relationship between self-esteem and facial attractiveness in learning disabled children. Subjects were 20 diagnosed…
A large percent of the population is affected by learning disabilities, which significantly impacts individuals and families. Much research has been done to identify effective ways to best help the students with learning disabilities. One of the more promising strategies is the use of visual supports to enhance these students' understanding…
Adelman, Pamela B.; Vogel, Susan A.
This literature review examines 10 areas related to employment of adults with learning disabilities: transitions to work, obtaining employment, type of employment, rate of employment, wages, job satisfaction, job success, effect of learning disabilities on work, compensatory strategies, and employer perceptions. Methodological issues, emergent…
Layton, Carol A.; Lock, Robin H.
This article discusses issues in the identification of learning disabilities in students with low vision and examines the academic performance of one 8-year-old student and the methods that his multidisciplinary team used to document a dual diagnosis of low vision and learning disabilities. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)
Bryant, N. Dale; Kass, Corrine E.
Provided are the appendixes to the final report of the Leadership Training Institute (LTI) in Learning Disabilities at the University of Arizona. Sections cover the following areas: (1) reports of LTI meetings and conferences; (2) contracted papers on research in the field of learning disabilities (such as "Neurological Factors in Learning…
Williams, Val; Ponting, Lisa; Ford, Kerrie; Rudge, Philippa
For people with learning disabilities to have control over their lives, the quality of their support staff matters. This paper reports on an inclusive research study, which used video analysis to study the communication skills of personal assistants (PAs) who worked with people with learning disabilities. The findings reveal some of the fine…
The paper reviews the programmatic efforts of the Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) targeted for learning disabled delinquents. The history of research projects with this population is traced, and current grant programs designed to make key officials aware of learning disabilities are reviewed. The need for training and…
This study examined the unanticipated effects that children with learning disabilities have on the life of their families. Eleven parents of students aged 8 to 16 years old participated in two separate focus group interviews. Findings showed that children with learning disabilities had a range of effects on their families. These included family…
Daniels, Roberta R.; And Others
Difficulties inherent in the dual classification of gifted and learning disabled are analyzed, and research on the issue is reviewed. The Creative Problem Solving (CPS) Model is used to identify problems in service provision for gifted/learning disabled students. Areas of concern are listed and then expanded by using the five steps of the CPS…
Madaus, Joseph W.; Banerjee, Manju; Hamblet, Elizabeth C.
Students with learning disabilities (LD) transitioning from secondary school to postsecondary education must submit documentation verifying the existence of a disability and that describes a current and substantial limitation to learning. Preparing acceptable documentation can be a challenge for secondary personnel because of differing laws at the…
Ostertag, Bruce A.; Baker, Ronald E.
In spring 1982, a study was conducted of the programs and services for learning disabled average (LDA) students offered by California community colleges. The study sought to ascertain program characteristics, the means by which colleges identified adult students with specific learning disabilities, and the assessment tools used. Questionnaires…
Tyner, Polly, Ed.
This special newsletter issue on learning disabilities and juvenile justice includes statistics indicating unfavorable outcomes for many individuals with learning disabilities, presents findings of the Incarcerated Youth Task Force Report, and describes five successful programs for teaching reading. Articles include: "Parents Don't Care!--Or Do…
Horn, Jaime Helena; Moss, Duncan
Research has identified the collective experiences of oppression, stigma and isolation in the lives of people with learning disabilities. Against the backdrop of social and cultural processes that shape and limit the life experiences of people with learning disabilities, the authors are interested in how the individual develops a sense of self and…
Kavale, Kenneth A.
This paper reviews issues surrounding the use of discrepancy in identifying learning disabilities. Since 1976, it argues, discrepancy has been the primary criterion for defining learning disabilities in practice. In a psychometric and statistical sense, however, issues about the best means for calculating a discrepancy remain problematic. Another…
Vickers, Melana Zyla
Universities are providing extra time on tests, quiet exam rooms, in-class note-takers, and other assistance to college students with modest learning disabilities. But these policies are shrouded in secrecy. This paper, "Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia," by Melana Zyla Vickers, examines the nature…
Craig, Leam A.; Hutchinson, Roger B.
While the literature on the assessment, treatment and management of non-learning disabled sexual offenders is well established, it is only in recent years that researchers and clinicians have focused on sexual offenders with learning disabilities. In contrast to mainstream sex offender treatment programmes, there are few evaluated community-based…
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning...
Majumder, Md. Anwarul Azim; Rahman, Sayeeda; D’Souza, Urban JA; Elbeheri, Gad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Huq, M Muzaherul
Learning disabilities (LDs) represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE) institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context. PMID:23745060
Markwick, A; Sage, J
Self-image arises from a complex interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This article explores the importance of people with a learning disability attaining a positive self-image. It discusses the effect of society's perception of people with learning disabilities, and questions the willingness of the community to accept such people in a non-judgmental way. It argues that staff caring for this client group have a vital role to play in how people with learning disabilities are perceived by others and discusses the effects that a market philosophy (Fromm, 1978) and the popular media have on society regarding people with learning disabilities. Self-worth is important to everyone; however, the article concludes that a person with a learning disability is seriously disadvantaged in this respect. This aspect of care therefore requires insight, support and skills on the part of those healthcare professionals caring for this client group. PMID:9116446
Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi
Research has documented overlapping and coexisting characteristics of learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). Such concomitance may impact teacher referrals of children at risk for LD which in turn may influence service delivery. Using the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) and the Strengths and…
Boyden, Paul; Muniz, Michelle; Laxton-Kane, Martha
In line with "Valuing People Now: A New Three-Year Strategy for People with Learning Disabilities" (Department of Health, 2009), this article details a service evaluation for a learning disability-child and adolescent mental health service (LD-CAMHS) in Chesterfield, North Derbyshire. The aim of the project was to produce a set of…
Lloyd, Jennifer L.; Coulson, Neil S.
Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women…
Miller, Christina R.
A qualitative exploration of a service-learning program for high school students with disabilities is presented. Focus groups with (n = 15) students and interviews with (n = 3) service-learning teachers at multiple service-learning sites were conducted to explore the perceptions of students and service-learning teachers regarding the impact of the…
Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Brown, Jason D
Thirty-six children between 9 and 12 years of age were invited to share their ideas on how to socially include classmates with learning or intellectual disabilities at school. Participants generated 80 strategies which were categorized into seven major themes. Thematic categories focused on the need for teachers to intervene in academic and social situations, child-to-child instructional strategies, being supportive, focusing on similarities between children with and without disabilities, modelling appropriate behaviors and intervening in negative interactions, structured inclusive activities, and noninclusive activities. Participants were aware of the challenges experienced by classmates with disabilities, and recognized the need to work with classmates and teachers towards the social inclusion of children with intellectual and learning disabilities. Educational implications are addressed. PMID:23909587
O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Jenkins, Joseph R.
