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Sample records for leaves camellia sinensis

  1. Contents and compositions of policosanols in green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sol Ji; Park, Su Yeon; Park, Ji Su; Park, Sang-Kyu; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2016-08-01

    Policosanol (PC) is a mixture of health promoting bioactive long-chain aliphatic alcohols. Here, we report that green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves are the exceptionally rich plant-sources of PC. Young and tender leaves and old and turf leaves of C. sinensis were hand-picked in spring and autumn. The total contents of PC in the leaves were in the range of 726.2-1363.6mg/kg as determined by a GC-MS/MS. The compositions of PC in the leaves were different with harvest season and types. The total contents of PC in commercial green tea leaves were found to be in the range of 856.7-1435.1mg/kg. Interestingly, the infused green tea leaves contained the higher PC than the non-infused green tea product, reaching to 1629.4mg/kg. This represents the first report on the contents and compositions of PC in green tea leaves, showing unambiguous evidence of their potential as rich sources of PC. PMID:26988480

  2. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze leaves obtained by different forms of production.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L E A; Pedroso, L S; Vendrame, S C; Mainardes, R M; Khalil, N M

    2016-06-01

    The antioxidant and anticandidal activities of leaves obtained from Camellia sinensis by non-fermentation (green and white teas), semi-fermentation (red tea) and fermentation method (black tea) were investigated. It was evaluated the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau assay; antioxidant capacities were evaluated in vitro using DPPH and ABTS radicals, hypochlorous acid and superoxide anion scavenger assays, induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation by conjugated diene formation and myeloperoxidase activity. Anticandidal activity was performed on three strains of Candida spp. The results showed that non-fermented teas have a higher concentration of phenolic compounds, and then presented the best inhibitory activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the best inhibition of conjugated diene formation and more pronounced antioxidant activity in all tests. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from fermented tea, followed by non-fermented tea. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity demonstrated has no direct relation with the anticandidal activity. PMID:26983085

  3. Regulation of formation of volatile compounds of tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves by single light wavelength

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiumin; Chen, Yiyong; Mei, Xin; Katsuno, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Dong, Fang; Watanabe, Naoharu; Yang, Ziyin

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of plant growth and development by light wavelength has been extensively studied. Less attention has been paid to effect of light wavelength on formation of plant metabolites. The objective of this study was to investigate whether formation of volatiles in preharvest and postharvest tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves can be regulated by light wavelength. In the present study, in contrast to the natural light or dark treatment, blue light (470 nm) and red light (660 nm) significantly increased most endogenous volatiles including volatile fatty acid derivatives (VFADs), volatile phenylpropanoids/benzenoids (VPBs), and volatile terpenes (VTs) in the preharvest tea leaves. Furthermore, blue and red lights significantly up-regulated the expression levels of 9/13-lipoxygenases involved in VFADs formation, phenylalanine ammonialyase involved in VPBs formation, and terpene synthases involved in VTs formation. Single light wavelength had less remarkable influences on formation of volatiles in the postharvest leaves compared with the preharvest leaves. These results suggest that blue and red lights can be promising technology for remodeling the aroma of preharvest tea leaves. Furthermore, our study provided evidence that light wavelength can activate the expression of key genes involved in formation of plant volatiles for the first time. PMID:26567525

  4. Elucidation of Differential Accumulation of 1-Phenylethanol in Flowers and Leaves of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Plants.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Lanting; Peng, Qiyuan; Chen, Yiyong; Zhang, Ling; Su, Xinguo; Watanabe, Naoharu; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    1-Phenylethanol (1PE) is a major aromatic volatile in tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers, whereas it occurs in a much smaller amounts in leaves. Enzymes involved in the formation of 1PE in plants and the reason why 1PE differentially accumulates in plants is unknown. In the present study, enzymes in the last step leading from acetophenone to 1PE were isolated from tea flowers by traditional biochemical chromatography. The two types of partially purified enzymes were proposed to be responsible for formations of (R)-1PE and (S)-1PE, respectively. Tea leaves also contained such enzymes having equivalent activities with flowers. Stable isotope labeling experiments indicated that weak transformation from l-phenylalanine to acetophenone in leaves mainly resulted in little occurrence of 1PE in leaves. This study provided an example that differential distribution of some metabolites in plant tissues was not only determined by enzyme(s) in the last step of metabolite formation, but also can be due to substrate availability. PMID:27563859

