Canino, Frank J.
The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)
Harris, Deborah M.
The paper examines implications of the high incidence of learning disabilities in children with Tourette Syndrome. Tourette Syndrome is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary muscle jerks and vocalizations. Approximately 60% of children with Tourette Syndrome are classified as learning disabled. It is possible that this high correlation…
Graham, Steve; Stoddard, Barbara
Reviews research on teaching spelling to the learning disabled and presents instructional recommendations. Examines research on reduced unit size and distributed practice, imitation plus modeling peer tutoring strategy training, self-monitoring generalization training, and microcomputer-based remediation. (KH)
Sittiprapaporn, Wichian, Ed.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner. Depending on the type and severity of the disability, interventions may be used to help the individual learn strategies that will foster future success. Some interventions can be quite simplistic, while others are…
Lyon, G R
Approximately 5% of all public school students are identified as having a learning disability (LD). LD is not a single disorder, but includes disabilities in any of seven areas related to reading, language, and mathematics. These separate types of learning disabilities frequently co-occur with one another and with social skill deficits and emotional or behavioral disorders. Most of the available information concerning learning disabilities relates to reading disabilities, and the majority of children with learning disabilities have their primary deficits in basic reading skills. An important part of the definition of LD is its exclusions: learning disabilities cannot be attributed primarily to mental retardation, emotional disturbance, cultural difference, or disadvantage. Thus, the concept of LD focuses on the notion of a discrepancy between a child's academic achievement and his or her apparent capacity to learn. Recent research indicates, however, that disability in basic reading skills is primarily caused by deficits in phonological awareness, which is independent of any achievement-capacity discrepancy. Deficits in phonological awareness can be identified in late kindergarten and first grade using inexpensive, straightforward testing protocol. Interventions have varying effectiveness, depending largely on the severity of the individual child's disability. The prevalence of learning disability identification has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. The "real" prevalence of LD is subject to much dispute because of the lack of an agreed-upon definition of LD with objective identification criteria. Some researchers have argued that the currently recognized 5% prevalence rate is inflated; others argue that LD is still underidentified. In fact, it appears that there are both sound and unsound reasons for the increase in identification rates. Sound reasons for the increase include better research, a broader definition of disability in reading, focusing on phonological awareness, and greater identification of girls with learning disabilities. Unsound reasons for the increase include broad and vague definitions of learning disability, financial incentives to identify students for special education, and inadequate preparation of teachers by colleges of education, leading to overreferral of students with any type of special need. There is no clear demarcation between students with normal reading abilities and those with mild reading disability. The majority of children with reading disabilities have relatively mild reading disabilities, with a smaller number having extreme reading disabilities. The longer children with disability in basic reading skills, at any level of severity, go without identification and intervention, the more difficult the task of remediation and the lower the rate of success. Children with extreme deficits in basic reading skills are much more difficult to remediate than children with mild or moderate deficits. It is unclear whether children in the most severe range can achieve age- and grade-approximate reading skills, even with normal intelligence and with intense, informed intervention provided over a protracted period of time. Children with severe learning disabilities are likely to manifest an increased number of and increased severity of social and behavioral deficits. When children with disabilities in reading also manifest attention deficit disorder, their reading deficits are typically exacerbated, more severe, and more resistant to intervention. While severe reading disorders are clearly a major concern, even mild deficits in reading skills are likely to portend significant difficulties in academic learning. These deficits, too, are worthy of early identification and intervention. Even children with relatively subtle linguistic and reading deficits require the expertise of a teacher who is well trained and informed about the relationships between language development and reading development. PMID:8689262
... therapies may also be used. What is the prognosis? Learning disabilities can be lifelong conditions. In some ... Organizations Column1 Column2 CHADD - Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 4601 Presidents Drive Suite 300 Lanham, MD 20706 ...
... common and best-known verbal learning disability is dyslexia , which causes people to have trouble recognizing or ... associated with them. For this reason, someone with dyslexia will have trouble with reading and writing tasks ...
Covington, Linda Eastwick
The heterogeneous nature of learning disabilities has led to confusion regarding their definition and their intervention. Although the law protects adults with learning disabilities both in the workplace and classroom, it provides only a broad definition that has been subject to many interpretations. There is a paucity of longitudinal research on…
... disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you understand, remember, and ... learning skills, including memory tips from LD Online. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) top ADHD is a medical condition that ...
This booklet uses hypothetical case examples to illustrate the definition, causal theories, and specific types of learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive and language performance of students with LD is compared to standard developmental milestones, and common approaches to the identification and education of children with LD are outlined.…
Peniston, Lorraine C.
Notes that camp directors and counselors should be familiar with learning disabilities. Defines learning disabilities and explains accommodations of materials, procedures, and equipment; modification of activities; individuals' learned compensation strategies; and communication issues. Sidebar defines types of learning disabilities. (SAS)
The three theories considered are H. S. Adelman's interactional model of learning disabilities, A. O. Ross' theory of developmental lag in selective attention, and J. K. Torgesen's conceptualization of the learning disabled child as an inactive learner. (Author/DLS)
Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.
The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…
... disability is not an indication of a person's intelligence. Also, learning disabilities are not the same as learning problems due to intellectual and developmental disabilities , or emotional, vision, hearing, or motor skills problems. 4 Some ...
Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2012
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) affirms that the construct of learning disabilities represents a valid, unique, and heterogeneous group of disorders, and that recognition of this construct is essential for sound policy and practice. An extensive body of scientific research on learning disabilities continues to support…
Hayes, Marnell L.; Sloat, Robert S.
This paper cites studies on the interaction of depression and learning disability, examines the question of whether depression is a result or a cause of learning disability, emphasizes the importance of proper diagnosis of depression versus learning disability, and reviews the incidence of suicide-related events among the learning-disabled.…
Reid, D Kim; Valle, Jan Weatherly
This article serves as an invitation to rethink and to broaden the scope of learning disabilities (LD) research and practice. We begin with 3 assumptions: Education in a representative democracy is inevitably a political enterprise; social justice is everyone's responsibility, but educators have a special role to play; and segregated schooling is neither equal nor equitable. After an analysis of the primary extant discourses, we argue for a more comprehensive and more openly political vision of the LD field, which we think is supported by Disability Studies in Education. Finally, we draw 3 conclusions relevant to our collective work as researchers and educators. First, learning disabilities are not objective fact; they are historically and culturally determined. Second, disability is both a personal and a societal attribute. Finally, learning disabilities are not and have never been immutable. We contend that we are ethically bound to transform educational practices to both welcome and accommodate everybody's children. PMID:15586465
Watson, Silvana M. R.; Gable, Robert A.
In this article, we provide an overview of current knowledge on the underlying cognitive deficits associated with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). We highlight difficulties surrounding the identification of MLD that include inconsistency in defining MLD, comorbidity with other disabilities, problems associated with assessment tools and…
Orzek, Ann M.
Proposes the use of peer support groups as an effective intervention for dealing with personal and academic needs of college students who have learning disabilities. By considering Chickering's vectors of development, special concerns for the student can be generated. (JAC)
Skrtic, Thomas M.
to cognitive abilites in learning disabled adolescents, specifically in mathematics, are virtually nonexistent. The present investigation sought to determine the level of formal reasoning in mathematics of LD adolescents. The results of the study suggest...
Licht, Barbara G.; And Others
This study compared the causal attribution by sex for academic failures of 38 learning disabled and 38 nondisabled elementary school students. The relationship between different attributional tendencies and a reading persistence task were also examined. (BS)
Amerikaner, Martin J.; Omizo, Michael M.
The parents of 90 children (30 each of learning disabled, emotionally disturbed, and normal children five-14 years old) completed The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales. Results provided partial support for the hypotheses on family interaction with implications for assessing and intervening in problems identified as learning…
Hofmeister, Alan M.; Lubke, Margaret
An overview of expert systems technology is presented with emphasis on its current and potential applications to the field of learning disabilities. Characteristics of some expert systems, including reasoning procedures, knowledge base content, and rationale and conclusions, are reviewed. Present applications in the diagnosis of learning problems…
Investigated was the incidence of learning disabilities in juvenile delinquents at a Rhode Island Training School. Ss and nondelinquent controls were administered the Halstead-Reitan battery of measures including the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, the Wide Range Achievement Test, and tests of sensory imperception. Results found the five predictors…
Grant, Kevin T.
Students with learning disabilities (LD) are part of the largest and most rapidly expanding population of college students (Burgstahler & Moore, 2009; Garrison-Wade & Lehmann, 2009; Foley 2006; Chew, Jensen, & Rosen, 2009; Thomas, 2000). Current estimations show approximately one and a half million college students have a documented…
Humes, Charles W.
Examined whether learning-disabled high school students (n=141) had particular personality configuration on Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), whether they had particular vocational interest on Self-Directed Search (SDS) and whether there was relationship between MBTI and SDS scores. On MBTI, students placed predominantly along…
Lindstrom, Jennifer H.
The inclusion of students with learning disabilities (LD) in assessment is deemed critical to improve the quality of educational opportunities for these students and to provide meaningful and useful information about student performance. Mandated inclusion and accountability for progress raise many interesting questions regarding how to fairly,…
Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.
This collection of nine pamphlets is intended to increase the general public's awareness about the nature and importance of learning disabilities; to facilitate the access of parents and individuals with learning disabilities to practical information and sources of assistance; to expand access to practical information about existing research…
Frostig, Marianne; And Others
The following workshop presentations consider learning disabilities: "Educational Goals of the Perceptually Handicapped" by Marianne Frostig, "Remediation of Reading Problems" by Gilbert Schiffman, "Early Identification of Learning Disabilities" by Katrina de Hirsch, and "What Are Some Speech and Hearing Considerations? by John Irwin. (JD)
Fitzgerald, Suzanne; Gray, Nicola S.; Snowden, Robert J.
Background: Whether the Flynn effect (the increase in the populations' IQ over time) affects the IQ scores of people with learning disability or borderline learning disability remains unclear. The issue is important as the Flynn effect should alter the number of people eligible for health service resources. A comparison of the Wechsler Adult…
This collection of articles on gifted learning disabled students begins with an explanation of the philosophy of the Center for Talented Youth at Johns Hopkins University (Maryland), a list of characteristics of gifted disabled students, and three definitions of learning disabilities. The following papers are then provided: "Gifted but Learning…
In this article Dr. Kate Garnett defines five areas of math learning disabilities and provides suggestions on how adequate differentiated instruction and modifications can help students overcome these obstacles. The five areas are: Mastering Basic Number Facts, Arithmetic Weakness/Math Talent, The Written Symbol and Concrete Materials, The Language of Math, and Visual-Spatial Aspects of Math.
Gilles, Dorothy Cordes
The perceptual and cognitive processes involved in learning to play the piano are examined as sources of confusion and problems which might be encountered by the young learning disabled piano student. The paper is reported to be based on personal observations during private piano instruction, published and unpublished literature, and a summer…
Underpinning the technical gaze that dominates learning disabilities theory and practice is the assumption that learning disabilities are a pathology that resides in the heads of individual students, with the corollary that remedial efforts also focus on what goes on in the heads of students classified as learning disabled. This article begins with a critique of the ideology of individualism that situates individual success and failure in the heads of individuals as a means of introducing an alternative perspective--social constructivism--that locates learning and learning problems in the context of human relations and activity. Extended examples are used to illustrate how the performative aspects of learning disabilities emerge in the context of human relationships. The primary argument developed here is that one cannot be learning disabled on one's own. It takes a complex system of interactions performed in just the right way, at the right time, on the stage we call school to make a learning disability. The article concludes with a brief consideration of the instructional implications of a social constructivist stance. PMID:15586466
John F. Cawley; Rene Parmar
The purpose of this article is to describe program alternatives in science for students with learning disabilities and their implications for reading and writing. We review opportunity to learn, the science performance of students with learning disabilities, science textbook instruction, literacy and science, and alternatives to reading-dependent science programs. Finally, we present an alternative framework for science and literacy as
Bacon, Ansley; Walker, Hill M.; Schwartz, Allen A.; O'Hara, David M.; Calkins, Carl; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
The public's increasing demands for greater accountability and a better return on investment from research supported by federal funding requires that organizations studying and solving problems in areas like health, education, disability, and child mental health document the impact of their work. Human service and educational professionals agree…
Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is described as a subtype of specific learning disability where the source of the disability is a difficulty in processing nonverbal information. The child with NLD presents with problems in visual, spatial, and tactile perception but with strengths in rote verbal skills. Traditionally, these children were recognized by their difficulties in arithmetic which presented a stark contrast with their strengths in spelling and decoding text. They also exhibited a split between their verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores with the VIQ being significantly higher than PIQ. Over time, however, diagnostic criteria have evolved and the broadened definition of the NLD syndrome has led many to question the utility and uniqueness of the NLD diagnosis. In addition, shifting diagnostic standards have made research results difficult to replicate. In short, the research to date leaves many unanswered questions about (1) the definition of the NLD syndrome, (2) the pervasiveness of the academic, social and psychopathological difficulties, (3) the source of the NLD syndrome, and (4) the degree to which it overlaps with other conditions. This chapter outlines a brief history of the NLD syndrome, how it is currently conceptualized, and some of the current debate about the unanswered questions above. PMID:23622171
Fore, Cecil, III; Riser, Susan; Boon, Richard
Cooperative learning is an instructional model that draws extensively on contributions of multiple theorists, including Piaget, Vygotsky, Carroll and other researchers. Many different cooperative learning arrangements have been developed and researched. The most extensively researched and evaluated cooperative learning arrangements is by Robert…
Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006
This study summarizes 20 studies of more than 4600 students in kindergarten through Grade 12. Seven hundred sixty of the students have learning disabilities. The studies cover a 22 year period. They looked at students' views, opinions, and attitudes on teacher practices in inclusive, general education classrooms. Seven areas were explored: (1)…
Currie, Paula S.; Wadlington, Elizabeth M.
This book is designed to help clinicians and teachers work more effectively with people with learning disabilities and their families. Chapter 1 provides an overview of learning disabilities. It presents commonly accepted medical and educational definitions, prevalence figures, and possible etiological explanations for various disorders. Chapter 2…
Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia
The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities--language…
Kirk, Samuel A.
Two case studies involving preschool children with developmental learning disabilities (one with nystagmus and one with a hearing impairment) point to the need for appropriate ability as well as disability identification and assessment procedures (both had been diagnosed as mentally retarded) the potential of early diagnosis and intervention for…
Sight-Saving Review, 1971
A joint organizational statement on vision and therapy for learning disabilities and dyslexia is presented by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, and the American Association of Ophthalmology. (CB)
NHS England has announced a nine-point plan for improving the care of people with learning disabilities and autism as part of a strategy to close inpatient beds and provide more community services. PMID:26243087
Overline, Harry; Quayle, K. Suzanne
The Downriver Learning Disability Center and its ecological approach" which suggests that a learning disability is evidence of a faulty interaction between the child's available learning modalities and his educational eco-system. (Author/RY)
Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology
Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses, prisms, and colored lenses and filters are effective direct or indirect treatments for learning disabilities. There is no valid evidence that children who participate in vision therapy are more responsive to educational instruction than children who do not participate. PMID:21357342
Fletcher, Jack M.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Boudousquie, Amy
Reviews implications of the three primary components of the federal definition of learning disabilities (discrepancy, heterogeneity, and exclusion) for the assessment of children with learning disabilities (LD). Also proposes a rationale and procedures for more efficient approaches to the identification of children as learning disabled that are…
Popp, Rita Ann
The author describes lessons provided for regular class elementary students to help them understand disabilities and disabled persons. Objectives, materials needed, and activities are outlined for six lessons focusing on the following topics: individual differences, wheelchairs; devices that help people walk; amputation, artificial limbs, and…
Crux, Sandra C.
This book is a practitioner's guide to presenting various compensatory learning strategies to adult students with learning disabilities. The introductory chapter defines key terminology related to adult learners, learning disabilities, and compensatory strategies; learning and learning-disabled adults; and the principles of adult learning. Chapter…
Margaret Semrud-Clikeman; Kimberly Glass
The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive,\\u000a and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities\\u000a (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a comparison group of children with no\\u000a learning disabilities to assess
Zavala, Jesus; Mims, Joan
The study compared 10 learning disabled and 10 non-learning disabled limited English proficient Mexican American elementary grade children. Six tests were identified as predicting learning disabilities including the Prueba de Lectura y Lenguaje Escrito and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. (Author/DB)
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat
This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…
Kenyon, Elinor; Beail, Nigel; Jackson, Tom
Studies have focused on the experience of diagnosis from the perspectives of parents of children with learning disabilities, but there has been limited methodologically rigorous investigation into the experience for the person themselves. Eight participants were recruited from a range of different backgrounds. Interviews were analysed using…
Gorman, Audrey J.
Focuses on the library service principles of multisensory thinking, respect for the question, and respect for the questioner as they relate to people with learning disabilities and all users. Discusses reading difficulties of people with dyslexia, along with audiotape and computer technologies that libraries can use. Presents approaches to the…
Sapir, Selma C.
The author discusses controversial issues in the field of learning disabilities (LD). Among topics addressed are conflicting definitions of LD and the impact of the operational definition accepted by the US Government; etiological questions concerning the separation of neurological, environmental, and emotional factors; approaches used in training…
Spear-Swerling, Louise; Sternberg, Robert J.
Educators wishing to help low-achieving children must discard the concept of learning disabilities entirely and adopt a new way of thinking about children's learning problems. Learning-disabilities specialists should become learning specialists who understand the cognitive processes typically involved in acquiring academic skills, ways the…
Teglasi, Hedwig; Cohn, Andrea; Meshbesher, Nicole
The link between learning problems and social-emotional difficulties is well documented and both are associated with temperamental risk factors. Whereas temperament refers to individual differences in biologically based dispositions for responding to and engaging with one's surroundings, developmental outcomes are the products of experiences as…
Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…
Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…
disability. Documentation that names only "learning styles," "learning differences," or "learningGuidelines for Documentation of Learning Disabilities A learning disability is a disorder which, learning disabilities specialists, and other professionals with training and experience relevant to adults
Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.
This volume presents 10 papers on research and methodology in learning and behavioral disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Memory Judgments and Allocation of Study Times in Good and Poor Comprehenders" (Ombretta Papetti et al.); "Diagnostic Spelling Analysis Within Curriculum-Based Measurement: Implications for Students…
Fletcher, Jack M.; Lyon, G. Reid; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Barnes, Marcia A.