The experience of students with learning disabilities during cooperative learning reading lessons with peers without disabilities was studies ovr the course of 2 years. In the first year of research observations were conducted in one elementary school. Twelve children with mild disabilities and 12 students who were average in performance were…
The use of ICT in education is becoming increasingly important and has potential advantages to disabled learners if the technologies are appropriately designed, including for accessibility and usability, and used. This paper presents the first sets of recommendations for learning technologies for disabled people aimed at disabled learners, teachers, developers and educational institutions respectively. They were developed as part of the work of the Enable Network for ICT Learning for Disabled People and involved input from both experts and end-users. The concise format facilitates production in a variety of formats and languages for accessibility and wide distribution. The paper discusses the recommendations and their relationship to existing guidelines. PMID:26294448
Elksnin, L K
Fueled by educational reforms such as the Regular Education Initiative, the inclusion movement, and Goals 2000, speech and language pathologists (SLPs) have explored the use of collaborative consultation in providing integrated service delivery. The implications of classroom-based services are discussed, along with models that have been adopted by SLPs, learning disabilities specialists (LDSs), and classroom teachers. The characteristics of students served, and the areas of speech and language (i.e., language, articulation, fluency, voice) targeted in the classroom, are reviewed. Ways in which SLPs, LDSs, and classroom teachers can collaborate, including collaborative assessment; Individualized Education Program development; teaching listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills; and teaching students the language of the classroom, are described. PMID:9220710
Witte, R H; Philips, L; Kakela, M
Job satisfaction, as assessed via five scales that posed questions concerning colleagues, work, supervision, pay, and promotion, as well as overall total job satisfaction, was examined for 55 self-identified college graduates with learning disabilities (LD) and 55 control graduates matched by gender, major, degree, and graduation year. All participants graduated from a competitive midwestern university from 1987 to 1994 and represented advantaged groups when compared to both LD and non-LD populations. The graduates with LD required significantly more time to complete their degrees and showed significantly lower CPAs. Data analysis indicated that the graduates with LD perceived themselves as receiving significantly less pay and promotion opportunities, and reported less total job satisfaction, than graduates without LD. However, no significant salary differences between the groups were found. The implications of these findings are examined. PMID:9599958
A well-educated and trained workforce is undoubtedly crucial to the development of quality care for people with learning disabilities. Notwithstanding this, and unsure as to the need to continue to commission educational programmes for one part of this workforce-pre-registration learning disability nursing-South Central Strategic Health Authority commissioned the Valued People Project to undertake a detailed strategic review of educational commissioning, along with a review of the specialist learning disability health workforce more generally. This project has recently been completed, and provides a unique evidence-based expert evaluation of the future strategic direction of education commissioning and leadership for workforce issues in specialist learning disability services, as well as the wider NHS workforce. This is the first in a series of articles that reports on one aspect of the project: the focus group work undertaken with parents and relatives of people with learning disabilities, and people with learning disabilities themselves, as to the need and type of health workforce needed to support them in the future. The article concludes by identifying the key messages of importance from parents and people with learning disabilities concerning the future specialist and wider NHS workforce. PMID:21240134
The article examines the manner in which the learning-disabled subject is created as an object within contemporary psychiatric discourse by means of a genealogical analysis of the learning-disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It investigates how this pathology was formed historically in the text, what metamorphoses it underwent, and their epistemic significance. First, the theoretical underpinnings of the sociological discourse on DSM are presented, giving a brief background of the DSM status in the Israeli context. Many problematic characteristics in the text are unveiled, by means of critiques from sociology, anthropology and discourse studies. Second, the changing definitions and conceptualizations of learning-disorders in the seven editions of the Manual and the accompanying case studies (1952-2013) are examined. It becomes apparent that the disorders have undergone changes that have enabled the biomedical paradigm to triumph. The implications of these transformations are addressed. PMID:26956872
Lightner, Kirsten L.; Kipps-Vaughan, Deborah; Schulte, Timothy; Trice, Ashton D.
We interviewed 42 students with a learning disability attending a large competitive state university about their reasons for seeking disability services (DS) when they did and their transition services in high school. Students who sought services earlier performed better academically than students who postponed seeking services. All but eight…
Madriaga, Manuel; Hanson, Katie; Heaton, Caroline; Kay, Helen; Newitt, Sarah; Walker, Ann
The article presents evidence from a systematic survey of disabled (n = 172) and non-disabled (n = 312) students regarding their learning and assessment experiences within one higher education institution in the UK. This study builds upon previous work in the sector, with the aim of gathering evidence to inform inclusive policy and practice for…
Students with learning disabilities are increasingly included in state accountability systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate disability-based differential item functioning (DIF) on a statewide high-stakes mathematics test administered in the Spring of 2003 to all students seeking a high-school diploma in one state in the eastern…
Shapiro, Joan; Rich, Rebecca
This text provides information on learning disabilities in adults and offers practical ways to compensate. Chapters address: (1) definitions of learning disability; (2) etiology of learning disabilities; (3) our cognitive or thinking systems; (4) different assessment settings and some of the tests used to diagnose a learning disability; (5)…
Fetzer, Erin A.
A review of learning disabilities in gifted children provides definitions of "learning disabilities" and "giftedness", a classification of gifted students with learning disabilities, the importance of a multidimensional approach to identifying students with gifts/learning disabilities, characteristics, programming guidelines, teaching strategies,…
Kumar, S. Praveen; Raja, B. William Dharma
Children with learning disabilities are found in most schools. Learning disability is a widespread issue in today's society. A learning-disabled child is one whose achievement is less than his expected level of achievement despite having average or above average intelligence. Learning disability is nothing but a condition that affects the ability…
Sorenson, Barbara R., Comp.
This short bibliography summarizes printed resources and videotapes relating to children and youth with learning disabilities. Seventeen books are listed that address: (1) career planning; (2) common learning disabilities and coping with learning disabilities; (3) teaching adolescents with learning disabilities; (4) child rearing; (5) learning…
Foss, J M
Adolescents with nonverbal learning disabilities who enroll in private, special secondary schools consistently present a pattern of behaviors which prevents achievement of their potentials in academic areas and impedes their abilities to interact effectively with others. With weaknesses in the fine graphomotor skills for writing and poor organization at all levels, they produce limited written output and often fail to complete academic assignments. Their response to pressure to produce is to become less productive. These students perceive social situations inaccurately; they are not successful in their interactions, especially with peers. They have learned to resolve difficult situations by employing their relatively strong verbal skills to enlist parents and other adults in intervening for them. They have not developed the skills to intervene for themselves.Effective remedial interventions include training the students in skills for planning and organizing, for studying, for written expression, and in social cognition and interpersonal communication. Students gain positive feelings of personal effectiveness through a process-at first verbally mediated, ultimately verbally self-directed-in which they are encouraged to plan, risk, and act on their own behalfs to resolve matters of personal concern. PMID:24233761
Bell, Tamekia R.
Clients with learning disabilities constitute a cultural group that has not been extensively studied. The professional literature has found that counselors have reported the need for additional training in working with clients with disabilities. This study explored counselors' beliefs and perceived knowledge regarding counseling clients with…
Testing organizations have recently been scrutinized because of the perception that affluent, white male students from the northeast are falsely claiming disabilities to gain extended time on standardized tests for college admission. In response to these assertions, the percentage of learning disabled test takers on the SAT I: Reasoning Test is…
Plapinger, Donald; Sikora, Darryn
This paper presents a case study that used an interdisciplinary diagnostic approach to determine whether a hearing-impaired nine-year-old child had a learning disability and to determine the type of disability. The assessment included medical examination, gross and fine motor skills, psychological functioning, mental processing and achievement,…
Menard, Jessica; Wilson, Alexander M.
This study investigated whether students with reading disabilities (RD) showed greater regression in reading skills than did non-RD students over the summer vacation. The RD group consisted of 30 students in grades 4 to 6 from a private school for students with learning disabilities and a comparison group of 30 average readers in grades 4 to 6…
Patterson, Margaret Becker
This study identifies adult education program characteristics associated with learning disability (LD) prevalence through statistical analyses of data from a single U.S. state (Kansas). Data indicate that several variables at the adult education (AE) program level are linked to LD prevalence, including disability incidence, educational background…
Sparks, Richard L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.
This study examined the supporting documentation submitted by students with learning disability (LD) diagnoses. The participants were 210 students who were enrolled in a college support program for students with disabilities at a private liberal arts college. Findings showed that although most students submitted a psychoeducational evaluation,…
Kavale, Kenneth A.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.
The reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) established new provisions for specific learning disability (SLD) identification, including: (a) no longer requiring consideration of IQ-achievement discrepancy and (b) permitting response to intervention (RTI) as part of SLD evaluation procedures. We discuss several…
Santos, Rosa Milagros; Ruppar, Andrea L.; Jeans, Laurie M.
This article provides a description of service learning implemented in an introductory special education course focused on the culture of disability. Collaborating with liaisons from five community service organizations, students provided services to individuals with disabilities in a variety of projects across two semesters. Communication and…
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES...
Clayton, Jennifer K.
This case study focuses on a teacher who discloses a learning disability to her Principal. Given the teacher's challenges in retention of her content material, the district is faced with how to handle the personnel situation of an employee with a disability. This case raises questions of how to balance the needs and interests of students with the…
The role of the right hemisphere of the brain in learning is examined, and the possibility of using visuals to improve verbal learning in right brain dominant learning disabled students is suggested. Approaches to stimulate oral language production, aid in the recall of written language, and achieve organizational style in writing through…
Abreu-Ellis, Carla; Ellis, Jason; Hayes, Richard
This paper discusses the results of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) administered to college students in order to identify similarities and differences between time of diagnosis of a learning disability and the development of learning strategies related to will, self-regulation, and skill components. Findings indicate that early…
De Weerdt, Frauke; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert
Children with reading disabilities (RD, n = 17), mathematical disabilities (MD, n = 22), combined reading and mathematical disabilities (RD + MD, n = 28) and control peers (n = 45) were tested on behavioral inhibition with a Go/no-go task in a picture, letter and digit-modality. In contrast to children without RD, children with RD made…
Taymans, Juliana M.; Swanson, H. Lee; Schwarz, Robin L.; Gregg, Noel; Hock, Michael; Gerber, Paul J.
