Science.gov

Sample records for learning skill acquisition

  1. Phases of Learning: Ninth Graders' Skill Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie

    2002-01-01

    Explores students' cognitive behaviors observed in the process of learning as performed in the classroom context while acquiring a thinking skill such as choosing wisely. Micro-analysis of the students' video-recorded repeated applications of the skill identified 10 steps along the learning process, disclosing the students' development of schemata…

  2. Online Learning Communities: Enhancing Undergraduate Students' Acquisition of Information Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Flores, Noraida; Wang, Ling

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of online learning communities (OLC) on enhancing the undergraduate students' acquisition of information skills. OLC was compared with online tutorials and one-shot face-to-face sessions designed to facilitate students' information skill acquisition. Data were gathered through multiple…

  3. Phases of Learning: ninth graders' skill acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilam, Billie

    2002-01-01

    The present study explored in detail students' cognitive behaviours observed in the process of learning, as performed in the classroom context while acquiring a thinking skill ('choosing wisely'). The participants comprised 10 ninth graders. They were engaged in a year long, independent, open-ended inquiry project in science, performed in a group setting and guided by a curriculum for the instruction of cognitive skills, designed in accordance with the literature recommendations. Micro-analysis of the students' video-recorded repeated applications of the skill, identified 10 steps along the learning process, disclosing the students' development of schemata along three parallel lines: utterance clarification, elaboration and generalisation of core concepts, and schema integration, automation, and manipulation. These lines of development correspond to the phases/levels of learning suggested in the literature.

  4. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  5. Feedforward Self-Modeling Enhances Skill Acquisition in Children Learning Trampoline Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Vertes, Kelly; Rymal, Amanda M.; Martini, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether children would benefit from a feedforward self-modeling (FSM) video and to explore possible explanatory mechanisms for the potential benefits, using a self-regulation framework. To this end, children were involved in learning two five-skill trampoline routines. For one of the routines, a FSM video was provided during acquisition, whereas only verbal instructions were provided for the alternate routine. The FSM involved editing video footage such that it showed the learner performing the trampoline routine at a higher skill level than their current capability. Analyses of the data showed that while physical performance benefits were observed for the routine that was learned with the FSM video, no differences were obtained in relation to the self-regulatory measures. Thus, the FSM video enhanced motor skill acquisition, but this could not be explained by changes to the varied self-regulatory processes examined. PMID:21779270

  6. The acquisition of integrated science process skills in a web-based learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

    2004-01-01

    Web-based learning is becoming prevalent in science learning. Some use specially designed programs, while others use materials available on the Internet. This qualitative case study examined the process of acquisition of integrated science process skills, particularly the skill of controlling variables, in a web-based learning environment among grade 5 children. Data were gathered primarily from children's conversations and teacher-student conversations. Analysis of the data revealed that the children acquired the skill in three phases: from the phase of recognition to the phase of familiarization and finally to the phase of automation. Nevertheless, the acquisition of the skill only involved the acquisition of certain subskills of the skill of controlling variables. This progression could be influenced by the web-based instructional material that provided declarative knowledge, concrete visualization and opportunities for practise.

  7. The Impact of Individual Differences and Learning Context on Strategic Skill Acquisition and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Young Woo; Doane, Stephanie M.; Garrison, Teena

    2006-01-01

    How individual differences in cognitive ability influence acquisition and transfer of strategic comparison skills was examined as a function of learning difficulty. Using a cognitive test battery, we classified forty-nine participants into three cognitive ability groups. Participants in each group were trained to compare similar (difficult…

  8. Configural Response Learning: The Acquisition of a Nonpredictive Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Aparicio, Paul; Weinstein, Andrea; Ivry, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the representational nature of configural response learning using a task that required simultaneous keypresses with 2 or 3 fingers, similar to the production of chords on the piano. If the benefits of learning are related to the retrieval of individual stimulus-response mappings, performance should depend on the frequencies of…

  9. Augmented Reality M-Learning to Enhance Nursing Skills Acquisition in the Clinical Skills Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Bernard M.; Jackson, Cathryn; Wilson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on a pilot research project designed to explore if new mobile augmented reality (AR) technologies have the potential to enhance the learning of clinical skills in the lab. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory action-research-based pilot study was undertaken to explore an initial proof-of-concept design in…

  10. Phases of learning: How skill acquisition impacts cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Tenison, Caitlin; Fincham, Jon M; Anderson, John R

    2016-06-01

    This fMRI study examines the changes in participants' information processing as they repeatedly solve the same mathematical problem. We show that the majority of practice-related speedup is produced by discrete changes in cognitive processing. Because the points at which these changes take place vary from problem to problem, and the underlying information processing steps vary in duration, the existence of such discrete changes can be hard to detect. Using two converging approaches, we establish the existence of three learning phases. When solving a problem in one of these learning phases, participants can go through three cognitive stages: Encoding, Solving, and Responding. Each cognitive stage is associated with a unique brain signature. Using a bottom-up approach combining multi-voxel pattern analysis and hidden semi-Markov modeling, we identify the duration of that stage on any particular trial from participants brain activation patterns. For our top-down approach we developed an ACT-R model of these cognitive stages and simulated how they change over the course of learning. The Solving stage of the first learning phase is long and involves a sequence of arithmetic computations. Participants transition to the second learning phase when they can retrieve the answer, thereby drastically reducing the duration of the Solving stage. With continued practice, participants then transition to the third learning phase when they recognize the problem as a single unit and produce the answer as an automatic response. The duration of this third learning phase is dominated by the Responding stage. PMID:27018936

  11. Acquisition and improvement of human motor skills: Learning through observation and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iba, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.

  12. Learning and Individual Differences: An Ability/Information-Processing Framework for Skill Acquisition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    A program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition is reviewed. An integrative framework for information-processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is reviewed, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Experimental manipulations were used to…

  13. Conception of Learning and Clinical Skill Acquisition in Undergraduate Exercise Science Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nathan; Chuter, Vivienne; Rooney, Kieron

    2013-01-01

    Learning clinical skills presents a novel experience for undergraduate students, particularly when it comes to preparing for skill assessment. Compared with the thousands of hours of practice believed to be necessary for the development of motor skill expertise (1), these students have significantly limited exposure time. Furthermore, effective…

  14. The Effects of Errorless Learning and Backward Chaining on the Acquisition of Internet Skills in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Jared; Frantino, Eric P.; Sturmey, Peter

    2007-01-01

    An important area in the learning and development of individuals with disabilities is the acquisition of independent, age-appropriate leisure skills. Three adults with autism and mental retardation were taught to access specific Internet sites using backward chaining and most-to-least intrusive prompting. The number of independent steps completed…

  15. Motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for understanding motor skill and the process by which it is acquired. A selective historical overview is presented to demonstrate how the study of movement is a necessary preliminary to the study of motor skill learning. The phenomenon of skill is explored as an inherent feature of goal-directed organisms whose effective functioning depends on achieving a degree of competence in solving problems that are encountered in the everyday world. The relationship between problems and solutions is discussed. Movement is examined as a problem-solving tool and as the means by which the individual expresses skill. Factors that influence the individual's level of skill are fully explored, along with the implications for functional behavior. The creative use of resources in problem solving is thoroughly examined, and tasks are discussed in terms of the demands imposed on the individual. PMID:1989008

  16. Integration and reuse in cognitive skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Salvucci, Dario D

    2013-07-01

    Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to mechanisms that proceduralize knowledge into more efficient forms, skill acquisition requires tight integration of newly acquired knowledge and previously learned knowledge. Skill acquisition also benefits from reuse of existing knowledge across disparate task domains, relying on indexicals to reference and share necessary information across knowledge components. To demonstrate these ideas, the article proposes a computational model of skill acquisition from instructions focused on integration and reuse, and applies this model to account for behavior across seven task domains. PMID:23551386

  17. Acquisition of Visual Perceptual Skills from Worked Examples: Learning to Interpret Electrocardiograms (ECGs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berge, Kees; van Gog, Tamara; Mamede, Silvia; Schmidt, Henk G.; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that for acquiring problem-solving skills, instruction consisting of studying worked examples is more effective and efficient for novice learners than instruction consisting of problem-solving. This study investigated whether worked examples would also be a useful instructional format for the acquisition of visual perceptual…

  18. Automatic Skill Acquisition in Reinforcement Learning Agents Using Connection Bridge Centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Parham; Shiri, Mohammad Ebrahim; Entezari, Negin

    Incorporating skills in reinforcement learning methods results in accelerate agents learning performance. The key problem of automatic skill discovery is to find subgoal states and create skills to reach them. Among the proposed algorithms, those based on graph centrality measures have achieved precise results. In this paper we propose a new graph centrality measure for identifying subgoal states that is crucial to develop useful skills. The main advantage of the proposed centrality measure is that this measure considers both local and global information of the agent states to score them that result in identifying real subgoal states. We will show through simulations for three benchmark tasks, namely, "four-room grid world", "taxi driver grid world" and "soccer simulation grid world" that a procedure based on the proposed centrality measure performs better than the procedure based on the other centrality measures.

  19. An Effective Model for Rapid Skills Acquisition through a Simulation-Based Integrated Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Aimee M.; Jackson, Melinda L.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the effectiveness of a theoretical-based integrated learning environment (ILE) for training non-traditional learners to perform the skills required to be successful in entry-level jobs. The ILE places instruction in a real-world, workplace context with realistic settings, characters, and storylines. The multimedia interface…

  20. Modeling the Distinct Phases of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenison, Caitlin; Anderson, John R.

    2016-01-01

    A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from…

  1. HOW MANY REPETITIONS OF CHILD CARE SKILLS ARE REQUIRED FOR HEALTH WORKER STUDENTS TO ACHIEVE PROFICIENCY? LEARNING CURVE PATTERNS IN CHILD CARE SKILLS ACQUISITION

    PubMed Central

    Emami Moghadam, Zahra; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Abadi, Fatemeh Sardar; Pour, Parastoo Majidi; Davoudi, Malihe; Banafsheh, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The vulnerability of children under 5 years old requires paying more attention to the health of this group. In the Iranian health care system, health workers are the first line of human resources for health care in rural areas. Because most health workers begin working in conditions with minimal facilities, their clinical qualifications are crucial. The aim of this study was to determine the number of repetitions of child care skills, required for health worker students to achieve proficiency based on the learning curve. Methods: A time series research design was used. Participants in this study were first year health worker students enrolled in three health schools in 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of demographic information and a checklist evaluating the health worker students’ clinical skills proficiency for child care. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) using descriptive and inferential statistics including Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests. Results: Learning curve patterns in child care skills acquisition showed that for less than 20 and between 20 to 29 times, the level of skill acquisition had an upward slope. Between 30- 39 the learning curve was descending, however the slope became ascending once more and then it leveled off (with change of less than 5%). Conclusion: It seems that 40 repetitions of child care skills are sufficient for health worker students to achieve proficiency. This suggests that time, resources and additional costs for training health worker students’ trainees can be saved by this level of repetition. PMID:26622199

  2. Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…

  3. The Effect of Concept Mapping with Different Levels of Generativity and Learners' Self-Regulated Learning Skills on Knowledge Acquisition and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kyu Yon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different levels of generativity in terms of knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation. Also, it examined whether or not learners' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills influenced the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different…

  4. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Grigoriadis, J; Trulsson, M; Svensson, P; Svensson, K G

    2015-10-15

    Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor skill. Hence, the aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that repeated splitting of a food morsel during a short-term training with an oral fine motor task would result in increased performance and optimization of jaw movements, in terms of reduction in duration of various phases of the jaw movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30 min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw movement during the task were recorded. The precision of task performance improved significantly after training (22% mean deviation from ideal split after vs. 31% before; P<0.001). There was a significant decrease in the total duration of jaw movements during the task after the training (1.21 s total duration after vs. 1.56 s before; P<0.001). Further, when the jaw movements were divided into different phases, the jaw opening phase and contact phase were significantly shorter after training than before training (P=0.001, P=0.002). The results indicate that short-term training of an oral fine motor task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation that takes place after a successful prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:26162238

  5. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26881313

  6. Modeling the distinct phases of skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Tenison, Caitlin; Anderson, John R

    2016-05-01

    A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from calculation to retrieval). In the current study, we use hidden Markov modeling to identify transitions in the learning process. This method accounts for the gradual speedup in problem solving and also uncovers abrupt changes in reaction time, which reflect changes in the cognitive processes that participants are using to solve math problems. We find that as participants practice solving math problems they transition through 3 distinct learning states. Each learning state shows some speedup with practice, but the major speedups are produced by transitions between learning states. In examining and comparing the behavioral and neurological profiles of each of these states, we find parallels with the 3 phases of skill acquisition proposed by Fitts and Posner (1967): a cognitive, an associative, and an autonomous phase. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26551626

  7. Distance Learning and Skill Acquisition in Engineering Sciences: Present State and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potkonjak, Veljko; Jovanovic, Kosta; Holland, Owen; Uhomoibhi, James

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an improved concept of software-based laboratory exercises, namely a Virtual Laboratory for Engineering Sciences (VLES). Design/methodology/approach: The implementation of distance learning and e-learning in engineering sciences (such as Mechanical and Electrical Engineering) is still far behind…

  8. Integration and Reuse in Cognitive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to…

  9. The Effect of Individual Differences on Observational Learning in the Acquisition of a Teaching Skill. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Frederick J.; Koran, Mary Lou

    A study examined the effects of verbal and perceptual dimensions of individual differences in relation to the efficacy of two different kinds of modeling procedures in the acquisition of a teaching skill (analytic questioning). Aptitude tests for cognitive factors plus specially developed audiovisual tests were administered to 121 intern teachers…

  10. The Relationship between an Online Synchronous Learning Environment and Knowledge Acquisition Skills and Traits: The Blackboard Collaborate Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Politis, John; Politis, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Online learning is becoming more attractive to perspective students because it offers them greater accessibility, convenience and flexibility to study at a reduced cost. While these benefits may attract prospective learners to embark on an online learning environment there remains little empirical evidence relating the skills and traits of…

  11. Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills within Food Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.

    2005-01-01

    One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve…

  12. Stages of motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Luft, Andreas R; Buitrago, Manuel M

    2005-12-01

    Successful learning of a motor skill requires repetitive training. Once the skill is mastered, it can be remembered for a long period of time. The durable memory makes motor skill learning an interesting paradigm for the study of learning and memory mechanisms. To gain better understanding, one scientific approach is to dissect the process into stages and to study these as well as their interactions. This article covers the growing evidence that motor skill learning advances through stages, in which different storage mechanisms predominate. The acquisition phase is characterized by fast (within session) and slow learning (between sessions). For a short period following the initial training sessions, the skill is labile to interference by other skills and by protein synthesis inhibition, indicating that consolidation processes occur during rest periods between training sessions. During training as well as rest periods, activation in different brain regions changes dynamically. Evidence for stages in motor skill learning is provided by experiments using behavioral, electrophysiological, functional imaging, and cellular/molecular methods. PMID:16385137

  13. Learning Road Safety Skills in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…

  14. Is Three-Dimensional Videography the Cutting Edge of Surgical Skill Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Victoria A.; Brandt, Michael G.; Moore, Corey C.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The process of learning new surgical technical skills is vital to the career of a surgeon. The acquisition of these new skills is influenced greatly by visual-spatial ability (VSA) and may be difficult for some learners to rapidly assimilate. In many cases, the role of VSA on the acquisition of a novel technical skill has been explored; however,…

  15. Learning tactile skills through curious exploration

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Leo; Oddo, Calogero M.; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Förster, Alexander; Carrozza, Maria C.; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    We present curiosity-driven, autonomous acquisition of tactile exploratory skills on a biomimetic robot finger equipped with an array of microelectromechanical touch sensors. Instead of building tailored algorithms for solving a specific tactile task, we employ a more general curiosity-driven reinforcement learning approach that autonomously learns a set of motor skills in absence of an explicit teacher signal. In this approach, the acquisition of skills is driven by the information content of the sensory input signals relative to a learner that aims at representing sensory inputs using fewer and fewer computational resources. We show that, from initially random exploration of its environment, the robotic system autonomously develops a small set of basic motor skills that lead to different kinds of tactile input. Next, the system learns how to exploit the learned motor skills to solve supervised texture classification tasks. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility of autonomous acquisition of tactile skills on physical robotic platforms through curiosity-driven reinforcement learning, overcomes typical difficulties of engineered solutions for active tactile exploration and underactuated control, and provides a basis for studying developmental learning through intrinsic motivation in robots. PMID:22837748

  16. Learning tactile skills through curious exploration.

    PubMed

    Pape, Leo; Oddo, Calogero M; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Förster, Alexander; Carrozza, Maria C; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    We present curiosity-driven, autonomous acquisition of tactile exploratory skills on a biomimetic robot finger equipped with an array of microelectromechanical touch sensors. Instead of building tailored algorithms for solving a specific tactile task, we employ a more general curiosity-driven reinforcement learning approach that autonomously learns a set of motor skills in absence of an explicit teacher signal. In this approach, the acquisition of skills is driven by the information content of the sensory input signals relative to a learner that aims at representing sensory inputs using fewer and fewer computational resources. We show that, from initially random exploration of its environment, the robotic system autonomously develops a small set of basic motor skills that lead to different kinds of tactile input. Next, the system learns how to exploit the learned motor skills to solve supervised texture classification tasks. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility of autonomous acquisition of tactile skills on physical robotic platforms through curiosity-driven reinforcement learning, overcomes typical difficulties of engineered solutions for active tactile exploration and underactuated control, and provides a basis for studying developmental learning through intrinsic motivation in robots. PMID:22837748