Evidence based and comprehensive, this important work offers a new approach to understanding and intervening with students with learning disabilities. The authors--leading experts in neuropsychology and special education--present a unique model of learning disabilities that integrates the cognitive, neural, genetic, and contextual factors…
Hammill, Donald D.; And Others
The new definition of learning disabilities proposed by the National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities is discussed in terms of its need, procedures followed in its development, the Committee's intention regarding critical elements, and the definition's current status (acceptance by four of the six member organizations). (DB)
Hammill, Donald D.
This article reviews the efforts made since 1962 to define learning disabilities, discusses 11 prominent definitions, identifies important conceptual elements on which the definitions differ, and calls for a consensual acceptance of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities definition. (PB)
Miller, Phyllis, Ed.
This issue of a research journal on gifted education explores issues surrounding gifted children who also have learning disabilities. Specific articles include: (1) "Notes, Quotes, and Anecdotes" (Francis Cartier); (2) "Gifted Children with Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Issues" (Linda E. Brody and Carol J. Mills), which examines current…
Green, Ravonne A.
This article describes the characteristics of patrons with learning disabilities (LD) and how these characteristics might affect library use. The lack of services for college patrons who have learning disabilities (LD) in this decade is much like the lack of adequate and appropriate services for high school patrons with LD in previous decades. The…
Pihl, R. O.; Parkes, M.
Hair samples from 31 learning disabled and 22 normal children were analyzed. Significant group differences were determined and a discriminant function was computed which separated the groups with 98 percent accuracy. Elevated lead and cadmium content in the learning disabled group is viewed as being of particular importance. (Author/SL)
Grey House Publishing, 2010
Published for over a decade, this directory continues to be a successful, sought-after resource, providing valuable information to professionals, families, and individuals in the learning disabilities community. Supported by the National Center for Learning Disabilities, this 2011 edition brings together the most up-to-date information on LD…
Bonnet, Kenneth A.
The mechanisms of both language-based and non-language-based learning disabilities are presented within the framework of central nervous system development and the compromises to that development that arise from genetic, hormonal, antibody, medication, and postnatal compromises. Also reviewed is the need for a taxonomy of learning disabilities.…
Fiedorowicz, C.; Benezra, E.; MacDonald, W.; McElgunn, B.; Wilson, A.; Kaplan, B.
This article reviews recent research in the field of learning disabilities and, in particular, dyslexia. It summarizes findings from numerous studies employing widely divergent methodologies that have attempted to establish the neurobiological correlates of learning disabilities and concludes that it is impossible to deny a neurobiological basis…
Hagin, Rosa A.
This article offers some guidance to clinicians faced with the responsibility of preparing reports documenting learning disabilities of students or workers and necessary accommodations. Basic assumptions that underlie documentation, components of reports documenting learning disabilities, and cautions that should guide the preparation of such…
Wald, Mike; Draffan, E. A.; Seale, Jane
This article provides an overview and initial findings of the LExDis project which is exploring the e-learning experiences of disabled learners within a UK university in order to increase understanding of the many complex issues and interactions introduced by disabled learners' requirements for accessible e-learning, compatible assistive…
Mann, Lester; And Others
In an attempt to clarify the phenomena of psychological "process" variables, as applied to children with learning disabilities, a study was made of sensory modality preferences in 64 kindergarten and 64 first grade children. Ss were given a battery of seven measures grouped under the following four headings: standardized test approach; controlled…
Ortiz, Alba A., Ed.; Polyzoi, Eleoussa, Ed.
An exploratory and descriptive study is reviewed which examined the identification and placement of 334 limited English proficient Hispanic students (grades 2-5) in learning disability programs. Ss' eligibility folders were examined to determine why they had been referred initially, how they were assessed, and to document the initial placement…
...STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Health Services Performance...Eligibility criteria: Learning disabilities. (a) A child is classified as having...as having a learning disability if: (1) The child does not achieve...
...THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations...Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific...determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in §...
...STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Health Services Performance...Eligibility criteria: Learning disabilities. (a) A child is classified as having...as having a learning disability if: (1) The child does not achieve...
...THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations...Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific...determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in §...
...THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations...Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific...determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in §...
Beail, N; Warden, S
This paper reports a clinical study of reported or disclosed sexual abuse of adults with learning disabilities. The findings support the results of a recent survey [V. Turk & H. Brown (1993) Sexual abuse of adults with learning disabilities: results of a two-year incidence survey. Mental Handicap Research 6, 193-216] but some differences were found, particularly with regard to sex of the survivors. The study also illustrates more than previous studies a link between sexual abuse and sexualized and inappropriate sexual behaviour and other challenging behaviours in men with learning disabilities. PMID:8555714
Impecoven-Lind, Linda S.; Foegen, Anne
Algebra is a gateway to expanded opportunities, but it often poses difficulty for students with learning disabilities. Consequently, it is essential to identify evidence-based instructional strategies for these students. The authors begin by identifying three areas of algebra difficulty experienced by students with disabilities: cognitive…
Lewis, Katherine E.
Mathematical learning disability (MLD) research often conflates low achievement with disabilities and focuses exclusively on deficits of students with MLDs. In this study, the author adopts an alternative approach using a response-to-intervention MLD classification model to identify the resources students draw on rather than the skills they lack.…
Hayes, Cheryl W.
The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…
Bigler, Erin D.; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Howes, Nancy-Louise
Reviews recent neuroradiologic and brain imaging techniques in the assessment of learning disability. Technologies reviewed include computerized tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; electrophysiological and metabolic imaging; computerized electroencepholographic studies of evoked potentials, event-related potentials, spectral analysis, and…
Wilkinson, Heather; Kerr, Diana; Forbat, Liz
Dementia is a particular concern for service providers supporting older people with learning disabilities. Until recently little forward planning had been built into services to prepare for residents to grow older, and ...
Williamson, Alison; Johnson, Judith
People with learning disabilities encounter numerous barriers when using health services. The authors discuss ways to ensure that the health needs of these patients are met in mainstream settings. PMID:15027241
Schiffman, Gilbert; And Others
The advantages of using microcomputers, particularly with learning-disabled (LD) students, are pointed out; and an example of a successful program utilizing computers at the Johns Hopkins University is described. (SW)
Love, Linda J.
This handbook addresses the needs of postsecondary instructors who work with students with learning disabilities. The information in the handbook is gathered from sources throughout Canada and the United States. It is intended to lead instructors toward a greater understanding of the educational needs of students with learning disabilities. The…
Rand, Carol Crumm
JUDGMENT OF EMOTION BY LEARNING DISABLED ADOLESCENTS A Thesis by CAROL CRUMM RAND Subm1tted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulf111ment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major... Subject: Educational Psychology JUDGMENT OF EMOTION BY LEARNING DISABLED ADOLESCENTS A Thesis by CAROL CRUMM RAND Approved as to styie and content by: '7 (Chairman of Committee) Head o Department Member Member December 1978 ABSTRACT Judgment...
Peg Brigham Alden
Due to increasingly widespread inclusion practices and more thorough identification procedures, students with documented learning disabilities (LD) are becoming a larger percentage of the science classroom. Because many practicing science teachers have little training or experience in identifying and meeting the needs of students with disabilities, this article outlines basic educational principles that support the unique learning needs of these students. Each principle is accompanied by examples of how a science instructor might put the principle, "science for all students," into practice.
Several decades of policy and service change in the field of learning disability have set in place new service boundaries in health and social care, leading to different working relationships for professionals based on interprofessional and interagency collaboration. However, economic pressures may result in agencies offering resource-led rather than needs-led services, resulting in fragmented services and tensions between professional groups faced with tough choices in order to meet the long-term needs of people with learning disabilities. One of the key roles of the registered learning disability nurse (RLDN) is that of facilitator in meeting the healthcare needs of people with learning disabilities, which involves interprofessional working across these new health and social care boundaries. The aim of this article is to present the findings from a small scale research study that was undertaken to explore the views of the RLDN group in relation to interprofessional practice in the long-term support of people with learning disabilities. Set within a grounded theory methodology, this article focuses on one element of the research study, which was a descriptive analysis of individual practitioners' experiences. In documenting the practitioners' accounts, the research begins to identify a series of key roles and significant practice knowledge held by those employed in learning disability nursing positions. PMID:14688655
Tarnopol, Lester, Ed.
Designed to assist in the development or improvement of programs for children with learning disabilities, the text includes the following discussions: an introduction to children with these disabilities; a new look at learning disabilities; parent and professional relations; the national problem of learning disabilities; the role of the physician…
Force, Crista Marie
Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.
O'Hara, David M.; Levy, Judith M.
The article reviews literature pertaining to general effects of a developmentally disabled child on a family with particular emphasis on implications for families with learning disabled children. Covered are aspects of individual and family life cycles during various life stages, sibling adjustment, and intervention approaches with the child and…
Nass, Ruth D.
This review of the male preponderance in the prevalence of learning disabilities examines such factors as gender-related etiology differences and learning style differences; complications of pregnancy and infancy; effects of male hormones on the nervous system; and sex differences in maturity rates. (JDD)
Bush, Clifford L.; Andrews, Robert C.
This dictionary was compiled to serve teachers in the fields of reading and learning disabilities. The entries are alphabetized and include terms from related disciplines; measurement, evaluation, and statistics; linguistics; library science; psychology and learning; education; and medicine, particularly dealing with vision, sensory, and motor…
Gore, Robert C.
In fall 1992, Del Mar College (DMC), in Corpus Christi, Texas, offered for the first time a college-level composition class for students clinically diagnosed as learning disabled (LD), with the rationale that if LD students were first grouped together to learn the fundamentals of college-level writing and find success among their peers, they would…
The Structure of Intellect approach for assessing and treating learning disabilities is presented, including a behavior checklist and suggested home and school learning activities. The Meeker paradigm identifies three areas of student functioning: cognitive/academic, social/emotional, and physio-neurological. Procedures are outlined for using the…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others
In two experiments, learning disabled junior high school students learned definitions of 14 vocabulary words either according to a pictorial mnemonic strategy (the "keyword method") or via principles of direct instruction. Results showed that the keyword method was substantially more effective even when keyword students were required to generate…
DeFries, J. C.; And Others
Results obtained from the center's six research projects are reviewed, including research on psychometric assessment of twins with reading disabilities, reading and language processes, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and executive functions, linkage analysis and physical mapping, computer-based remediation of reading disabilities, and…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2011
Parents are often worried when their child has learning problems in school. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a specific learning disability. Children with learning disabilities can have intelligence in the normal range but the specific learning disability may make teachers and parents concerned about their general…
Manners, Paula Jean; Russ, Marina
This article is about the feelings of powerlessness that professionals feel to cure learning disability and to answer questions such as "why do I have a learning disability?". We describe how Emma showed us through role play what it was like to have learning difficulties. This article is interesting to people with learning disabilities because…
Backenson, Erica M; Holland, Sara C; Kubas, Hanna A; Fitzer, Kim R; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A; Fraccaro, Rebecca L; Smith, Amanda D; Macoun, Sarah J; Harrison, Gina L; Hale, James B
Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent comprehensive evaluations for learning and/or behavior problems in two Pacific Northwest school districts. Using concordance-discordance model (C-DM) processing strengths and weaknesses SLD identification criteria, results revealed working memory SLD (n = 20), processing speed SLD (n = 30), executive SLD (n = 32), and no disability groups (n = 41). Of the SLD subtypes, repeated measures MANOVA results revealed the processing speed SLD subtype exhibited the greatest psychosocial and adaptive impairment according to teacher behavior ratings. Findings suggest processing speed deficits may be behind the cognitive and psychosocial disturbances found in what has been termed "nonverbal" SLD. Limitations, implications, and future research needs are addressed. PMID:24300589
Cole, Terry Stokes
Science teachers have long noticed the fact that their students come to school with their own concepts, produced from daily experiences and interactions with the world around them. Sometimes these ideas are in agreement with accepted scientific theories, but often they are not. These "incorrect" ideas, or "misconceptions" have been the focus of many studies, which can be helpful to teachers when planning their lessons. However, there is a dearth of information that is geared specifically to students with learning disabilities. These students generally have deficits in areas of perception and learning that could conceivably influence the way they formulate concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the concepts held by students with learning disabilities on the causes of the day/night cycle, the phases of the moon, and the seasons. An interview format was judged to be the best method of ensuring that the students' ideas were clearly documented. The subjects were five, sixth-grade students in a city school, who had been determined to have a learning disability. In examining the results, there did not seem to be any direct link between the type of misconception formed and the learning deficit of the child. It seemed more likely that students formed their concepts the way students usually do, but the various disabilities they exhibited interfered with their learning of more appropriate conceptions. The results of this study will be helpful to science teachers, curriculum planners, or anyone who works with students who have learning disabilities. It is hoped that this will begin to fill a void in the area of learning disabilities research.
Markos, Patricia A.; Strawser, Sherri
This article describes the relationship between learning disabilities (LD) and homelessness. Research describing the connection between disabilities and homelessness has focused on individuals presenting with disabilities such as mental illness, physical disabilities, medical disabilities, or substance abuse. At this time, the presence of LD in…
Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will
In order to gain access to accommodations and services at colleges and universities, students with learning disabilities must provide documentation of their disabilities, and as students with learning disabilities access higher education at increasing rates, the need for documentation of their disabilities and its impact becomes even more…
Pardeck, J T
People with psychiatric disabilities are often victims of job discrimination. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 makes it very clear that job discrimination based on a psychiatric impairment is illegal. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) reports that psychiatric disability is one of the leading causes why persons file discrimination complaints. Given this situation, an analysis is offered of what constitutes a psychiatric disability under the ADA. An overview, an analysis, and examples of the kinds of accommodations employers can be expected to provide people with psychiatric disabilities are offered. The policy and practice implications of the employment provisions (Title I) in the area of psychiatric disabilities are presented. PMID:10185053
Ruggeri-Stevens, Geoff; Goodwin, Susan
Purpose: The paper alerts small business employers to new dictates of the Disability Discrimination Act (2005) as it applies to learning disabilities. Then the "Learning to Work" project featured in the paper offers small business employers a set of approaches and methods for the identification of a learning-disabled young adult candidate's…
Rau, Don C.
National Symposium on Learning Disabilities in English Language Learners WASHINGTON, D-Language-Hearing Association Council for Exceptional Children International Dyslexia Association International Reading Association National Center for Learning Disabilities National Education Association National Institute
Feingold, Benjamin F.
The author replies to the article titled "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities" (R. Sieben), and discusses research on the relationship between food additives and hyperactivity, and dietary treatments for learning disabled children. (IM)
Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel
This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)
Fahey, David A.
Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)
National Inst. of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
The pamphlet provides basic information on learning disabilities due to minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). Topics considered include terminology, incidence, symptoms, causes and prevention, diagnosis, family role for MBD children, and research in learning disabilities due to MBD. (CL)
Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society. PMID:16412199
Eisenmajer, Natasha; Ross, Nola; Pratt, Chris
Background: The specificity of impairments in specific reading disabilities (SRD) and specific language impairments (SLI) has recently been questioned, with many children recruited for studies of SRD and SLI demonstrating impairments in both reading and oral language development. This has implications for the results of SRD and SLI studies where…
Jordan, Nancy C., Ed.; Goldsmith-Phillips, Josephine, Ed.
This collection of original papers synthesizes research on learning disabilities in school-age children, with the theme of connecting learning disabilities research with assessment and practice. The volume begins with a paper by Howard S. Adelman titled "Learning Disabilities: On Interpreting Research Translations." Part I of the collection then…
Hayes, Susan Carol
Of the 4000 women and girls in custody in England and Wales, an unknown proportion will have a learning disability. Most research on the plight of offenders or accused persons with a learning disability has focussed on men because women form a small proportion of the prison population, and women with learning disabilities are an even smaller…
Krochak, Linda A.; Ryan, Thomas G.
The following contemporary review illuminates several of the "best methods" to accurately identify gifted/learning disabled (GLD) students? Explanations which clearly define what it means to be gifted, learning disabled (LD) and gifted/learning disabled (GLD) are included and incorporated into a typology of three identities of GLD students.…
Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie
This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…
Woodrum, Diane T.; Savage, Luise B.
This pilot study investigated characteristics of three groups of sixth, seventh, and eighth grade children (total N=15) in West Virginia: (1) gifted children with learning disabilities (LDG), (2) gifted children without learning disabilities, (3) non-gifted children with learning disabilities (LD). Subjects were assessed on measures of higher…
Kavale, Kenneth A.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Beam, Andrea P.
Unlike other special education categories defined in U.S. law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), the definition of specific learning disability (SLD) has not changed since first proposed in 1968. Thus, although the operational definition of SLD has responded to new knowledge and understanding about the construct, the formal definition…
Barnartt, Sharon N
This article examines the demands which have been made in the over 800 US protests this author has analyzed. Some demands are cross-disability, meaning they could apply to people with all types of impairments; these include demands for rights and accessibility in all domains. Other demands are disability-specific: they apply to people with specific types of impairments, ranging from mobility impairments to developmental disabilities. Many demands have been related to services, which can be either cross-disability or disability-specific. The paper examines the implications of these demands for social work practice. These include that disability be de-stigmatized by practitioners, that people with disabilities have choices, that they have control over their services, and that all aspects of social work practice be accessible to people with any type of disability. PMID:17989029
DeBrosse, Marion, Ed.; And Others
Summarized in the literature review are 161 sources of information on the topic of learning disabilities in secondary school students. Sources are categorized under eight headings: secondary learning disabilities--definition, identification, incidence, and characteristics; educational programing for the secondary learning disabled…
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Special Education Services Unit.
This booklet identifies materials and organizations that provide information on learning disabilities. An overview describes learning disability identification procedures and eligibility for special education or related services in Colorado. The pamphlet then provides an annotated list of 9 general books on learning disabilities, 10 books for…
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data…
Berch, Daniel B.
Drawing on various approaches to the study of mathematics learning, Gersten, Jordan, and Flojo (in this issue) explore the implications of this research for identifying children at risk for developing mathematical disabilities. One of the key topics Gersten et al. consider in their review is that of "number sense." I expand on their preliminary…
Jung, Dae Young
In the context of the educational system and the nature of special education in South Korea, I describe policy, practice, and research about children with learning disabilities (LD). Recently, the study of LD has attracted professionals from multiple disciplines including general and special education, medicine, psychology, and social work. In…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.