Findings from "Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults With Learning Disabilities" will inform a new professional development program to be offered to practitioners and others working with adults with learning disabilities (LD). The six topics covered in the review--assessment, English language learners,…
Weisgerber, Robert A.; Rubin, David P.
Basic principles of effective software implementation with learning disabled students are discussed. A prototype software package is described that is specifically designed to help develop discriminatory skills in recognizing letter shapes and letter combinations. (JW)
This paper focuses on definitions, incidence, and characteristics of the multihandicapping condition known as "learning disabled, hearing impaired," in order to provide a means of identifying these children and determining whether or not they require different teaching strategies. (JDD)
Rosenberg, B S; Gaier, E L
The Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory (CSEI) was administered to 23 Ss diagnosed to have learning disabilities, and normally achieving seventh graders (N = 70) to investigate: a) whether differences exist between the self-esteem of the adolescent with learning disabilities and the normally achieving adolescent, b) the dimensions of self concept in which these differences occur, and c) the relationship between self concept and the number of years in the special classroom for the adolescent with learning disabilities. The data were fitted to a 2 X 2 (ability X school) fixed effects non-orthogonal multivariate analysis of variance model. A significant difference (p less than .05) in "social self-peer" self concept favoring the "normally" achieving S's was found. A trend was evidenced for more negative "general self" and "school-academic" self concepts for the learning disabilities sample. Number of years in the special class did not appear associated with self concept as measured by the CSEI. PMID:596262
A recurring theme within the literature is gaps in the delivery of services for people with a learning disability living in the community. These gaps occur between health professionals, primary and secondary care and specialisms within nursing. Gaps also exist between social service policy and implementation, health and social care. Recent national and local reports have sought to address these issues by promoting ways for health and social services to work in partnership. The theme of health promotion is highlighted in all these documents, but implementation of health promotion has been firmly placed within the boundaries of primary care. This poses a dilemma for primary care: does the primary care team or a more specialist community learning disability team provide better care for people with a learning disability? This article summarizes strategies and policies within the literature and difficulties that need to be considered when offering a service to people with a learning disability. PMID:11927898
Learning disabilities, including reading disabilities, are commonly diagnosed in children. Their etiologies are multifactorial, reflecting genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Learning disabilities are complex problems that require complex solutions. Early recognition and referral to qualified educational professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments seem necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Most experts believe that dyslexia is a language-based disorder. Vision problems can interfere with the process of learning; however, vision problems are not the cause of primary dyslexia or learning disabilities. Scientific evidence does not support the efficacy of eye exercises, behavioral vision therapy, or special tinted filters or lenses for improving the long-term educational performance in these complex pediatric neurocognitive conditions. Diagnostic and treatment approaches that lack scientific evidence of efficacy, including eye exercises, behavioral vision therapy, or special tinted filters or lenses, are not endorsed and should not be recommended. PMID:19651597
Applegate, Anthony J.; Applegate, Mary Dekonty; Turner, Jennifer D.
It takes a literacy leader to save some schools and districts from serious misconceptions about the nature of core reading programs as well as the nature of some reading disabilities. Well-prepared professionals can, by means of their extensive pedagogical repertoire, help districts to avoid compulsive repetition of the same fundamental types of…
Sinicrope, Rose; Mick, Lori Bell
The study examined whether learning disabled students differed in development of proportional reasoning and whether their disability was in the use of symbols and language rather than ability to solve proportional problems. Developmental scalograms supported the hypothesis that LD Ss' proportional reasoning abilities are developmental, not unlike…
McKenzie, Judith Anne; McConkey, Roy; Adnams, Colleen
Although intellectual disability (ID) is probably the largest impairment grouping on the African continent, few indigenous research and evaluation studies have been undertaken. This article is an initial attempt to relate service delivery issues to an African research agenda. We critically analysed the available literature, drawing on academic publications and those of non-governmental agencies. In this process we identified several key issues for further investigation, namely: understanding ID in African contexts, access to education and health care, the provision of appropriate assistance and support, and income generation. We relate our analysis to the recommendations made in the World Report on Disability but with a specific focus on ID in Africa. The need for mainstreaming and prioritising ID in non-disability related and across impairment programmes is highlighted. We note the importance of families and emphasise the need to draw on informal and traditional forms of care and participation. The need for reliable research evidence to support practice is highlighted. We conclude with a call to action by and on behalf of individuals with ID to be included in the development priorities of the continent. Implications for Rehabilitation Service provision for people with intellectual disabilities in Africa is not always well served by insights obtained from western research agendas. Appropriate and effective rehabilitation requires an understanding of the context and the environment in which the disabled person operates. Indigenous research into the provision of support to families and the inclusion of persons with intellectual disability into mainstream programmes as well as disability specific provision is recommended. PMID:23350758
Jackson, Sue; Read, Sue
People with learning disabilities often challenge health services and their carers. Recent reports identify the tragic consequences of services failing to identify and meet this population's health needs. This article integrates a case study of the planned hospital admission of a woman with learning disabilities. A nine-step strategy is adopted to proactively support the patient and associated disability, and general nurse carers to enable both a positive experience and a healthy outcome for all those involved. It is an example of how collaborative working, good reciprocal communication and creative thinking are imperative to effective support. PMID:18481397
Polloway, E A; Patton, J R; Smith, T E; Buck, G H
The relationship between mental retardation and learning disabilities is clouded by conceptual issues and current practices in applied (i.e., educational and noneducational) settings. In this article, we initially discuss whether mental retardation can be considered a concomitant disability associated with learning disabilities or whether these two disabilities are mutually exclusive categories. Conceptual issues related to this question are then reviewed to provide a perspective for viewing these two traditional areas of exceptionality. Emerging areas of concern in term of definition, classification, etiology, and lifelong issues are addressed. Attention is then given to applied issues that have a direct effect on the lives of individuals with disabilities. Specific topics include educational curricula, instruction, inclusion, and adult services and supports. PMID:9146096
... Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.309 Determining the existence of a specific learning disability. (a) The group described in § 300.306 may determine that a child has a specific learning disability, as... disability. 300.309 Section 300.309 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...
Young, Glenn; Gerber, Paul J.
Focuses on environmental issues that affect learning disabilities and provides a rationale for learning disabilities as a public health and economic-risk issue. The link between learning disabilities and poverty and the impact of low birth weight and lead poisoning are discussed. Action steps are provided. (CR)
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Barry, Melissa; Brueggeman, Amber; Cavanagh, Sarah; Devine, Katie; Hekimoglu, Linda; Vess, Sarah
The Individuals with Disabilities Act (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act; IDEIA, 2004) has been reauthorized, and new parameters for defining learning disabilities (LD) have been established that provide more flexibility for corresponding state and local regulations. The field now has a unique opportunity to shape the…
Madaus, Joseph W
Five hundred graduates with learning disabilities (LD) from three universities in the United States completed a survey related to their postschool employment outcomes and experiences. The present study presents data related to their decisions regarding LD disclosure in employment settings. Although 73% of the respondents reported that the LD affected their job in some way, only 55% reported self-disclosing, and only 12% reported requesting accommodations. Specific reasons for each of these decisions are presented, as are areas in which LD affect work, strategies for dealing with LD in the workplace, and perceptions of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Implications for secondary and postsecondary programs are discussed. PMID:18560020
Lloyd, Jennifer L; Coulson, Neil S
Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women with intellectual disabilities to access cervical screening in order to examine their role in promoting attendance and elucidate potential barriers and facilitators to uptake. Ten participants recruited from a specialist learning disability service completed a semi-structured interview and data were analysed using experiential thematic analysis. Identified individual barriers included limited health literacy, negative attitudes and beliefs and competing demands; barriers attributed to primary care professionals included time pressures, limited exposure to people with intellectual disabilities and lack of appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills. Attendance at cervical screening was facilitated by prolonged preparation work undertaken by learning disability nurses, helpful clinical behaviours in the primary care context and effective joint working. PMID:24698957
Dupler, Alice E; Allen, Carol; Maheady, Donna C; Fleming, Susan E; Allen, Mikel
Faculty have reported a significant increase in the number of nursing students with disabilities; however, misinformation regarding legislated changes in the definition of a disability, as enacted in 2008 under the American with Disabilities Act Amendments Act, has contributed to faculty confusion when working with students with disabilities. This article identifies the circumstances under which nursing faculty are legally required to provide reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities, as defined under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 as amended in 2008, and the strategies faculty may use to assist students to successfully complete core requirements. When this knowledge is integrated into a nursing program's culture and curriculum, students with sensory loss, paralysis, mental illness, learning disabilities, limb differences, chronic illnesses, or other disabilities associated with impaired bodily functions can successfully complete nursing programs and provide excellent care to clients, the profession, and their communities. PMID:22283155
Computer logic is advised for teaching learning disabled children because the computer reduces complicated problems to series of subproblems, then combines solutions of subproblems to solve the initial problem. Seven examples for using the technique are given, including solving verbal math problems. Encourages teachers to learn computer…
Silver, Archie A.