  5. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Hydroperoxide Lyase Gene in the Leaves of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Yi-Lin; Li, Ye-Yun; Tan, Zhen; Wei, Chao-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL, E.C. 4.1.2.) is the major enzyme in the biosynthesis of natural volatile aldehydes and alcohols in plants, however, little was known about HPL in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). A unique cDNA fragment was isolated by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) from a tea plant subjected to herbivory by tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua. This full length cDNA acquired by RACE was 1476 bp and encoded 491 amino acids. DNA and protein BLAST searches showed high homology to HPL sequences from other plants. The His-tag expression vector pET-32a(+)/CsHPL was constructed and transferred into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The expression product of recombinant CsHPL in E. coli was about 60 kDa. The enzyme activity of CsHPL was 0.20 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated CsHPL was strongly up-regulated in tea plants after Ectropis obliqua attack, suggesting that it may be an important candidate for defense against insects in tea plants. PMID:26886573

  6. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jianan; Lin, Haiyan; Wang, Kunbo; Cheng, Xiaomei; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants. PMID:26096006

  7. Identification and quantification of 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA) from Camellia sinensis tea leaves and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Mei; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Cohen, Pieter A; Wang, Yan-Hong; Lasonkar, Pradeep; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Feng, Wei; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-11-10

    1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is a CNS stimulant, which has recently been identified in multiple dietary supplements and sometimes labeled as a natural constituent of Pouchung tea. DMBA is an homologue of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) which the US Food and Drug Administration has attempted to remove from all dietary supplements after DMAA consumption was linked to strokes, heart disease, and sudden death. To address questions concerning the natural origin of DMBA, three independent analytical methods were developed for analyzing authentic tea samples and dietary supplements. A high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the fast screening and chemical fingerprint analysis. Chiral Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the enantiopurity and a validated Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS) method was developed for the quantification of DMBA. Using these techniques the presence of DMBA was confirmed using a reference standard and was not detected in any of 25 authentic or commercial samples of Camellia sinensis tea leaves (green tea, black tea, Oolong tea, and Pouchung tea). Of 13 dietary supplements tested, 11 contained DMBA in racemic form and ranged from 0.1 to 214mg per daily dose. PMID:26209774

  8. Influences of crude extract of tea leaves, Camellia sinensis, on streptozotocin diabetic male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Zari, Talal A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypoglycemic activity of the crude tea leaves extract on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The average body weight of animals with diabetes and their percentage changes of body weight gain after 15 and 30 days were significantly lower than that of the normal control mice. In diabetic mice, supplementation with tea leaves extract decreased the loss of body weight. After 15 and 30 days, significant increases in the levels of serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) were noted in STZ-diabetic mice fed with normal diet. Also, the values of total protein in this group were statistically declined after 15 and 30 days. The levels of serum glucose and GPT were significantly elevated after 15 and 30 days in diabetic mice supplemented with tea leaves extract. Moreover, the level of serum GOT was notably increased after 30 days. Insignificant alterations were observed in the levels of serum triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, creatinine, urea and uric acid in diabetic mice supplemented with tea leaves extract. Thus, the present results have shown that tea leaves extract has the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and antihyperproteinemic effects and consequently may alleviate liver and kidney damage associated with STZ-induced diabetes in mice. PMID:23961092

  9. Dual mechanisms regulating glutamate decarboxylases and accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yiyong; Zhang, Lingyun; Fu, Xiumin; Wei, Qing; Grierson, Don; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Yahui; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. It has multiple positive effects on mammalian physiology and is an important bioactive component of tea (Camellia sinensis). GABA generally occurs at a very low level in plants but GABA content increases substantially after exposure to a range of stresses, especially oxygen-deficiency. During processing of tea leaves, a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage are essential for the high accumulation of GABA. This is believed to be initiated by a change in glutamate decarboxylase activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study we characterized factors regulating the expression and activity of three tea glutamate decarboxylase genes (CsGAD1, 2, and 3), and their encoded enzymes. The results suggests that, unlike the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are dual mechanisms regulating the accumulation of GABA in tea leaves exposed to multiple stresses, including activation of CsGAD1 enzymatic activity by calmodulin upon the onset of the stress and accumulation of high levels of CsGAD2 mRNA induced by a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage. PMID:27021285