  17. Online Learning Communities: Enhancing the Acquisition of Information Skills by Undergraduate Students of the University of Puerto Rico at Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez Flores, Noraida

    2010-01-01

    Despite the efforts that have been made to develop the information skills of undergraduate students, there are still limitations that one shot sessions of face-to-face library instruction or online tutorials present when they are the only options used to develop specific information skills in students. The purpose of this study was to investigate…

  18. Pushing Typists Back on the Learning Curve: Contributions of Multiple Linguistic Units in the Acquisition of Typing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Motonori; Logan, Gordon D.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the way people acquire and control skilled performance in the context of typewriting. Typing skill was degraded by changing the location of a key (target key) while retaining the locations of other keys to disable an association between the letter and the key. We conducted 4 experiments: Experiment 1 demonstrated…

  19. Oral Skills Enhance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, J. Vernon

    1980-01-01

    Twelve methods to enhance the learning of college students and at the same time increase their oral communication skills and classroom participation are presented. They include: facilitators of class discussions, triadic critiques of students' essays, panel discussions, forum periods, debates, and manuscript reading. (JMD)

  20. Using Questions To Facilitate Motor Skill Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, G. William; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a dental teaching strategy that promotes acquisition of psychomotor skills through use of metacognition and problem-solving. In five steps, questions are asked to guide the learner through a sequence of discriminations leading to recognition of problems and solutions. Clearly defined criteria in a sequence reflecting procedure are…

  1. Motor skill acquisition strategies for rehabilitation of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Stevans, J; Hall, K G

    1998-09-01

    Evidence supporting the early use of exercise for the treatment of low back pain continues to grow. We must keep in mind, however, that motor skill learning and exercise are not synonymous. If rehabilitation goals are limited to the improvement of physical parameters (ie., strength, flexibility, endurance), the opportunity to help patients improve the performance of functional activities will be missed. The motor learning literature suggests several strategies for facilitating the acquisition of a motor skill: transfer-appropriate processing, the contextual interference effect, and repetitive self-evaluation. These techniques will cognitively challenge patients, helping them gain skills more quickly and retain them longer. By incorporating these methods into the rehabilitation program, patients will better transfer what they have learned from the rehabilitation environment to their everyday functional activities. PMID:9742473

  2. Implicit learning and acquisition of music.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Implicit learning is a core process for the acquisition of a complex, rule-based environment from mere interaction, such as motor action, skill acquisition, or language. A body of evidence suggests that implicit knowledge governs music acquisition and perception in nonmusicians and musicians, and that both expert and nonexpert participants acquire complex melodic, harmonic, and other features from mere exposure. While current findings and computational modeling largely support the learning of chunks, some results indicate learning of more complex structures. Despite the body of evidence, more research is required to support the cross-cultural validity of implicit learning and to show that core and more complex music theoretical features are acquired implicitly. PMID:23060126

  3. Development of Different Forms of Skill Learning throughout the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of complex motor, cognitive, and social skills, like playing a musical instrument or mastering sports or a language, is generally associated with implicit skill learning (SL). Although it is a general view that SL is most effective in childhood, and such skills are best acquired if learning starts early, this idea has rarely been…

  4. A Constraints-Led Perspective to Understanding Skill Acquisition and Game Play: A Basis for Integration of Motor Learning Theory and Physical Education Praxis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Ian; Chow, Jia Yi; Davids, Keith; Hammond, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: In order to design appropriate environments for performance and learning of movement skills, physical educators need a sound theoretical model of the learner and of processes of learning. In physical education, this type of modelling informs the organisation of learning environments and effective and efficient use of practice time. An…

  5. Counselor Trainee Achievement Goal Orientation and the Acquisition of Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Schuetz, Steven A.; Kardash, CarolAnne M.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between trainee achievement goal orientation and acquisition of Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy (TLDP) skills was examined over four counseling sessions with a recruited client. Trainee learning goal orientation was related to the pattern of TLDP skill acquisition. Approaches to achievement goals, results, training issues, and…

  6. Learning from the Experts: Gaining Insights into Best Practice during the Acquisition of Three Novel Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Nicola J.; Edwards, Christopher; Luttin, Shaun; Bowcock, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The amount and quality of practice predicts expertise, yet optimal conditions of practice have primarily been explored with novice learners. Ten expert musicians and ten novices practiced disc-throwing skills under self-regulated conditions. A third novice group practiced with the same schedule as the music experts (yoked). The groups did not…

  7. Problem Based Learning Technique and Its Effect on Acquisition of Linear Programming Skills by Secondary School Students in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakhanu, Shikuku Beatrice; Musasia, Amadalo Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The topic Linear Programming is included in the compulsory Kenyan secondary school mathematics curriculum at form four. The topic provides skills for determining best outcomes in a given mathematical model involving some linear relationship. This technique has found application in business, economics as well as various engineering fields. Yet many…

  8. Learning Disabilities and the Acquisition of English Language Skills in the Adult ESL Population: A Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Disabilities Association, Minneapolis, MN.

    A demonstration project designed to improve identification and instruction of adult learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) with learning disabilities is reported. Of 50 students, most older adults, in two ESL classes, 13 students were referred for further assessment and specialized instruction from a learning disabilities specialist.…

  9. An investigation into sonography student experiences of simulation teaching and learning in the acquisition of clinical skills

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Technological developments are impacting on many aspects of life, including education. One particular area of technology where there is growing interest within higher education institutions (HEIs) offering healthcare training is the use of simulators. The literature shows diverging views on the role of simulated learning in healthcare and further evaluation is needed to explore the quality of learning opportunities that are offered, and their effectiveness in the preparation of students for clinical practice. A qualitative study was undertaken, using interviews to explore the experiences of a group of sonography students after interacting with an ultrasound simulator. Simulation was positively evaluated by students in this study. The findings confirm that simulated learning enables students to be interactive learners rather than being passive recipients of knowledge. Simulated learning provides learning opportunities in a risk free environment, which reduces stress for the student and potential harm to patients. Confidence levels were increased, thereby improving future clinical scanning experiences for both the student and their patients. Suggestions were made for the more effective integration of simulated learning into the curriculum. Continued research into simulation, teaching and learning practices needs to occur if we are to ensure maximum advantage of the simulation experience.

  10. Psychomotor Skill Acquisition in the Technical Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PaDelford, Harry

    Psychomotor skills need to be taught in technical education courses. Some students can be taught more easily than others, depending on their physical attributes. These attributes are speed, steadiness, perception, dexterity, agility/flexibility, endurance, equilibrium/balance, strength, and coordination. Before students attempt to learn vocational…

  11. Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance

    PubMed Central

    Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilalić, Merim

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes. PMID:25202292

  12. Teaching Skill Acquisition and Development in Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Lucinda J; Hoover, Terry E; Giusti, Lola; Booth, Mark T; Mahdavi, Elham

    2016-08-01

    Development of dental faculty members is paramount to providing outstanding education and role modeling for students. With the large number of second career educators in dental schools, an efficient method of acquiring teaching skills is important for new faculty members. Knowing the skill progression and learning experiences identified by dental educators of varying rank may lead to more efficient, effective faculty development. The aims of this study were to identify the perceptions of a group of faculty members about the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and learning experiences that contribute to developing teaching expertise and to compare and contrast the perceptions of new and more senior faculty members on these subjects. The Dreyfus skill acquisition continuum of novice to expert performance was used as a construct reference. The study used a mixed-methods approach in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected concurrently in an electronic survey of faculty members at one U.S. dental school. Of the 492 total faculty members, 80 survey responses were received, for a 16% response rate. Open coding and analysis of responses revealed some common themes. Building rich content knowledge and learning varied methodologies for teaching and assessment, supported by an awareness of peer role models, were perceived to be features of early growth. Content prioritization, clarity, and customization appropriate for the learner characterized mid growth. As theorized in the Dreyfus model, more experienced faculty members described a fluid, less structured teaching process, increased reflection, and appreciation of the strength of the educational community. The results of this study may help increase dental educators' understanding of teaching skill acquisition and inform faculty development and support. PMID:27480710

  13. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Bimal; Borich, Michael R; Jackson, Jacob N; Wadden, Katie P; Peters, Sue; Villamayor, Anica; MacKay, Alex L; Vavasour, Irene M; Rauscher, Alexander; Boyd, Lara A

    2016-01-01

    Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements) using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus). In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults. PMID:27293906

  14. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lakhani, Bimal; Borich, Michael R.; Jackson, Jacob N.; Wadden, Katie P.; Peters, Sue; Villamayor, Anica; MacKay, Alex L.; Vavasour, Irene M.; Rauscher, Alexander; Boyd, Lara A.

    2016-01-01

    Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements) using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus). In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults. PMID:27293906

  15. Striatal volume predicts level of video game skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Neider, Mark B; Prakash, Ruchika S; Voss, Michelle W; Graybiel, Ann M; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-11-01

    Video game skills transfer to other tasks, but individual differences in performance and in learning and transfer rates make it difficult to identify the source of transfer benefits. We asked whether variability in initial acquisition and of improvement in performance on a demanding video game, the Space Fortress game, could be predicted by variations in the pretraining volume of either of 2 key brain regions implicated in learning and memory: the striatum, implicated in procedural learning and cognitive flexibility, and the hippocampus, implicated in declarative memory. We found that hippocampal volumes did not predict learning improvement but that striatal volumes did. Moreover, for the striatum, the volumes of the dorsal striatum predicted improvement in performance but the volumes of the ventral striatum did not. Both ventral and dorsal striatal volumes predicted early acquisition rates. Furthermore, this early-stage correlation between striatal volumes and learning held regardless of the cognitive flexibility demands of the game versions, whereas the predictive power of the dorsal striatal volumes held selectively for performance improvements in a game version emphasizing cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical basis for the superiority of training strategies that promote cognitive flexibility and transfer to untrained tasks. PMID:20089946

  16. An Evaluation of Progressively Increasing Intertrial Intervals on the Acquisition and Generalization of Three Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Monica T.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of different intertrial intervals (ITIs; time between programmed learning opportunities) on the acquisition and generalization of 2 preschoolers' social skills. Independent and generalized skills were observed only when the daily ITI was gradually increased from short to progressively longer intervals. (Contains 1 figure…

  17. Predictors of the Acquisition and Portability of Transferable Skills: A Longitudinal Portuguese Case Study on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2015-01-01

    The basis for this longitudinal study was to find the predictors of transferable skills acquisition and portability among university sophomore students. The method employed was the path analysis using as variables: (1) the theoretical framework of transferable skills representations (Evers and Rush in "Manag Learn" 27(4):275-300, 1996;…

  18. Skill Acquisition in Physical Education: A Speculative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wayne W.

    2011-01-01

    How we learn motor skills has always been of interest to physical educators. Contemporary conceptual frameworks about motor skill learning draw from earlier behavioral and cognitive psychology learning theories. As a point of departure this paper foregrounds complexity theorizing, arguing that skill is contingent upon the performer's physical and…

  19. Connectionist reinforcement learning of robot control skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Rui; Nunes, Urbano; de Almeida, A. T.

    1998-07-01

    Many robot manipulator tasks are difficult to model explicitly and it is difficult to design and program automatic control algorithms for them. The development, improvement, and application of learning techniques taking advantage of sensory information would enable the acquisition of new robot skills and avoid some of the difficulties of explicit programming. In this paper we use a reinforcement learning approach for on-line generation of skills for control of robot manipulator systems. Instead of generating skills by explicit programming of a perception to action mapping they are generated by trial and error learning, guided by a performance evaluation feedback function. The resulting system may be seen as an anticipatory system that constructs an internal representation model of itself and of its environment. This enables it to identify its current situation and to generate corresponding appropriate commands to the system in order to perform the required skill. The method was applied to the problem of learning a force control skill in which the tool-tip of a robot manipulator must be moved from a free space situation, to a contact state with a compliant surface and having a constant interaction force.

  20. Acquisition of Eye-hand Coordination Skills for Videoendoscopic Surgery

    PubMed

    Tsai; Heinrichs

    1994-08-01

    Evaluation of eye-hand coordination skills in relation to experiential human factors may lead to improved instruction for videoendoscopic surgical skills acquisition. Twenty-nine subjects (medical students or residents in surgical specialties) volunteered to perform three exercises of increasing complexity in an "inanimate" trainer system that simulated the eye-hand coordination tasks inherent in a laboratory videoendoscopic surgical environment. Fourteen subjects participated in a biweekly practice program of 4 weeks duration using an inanimate trainer. Fifteen subjects had no practice on the laparoscopic trainer during the 4 weeks. Both groups were tested after demonstration on three exercises at the beginning and end of a 4 week period and all performed the procedures in solitude. Both groups of subjects increased performance levels (time and accuracy) over the four weeks, but improvement was significantly greater for the practicing subjects. After eight sessions, convergence of performance levels was observed, but plateauing of performance levels was not evident, even with the simple paradigms evaluated. To investigate what factors contribute to learning, subjects were assessed with respect to their surgical experiences, personality, and self-evaluated motor skills. Subjects with prior endoscopic surgical experience, interest in mechanical activities (as measured by the Strong Interest Inventory), or regular engagement in video game play tended to be more skillful initially, but demonstrated less improvement in performance levels after practice than subjects who had lower levels of experience, interest, or video game play. Manual dexterity (as measured by the Purdue Pegboard Manual Dexterity Test) was positively related to the degree of observed improvement. We conclude that "inanimate" videoendoscopic paradigms offer relatively inexpensive and useful training exercises for acquiring basic eye-hand coordination skills. Relevance for animate laboratory skills

  1. Graphemes as Motor Units in the Acquisition of Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Soler, Olga; Valdois, Sylviane; Gros, Celine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether the graphemic structure of words modulates the timing of handwriting production during the acquisition of writing skills. This is particularly important during the acquisition period because phonological recoding skills are determinant in the elaboration of orthographic representations. First graders wrote seven-letter…

  2. Abilities and Skill Acquisition: A Latent Growth Curve Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Wittmann, Werner W.; Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between abilities and skill acquisition has been the subject of numerous controversies in psychology. However, while most researchers implicitly or explicitly accept the idea that abilities and skill acquisition should be related, empirical research has failed to provide evidence for a consistently strong correlation between the…

  3. Contributors to Undergraduates' Perception of Skill Acquisition across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Andreia; Steffgen, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between the amount of years of study and the perception of skill acquisition through indicators of students' satisfaction with the course program. It was hypothesized that the more years students spend at the university, the higher their perception of skill acquisition and that factors related to the course…

  4. Learning Outcomes: Skills or Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciancone, Tom; Tout, Dave

    Participants in a teacher workshop compared these two approaches to learning outcomes in adult numeracy: (1) teaching mathematical skills and (2) using and applying mathematics from real life. The first approach was illustrated by an Ontario, Canada, program based on traditional school math, whose outcomes are skill-based and are the following:…

  5. Atlas Skills for Learning Rather than Learning Atlas Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, R. J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for visual learning and describes an approach to skills instruction which aids students in using atlases. Maintains that teachers must help students see atlases as tools capable of providing useful information rather than experiencing atlas learning as an empty exercise with little relevance to their lives. (JDH)

  6. Strategy Selection for Cognitive Skill Acquisition Depends on Task Demands and Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinze, Scott R.; Bunting, Michael F; Pellegrino, James W.