The use of the "keyword" method as a tool for improving memory in learning disabled students is explained. The keyword method consists of two stages: an acoustical link stage and a stage in which the student is provided with a picture of the keyword interacting with the appropriate response term. The method can be modified for use in vocabulary…
The paper describes strategies for teaching six different handwriting skills to learning disabled (LD) elementary students. A rationale for each strategy precedes step-by-step procedural descriptions. Strategies in the following areas are described: (1) introducing LD children with motor coordination deficits to alphabetic symbols using sandpaper…
Rourke, Byron P.
Some of the issues that dominated, or at least held sway, in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities (LD) in the 1970s included: the definition of LD, whether there are reliable and valid subtypes of LD, whether and to what extent LD are related to cerebral dysfunction, and whether LD are related to types and/or degrees of psychosocial…
Tolfa, Debra; And Others
Sixty-four learning disabled sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students were assigned to 24 small instructional groups which were in turn assigned at random to mnemonic and control conditions. Instructional groups were then given three daily lessons on dinosaurs in counterbalanced order. The lessons involved dinosaur vocabulary, attributes of…
Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.
The selected bibliography of educational programs for learning disabled children contains approximately 100 abstracts with indexing information explained to be drawn from the computer file of abstracts representing the Council for Exceptional Children Information Center's complete holdings as of July, 1972. Abstracts are said to be chosen using…
Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.
The selected bibliography of research on learning disabilities contains approximately 80 abstracts with indexing information explained to be drawn from the computer file of abstracts representing the Council for Exceptional Children Information Center's complete holdings as of July, 1972. Abstracts are said to be chosen using the criteria of…
MacInnes, Maryhelen; Broman, Clifford L.
It is well established that children and adolescents with learning disabilities are more likely to experience depressed mood than are their peers. Many scholars explain this relationship as resulting from low self-esteem, stress, or social isolation. However, little work has explored whether this relationship continues to exist into young…
Chen, Charles P.; Chan, Janice
Learning disabilities (LDs) describe a number of disorders that affect the way information is acquired, retained, organized, and understood. This article aims to address the critical issue of improving the career well-being of LD youth. It first examines several critical issues that affect LD high school students/youth in their career development.…
Cahn, Lorynne D.
The relationship between the teacher of piano and the learning disabled student and some issues in piano instruction for such students are examined. Perceptual deficiencies and perceptual motor problems are noted. Techniques for dealing with poor visual discrimination are suggested; these include doing the simplest type of theory work to help the…
Pickering, Joyce S.
This article discusses how children with oral and written language disorders can benefit from the Montessori method, especially if the Montessorian is trained to use a Multisensory Structured Language approach. Questions are answered regarding the number of children with learning disabilities, considerations in training the classroom assistant,…
Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others
The impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled children was explored. Three hypnotic training sessions and instructions for six weeks of daily self-hypnotic practice containing suggestions for imagery related to improvement in these areas were given to 15 children, their…
Beeker, Barbara Ann
Describes the Learning Disability Program at the University of Vermont that focuses on discovering students' central processing deficits and offering compensatory training, modifying students' academic program if necessary, and providing socioemotional support. Discusses faculty-student relationship, the State Board Exam, and program participant…
Enell, Nancy C.; Lee, Peter
During the spring of 1981, a San Juan Task force of special education staff members developed revised criteria for the identification of students with specific learning disabilities (SLD). This report covers the second year of discrepancy criteria implementation. It examines the identification of 225 students with SLD during the first semester of…
Wirths, Claudine G.; Leonard, Steven
A project of the University of Maryland has developed a driver education curriculum for the learning disabled. Several states are making efforts to improve driver education, including rewriting materials and providing oral tests for drivers' licenses. Options for future safety programs include parent-student seminars, multidiscipline teaching, and…
The adolescent and adult population with learning disabilities (LD) continues to be underserved and underprepared to meet the demands of postsecondary education. Evidence pertaining to postsecondary education outcomes for the population with LD is extremely bleak. One purpose of this article is to situate thinking about adolescents and adults with…
Independently, learning disabilities (LD) and involvement in bullying each pose a risk for social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Based on the research to date and on the characteristics common to children with LD and children who are bullied, there is reason to be- lieve that children with LD are at increased risk of victimization. However, there is little research on
Vogel, Susan A., Ed.; Reder, Stephen, Ed.
This book deals with the long-neglected problem of learning disabilities (LDs) and the relationship of LDs to difficulties in the acquisition of literacy. Its 17 chapters are divided into 5 sections that begin with an opener to help the reader identify the main themes and content of each chapter in the section. Four chapters in Section I address…
McKenna, Gregory S.
The primary purpose of this report is to explore within the Canadian context the relationship between Self-Reported Learning Disabilities (SRLD) and low literacy performance using the Canadian portion of the public data set from the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (IALSS). Two primary research questions related to SRLD…
Sieben, Robert L.
The author presents a critical review of popular medical treatments for children with learning disabilities, including dietary treatment (food additives theories, brain allergies, hypoglycemia, megavitamin therapy, and trace mineral tests) and neurophysiologic retraining (patterning, sensory integrative therapy, and optometric training). (IM)
Lowey, Elizabeth L.
Suggests a project in creative stitchery, with yarn and burlap, as a way to relax learning disabled students and to help them with fine motor coordination, directionality, and self-image. Methods, objectives, and benefits of the project are listed. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (SJL)
Ripley, Suzanne; Cvach, Peggy A.
The article looks at the role of play and recreation in the lives of children with learning disabilities and suggests ways parents can help integrate such children into recreation and sports programs. The importance of three systems of support--the family, the school, and the peer group--is stressed. Parents are urged to work toward providing the…
Benton, Curtis D., Jr.
In the rebuttal to charges made by Nathan Flax, an optometrist, regarding the joint organizational statement of three medical associations concerning treatment of dyslexia and related learning disabilities, the author discusses the five controversial points and largely reaffirms the statement's conclusions. (MC)
Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn
Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…
Hearne, D; Stone, S
The field of learning disabilities, like education in the main, is undergoing calls for reform and restructuring, an upheaval brought on in great part by the forces of opposing paradigms--reductionism and constructivism. In reexamining our past, we must begin to address the failures of traditional deficit models and their abysmally low "cure" rate. Several new theories have arisen that challenge traditional practices in both general and special education classrooms. Particularly influential has been the work of Howard Gardner, whose theory of multiple intelligences calls for a restructuring of our schools to accommodate modes of learning and inquiry with something other than deficit approaches. At least some current research in the field of learning disabilities has begun to focus on creativity and nontraditional strengths and talents that have not been well understood or highly valued by the schools. In this article, we briefly summarize the findings in our search for the talents of students labeled learning disabled, evidence of their abilities, implications of these for the schools, and a beginning set of practical recommendations. PMID:7673790
This paper describes a special class program for gifted students (aged 9 to 12) with learning disabilities in Calgary (Alberta). The program has evolved over its 4 years to stress kinesthetic, experiential learning. The issue of remediation versus enrichment was resolved when it was found that the students responded best to whole theme…
Tyler, Janet Siantz; Colson, Steven
This paper presents definitions of common pediatric disabilities and information about incidence, causes, diagnosis, common characteristics, complications with educational implications, and multidisciplinary intervention approaches. It covers the following conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, fragile…
There are a number of disabilities that music educators may never encounter among their students in the music classroom; however, all music educators will have students with learning disabilities. Students with learning disabilities may have a variety of "presenting problems" that limit their academic and social success in the music classroom. The…
Younes, Robert P.; And Others
A neurological exam was administered in 119 learning-disabled children and 152 controls and a Neuroimmaturity Index (NI) was constructed. Neuroimmaturity decreased significantly with age, and after controlling for age and sex, there was statistically significant differences in NI between the learning-disabled and controls. Patterns of disability…
Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.
This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…
Learning Disabilities Association of America, 2010
This White Paper project was undertaken to address the Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA) concerns regarding the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) of 2004 statutory and regulatory requirements for the identification of Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD), and the subsequent U. S. Department of…
Open and flexible learning in adult and community education (ACE) can be successful for learners with disabilities if they are assisted in becoming self-directed learners and in learning to learn. (SK)
Kirk, Winifred D.
Responding to J. Lerner's article on differences between the fields of reading and learning disabilities (EC 081 334) the author suggests that Lerner fails to distinguish between corrective reading and remedial reading, misunderstands learning disabilities as including only learning problems with neurological bases, and misconstrues task analysis…
Shogren, Karrie A.; Bovaird, James A.; Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
Previous research has suggested differences in the locus of control (LOC) orientations of students with intellectual disability, learning disabilities, and no disabilities, although this research has been characterized by methodological limitations. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of LOC orientations in students with…
Seitz, Sandy; Scheerer, Jan
Designed for community college educators, this paper provides an overview of the characteristics and problems of the learning disabled adult and offers strategies for both teaching and learning. Following introductory remarks, the paper provides definitions of learning disability and discusses the symptoms, psychological effects, and incidence of…
Waber, Deborah P.
Experts have yet to reach consensus about what a learning disability is, how to determine if a child has one, and what to do about it. Leading researcher and clinician Deborah Waber offers an alternative to the prevailing view of learning disability as a problem contained within the child. Instead, she shows how learning difficulties are best…
Peck, David G.
Attempts to define and integrate four concepts: emotional learning disabilities, adolescence, self-esteem, and the social-psychological concept of "significant others." The discussion emphasizes problems associated with students with learning disabilities, and external factors affecting in-school learning behavior of adolescents. (Author/CM)
Zitani, E. Alfredo
Learning disability is suggested to be a dissociative reaction (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime requiring appropriate theoretical and remedial approaches. Psychoanalytic and learning theory viewpoints are applied to the nature of learning disabilities. Also considered are the relation of anxiety to achievement and hypnosis to…
The study presents teaching techniques for use with elementary learning disabled students which utilize right brain simultaneous (as opposed to sequential or left brain) learning processes. It also describes a 15-week classroom project utilizing selected techniques with 11 learning disabled children in grades 2 through 6. The literature review and…
Welsh, Cecilia Rose
The purpose of this generic qualitative study was to determine how and to what extent educational programming affects the success of middle school students experiencing the contemporary phenomenon identified as gifted learning disabled (GLD). The research took place within the real-life context of the middle school these GLD students attended.…
Lerma, Terry DeRocher
Changing population demographics, including urbanization and improved services and quality of life for persons with disabilities, have produced changes in the types and numbers of disabilities which educators, service providers and employers are increasingly asked to accommodate. These changes have also resulted in a need for researchers,…
Lau, Won-Fong K.; Ortega, Karina; Sharkey, Jill
Students with learning disabilities have been found to lack self-awareness about their disability, likely contributing to several challenges they experience, such as social skill deficits. At the same time, there is limited research investigating interventions to effectively increase disability self-awareness among this population. The current…
McKenzie, Karen; Michie, Amanda; Murray, Aja; Hales, Charlene
The study assessed the validity of an intellectual disability screening tool, the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ), in three forensic settings: a community intellectual disability forensic service; a forensic in-patient secure unit and a prison, using data for 94 individuals. A significant positive relationship was found between…
Lock, Robin H.; Layton, Carol A.
Examined the ability of the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) to differentiate between postsecondary populations with and without learning disabilities. Found that the LDDI is a reliable method for identifying the possibility of a learning disability in postsecondary students. (EV)
Gurecka, Louis E.; Gent, Pamela J.
Asserts that many service learning projects are rife with disablism, a set of assumptions and practices that promote the differential or unequal treatment of people because of actual or presumed disabilities. Discusses four common images about people with disabilities that may guide selection of service projects for them. Offers suggestions to…
Goodman, Libby; And Others
Information is presented on approximately 600 curriculum materials for secondary learning disabled students. Listed are the title and publisher, interest and instructional level, format type, and a brief description for materials in nine curriculum areas: career education, reading, language arts, spelling, math, social studies, consumer education,…
DeBrosse, Marion, Ed.; And Others
Presented are 12 papers from a conference on the issues of secondary learning disability. Following an introduction are the texts of discussions from the conference's four sections covering an overview of the central issues, definition and identification, learner characteristics, educational priorities and objectives, remedial strategies, model…
Egly, Nancy J.; And Others
The manual presents an overview of the career development process for college students with language learning disabilities (LD). A systematic problem solving process is advocated beginning with job selection and preparation and continuing through retirement. Such a process can help the LD adult to identify personal strengths and weaknesses,…
Recent research demonstrates that despite increased attention and awareness by politicians and decision-makers, people with learning disabilities are still disadvantaged when engaging with the criminal justice system. It has been argued that shortcomings in providing support are because of criminal justice professionals lacking necessary skills…
Self-efficacy has been reported to play a significant role in stress levels of parents facing challenging behaviours of their children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has also been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. To understand the implications of staff self-efficacy in…
Neufeld, Paul; Hoskyn, Maureen
The purpose of this article is to respond to Reid and Valle's article "The Discursive Practice of LD: Implications for Instruction and Parent?School Relations" in this issue. Our response to the discursive analysis is organized around two major themes: (a) the issue of balance in the scholarship on learning disabilities (LD) and (b) the centrality…
Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep
Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. PMID:24913752
In rebuttal to H. Lee Swanson's paper, "Toward a Metatheory of Learning Disabilities," this article emphasizes that a bias toward applied research in learning disabilities is appropriate, that explanatory theories may not provide control over the phenomena explained, and that the field's orientation toward social consensus rather than theory…
Tindall, Lloyd W.
Strategies and techniques appropriate for providing vocational education and employment to learning-disabled adolescents and adults at both the secondary and postsecondary levels now exist. The first step involves formal and informal activities to appropriately identify learning disabled students. Formal assessments should be conducted by…
Horn, Jaime Helena; Moss, Duncan
Research has identified the collective experiences of oppression, stigma and isolation in the lives of people with learning disabilities. Against the backdrop of social and cultural processes that shape and limit the life experiences of people with learning disabilities, the authors are interested in how the individual develops a sense of self and…
The purpose of this study was to measure how learning disabled (LD) children perceive reading and libraries. No similar studies were found during the literature search undertaken for this project. Twenty-three fourth and fifth grade students identified as learning disabled by their school system were interviewed to collect information on their…
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.
The guide was intended for use by teachers of learning disabled students involved in assessment procedures. A philosophical framework, in which assessment is viewed in the ongoing team process, is followed by review of Wisconsin's rules on the identification of learning disabilities. A report format is presented as an outline for consolidating…
Gustafson, Julia; Langan, Kerry
In addition to a literature review emphasizing definitions, statistics, and legislation concerning learning disabilities, this paper presents the results of a 1987 survey of academic libraries regarding their services for postsecondary learning disabled students. Responses (n=525) to the questionnaire indicated that, as a group, academic…
Kaur, Gurpreet; Scior, Katrina; Wilson, Suzanne
Systemic therapy works not just with the individual but those around them in trying to address difficulties and find ways forward. This approach has received increasing attention in learning disability settings over recent years. To date little is known about the provision of systemic therapy in learning disability services in the UK. This article…
Price, Marianne; Goodman, Libby
The final project evaluation on "Curricular Development for Secondary Learning Disabilities" focuses on the academic achievement of 86 students who participated in seven secondary learning disabilities classes in which the curricular model developed by the project was utilized. It is noted that the purpose of the project was to provide intensive…
Rubenzer, Ronald L.
The information digest presents information on stress management in the schools for learning disabled students. The following questions are addressed: Why does the education "spotlight" need to be trained on stress management in the schools? What is stress? What are possible causes of achievement stress for the learning disabled? (school and…
Sayeski, Kristin L.
Difficulty with spelling is a perennial challenge for students with learning disabilities. Several decades of research, however, have identified both fundamental linguistic concepts and instructional approaches that, when understood by a teacher, can be applied to teach students with learning disabilities to spell. In this article, a brief history…
Vickers, Melana Zyla
Universities are providing extra time on tests, quiet exam rooms, in-class note-takers, and other assistance to college students with modest learning disabilities. But these policies are shrouded in secrecy. This paper, "Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia," by Melana Zyla Vickers, examines the nature…
Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.
This report discusses outcomes of a study that conducted telephone interviews with 1,000 adults to investigate their awareness and attitudes toward learning disabilities and attitudinal changes since 1995, to explore parents' recognition of various behaviors or symptoms as indicators of possible learning disabilities, and to determine what level…
Bond, Rebecca J.; Hurst, Jenni
It is seen as increasingly important for people with learning disabilities to be supported to live independently and manage their own self care, productivity and leisure activities. This qualitative study explored the experiences of nine adults with mild learning disabilities who lived alone with minimal support. Their narratives were analysed…
Daviso, Alfred W.; Denney, Stephen C.; Baer, Robert M.; Flexer, Robert
This article describes the initial findings for students with learning disabilities from the first year of The Ohio Longitudinal Transition Study (OLTS). The study included 416 participants with learning disabilities who were exiting high school. Data from an in-school survey were analyzed by sample demographics (e.g. school setting, school type,…
The results of four followup studies of adults with childhood diagnoses of learning disabilities were reviewed. The subjects' literacy skills, academic outcomes, occupational outcomes, and social/emotional adjustments were analyzed. Results showed that learning disabilities were not a lifelong handicapping condition if adequate treatment were…
San Miguel, Stephanie K.; And Others
This article explores the hypothesis that social skill deficits among children with learning disabilities are associated with high rates of undetected psychiatric diagnoses. The maladaptive social skills patterns of children with specific subtypes of learning disabilities appear to mimic the symptom patterns of children with attention deficit…
Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.
Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…
Joseph W. Madaus; Manju Banerjee; Elizabeth C. Hamblet
Students with learning disabilities (LD) transitioning from secondary school to postsecondary education must submit documentation verifying the existence of a disability and that describes a current and substantial limitation to learning. Preparing acceptable documentation can be a challenge for secondary personnel because of differing laws at the secondary and postsecondary levels and because of variation in the type of data
DiAnne B Garner
While graduation from high school may be common for students with learning disabilities, successful completion of a four-year degree program at the postsecondary level is not as common. This article contains the stories of the first three high school students with learning disabilities taught by the author who successfully graduated from postsecondary institutions. The students share their perceptions of their
This study examined the unanticipated effects that children with learning disabilities have on the life of their families. Eleven parents of students aged 8 to 16 years old participated in two separate focus group interviews. Findings showed that children with learning disabilities had a range of effects on their families. These included family…
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Education.