The paper describes Florida's SEARCH and TEACH program designed to prevent learning disabilities and their emotional consequences in children. SEARCH, a scanning test to identify kindergarten children at risk for problems with academic learning, is based upon the importance of age appropriate functions of spatial orientation and temporal…
Taking public transit can make anyone nervous, especially in a large or medium-sized city where there are many different bus lines going many different places. The author's daughter, Anna, has multiple learning disabilities and may never learn to drive, but she wants to be as independent as possible so the author taught her to ride the bus. This…
Hashey, Andrew I.; Stahl, Skip
The growing presence of K-12 online education programs is a trend that promises to increase flexibility, improve efficiency, and foster engagement in learning. Students with disabilities can benefit from dynamic online educational environments, but only to the extent that they can access and participate in the learning process. As students with…
Alonso, Lou; And Others
The recent trend in special education toward individualized teaching based on the diagnosis of specific learning disabilities is reviewed. The concern of educators for emphasis on psychoeducational diagnosis to determine learning and behavioral problems, and their remediation, rather than primarily on classification and categorization along…
Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia
The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…
This paper reports the findings of a study which aimed to explore the learning and behavioral characteristics of students with Learning Disabilities (LDs) in Jordan. Specifically, variables that related to challenging behaviors, school's type, and gender differences were investigated. Four resource room teachers in public and private schools were…
This article provides an introduction to theoretical ideas and practices from the so-called "philosophers of difference"--Foucault, Derrida, and Deleuze and Guattari--as an invitation to think differently about the construction of learning disability and to envision new forms of learning. Two key concepts, Foucault's transgression and Deleuze and…
Smith, Sean J.; Basham, James D.
With the growth in blended and fully online K-12 instruction, all students, including those with disabilities, are finding online learning a viable option to address learner variability. Personalized learning or the individualized education program appears to align well with the many features of blended and fully online instruction. The purpose of…
Washington Univ., Seattle.
This brief paper considers ways in which people with learning disabilities can benefit from both mainstream and specialized computer hardware and software. First, definitions are provided of terminology, including terms such as dysgraphia, dyscalculia, dyspraxia, non-verbal learning disorder, and dyslexia. Discussion of the role of assistive…
Troia, Gary A.; Harris, Karen R.; Graham, Steve
Three fifth graders with learning disabilities received instruction designed to help them incorporate three common planning strategies into their current approach to writing. Students learned to set goals, brainstorm ideas, and sequence their ideas while writing stories and completing assignments. The schematic structure of stories improved, and…
Schmidt, Majda; Prah, Alenka; Cagran, Branka
Social skills of students with special needs play a very important role in their successful integration into inclusive learning environments. The aim of present empirical research was to establish whether students with learning disabilities (LD) attending grades 7-9 of regular primary school in Slovenia experience difficulties in social skills…
Oyler, James D.; Obrzut, John E.; Asbjornsen, Arve E.
The authors of this current study compared the memory performance of adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) with that of typical adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test, the "Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test" (BTVLT). This multiple trial test was designed to measure memory acquisition, retention,…
Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.
Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…
Grey House Publishing, 2005
This is the twelfth edition of the most comprehensive reference book covering the wide range of learning disabilities resources available nationwide. This directory contains well over 7,000 entries and covers the schools, learning centers, vocational training programs, associations and organizations, and government agencies involved in learning…
Werner, Emmy E.
This article traces the development of 22 children with learning disabilities and 22 controls at ages 1, 2, 10, 18, and 32 years. Most learning-disabled individuals made a successful adaptation to adult life, with marriage, divorce, and employment rates similar to the cohort as a whole. Clusters of protective factors were identified. (Author/DB)
Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory, the case study teachers demonstrated characteristics of successful teachers of diverse learners developed by Lynch (2000). Overall, the qualitative findings revealed that the case study teachers were unsure how to provide equitable science teaching practices to all students, particularly to students with learning disabilities. They provided students with a variety of learning experiences that entailed high expectations for all; however, these experiences were similar for all students. Had the teachers fully implemented equitable science teaching practices, students would have had multiple options for taking in the information and making sense of it in each lesson. Teaching that includes using a variety of validated practices that take into account students' individualized learning needs can promote aspects of equitable science teaching practices. Finally, this study provides implications for teacher education programs and professional development programs. As teachers implement science education reform efforts related to equitable science teaching practices, both teacher education programs and professional development programs should include opportunities for teachers to reflect on their beliefs about how students with learning disabilities learn and provide them with a variety of validated teaching practices that will assist them in teaching students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom while implementing science reform efforts.
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
Proponents of a social model of disability derive their arguments from social constructionism. They combine different disabling conditions under one term: disability. Subsequently, they apply the specific viewpoint of the disability rights social movement of people with physical disabilities to other conditions such as intellectual disabilities,…
Hoover, J J
This article discusses an area of education for students with learning disabilities that is often neglected. The topic of study skills education, although not new to education in general, has only recently been emphasized in the literature for students with handicaps. An overview of the study skill proficiency (or lack of it) of students with learning disabilities is provided, followed by the presentation of 15 student study skill strategies designed to assist students in their use of various study skills. These strategies may be employed appropriately and effectively with many students with learning disabilities provided that individual needs and abilities are considered. The article concludes with a discussion about the implementation of a study skills program, including guidelines to follow in this process. PMID:2769066
Little, Sara S.
This article presents an overview of literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities subtype. The article addresses the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning, generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity. (Author/JDD)
Solan, Harold A.; Springer, Florence E.
The Learning Disabilities Unit of New York's State College of Optometry, providing testing and research for learning disabled adults and children and professional instruction and clinical experience for students of optometry and related fields, is described. (MSE)
Presented at the First National Conference on Learning Disabilities in Ottawa, Canada in October, 1977, the article discusses learning disabilities and their appropriate special educational services in Canada, focusing on the processes of categorization and labeling. (DLS)
Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.
Brain research has illuminated several areas of the learning process: (1) learning as association; (2) learning as reinforcement; (3) learning as perception; (4) learning as imitation; (5) learning as organization; (6) learning as individual style; and (7) learning as brain activity. The classic conditioning model developed by Pavlov advanced…
Weis, Robert; Sykes, Lauryn; Unadkat, Devanshi
Many college students receiving accommodations for specific learning disability (SLD) do not meet objective criteria for the disorder. Furthermore, whether students meet criteria depends on the diagnostic decision model used by their clinician. The authors examined whether the relationship between diagnostic model and likelihood of meeting objective criteria is moderated by students' postsecondary institution. They administered a comprehensive psychoeducational battery to 98 undergraduates receiving accommodations for SLD at 2-year public colleges, 4-year public universities, and 4-year private colleges. Most 4-year public university students failed to meet objective criteria for SLD. In contrast, most 4-year private college students met objective criteria based on significant ability-achievement discrepancies, and most 2-year public college students met objective criteria based on normative deficits in achievement and cognitive processing. Students who met objective criteria also differed significantly in degree of academic impairment. The authors' findings indicate qualitative differences in SLD across postsecondary settings and have implications for the identification and mitigation of SLD in college students. PMID:21421937
Sigmon, Scott B.