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of working memory capacity (WMC) in ruled-based cognitive skill acquisition is well-established, but the duration of its involvement and its role in learning strategy selection are less certain. Participants (N=610) learned four logic rules, their corresponding symbols, or logic gates, and the appropriate input-output combinations…

  7. Neural Plasticity in Speech Acquisition and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yue

    2007-01-01

    Neural plasticity in speech acquisition and learning is concerned with the timeline trajectory and the mechanisms of experience-driven changes in the neural circuits that support or disrupt linguistic function. In this selective review, we discuss the role of phonetic learning in language acquisition, the "critical period" of learning, the agents…

  8. How to Understand Skill Acquisition in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Vegard Fusche

    2004-01-01

    A crucial task for sport research is to understand and explain the processes and conditions underlying skillful motor behavior. One way to account for these processes and conditions is to describe and analyze the distinct stages a learner goes through when acquiring a skill. This article starts by elaborating one of the most dominant…

  9. Effects of contextual interference on acquisition and retention of three volleyball skills.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laura L; French, Karen E

    2007-12-01

    Manipulating the organization of practice conditions, through contextual interference, was identified as a method to promote motor skill acquisition by Brady in 1998. The generalizability of this learning effect is questionable and the amount of repetition versus the amount of change in task presentation requires investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore explanations for the performance of learners practicing the AAHPERD volleyball skills test when the change in task presentation varied. High school students were randomly assigned to blocked, random, and random-blocked practice groups. While all groups significantly improved all skills during acquisition, there was no support for the contextual interference effect. Potential explanations might be dependent upon the learners' skill and the complexity of the task to be learned. Further research is warranted examining contextual interference effect on practice organization at levels of difficulty appropriate to facilitate cognitive processing of task-related information. PMID:18229542

  10. Exploring the use of mobile technologies for the acquisition of clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Clay, Collette A

    2011-08-01

    Mobile learning has the potential to supplement information communication technology (ICT), online learning and the traditional teaching and learning methods to educate practitioners in the clinical practice area. Following the development of several Post Graduate modules of learning for the theory and clinical skills required to undertake the Newborn Infant Physical Examination (NIPE), a small research study was undertaken to combine mobile learning and NIPE. The research study explored the hypothesis that mobile devices could be used in pedagogically effective ways to support and enhance the learning and acquisition of clinical skills in the clinical arena. Participants in the study each received a handheld mobile device (iPod) that had been loaded with several Reusable Learning Objects (RLO) outlining each aspect of the physical examination to be performed. At the end of the module (12 weeks in duration), each participant completed an evaluation questionnaire. Participants confirmed that mobile learning afforded flexibility in time and place of learning and captured their interest in the learning material. This study reports that the use of mobile technology for skill acquisition is creative and innovative, placing learning firmly in the hands of the learner. PMID:21112132

  11. "Alligator Eats Cookie": Acquisition of Writing and Reading Skills by Deaf Children Using the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinz, Philip M.; Nelson, Keith E.

    1985-01-01

    Reports research which investigated the effects of microcomputer technology on the acquisition of writing and reading skills in 32 deaf children. The learning mechanism underlying the instructional system used is responsive, interactional and exploratory, reflective of the way most children acquire a first language. (SED)

  12. Insights from Skill Acquisition Theory for Grammar Activity Sequencing and Design in Foreign Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…

  13. The Effect of Letter Training on the Acquisition of Word Reading Skills. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Douglas G.

    Two experiments aimed at extending the principles of paired-associates learning transfer to the acquisition of reading skills are reported. Approximately 15 first graders were randomly assigned to each of the 10 treatment conditions. In the first experiment, four types of letter training were compared to two control conditions. The experimental…

  14. The Effects of Teacher Instructional Efficacy on Mathematical Skill Acquisition: The Students Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yack, Dennis R.; Shaw, Eugene R.

    2007-01-01

    Teacher instructional efficacy is an essential part of the mathematics learning process. When a mathematics teacher possesses a high level of instructional efficacy they can effectively influence a mathematics student's skill acquisition. This researcher examined what extent 5th-grade mathematics students perceive teacher instructional efficacy to…

  15. Social Emotional Learning Skills and Educational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…

  16. The Effectiveness of Online Instructional Videos in the Acquisition and Demonstration of Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Rehabilitation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Darren; Higgins, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The use of instructional videos to teach clinical skills is an ever growing area of e-learning based upon observational learning that is cited as one of the most basic yet powerful learning strategies. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of online instructional videos for the acquisition and demonstration of cognitive,…

  17. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Statton, Matthew A; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  18. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Statton, Matthew A.; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise–resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  19. Robotic Surgical Skills: Acquisition, Maintenance, and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Karen M.; Lendvay, Thomas S.; Guy, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The degradation in robotic skills that occurs during periods of robotic surgical inactivity in newly trained surgeons was measured. The role of animate training in robotic skill was also assessed. Methods: Robotically naïve resident and attending surgeons underwent training with the da Vinci® robot on needle passage (DN), rocking ring transfer peg board (RPB), and running suture pod tasks (SP). Errors were established to convert actual time to adjusted time. Participants were deemed “proficient” once their adjusted times were within 80% of those set by experienced surgeons through repeated trials. Participants did not use the robot except for repeating the tasks once at 4, 8, and 12 weeks (tests). Participants then underwent animate training and completed a final test within 7 days. Results: Twenty-five attending and 29 resident surgeons enrolled; 3 withdrew. There were significant increases in time to complete each of the tasks, and in errors, by 4 weeks (Adjusted times: DN: 122.9 ± 2.2 to 204.2 ± 11.7, t=6.9, P<.001; RPB: 262.4 ± 2.5 to 364.7 ± 8.0, t=12.4, P<.001; SP: 91.4 ± 1.4 to 169.9 ± 6.8, t=11.3, P<.001). Times decreased following animate training, but not to levels observed after proficiency training for the RPB and SP modules. Conclusions: Robotic surgical skills degrade significantly within 4 weeks of inactivity in newly trained surgeons. Animate training may provide different skills than those acquired in the dry lab. PMID:23477169

  20. Cognitive learning strategies: their effectiveness in acquiring racquetball skill.

    PubMed

    Tennant, L M

    2000-06-01

    Racquetball players were compared to assess whether a Self-directed strategy (self-monitoring), a Task-oriented strategy (attentional focusing), or a Combined use of both strategies would be beneficial in acquisition of racquetball skills. According to skill (Beginning, Advanced), players (N=80) were assigned into treatment groups. After treatment, participants executed diagonal lob serves and rallies for Acquisition and Retention phases (Session 1). During Session 2, subjects competed in a modified play setting (Transfer phase). Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed differences by skill during the basic tests favored Advanced players. During modified play, the Task-oriented group won significantly more points and games compared to the Self-directed and Control groups, regardless of skill. Results are discussed relative to skill and the literature on learning strategies. PMID:10883768

  1. Adaptive Virtual Reality Training to Optimize Military Medical Skills Acquisition and Retention.

    PubMed

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Best, Bradley J; Kim, Jong Wook; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Ritter, Frank E

    2016-05-01

    The Department of Defense has pursued the integration of virtual reality simulation into medical training and applications to fulfill the need to train 100,000 military health care personnel annually. Medical personnel transitions, both when entering an operational area and returning to the civilian theater, are characterized by the need to rapidly reacquire skills that are essential but have decayed through disuse or infrequent use. Improved efficiency in reacquiring such skills is critical to avoid the likelihood of mistakes that may result in mortality and morbidity. We focus here on a study testing a theory of how the skills required for minimally invasive surgery for military surgeons are learned and retained. Our adaptive virtual reality surgical training system will incorporate an intelligent mechanism for tracking performance that will recognize skill deficiencies and generate an optimal adaptive training schedule. Our design is modeling skill acquisition based on a skill retention theory. The complexity of appropriate training tasks is adjusted according to the level of retention and/or surgical experience. Based on preliminary work, our system will improve the capability to interactively assess the level of skills learning and decay, optimizes skill relearning across levels of surgical experience, and positively impact skill maintenance. Our system could eventually reduce mortality and morbidity by providing trainees with the reexperience they need to help make a transition between operating theaters. This article reports some data that will support adaptive tutoring of minimally invasive surgery and similar surgical skills. PMID:27168575

  2. Exploring the Influencing Factors in Students' Acquisition of Manipulative Skills during Transition from Primary to Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadzil, Hidayah Mohd; Saat, Rohaida Mohd

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the contributing factors that influence students' acquisition of manipulative skills. Incompetence in manipulative skills in science at a primary level may impede science learning at secondary school. Thus, to confront these issues, an in-depth study was conducted. The research involved 10 primary school students who were…

  3. Computer Based Instruction of Professional Psychological Skill Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ouwerkerk, R. J.; Hoebe, M. N.; Oldersma, F. L.; Meijman, T. F.; van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, K. I.

    The developments in information technology and multimedia give new opportunities to increase the efficiency and quality of skills education. This paper presents three applications developed in the Netherlands to enhance professional skills learning in different areas of psychology: (1) BioPsy, an application developed to teach and train the…

  4. Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, Jennifer

    In a pilot project, Vance-Granville Community College in North Carolina and a local roofing manufacturer jointly developed the SKILL (Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning) training program. The 63 employees enrolled in the voluntary program thus far have received weekly instruction in functional, learning, and computer skills, as well as…

  5. Computer Enhanced Problem Solving Skill Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of interactive educational software that was designed to enhance critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving in a university psychology course. Piagetian and computer learning perspectives are explained; the courseware package, PsychWare, is described; and the use of heuristics and algorithms in…

  6. Modeling surgical skill learning with cognitive simulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Shi-Hyun; Suh, Irene H; Chien, Jung-hung; Paik, Jaehyon; Ritter, Frank E; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2011-01-01

    We used a cognitive architecture (ACT-R) to explore the procedural learning of surgical tasks and then to understand the process of perceptual motor learning and skill decay in surgical skill performance. The ACT-R cognitive model simulates declarative memory processes during motor learning. In this ongoing study, four surgical tasks (bimanual carrying, peg transfer, needle passing, and suture tying) were performed using the da Vinci© surgical system. Preliminary results revealed that an ACT-R model produced similar learning effects. Cognitive simulation can be used to demonstrate and optimize the perceptual motor learning and skill decay in surgical skill training. PMID:21335834

  7. The acquisition of robust and flexible cognitive skills.

    PubMed

    Taatgen, Niels A; Huss, David; Dickison, Daniel; Anderson, John R

    2008-08-01

    The authors introduce a model of skill acquisition that incorporates elements of both traditional models and models based on embedded cognition by striking a balance between top-down and bottom-up control. A knowledge representation is used in which pre- and postconditions are attached to actions. This model captures improved performance due to learning not only in terms of shorter solution times and lower error rates during the task but also in an increased flexibility to solve similar problems and robustness against unexpected events. In 3 experiments using a complex aviation task, the authors contrasted instructions that explicitly stated pre- and postconditions with conventional instructions that did not. The instructions with pre- and postconditions led to better and more robust performance than other instructions, especially on problems that required transfer. The parameters of the model were estimated to obtain a quantitative fit of the results of Experiment 1, which was then successfully used to predict the results of Experiments 2 and 3. PMID:18729715

  8. Development of Learning to Learn Skills in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hotulainen, Risto; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    In Finland, schools' effectiveness in fostering the development of transversal skills is evaluated through large-scale learning to learn (LTL) assessments. This article presents how LTL skills--general cognitive competences and learning-related motivational beliefs--develop during primary school and how they predict pupils' CPS skills at the end…

  9. Skill Acquisition Measures (SAM). Elementary Mathematics Level V. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster City School District, PA.

    The Skill Acquisition Measures (SAM) were designed by the Lancaster (Pennsylvania) School District as criterion referenced tests for mathematics. This manual consists of copies of the student test forms for level 5, with additional information for the teacher's use. Each of the test items is presented with the correct answers and the criteria for…

  10. Skill Acquisition Measures (SAM). Elementary Mathematics Level IV. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster City School District, PA.

    The Skill Acquisition Measures (SAM) were designed by the Lancaster (Pennsylvania) School District as criterion referenced tests for mathematics. This manual consists of copies of the student test forms for level 4, with additional information for the teacher's use. Each of the test items is presented with the correct answers and the criteria for…

  11. The Acquisition of Robust and Flexible Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taatgen, Niels A.; Huss, David; Dickison, Daniel; Anderson, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce a model of skill acquisition that incorporates elements of both traditional models and models based on embedded cognition by striking a balance between top-down and bottom-up control. A knowledge representation is used in which pre- and postconditions are attached to actions. This model captures improved performance due to…

  12. Language-Motor Skill Acquisition and Shorthand Theory Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clippinger, Dorinda A.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the ST-ART shorthand theory presentation method, this article discusses the following principles of language-motor skill acquisition: mental practice, symbol-sound association, verbal mediation, recitation and articulation, hierarchy of habits, overlearning, learner anxiety, sense modality, guided practice, kinesthetic imagery, visual…

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF MARKETABLE TYPING SKILL--SENSORY PROCESSES UNDERLYING ACQUISITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEST, LEONARD J.

    THE PROJECT ATTEMPTED TO PROVIDE FURTHER DATA ON THE DOMINANT HYPOTHESIS ABOUT THE SENSORY MECHANISMS UNDERLYING SKILL ACQUISITION IN TYPEWRITING. IN SO DOING, IT PROPOSED TO FURNISH A BASIS FOR IMPORTANT CORRECTIVES TO SUCH CONVENTIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES AS TOUCH TYPING. SPECIFICALLY, THE HYPOTHESIS HAS BEEN THAT KINESTHESIS IS NOT…

  14. The Wayside Mechanic: An Analysis of Skill Acquisition in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Stephen Douglas

    This study describes and analyzes the nature of skill acquisition process in one indigenous, informal training system--the apprenticeship of the wayside mechanics workshops in Koforidua, Ghana. Chapter 2 places apprenticeships training in the wider context of artisanship and training. It traces the history of the West African craft shop and its…

  15. Prosodic Awareness Skills and Literacy Acquisition in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defior, Sylvia; Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Cano-Marin, Maria Jose

    2012-01-01

    There has been very little research in Spanish on the potential role of prosodic skills in reading and spelling acquisition, which is the subject of the present study. A total of 85 children in 5th year of Primary Education (mean age 10 years and 9 months) performed tests assessing memory, stress awareness, phonological awareness, reading and…

  16. Delayed Motor Skill Acquisition in Kindergarten Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Strulovich-Schwartz, Orli; Julius, Mona

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and consolidation of a new grapho-motor symbol into long-term memory was studied in 5-year-old children with language impairment (LI) and peers matched for age and visual-motor integration skills. The children practiced the production of a new symbol and were tested 24 h and two weeks post-practice day. Differences in performance…

  17. Neurophysiological indices of strategy development and skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Smith, M E; McEvoy, L K; Gevins, A

    1999-01-01

    In order to examine neurophysiological changes associated with the development of cognitive and visuomotor strategies and skills, spectral features of the EEG were measured as participants learned to perform new tasks. In one experiment eight individuals practiced working memory tasks that required development of either spatial or verbal rehearsal and updating strategies. In a second experiment six individuals practiced a video game with a difficult visuomotor tracking component. The alpha rhythm, which is attenuated by functional cortical activation, was affected by task practice. In both experiments, a lower-frequency, centrally distributed alpha component increased between practice sessions in a task-independent fashion, reflecting an overall decrease in the extent of cortical activation after practice. A second, higher-frequency, posterior component of the alpha rhythm displayed task-specific practice effects. Practice in the verbal working memory task resulted in an increase of this signal over right posterior regions, an effect not seen after practice with the spatial working memory task or with the video game. This between-task difference presumably reflects a continued involvement of the posterior region of the right hemisphere in tasks that invoke visuospatial processes. This finding thus provides neurophysiological evidence for the formation of a task-specific neurocognitive strategy. In the second experiment a third component of the alpha rhythm, localized over somatomotor cortex, was enhanced in conjunction with acquisition of tracking skill. These alpha band results suggest that cortical regions not necessary for task performance become less active as skills develop. In both experiments the frontal midline (Fm) theta rhythm also displayed increases over the course of test sessions. This signal is associated with states of focused concentration, and its enhancement might reflect the conscious control over attention associated with maintenance of a task

  18. Development of different forms of skill learning throughout the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc

    2015-03-01

    The acquisition of complex motor, cognitive, and social skills, like playing a musical instrument or mastering sports or a language, is generally associated with implicit skill learning (SL). Although it is a general view that SL is most effective in childhood, and such skills are best acquired if learning starts early, this idea has rarely been tested by systematic empirical studies on the developmental pathways of SL from childhood to old age. In this paper, we challenge the view that childhood and early school years are the prime time for skill learning by tracking age-related changes in performance in three different paradigms of SL. We collected data from participants between 7 and 87 years for (1) a Serial Reaction Time Task (SRT) testing the learning of motor sequences, (2) an Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) task testing the extraction of regularities from auditory sequences, and (3) Probabilistic Category Learning in the Weather Prediction task (WP), a non-sequential categorization task. Results on all three tasks show that adolescence and adulthood are the most efficient periods for skill learning, since instead of becoming less and less effective with age, SL improves from childhood into adulthood and then later declines with aging. PMID:25039658

  19. No Childhood Advantage in the Acquisition of Skill in Using an Artificial Language Rule

    PubMed Central

    Ferman, Sara; Karni, Avi

    2010-01-01

    A leading notion is that language skill acquisition declines between childhood and adulthood. While several lines of evidence indicate that declarative (“what”, explicit) memory undergoes maturation, it is commonly assumed that procedural (“how-to”, implicit) memory, in children, is well established. The language superiority of children has been ascribed to the childhood reliance on implicit learning. Here we show that when 8-year-olds, 12-year-olds and young adults were provided with an equivalent multi-session training experience in producing and judging an artificial morphological rule (AMR), adults were superior to children of both age groups and the 8-year-olds were the poorest learners in all task parameters including in those that were clearly implicit. The AMR consisted of phonological transformations of verbs expressing a semantic distinction: whether the preceding noun was animate or inanimate. No explicit instruction of the AMR was provided. The 8-year-olds, unlike most adults and 12-year-olds, failed to explicitly uncover the semantic aspect of the AMR and subsequently to generalize it accurately to novel items. However, all participants learned to apply the AMR to repeated items and to generalize its phonological patterns to novel items, attaining accurate and fluent production, and exhibiting key characteristics of procedural memory. Nevertheless, adults showed a clear advantage in learning implicit task aspects, and in their long-term retention. Thus, our findings support the notion of age-dependent maturation in the establishment of declarative but also of procedural memory in a complex language task. In line with recent reports of no childhood advantage in non-linguistic skill learning, we propose that under some learning conditions adults can effectively express their language skill acquisition potential. Altogether, the maturational effects in the acquisition of an implicit AMR do not support a simple notion of a language skill learning

  20. Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Literature. [and] Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carolyn M.