Intended for special education personnel, the resource guide is designed to clarify the concept of learning disabilities, determine the nature of the data which must be collected to determine the presence or absence of learning disability, develop procedures for collecting the data, and interpret the data. Initial sections address P.L. 94-142 (the…
Cordoni, Barbara Keene
This dissertation presents a systematic review of literature published from 1861-1974 and available in English which deals with children who may be classified as learning disabled by current federal law. The purposes of the review were to trace the studies of behaviors related to learning disabilities, to identify key studies on which later…
Peterson, Patricia; Johnson, Gae; Showalter, Stephen
Students with learning disabilities have significantly lower achievement in math and science than students from the general population. If these students with learning disabilities also are English Learners, the challenges for success in math and science are even more difficult. Teachers need to infuse best practices into their classrooms to…
Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Center for Special Education Technology.
One of nine brief guides for special educators on using computer technology, this guide focuses on computer use with learning disabled students for such purposes as direct instruction and development of communication skills. It is noted that the learning disabled student may possess certain characteristics which require the kind of modification of…
BUILD Program bridge to university for individuals with learning disabilities Now, you can get by participating in our new BUILD (Bridge to University for Individuals with Learning Disabilities) Program. Sign the school year knowing the critical information you need to be successful in university. The Bridge
BUILD Program Bridge to University for Individuals with Learning Disabilities Now, you can get by participating in our new BUILD (Bridge to University for Individuals with Learning Disabilities) Program. Sign the school year knowing the critical information you need to be successful in university. The Bridge
Williams, Val; Ponting, Lisa; Ford, Kerrie; Rudge, Philippa
For people with learning disabilities to have control over their lives, the quality of their support staff matters. This paper reports on an inclusive research study, which used video analysis to study the communication skills of personal assistants (PAs) who worked with people with learning disabilities. The findings reveal some of the fine…
Layton, Carol A.; Lock, Robin H.
This article discusses issues in the identification of learning disabilities in students with low vision and examines the academic performance of one 8-year-old student and the methods that his multidisciplinary team used to document a dual diagnosis of low vision and learning disabilities. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)
Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Watt, Sarah J.; Therrien, William J.
As a growing number of students with learning disabilities (LD) receive science instruction in general education settings, students with LD continue to perform significantly lower than their non-disabled peers. The shift from textbook-driven instruction to inquiry-based approaches to science learning supports students who struggle with reading.…
Williams, Joanna P.
This final report details the results of a federally funded project designed to investigate reading comprehension in students with learning disabilities and their ability to identify themes. The first part of the report discusses reading instruction and students with learning disabilities, and provides an overview of the research. The second…
Riegel, R. Hunt, Ed.
This document discusses legal considerations in the identification of Michigan students with learning disabilities and suggests guidelines for meeting legal requirements in a systematic and consistent manner. An introduction outlines issues and problems related to the assessment of learning disabilities and provides a rationale for the importance…
Daniels, Roberta R.; And Others
Difficulties inherent in the dual classification of gifted and learning disabled are analyzed, and research on the issue is reviewed. The Creative Problem Solving (CPS) Model is used to identify problems in service provision for gifted/learning disabled students. Areas of concern are listed and then expanded by using the five steps of the CPS…
Sams, Kathryn; Collins, Suzanne; Reynolds, Shirley
Background: There is a need to develop and adapt therapies for use with people with learning disabilities who have mental health problems. Aims: To examine the performance of people with learning disabilities on two cognitive therapy tasks (emotion recognition and discrimination among thoughts, feelings and behaviours). We hypothesized that…
Hutchens, Teresa A.
Measures of automaticity have shown different developmental trends in the speed and accuracy of processing in learning disabled (LD) and normally achieving children. This study extends this research to young adults, comparing the learning disabled with normal achievers. Its primary focus was to document the presence of basic processing deficits in…
This book offers a British perspective on ways of conceptualizing, assessing, and intervening in the challenging behavior of people with severe learning disabilities, with emphasis on the types of technical support needed. An introductory chapter explains why the term "learning disability" is used rather than mental handicap, mental retardation,…
Differences in the learning styles of students with and without learning disabilities (LD) at a distance-learning university were examined. Two hundred and twelve students answered self-report questionnaires on their learning styles. Results revealed that students with LD preferred to use more stepwise processing, including memorizing and…
Miller, Christina R.
A qualitative exploration of a service-learning program for high school students with disabilities is presented. Focus groups with (n = 15) students and interviews with (n = 3) service-learning teachers at multiple service-learning sites were conducted to explore the perceptions of students and service-learning teachers regarding the impact of the…
The use of ICT in education is becoming increasingly important and has potential advantages to disabled learners if the technologies are appropriately designed, including for accessibility and usability, and used. This paper presents the first sets of recommendations for learning technologies for disabled people aimed at disabled learners, teachers, developers and educational institutions respectively. They were developed as part of the work of the Enable Network for ICT Learning for Disabled People and involved input from both experts and end-users. The concise format facilitates production in a variety of formats and languages for accessibility and wide distribution. The paper discusses the recommendations and their relationship to existing guidelines. PMID:26294448
...THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations...Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.309 ...determine that a child has a specific learning disability, as defined in §...
...THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations...Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.309 ...determine that a child has a specific learning disability, as defined in §...
...THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations...Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.309 ...determine that a child has a specific learning disability, as defined in §...
Shapiro, Joan; Rich, Rebecca
This text provides information on learning disabilities in adults and offers practical ways to compensate. Chapters address: (1) definitions of learning disability; (2) etiology of learning disabilities; (3) our cognitive or thinking systems; (4) different assessment settings and some of the tests used to diagnose a learning disability; (5)…
Pieper, Edward L.; Deshler, Donald D.
have been associa t ed with the learning disabled: visual, auditory and haptic perception, attention, discri mination, memo ry, sensory integration, concept formation, and problem solving. The def in iti on cites a disorder in one of the psycholog...
Testing organizations have recently been scrutinized because of the perception that affluent, white male students from the northeast are falsely claiming disabilities to gain extended time on standardized tests for college admission. In response to these assertions, the percentage of learning disabled test takers on the SAT I: Reasoning Test is…
Santos, Rosa Milagros; Ruppar, Andrea L.; Jeans, Laurie M.
This article provides a description of service learning implemented in an introductory special education course focused on the culture of disability. Collaborating with liaisons from five community service organizations, students provided services to individuals with disabilities in a variety of projects across two semesters. Communication and…
Bell, Tamekia R.
Clients with learning disabilities constitute a cultural group that has not been extensively studied. The professional literature has found that counselors have reported the need for additional training in working with clients with disabilities. This study explored counselors' beliefs and perceived knowledge regarding counseling clients with…
Abreu-Ellis, Carla; Ellis, Jason; Hayes, Richard
This paper discusses the results of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) administered to college students in order to identify similarities and differences between time of diagnosis of a learning disability and the development of learning strategies related to will, self-regulation, and skill components. Findings indicate that early…
Guerrera, Claudia Patrizia
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) with learning-disabled (LD) students. Twenty-four students (12 dyads) classified as LD and attending a school for the learning-disabled participated in the study. Students engaged in either a computer-based environment involving BioWorld, a hospital simulation designed to teach biology students problem-solving skills, or a paper-and-pencil version based on the computer program. A hybrid model of learning was adopted whereby students were provided with direct instruction on the digestive system prior to participating in a problem-solving activity. Students worked in dyads and solved three problems involving the digestive system in either a computerized or a paper-and-pencil condition. The experimenter acted as a coach to assist students throughout the problem-solving process. A follow-up study was conducted, one month later, to measure the long-term learning gains. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze three types of data: process data, outcome data, and follow-up data. Results from the process data showed that all students engaged in effective collaboration and became more systematic in their problem solving over time. Findings from the outcome and follow-up data showed that students in both treatment conditions, made both learning and motivational gains and that these benefits were still evident one month later. Overall, results demonstrated that the computer facilitated students' problem solving and scientific reasoning skills. Some differences were noted in students' collaboration and the amount of assistance required from the coach in both conditions. Thus, PBL is an effective learning approach with LD students in science, regardless of the type of learning environment. These results have implications for teaching science to LD students, as well as for future designs of educational software for this population.
Sandrene, John; Eisenbise, Carol R.
Learning style preferences were identified for 1,264 10th and 11th graders in a vocational school, of whom 164 had learning disabilities, 45 mental retardation, and 32 socioemotional disturbances. The information is useful for matching instructional style to the best learning mode of students with disabilities. (SK)
Horvat, Michael A.
Improving the balance of learning disabled children was investigated through the use of a 12-week structured gross motor home learning program. Analyses concluded that parents can significantly enhance the static and dynamic balance of their learning disabled children by implementing a structured gross-motor training program at home. (Author/PN)
Taymans, Juliana M.; Swanson, H. Lee; Schwarz, Robin L.; Gregg, Noel; Hock, Michael; Gerber, Paul J.
Findings from "Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults With Learning Disabilities" will inform a new professional development program to be offered to practitioners and others working with adults with learning disabilities (LD). The six topics covered in the review--assessment, English language learners,…
Wilkinson, Heather; Watchman, Karen
This briefing brings together the findings from several studies in order to report on the importance of families and relationships in the lives of people with a learning disability, who are growing older and experiencing dementia....
...learning disability, as defined in § 300.8(c)(10); (2) Must permit the use of a process based on the child's response to scientific, research-based intervention; and (3) May permit the use of other alternative...
In response to J. Lerner's article (EC 081 334) on differences between the fields of reading and learning disabilities (LD), the author stresses that the essential role of the LD specialist is that of an educator. (DB)
Adams, Ruth R.
In response to J. Lerner's paper (EC 081 334) on differences between the fields of reading and learning disabilities, the author stresses the importance of a developmental view of reading based on the theories and findings of J. Piaget. (DB)
Stephens, Thomas M.
The placement of learning disabled and behaviorally disordered children in the least restrictive setting requires consideration of both environmental conditions and psychological factors which contribute to the handicap. (DB)
Dudley-Marling, C; Dippo, D
This article uses discourse theory to determine what kind of relationship learning disabilities have with taken-for-granted assumptions of schooling and the social and political contexts in which schools are situated. The authors argue that learning disabilities, by helping to explain several contradictions and anomalies of schooling, function to sustain dominant assumptions underlying schooling and society. From this perspective, the field of learning disabilities plays a role in maintaining a status quo in which the inequitable distribution of social goods in society is seen as the "natural" consequence of an "equitable" meritocracy. The authors call on learning disabilities practitioners to augment the support they offer students with efforts to actively confront the inequities of schooling and society. PMID:7673787
Leicester, Mal; Cooke, Pam
What follows is a response to an article by Spiecker and Steutel in which they pose the question of whether sex between people with "mental retardation" (sic) is morally permissible and in which they argue that since many such people cannot give "valid consent", the additional consent of caretakers may be required. However, we argue that the term "mental retard" is offensive and that either the UK terminology ("the learning disabled") or the internationally accepted term ("intellectually disabled") are more acceptable. Moreover, we point out that Spiecker and Steutel are mistaken. Many "learning disabled" people can and do give "valid consent". In any case, their question is itself dubious. Why should two learning disabled people who want to have sex together need anyone else's consent? In addition, we briefly address the rights of the learning disabled to the same sexual freedom as others, on the one hand, and to freedom from sexual exploitation on the other hand. Finally, we consider the implications of these issues for moral education. We suggest that carers need to develop empathy and, where necessary, advocacy skills. We point to the existence of training programmes on sexuality and protection issues. PMID:15027441
Ann Grasso Ryan
This paper reports the results of a study comparing college freshmen with learning disabilities (LD) and freshmen with no\\u000a learning disabilities (NLD). Four data collections over one academic year were completed on a total of 72 students (LDn=39; NLDn=33). Results of the study indicated differences between groups in their initial choice of living accommodations and in the\\u000a changes made over
Smith, Valerie M.
This article presents knowledge about disability issues that seven undergraduate students constructed through participation in a semester-long service learning class. In-depth interviews and examination of reflective journals revealed that students used their experiences to question the nature of relationships with people with disabilities, the…
Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Gillespie-Silver, Patricia
The study explored the qualifications of learning-disabled college students by examining the academic performance (first year grade point average--GPA) of 179 learning-disabled and 249 nonlearning-disabled students classified by two objective admission criteria--either Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) or high-school class rank. Overall, the scores…
This digest is derived from Susan Baum's "Being Gifted and Learning Disabled...From Definition to Practical Intervention." The learning disabled gifted are grouped into three categories: identified gifted students who have subtle learning disabilities, unidentified students whose gifts and disabilities may be masked by average achievement, and…
Washington Univ., Seattle.
This brief paper considers ways in which people with learning disabilities can benefit from both mainstream and specialized computer hardware and software. First, definitions are provided of terminology, including terms such as dysgraphia, dyscalculia, dyspraxia, non-verbal learning disorder, and dyslexia. Discussion of the role of assistive…
Hashey, Andrew I.; Stahl, Skip
The growing presence of K-12 online education programs is a trend that promises to increase flexibility, improve efficiency, and foster engagement in learning. Students with disabilities can benefit from dynamic online educational environments, but only to the extent that they can access and participate in the learning process. As students with…
This article provides an introduction to theoretical ideas and practices from the so-called "philosophers of difference"--Foucault, Derrida, and Deleuze and Guattari--as an invitation to think differently about the construction of learning disability and to envision new forms of learning. Two key concepts, Foucault's transgression and Deleuze and…
Moore-Brown, Barbara; Huerta, Maria; Uranga-Hernandez, Yvana; Pena, Elizabeth D.
Dynamic assessment uses a test-teach-retest approach that can assist clinicians in differentiating between children with learning disabilities and children with learning differences. This article describes a model of dynamic assessment of narratives and its use with children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Case studies…
Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia
The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…
Six issues relating to assessment of gifted/learning disabled (GLD) students are discussed: (1) incidence; (2) cut-off IQ scores; (3) barriers to identification; (4) use of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised; (5) differentiation between GLD and underachieving gifted; (6) qualitative differences between GLD, gifted, and learning…
FRIERSON, EDWARD C., ED.; BARBE, WALTER B., ED.
INTENDED FOR GENERAL EDUCATORS WAS WELL AS SPECIALISTS, THE COLLECTION CONTAINS SELECTED ARTICLES BY DIFFERENT AUTHORS ON LEARNING DISABILITIES. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FIELD IS PROVIDED BY AN OVERVIEW (FIVE ARTICLES) AND A CONSIDERATION OF BRAIN DYSFUNCTIONS (FOUR ARTICLES). SPECIALIZED APPROACHES TO LEARNING DISORDERS ARE EXPLAINED FROM THE…
Schmidt, Majda; Prah, Alenka; Cagran, Branka
Social skills of students with special needs play a very important role in their successful integration into inclusive learning environments. The aim of present empirical research was to establish whether students with learning disabilities (LD) attending grades 7-9 of regular primary school in Slovenia experience difficulties in social skills…
Harrison, Allyson G.; Larochette, Anne-Claire; Nichols, Eva
In 1997, the government of Ontario announced the establishment of the Learning Opportunities Task Force (LOTF) to develop and administer a series of pilot projects to enhance the transition of students with specific learning disabilities into postsecondary education, and to identify what supports, services and accommodations would assist these…
Masoura, Elvira V.
Research findings concerning working memory impairment of children with learning disabilities, poor readers, and individuals with severe learning difficulties are examined within the framework of working memory. Results from developmental and experimental studies indicate a close link between the function of working memory and performance on…
Oyler, James D.; Obrzut, John E.; Asbjornsen, Arve E.
The authors of this current study compared the memory performance of adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) with that of typical adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test, the "Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test" (BTVLT). This multiple trial test was designed to measure memory acquisition, retention,…
Taking public transit can make anyone nervous, especially in a large or medium-sized city where there are many different bus lines going many different places. The author's daughter, Anna, has multiple learning disabilities and may never learn to drive, but she wants to be as independent as possible so the author taught her to ride the bus. This…
Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.
Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…
Davis, Veronica Ladell
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS IN MENTALLY RETARDED AND LEARNING DISABLED VERSUS NORMAL SUBJECTS: AN ATTRIBUTIONAL APPROACH A Thesis by VERONICA LADELL DAVIS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1981 Major Subject: Psychology LEARNED HELPLESSNESS IN MENTALLY RETARDED AND LEARNING DISABLED VERSUS NORMAL SUBJECTS: AN ATTRIBUTIONAL APPROACH A Thesis by VERONICA LADELL DAVIS Approved...
Vicente, Ann R., Ed.
The resource guide was designed primarily for teachers in British Columbia and provides information for working with mainstreamed learning disabled children. The guide is divided into the following eight topics (with sample papers in parentheses): learning disabilities ("Myths and Realities in Learning Disabilities" by W. Cruickshank, "Learning…
Hackman, Judith Dozier; And Others
This paper examines the effectiveness of the Project MECCA (Make Every Child Capable of Achieving) model for early identification and mainstreaming of children with potential specific learning disabilities (SLD). The MECCA model incorporates collaboration between the learning disabilities teacher and the classroom teacher within the classroom…
In this study, a mixed methods approach was used to gather descriptive exploratory information regarding the teaching of science to middle grades students with learning disabilities within a general education classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and their practices concerning providing equitable opportunities for students with learning disabilities in a general education science classroom. Equitable science teaching practices take into account each student's differences and uses those differences to inform instructional decisions and tailor teaching practices based on the student's individualized learning needs. Students with learning disabilities are similar to their non-disabled peers; however, they need some differentiation in instruction to perform to their highest potential achievement levels (Finson, Ormsbee, & Jensen, 2011). In the quantitative phase, the purpose of the study was to identify patterns in the beliefs of middle grades science teachers about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom. In the qualitative phase, the purpose of the study was to present examples of instruction in the classrooms of science education reform-oriented middle grades science teachers. The quantitative phase of the study collected data from 274 sixth through eighth grade teachers in the State of Florida during the 2007--2008 school year using The Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory. Overall, the quantitative findings revealed that middle grades science teachers held positive beliefs about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education science classroom. The qualitative phase collected data from multiple sources (interviews, classroom observations, and artifacts) to develop two case studies of reform-oriented middle grades science teachers who were expected to provide equitable science teaching practices. Based on their responses to The Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory, the case study teachers demonstrated characteristics of successful teachers of diverse learners developed by Lynch (2000). Overall, the qualitative findings revealed that the case study teachers were unsure how to provide equitable science teaching practices to all students, particularly to students with learning disabilities. They provided students with a variety of learning experiences that entailed high expectations for all; however, these experiences were similar for all students. Had the teachers fully implemented equitable science teaching practices, students would have had multiple options for taking in the information and making sense of it in each lesson. Teaching that includes using a variety of validated practices that take into account students' individualized learning needs can promote aspects of equitable science teaching practices. Finally, this study provides implications for teacher education programs and professional development programs. As teachers implement science education reform efforts related to equitable science teaching practices, both teacher education programs and professional development programs should include opportunities for teachers to reflect on their beliefs about how students with learning disabilities learn and provide them with a variety of validated teaching practices that will assist them in teaching students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom while implementing science reform efforts.