This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…
Giangreco, Michael F.; Doyle, Mary Beth
Italy has a long history of including students with disabilities in general education classes. Their efforts offer unique perspectives and practices from which other countries may benefit. The article highlights four notable attributes about the Italian approach and discusses implications for American schools.
Bradley, Renee, Ed.; Danielson, Louis, Ed.; Hallahan, Daniel P., Ed.
This volume on the identification of learning disabilities (LD) offers chapters that provide comprehensive reviews of the research evidence underlying different aspects of LD and was the product of a 2001 general conference followed up by a small research forum. Contributors include researchers, parents, practitioners, and administrators. A final…
Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.
Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods…
Learning disabilities (LD) has been recognized as a category of special education in Taiwanese law since 1984, and policies ensure educational services for children and youth who have LD. The official definition and identification criteria established in Taiwan's laws closely correspond with those of the United States, but practice differs,…
Gerber, Paul J.; Batalo, Cecilia G.; Achola, Edwin O.
The impact of employment laws pertaining to individuals with learning disabilities in Canada and dyslexia in the UK were investigated via the extant research literature. Currently, there is very little research in this area despite Canada and the UK having laws in effect for decades. Surprisingly, their laws have been revamped despite an absence…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This paper was developed as a result of a 1999 conference on substance abuse and learning disabilities. An introductory chapter urges early identification of learning disabilities and appropriate treatment for both problems when they co-exist. The second chapter discusses the differences between learning disabilities and behavioral disorders, the…
This research aimed to illuminate the experiences of adults with learning disabilities of the reflecting team, in the context of their systemic family therapy. Five adults with learning disabilities were recruited from one community learning disability team. A qualitative design using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was appropriate…
Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan
We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…
This study was designed to identify predictors of behavioural disorders in children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in the United Arab Emirates public school system. It examined the relative contributions of child characteristic (i.e. presence of learning disability, gender, age), parents' socio-demographics…
Fusaro, Joseph A.; Shibley, Ivan A.
The No Child Left Behind Act mandates all students with learning disabilities in schools receiving Title I funds must show proficiency in reading and mathematics by 2014. This stricture applies to all students, those with diagnosed learning disabilities as well as those without learning disabilities. Subjects of this study were eighth graders in…
Lyon, G. Reid, Ed.
This book offers 27 papers addressing critical issues in the assessment of students with all kinds of learning disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Critical Issues in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (G. Reid Lyon); "A Matrix of Decision Points in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (Barbara K. Keogh);…
Lamberg, Catherine Denise
Learning-disabled students face ongoing challenges in higher education. Despite efforts to promote recruitment and retention of students with learning disabilities to trade schools, colleges, and universities, barriers to enrollment and academic achievement persist. Barriers for learning-disabled students are not fully understood and might be…
Learning disability is a complex phenomenon to understand. There are many connotations of learning disabilities thus even today it creates confusion in the mind of the general public and the professionals. Learning disability is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written…
Mafuba, Kay; Gates, Bob
International studies have shown poor uptake of public health initiatives by people with learning disabilities. In addition, studies have shown that people with learning disabilities experience poor access to public health services. The contribution of community learning disability nurses in meeting the public health needs of people with learning…
Worcester, Lenore Higgins
Two studies explored characteristics of the Franco-American and nonFranco-American learning disabled college student. The first study involving 200 learning disabled college students had four objectives--explore the appropriateness of a self referral model to identify the college learning disabled student, explore the predominant characteristics…
Meier, John H.; And Others
This manual for administering, scoring, and interpreting the Individual Learning Disabilities Screening Instrument is introduced with the definition, prevalence, and etiology of learning disabilities. Next, a sample of the Individual Learning Disabilities Classroom Screening Instrument (ILDCSI) is provided. The administration and scoring of the…
Bireley, Marlene; And Others
A body of psychoeducational data were gathered on 11 children (ages 8-14) who were gifted and learning disabled. Results from brain imaging and vision testing for hyperacuity and contrast sensitivity suggest that the interaction of high ability and learning disability results in brain and vision patterns unique to the learning-disabled/gifted…
Kaur, Taranjit; Kohli, Tehal; Devi, Batani
Aim: The current study tested the comparative efficacy of various strategies on basic mathematical skills of learning disabled children. Methods: Learning disabled children were randomly assigned to multimedia, cognitive, eclectic and control conditions. Assessment included the use of IQ, Diagnostic Test of Learning Disability, and Pre and…
Herron, Daniel; Priest, Helena M.; Read, Sue
Background: There has been an increase in inclusive research in the learning disability field; however, this has not been reflected within learning disability and dementia research, where little is known from the perspective of people with learning disabilities. This paper will define inclusive research, explore reasons for the dearth of inclusive…
Zirkel, Perry A.
Compared to students from affluent public and prep schools, few inner-city students receive extra time or other accommodations when taking high-stakes tests. The growth in "false positives" among affluent youth may partly stem from nonspecific definitions under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Fairness is being undermined. (MLH)
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…
Lovett, Benjamin J; Sparks, Richard L
Much has been written about gifted students with learning disabilities, but there have been few large-scale empirical investigations, and the concept has proven controversial. The authors reviewed the available empirical literature on these students, focusing on (a) the criteria by which the students were identified and (b) the students' performance on standardized tests of ability and achievement. In addition, the test scores of these students were aggregated to determine typical performance levels. A total of 46 empirical articles were reviewed, and major findings included wide variability in identification criteria across studies, frequent reliance on dubious methods of learning disability identification, and a lack of academic impairment among the identified students. Implications for the "gifted/LD" category are discussed. PMID:22057201
Nasir, N. S.; Snyder, C. R.; Shah, N.; Ross, K. M.
In this article, we theorize the relation between race and schooling and consider the implications for learning. While the body of research on culture and learning has come to define learning as an inherently cultural and social process, scholars have few theoretical tools to help us think about the role of race and racism in relation to students'…
James, Waynne Blue; Gardner, Daniel L.
Reviews types of learning styles and criteria for choosing an appropriate assessment instrument. Describes four generations of distance learning and suggests ways to enhance distance education instructional design for different learning styles. (SK)
Court, Deborah; Givon, Sarah
This article describes the Life Skills program used to improve the social skills of 12 students with learning disabilities in an Israeli middle school. Each of two groups (girls or boys) met weekly for 5 months to address social skills topics. The article notes gender differences in reactions and participation, and outcomes in such areas as…
Levine, Eleanor; Fineman, Carol
The Prescriptive Profile Procedure (PPP) attempts to provide teachers of learning disabled elementary school children with a procedure of individualized diagnosis and educational prescription which encompasses strengths and weaknesses in prerequisite skills, basic school subjects, and behavioral factors. A competency statement and six to 12…
Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl
Identifying individuals with specific learning disabilities (SLD) is a complex task, particularly for adult populations. Adult agencies such as vocational rehabilitative services or adult basic education often use different SLD definitions and criteria, are often understaffed, have limited resources, and have a shortage of staff trained on SLD…
Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.
A study involving 244,610 children (ages 6-8) investigated birth risk factors for learning disabilities. Very low birth weight, low 5- minute Apgar score, and low maternal education were associated with highest individual-level risk. Low maternal education, late or no prenatal care, and tobacco use were associated with highest population-level…
Tomblin, J. Bruce
Research on learning disabilities (LD) depends upon a conceptual framework that specifies what it should explain, what kinds of data are needed, and how these data are to be arranged in order to provide a meaningful explanation. An argument is made that LD are no different in this respect than any other form of human illness. In this article, a…
Obrzut, John E.; Mahoney, Emery B.
Dichotic listening (DL) techniques have been used extensively as a non-invasive procedure to assess language lateralization among children with and without learning disabilities (LD), and with individuals who have other auditory system related brain disorders. Results of studies using DL have indicated that language is lateralized in children with…
Eliason, Michele J.; Richman, Lynn C.
Comparison of 30 learning disabled (LD) children, ages 7 to 13, and controls on a computerized test of attentional skills indicated LD subjects committed more omission errors and responded at a slower rate but did not differ from the controls on commission errors, suggesting inefficient allocation of processing resources rather than attentional…
Hassan, Abdulhameed S.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.