    1998-01-01

    Article 1 reviews literature on psychomotor skill acquisition, finding inconclusive research based on a positivist approach. Article 2 reviews theories of skill acquisition. Both reviews will be used to evaluate a skills center for nurses that is based on a constructivist approach. (SK)

  1. The Dreyfus model of clinical problem-solving skills acquisition: a critical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Context The Dreyfus model describes how individuals progress through various levels in their acquisition of skills and subsumes ideas with regard to how individuals learn. Such a model is being accepted almost without debate from physicians to explain the ‘acquisition’ of clinical skills. Objectives This paper reviews such a model, discusses several controversial points, clarifies what kind of knowledge the model is about, and examines its coherence in terms of problem-solving skills. Dreyfus' main idea that intuition is a major aspect of expertise is also discussed in some detail. Relevant scientific evidence from cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience is reviewed to accomplish these aims. Conclusions Although the Dreyfus model may partially explain the ‘acquisition’ of some skills, it is debatable if it can explain the acquisition of clinical skills. The complex nature of clinical problem-solving skills and the rich interplay between the implicit and explicit forms of knowledge must be taken into consideration when we want to explain ‘acquisition’ of clinical skills. The idea that experts work from intuition, not from reason, should be evaluated carefully. PMID:20563279

  2. Cognitive Skills: A Modest Way of Learning through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethy, Satya Sundar

    2012-01-01

    Learning is an ever-present phenomenon. It takes place irrespective of time and place. It engages learners in their interested topic/content. Learning absorbs many skills, such as; reading skills, writing skills, technological skills, emotional skills, behavioral skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Out of all these, cognitive skills…

  3. Statistical Learning is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one’s environment, plays a role in young children’s acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from fluent speech and the learning of syntactic structure, some recent studies have explored the extent to which individual differences in statistical learning are related to literacy-relevant knowledge and skills. The present study extends on this literature by investigating the relations between two measures of statistical learning and multiple measures of skills that are critical to the development of literacy—oral language, vocabulary knowledge, and phonological processing—within a single model. Our sample included a total of 553 typically developing children from prekindergarten through second grade. Structural equation modeling revealed that statistical learning accounted for a unique portion of the variance in these literacy-related skills. Practical implications for instruction and assessment are discussed. PMID:26478658

  4. Team-Skills Training Enhances Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Jane S.; Stratford, Robert J.; Bizo, Lewis A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of team-skills training on collaborative learning in a university setting. Groups worked under one of three conditions: (1) groups received team-skill training as a group and remained in that group (Trained-Together), (2) groups received team-skills training, but were then reassigned into new groups…

  5. Basic Concept Acquisition in Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNapoli, Nicholas Paul; And Others

    The Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) (Boehm, 1971) was administered to 99 children (ages 7-10) who had been diagnosed as learning disabled and attended special schools in the New York area. It was hypothesized that the learning disabled children would exhibit a delay in the acquisition of the basic concepts, but would display a similar order of…

  6. Australian Universities, Generic Skills and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The concept of lifelong learning implies a cycle where the learner contributes prior learning into a new learning environment and sees that learning upgraded. In recent years, a range of internal and external pressures have encouraged Australian universities to identify the meta or generic skills embedded in tertiary study. Using a content…

  7. Queering know-how: clinical skill acquisition as ethical practice.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cressida J; Thachuk, Angela

    2015-06-01

    Our study of queer women patients and their primary health care providers (HCPs) in Halifax, Nova Scotia, reveals a gap between providers' theoretical knowledge of "cultural competency" and patients' experience. Drawing on Patricia Benner's Dreyfusian model of skill acquisition in nursing, we suggest that the dissonance between the anti-heteronormative principles expressed in interviews and the relative absence of skilled anti-heteronormative clinical practice can be understood as a failure to grasp the field of practice as a whole. Moving from "knowing-that" to "knowing-how" in terms of anti-heteronormative clinical skills is not only a desirable epistemological trajectory, we argue, but also a way of understanding better and worse ethical practice. PMID:25037245

  8. Learner-Controlled Self-Observation is Advantageous for Motor Skill Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Vertes, Kelly A.; Law, Barbi; Rymal, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    There were two main objectives of this research. First, we wanted to examine whether video feedback of the self (self-observation) was more effective for motor skill learning when the choice to view the video was provided to the learner (learner-controlled, LC) as opposed to an experimenter-controlled (EC) delivery. Secondly, we explored whether there were differences in the self-regulatory processes of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, as well as perceived choice between the LC and EC conditions. Two groups (LC and EC) of children (M age of 11.2 years; SD = 1.89) attempted to learn a progression of trampoline skills during a 2-day acquisition phase in which video self-observation was available. The second acquisition day was followed by a no self-observation retention test 1 day later. It was hypothesized that, during retention, the LC group would be more self-efficacious about their ability to progress through the trampoline skills, show greater intrinsic motivation and perceived choice, and go further in skill progression than the EC group. Analysis of the acquisition data showed the LC group had greater increases in self-efficacy as compared to the EC group. Results of the retention test showed that the participants in the LC group obtained higher scores on the intrinsic motivation and perceived choice measures and had higher skill progression scores as compared to the EC group. Regression analysis showed that group assignment and self-efficacy were significant predictors of the physical performance benefits noted in retention. These findings are discussed within Zimmerman’s (2004) self-regulation of learning model. PMID:23355826

  9. Phonological Reading Skills Acquisition by Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Frances A.; Rosenquist, Celia J.; Sligh, Allison C.; Atwell, Julie A.; Kiser, Tanya

    2006-01-01

    Twenty children with mental retardation (MR), age 7-12, completed a phonological reading skills program over approximately 10 weeks. As a result of the instruction, they were better able to sound out learned and transfer words compared to a control group matched on age, IQ, nonword reading, language comprehension, and phonemic awareness. Final…

  10. Computer-based video instructions for acquisition of technical skills.

    PubMed

    Dubrowski, Adam; Xeroulis, George

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to assess which type of information presented in an interactive computer-based video instruction was most frequently used by novice medical students during a 1-hour training session in instrument suturing and knot-tying skills. Custom-designed instructional software enabled tracking when a given segment of the video was accessed. The results suggest that, in the early stages of learning, trainees require guidance in proper looping techniques and placement of the knots. In accordance with motor learning theory, when setting up CD-ROM or Web-based curricula, instructors should, therefore, emphasize these steps during early stages of learning. PMID:16503567

  11. Learning features in computer simulation skills training.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Eva; Olsson, Mats; Petersson, Göran; Silén, Charlotte

    2010-09-01

    New simulation tools imply new opportunities to teach skills and train health care professionals. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning gained from computer simulation skills training. The study was designed for optimal educational settings, which benefit student-centred learning. Twenty-four second year undergraduate nursing students practised intravenous catheterization with the computer simulation program CathSim. Questionnaires were answered before and after the skills training, and after the skills examination. When using CathSim, the students appreciated the variation in patient cases, the immediate feedback, and a better understanding of anatomy, but they missed having an arm model to hold. We concluded that CathSim was useful in the students' learning process and skills training when appropriately integrated into the curriculum. Learning features to be aware of when organizing curricula with simulators are motivation, realism, variation, meaningfulness and feedback. PMID:20015690

  12. Parietal damage impairs learning of a visuomotor tracking skill.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Anderson, Steven W; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Damasio, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the consequences of damage to the parietal lobe for learning a visuomotor tracking skill. Thirty subjects with a single unilateral brain lesion (13 with and 17 without parietal damage) and 23 demographically comparable healthy subjects performed the Rotary Pursuit task. For each group, time on target increased significantly across the four learning blocks. Subjects with parietal lesions had smaller improvements on the Rotary Pursuit from the 1st to the 4th block than subjects with lesions in other brain areas and healthy comparison subjects. The improvements on task performance from the 1st to the 2nd and from the 1st to the 3rd learning blocks were similar between groups. The parietal lobe appears to play an important role in the acquisition of a new visuomotor tracking skill, in particular during a relatively late phase of learning. PMID:26536523

  13. Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.

  14. Acquisition of Motor and Cognitive Skills through Repetition in Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Magallón, Sara; Narbona, Juan; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    Background Procedural memory allows acquisition, consolidation and use of motor skills and cognitive routines. Automation of procedures is achieved through repeated practice. In children, improvement in procedural skills is a consequence of natural neurobiological development and experience. Methods The aim of the present research was to make a preliminary evaluation and description of repetition-based improvement of procedures in typically developing children (TDC). Ninety TDC children aged 6–12 years were asked to perform two procedural learning tasks. In an assembly learning task, which requires predominantly motor skills, we measured the number of assembled pieces in 60 seconds. In a mirror drawing learning task, which requires more cognitive functions, we measured time spent and efficiency. Participants were tested four times for each task: three trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after a 10-minute nonverbal interference task. The influence of repeated practice on performance was evaluated by means of the analysis of variance with repeated measures and the paired-sample test. Correlation coefficients and simple linear regression test were used to examine the relationship between age and performance. Results TDC achieved higher scores in both tasks through repetition. Older children fitted more pieces than younger ones in assembling learning and they were faster and more efficient at the mirror drawing learning task. Conclusions These findings indicate that three consecutive trials at a procedural task increased speed and efficiency, and that age affected basal performance in motor-cognitive procedures. PMID:27384671

  15. The Effects of Word Box Instruction on Acquisition, Generalization, and Maintenance of Decoding and Spelling Skills for First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Kanotz, Brittany; Rouse, Christina A.; Sawyer, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of implementing word boxes as a supplemental instruction method on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of word identification and spelling. Word box intervention consists of using manipulatives to learn phonological decoding skills. The participants were three African-American urban first graders…

  16. A Formative Study Investigating the Acquisition of Early Reading Skills among High School English Language Learners Beginning to Read English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Athene Cooper

    2012-01-01

    A formative design experiment methodology was employed to investigate the acquisition of early reading skills for high school English language learners (ELLs) beginning to read English. A fundamental challenge facing high school ELLs entering schools in the United States for the first time is learning how to read. While there is considerable…

  17. Acquisition and Retention of Quantitative Communication Skills in an Undergraduate Biology Curriculum: Long-Term Retention Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Cary D.; Ashley, David C.; Rushin, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some of the effects of a nontraditional, experimental learning approach designed to improve rapid acquisition and long-term retention of quantitative communication skills (QCS) such as descriptive and inferential statistics, hypothesis formulation, experimental design, data characteristics, and data…

  18. Mobile Learning: Using Application "Auralbook" to Learn Aural Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi Wai Jason

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effectiveness of using mobile devices such as iPhone/iPad/android phone/tablet to facilitate mobile learning in aural skills. The application "Auralbook" was designed in 2011 by an engineer/musician to use mobile devices to learn aural skills. This application enables students to sing, record, clap and…

  19. Teamwork Skills Assessment for Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…

  20. Automation and Schema Acquisition in Learning Elementary Computer Programming: Implications for the Design of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Paas, Fred G. W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of computer programing at the secondary level focuses on automation and schema acquisition as two processes important in learning cognitive skills such as programing. Their effects on learning outcomes and transfer of training are examined, the importance of worked examples is highlighted, and instructional design principles are…

  1. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  2. Use of classroom "clickers" to promote acquisition of advanced reasoning skills.

    PubMed

    DeBourgh, Gregory A

    2008-03-01

    Use of classroom response systems (a.k.a. "clickers" or "audience polling systems") are growing in popularity among faculty in colleges and universities. When used by faculty in a strategic instructional design, clickers can raise the level of participation and the effectiveness of interaction, promote engagement of students in active learning, foster communication to clarify misunderstanding and incorrect thinking, and provide a method to instructionally embed assessment as a learning activity rather than reliance on the traditional approach of summative assessment for assigning grades. This article describes the use of clicker technology in a baccalaureate nursing program to promote acquisition and application of advanced reasoning skills. Methods are suggested for embedding formative assessment and the tactical use of questioning as feedback and a powerful learning tool. Operational aspects of clickers technology are summarized and students' perceptions and satisfaction with use of this teaching and learning technology are described. PMID:18291324

  3. Reorganization and plastic changes of the human brain associated with skill learning and expertise

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yongmin

    2014-01-01

    Novel experience and learning new skills are known as modulators of brain function. Advances in non-invasive brain imaging have provided new insight into structural and functional reorganization associated with skill learning and expertise. Especially, significant imaging evidences come from the domains of sports and music. Data from in vivo imaging studies in sports and music have provided vital information on plausible neural substrates contributing to brain reorganization underlying skill acquisition in humans. This mini review will attempt to take a narrow snapshot of imaging findings demonstrating functional and structural plasticity that mediate skill learning and expertise while identifying converging areas of interest and possible avenues for future research. PMID:24550812

  4. A dual process account of coarticulation in motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashvin; Barto, Andrew G; Fagg, Andrew H

    2013-01-01

    Many tasks, such as typing a password, are decomposed into a sequence of subtasks that can be accomplished in many ways. Behavior that accomplishes subtasks in ways that are influenced by the overall task is often described as "skilled" and exhibits coarticulation. Many accounts of coarticulation use search methods that are informed by representations of objectives that define skilled. While they aid in describing the strategies the nervous system may follow, they are computationally complex and may be difficult to attribute to brain structures. Here, the authors present a biologically- inspired account whereby skilled behavior is developed through 2 simple processes: (a) a corrective process that ensures that each subtask is accomplished, but does not do so skillfully and (b) a reinforcement learning process that finds better movements using trial and error search that is not informed by representations of any objectives. We implement our account as a computational model controlling a simulated two-armed kinematic "robot" that must hit a sequence of goals with its hands. Behavior displays coarticulation in terms of which hand was chosen, how the corresponding arm was used, and how the other arm was used, suggesting that the account can participate in the development of skilled behavior. PMID:24116847

  5. Models of performance in learning multisegment movement tasks: consequences for acquisition, retention, and judgments of learning.

    PubMed

    Simon, Dominic A; Bjork, Robert A

    2002-12-01

    Participants learned different keystroke patterns, each requiring that a key sequence be struck in a prescribed time. Trials of a given pattern were either blocked or interleaved randomly with trials on the other patterns and before each trial modeled timing information was presented that either matched or mismatched the movement to be executed next. In acquisition, blocked practice and matching models supported better performance than did random practice and mismatching models. In retention, however, random practice and mismatching models were associated with superior learning. Judgments of learning made during practice were more in line with acquisition than with retention performance, providing further evidence that a learner's current ease of access to a motor skill is a poor indicator of learning benefit. PMID:12570097

  6. Enhancing Autonomous L2 Vocabulary Learning Focusing on the Development of Word-Level Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyoda, Etsuko

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviewed studies in word-level processing skills and related areas, and profiled how the development of L2 word recognition and integration skills would contribute to autonomous "kango" (Chinese originated words or words created from Chinese originated words) vocabulary learning. Despite the fact that the acquisition of a…

  7. Totally Model-Free Learned Skillful Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Stuart E.

    2004-01-01

    The author proposes a neural-network-based explanation of how a brain might acquire intuitive expertise. The explanation is intended merely to be suggestive and lacks many complexities found in even lower animal brains. Yet significantly, even this simplified brain model is capable of explaining the acquisition of simple skills without developing…

  8. Characterizing skill acquisition through motor imagery with no prior physical practice.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah N; MacKenzie, Laura A; Westwood, David A; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-02-01

    Motor learning depends upon plasticity in neural networks involved in the planning and execution of movement. Physical practice (PP) is the primary means of motor learning, but it can be augmented with nonphysical forms of practice including motor imagery (MI)-the mental rehearsal of movement. It is unknown if MI alone, without prior PP of a movement, can produce robust learning. Here the authors used an implicit sequence learning task to explore motor learning via MI alone or PP. Participants underwent implicit sequence learning training via MI (n = 31) or PP (n = 33). Posttraining reaction time was faster for implicit versus random sequences for both the MI group (M = 583 ± 84 ms; 632 ± 86 ms, d = 0.59) and PP group (M = 532 ± 73 ms; 589 ± 70 ms, d = 0.80), demonstrating that MI without PP facilitated skill acquisition. Relative to MI alone, PP led to reduced reaction time for both random (d = 0.65) and implicit sequences (d = 0.55) consistent with a nonspecific motor benefit favoring PP over MI. These results have broad implication for theories of MI and support the use of MI as a form of practice to acquire implicit motor skills. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389615

  9. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  10. Framework for robot skill learning using reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yingzi; Zhao, Mingyang

    2003-09-01

    Robot acquiring skill is a process similar to human skill learning. Reinforcement learning (RL) is an on-line actor critic method for a robot to develop its skill. The reinforcement function has become the critical component for its effect of evaluating the action and guiding the learning process. We present an augmented reward function that provides a new way for RL controller to incorporate prior knowledge and experience into the RL controller. Also, the difference form of augmented reward function is considered carefully. The additional reward beyond conventional reward will provide more heuristic information for RL. In this paper, we present a strategy for the task of complex skill learning. Automatic robot shaping policy is to dissolve the complex skill into a hierarchical learning process. The new form of value function is introduced to attain smooth motion switching swiftly. We present a formal, but practical, framework for robot skill learning and also illustrate with an example the utility of method for learning skilled robot control on line.