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
Proponents of a social model of disability derive their arguments from social constructionism. They combine different disabling conditions under one term: disability. Subsequently, they apply the specific viewpoint of the disability rights social movement of people with physical disabilities to other conditions such as intellectual disabilities,…
American Institutes for Research, Washington, DC.
This report summarizes the consensus statements developed by the Learning Disabilities Roundtable (February 2002), a meeting of the 10 member organizations of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities to provide input for the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The Roundtable resulted in defined areas of…
Abbott, David; Marriott, Anna
In the UK, policy on adult social care places an emphasis on maximising choice and control for service users, including people with learning disabilities. The shift from the provision of organised services for groups of people to offering individual and personal budgets and pots of money for people to buy their own services has major implications…
Sigmon, Scott B.
This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…
Presented at the First National Conference on Learning Disabilities in Ottawa, Canada in October, 1977, the article discusses learning disabilities and their appropriate special educational services in Canada, focusing on the processes of categorization and labeling. (DLS)
Swanson, H. Lee; And Others
Evaluation of the relationship between metacognition and analogical reasoning in 80 children (mildly retarded, learning disabled, normal achieving, and gifted) suggests that retarded children's performance reflected a central processing deficiency across processes, learning-disabled children's performance reflected specific processing…
Solan, Harold A.; Springer, Florence E.
The Learning Disabilities Unit of New York's State College of Optometry, providing testing and research for learning disabled adults and children and professional instruction and clinical experience for students of optometry and related fields, is described. (MSE)
The community college offers educational opportunities to a diverse population of students. Many of the students attending the community college are considered non-traditional, and have numerous factors not faced by traditional-age students that can affect retention in this population. Learning disabled (LD) students attend the community college at a higher rate than other higher education institutions (Barnett, 1996; Bigaj, 1995; & Henderson, 1992). The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) reported that LDs now constitute the largest single category of disability served by disability service offices in the community colleges (Barnett, 1992). Accommodations are set up by the Disability Support Services Departments, and it is the Disability Services offered by the college that can be the deciding factor for the student regarding the choice of institution (Cocchi, 1997). A trend for the future involves many students who attend the community college self-identifying as being learning disabled and requesting accommodation. Faculty, staff, and administrators in the community college will need to be very familiar with legislation that impacts the rights and availability of services for LD students. PMID:19172972
Gerber, Paul J.; Batalo, Cecilia G.; Achola, Edwin O.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and its amendments have been in existence for a little more than twenty years. Title One, which pertains to employment, has had a bearing on employment for persons with disabilities, particularly the high incidence category of learning disabilities, who for the most part work in competitive…
Carnine, Douglas; Woodward, John
This critique of H. Lee Swanson's "Toward a Metatheory of Learning Disabilities" comments on Swanson's concept of learning disabilities, cognitive science, and information processing theory. A different research and theory-building agenda is proposed, focusing on society's definition of learning disabilities and instructional issues and using…
Meier, John H.; And Others
This manual for administering, scoring, and interpreting the Individual Learning Disabilities Screening Instrument is introduced with the definition, prevalence, and etiology of learning disabilities. Next, a sample of the Individual Learning Disabilities Classroom Screening Instrument (ILDCSI) is provided. The administration and scoring of the…
Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.
This study examined 1,200 adults' understanding of and attitudes toward learning disabilities, through a telephone survey. Additional objectives included the identification of various information sources and testing of potential messages about learning disabilities. Halfway through each telephone interview, a definition of learning disabilities…
Grosshans, Judd; Kiger, Martha
The purpose of this article is to offer insights into the complex area of learning disabilities, to provide tips on how to recognize children with various types of learning disabilities, and to offer suggestions for teaching students who are learning disabled. The hope is that with some information and "teaching tips" in this area, more and more…
Avazian, Karyn Lorraine Wood
The review of the literature focuses on research assessing the effects of learning disabilities on a child's self-concept. After an introduction, definitions of "learning disabilities" and "self-concept" are offered. The literature on effects of learning disabilities on self-concept in elementary, middle, and high school age children is then…
Plata, Maximino; Bone, Jerri
The study of perceived importance of 23 occupations by 65 adolescents with learning disabilities and 85 adolescents without learning disabilities revealed that occupations were ranked similarly by the two groups though students with learning disabilities held occupations classified as skilled, semi-skilled, or unskilled in higher regard than…
Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan
We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…
Ohler, Denise L.; And Others
A study compared levels of career maturity between college students with and without learning disabilities and investigated factors associated with the career maturity of college students with learning disabilities. Specifically, the relationship between career maturity of college students with learning disabilities and the following variables was…
Lyon, G. Reid, Ed.
This book offers 27 papers addressing critical issues in the assessment of students with all kinds of learning disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Critical Issues in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (G. Reid Lyon); "A Matrix of Decision Points in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (Barbara K. Keogh);…
The aim of the current study is to examine differences in social anxiety between learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (non-LD) students, taking into account educational placement. The present research is the first to consider the above relations among Christian Arab adolescents living in Israel as an Eastern collectivist minority. On the whole, students with LD (learning disabilities) reported higher
McCurley, Arlene Bell
The guidebook for parents of learning disabled (LD) children provides answers to questions such as the following: What is a learning disability? How does an LD child behave? What should parents who suspect their child has a learning disability do? Can an LD child succeed in school? How should parents discipline an LD child? How can parents manage…
Murray, Christopher; Flannery, Brigid K.; Wren, Carol
This investigation examined university staff members' attitudes towards students with learning disabilities (LD) at the postsecondary level. Although prior research has examined university faculty perceptions of students with LD, little is known about staff members' attitudes and perceptions. A survey instrument was administered to approximately…
Learning disabilities (LD) has been recognized as a category of special education in Taiwanese law since 1984, and policies ensure educational services for children and youth who have LD. The official definition and identification criteria established in Taiwan's laws closely correspond with those of the United States, but practice differs,…
The paper examines the usefulness of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) subtest score pattern for distinguishing between groups of handicapped children, specifically learning disabled and emotionally disturbed students. The author asserts that no single clear cut pattern characteristic of either population is likely to…
Gerber, Paul J.; Batalo, Cecilia G.; Achola, Edwin O.
The impact of employment laws pertaining to individuals with learning disabilities in Canada and dyslexia in the UK were investigated via the extant research literature. Currently, there is very little research in this area despite Canada and the UK having laws in effect for decades. Surprisingly, their laws have been revamped despite an absence…
Bradley, Renee, Ed.; Danielson, Louis, Ed.; Hallahan, Daniel P., Ed.
This volume on the identification of learning disabilities (LD) offers chapters that provide comprehensive reviews of the research evidence underlying different aspects of LD and was the product of a 2001 general conference followed up by a small research forum. Contributors include researchers, parents, practitioners, and administrators. A final…
Lovett, Benjamin J; Sparks, Richard L
Much has been written about gifted students with learning disabilities, but there have been few large-scale empirical investigations, and the concept has proven controversial. The authors reviewed the available empirical literature on these students, focusing on (a) the criteria by which the students were identified and (b) the students' performance on standardized tests of ability and achievement. In addition, the test scores of these students were aggregated to determine typical performance levels. A total of 46 empirical articles were reviewed, and major findings included wide variability in identification criteria across studies, frequent reliance on dubious methods of learning disability identification, and a lack of academic impairment among the identified students. Implications for the "gifted/LD" category are discussed. PMID:22057201
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…
Parrish, Alan; Styring, Lesley
This article looks at the changes in the attitude of society towards people with a learning disability over the last 20 years. Their status in the world as well as their right to be recognized as individuals will be discussed. Nurses have had to move away from the medical and dependence model of care and adjust their practice and behaviour to practice in a more relaxed and domestic style, in which risk-taking, decision-making, choice and opportunity for the clients are key features of the service. This article will highlight the role that learning disability nurses have played in these changes and the adjustments that they have had to make to their clinical practice. Within the new culture of independence and rights for people with a disability, it emphasizes the need for nurses to ensure that they address their own accountability and responsibility. Strategies that have been developed to address social discrimination and exclusion will also be explored. PMID:14512861
Miller, Brett; Vaughn, Sharon; Freund, Lisa
Advancements in prevention and treatment of learning disabilities hold the promise of improving the educational, health, social and civic lives of affected children, adolescents, adults, and their families. To meet this promise, a continued, concerted effort is needed to develop and refine intervention approaches targeting struggling or at-risk learners and those identified with a specific learning disability. These interventions will be delivered in diverse settings by practitioners representing a range of disciplines. We need intervention options that address the developmental range of learners from our youngest to older secondary learners and include a sufficient breadth of intervention approaches to be relevant along the prevention to remediation (e.g., general education classroom and special education services in schools) spectrum. This special issue aims to move us closer to that promise by focusing on projects designed to inform intervention development and test specific intervention models for young, struggling learners at risk for or identified with a reading disability. PMID:25485027
Bley, Nancy S.; Thornton, Carol A.
This text explores teaching techniques and adaptations that have proven effective in teaching mathematics concepts and skills to students with learning disabilities. This fourth edition, consistent with the standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000, continues to emphasize problem solving, number sense, student…
Bley, Nancy S.; Thornton, Carol A.
This book explores teaching techniques and adaptations that have proven effective in teaching mathematics concepts and skills to students with learning disabilities, with a focus on reasoning methods rather than algorithmic calculation. Emphasis is placed on topics that potentially can or commonly do cause the most difficulty for students with…
Corley, Mary Ann; Taymans, Juliana M.
An emerging theme in professional development for adult literacy program staff over the past decade has been the topic of learning disabilities (LD). As adult educators have come to recognize that the effects of LD can play a significant role in the performance and retention of adult learners, many have sought answers to the following questions:…
Guven, Yildiz; Duman, Hulya Gulay
The aim of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of a project-based learning program delivered to children with mild mental disabilities. The 7 children (4 girls and 3 boys) selected for this experimental study were from an elementary school and attending a special class. The theme of the project was "Patisserie." At posttest the…
Macomber, Janet A.
This paper describes an experiment with background material designed to promote problem (learning disabled) employees as human resources rather than rejects. The material is presented in the form of the transcript of a fictional advisory committee meeting attended by the human resources manager, assistant corporate counsel, training director, line…
Shevitz, Betty; Weinfeld, Rich; Jeweler, Sue; Barnes-Robinson, Linda
This article describes the Wings Mentor Program in Maryland, a program developed to provide additional support to students with gifts who also have learning disabilities and highly able students who were not succeeding in the classroom. Students realize their creative and intellectual potential when paired with mentors who nurture them. (Contains…
Roessler, Richard T.; Johnson, Virginia Anne
Evaluation of a Vocational Coping Training (VCT) intervention to develop job maintenance skills with 12 learning disabled high school female students indicated that subjects receiving the intervention acquired more job maintenance skills than did control subjects and were rated higher on social competence and employability. (Author/DB)
Hayes, Marnell L.; Sloat, Robert S.
Learning-disabled students may have some characteristics that make them particularly vulnerable to suicide. This article describes common misconceptions about suicide, discusses danger signs indicative of suicide risk, outlines steps in crisis intervention, and lists suggested information pamphlets and films. (JDD)
Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.
The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2007
This paper addresses early identification, services, supports, and intervention for young children, birth through 4 years, who demonstrate delays in development that may place them at risk for later identification as having a learning disability (LD). Such delays include atypical patterns of development in cognition, communication, emergent…
Waldron, Karen A.
The article describes a secondary-level curriculum for written expression based on a linguistic model. Directed toward learning disabled adolescents, the method teaches sentence and paragraph construction based on verbal and written models presented by the teacher. Writing good sentences, paragraphs, and essays is presented as a logical extension…
Osterag, Bruce A.; Graves, Anne
Microcomputer software can provide excellent drill and practice, simulations, and problem-solving. Yet, software developers often have designed elaborate graphics and unique characters in lieu of sound instructional programming. Many instructional programs for learning-disabled students do not provide appropriate reading levels, the opportunity to…
Younes, Robert P.; Webb, Gertrude
Presented are findings from a computer analysis of 434 variables (including educational, social, medical, neurological and psychometric factors) of 201 5- to 19-year-old learning disabled (LD) children referred to a community hospital diagnostic program. It is explained that the variables were analyzed according to race, sex, and age. Among…
Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl
Identifying individuals with specific learning disabilities (SLD) is a complex task, particularly for adult populations. Adult agencies such as vocational rehabilitative services or adult basic education often use different SLD definitions and criteria, are often understaffed, have limited resources, and have a shortage of staff trained on SLD…
Minimal employable skills, poor work habits, and substance abuse are problems that often result in released female offenders' recidivating within 36 months of their prison release. Recidivism is further compounded when the female offender suffers from a learning disability. Research suggests that correctional education experiences do not…
Pennington, Bruce F.
Comprehensively reviews known examples of genetically influenced learning disabilities and speech and language disorders, including familial dyslexia, stuttering, and other speech and language disorders, as well as sex-chromosome anomalies, treated PKU, and minor auto-somal anomalies. (Author/RH)
Abudarham, Samuel, Ed.; Hurd, Angela, Ed.
This book for speech and language therapists explains interventions for increasing the communication skills of adolescents and adults who have learning disabilities or mild mental retardation. The book provides a British perspective, noting how speech language therapy can contribute to educational requirements such as the British National…
A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…
Presented is the final report of a 2-year project to develop an examplary model classroom program and curriculum for the secondary learning disabled student. Section I consists of completed forms entitled Project Completion Report, Termination Report, and Equipment Inventory. Outlined in Section II is information on the following project…
McClimens, Alex; Brennan, Siobhan; Hargreaves, Pauline
We undertook this project because we believed that hearing loss experienced by the target population was greater than the referral figures suggested. Therefore, we set up a trial service initiative designed to examine the efficacy of different referral routes into audiology services for adults with learning disability. This retrospective analysis…
Kennedy, Michael J.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lloyd, John Wills
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were…
Passolunghi, Maria Chiara
Emotional and cognitive factors were examined in 18 children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD), compared with 18 normally achieving children, matched for chronological age, school level, gender and verbal IQ. Working memory, short-term memory, inhibitory processes, speed of processing and level of anxiety in mathematics were assessed…
Witzel, Bradley S.; Riccomini, Paul J.; Schneider, Elke
Students with learning disabilities struggle to acquire essential mathematical concepts and skills, especially at the secondary level. One effective approach to improving secondary math performance supported by research is the concrete-to-representational-to-abstract (CRA) sequence of instruction. Although CRA is an evidenced-based instructional…
In these days of the achievement gap, evidence-based practices, and accountability issues, Julie Allan's "Complicating, not explicating: Taking up philosophy in learning disability research" challenges everyone to think seriously about how well the field is meeting the mission of providing for the academic and social needs of students with…
Simoncelli, Andrew; Hinson, Janice
This research details the methodologies that could be used to better deliver online course content to students with learning disabilities. Research has shown how the design of the course affects the students' attitudes and performance. This article details the methodology and pedagogical side of the delivery including instructional methods that…
Background: There is very little research on how and when siblings understand that they have a brother or sister with a learning disability. Research regarding young children's understanding of intelligence, suggests that they may not develop a clear understanding of ability until about 7 years of age. Method: Through interviewing parents and then…
Manoach, Dara S.
: Developmental learning disability; Eye move- ments; Frontal eye field; Prefrontal cortex; Social emotional neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The socialemotional processing disorder (SEPD), which has also been referred investigated whether adolescents and adults with the developmental socialemotional processing disorder (SEPD
Williams, Peter; Hennig, Christian
Much relevant internet-mediated information is inaccessible to people with learning disabilities because of difficulties in navigating the web. This paper reports on the methods undertaken to determine how information can be optimally presented for this cohort. Qualitative work is outlined where attributes relating to site layout affecting…
This newsletter contains six articles about correctional education for learning-disabled adults. In "Correctional Education: A Worthwhile Investment; An Interview with Steven Steurer," the executive director of the Correctional Education Association (CEA) explains the benefits of correctional education and some of the CEA's efforts to improve the…
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.
This guide for literacy teachers of limited English speaking adult students provides an overview of learning disabilities (LD) and suggests techniques that have been found effective with such students. The importance of understanding the student's background is stressed and a series of interview questions is suggested to elicit information about…
Mallett, Christopher A.
Adolescents becoming formally involved with a juvenile court because of school-related behavior and discipline problems is a phenomenon known as the school-to-prison pipeline. Adolescents with learning disabilities are disproportionately represented within this pipeline. A study was conducted to review the outcomes for a population of youthful…
Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee
Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…
Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others
Explored the impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled (LD) children. Important predictors of self-esteem improvement were the child's hypnotic susceptibility score and self-hypnotic practice by children and parents. Hypnotherapy is of potential benefit to self-esteem…
Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda
This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused…
Stone, C. Addison; Wertsch, James V.
A framework for strategy remediation with learning disabled students is presented according to theories of Soviet psychologist L.S. Vygotsky. Excerpts from a remediation session with a seven-year-old are offered to illustrate the progression from other- to self-regulation. (CL)
This article describes a privately operated residential program called College Living Experience, a for-profit company, caters to a growing number of students with learning disabilities, Asperger's syndrome, and various emotional or behavioral disorders. The program has a team of full-time staff members helping students with their social and…
Reed, J. C.; Axelrod, Penny
Described is the use of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Tests in the evaluation of children with learning disabilities. It is explained that these tests are based on a combined evaluation of four methods of inference: level of performance, ratio scores (measuring the discrepancy between overlearned and seldom practiced behavior to infer the…
Jacobs, Patricia; Fu, Danling
This article presents a case study on two fourth grade students with learning disabilities in two different writing situations: writing for test preparation and writing for digital stories. The students' writing behaviors, processes, and products in these two settings are contrasted. The differences in the students' writing experiences…
Bates, Belinda, Ed.
This issue of "Linkages" addresses skills that literacy programs can include in their curriculum to teach self-advocacy to adult learners with learning disabilities. Articles include: "Consumers Empowering Consumers" (Noel Gregg and Cheri Hoy); "Self-Advocacy: Practical Advice to the Adult with LD" (Pat Boyd); "Disclosure: It's a Matter of Choice"…
Marino, Matthew T.; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Basham, James D.