This study investigated the ability of discriminate variables (perceptual-motor, hyperactivity disorder, neurological and psychological skills) to distinguish between normal (n = 68) and students with learning disabilities (n = 72) in fourth grade. Three instruments were developed: perceptual-motor scale, hyperactivity disorder scale, skills test…
This literature review and primary qualitative research explores therapeutic role from the perspective of Community Learning Disability Nurses. Semi-structured interviews, based on Critical Incident Technique ("Psychol Bull", 51, 1954, 327), and descriptive phenomenological methodology were adopted to elicit data amenable to systematic content…
McGregor, Karla K.; Langenfeld, Natalie; Van Horne, Sam; Oleson, Jacob; Anson, Matthew; Jacobson, Wayne
To explore the university experiences of students with learning disabilities (LD), 63,802 responses to the 2014 Student Experience in the Research University Survey were analyzed. Compared to other students, those with self-reported LD (5.96 percent) had difficulty with assignments and had more obstacles caused by nonacademic responsibilities and…
Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.
The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Gischlar, Karen L.
The authors encourage those in the field of school psychology to consider the use of learning disabilities assessment practices in relation to specific American Psychological Association and National Association of School Psychologists ethical codes and in regard to the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association,…
Singleton, Sabrina M.; Filce, Hollie Gabler
Research suggests students with learning disabilities often have trouble connecting new and prior knowledge, distinguishing essential and nonessential information, and applying comprehension strategies (DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Vaughn & Edmonds, 2006). Graphic organizers have been suggested as tools educators can use to facilitate critical…
In these days of the achievement gap, evidence-based practices, and accountability issues, Julie Allan's "Complicating, not explicating: Taking up philosophy in learning disability research" challenges everyone to think seriously about how well the field is meeting the mission of providing for the academic and social needs of students with…
Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Unzueta, Caridad H.; Vazquez Donet, Dolores; Bijlsma, Eduard
Identifying Specific Learning Disability (SLD) has been an arduous task. Until IDEA 2004, diagnosing SLD was limited to IQ discrepancy models lacking in both empirical evidence and contributing to minority over-representation. This paper examines the history of SLD assessment, the phenomena of minority over-representation, and the implementation…
This paper describes the once-weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a girl, called Ellie, aged eight at the start of her treatment. Ellie had a learning disability and displayed difficult behaviour at school and at home. In her therapy, Ellie grew in emotional intelligence, more in touch with and able to express her feelings. Her behaviour…
The paper presents findings from research on megavitamin nutritional therapy with behavior-disordered and learning-disabled children. The results suggest it is a valid biochemical alternative to other means of therapy. Some researchers are concerned about the possibility of poisoning the system and the lack of evidence of long-range effects. (PHR)
Background: There is very little research on how and when siblings understand that they have a brother or sister with a learning disability. Research regarding young children's understanding of intelligence, suggests that they may not develop a clear understanding of ability until about 7 years of age. Method: Through interviewing parents and then…
Reschly, Daniel J.
The use of response-to-intervention (RTI) to identify children and youth with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) is described with multiple illustrations. Essential components of the RTI process are specified at multiple tiers of intervention, each essential to valid SLD identification. The RTI goals are prevention in general education, early…
Madaus, Joseph W.; Zhao, Jiarong; Ruban, Lilia
Because of its significant impact on overall life satisfaction, employment satisfaction is one marker for determining successful adult outcomes. The present investigation reports the perceptions of employment satisfaction for 500 graduates with learning disabilities from three postsecondary institutions. The graduates reported high levels of…
Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…
Marino, Matthew T.; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Basham, James D.
Have you ever bought a computer program that you thought would be great for your struggling students, only to find that it did not work on your school computers, or that your students found it difficult to use? Selecting science software for students with learning and other disabilities can be a challenge. This Idea Bank provides a list of…
Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Carvalho, Kathleen
In this article, the authors assess the evidence related to various instructional styles for teaching reading to children with learning disabilities. Results of the literature review indicate that whole language and direct instruction are the two major approaches to teaching reading. Whole language has proven successful for many students with…
Koehler, Jennifer L.
Given the increasing number of students with learning disabilities attending postsecondary educational institutions, it is essential to determine the factors which may play a predictive role in postsecondary education in order to inform educational practices and interventions prior to high school graduation. As such, the primary aim of the current…
Appelget, Jeanne; Matthews, Catherine E.; Hildreth, David P.; Daniel, Michael L.
This article offers a guide to teaching the history of science to students with learning disabilities and provides a lesson template designed to engage students in a specific science event from the past. Activities including hypothesis testing and an historical role-play teach the vocabulary of natural selection and evolution using the landmarked…
Button, Linda; And Others
Listed alphabetically by title in the annotated bibliography are 378 instructional materials to be used with subtests of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) for education of learning disabled children at all age levels. The current bibliography is said to be a successor to "A Sequentially Compiled List of Instructional Materials…
Cornett-Devito, Myrna M.; Worley, David W.
Based on prior research and theory, we propose a conceptual definition of instructional communication that is holistic, transactional, expansive, and assessable. Second, we extend instructional communication research to test this definition by engaging students with learning disabilities (SWLDs) in interviews and focus groups, employing a…
McPhail, Jean C.
High school students with learning disabilities (LD), low achievement, or average achievement responded, several times daily, to questions concerning levels of affect, activation, cognitive efficiency, self-esteem, motivation, and feedback from others. LD students reported feeling more positive and active than the other groups during school hours;…
Swanson, H. Lee
The article provides an overview of a special topical issue on information processing as it relates to learning disabilities. Components of information processing theory are described, a model of information processing is presented, and subsequent articles in the special issue are summarized. (JW)
Edwards, Joseph S.
Available from: Psychonomic Society, 1108 W. 34th Street, Austin, Texas 78705. Studied with 10 learning disabled children (5-9 years old) was the development of self-management skills without direct teacher supervision through the use of operant reinforcement procedures. (IM)
Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda
This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused…
Goldey, Ellen S.
Provides an overview of presentations that were included in the Medical Symposium at the 1998 Learning Disabilities Association conference. The symposium addressed vestibular control and eye movement, postural sway and balance, cerebellar dysfunction, the role of the frontal lobe, developmental coordination disorder, and sensory integration…
Guven, Yildiz; Duman, Hulya Gulay
The aim of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of a project-based learning program delivered to children with mild mental disabilities. The 7 children (4 girls and 3 boys) selected for this experimental study were from an elementary school and attending a special class. The theme of the project was "Patisserie." At posttest the…
Schirmer, Terry A.; George, Michael P.
An alternative program offers learning disabled secondary students with histories of academic failure a curriculum emphasizing career awareness and life skills. A work station setup provides experience in such areas as drafting, consumer awareness, mechanics, and transportation. Results include increased attendance, improved self esteem, and…
Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee
Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…
Faas, Larry A.; And Others
Adults (N=86) with learning disabilities completed the Personality Pattern Inventory, an employment history, and an interview. Verbal intelligence quotient was found to be the best predictor of employment success or lack of success. The incidence of reactor, persister, and workaholic personality types differed between subjects and a population of…
Dunn, Michael W.
A debate exists in the research community about replacing the traditional IQ/achievement discrepancy method for learning disability identification with a "response-to-intervention model". This new assessment paradigm uses a student's level of improvement with small-group or individual programming to determine a possible need for classification and…
Algozzine, Bob; And Others
The study analyzed communication performance of tenth grade learning disabled (LD) students (N=1,098) on the Florida State Student Assessment Test-II (a minimum competency test). LD students demonstrated better literal communication skills and poorer interpretive and written communication skills. Employers (N=240) also supported the importance of…
James, Jessica Everett
Students with specific learning disabilities (SLD), such as emotional disturbances, and speech or language impairment, attending high schools located in the rural Mississippi Delta lack media literacy skills that could impact the student's ability to successfully graduate from high school. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify…
Williams, John M.
Learning disabilities are present in 10 percent of the population, and the condition is defined as, "A disorder in basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or use mathematical calculations". In this…
McClimens, Alex; Brennan, Siobhan; Hargreaves, Pauline
We undertook this project because we believed that hearing loss experienced by the target population was greater than the referral figures suggested. Therefore, we set up a trial service initiative designed to examine the efficacy of different referral routes into audiology services for adults with learning disability. This retrospective analysis…
Maheady, Larry; Maitland, George E.