  11. Motor skill learning requires active central myelination.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Ian A; Ohayon, David; Li, Huiliang; de Faria, Joana Paes; Emery, Ben; Tohyama, Koujiro; Richardson, William D

    2014-10-17

    Myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) are formed continuously in the healthy adult brain. In this work, we study the function of these late-forming cells and the myelin they produce. Learning a new motor skill (such as juggling) alters the structure of the brain's white matter, which contains many OLs, suggesting that late-born OLs might contribute to motor learning. Consistent with this idea, we show that production of newly formed OLs is briefly accelerated in mice that learn a new skill (running on a "complex wheel" with irregularly spaced rungs). By genetically manipulating the transcription factor myelin regulatory factor in OL precursors, we blocked production of new OLs during adulthood without affecting preexisting OLs or myelin. This prevented the mice from mastering the complex wheel. Thus, generation of new OLs and myelin is important for learning motor skills. PMID:25324381

  12. Learning: Statistical Mechanisms in Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    The grammatical structure of human languages is extremely complex, yet children master this complexity with apparent ease. One explanation is that we come to the task of acquisition equipped with knowledge about the possible grammatical structures of human languages—so-called "Universal Grammar". An alternative is that grammatical patterns are abstracted from the input via a process of identifying reoccurring patterns and using that information to form grammatical generalizations. This statistical learning hypothesis receives support from computational research, which has revealed that even low level statistics based on adjacent word co-occurrences yield grammatically relevant information. Moreover, even as adults, our knowledge and usage of grammatical patterns is often graded and probabilistic, and in ways which directly reflect the statistical makeup of the language we experience. The current chapter explores such evidence and concludes that statistical learning mechanisms play a critical role in acquisition, whilst acknowledging holes in our current knowledge, particularly with respect to the learning of `higher level' syntactic behaviours. Throughout, I emphasize that although a statistical approach is traditionally associated with a strongly empiricist position, specific accounts make specific claims about the nature of the learner, both in terms of learning mechanisms and the information that is primitive to the learning system. In particular, working models which construct grammatical generalizations often assume inbuilt semantic abstractions.

  13. Cognitive Skills in Workplace Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison

    This philosophical and empirical investigation explored whether cognitive skills can be acquired in a workplace setting. A preliminary investigation looked at views of knowledge in liberal humanism where knowledge is a matter for individuals with transcendent minds with objects of knowledge being matters for which there is clear perceptual…

  14. Gaze-contingent training enhances perceptual skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Donghyun; Mann, David L; Abernethy, Bruce; Poolton, Jamie M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether decision-making skill in perceptual-cognitive tasks could be enhanced using a training technique that impaired selective areas of the visual field. Recreational basketball players performed perceptual training over 3 days while viewing with a gaze-contingent manipulation that displayed either (a) a moving window (clear central and blurred peripheral vision), (b) a moving mask (blurred central and clear peripheral vision), or (c) full (unrestricted) vision. During the training, participants watched video clips of basketball play and at the conclusion of each clip made a decision about to which teammate the player in possession of the ball should pass. A further control group watched unrelated videos with full vision. The effects of training were assessed using separate tests of decision-making skill conducted in a pretest, posttest, and 2-week retention test. The accuracy of decision making was greater in the posttest than in the pretest for all three intervention groups when compared with the control group. Remarkably, training with blurred peripheral vision resulted in a further improvement in performance from posttest to retention test that was not apparent for the other groups. The type of training had no measurable impact on the visual search strategies of the participants, and so the training improvements appear to be grounded in changes in information pickup. The findings show that learning with impaired peripheral vision offers a promising form of training to support improvements in perceptual skill. PMID:26824639

  15. Contextual interference in complex bimanual skill learning leads to better skill persistence.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Lisa; Swinnen, Stephan P; Beets, Iseult A M

    2014-01-01

    The contextual interference (CI) effect is a robust phenomenon in the (motor) skill learning literature. However, CI has yielded mixed results in complex task learning. The current study addressed whether the CI effect is generalizable to bimanual skill learning, with a focus on the temporal evolution of memory processes. In contrast to previous studies, an extensive training schedule, distributed across multiple days of practice, was provided. Participants practiced three frequency ratios across three practice days following either a blocked or random practice schedule. During the acquisition phase, better overall performance for the blocked practice group was observed, but this difference diminished as practice progressed. At immediate and delayed retention, the random practice group outperformed the blocked practice group, except for the most difficult frequency ratio. Our main finding is that the random practice group showed superior performance persistence over a one week time interval in all three frequency ratios compared to the blocked practice group. This study contributes to our understanding of learning, consolidation and memory of complex motor skills, which helps optimizing training protocols in future studies and rehabilitation settings. PMID:24960171

  16. Soft Skills at the Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakir, Roselina

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses human capital development through the seven soft skills elements which comprise communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work, lifelong learning and information management skills, entrepreneurship skills, ethics, and professional moral and leadership skills. The Ministry of Higher Education,…

  17. A Study on Students Acquisition of IT Knowledge and Its Implication on M-Learning

    PubMed Central

    Balavivekanandhan, A.; Arulchelvan, S.

    2015-01-01

    The boom in mobile technology has seen a dramatic rise in its usage. This has led to usage of mobiles even in the academic context for further learning. Although the advantages of m-learning (mobile learning) are visible, studies are required to address the aspects that shape its virtual expectations. The acceptance of mobile technology relies mostly on how the students feel about mobile technology fitting into their requirements. Yet, in spite of the significance in the potential of m-learning, research studies have only inadequate data to identify the factors that influence their decision to adapt the mobile technology for the purpose of learning. To deal with this space, the present study was undertaken to correlate the IT skills of students with their impact on their acceptance of m-learning. The research study found that the perceived usability along with the usefulness of m-learning impacts the association between IT expertise and the objective of learners' acceptance of m-learning. A survey of 892 students from Engineering, Arts, and Science Colleges found that IT skills influence student's acquisition of m-learning technology. Specialized and advanced skills in mobile technology along with basic skills play a significant role in influencing a student to accept m-learning. But no specific substantiation has been established to support the statement that highly developed IT skills have influenced the students to accept m-learning. PMID:26576451

  18. A Comparison of Error-Correction Procedures on Skill Acquisition during Discrete-Trial Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Regina A.; Joachim, Brad T.; St. Peter, Claire C.; Robinson, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Previous research supports the use of a variety of error-correction procedures to facilitate skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction. We used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare the effects of 4 commonly used error-correction procedures on skill acquisition for 2 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  19. Using the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition to Describe and Interpret Skill Acquisition and Clinical Judgment in Nursing Practice and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Three studies using the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition were conducted over a period of 21 years. Nurses with a range of experience and reported skillfulness were interviewed. Each study used nurses' narrative accounts of actual clinical situations. A subsample of participants were observed and interviewed at work. These studies extend the…

  20. Benchmarking for the Learning and Skills Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jane

    This document is designed to introduce practitioners in the United Kingdom's learning and skills sector to the principles and practice of benchmarking. The first section defines benchmarking and differentiates metric, diagnostic, and process benchmarking. The remainder of the booklet details the following steps of the benchmarking process: (1) get…

  1. Conditions of Practice in Perceptual Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memmert, D.; Hagemann, N.; Althoetmar, R.; Geppert, S.; Seiler, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses three experiments with different kinds of training conditions to investigate the "easy-to-hard" principle, context interference conditions, and feedback effects for learning anticipatory skills in badminton. Experiment 1 (N = 60) showed that a training program that gradually increases the difficulty level has no advantage over the…

  2. The Library Skills Learning Package: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kathleen H.

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Library Skills Learning Package, a printed, self-contained instructional program consisting of explanations and procedures for use of specific library resources and exercises which require the student to use a source in order to answer the questions. It was tested in a special communications class…

  3. Acquisition of Skill Proficiency Over Multiple Sessions of a Novel Rover Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, S. L.; DeDios,Y. E.; MacDougall, H. G.; Moore, S. T.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    surface operations and what countermeasures are needed. Learning Objective: The use of a motion-based simulation to investigate decrements in the proficiency to operate pressurized rovers during early surface operations of space exploration missions, along with the acquisition of skill proficiency needed during the preflight phase of the mission.

  4. Motor imagery-based skill acquisition disrupted following rTMS of the inferior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah N; Keeler, Laura T; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-02-01

    Motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of motor tasks, has promise as a therapy in post-stroke rehabilitation. The potential effectiveness of MI is attributed to the facilitation of plasticity in numerous brain regions akin to those recruited for physical practice. It is suggested, however, that MI relies more heavily on regions commonly affected post-stroke, including left hemisphere parietal regions involved in visuospatial processes. However, the impact of parietal damage on MI-based skill acquisition that underlies rehabilitation remains unclear. Here, we examine the contribution of the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) to MI using inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and an MI-based implicit sequence learning (ISL) paradigm. Participants (N = 27) completed the MI-based ISL paradigm after receiving continuous theta burst stimulation to the left IPL (TMS), or with the coil angled away from the scalp (sham). Reaction time differences (dRT) and effect sizes between implicit and random sequences assessed success of MI-based learning. Mean dRT for the sham group was 36.1 ± 28.2 ms (d = 0.71). Mean dRT in the TMS group was 7.7 ± 38.5 ms (d = 0.11). These results indicate that inhibition of the left IPL impaired MI-based learning. We conclude that the IPL and likely the visuospatial processes it mediates are critical for MI performance and thus MI-based skill acquisition or learning. Ultimately, these findings have implications for the use of MI in post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26487181

  5. Effect on Movement Selection of an Evolving Sensory Representation: A Multiple Controller Model of Skill Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Barto, Andrew G.

    2009-01-01

    Change in behavior and neural activity in skill acquisition suggests that control is transferred from cortical planning areas (e.g., the prefrontal cortex, PFC) to the basal ganglia (BG). Planning has large computational and representational requirements but requires little experience with a task. The BG are thought to employ a simpler control scheme and reinforcement learning; these mechanisms rely on extensive experience. Many theoretical accounts of behavior in the face of uncertainty invoke planning mechanisms that explicitly take uncertainty into account. We suggest that the simpler mechanisms of the BG can also contribute to the development of behavior under such conditions. We focus on learning under conditions in which sensory information takes time to resolve, e.g., when a poorly perceived goal stimulus takes non-negligible time to identify. It may be advantageous to begin acting quickly under uncertainty — possibly via decisions that are suboptimal for the actual goal — rather than to wait for sensory information to fully resolve. We present a model of skill acquisition in which control is transferred, with experience, from a planning controller (denoted A), corresponding to the PFC, to a simpler controller (B), corresponding to the BG. We apply our model to a task in which a learning agent must execute a series of actions to achieve a goal (selected randomly at each trial from a small set). Over the course of a trial, the agent's goal representation evolves from representing all possible goals to only the selected goal. A is restricted to select movements only when goal representation is fully resolved. Model behavior is similar to that observed in humans accomplishing similar tasks. Thus, B can by itself account for the development of behavior under an evolving sensory representation, suggesting that the BG can contribute to learning and control under conditions of uncertainty. PMID:19595991

  6. The effects of reinforcement magnitude on skill acquisition for children with autism.

    PubMed

    Paden, Amber R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effects of reinforcement magnitude on skill acquisition during discrete-trial training. After conducting a magnitude preference assessment, we compared acquisition during conditions with large and small magnitudes of edible reinforcement to a praise-only condition. Although all participants showed a preference for the large-magnitude reinforcer, preference did not predict the magnitude that produced the fastest skill acquisition. PMID:26281795

  7. Context of Learning in the Acquisition of Spanish Second Language Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Campos, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Studies in SLA have debated the importance of context of learning in the process of developing linguistic skills in a second language (L2). The present paper examines whether study abroad, as it provides opportunities for authentic L2 context, facilitates the acquisition of Spanish phonology. The corpus of this investigation is composed of speech…

  8. Ability-Growth Interactions in the Acquisition of a Complex Skill: A Spline-Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuelke, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    While investigating how the relationship of abilities and skill acquisition changes over the course of training, researchers have unknowingly obscured the very relationship they sought to examine by relying on analyses that focused on attainment and did not model acquisition. Although more recent approaches have modeled acquisition independently…

  9. The Bounds of Adult Language Acquisition: Blocking and Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…

  10. Primary School Teachers' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are very important in problem solving. It is important to develop these skills from the first years of school. Thus, it is essential that primary school teachers master self-regulated learning skills and they know how to develop these skills in their pupils. In this article, we present the results of a research…

  11. Factors Influencing the Acquisition of Employability Skills by Students of Selected Technical Secondary School in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dania, Jovinia; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Mohamed, Shamsiah

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to assess the acquisition of employability skills by vocational students in Malaysia. A total of 214 students participated in the study. We used the SCANS instrument to assess vocational students' employability skills. The overall mean of vocational secondary students' employability skills was 3.81 (SD = 0.34).…

  12. Acquisition and Generalization of Purchasing Skills Using a Video Enhanced Computer-Based Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Kevin M.; Langone, John

    2002-01-01

    Three elementary students with mental retardation used a computer-based instructional package to practice purchasing skills and the dollar plus strategy. The instructional package utilized video footage and a constant time delay procedure to facilitate skill acquisition. Skills did not generalize, although changes in purchasing behavior in the…

  13. An Attempt to Measure Presentation Skill Acquisition Using Peer and Self-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Morone, Mieko; Sato, Atsuko; Ohno, Isao; Ohkawara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Tsuneyoshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Azuma, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    In six-year pharmacy education programs, humanistic education is now regarded as more important than ever, and we are working to incorporate active learning methods into a variety of subjects. Because performance evaluations are by their nature subjective, it is difficult to ensure the validity of any given assessment. Fifth-year students at Tohoku Pharmaceutical University learn case and prescription analysis in problem-based learning tutorials. As part of this curriculum, 20 presentation and discussion meetings over the course of 10 weeks are held, with approximately 100 students making presentations two or more times each. With regard to the presentation skills that students are expected to acquire, we instructed them to conduct peer evaluations and analyzed the evaluation results for 863 students conducted between 2012 and 2014. From the results, it was found that peer evaluation scores improved between the first and second evaluations for 70% to 86% of students, and furthermore that students who received lower scores in their first evaluations increased their scores correspondingly in the second. In addition, while 87% of students responded positively in the presentation skill acquisition self-evaluations conducted after the completion of the program, there was no correlation between the results of self-evaluation and peer evaluation. It was suggested that many students were able to cultivate an eye for criticism by evaluating other students and gain confidence by becoming aware of their own growth through repeated presentations. PMID:27374967

  14. Skill acquisition through program-level imitation in a real-time domain.

    PubMed

    Wood, Mark A; Bryson, Joanna J

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an imitation learning system capable of learning tasks in a complex dynamic real-time environment. In this paper, we argue that social learning should be thought of as a special case of general skill learning, and that the biases it presents to the skill learning problem radically simplify learning for species with sufficient innate predisposition to harness this power. We decompose skill learning into four subproblems, then show how a modification of Roy's CELL system can address all these problems simultaneously. Our system is demonstrated working in the domain of a real-time virtual-reality game, Unreal Tournament. PMID:17416156

  15. Early language acquisition: Statistical learning and social learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2003-10-01

    Infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns in language input, and exposure to them alters phonetic perception. Our recent data indicate that first-time exposure to a foreign language at 9 months of age results in learning after only 5 h, suggesting a process that is fairly automatic, given natural language input. At the same time, it appears that early phonetic learning from natural language may be constrained by the need for social interaction. Our work demonstrates that infants learn phonetically when exposed to a live, but not a pre-recorded, speaker. This talk will focus on statistical learning in a social context and develop the thesis that this combination provides an ideal situation for the acquisition of a natural language.

  16. A Case Study Approach to the Sources of Slumps in Skill Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Takeba, Chie

    Many studies on skill acquisition have claimed that improvements in performance follow the power law of practice. However, it is also well-known that during long-term practice there are fluctuations such as plateaus, regressions, and spurts. In order to objectively examine the fluctuations in learning process, we analyzed a long-term learning process in a simple assembly task. We applied a time-series analysis based on the state space method to the task completion time. The analysis revealed that the power law of practice provided only a first approximation, and that fluctuations around the power law line reflected long-term trends. Next, we focused on one of the fluctuations, and carried out cognitive analysis to find what produced the fluctuation. We found that, contrary to the dominant skill acquisition model, the slump was attributable to the mismatch between the level of skills and the environment that the skills are demonstrated in. This analysis suggests that, in order to fully elucidate the processes and mechanisms of skill acquisition, attention should be paid not only to the internal mechanisms, but also to the external environment that the skills are demonstrated in. We discussed the above results in terms of the essential role of fluctuations and environment in skill learning as well as the nature of the data obtained from a single subject.