Have you ever bought a computer program that you thought would be great for your struggling students, only to find that it did not work on your school computers, or that your students found it difficult to use? Selecting science software for students with learning and other disabilities can be a challenge. This Idea Bank provides a list of…
Connections: A Journal of Adult Literacy, 1995
This issue focuses on learning disabilities of adult literacy students. The 11 papers in the journal were developed from research done by the authors at an intensive summer institute in 1994. After an introduction and a description of the summer institute (Martha Merson), the following papers are included: "Lucie: Is She or Isn't She?" (Meryl…
This review addresses the characteristics and needs of gifted learning disabled (GLD) and gifted underachieving (GUA) students and provides educational strategies for both groups. A section on the GUA describes these students' unique personal, social, and family characteristics and notes that underachievement is more prevalent among boys than…
Obringer, S. John; Coffey, Kenneth M.
A study investigated the effects of a more restrictive standard discrepancy model (SDM) on the learning-disability placement patterns of 4,100 students in Mississippi. Limiting eligibility to students who had achievement scores 1 1/2 standard deviations below their Full Scale IQ scores reduced eligible students from 124 to 36. (CR)
This monograph briefly describes a sampling of tools and technologies that can be used by adults with learning disabilities to improve their functional capabilities in employment, educational, or personal settings. Stressed is the importance of evaluating each technology in terms of the individual's unique profile, the function to be performed,…
Izzo, Margaretha Vreeburg; Murray, Alexa; Priest, Sarah; McArrell, Bianca
Student Learning Communities (SLCs) for high school and college students with disabilities interested in pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees were piloted at a major Midwestern university from 2009 to 2011. Students participated in a series of weekly sessions and/or a residential campus experience as part of a…
Renick, Mari Jo
To examine learning disabled children's intrinsic-extrinsic motivational orientation to their schoolwork, 90 LD students in grades 3-7 were administered the Scale of Instrinsic vs. Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom and the Perceived Competence Scale for Children. Items were read to the students and a short interview based on the students'…
Cole, Emma V.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.
The number of students with learning disabilities (SLD) at postsecondary institutions has tripled over the past three decades and now constitutes about 11% of undergraduate students (Joyce & Rossen, 2006; U.S. Department of Education, 2013). Research has found that SLD who use accommodations at their postsecondary institution are more…
Although most learning disabled (LD) adult learners have a strong desire to enhance their writing skills, many obstacles hinder their success. Characteristics of LD students found in their writing or actions include the following: frustration; poor study/note taking skills; test anxiety; lack of social skills; a difficult time following oral…
Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi
This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…
Nee, Elizabeth A.
The increasing number of students with learning disabilities (SLDs) attending higher education institutions is well documented (Brinkerhoff, McGuire, & Shaw, 2002; Goodnough, 2011; Hasselbring & Glaser, 2000; Raskind, & Higgins, 1999). E-texts are considered a reasonable accommodation and may help improve reading and comprehension…
Quick, Carol; Mandell, Colleen
The relationship between recurrent otitis media (middle ear infection characterized by the presence of middle ear fluid and possibly leading to a temporary conductive hearing loss) and learning disabilities (LD) is examined. Traditional treatment approaches (antibiotic medication and surgery) are reviewed. The definition of LD is presented and the…
Harper, Gregory F.; Maheady, Larry
Peer-mediated instruction holds particular promise as an effective educational strategy for children with learning disabilities. When properly implemented, peer-mediated instructional approaches permit active engagement, frequent opportunities to respond, immediate error correction, prompt feedback on the correctness of responses, and motivational…
Keith A. Nies; Phillip J. Belfiore
The present study, using a single subject adapted alternating treatments design, compared the effects of two spelling strategies (cover, copy, compare, and copy-only) used to enhance spelling performance in 2, third-grade students with learning disabilities. The cover, copy compare (CCC) method required the students to say the word, point to the word, repeat the word, cover the word, print the
This literature review and primary qualitative research explores therapeutic role from the perspective of Community Learning Disability Nurses. Semi-structured interviews, based on Critical Incident Technique ("Psychol Bull", 51, 1954, 327), and descriptive phenomenological methodology were adopted to elicit data amenable to systematic content…
Dean, Vincent J.; Burns, Matthew K.; Grialou, Tina; Varro, Patrick J.
The purpose of this article is to examine models designed for the determination of a learning disability and compare them to specific criteria to determine whether the given diagnostic process is ecological in nature. The traditional child-centered deficit model (CCD), Relative Achievement Discrepancy model (RAD), and Responsiveness to…
This publication contains self-esteem exercises and a learning disabilities (LD) curriculum for students with LD in adult basic education programs. The 37 student exercises are designed to build the self-esteem of students with LD. They include self-evaluations, profiles, and checklists. Topics covered are success, decision making, problem…
Adelman, Kimberly A.; Adelman, Howard S.
The practice of posthumously diagnosing historical figures is discussed. Emphasis is on the unsatisfactory nature of evidence found for those diagnosed as learning-disabled or dyslexic and the possibility of other explanations for identified problems. Posthumous diagnoses of Auguste Rodin, George Patton, Thomas Edison, Woodrow Wilson, and Albert…
Gregg, Noel, Ed.; And Others
This book contains 16 chapters dealing with services for adults with learning disabilities (LDs). "Adults with LDs" (Noel Gregg, Carolyn Phillips) questions whether the prevalent paradigm that advocates the self-contained individual is an obstacle to adults with LDs. "Paradigms" (Noel Gregg, Beth Ferri) describes theories that have contributed to…
Parks, Allen W.; And Others
New York University instituted a classwide screening and testing program for specific learning disabilities in dental students. Follow-up, in-depth examinations yielded a 90-percent identification accuracy rate. Specific test results, data analysis, and comparisons of self-report measures are presented and program accommodations are suggested.…
This manual reflects the highlights of an urban park study developed and tested over a 6-year period at the Churchill School, an elementary school for children with learning disabilities. This book makes possible an integrated study that develops understandings in natural science and the social studies along with reading, writing, and language…
James, Giovanna; Milligan, Jerry L.
For an entire school year, two low-achieving severely learning disabled third-grade students ("Billy" and "Bonny") spent 30 minutes each day working with a Resource Room teacher on a variety of holistic activities. Activities were added, discarded, or modified to maximize the children's motivation and success. "Cut-up sentences" were used early in…
Colbourn, Marlene Jones
A computer based diagnostic system to assist educators in the assessment of learning disabled children aged 8 to 10 years in the area of reading is described and evaluated. The system is intended to guide the diagnosis of reading problems through step by step analysis of available data and requests for additional data. The system provides a…
Friend, Marilyn; Bauwens, Jeanne
The article explores characteristics of resistance by general educators to special education consultation programs. It offers teachers of learning disabled students strategies for managing specific types of resistance as well as a general plan for minimizing resistance as well as suggestions for evaluating the impact of resistance management…
Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II
The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…
Harth, Robert; Burns, Carol
This study investigated the vocational outcomes for a group of young adults with multiple learning disabilities who attended a two-year post-secondary program. One hundred graduates of the program representing the first 15 years of the program participated in the study. Results indicated that large numbers of graduates were employed in both full…
Tormanen, Minna R. K.; Takala, Marjatta; Sajaniemi, Nina
This study examined whether audiovisual computer training without linguistic material had a remedial effect on different learning disabilities, like dyslexia and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder). This study applied a pre-test-intervention-post-test design with students (N = 62) between the ages of 7 and 19. The computer training lasted eight weeks…
This document presents a total of 48 references and annotations of works published after 1995 that are in some way related to the topic of adult literacy, learning disabilities, and technology. The first part of the document presents annotations of 30 online articles, journal articles, books, and book articles devoted to the following topics:…
This paper describes the once-weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a girl, called Ellie, aged eight at the start of her treatment. Ellie had a learning disability and displayed difficult behaviour at school and at home. In her therapy, Ellie grew in emotional intelligence, more in touch with and able to express her feelings. Her behaviour…
Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Schweck, Kelly B.
The Common Core Standards require demonstration of conceptual knowledge of numbers, operations, and relations between mathematical concepts. Supplemental instruction should explicitly guide students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) in these skills. In this article, we illustrate implementation of the concrete-representational-abstract…
Barrows, Thomas S.; And Others
The listed procedures are intended to provide guidance for the implementation of a study of learning disability among 12-15 year old adjudicated delinquent boys and non-adjudicated public school boys of the same age, and to support interpretation of study data and replication of the study's procedures. This task can best be considered in several…
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Gischlar, Karen L.
The authors encourage those in the field of school psychology to consider the use of learning disabilities assessment practices in relation to specific American Psychological Association and National Association of School Psychologists ethical codes and in regard to the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association,…
Majsterek, David J.
Intended for teachers of students with learning disabilities, the paper reviews recent trends in research. The importance and the difficulty of keeping up with new developments in the field are noted. Research and theoretical considerations are presented for the following topic areas: definition and identification difficulties (including,…
Burdette, Paula J.; Greer, Diana L.
While research has been conducted on parental involvement in K-12 online learning, none of this research relates specifically to the parents of students with disabilities. Thus, researchers developed a survey around the following constructs: parental roles, instruction and assessment, communication and support from the school, and parental…
Examined the assessment processes (psychological and neuropsychological) used in the rehabilitation of learning disabled adults in a study of 130 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results indicated type of assessment was related to length of service but did not influence overall outcome. Only about half the clients were successfully…
Fox, C. Lynn
Low socially accepted learning-disabled intermediate-grade students (N=86) were paired with 86 high socially accepted, nonhandicapped classmates for 8 weeks in 4 groups: mutual interest group, cooperative academic task group, Hawthorne effect/control group, and classroom control group. Evaluated were changes in classmates' ratings of…
This paper describes a range of research studies relating to learning disabilities in India during the last two decades. Attention is called to the existence of many different languages within India. Standardized and teacher-made tools have been developed for assessment and remediation purposes. The paper ends by making some suggestions for further research. PMID:11129452
Sheridan, Lynnaire; Kotevski, Suzanne
This research examines the learning experience of university students who were tutored by a teacher with quadriplegia mixed type cerebral palsy. It was inspired by Pritchard's [2010. "Disabled People as Culturally Relevant Teachers." "Journal of Social Inclusion" 1 (1): 43-51] argument that the presence of people with a…
A treatment approach to adolescents with learning disabilities which incorporates remediation and psychotherapy is explored through two case studies of two youngsters (ages 14 and 17). After a review of earlier studies, the author focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of a 17 year old boy with a ninth grade education. Once a diagnosis of dyslexia…
Isles, A. R.; Humby, T.
Background: It is now widely acknowledged that there may be a genetic contribution to learning disability and neuropsychiatric disorders, stemming from evidence provided by family, twin and adoption studies, and from explicit syndromic conditions. Recently it has been recognized that in some cases the presentation of genetic syndromes (or discrete…
Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.
Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities are considered in this 10-chapter volume. Contents include: "Developmental Language Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" (Cynthia A. Riccio and George W. Hynd); "Self-Regulated Strategy Development: A Theoretical and Practical Perspective" (Lisa P. Case et al.); "Mapping the…
Jones, Vita L.
Schools and classrooms, if well conceived, can serve as protective environments for the positive development of African American students with learning disabilities (LD) (Keogh & Weisner, 1993). Many African American students who lack resiliency often struggle with life's challenges and may be predisposed to negative outcomes in life, so the focus…
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…
Licht, Barbara G.
In response to a previous article, the paper argues that effective instruction of the learning disabled is most likely to develop from systematic theoretically based research though instructional studies can contribute to theory development. Research in many other areas is necessary to develop the powerful teaching methods required. (DB)
A novel word learning paradigm in a reading context was employed to investigate the ability of adults with and without learning disability to learn new words. The participants were required to read a short English story. The story was based on an Indian folk tale to eliminate any confounding effect of familiarity with content. Two nouns and two…
Layton, Carol A.; Lock, Robin H.
Studied the effects of training in learning style preferences on the ability of tutors to select appropriate learning strategies for student with disabilities. Findings for 68 tutors show that tutors were more successful in creating individualized strategy plans for students after training with the learning style chart. (SLD)
Smith, Sally L.
Improve school success for students who have learning disabilities and ADHD with "Academic Clubs," the proven learning-by-doing approach presented in this energizing guidebook. Sally Smith--the highly respected founder of the Lab Schools, where 95% of students with learning problems go on to college--shows elementary school educators how to…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need for accessible learning within the online environment by investigating disabled students' levels of engagement with a virtual learning environment (VLE) and the extent to which lecturers' use of the VLE made learning accessible. Design/methodology/approach: A small focus group of…
A history professor describes his involvement with project HELDS (Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students) and discusses ways in which he accommodates LD students in his classes. Among the general techniques advocated are taping, use of analogies to help the students understand concepts, and emphasis on context of events within time…
National Center for Learning Disabilities, Inc., New York, NY.
Four videocassettes provide the presentations and discussion of four panels from a 1994 summit on the nation's responsibility in relation to individuals with learning disabilities. Each panel examined issues of research, public policy and legislation, good practices, and consumer interest within its area of concentration. The first panel was on…
Nasir, N. S.; Snyder, C. R.; Shah, N.; Ross, K. M.
In this article, we theorize the relation between race and schooling and consider the implications for learning. While the body of research on culture and learning has come to define learning as an inherently cultural and social process, scholars have few theoretical tools to help us think about the role of race and racism in relation to students'…
Englert, Carol Sue; Mariage, Troy V.; Okolo, Cynthia M.; Shankland, Rebecca K.; Moxley, Kathleen D.; Courtad, Carrie Anna; Jocks-Meier, Barbara S.; O'Brien, J. Christian; Martin, Nicole M.; Chen, Hsin-Yuan
This study focuses on an examination of the learning-to-learn strategies of seventh-grade students as they highlight, take notes, plan, organize, and write expository texts. Participants consist of 125 students, 41 with disabilities and 84 without disabilities. The results reveal that the students with disabilities have more difficulties in using…
Since moral action often requires understanding the nature of justice and the development of empathy and compassion, moral education involves the learner's intellect, emotions and will. The lifelong learning involved is thus multifaceted and plausibly benefits from the integration of personal and political with professional learning. I explore…
Since moral action often requires understanding the nature of justice and the development of empathy and compassion, moral education involves the learner’s intellect, emotions and will. The lifelong learning involved is thus multifaceted and plausibly benefits from the integration of personal and political with professional learning. I explore this triadic conception of moral education by drawing on the movement to
Nganji, Julius T.; Brayshaw, Mike; Tompsett, Brian
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how personalisation of learning resources and services can be achieved for students with and without disabilities, particularly responding to the needs of those with multiple disabilities in e-learning systems. The paper aims to introduce ONTODAPS, the Ontology-Driven Disability-Aware Personalised…
Orr, Ann C.; Hammig, Sara Bachman
One out of every 11 postsecondary undergraduates report having a disability, and students with learning disabilities are the largest and fastest growing subgroup of this population. Although faculty are becoming more comfortable with providing students with learning disabilities accommodations as mandated by federal law, many instructors are using…
Cox, Lakeshia L. Ligon
The practice of service-learning is growing. However, service-learning activities seldom involve high school students with moderate mental disabilities working with peers without disabilities. The purpose of this case study was to gain an understanding of the experiences of personnel who work in partnership with students with disabilities and…
Keenan, Walter R.; Shaw, Stan F.
The legal basis for serving students with learning disabilities at the K-12 level is predominantly derived from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This federal law provides for substantive education support for students with learning disabilities through an Individualized Educational Program (IEP). However, because the IDEA…
Redley, Marcus; Banks, Carys; Foody, Karen; Holland, Anthony
Healthcare for men and women with learning disabilities (known internationally as intellectual disabilities) has risen up the political agenda in the United Kingdom, propelled by a report from the charity Mencap. This report has resulted in renewed efforts, set out in "Valuing People Now", to ensure that people with learning disabilities receive…
Gifford, Clive; Evers, Catherine; Walden, Sarah
Clinical psychologists are well placed to work with people with learning disabilities given the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in this population and the specialist training undertaken by psychologists. The evidence for psychological interventions in learning disabilities is scarce compared to the evidence for mainstream psychological…
Gilson, Stephen French; Netting, F. Ellen
Focuses on a population of disabled people who are aging with pre-existing physical disabilities. Distinguishes between those who experience prolonged aging and those who experience accelerated aging. Provides four case examples to illustrate the practice implications faced by social workers in partnering with people with pre-existing…
Billard, C; de Villèle, A; Sallée, A-S; Delteil-Pinton, F
Inserm French collective expert's report describes sensory disorders screening. However, the causality link with learning disorders remains questionable. In auditory disorders, there are high-level proof recommendations: early and intensive treatment improves language development, at least partially. For visual disorders, consensus conferences recognize their high frequency in learning disorders but there is no proof of a direct causality link. Currently, in learning disorders, orthoptic treatment is not recommended as a specific therapy. In France, despite medical ignorance about orthoptic assessment, absence of reference values and lack of therapy benefits evaluation, orthoptic treatment is usually prescribed, without any objective criteria. This article makes a literature review concerning the link between learning and sensory disorders. It also describes a typical orthoptic assessment with vision and optic musculature evaluation, and reports its results in a prospective comparative study in three populations (controls, dyslexic and Developmental Coordination Disorders [DCD] children). Strabismus or binocular vision disorders are frequent in DCD. Combined ocular motor function is almost constantly disturbed in DCD (90 %), whereas 34 % of dyslexic children and only 13 % of controls are concerned. Visual disorders are therefore present in learning disorders but also in normal population. Orthoptic assessment results must be interpreted in a multidisciplinary evaluation context. PMID:23201409
Dickinson, David L; Verbeek, Roelant L
Wage differential studies examining legally protected groups typically focus on gender or racial differences. Legislation also fully protects individuals with learning disabilities (LD). This article is the first to decompose wage differentials between adults with and without LD. An original data set of college graduates with documented LD was constructed, and these individuals were compared to a control group from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our results show that much of the observed lower wages for individuals with LD is due to differences in productivity characteristics. However, there is an unexplained portion of the wage gap that could possibly be considered wage discrimination against individuals with LD. This possibility seems smaller due to the fact that the subsample of the employers who knew of the employee's learning disabilities did not appear to pay significantly lower wages to these individuals. Alternative hypotheses are discussed, as are sample-specific issues. PMID:15490744
Jukes, M; O'Shea, K
The first article in this two-part series (Vol 7(15): 901-6) examined the issues surrounding healthcare provision in the context of the UK as a multicultural society in relation to mental health and learning disabilities. This second article considers the development of psychotherapy, theory and skills of working in terms of its impact and influence upon the education and practice of community mental health nurses and community nurses in learning disability within the UK. The major schools of influence in psychology will be examined in relation to their limitations for practice with clients from various cultures. In addition, three multicultural models of counselling which address cultural diversity will be appraised. Finally, the need for educational systems and service providers to foster and develop positive cultural attitudes among nurse practitioners will be emphasized. Both individual practitioners and employment organizations will need to be much more responsive and committed to developing multicultural services as we approach the millennium. PMID:9934034
Patterson, Margaret Becker; Mellard, Daryl
Contrasting adult literacy learners with and without specific learning disabilities This study of 311 adult education (AE) learners found 29% self-reported having a specific learning disability (SLD). Significant differences in demographic, academic, and life experience variables between the adult learners with and without SLD included: prior participation in special education, having both an SLD diagnosis and a high school diploma, low reading scores, middle age, and negative perceptions about limitations due to reading abilities. A post-hoc regression analysis found SLD status significantly contributes to variance in reading level when controlling for age and IQ. From these findings we conclude that SLD status should be considered an educationally relevant variable in adult education that warrants a diagnostic or clinical teaching approach. PMID:22140297
Comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment and treatment are particularly important for clients who present with learning disabilities and mental health problems (O'Hara and Sperlinger, 1997). This should not be restricted to professionals who work in services for people with learning disabilities and should include a wider network of professionals from statutory services and the independent sector. This arrangement can be complex as different agencies and even different departments of the same agency may differ fundamentally in their philosophy, vision and understanding of their own and other's roles and responsibilities. It is vital that these differences are recognised and dealt with so that they do not become a barrier to accessing best practice. Only in this way can the person benefit fully and have their needs met. PMID:11957507
It is sad to read that so many people with learning disabilities have an eye health issue that could lead to sight loss (letters, September 9). This, and the fact that many physical illnesses are not screened for or go undetected in this patient group, makes disturbing reading for all those involved in health care. These issues need to be addressed and corrected by health professionals. PMID:26394968
Moran, Mary Ross; Schumaker, Jean B.; Vetter, Alice F.
of achievement in which a student may be deemed deficient for purposes of receiving services under the classification of learning disabilities (Federal Register, August 23, 1977), the mandate thus far has failed to engender a great deal of pub lished research... toward analyzing the total written product, as opposed to scoring formal features, only Lloyd-Jones (1977) and Odell (1977) offer schema which consider argumentation and logical progression of ideas. To _date, only MeGill Franzen (1979) has...