  10. Dual mechanisms regulating glutamate decarboxylases and accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yiyong; Zhang, Lingyun; Fu, Xiumin; Wei, Qing; Grierson, Don; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Yahui; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. It has multiple positive effects on mammalian physiology and is an important bioactive component of tea (Camellia sinensis). GABA generally occurs at a very low level in plants but GABA content increases substantially after exposure to a range of stresses, especially oxygen-deficiency. During processing of tea leaves, a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage are essential for the high accumulation of GABA. This is believed to be initiated by a change in glutamate decarboxylase activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study we characterized factors regulating the expression and activity of three tea glutamate decarboxylase genes (CsGAD1, 2, and 3), and their encoded enzymes. The results suggests that, unlike the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are dual mechanisms regulating the accumulation of GABA in tea leaves exposed to multiple stresses, including activation of CsGAD1 enzymatic activity by calmodulin upon the onset of the stress and accumulation of high levels of CsGAD2 mRNA induced by a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage. PMID:27021285

  11. Effect of tea (Camellia sinensis) and olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves extracts on male mice exposed to diazinon.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Atef M; Abu Zeid, Isam M

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors. PMID:23691503

  12. Antioxidative potential, nutritional value and sensory profiles of confectionery fortified with green and yellow tea leaves (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Korczak, Józef; Helak, Barbara; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents a study on development of functional food products containing green and yellow tea leaves. The results indicated that green and yellow tea are significant tools in the creation of the nutritional value, antioxidative potential and stability of the lipid fraction of cookies. Tea-fortified cookies showed considerably higher contents of dietary fiber, especially hemicellulose and insoluble fractions, and were characterized by significantly higher antioxidant potential associated with their phenolics content. Results of ABTS, DPPH, ORACFL and PCL assay showed significantly higher antioxidant potential of tea cookies, highest for yellow tea. The antioxidative potential of applied teas was significant in terms of the inhibition of hydroperoxide content, while formation of secondary lipid oxidation products was less spectacular. It is concluded that tea leaves could be widely used as a source of polyphenols with high antioxidative potential, as well as fiber; thus introducing numerous health benefits for the consumer. PMID:27283654

  13. Comparative profiling of gene expression in Camellia sinensis L. cultivar AnJiBaiCha leaves during periodic albinism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling; Xiong, Li-Gui; Deng, Ting-Ting; Wu, Yang; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuo-Qian; Huang, Jian-An; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2015-04-25

    The AnJiBaiCha albino mutant tea cultivar has a reversible albino phenotype at low temperatures. Albino AnJiBaiCha leaves contain high levels of amino acids, which are important components affecting the quality of tea as a beverage. To examine the molecular mechanism of albinism and amino acid enrichment in AnJiBaiCha, we used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique to isolate genes that are differentially expressed during periodic albinism in AnJiBaiCha. A total of 127 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were successfully sequenced; among those, 60 TDFs showed high similarity to sequences with known functions, but 67 TDFs were not similar to any known genes. The identified transcripts include transcription factors, ubiquitination-related genes, chloroplast biogenesis genes, signal transduction genes, stress-related genes, cell cycle genes, and carbohydrate and energy metabolism genes. To validate the cDNA-AFLP results, quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the differential expression of six of the identified genes. The cDNA-AFLP and quantitative real-time PCR results correlated well, indicating that the cDNA-AFLP results are reliable. This study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms by which periodic albinism and amino acid accumulation take place in AnJiBaiCha. PMID:25576956

  14. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption. PMID:27323046

  15. Identification Guide for Diseases of Tea (Camellia sinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this guide on diseases associated with tea (Camellia sinensis) is to assist with p;roblem identification and raise awareness of serious plant disease pathogens not yet present in Hawaii. Blister bligtht, horse-hair blight, and twig dieback/stem canker are very destructive diseases fo...