Experimental attempts at assessing the social perception skills of learning disabled (LD) children are reviewed, along with methodological concerns relative to these experiments, and possible directions for future social perception research. Ten studies that examined LD children's ability to interpret nonverbal cues indicated they performed more…
Barrows, Thomas S.; And Others
A detailed explicit definition of learning disability (LD) is presented in terms of the diagnostic procedures and decision points used in identifying that category among a group of juvenile delinquent and control group adolescent males. The described procedures include a review of existing records, interviews, and diagnostic assessments.…
Simoncelli, Andrew; Hinson, Janice
This research details the methodologies that could be used to better deliver online course content to students with learning disabilities. Research has shown how the design of the course affects the students' attitudes and performance. This article details the methodology and pedagogical side of the delivery including instructional methods that…
Although most learning disabled (LD) adult learners have a strong desire to enhance their writing skills, many obstacles hinder their success. Characteristics of LD students found in their writing or actions include the following: frustration; poor study/note taking skills; test anxiety; lack of social skills; a difficult time following oral…
Bechtel, Leland P.
A 1 year preschool program and a summer elementary program in a model cities area southt to detect and remediate children's learning disabilities, and to evaluate remedial techniques. Thirty-three perceptually handicapped preschool children took a battery of eight tests, and daily received remediation through fine and gross motor training, and in…
Gregg, Noel, Ed.; And Others
This book contains 16 chapters dealing with services for adults with learning disabilities (LDs). "Adults with LDs" (Noel Gregg, Carolyn Phillips) questions whether the prevalent paradigm that advocates the self-contained individual is an obstacle to adults with LDs. "Paradigms" (Noel Gregg, Beth Ferri) describes theories that have contributed to…
Connections: A Journal of Adult Literacy, 1995
This issue focuses on learning disabilities of adult literacy students. The 11 papers in the journal were developed from research done by the authors at an intensive summer institute in 1994. After an introduction and a description of the summer institute (Martha Merson), the following papers are included: "Lucie: Is She or Isn't She?" (Meryl…
Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Zirkel, Perry A.; Danielson, Louis
Specific learning disability (SLD) identification and eligibility practices are evolving and sometimes contentious. This article describes the historical context and current status of the SLD definition, legislation, regulation, and case law related to the identification of students eligible for special education services. The first part traces…
In this paper, the author sidles up to the "problema" of identifying children as having a learning disability (LD) in the USA to ascertain what an analysis of limping characters, limping readers and limping rhythms might teach individuals about justice. In much current educational literature children labelled LD circulate as "maimed individuals"…
Lambie, Glenn W.; Milsom, Amy
Students diagnosed with learning disabilities experience many challenges that school counselors may address through narrative therapy. Narrative therapy is a postmodern, social constructionist approach based on the theoretical construct that individuals create their notions of truth and meaning of life through interpretive stories. This article…
Bailey, Shelley Henthorne
Post-secondary education is a path that many individuals take after high school. For students with learning disabilities, post-secondary education is an attainable goal regardless of the academic difficulties they may face. In order to make a successful transition to postsecondary education, it is necessary that students, as well as parents are…
Dean, Vincent J.; Burns, Matthew K.; Grialou, Tina; Varro, Patrick J.
The purpose of this article is to examine models designed for the determination of a learning disability and compare them to specific criteria to determine whether the given diagnostic process is ecological in nature. The traditional child-centered deficit model (CCD), Relative Achievement Discrepancy model (RAD), and Responsiveness to…
McVittie, Chris; Goodall, Karen E.; McKinlay, Andy
Previous research has shown that identities and the attributes from which identities are inferred are negotiated within social interaction and language. The identity of having learning disabilities is commonly associated with ascriptions of lesser abilities than other people, and in turn might be inferred from such abilities. This study examines…
Mercer, Cecil D.; And Others
A survey of 51 state departments of education (including Washington, DC) regarding their definitions of learning disabilities, identification criteria, and operationalization procedures showed the continued effect of the 1977 federal definition and criteria, while revealing variations in state definitions and criteria. The impact on prereferral…
Mercer, Cecil D.; And Others
A survey of 51 state departments of education focused on learning disabilities definitions, identification criteria, and operationalization procedures. Results showed the continued impact of the 1977 federal definition and criteria. Findings are compared with those from a 1985 survey and discussed in terms of trends, prereferral interventions,…
Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.
This book presents nine papers that focus on the identification, behavior, intervention, and inclusion of children with learning and behavior disabilities in general education classrooms. The papers include "Effectiveness of Social Skills Training for Students with Behavior Disorders: A Meta-Analysis" (Kenneth A. Kavale and others); "Attention…
Cole, Emma V.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.
The number of students with learning disabilities (SLD) at postsecondary institutions has tripled over the past three decades and now constitutes about 11% of undergraduate students (Joyce & Rossen, 2006; U.S. Department of Education, 2013). Research has found that SLD who use accommodations at their postsecondary institution are more…
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Capizzi, Andrea M.
This article provides an overview of identification of appropriate testing accommodations for students with learning disabilities (LD). First it defines the concept of testing accommodations and review research on test accommodations commonly used with students with LD. Next it examines the validity and fairness in accommodations, as well as the…
Maag, John W.; Reid, Robert
Researchers have found that students with learning disabilities (LD) obtain statistically higher scores on measures of depression than their peers without LD. However, what is not known is whether students with LD display greater levels of clinical depression than their peers without LD. If they do, then special education services should address…
Macomber, Janet A.
This paper describes an experiment with background material designed to promote problem (learning disabled) employees as human resources rather than rejects. The material is presented in the form of the transcript of a fictional advisory committee meeting attended by the human resources manager, assistant corporate counsel, training director, line…
Gumpel, Thomas P.; Sharoni, Varda
We present an analysis of the current state of practice in the diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities (LD) in Israel. Through an examination of the cultural, historical, and demographic background of the country ("deep structures"), we show how a fragmented society has developed; it segregates different ethnicities and social groups and…
The author reviews research on early deprivation and neglect and recounts his own experience with children whose dwarfism is attributed to abuse or neglect. The existence of specific learning disability and diminished IQ in many of these children is cited. The author suggests further attention to the problem. (CL)
Jones, Vita L.
Schools and classrooms, if well conceived, can serve as protective environments for the positive development of African American students with learning disabilities (LD) (Keogh & Weisner, 1993). Many African American students who lack resiliency often struggle with life's challenges and may be predisposed to negative outcomes in life, so the focus…
Sheridan, Lynnaire; Kotevski, Suzanne
This research examines the learning experience of university students who were tutored by a teacher with quadriplegia mixed type cerebral palsy. It was inspired by Pritchard's [2010. "Disabled People as Culturally Relevant Teachers." "Journal of Social Inclusion" 1 (1): 43-51] argument that the presence of people with a…
Heiman, Tali; Precel, Karen
A study that compared 191 college students with learning disabilities (LD) and 190 controls found students with LD reported having more difficulties in humanities, social sciences, and foreign language, devised unusual academic strategies and preferred additional oral or visual explanations, and felt more stress and nervousness during…
Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.
Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities are considered in this 10-chapter volume. Contents include: "Developmental Language Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" (Cynthia A. Riccio and George W. Hynd); "Self-Regulated Strategy Development: A Theoretical and Practical Perspective" (Lisa P. Case et al.); "Mapping the…
In the mid-1970s, Donald Hammill and his colleagues authored three scathing critiques of the two most trusted scientific traditions of learning disability treatment--movement education and psycholinguistic training (Hammill, 1972; Hammill & Larsen, 1974; Hammill, Goodman, & Wiederholt, 1974). These critical reviews of research rejected the older…
Benson, Nicholas; Newman, Isadore
This article describes how actuarial methods can supplant discrepancy models and augment problem solving and Response to Intervention (RTI) efforts by guiding the process of identifying specific learning disabilities (SLD). Actuarial methods use routinized selection and execution of formulas derived from empirically established relationships to…
A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…
Harvey, Philip D.; And Others
Two digit span distraction tasks were used to compare performance of 32 learning disabled (LD) and 32 normal children (mean ages 16 and 15 years). On the first set of tasks, where the neutral and distraction conditions were matched for their ability to discriminate between groups, no differential distraction effect was found. The second task's…
Although schools are continuously improving their inclusion policies, the process of inclusion in society in general has not evolved accordingly--including in the teaching profession, itself. How can we, on the one hand, include individuals with learning disabilities throughout their school years, claiming that they can contribute to society in…
Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen
This paper focusses on the need and benefit of using multimedia applications to cater to the needs of children with learning disabilities. The children with special educational needs found in various schools may face difficulties in acquiring academic skills such as reading, spelling, writing, speaking, understanding, listening, thinking or…
Kolligian, John, Jr.; Sternberg, Robert J.