David C. Geary
A distinction between potentially evolved, or biologically-primary forms of cognition, and the culturally-specific, or biologically-secondary forms of cognition that are built from primary systems is used to explore mathematical learning disability (MLD). Using this model, MLD could result from deficits in the brain and cognitive systems that support biologically-primary mathematical competencies, or from the brain and cognitive systems that support
Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl F.
on SLD screening (Skinner, Gillespie, & Balkam, 1997). The Adult Learning Disabilities Screening (ALDS) battery (Mellard, 1999) is one of the few valid screening measures for adults currently in use. This study validated an Internet-administered version... constraints. Therefore, an efficient and effective approach to screening adults for SLD is need- ed. A potential solution is computer-based testing, which could reduce the time and expertise needed to administer and score screening batteries, and could...
Polat, Elif; Adiguzel, Tufan; Akgun, Ozcan Erkan
Because there is, currently, no education system for primary school students in grades 1-3 who have specific learning disabilities in Turkey and because such students do not receive sufficient support from face-to-face counseling, a needs analysis was conducted in order to prepare an adaptive, web-assisted learning system according to variables…
Wight, Mary Caitlin S.
This examination of the literature on foreign, or second, language learning by native English-speaking students with disabilities addresses the benefits of language learning, the practices and policies of language exemption, the perceptions of students and educators regarding those practices, and available resources for supporting students with…
Stewart, J. Paul; Fahy, P.
The Strategies for Effective Learning (SEL) Unit at the Alberta Vocational Centre focuses on developing and teaching cognitive strategies for adults rather than simply diagnosing them. In its initial stages the SEL unit has begun the task of assessing the value of various strategies, testing instruments, and procedures for learning disabled…
Strobel, Wendy; Arthanat, Sajay; Bauer, Stephen; Flagg, Jennifer
The primary market research outlined in this paper was conducted by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Transfer to identify critical technology needs for people with learning disabilities. Based on the research conducted, the underlying context of these technology needs is Universal Design for Learning (UDL). The paper…
Jayanthi, Madhavi; Gersten, Russell; Baker, Scott
This guide for teachers is a companion piece to the meta-analysis from the Center on Instruction, "Mathematics Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities or Difficulty Learning Mathematics: A Synthesis of the Intervention Research". Based on the findings of this report, seven effective instructional practices were identified for teaching…
Harrison, Allyson G.; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John
This study examined the effects of participation in the Learning Opportunities Task Force (LOTF) programs on postsecondary students with learning disabilities (LDs). Data regarding 969 students from 6 colleges and 4 universities in Ontario were evaluated to investigate rates of academic success and increased self-awareness. Participants had a…
Carlson, Eric J.; Flannery, Michelle Crow; Kral, Melissa Steinbring
This study explored the differences of bully/victim problems between early adolescents receiving special education services under the primary category of Learning Disabilities (LD), and their non-disabled peers. Subjects involved were 54 male and female students, grades 6-8, attending a suburban middle school in Minnesota. They were administered…
Parnes, Penny; Cameron, Debra; Christie, Nancy; Cockburn, Lynn; Hashemi, Goli; Yoshida, Karen
This article reports on a study conducted for the Canadian International Development Agency by The International Centre for Disability and Rehabilitation at the University of Toronto. We critically examined the broad literature in the area of disability and development and in this article we identify the key issues which emerged. Most of the data were collected from existing literature in the academic and practice settings and from the publications of key NGOs and governments. We first, examine disability in the context of low-income countries, and then discuss key critical issues: disability and poverty, disability and health, disability and education, disability and gender, disability and children/youth, disability and conflict/natural disasters and disability and human rights. In all these areas we find reports of discrimination, stigmatisation and marginalisation. We conclude that, as we address issues of multi-cultural disability services in developed countries, it is important to bear in mind the various issues that many people with disabilities and their families bring with them as the result of immigrating from a developing country. Although we address these issues within our own countries, we must bear in mind the changes that are occurring due to globalisation. PMID:19802932
Putnam, M. Lewis
Reviews and synthesizes recent literature on social problems in the lives of adolescents, including depression, suicide, substance abuse, sexual activity, sexually transmitted diseases, rape, sexual preference, and school dropout. Explores key factors in effective intervention and prevention programs for students with and without learning…
Moyer, Betsy G.
Described is a music program for students with reading learning disabilites. It is explained that the program was designed to teach fundamental music skills, to teach visual/motor and auditory skills through music activities, and to evaluate the effect of music skill development on language reading skills. The daily routine of music exercises,…
Although more students with learning disabilities (LD) are enrolling in Australian universities, their learning needs are not well understood. This article reports on the experiences of students with LD who are encouraged to enter the academy by Australian university policies and government legislation but, once there, find that the promise of equal opportunity is often not kept. This article provides some insights into how university lecturers' normative expectations and practices can affect students' everyday experiences. Interviews with students with LD showed that they do not often receive support services, their "stories" are not believed, and they often feel that they do not "belong". PMID:17915498
Carlson, Jerry S.
The final report describes a project investigating the utility of dynamic assessment in measuring the cognitive functioning and learning characteristics of children with specific learning disabilities. Subjects were 229 fourth and fifth grade children with 75 of these diagnosed as children with specific learning disabilities. Measures of cognitive…
Ast, Harley J.
The identification of students' learning styles and the subsequent correlation of them with teaching styles have important implications for curricula and instruction. The cognitive, affective, and physiological aspects of learning style are based on genetic structure and personality and are affected by the individual's developmental and…
Baratz-Snowden, Joan C.
Reviews the history of the concept of equal educational opportunity, noting the shift from a separate-but-equal input definition to an opportunity-to-learn process interpretation. Also discussed are implications of the definition of opportunity to learn for professional development and the education of African-American students. (SLD)
Chiang, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Chien-Hsiou
Using assistive reading software may be a cost-effective way to increase the opportunity for independent learning in students with learning disabilities. However, the effectiveness and perception of assistive reading software has seldom been explored in English-as-a-second language students with learning disabilities. This research was designed to…
Gray, Patricia Jean
Students with learning disabilities present a diverse spectrum of learning needs; research suggest they may have difficulty making the transition to the postsecondary environment. Learning disabled students at the subject high school were not successfully making the transition from the secondary to the postsecondary environment. This study was…
Stetter, Maria Earman; Hughes, Marie Tejero
Reading comprehension is a crucial skill for academic success of all students. Very often, students with learning disabilities struggle with reading skills and since students learn new information in school by reading; these difficulties often increase the academic struggles students with learning disabilities face. The current study examined…
Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, K.
Background: Children with learning disabilities are identified by their severe learning problems and their deficient school achievement. On the other hand, children with sub-average school achievement "and" sub-average intellectual development are thought to suffer from a general intellectual delay rather than from specific learning disabilities.…
Wanzek, Jeanne; Kent, Shawn C.
For students with learning disabilities, the upper elementary grades may represent a unique opportunity to provide successful remediation for lessening a reading difficulty and preventing students with learning disabilities from falling behind in other content areas. This article discusses effective reading interventions for students with learning…
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Karns, Kathy; Hamlett, Carol L.; Katzaroff, Michelle; Dutka, Suzanne
The effects of a task-focused goals (TFG) treatment in mathematics were studied with low-achieving students with or without learning disabilities. Results with 40 elementary classrooms showed that TFG students enjoyed the approach, but that increased effort was associated with greater learning only for those without learning disabilities. (SLD)
Andre, Amael; Louvet, Benoit; Deneuve, Pascale
The aim of this research was to study the impact of cooperative learning on changes in cooperative behaviours and acceptance amongst pupils with learning disabilities related to risk-taking. One hundred and sixty-eight French first year middle school pupils participated in this study. Thirty-six pupils with learning disabilities were mainstreamed…
Fichten, Catherine S.; Ferraro, Vittoria; Asuncion, Jennison V.; Chwojka, Caroline; Barile, Maria; Nguyen, Mai N.; Klomp, Ryan; Wolforth, Joan
This study explored e-learning problems and solutions reported by 223 students with disabilities, 58 campus disability service providers, 28 professors, and 33 e-learning professionals from Canadian colleges and universities. All four groups indicated, via online questionnaires, problems with: accessibility of websites and course/learning…
Alley, Gordon R.; Deshler, Donald D.; Warner, Michael M.; Schumaker, Jean B.
AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF LEARNING DISABLED ADOLESCENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: HEALTH AND ~1EDICAL FACTORS Since the inception of the learning disability field in the early 1960s, emphasis for treatment and intervention has been on younger children . Only... reaction results and effects of treatment between adoles- cents and younger children. The major purpose of the present study is to prov ide an epidemio logical data base of biological factors among learning disabled adoles- cents. The investigation...
A severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement is one major criterion for diagnosis of learning disability (LD). This manuscript describes the shortcomings of this paradigm and offers a new dynamic approach for LD assessment based on evaluation of LD during a standard learning process of how to read and write a new language. The dynamic learning disability (DLD) test, K-ABC IQ test, and K-ABC reading test were administered to 56 normal 4th grade students and to 48 LD students. It was hypothesized that the results using the conventional criteria may mismatch the results of DLD, and that DLD predicts the progress of students in a long-term group learning process better. The results indicated that LD students, as a group, manifested significant difficulties in the DLD test. Among 48 students who meet the conventional criteria for LD diagnosis 14 students (29.16%) were able to learn a new language in the DLD test (Inconsistent LD sub-group). From the 14 students who have low achievement in reading without serious indications of cognitive difficulties, six students (42.857%) manifested serious difficulties in learning a new language in the DLD test (Latent LD sub-group). The DLD test as well as the labels of the sub-groups was validated by the amount of progress in the long-term group learning process. The DLD test proved to have high reliability and predictive validity coefficients. It is suggested that it become part of the diagnostic battery of tests of LD. PMID:14998140
Neufeld, Paul; Hoskyn, Maureen
The purpose of this article is to respond to Reid and Valle's article "The Discursive Practice of LD: Implications for Instruction and Parent-School Relations" in this issue. Our response to the discursive analysis is organized around two major themes: (a) the issue of balance in the scholarship on learning disabilities (LD) and (b) the centrality of the discourse of general education to the discourse of LD. Following our response to the discursive analysis, we comment on the implications for instruction and parent-school relations drawn by Reid and Valle. Highlighted in this section is the disconnect between the macro-level findings from the discursive analysis and the micro-level orientation of their "sociopolitical vision" for instruction and parent-school relations. PMID:15813599
Lifshitz, Hefziba; Shtein, Sarit; Weiss, Itzhak; Svisrsky, Naama
We previously reported a meta-analysis of explicit memory studies in populations with intellectual disability (ID). The current study discusses the educational implications of this meta-analysis. The main factors at the core of these implications can be divided into two categories: those related to task characteristics (e.g., depth of processing,…
Laverty, H; Reet, M
This article outlines the work undertaken to find a suitable model for planning respite care for children with disabilities. The model 'This is Me' and the informal life events assessment tool 'Hello, This is Me!', which supports it, are described. The use of a person-centred care planning system is well documented in the care of adults with learning disabilities (Sanderson, 1997). This process should begin at the start of a person's life, as recommended by The Children Act 1989, and the documents 'Signposts for Success' (NHS Executive, 1998) and 'Don't Forget Us' (Mental Health Foundation, 1997). The article describes the development of a person-centred approach to respite care which is underpinned with a basic care premise. PMID:11868186
Desoete, Annemie; Praet, Magda; Titeca, Daisy; Ceulemans, Annelies
The sensitivity of number sense as cognitive phenotype for mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) was assessed in siblings of children with MLD (n = 9) and age matched children without family members with MLD (n = 63). A number line estimation paradigm was used as a measure of children's early number sense. In line with the triple code model of Dehaene (1992), three different presentation formats were presented. The results of the study confirmed that number line estimation was related to early arithmetic achievement in kindergarten. In addition siblings were less proficient in number line placements compared to non-siblings, with a larger effect size for symbolic and especially number word estimation compared to the non-symbolic results. Siblings also differed from non-siblings on procedural and conceptual counting skills and logical thinking in kindergarten. Moreover MLD had a familial aggregation, since about three out of five sibling girls had clinical scores on an Early Numeracy Test in kindergarten, pointing to a risk to develop MLD themselves. Implications of the study to our understanding of MLD are discussed. PMID:23023299
Putnam, J; Markovchick, K; Johnson, D W; Johnson, R T
The effects of cooperative learning on 417 regular-education students, acceptance of 41 of their special-education classmates were examined in an 8-month study. The participants were in Grades 5-8 in 21 classes in 2 U.S. schools. The 3 conditions were cooperative learning and competitive learning, taught by the same teachers, and competitive learning, taught by a random sample of teachers. In October and in May, the regular-education students rated each classmate's desirability as a work partner. The students' peer ratings were generally very stable, for both their regular-education classmates and their special-education classmates. Positive changes in peer ratings for both types of classmates occurred more frequently in the cooperative-learning condition than in the competitive-learning conditions. PMID:9043203
Harrison, Allyson G.; Nichols, Eva; Larochette, Anne-Claire
Students with specific learning disabilities (LDs) must present documentation of their disability to receive academic supports and services at the postsecondary level. The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of disability documentation being provided by students entering postsecondary education in a Canadian setting and, in doing so,…
Gough, J. Eric; McBeath, Clare
A project to adapt learning materials and provide support services for severely disabled persons 22-76 years old in Australia is described and evaluation data presented. Disabilities of the eight students included total blindness, severe physical disability, and partial deafness. Three courses were chosen for adaptation: "Images of…
Miller, Rachel Nottingham
The number of students with disabilities arriving on college and university campuses is increasing. Of those students reporting a disability, over half of them state they have a learning disability. Unlike high school, the burden is on the student in college to demonstrate the need for services and communicate this need to the institution in a…
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Ambrose, Don; Clinton, Amanda
The recent revision of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (Individual with Disabilities Education Improvement Act; IDEIA) in the United States (U.S.) has created the opportunity for an unprecedented change in the way in which learning disabilities (LD) are identified. As a result of this revision, intense and often polarizing debate has…
The Individual with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA) 2007, a federal special education law, states that students with disabilities requiring special education services can use accommodations or adaptations of the curriculum to access the general education curriculum. A shortened assignment, as an accommodation, can help learning disabled…
Garcia, Shernaz B.; Tyler, Brenda-Jean
To be academically successful in general education classrooms, English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities (LD) need instruction that is simultaneously responsive to their disability, English language status, and culture. Because the majority of students with LD have reading disabilities, ESL and classroom teachers must be familiar…
Hartman, Melissa A.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 specifies procedures and safeguards for disciplining students with disabilities. Program options that help schools with compliance include time-out rooms, in-school suspension, systematic exclusion, positive and negative reinforcement, modified school day/week, and alternative schools. (SK)
Shifrer, Dara; Muller, Chandra; Callahan, Rebecca
The disproportionate identification of learning disabilities among certain socio-demographic subgroups, typically groups who are already disadvantaged, is perceived as a persistent problem within the education system. The academic and social experiences of students who are misidentified with a learning disability may be severely restricted, while students with a learning disability who are never identified are less likely to receive the accommodations and modifications necessary to learn at their maximum potential. We use the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 to describe national patterns in learning disability identification. Results indicate that socio-demographic characteristics are predictive of identification with a learning disability. While some conventional areas of disproportionality are confirmed (males and language minorities), differences in SES entirely account for African-American and Hispanic disproportionality. Discrepancy between the results of bivariate and multivariate analyses confirms the importance of employing multivariate multilevel models in investigation of disproportionality. PMID:20587753
Shifrer, Dara; Muller, Chandra; Callahan, Rebecca
The disproportionate identification of learning disabilities among certain sociodemographic subgroups, typically groups that are already disadvantaged, is perceived as a persistent problem within the education system. The academic and social experiences of students who are misidentified with a learning disability may be severely restricted, whereas students with a learning disability who are never identified are less likely to receive the accommodations and modifications necessary to learn at their maximum potential. The authors use the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 to describe national patterns in learning disability identification. Results indicate that sociodemographic characteristics are predictive of identification with a learning disability. Although some conventional areas of disproportionality are confirmed (males and language minorities), differences in socioeconomic status entirely account for African American and Hispanic disproportionality. The discrepancy between the results of bivariate and multivariate analyses confirms the importance of employing multivariate multilevel models in the investigation of disproportionality. PMID:20587753
Klassen, Robert M.