  17. Effect of interface type in the VR-based acquisition of pedestrian skills in persons with ASD.

    PubMed

    Saiano, Mario; Garbarino, Eleonora; Lumachi, Simonetta; Solari, Silvano; Sanguineti, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Possession of `social' skills is crucial for persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to maintain a certain independence and a better quality of life, and interaction with virtual environments seems an effective learning aid. In a previous study, we reported that in adults with ASD interaction with a virtual environment (a virtual city) is beneficial to the acquisition of pedestrian skills (street crossing and street navigation). Interaction was based on a gesture-based interface (Microsoft Kinect). Here we compare the learning performance when the same virtual environment is operated by a gamepad interface. We used exactly the same training protocol and data analysis than the original study. We found that both interface types are effective in the acquisition of street crossing and city navigation skills. The gamepad interface seems easier to use (thus leading to faster interaction), but gesture-based interfaces are superior in terms of transfer of the learned skills to real road environments (as reported by parents and caregivers). PMID:26737593

  18. Variability of Practice and Contextual Interference in Motor Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Hall, K. G.; Magill, R. A.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether learning benefits in multiple-task learning situations are a result of contextual interference or of schema enhancement related to the amount of variability in the practice session. Two experiments were designed that replicated and extended the experiment reported by Wulf and Schmidt (1988). In a 2 (same vs. different relative time) x 2 (blocked vs. random practice schedule) design, 48 right-handed subjects were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A tapping task was employed that required a right-handed tap of three small brass plates arranged in a diamond pattern. Each segment had a specific time requirement. Target times and response times were provided on a computer screen directly in front of the subject. Each subject participated in two acquisition sessions (i.e., 198 practice trials) and was tested for learning on several different retention and transfer tests. In Experiment 2, a control group was added that received no acquisition phase. Results of both experiments showed a typical contextual interference effect, with depressed scores by the random groups during acquisition but significantly better scores than the blocked groups on several retention and transfer tests. Certain characteristics of the tests were found to influence the demonstration of the practice schedule effects. These results were consistent with predictions from Magill and Hall (1990) that the learning benefits of contextual interference are more likely to occur when skill variations are from different classes of movement and that the amount of variability in practice is more influential when the to-be-learned tasks are parameter modifications of the same generalized motor program. PMID:12529226

  19. Women match men when learning a spatial skill.

    PubMed

    Spence, Ian; Yu, Jingjie Jessica; Feng, Jing; Marshman, Jeff

    2009-07-01

    Meta-analytic studies have concluded that although training improves spatial cognition in both sexes, the male advantage generally persists. However, because some studies run counter to this pattern, a closer examination of the anomaly is warranted. The authors investigated the acquisition of a basic skill (spatial selective attention) using a matched-pair two-wave longitudinal design. Participants were screened with the use of an attentional visual field task, with the objective of selecting and matching 10 male-female pairs, over a wide range (30% to 57% correct). Subsequently, 20 participants 17-23 years of age (selected from 43 screened) were trained for 10 hr (distributed over several sessions) by playing a first-person shooter video game. This genre is known to be highly effective in enhancing spatial skills. All 20 participants improved, with matched members of the male-female pairs achieving very similar gains, independent of starting level. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the learning trajectory of women is not inferior to that of men when acquiring a basic spatial skill. Training methods that develop basic spatial skills may be essential to achieve gender parity in both basic and complex spatial tasks. PMID:19586273

  20. Basic practical skills teaching and learning in undergraduate medical education – a review on methodological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Daniela; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Practical skills are an essential part of physicians’ daily routine. Nevertheless, medical graduates’ performance of basic skills is often below the expected level. This review aims to identify and summarize teaching approaches of basic practical skills in undergraduate medical education which provide evidence with respect to effective students’ learning of these skills. Methods: Basic practical skills were defined as basic physical examination skills, routine skills which get better with practice, and skills which are also performed by nurses. We searched PubMed with different terms describing these basic practical skills. In total, 3467 identified publications were screened and 205 articles were eventually reviewed for eligibility. Results: 43 studies that included at least one basic practical skill, a comparison of two groups of undergraduate medical students and effects on students’ performance were analyzed. Seven basic practical skills and 15 different teaching methods could be identified. The most consistent results with respect to effective teaching and acquisition of basic practical skills were found for structured skills training, feedback, and self-directed learning. Simulation was effective with specific teaching methods and in several studies no differences in teaching effects were detected between expert or peer instructors. Multimedia instruction, when used in the right setting, also showed beneficial effects for basic practical skills learning. Conclusion: A combination of voluntary or obligatory self-study with multimedia applications like video clips in combination with a structured program including the possibility for individual exercise with personal feedback by peers or teachers might provide a good learning opportunity for basic practical skills. PMID:27579364

  1. Assessments of "Learning-Related Skills" and "Interpersonal Skills" Constructs within Early Childhood Environments in Singapore"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sok Mui; Rodger, Sylvia; Brown, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Social skills are necessary for developing successful relationships and promoting learning. "Interpersonal skills" (IPS) are needed for maintaining friendships while "learning-related skills" (LRS) are required for positive classroom behaviours. In this study, we investigated the construct validity of LRS and IPS within two existing assessments:…

  2. Neuroanatomical and cognitive correlates of adult age differences in acquisition of a perceptual-motor skill.

    PubMed

    Raz, N; Williamson, A; Gunning-Dixon, F; Head, D; Acker, J D

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine age differences in procedural learning and performance in conjunction with differential aging of central nervous system (CNS) structures. Sixty-eight healthy volunteers (age 22-80) performed a pursuit rotor task (four blocks of 20 15-second trials each). Volumes of the cerebellar hemispheres, neostriatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus were measured from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Improvement in pursuit rotor performance was indexed by increase in time on target (TOT). A general improvement trend was evident across the blocks of trials. Overall, younger participants showed significantly longer TOT. The rate of improvement was age-invariant during the initial stages of skill acquisition but became greater in middle-aged participants as the practice progressed. When the influences of regional brain volumes were taken into account, the direct age effect on mean TOT measured during the first day of practice disappeared. Instead, reduced volumes of the cerebellar hemispheres and the putamen and poorer performance on nonverbal working memory tasks predicted shorter TOT. In contrast, neither the volume of the caudate and the hippocampus, nor verbal working memory showed association with motor performance. Pursuit rotor performance at the later stages of practice was unrelated to the reduction in putamen volume and was affected directly by age, cerebellar volume, and nonverbal working memory proficiency. We conclude that in a healthy population showing no clinical signs of extrapyramidal disease, age-related declines in procedural learning are associated with reduced volume of the cerebellar hemispheres and lower nonverbal working memory scores. During initial stages of skill acquisition, reduced volume of the putamen is also predictive of poorer performance. PMID:11002356

  3. Emerging Tacts and Selections from Previous Learned Skills: A Comparison between Two Types of Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-González, Luis Antonio; Cereijo-Blanco, Noelia; Carnerero, José Julio

    2014-01-01

    Naming consists of tacting an object and selecting it upon hearing its name as a result of emergence. After acquiring naming, children learn object-name relations more quickly and, hence, it is an important achievement in development. We studied the acquisition of the two skills that define naming, using two procedures, in seven typically…

  4. Body Learning: Examining the Processes of Skill Learning in Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Richard; Pickard, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This paper was stimulated by the authors' attempt to understand the process of skill learning in dance. Its stimulus was a period of fieldwork based at the Royal Ballet School in London, and subsequent discussions with the school's teachers and with academic colleagues about how it was that the young dancers developed their characteristic set of…

  5. Mechanisms of knowledge learning and acquisition.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Elliott

    2002-07-01

    The mechanism by which knowledge enters into memory has been a source of debate for some time. Theorists have proposed several models that aim at explaining the sequence of events from the perception of a stimulus, to its entrance into long-term storage. Much of this work was prompted by early research into the nuances of classical conditioning where it was first firmly established that organisms are capable of detecting covariations of stimuli within their environment. Subsequent work in the field has shown that these covariations form the basis for the mental representation of our surroundings, as well as the basis of learning. Work within the field of classical conditioning, along with the advance of computer technology and neuroscience has made these architectural models even more complex. Furthermore, experiments designed to support some of these proposed models have revealed that there are several conditions that can either aid or inhibit the transition of information into permanent storage. In this review we explore a number of these models, along with some classic critiques that have been levied against them. We also provide some history into the form of knowledge, termed 'implicit knowledge', as well as some of the proposed mechanisms of implicit knowledge acquisition. We conclude by exploring the newly proposed theoretical framework within which implicit learning theory operates. PMID:12118212

  6. Age-related differences in the course of cognitive skill acquisition: the role of regional cortical shrinkage and cognitive resources.

    PubMed

    Head, Denise; Raz, Naftali; Gunning-Dixon, Faith; Williamson, Adrienne; Acker, James D

    2002-03-01

    This study examined the impact of age-related differences in regional cerebral volumes and cognitive resources on acquisition of a cognitive skill. Volumes of brain regions were measured on magnetic resonance images of healthy adults (aged 22-80). At the early stage of learning to solve the Tower of Hanoi puzzle, speed and efficiency were associated with age, prefrontal cortex volume, and working memory. A similar pattern of brain-behavior associations was observed with perseveration measured on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. None of the examined structural brain variables were important at the later stages of skill acquisition. When hypertensive participants were excluded, the effect of prefrontal shrinkage on executive aspects of performance was no longer significant, but the effect of working memory remained. PMID:11931289

  7. The Effects of Reinforcement Magnitude on Skill Acquisition for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Amber R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of reinforcement magnitude on skill acquisition during discrete-trial training. After conducting a magnitude preference assessment, we compared acquisition during conditions with large and small magnitudes of edible reinforcement to a praise-only condition. Although all participants showed a preference for the…

  8. Statistical Learning Is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one's environment, plays a role in young children's acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from…

  9. Visual Skills and Chinese Reading Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis of Correlation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ling-Yan; Guo, Jian-Peng; Richman, Lynn C.; Schmidt, Frank L.; Gerken, Kathryn C.; Ding, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This paper used meta-analysis to synthesize the relation between visual skills and Chinese reading acquisition based on the empirical results from 34 studies published from 1991 to 2011. We obtained 234 correlation coefficients from 64 independent samples, with a total of 5,395 participants. The meta-analysis revealed that visual skills as a…

  10. Development of Teaching Expertise Viewed through the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Lucinda J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to explore development of skill acquisition in dental education, utilizing the Dreyfus and Dreyfus continuum. By identifying what skill progression may be recognized in the expert dental educator and what experiences appear to influence this growth, the knowledge gained may inform more efficient, effective faculty support,…

  11. The Ethical Implications of the Five-Stage Skill-Acquisition Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Hubert L.; Dreyfus, Stuart E.

    2004-01-01

    We assume that acting ethically is a skill. We then use a phenomenological description of five stages of skill acquisition to argue that an ethics based on principles corresponds to a beginner's reliance on rules and so is developmentally inferior to an ethics based on expert response that claims that, after long experience, the ethical expert…

  12. A Disciplinary Perspective of Competency-Based Training on the Acquisition of Employability Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boahin, Peter; Hofman, Adriaan

    2013-01-01

    In the changing global economy, employability skills increasingly are the focus of vocational education and training institutions. This paper explores the effect of academic disciplines, students' background characteristics and industry training on the acquisition of employability skills through competency-based training. A significant…

  13. A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

  14. Fostering Spatial Skill Acquisition by General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Deborah; Tyson, Julian; Nieswandt, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The study of chemistry requires the understanding and use of spatial relationships, which can be challenging for many students. Prior research has shown that there is a need to develop students' spatial reasoning skills. To that end, this study implemented guided activities designed to strengthen students' spatial skills, with the aim of improving…

  15. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  16. Medical Student Acquisition and Retention of Communication and Interviewing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engler, Carol M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Medical students' interpersonal and communication skills were assessed over the course of their first two years of medical training at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. Results of first and second video analyses indicated a significant decline in student process-oriented skills. (Author/MLW)

  17. Reduced asymmetry in motor skill learning in left-handed compared to right-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert L; Kantak, Shailesh S

    2016-02-01

    Hemispheric specialization for motor control influences how individuals perform and adapt to goal-directed movements. In contrast to adaptation, motor skill learning involves a process wherein one learns to synthesize novel movement capabilities in absence of perturbation such that they are performed with greater accuracy, consistency and efficiency. Here, we investigated manual asymmetry in acquisition and retention of a complex motor skill that requires speed and accuracy for optimal performance in right-handed and left-handed individuals. We further determined if degree of handedness influences motor skill learning. Ten right-handed (RH) and 10 left-handed (LH) adults practiced two distinct motor skills with their dominant or nondominant arms during separate sessions two-four weeks apart. Learning was quantified by changes in the speed-accuracy tradeoff function measured at baseline and one-day retention. Manual asymmetry was evident in the RH group but not the LH group. RH group demonstrated significantly greater skill improvement for their dominant-right hand than their nondominant-left hand. In contrast, for the LH group, both dominant and nondominant hands demonstrated comparable learning. Less strongly-LH individuals (lower EHI scores) exhibited more learning of their dominant hand. These results suggest that while hemispheric specialization influences motor skill learning, these effects may be influenced by handedness. PMID:26638046

  18. Acquisition, generalization and maintenance of grocery shopping skills by severely mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aeschleman, S R; Schladenhauffen, J

    1984-01-01

    A program designed to teach severely mentally retarded adolescents grocery shopping skills was evaluated. A multiple-probe design was used to assess the training program which was systematically introduced across four participants. To determine the minimally sufficient conditions for generating shopping skills, store probes were interpolated between successive presentations of three more involved shopping skill training procedures (verbal instruction, role play, and in vivo.). A mnemonic training procedure and a simplified monetary transaction component were employed to obviate the participants' deficient reading and math skills. The results indicated that all participants acquired grocery shopping skills, that the acquired skills were maintained for at least five months, and that only a modest decrement in performance was obtained on generalization probes in two novel grocery stores. Additionally, the results suggested that role play training contributed most significantly to the acquisition of shopping skills and that in vivo training was not required to teach this community living skill. PMID:6465884

  19. Gender and Technology in the Liberal Arts: Aptitudes, Attitudes, and Skills Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Terry; Ryan, Peter; Chao, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Studies in gender have offered many reasons for the differing attitudes and skill levels that male and female undergraduate students possess when it comes to learning technology skills. Male and female students have differing learning styles influenced by such experiential factors as biology, historical inequalities, inconsistent political rights,…

  20. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning. PMID:20817131

  1. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition of skill and strength of the bench press.