The article describes the triarchic theory of human intelligence, which is composed of three subtheories: componential, experiential, and contextual. Deficient cognitive strategies and inadequate knowledge in certain domains may result from the inability of the learning disabled to selectively encode, compare, and combine information, or from an…
Skrtic, Thomas M.; And Others
An example is provided of remediation activities for learning disabled adolescents having a specific computation difficulty with place value and the subtraction with regrouping algorhythm. A seven-day remediation procedure, which may be used with the other basic operations, fades from the concrete to the symbolic mode. (CL)
Judge, Sharon; Watson, Silvana M. R.
Using longitudinal data from the first 6 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the authors examined mathematics achievement and growth trajectories by learning disability (LD) subgroups. The 2-level (time-student) growth curve model showed that lower levels of mathematics achievement were already evident at…
Beecham, Jennifer; Chadwick, Oliver; Fidan, Dogan; Bernard, Sarah
Examined how services are used by children with severe learning disabilities living at home in London, England, the associated total and component costs, and parents' perceptions of their children's needs for health care. Found some evidence that costs were associated with greater children's needs as well as evidence for under-provision of formal…
Metzger, Merrianne; And Others
This booklet is provided as a guide to teachers working with learning disabled (LD) students who are interested in using computers as a teaching tool. The computer is presented as a powerful option to enhance educational opportunities for LD children. The author outlines the three main modes in educational computer use (tutor, tool, and tutee) and…
Nies, Keith A.; Belfiore, Phillip J.
The present study, using a single subject adapted alternating treatments design, compared the effects of two spelling strategies (cover, copy, compare, and copy-only) used to enhance spelling performance in 2, third-grade students with learning disabilities. The cover, copy compare (CCC) method required the students to say the word, point to the…
Sleeter, Christine E.
In response to Kavale and Forness (EC 630 380), this article, rooted in the author's experiences as a learning disabilities teacher, discusses assumptions of the original article concerning social critiques and Marxism; diagnosis and classification for research or for pedagogy; validity of constructs and instruments for mental retardation; and…
Goodman, Marvin; Mina, Elias
Variability in diagnostic procedures and a lack of valid and reliable measures led to the development of a comprehensive battery, which incorporated an operational definition of learning disabilities. The battery consisted of forms for observing these functions: intelligence, academic achievement, gross and fine motor control, visual perception,…
Mellard, Daryl F.; Patterson, Margaret Becker
This study of 311 adult education learners found 29% self-reported having a specific learning disability (SLD). Significant differences in demographic, academic, and life experience variables between the adult learners with and without SLD included prior participation in special education, having both an SLD diagnosis and a high school diploma,…
Romano, Joan M.; Bellack, Alan S.
Cognitive social skills were assessed in 22 learning disabled (LD), 18 behavior problem, and 20 control boys in grades 7-9. Measures included an interview tapping social knowledge, self-reported behavior, generation of alternative solutions to social problems, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Vocabulary Scale. Sociometric…
Mallett, Christopher A.
Adolescents becoming formally involved with a juvenile court because of school-related behavior and discipline problems is a phenomenon known as the school-to-prison pipeline. Adolescents with learning disabilities are disproportionately represented within this pipeline. A study was conducted to review the outcomes for a population of youthful…
This monograph briefly describes a sampling of tools and technologies that can be used by adults with learning disabilities to improve their functional capabilities in employment, educational, or personal settings. Stressed is the importance of evaluating each technology in terms of the individual's unique profile, the function to be performed,…
Smith, Maureen A.; Misra, Anjali
This article discusses using a group contingency as a technique to increase appropriate behavior and decrease inappropriate behavior of students with learning disabilities who are either in regular classrooms or special classes. The advantages and disadvantages of three types of group contingencies (dependent group contingency, independent group…
Swanson, Elizabeth A.
This article synthesizes previous research studies examining reading instruction for students with learning disabilities (LD) through classroom observation methods. An extensive search of the research literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded 21 observation studies. Findings revealed that reading instruction for students with LD is generally of low…
Burdette, Paula J.; Greer, Diana L.
While research has been conducted on parental involvement in K-12 online learning, none of this research relates specifically to the parents of students with disabilities. Thus, researchers developed a survey around the following constructs: parental roles, instruction and assessment, communication and support from the school, and parental…
Harth, Robert; Burns, Carol
This study investigated the vocational outcomes for a group of young adults with multiple learning disabilities who attended a two-year post-secondary program. One hundred graduates of the program representing the first 15 years of the program participated in the study. Results indicated that large numbers of graduates were employed in both full…
Fisk, Robert A.; Janzen, Henry L.
The major conclusions to be drawn from this study were that a battery of four psychoeducational measures was somewhat of a failure in predicting group membership in the learning disability category, and that while teachers were good at predicting academic achievement, they were less effective at predicting personality and psychological variables.…
This pamphlet discusses the pivotal role that feedback can play in the instruction of adult learners with learning disabilities and provides strategies to enable teachers to constructively design and present effective feedback. The paper begins by describing and instructional techniques that can be used to create interest and provide feedback…
Osterag, Bruce A.; Graves, Anne
Microcomputer software can provide excellent drill and practice, simulations, and problem-solving. Yet, software developers often have designed elaborate graphics and unique characters in lieu of sound instructional programming. Many instructional programs for learning-disabled students do not provide appropriate reading levels, the opportunity to…
Sears, Carol J.
Assists teachers by helping them to recognize problems in mathematics that are often demonstrated by students with suspected or diagnosed learning disabilities. Also suggests remedial and compensatory techniques to help these teachers cope with such problems. Dyscalculia, hyperactivity, distractability, and perseveration are among the problems…
Stansfield, Jois; Matthews, Alison
The advanced clinical reasoning approach is widely adopted in speech and language therapy practice. This article reports on the introduction of the approach across a multidisciplinary adult learning disability service and staff reports on the impact of this initiative. Staff and team managers reported that the training had a positive impact on…
Kennedy, Michael J.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lloyd, John Wills
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were…
Pelham, William E.
Research findings on the attention of learning disabled (LD) and hyperactive students are reviewed, with the focus upon three aspects: alertness, selection, and capacity. The author suggests that the connection between attentional deficits and hyperactivity is stronger than that between attention deficits and LD. (CL)
Fais, Laurie; Wanderman, Richard
The paper describes the application of a computer-assisted writing program in a special high school for learning disabled and dyslexic students and reports on a study of the program's effectiveness. Particular advantages of the Macintosh Computer for such a program are identified including use of the mouse pointing tool, graphic icons to identify…
Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini
Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…
Minimal employable skills, poor work habits, and substance abuse are problems that often result in released female offenders' recidivating within 36 months of their prison release. Recidivism is further compounded when the female offender suffers from a learning disability. Research suggests that correctional education experiences do not…
Reynolds, Sharon; Hitchcock, John
The attitudes of adult basic education faculty members toward teaching adults with learning disabilities are likely to influence the success of their students; however, there are no existing survey instruments that measure this construct or the practical knowledge faculty members should have to effectively serve the population. A new survey…
Tormanen, Minna R. K.; Takala, Marjatta; Sajaniemi, Nina
This study examined whether audiovisual computer training without linguistic material had a remedial effect on different learning disabilities, like dyslexia and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder). This study applied a pre-test-intervention-post-test design with students (N = 62) between the ages of 7 and 19. The computer training lasted eight weeks…
Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Schweck, Kelly B.
The Common Core Standards require demonstration of conceptual knowledge of numbers, operations, and relations between mathematical concepts. Supplemental instruction should explicitly guide students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) in these skills. In this article, we illustrate implementation of the concrete-representational-abstract…
Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi
This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…