  16. The characterization of caffeine and nine individual catechins in the leaves of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Seuk; Hwang, Young-Sun; Lee, Jinwook; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2014-09-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to determine the contents of caffeine and nine individual catechins in tea leaves. A total of 665 samples were scanned by NIRS, and also by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector to determine the contents of caffeine and nine individual catechins. The calibration models for caffeine, EGC, C, EGCG, EC, ECG, and total catechins had high r(2) (more than 0.90) and RSP (the ratio of standard deviation of reference data to SEP(C) in the external validation set) values (more than 4.1), indicating a good correlation between reference values and NIRS predicted values. In contrast, the calibration models of GC and EGCG-3Me had low r(2) and RSP values (below 0.8 and 2.0). Therefore, these results suggest that NIRS could be applied for the rapid determination of the contents of caffeine, EGC, C, EGCG, EC, ECG, and total catechins in tea leaves for breeding programs that develop high-quality tea plants. PMID:24731354

  17. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Loo, Yuet Ying; Chieng, Buong Woei; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2012-01-01

    The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine. PMID:22904632

  18. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms of Drought-Stress-Induced Decreases in Camellia sinensis Leaf Quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Xin, Huahong; Wang, Mingle; Ma, Qingping; Wang, Le; Kaleri, Najeeb A; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Xinghui

    2016-01-01

    The tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important commercial crop rich in bioactive ingredients, especially catechins, caffeine, theanine and other free amino acids, which the quality of tea leaves depends on. Drought is the most important environmental stress affecting the yield and quality of this plant. In this study, the effects of drought stress on the phenotype, physiological characteristics and major bioactive ingredients accumulation of C. sinensis leaves were examined, and the results indicated that drought stress resulted in dehydration and wilt of the leaves, and significant decrease in the total polyphenols and free amino acids and increase in the total flavonoids. In addition, HPLC analysis showed that the catechins, caffeine, theanine and some free amino acids in C. sinensis leaves were significantly reduced in response to drought stress, implying that drought stress severely decreased the quality of C. sinensis leaves. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to amino acid metabolism and secondary metabolism were identified and quantified in C. sinensis leaves under drought stress using high-throughput Illumina RNA-Seq technology, especially the key regulatory genes of the catechins, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis pathways. The expression levels of key regulatory genes were consistent with the results from the HPLC analysis, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above results. Taken together, these data provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the change in the quality of C. sinensis leaves under environmental stress, which involve changes in the accumulation of major bioactive ingredients, especially catechins, caffeine, theanine and other free amino acids. PMID:27066035

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms of Drought-Stress-Induced Decreases in Camellia sinensis Leaf Quality

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weidong; Xin, Huahong; Wang, Mingle; Ma, Qingping; Wang, Le; Kaleri, Najeeb A.; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Xinghui

    2016-01-01

    The tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important commercial crop rich in bioactive ingredients, especially catechins, caffeine, theanine and other free amino acids, which the quality of tea leaves depends on. Drought is the most important environmental stress affecting the yield and quality of this plant. In this study, the effects of drought stress on the phenotype, physiological characteristics and major bioactive ingredients accumulation of C. sinensis leaves were examined, and the results indicated that drought stress resulted in dehydration and wilt of the leaves, and significant decrease in the total polyphenols and free amino acids and increase in the total flavonoids. In addition, HPLC analysis showed that the catechins, caffeine, theanine and some free amino acids in C. sinensis leaves were significantly reduced in response to drought stress, implying that drought stress severely decreased the quality of C. sinensis leaves. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to amino acid metabolism and secondary metabolism were identified and quantified in C. sinensis leaves under drought stress using high-throughput Illumina RNA-Seq technology, especially the key regulatory genes of the catechins, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis pathways. The expression levels of key regulatory genes were consistent with the results from the HPLC analysis, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above results. Taken together, these data provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the change in the quality of C. sinensis leaves under environmental stress, which involve changes in the accumulation of major bioactive ingredients, especially catechins, caffeine, theanine and other free amino acids. PMID:27066035

  20. Floral Transcriptome Sequencing for SSR Marker Development and Linkage Map Construction in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Wu, Li-Yun; Qi, Gui-Nian; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Cui, Qing-Mei; Liang, Jin-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis) is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2%) unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR) database and 10,290 (16.67%) were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs). From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9%) novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species. PMID:24303059

  1. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U.; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates.” We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens PMID:25719410

  2. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    PubMed

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of Antagonism of Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Against Potent Fungal Pathogens of Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Rabha, Aparna Jyoti; Naglot, Ashok; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Gogoi, Hemant Kumar; Veer, Vijay