    PubMed

    Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements. PMID:23726036

  2. Foreign Language Learning Strategy Choice: Naturalistic versus Instructed Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alptekin, Cem

    2007-01-01

    This study explores whether there are differences in the choice of language learning strategy and in the frequency of its use in the concurrent acquisition of two foreign languages, one being learned in a tutored and the other in a non-tutored manner. Specifically, it investigates the tutored learning of English in a formal setting and the…

  3. Simultaneous Prompting: An Instructional Strategy for Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Rebecca E.; Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Errorless learning is an instructional approach designed to eliminate and/or reduce the number of errors students produce in traditional trial-and-error approaches (Mueller, Palkovic, & Maynard, 2007). Various response prompting strategies are employed to produce errorless learning. Simultaneous prompting is an errorless learning strategy that has…

  4. Acquiring Psychomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padelford, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)

  5. Targeting alertness to improve cognition in older adults: A preliminary report of benefits in executive function and skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Van Vleet, Thomas M; DeGutis, Joseph M; Merzenich, Michael M; Simpson, Gregory V; Zomet, Ativ; Dabit, Sawsan

    2016-09-01

    Efficient self-regulation of alertness declines with age exacerbating normal declines in performance across multiple cognitive domains, including learning and skill acquisition. Previous cognitive intervention studies have shown that it is possible to enhance alertness in patients with acquired brain injury and marked attention impairments, and that this benefit generalizes to improvements in more global cognitive functions. In the current preliminary studies, we sought to test whether this approach, that targets both tonic (over a period of minutes) and phasic (moment-to-moment) alertness, can improve key executive functioning declines in older adults, and enhance the rate of skill acquisition. The results of both Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that, compared to active control (AC) training, alertness training significantly enhanced performance in several validated executive function measures. In Experiment 2, alertness training significantly improved skill acquisition compared to AC training in a well-characterized speed of processing (SOP) task, with the largest benefits shown in the most challenging SOP blocks. The results of the current study suggest that targeting intrinsic alertness through cognitive training provides a novel approach to improve executive functions in older adults and may be a useful adjunct treatment to enhance benefits gained in other clinically validated treatments. PMID:27372902

  6. Effects of aging on priming and skill learning.

    PubMed

    Hashtroudi, S; Chrosniak, L D; Schwartz, B L

    1991-12-01

    This study examined the effects of aging on 2 kinds of implicit memory; repetition priming and skill learning. In Experiment 1, older adults showed less improvement in the skill of reading inverted words than did young adults, but priming performance did not differ for the 2 age groups. Similarly, in Experiment 2, in a partial-word identification task, skill learning was observed only for young adults, whereas there was no age difference in priming. Experiments 1a and 2a, however, showed that when older adults were presented with more perceptual information than were young adults, the age deficit in skill learning was eliminated. These results indicate that skill learning is impaired under data-limited conditions, whereas priming is unaffected under these conditions. It is proposed that the age deficit in skill learning is related to a deficit in perceptual organization and reorganization. PMID:1777149

  7. Learning the manifold of quality ultrasound acquisition.

    PubMed

    El-Zehiry, Noha; Yan, Michelle; Good, Sara; Fang, Tong; Zhou, S Kevin; Grady, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound acquisition is a challenging task that requires simultaneous adjustment of several acquisition parameters (the depth, the focus, the frequency and its operation mode). If the acquisition parameters are not properly chosen, the resulting image will have a poor quality and will degrade the patient diagnosis and treatment workflow. Several hardware-based systems for autotuning the acquisition parameters have been previously proposed, but these solutions were largely abandoned because they failed to properly account for tissue inhomogeneity and other patient-specific characteristics. Consequently, in routine practice the clinician either uses population-based parameter presets or manually adjusts the acquisition parameters for each patient during the scan. In this paper, we revisit the problem of autotuning the acquisition parameters by taking a completely novel approach and producing a solution based on image analytics. Our solution is inspired by the autofocus capability of conventional digital cameras, but is significantly more challenging because the number of acquisition parameters is large and the determination of "good quality" images is more difficult to assess. Surprisingly, we show that the set of acquisition parameters which produce images that are favored by clinicians comprise a 1D manifold, allowing for a real-time optimization to maximize image quality. We demonstrate our method for acquisition parameter autotuning on several live patients, showing that our system can start with a poor initial set of parameters and automatically optimize the parameters to produce high quality images. PMID:24505657

  8. Deliberate Learning and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgort, Irina

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates outcomes of deliberate learning on vocabulary acquisition in a second language (L2). Acquisition of 48 pseudowords was measured using the lexical decision task with visually presented stimuli. The experiments drew on form priming, masked repetition priming, and automatic semantic priming procedures. Data analyses revealed a…

  9. I-NET: interactive neuro-educational technology to accelerate skill learning.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Giby; Berka, Chris; Popovic, Djordje; Chung, Gregory K W K; Nagashima, Sam O; Behneman, Adrienne; Davis, Gene; Johnson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The learning of a novel task currently rely heavily on conventional classroom instruction with qualitative assessment and observation. Introduction of individualized tutorials with integrated neuroscience-based evaluation techniques could significantly accelerate skill acquisition and provide quantitative evidence of successful training. We have created a suite of adaptive and interactive neuro-educational technologies (I-NET) to increase the pace and efficiency of skill learning. It covers four major themes: 1) Integration of brain monitoring into paced instructional tutorials, 2) Identifying psychophysiological characteristics of expertise using a model population, 3) Developing sensor-based feedback to accelerate novice-to-expert transition, 4) Identifying neurocognitive factors that are predictive of skill acquisition to allow early triage and interventions. We selected rifle marksmanship training as the field of application. Rifle marksmanship is a core skill for the Army and Marine Corps and it involves a combination of classroom instructional learning and field practice involving instantiation of a well-defined set of sensory, motor and cognitive skills. The instrumentation that incorporates the I-NET technologies is called the Adaptive Peak Performance Trainer (APPT). Preliminary analysis of pilot study data for performance data from a novice population that used this device revealed an improved learning trajectory. PMID:19963623

  10. The Skilled Counselor Training Model: Skills Acquisition, Self-Assessment, and Cognitive Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Cassandra; Packman, Jill; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the Skilled Counselor Training Model (SCTM; M. H. Smaby, C. D. Maddux, E. Torres-Rivera, & R. Zimmick, 1999) in teaching counseling skills and in fostering counselor cognitive complexity. Counselor trainees who completed the SCTM had better counseling skills and higher levels of cognitive complexity than…

  11. Strategy Selection and Use during Classification Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Raymond, William D.; Healy, Alice F.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined 3 variables affecting accuracy, response time, and reports of strategy use in a binary classification skill task. In Experiment 1, higher rule cue salience, allowing faster rule application, produced higher aggregate rule use than lower rule cue salience. After participants were pretrained on the relevant classification…

  12. Relating Skill Acquisition to Science Classroom Teaching Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotten, D. R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Treatment and control groups were used to test the effectiveness of a written instructional program in basic and integrated process skills. Findings revealed that the treatment group achieved higher than the control group on six of eight process measures following the experiment. In addition, subjects from the treatment group asked fewer closed…

  13. Community of Inquiry Method and Language Skills Acquisition: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Abdul Shakhour Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the effectiveness of community of inquiry method in preparing students to develop listening and speaking skills in a sample of junior secondary school students in Borno state, Nigeria. A sample of 100 students in standard classes was drawn in one secondary school in Maiduguri metropolis through stratified random sampling…

  14. Digital Skills Acquisition: Future Trends among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify future trends and barriers that will either facilitate or impede the narrowing of the digital skills divide among older adults during the next 10 years. Methodology: To address the research questions, this study used a modified version of the Delphi process using a panel of experts who…

  15. Cognitive Strategies and Skill Acquisition in Musical Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Gary E.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a longitudinal study of high school instrumentalists that examined the development of four distinct types of musical performance (playing by ear, playing from memory, sight reading, and improvising) over three years. Reveals a significant improvement in these skills while also demonstrating changes in aural and creative activities. (CMK)

  16. Participatory Evaluation of an Educational Game for Social Skills Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jean Lee; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study conducted to formally evaluate a social problem-solving skills game during the start of the development to ensure that the desired game attributes were successfully embodied in the final game. Two methods, heuristic evaluation and participatory design, were adopted to assess whether the features of the game pose…

  17. Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Dentistry: An Experimental Teaching Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vann, William F., Jr.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A traditional method of teaching psychomotor skills in a preclinical restorative dentistry laboratory course was compared with an experimental method. The experimental group was taught using a guided systematic approach that relied on detailed checklists and exhaustive faculty feedback. (Author/MLW)

  18. Evaluator Skill Acquisition: Linking Educational Experiences to Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey conducted in an attempt to examine evaluators' perceptions of the contributions that different educational experiences make to the development of their evaluation skill sets. Self-identified new and graduate student evaluators were asked to describe their evaluation training experiences and to indicate…

  19. Behavioral Parent Training in Child Welfare: Evaluations of Skills Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Goh, Han-Leong; Whitehouse, Cristina M.; Reyes, Jorge; Montgomery, Jan L.; Borrero, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral parent training has been proven effective through years of research with a variety of groups. However, little research has been conducted to systematically evaluate the extent to which behavioral parent training may improve parenting skills of foster and other caregivers of dependent children. The Behavior Analysis Services…

  20. Perceptual and motor learning underlies human stick-balancing skill.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwee-Yum; O'Dwyer, Nicholas; Halaki, Mark; Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the acquisition of skill in balancing a stick (52 cm, 34 g) on the fingertip in nine participants using three-dimensional motion analysis. After 3.5 h of practice over 6 wk, the participants could more consistently balance the stick for longer durations with greatly reduced magnitude and speed of stick and finger movements. Irrespective of level of skill, the balanced stick behaved like a normal noninverted pendulum oscillating under greater-than-gravity torque with simple harmonic motion about a virtual pivot located at the radius of gyration above the center of mass. The control input parameter was the magnitude ratio between the torque applied on the stick by the participant and the torque due to gravity. The participants utilized only a narrow range of this parameter, which did not change with practice, to rotate the stick like a linear mass-spring system. With increased skill, the stick therefore maintained the same period of oscillation but showed marked reductions in magnitude of both oscillation and horizontal translation. Better balancing was associated with 1) more accurate visual localization of the stick and proprioceptive localization of the finger and 2) reduced cross-coupling errors between finger and stick movements in orthogonal directions; i.e., finger movements in the anteroposterior plane became less coupled with stick tip movements in the mediolateral plane, and vice versa. Development of this fine motor skill therefore depended on perceptual and motor learning to provide improved estimation of sensorimotor state and precision of motor commands to an unchanging internal model of the rotational dynamics. PMID:25298388

  1. Group Intervention: Improving Social Skills of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah; Givon, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Life Skills program used to improve the social skills of 12 students with learning disabilities in an Israeli middle school. Each of two groups (girls or boys) met weekly for 5 months to address social skills topics. The article notes gender differences in reactions and participation, and outcomes in such areas as…

  2. Metacognitive Skills for Adult Learning. Trends and Issues Alert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Metacognition refers to the ability of learners to be aware of and monitor their learning processes. Cognitive skills are those needed to perform a task, whereas metacognitive skills are necessary to understand how it was performed. Metacognitive skills are generally divided into two types: self-assessment (the ability to assess one's own…

  3. Improving Students' Interpersonal Skills through Experiential Small Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kay Lesley; Hyde, Sarah J.; McPherson, Kerstin B. A.; Simpson, Maree D.

    2016-01-01

    Health professional students must be equipped with the skills necessary to interact with patients. Effective interpersonal skills are difficult to both learn and teach, requiring development, practise and evaluation in both educational and clinical settings. In professions such as physiotherapy, traditional approaches to teaching these skills have…

  4. Increasing Third Grade Social Skills through Cooperative Learning Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Mona Layne

    A primary grades specialist implemented a 10-week practicum intervention designed to increase third graders' social skills by training their teachers in cooperative learning techniques and providing cooperatively structured lessons. Eight skills were addressed; these included the skills of accepting peers' ideas for group activities, completing…

  5. Neural Modularity Helps Organisms Evolve to Learn New Skills without Forgetting Old Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kai Olav; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is creating agents that can learn a variety of different skills for different problems. In the artificial intelligence subfield of neural networks, a barrier to that goal is that when agents learn a new skill they typically do so by losing previously acquired skills, a problem called catastrophic forgetting. That occurs because, to learn the new task, neural learning algorithms change connections that encode previously acquired skills. How networks are organized critically affects their learning dynamics. In this paper, we test whether catastrophic forgetting can be reduced by evolving modular neural networks. Modularity intuitively should reduce learning interference between tasks by separating functionality into physically distinct modules in which learning can be selectively turned on or off. Modularity can further improve learning by having a reinforcement learning module separate from sensory processing modules, allowing learning to happen only in response to a positive or negative reward. In this paper, learning takes place via neuromodulation, which allows agents to selectively change the rate of learning for each neural connection based on environmental stimuli (e.g. to alter learning in specific locations based on the task at hand). To produce modularity, we evolve neural networks with a cost for neural connections. We show that this connection cost technique causes modularity, confirming a previous result, and that such sparsely connected, modular networks have higher overall performance because they learn new skills faster while retaining old skills more and because they have a separate reinforcement learning module. Our results suggest (1) that encouraging modularity in neural networks may help us overcome the long-standing barrier of networks that cannot learn new skills without forgetting old ones, and (2) that one benefit of the modularity ubiquitous in the brains of natural animals might be to

  6. Neural modularity helps organisms evolve to learn new skills without forgetting old skills.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Kai Olav; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is creating agents that can learn a variety of different skills for different problems. In the artificial intelligence subfield of neural networks, a barrier to that goal is that when agents learn a new skill they typically do so by losing previously acquired skills, a problem called catastrophic forgetting. That occurs because, to learn the new task, neural learning algorithms change connections that encode previously acquired skills. How networks are organized critically affects their learning dynamics. In this paper, we test whether catastrophic forgetting can be reduced by evolving modular neural networks. Modularity intuitively should reduce learning interference between tasks by separating functionality into physically distinct modules in which learning can be selectively turned on or off. Modularity can further improve learning by having a reinforcement learning module separate from sensory processing modules, allowing learning to happen only in response to a positive or negative reward. In this paper, learning takes place via neuromodulation, which allows agents to selectively change the rate of learning for each neural connection based on environmental stimuli (e.g. to alter learning in specific locations based on the task at hand). To produce modularity, we evolve neural networks with a cost for neural connections. We show that this connection cost technique causes modularity, confirming a previous result, and that such sparsely connected, modular networks have higher overall performance because they learn new skills faster while retaining old skills more and because they have a separate reinforcement learning module. Our results suggest (1) that encouraging modularity in neural networks may help us overcome the long-standing barrier of networks that cannot learn new skills without forgetting old ones, and (2) that one benefit of the modularity ubiquitous in the brains of natural animals might be to

  7. A comparison of error-correction procedures on skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Regina A; Joachim, Brad T; St Peter, Claire C; Robinson, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Previous research supports the use of a variety of error-correction procedures to facilitate skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction. We used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare the effects of 4 commonly used error-correction procedures on skill acquisition for 2 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 3 children with autism spectrum disorder. For all participants, multiple error-correction procedures were effective; however, 1 or 2 specific error-correction procedures led to more efficient skill acquisition for each individual. These results highlight the importance of evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of error-correction procedures for individual learners during discrete-trial instruction. We discuss the use of discrete-trial instruction with different populations, implications for using multiple measures of procedural efficiency, and several areas for future research. PMID:25913105

  8. Active Learning: Learning a Motor Skill Without a Coach

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Vincent S.; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-01-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are “active learners”: we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  9. Active learning: learning a motor skill without a coach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-08-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  10. Teaching Learning-Related Social Skills in Kindergarten Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Michelle Hsiu-Chen; Karp, Grace Goc; Davis, Debby

    2010-01-01

    A lack of social skills may lead young children to have difficulties in establishing close relationships with their peers. This could lead to school maladjustment and academic failure. Research indicates that it is important for children to learn specific learning-related social skills (LRSS) to get along with others in order to succeed in the…

  11. The Learning and Skills Sector: The Emerging Agenda. FEDA Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Development Agency, London (England).

    Britain's new Learning and Skills Bill focuses on learners', not providers', interests. The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) opens up funding for voluntary and community bodies, and organizations from outside education, and has a duty to encourage employers to participate in the provision of post-16 education and training. Local education…

  12. Development of the Self-Directed Learning Skills Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for assessing high school students' self-directed learning skills. Based on a literature review and data obtained from similar instruments, all skills related to self-directed learning were identified. Next, an item pool was prepared and administered to 255 students from various…

  13. Promoting Higher Order Thinking Skills Using Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuri, G. V.; Kantamreddi, V. S. S. N; Prakash Goteti, L. N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in…

  14. Psychomotor skills learning under chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, C A; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Abraini, J H

    1999-09-29

    Psychomotor deficits are a prominent feature in subjects exposed to hypoxia. Eight subjects exposed to chronic hypoxia during a simulated climb to 8848 m (Everest-Comex 97) were investigated using both a simple psychomotor task (Purdue pegboard) and two complex psychomotor tasks including a recognition task of either a color stimulus (high semantic level) or an abstract sign (low semantic level). Exposure to hypoxic stress mainly produced psychomotor skills learning deficits compared to control study, with greater deficits in the complex psychomotor task. The pattern of results suggests disruptions of motor strategic process. Our data further suggest that the relative strength of implicit or automatic memory processes associated with semantic information processing may increase when disturbances occur in brain functions. PMID:10549829

  15. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition and retention of fundamental motor skills.

    PubMed

    Wegman, E

    1999-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of three practice models (repetitions, random, and combined) on the acquisition and retention of fundamental motor skills. 54 girls in Grade 4 were randomly assigned to the three different practice groups who practiced three skills of ball rolling, racket striking, and ball kicking. All subjects received pretests posttests, and a 3-wk, retention test. Performance was significantly improved during practice in the three groups for the three skills. The repetitions group performed better than the other two groups at the end of practice. The contextual interference effect in retention was only shown for the racket-striking skill, in which the random group was significantly better than the repetitions and the combined groups. An attempt was made to attribute that specific result to the special characteristics of the striking skill in this study as an open skill with which subjects had a previous experience. PMID:10214642

  16. Impasse-driven tutoring for reactive skill acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Johnson, W. Lewis

    1993-01-01

    We are interested in developing effective performance-oriented training for the operation of systems that are used for monitor and control purposes. We have focused on one such system, the communications Link Monitor and Control (LMC) system used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which is a worldwide system for navigating, tracking and communicating with unmanned interplanetary spacecraft. The tasks in this domain are procedural in nature and require reactive, goal-oriented skills; we have previously described a cognitive model for problem solving that accounts for both novice and expert levels of behavior as well as how skill is acquired. Our cognitive modeling work in this task domain led us to make a number of predictions about tutoring that have influenced the design of the system described in this paper.