This study examined the self-efficacy for self-regulated learning of 146 early adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). Results from the study showed that a 7-item self-regulatory efficacy measure demonstrated factorial invariance for the adolescent sample and also for a validation sample of 208 undergraduates with and without LD.…
This digest presents definitions of 30 important terms in the field of learning disabilities. They are: accommodations, assistive technology, attention deficit disorder, brain imaging techniques, brain injury, collaboration, developmental aphasia, direct instruction, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, dyslexia, dysnomia, dyspraxia, learned helplessness,…
Rose, Chad Allen; Espelage, Dorothy L; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E; Shogren, Karrie A; Aragon, Steven R
The current study investigated demographic variables, sense of belonging, and social supports as predictors for involvement in bullying for students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) and students without disabilities. Although these student groups are characteristically different, results suggested involvement in bullying was invariant. However, gender, race, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities emerged as significant predictors for involvement in the bullying dynamic. In addition, increased peer social support was found to be the most significant predictor of decreased bullying, victimization, fighting, and anger for both students with SLD and students without disabilities. Educational implications include the suggestion that schools adopt multitiered antibullying programs that foster increased social supports and peer acceptance and incorporate targeted interventions for at-risk subpopulations of students. PMID:23886583
Danforth, Scot; Slocum, Laura; Dunkle, Jennifer
It is often assumed that current disability constructs exist in conceptual isolation from one another. This article explores the tangled historical relationship between "mental retardation" and learning disability in the writings and speeches of special education pioneer Samuel A. Kirk. Beginning in the 1950s, Kirk repeatedly told an educability narrative that described children with low IQ scores as capable students worthy of instruction. However, when he tried to clearly distinguish between the new learning disability construct and the older mental retardation, Kirk altered his standard tale. True intellectual potential then shifted to the learning disability, leaving mental retardation doubly stigmatized as the disorder of educational infertility. PMID:20597729
Haihambo, Cynthy; Lightfoot, Elizabeth
Namibia is a southern African country with national level policies promoting community inclusion and inclusive education. Despite these policies, people with disabilities are often excluded from schools and community life. This study explores the nuanced cultural beliefs about the causes of disability in Namibia, and the impacts of such beliefs on…
Mellard, Daryl; Johnson, Richard
The Road to Success (RtS) program was designed to introduce hard-to-employ adults with learning disabilities and other cognitive barriers to ways of learning that are will enable them to learn the skills and knowledge they will need as employees and in their everyday lives. Originally developed to serve welfare recipients in Kansas, RtS was…
MacArthur, Juliet; Brown, Michael; Hayes, Matt; Mack, Siobhan; McKechanie, Andrew; Fletcher, Joan; Gibbs, Susie; Wilkinson, Heather
To explore and identify the impact of Learning Disability Liaison Nursing (LDLN) Services in NHS Lothian, Forth Valley, Borders and Fife on the healthcare experiences of people with a learning disability attending for ...
Raad, Jennifer Marie
Specific learning disabilities are one of the most common and debilitating disorders experienced by children and adolescents, and students with specific learning disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to anxiety. The Revised Children's Manifest...
MacArthur, Juliet; Brown, Michael; Hayes, Matt; Mack, Siobhan; McKechanie, Andrew; Fletcher, Joan; Gibbs, Susie; Wilkinson, Heather
To explore and identify the impact of Learning Disability Liaison Nursing (LDLN) Services in NHS Lothian, Forth Valley, Borders and Fife on the healthcare experiences of people with a learning disability attending for ...
Reinforcement learning models the dopamine system and their behavioral implications Nathaniel Daw, sponsor or other entity. #12; Keywords: computational neuroscience, dopamine, reinforcement learning #12 the detailed understanding dopamine system, important phylogenetically venerable brain system that implicated
Hazel, J. Stephen; Schumaker, Jean B.; Sheldon-Wildgen, Jan
The efficacy of training social and problem-solving skills to learning disabled adolescents was evaluated by conducting a group skiff training program with three sets of youths: (a) LD adolescents attending an alternative high school, (b) non...
Treise, Debbie; Wagner, Elaine
Explores how university disability professionals can assist advertising or public relations campaigns teachers in accommodating the Learning Disabled (LD) student in the team or group-based learning situation to foster a cooperative environment among students and faculty. Attempts to open the discussion about what faculty should consider when…
Womack, Karen King; Womack, Sid T.
A review of literature on learning disabled and emotionally disturbed children is presented, focusing upon the role of the physical education teacher as a part of the educational team responsible for implementing individualized education programs. The close relationship between learning disabilities and emotional disturbances is examined, and…
The following article outlines the methodological approach used to include people with learning disabilities as active participants in an oral history produced in Australia. The history sought to document life inside Kew Cottages, Australia's oldest and largest specialised institution for people with learning disabilities. This work furthers…
Jones, Amelia; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila
This paper reports on one of the findings of a small study that aimed to explore how people with learning disabilities accessed and were supported to use a pictorial cancer information book. Five people with learning disabilities who were affected by cancer and their paid carers participated in the study. Support staff in the study were the people…
Bender, William N.; Rosenkrans, Cecilia B.; Crane, Mary-Kay
Research is reviewed on stress, depression, and suicide among adolescents with learning disabilities from the risk resilience perspective. Adolescents with nonverbal learning disabilities and/or those who are less academically adept manifest higher rates of depression. Some evidence also exists to support an increased risk of suicide among this…
McCaul, Edward J.; Schutz, Pamela N.
This study surveyed special education directors (n=90) in Maine regarding changes in the enrollment of learning-disabled students in their schools as related to tightened eligibility requirements. Increased involvement of regular educators with children previously labeled learning disabled was perceived. (Author/DB)
Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John
People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…
Founded in 1967, The Lab School of Washington (LSW) has been educating students with learning disabilities using an arts-based curriculum for over 50 years. Sally Smith originally started the school out of frustration with the inability of traditional educational environments to reach her intelligent, but learning disabled, young son and others…
Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.
Background: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that adding symbols to written text can improve its comprehensibility for adults with learning disabilities. Methods: Nineteen adults with mild or borderline learning disabilities attempted to read four short passages of text, two of which had Widgit Rebus symbols added to them. Following each…
In an attempt to test the assumption that children with learning disabilities (LD) have deficient self-concepts, a number of studies have compared the self-concepts of students with learning disabilities and their normally achieving (NA) peers. The purpose of this paper is to review recent studies that investigated the academic, social and general…
Williams, Donna Elizabeth
Preparation, Development, and Transition of Learning-Disabled Students for Workforce Success. Donna Elizabeth Williams, 2011: Applied Dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Abraham S. Fischler School of Education. ERIC Descriptors: Learning Disabilities, Community Based Instruction, Academic Advising, Career Counseling, Career Planning. This…
Norma E. Banas
In 1963 the term, Learning Disabled was introduced by Samuel Kirk to a group of parents of perceptually handicapped\\/brain injured children (Kirk, 1977). To this date the most controversial issue in the field of learning disabilities is the definition. The confusion that exists regarding the definition is well documented both prior to and since the current definition was published in
Kyle, Seonaid; Melville, Craig A.; Jones, Andrea
Carer communication skills contribute to the well being of individuals with learning disabilities. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of communication training interventions, and there is a lack of robust measures of outcome. A communication self-efficacy measure relevant to carers supporting adults with learning disabilities was…
Lloyd, John Wills; Hallahan, Daniel P.
In this article, the authors discuss how the field of learning disabilities has a past that it will never escape, but it has a future that, if it is predicated on the better parts of its past, will allow the field to continue to contribute to education, including education of students who do not have learning disabilities. Research generated under…
Therrien, William J.; Zaman, Maliha; Banda, Devender R.
Meta-analysis is considered an acceptable method to evaluate research studies for evidence-based practices. The purpose of this review is to examine the applicability of using meta-analyses in the learning disability field to guide classroom practice. The authors evaluated 15 learning disability meta-analyses in three domains: large-scale…
Davidson, Terence; Smith, Hilary; Burns, Jan
Researchers and clinicians have hypothesised that cognitive assessments have the power to influence the self-identity of people with learning disabilities. This research aimed to explore the experience of a sample of people who had been given a cognitive assessment by a psychologist based in a team for people with learning disabilities. Five…
Rayner, Kelly; Wood, Harry; Beail, Nigel
Although the development of secure attachments has been shown to be more problematic for people with learning disabilities, there is a shortage of research into the attachment experience of people with learning disabilities who have broken the law. The present study used thematic analysis to explore the attachment experiences of 10 men with…
Notes trends in definitions and theories on learning disabilities as recorded in articles in Canadian journals from 1989-2000. Examines current definitions of learning disabled (LD) used by ministries of education and compares them with proposed changes in current research. Discusses the shift in LD identification practices away from IQ cutoffs…
In a speech, Boston University (Massachusetts) president Jon Westling used "Somnolent Samantha" as an example of potential for student abuse of identification as learning disabled. Because Samantha was fictitious, 10 students have sued the university, charging Westling with holding an unfair view of students with learning disabilities. The…
Mishra, Shitala P.; And Others
Administered Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised to 45 learning-disabled and 41 gifted Navajo elementary students. Interpreted performance according to Luria-Das Model of Simultaneous and Successive cognitive processes. Gifted and learning disabled students had disparate loadings for some subtests expected to involve Successive and…
Kenny, Kate; McGilloway, Sinead
Despite recurring concerns about the role and appropriate support of informal carers, little is known about the parental experience of caring for children with learning disabilities in Ireland. This study describes and analyses the nature and consequences of care and coping among parents of children (fewer than 16) with learning disabilities…
This article considers the aesthetics of applied performance with people with learning disabilities. Focusing on the integrated punk band Heavy Load, it explores how the aesthetic structure reconstructs notions of learning disability and intervenes in its social experience. It argues that this is facilitated through the punk form which positions…
Mason, Paul; Timms, Ken; Hayburn, Tracey; Watters, Camilla
Background: For many people with learning disabilities, friendships can be limited or restricted, with loneliness being a significant problem. Although much research has been undertaken exploring these issues, little attention has been given to what people with learning disabilities themselves have to say about friendship. The aim of this study is…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Special Education Branch.
Part of a seven-book series called "Programming for Students with Special Needs," this book offers all teachers information to enhance their understanding of learning disabilities and provides practical strategies to assist in teaching students with special needs. Section 1 discusses the definition of learning disabilities, labeling, and the…
Young, Anita F.; Chesson, Rosemary A.
Despite the rhetoric of involvement of people with learning disabilities in health care there is a dearth of research which examines the extent to which service users are included in evaluating their own care. This paper describes a study of methods for enabling people with learning disabilities and complex health needs to comment on the…
Perin, Dolores, Ed.
In a series of conferences provided for faculty and support staff in several community colleges in the New York City metropolitan area, presentations were made on instructing college students with learning disabilities. Summaries of 15 of these presentations are offered, with the following titles and presenters: "Applying Learning Disabilities…
Sheehy, Kieron; Budiyanto
The Indonesian education system is striving for an inclusive approach and techniques are needed which can support children with severe learning disabilities and their peers in this context. Manually signed language has proved useful both in supporting the development and empowerment of children with severe learning disabilities and supporting…
Rudstam, Hannah; Gower, Wendy Strobel
Often, the aim of distance learning (DL) is to enhance individual learning, not to change workplace practices. Changing organizational policies, practices and behaviors related to disability calls for a different DL approach that engages users and contextualizes knowledge. In the disability arena, there is a need for programming that brings about…
Bouck, Emily C.; Kulkarni, Gauri
Little is known about how best to teach mathematics to students with learning disabilities. This study explored the performance and self-reported calculator use of 13 sixth-grade and 15 seventh-grade students with learning disabilities educated in either standards-based or traditional mathematics curricula on multiple-choice and open-ended…
Ferri, Beth A.; Gregg, Noel; Heggoy, Synnove J.
A study analyzed the assessment profiles of 48 young adults with giftedness and a learning disability (G/LD) and 46 young adults with a learning disability profile without giftedness. Findings indicate that the adults with G/LD tended to be identified later and have more discrepancy among cognitive assessment profile scores. (Author/CR)
Crim, Courtney; Hawkins, Jacqueline; Ruban, Lilia; Johnson, Sharon
Students considered gifted and learning disabled (G/LD) are those most at risk of not being adequately served in U.S. schools. This research compares delivery formats and Individual Education Plan (IEP) modifications offered to 1,055 elementary school students, grades 3-5, who qualified as having a learning disability (LD) at different levels on…
Wallach, Geraldine P.
The author reflects upon some of the similarities and differences that exist across 25 years of research and practice in language learning disabilities and provides examples of how definitions of and perceptions about language, learning, and reading disabilities are still evolving. The author also evaluates language intervention approaches then…
Barber, Carolyn; Mueller, Conrad T.
The purpose of this study is to examine the social and self-perceptions of twice-exceptional "students", those students who meet criteria for being identified as both gifted and learning disabled. In particular, we focus on how twice-exceptional students are similar to, or different from, students with only a learning disability or who are only…
Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.
This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…
Aspinall, Ann; Hegarty, John R.
Describes a survey of microcomputer use for adults with learning disability within The Home Farm Trust, a United Kingdom national organization for people with learning disability that was carried out in light of a planned organization-wide initiative to introduce modern information and communications technology to service users. (Author/LRW)
This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…
Kokot, Shirley J.
This article reviews the identification of students with learning disabilities, gifted children, and problems facing the remediation of their difficulties. An outline is given of an approach that applies neuroscience to understanding and treating the root cause of learning disabilities. A case study of a child labeled dyslexic is presented.…
Cimera, Robert Evert
"Specific Learning Disability" is by far the largest category of conditions served in special education. Unfortunately, few parents (and educators) really understand what learning disabilities are. Many erroneously believe it is a "politically correct" term for "mildly mentally retarded" or "dull normal." Further, while most laypeople have heard…
Caton, Sue; Starling, Samantha; Burton, Mark; Azmi, Sabiha; Chapman, Melanie
This article reports the results of a postal questionnaire survey carried out to explore the responsiveness and appropriateness of services for people with learning disabilities from minority ethnic communities in the North West of England. Twenty-one learning disability service commissioners or service providers completed the questionnaire.…
Layton, Carol A.; Lock, Robin H.
Identifying appropriate evaluation strategies for students who are English Language Learners (ELL) and have a learning disability is of critical importance in today's schools. A lack of sensitivity to the differences in ELL characteristics and those of learning disabilities has often resulted in over-identification for special education services.…
Shifrer, Dara; Muller, Chandra; Callahan, Rebecca
The disproportionate identification of learning disabilities among certain sociodemographic subgroups, typically groups that are already disadvantaged, is perceived as a persistent problem within the education system. The academic and social experiences of students who are misidentified with a learning disability may be severely restricted,…
Marwood, Hayley; Hewitt, Olivia
The effectiveness of group therapy for people with learning disabilities and anxiety management issues is reviewed. People with learning disabilities face increased levels of psychological distress compared to the general population, yet are often faced with a lack of social support and poor coping techniques to manage their distress. A 6-week…
Kitchens, Vivian D.
Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. Using the theoretical framework of behaviorism, the purpose of this quantitative one group pre post test design…
Perspectives on going through the education system are offered by an adult who was diagnosed with learning disability. Experiences are shared concerning elementary school, high school, college, employment, and graduate school. Ten tips are also offered for teachers of students with learning disabilities. (SW)
teaching methods for language, academic, and social skills as well as effective inclusive practices/family/sibling issues concerning learning disabilities Social skills issues concerning students with learning disabilities are examined with emphasis on history, definition, causation and characteristics. Content includes
Scholz, Markus; Niesch, Harald; Steffen, Olaf; Ernst, Baerbel; Loeffler, Markus; Witruk, Evelin; Schwarz, Hans
The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefit of chess in mathematics lessons for children with learning disabilities based on lower intelligence (IQ 70-85). School classes of four German schools for children with learning disabilities were randomly assigned to receive one hour of chess lesson instead of one hour of regular mathematics lessons…
Summers, S. J.; Jones, J.
People with learning disabilities from minority ethnic communities face many layers of disadvantage. Providing services that are culturally appropriate and sensitive can be difficult. Through the use of clinical examples the issues, tensions and dilemmas raised for a community learning disabilities team in attempting to provide culturally…
A study determined if there would be any significant difference in comprehension test scores when learning disabled students were instructed with and without graphic organizers while reading novels. Subjects were five male fifth-grade learning disabled students reading on the fourth-grade level, who came from the same middle-class suburban school…
The aim of the current study is to examine differences in social anxiety between learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (non-LD) students, taking into account educational placement. The present research is the first to consider the above relations among Christian Arab adolescents living in Israel as an Eastern collectivist minority. On…
Varghese, Susan; Banerjee, Subimal
The aim of the audit was to evaluate the current clinical practice for learning-disabled individuals with psychotic disorders. We evaluated the existing clinical practice in 910 individuals who were under the care of learning disability psychiatrists in Buckinghamshire (population of 480 000). This was compared with the National Institute for…
Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others
Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…
People with learning disabilities have talents and skills, but rarely do they get the chance to start their own business. In Business was designed to challenge this and to make self employment a realistic option for some by setting out to support and capture the journey to business for people with a learning disability and those who support them.…
Walker, Brigid; MacBryer, Shona; Jones, Alan; Law, Jim
Because of difficulties with neuropsychological assessments for dementia in people with learning disabilities, professionals in clinical practice have relied heavily on carer interviews, one of the most widely used being the "Dementia Questionnaire for People with Learning Disabilities" (DLD-Evenhuis et al. 2006 "Dementia…
Lufi, Dubi; Okasha, Susan; Cohen, Arie
The purpose of this study was to look for personality variables that characterized young adults with learning disabilities and test anxiety. Fifty-four Israeli adults diagnosed with learning disabilities participated in the study, 24 of them were diagnosed as having test anxiety; 30 did not have test anxiety. The participants completed the Test…
This paper will explore the benefits of involving people with learning disabilities in conferences and workshops. It is suggested that people with learning disabilities have relatively few opportunities to meet service users from other parts of the country to share their ideas about services, and how these are or should be developing. A lack of suitable events, finance, and difficulties