  17. Rural women with chronic illness: computer use and skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann; Hill, Wade G

    2005-01-01

    Chronically ill rural women must manage complex illness without easy access to health care resources including support and health information. The Women to Women project is a technology-based program with an overarching aim to assist rural women in the day-to-day management of their illnesses. An important aspect of the Women to Women program is teaching the women how to use the Internet to meet their support and informational needs. The purposes of this article are to examine changes in 1) the level of computer skills, 2) degree of comfort in using the computer, and 3) knowledge of Internet functions for the participants in the Women to Women computer-based intervention. Results of the initial analysis of data from 63 women (intervention group n = 29, control group n = 34) indicate that women participating in the intervention reported greater computer skills and computer comfort and greater knowledge of specific aspects of Internet use than women in the control group. These findings were further strengthened considering that intervention and control group differentials were sustained 8 months after the end of the women's participation in the computer intervention. With the attainment of computer and Internet skills, it is expected that these rural women will have a sustained ability to access quality Internet information that will allow them to better manage and adapt to their chronic illnesses. PMID:16165009

  18. The effects of task demands on bimanual skill acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Bimanual coordination is essential for everyday activities. It is thought that different degrees of demands may affect learning of new bimanual patterns. One demand is at the level of performance and involves breaking the tendency to produce mirror-symmetric movements. A second is at a perceptual level and involves controlling each hand to separate (i.e., split) goals. A third demand involves switching between different task contexts (e.g., a different uni- or bimanual task), instead of continuously practicing one task repeatedly. Here, we studied the effect of these task demands on motor planning (reaction time) and execution (error) while subjects learned a novel bimanual isometric pinch force task. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously practiced in one of the two extremes of the following bimanual conditions: (1) symmetric force demands and a perceptually unified target for each hand or (2) asymmetric force demands and perceptually split targets. Subjects performing in the asymmetric condition showed some interference between hands, but all subjects, regardless of group, could learn the isometric pinch force task similarly. In Experiment 2, subjects practiced these and two other conditions, but in a paradigm where practice was briefly interrupted by the performance of either a unimanual or a different bimanual condition. Reaction times were longer and errors were larger well after the interruption when the main movement to be learned required asymmetric forces. There was no effect when the main movement required symmetric forces. These findings demonstrate two main points. First, people can learn bimanual tasks with very different demands on the same timescale if they are not interrupted. Second, interruption during learning can negatively impact both planning and execution and this depends on the demands of the bimanual task to be learned. This information will be important for training patient populations, who may be more susceptible to increased task demands

  19. Teaching the Dance Class: Strategies to Enhance Skill Acquisition, Mastery and Positive Self-Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainwaring, Lynda M.; Krasnow, Donna H.

    2010-01-01

    Effective teaching of dance skills is informed by a variety of theoretical frameworks and individual teaching and learning styles. The purpose of this paper is to present practical teaching strategies that enhance the mastery of skills and promote self-esteem, self-efficacy, and positive self-image. The predominant thinking and primary research…

  20. The Development of Instruments to Measure Motivational Interviewing Skill Acquisition for School-Based Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Jason W.; Lee, Jon; Frey, Andy J.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.

    2014-01-01

    As specialized instructional support personnel begin learning and using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques in school-based settings, there is growing need for context-specific measures to assess initial MI skill development. In this article, we describe the iterative development and preliminary evaluation of two measures of MI skill adapted…

  1. Essential Learning Skills in Vocational Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document provides basic skill performance expectations for all Oregon students by the end of grade 11 to be incorporated into 15 vocational programs. (Exceptions are that in technology education, the skills identified are only for grade 8; in home economics, the identified skills are for grades 8 and 11.) The skills, which are in reading,…

  2. The Meaningful Learning of Intellectual Skills: An Application of Ausubel's Subsumption Theory to the Domain of Intellectual Skills Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leo H. T.; Kellett, Natalie C.

    1981-01-01

    Tests the applicability of Ausubel's theory to the meaningful learning of intellectual skills. Results of three studies of high school students indicate that advance organizers enhance learning of skills related to solubility product problems. This effect was removed if prior teaching in relevant background knowledge was included. (Author/WB)

  3. Effect of Haptic Feedback in Laparoscopic Surgery Skill Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, M.; Tse, S.; Derevianko, A.; Jones, D.B.; Schwaitzberg, S.D.; Cao, C. G. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The benefits of haptic feedback in laparoscopic surgery training simulators is a topic of debate in the literature. It is hypothesized that novice surgeons may not benefit from the haptic information, especially during the initial phase of learning a new task. Therefore, providing haptic feedback to novice trainees in the early stage of training may be distracting and detrimental to learning. Objective A controlled experiment was conducted to examine the effect of haptic feedback on the learning curve of a complex laparoscopic suturing and knot-tying task. Method The ProMIS and the MIST-VR surgical simulators were used to represent conditions with and without haptic feedback, respectively. Twenty novice subjects (10 per simulator) were trained to perform suturing and knot-tying and practiced the tasks over eighteen one-hour sessions. Results At the end of the 3-week training period, subjects performed equally fast but more consistently with haptics (ProMIS) than without (MIST-VR). Subjects showed slightly higher learning rate and reached the first plateau of the learning curve earlier with haptic feedback. Conclusion In general, learning with haptic feedback was significantly better than without haptic feedback for a laparoscopic suturing and knot-tying task, but only in the first 5 hours of training. Application Haptic feedback may not be warranted in laparoscopic surgical trainers. The benefits of a shorter time to the first performance plateau and more consistent initial performance should be balanced with the cost of implementing haptic feedback in surgical simulators. PMID:22044975

  4. Effects of contextual interference and conditions of movement task on acquisition, retention, and transfer of motor skills by women.

    PubMed

    Jarus, T; Wughalter, E H; Gianutsos, J G

    1997-02-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate varying conditions of contextual interference within two different conditions of movement tasks during acquisition on the acquisition and retention of a computerized task and transfer to a functional skill. Performance of head movements was conducted under open- or closed-task conditions and with random or blocked schedules of practice. Analysis indicated that learning under the open-task condition resulted in better retention and transfer than the closed-task condition. It is suggested that increasing the within-trial variability in the open-task condition produced a contextual interference effect. In this regard, support for Battig's predictions is provided by the current findings in that the high variability present during the open-task condition was more beneficial for retention and transfer than the low variability present during the closed-task condition. Differences between random and blocked schedules of practice on the retention and transfer data were not statistically significant. PMID:9132708

  5. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation

    PubMed Central

    Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265

  6. Skill Acquisition in Ski Instruction and the Skill Model's Application to Treating Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duesund, Liv; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2004-01-01

    The Dreyfus skill model has a wide range of applications to various domains, including sport, nursing, engineering, flying, and so forth. In this article, the authors discuss the skill model in connection with two different research projects concerning ski instruction and treating anorexia nervosa. The latter project has been published but not in…

  7. Which is the best intrinsic motivation signal for learning multiple skills?

    PubMed

    Santucci, Vieri G; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Humans and other biological agents are able to autonomously learn and cache different skills in the absence of any biological pressure or any assigned task. In this respect, Intrinsic Motivations (i.e., motivations not connected to reward-related stimuli) play a cardinal role in animal learning, and can be considered as a fundamental tool for developing more autonomous and more adaptive artificial agents. In this work, we provide an exhaustive analysis of a scarcely investigated problem: which kind of IM reinforcement signal is the most suitable for driving the acquisition of multiple skills in the shortest time? To this purpose we implemented an artificial agent with a hierarchical architecture that allows to learn and cache different skills. We tested the system in a setup with continuous states and actions, in particular, with a kinematic robotic arm that has to learn different reaching tasks. We compare the results of different versions of the system driven by several different intrinsic motivation signals. The results show (a) that intrinsic reinforcements purely based on the knowledge of the system are not appropriate to guide the acquisition of multiple skills, and (b) that the stronger the link between the IM signal and the competence of the system, the better the performance. PMID:24273511

  8. An intelligent tutoring system for the investigation of high performance skill acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Regian, J. Wesley

    1991-01-01

    The issue of training high performance skills is of increasing concern. These skills include tasks such as driving a car, playing the piano, and flying an aircraft. Traditionally, the training of high performance skills has been accomplished through the use of expensive, high-fidelity, 3-D simulators, and/or on-the-job training using the actual equipment. Such an approach to training is quite expensive. The design, implementation, and deployment of an intelligent tutoring system developed for the purpose of studying the effectiveness of skill acquisition using lower-cost, lower-physical-fidelity, 2-D simulation. Preliminary experimental results are quite encouraging, indicating that intelligent tutoring systems are a cost-effective means of training high performance skills.

  9. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and Skill Deficit: The Role of Open Distance Learning (ODL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Mamta; Jena, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Skills acquisition is vital for any economic growth, particularly in an era of economic and technological changes. The need for skill development is a vital challenge, foremost for a developing nation, such as India. Therefore, vocational education and training (VET) is a direct means of providing workers with skills more relevant to their…

  10. The Use of Cognitive Strategies To Enhance Motor Skill Acquisition and Retention in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.

    It has been hypothesized that the use of techniques to enhance motor skill acquisition and retention in the elderly may retard the onset of retirement, result in the continuation of a productive professional career, allow continued participation in recreational activities, and possibly slow the decline in physiological functions that normally…

  11. The Effects of Direct Teaching Styles on Motor Skill Acquisition of Fifth Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Michael; Gerney, Philip

    1986-01-01

    This study tested the effects of three teaching styles on the motor skill acquisition of fifth grade children from low and high socio-economic status. Results revealed that, while one style was most productive with average children, exceptional children prospered under another style. (Author/MT)

  12. Criterion-Referenced Measurement (CRM) in the Initial Acquisition of a Psychomotor Skill with Exceptional Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhich, Dolores

    1976-01-01

    Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) in the initial acquisition of the psychomotor skill of typewriting demonstrated speed gains from 8 hours of instruction distributed over a 6-week interval for 4 male adolescent underachievers of above- and below-average intelligence. (Author)

  13. Aptitude Level and the Acquisition of Skills and Knowledges in a Variety of Military Training Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Wayne L.; And Others

    To assess the effects of wide aptitude differences on the acquisition of military knowledges and skills, a sample of 183 Army recruits was divided into three maximally distant aptitude groups on the basis of Armed Forces Qualifying Test (AFQT) scores: high aptitude (AFQT 90-99); middle aptitude (AFQT 45-55); low aptitude (AFQT 10-21). Recruits…

  14. Perception of Teachers and Administrators on the Teaching Methods That Influence the Acquisition of Generic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audu, R.; Bin Kamin, Yusri; Bin Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Bin Saud, Muhammad Sukri; Hamid, Mohd. Zolkifli Abd.

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to identify the most significant teaching methods that influence the acquisition of generic skills of mechanical engineering trades students at technical college level. Descriptive survey research design was utilized in carrying out the study. One hundred and ninety (190) respondents comprised of mechanical engineering…

  15. Working Memory Capacity in Preschool Children Contributes to the Acquisition of School Relevant Precursor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressler, Anna-Lena; Krajewski, Kristin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether preschool children with limitations in the visual or phonological working memory are disadvantaged in the acquisition of school relevant precursor skills at school entry. A sample of 92 children was divided into three subgroups depending on their performance in visual and phonological working…

  16. Parent Training: Acquisition and Generalization of Discrete Trials Teaching Skills with Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Jennifer L.; Fleming, Richard K.; Doepke, Karla J.; Stevens, Jenny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intensive parent training program on the acquisition and generalization of discrete trial teaching (DTT) procedures with two parents of children with autism. Over the course of the program, parents applied the DTT procedures to teach four different functional skills to their children, which allowed for an…

  17. The Effects of Video Modeling on Skill Acquisition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaffer, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of a video modeling procedure on a basic math skill acquisition in students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) using a multiple probe across students design. Participants were four kindergarten/first grade students in a self-contained classroom in an urban public school. All met the criteria for ASD…

  18. The Acquisition of Key Executive Skills and Attitudes Required for International Business in the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlee, Brian

    This study used a multimethod research technique to examine the acquisition of key executive skills and attitudes required for success in the international business arena. Following a review of the literature, the report presents the results of responses by a panel of 36 international business experts from Canada, Mexico, and the United States to…

  19. Acquisition of Incidental Information during Instruction for a Response-Chain Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Maureen E.; Gast, David L.

    1999-01-01

    A study examined the acquisition of incidental information and observational learning of incidental information by 12 adolescents with moderate intellectual disabilities during school-directed systematic instruction. Results found participants learned 51.6% of the incidental information they observed during community-based or simulated dyadic…

  20. An Experimental Study of Interventions for the Acquisition and Retention of Motivational Interviewing Skills among Probation Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asteris, Mark M., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the differences in Motivational Interviewing (MI) skill acquisition and retention among probation officers. This study had a randomized, experimental, pretest-posttest control group design using the MITI 3.1.1 and the VASE-R to measure MI skill acquisition and retention. A random sample (n = 24) of probation…

  1. Atypical Acquisition and Atypical Expression of Memory Consolidation Gains in a Motor Skill in Young Female Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Fox, Orly; Karni, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with ADHD often show performance deficits in motor tasks. It is not clear, however, whether this reflects less effective acquisition of skill (procedural knowledge), or deficient consolidation into long-term memory, in ADHD. The aim of the study was to compare the acquisition of skilled motor performance, the expression of…

  2. Implicit Statistical Learning and Language Skills in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Dongsun; Rudoy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Implicit statistical learning in 2 nonlinguistic domains (visual and auditory) was used to investigate (a) whether linguistic experience influences the underlying learning mechanism and (b) whether there are modality constraints in predicting implicit statistical learning with age and language skills. Method: Implicit statistical learning…

  3. The NIACE Response to the Learning and Skills Bill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning (England), 2000

    2000-01-01

    Reactions to proposed British legislation include "A Warm Welcome"; "Learning to Succeed" (Taubman); "Counting down to 1 April 2001" (Silver, Gravatt); "Two Cheers (at Least) for the Learning and Skills Bill" (Taylor); "Reflecting Our Priorities" (Gibson); "The Beginning of a Golden Age?" (Hughes); "Creating a Learning Society" (Davey); and…

  4. Students' Experiences of Learning Manual Clinical Skills through Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Eva; Silen, Charlotte; Kvist, Joanna; Hult, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students' experiences and…

  5. Critical Learning Skills for Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha; Morgan, Anita

    2013-01-01

    A survey addressing critical skills for business students was developed and disseminated. Sixteen critical skills (such as critical thinking and time management) were identified as skills that need to be acquired in order for business students to be successful in their advanced courses and careers. The survey was disseminated and taken by several…

  6. Using Thinking Skills To Enhance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew P.

    In theory, effective thinking is a trait that is valued by schools at all levels; however, it is a skill that is very rarely taught. Teaching thinking skills explicitly and embedding them into a literacy curriculum can help students become more effective critical and creative thinkers. This article defines thinking skills, describes how they…

  7. Effect of different external attention of focus instruction on learning of golf putting skill.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, Mohsen; McMorris, Terry; Sproule, John

    2011-10-01

    The effect of different sources of external attentional focus on learning a motor skill was assessed in the present study. 30 students (12 men, 18 women) participated voluntarily and were divided, according to type of external focus, into target, club swing, and target-club swing groups. The task was a golf putting skill. The target focus group attended to the target (hole), the club swing focus group attended to the execution of the club's swing, and the target-club swing focus group attended to both. All participants performed 50 trials of the putting skill in the acquisition phase and 10 trials in the 24-hr. delayed retention phase. The dependent variable was the error in the putting skill measured as the distance from the hole to the ball after each strike. Results showed the target-club swing focus group had better scores in the acquisition and retention phases than the other groups. It was concluded that external focus instruction helped the learners to integrate target cue with action cue and is more effective in skill learning than other external-focus instructions. These results support the claims of ecological psychology theorists concerning the effects of external focus of attention. PMID:22185080

  8. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease. PMID:25938462

  9. Study skills and the education of students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hoover, J J

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses an area of education for students with learning disabilities that is often neglected. The topic of study skills education, although not new to education in general, has only recently been emphasized in the literature for students with handicaps. An overview of the study skill proficiency (or lack of it) of students with learning disabilities is provided, followed by the presentation of 15 student study skill strategies designed to assist students in their use of various study skills. These strategies may be employed appropriately and effectively with many students with learning disabilities provided that individual needs and abilities are considered. The article concludes with a discussion about the implementation of a study skills program, including guidelines to follow in this process. PMID:2769066

  10. Motor-Skill Learning Is Dependent on Astrocytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Padmashri, Ragunathan; Suresh, Anand; Boska, Michael D.; Dunaevsky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Motor-skill learning induces changes in synaptic structure and function in the primary motor cortex through the involvement of a long-term potentiation- (LTP-) like mechanism. Although there is evidence that calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes plays an important role in synaptic transmission and plasticity, the role of astrocytes in motor-skill learning is not known. To test the hypothesis that astrocytic activity is necessary for motor-skill learning, we perturbed astrocytic function using pharmacological and genetic approaches. We find that perturbation of astrocytes either by selectively attenuating IP3R2 mediated astrocyte Ca2+ signaling or using an astrocyte specific metabolic inhibitor fluorocitrate (FC) results in impaired motor-skill learning of a forelimb reaching-task in mice. Moreover, the learning impairment caused by blocking astrocytic activity using FC was rescued by administration of the gliotransmitter D-serine. The learning impairments are likely caused by impaired LTP as FC blocked LTP in slices and prevented motor-skill training-induced increases in synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor in vivo. These results support the conclusion that normal astrocytic Ca2+ signaling during a reaching task is necessary for motor-skill learning. PMID:26346977