    2014-09-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from Camellia sinensis, Assam, Northeastern India was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on the basis of morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS analysis. This endophytic fungus was evaluated for growth inhibition against tea pathogens Pestalotiopsis theae and Colletotrichum camelliae. One isolate of C. gloeosporioides showed strong antagonistic activity against Pestalotiopsis theae (64 %) and moderate activity against C. camelliae (37 %). Fifty percent cell-free culture filtrate from 5-day-old cultures showed highest antagonistic activity against both the pathogens although the inhibition percent was less as compared to dual culture. In the experiment of volatile compounds none of the isolates of C. gloeosporioides strains showed visible inhibition against P. theae and C. camelliae. The activity of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes chitinase and protease was also high in this culture fluid and measured 10 and 4.3 IU/μl, respectively. PMID:24891737

  4. Quantification of flavonol glycosides in Camellia sinensis by MRM mode of UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yahui; Jiang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Shuxiang; Dai, Xinlong; Liu, Yajun; Tan, Huarong; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are major components of tea flavour, in which catechins and flavonol glycosides play important roles in the astringent taste of tea infusion. However, the flavonol glycosides are difficult to quantify because of the large variety, as well as the inefficient seperation on chromatography. In this paper, a total of 15 flavonol glycosides in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) were identified by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), and a quantitative method was established based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QQQ-MS/MS). It provided the limit of detection and quantification to the order of picogram, which was more sensitive than the HPLC detection of the order of nanogram. The relative standard deviations of the intra- and inter-day variations in retention time and signal intensity (peak area) of six analytes were less than 0.26% and 4%, respectively. The flavonol glycosides of four tea cultivars were relatively quantified using the signal intensity (peak area) of product ion, in which six flavonol glycosides were quantified by the authentic standards. The results showed that the flavonol mono-, di- and tri-glycoside mostly accumulated in young leaves of the four tea cultivars. Notably, the myricetin 3-O-galactoside was the major component among the six flavonol glycosides detected. PMID:26937589

  5. Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)): a putative anticancer agent in bladder carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Conde, Vanessa R; Alves, Marco G; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2015-01-01

    The leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) are the source of tea, the second most consumed beverage worldwide. Tea contains several chemical compounds such as polyphenols (mainly catechins), caffeine, theophylline, L-theanine, among many others. Polyphenolic compounds are mainly responsible for its significant antioxidant properties and anticarcinogenic potential. Bladder cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, and its progression and onset are thought to be controlled by dietary and lifestyle factors. Epidemiological studies showed that the regular consumption of tea can be a preventive factor for this type of cancer, and several in vivo and in vitro studies reported that tea and its components may interfere in the cancer cells' signaling, preventing the bladder tumor progression. The mechanisms responsible for this protection include deregulation of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis while protecting the surrounding healthy bladder cells, inhibition of metastization processes, among others. Herein, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of tea and tea components in bladder cancer prevention and/or treatment, and how they can be helpful in finding new therapeutic strategies to treat this type of cancer. PMID:25482719

  6. The Effect of Camellia sinensis on Wound Healing Potential in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Kanthimathi, M S; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Sanusi, Junedah

    2013-01-01

    Camellia sinensis (tea) is reported to have health benefits, including the building of healthy skin. This study evaluated the effects of topical application of Camellia sinensis extract on the rate of wound closure and the histology of wound area. A uniform area of 2.00 cm in diameter was excised from the neck of adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were topically treated with 0.2 mL of vehicle (CMC), Intrasite gel (positive control), or 200 and 400 mg/mL of extract. Wounds dressed with the extract and Intrasite gel healed significantly earlier than those with vehicle. Histological analysis of the wound area after 10 days showed that wounds dressed with the extract had less scar width when compared to the control. The tissue contained less inflammatory cells and more collagen and angiogenesis, compared to wounds dressed with vehicle. In this study, Camellia sinensis showed high potential in wound healing activity. PMID:23864889

  7. The Effect of Camellia sinensis on Wound Healing Potential in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kanthimathi, M. S.; Sanusi, Junedah

    2013-01-01

    Camellia sinensis (tea) is reported to have health benefits, including the building of healthy skin. This study evaluated the effects of topical application of Camellia sinensis extract on the rate of wound closure and the histology of wound area. A uniform area of 2.00 cm in diameter was excised from the neck of adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were topically treated with 0.2 mL of vehicle (CMC), Intrasite gel (positive control), or 200 and 400 mg/mL of extract. Wounds dressed with the extract and Intrasite gel healed significantly earlier than those with vehicle. Histological analysis of the wound area after 10 days showed that wounds dressed with the extract had less scar width when compared to the control. The tissue contained less inflammatory cells and more collagen and angiogenesis, compared to wounds dressed with vehicle. In this study, Camellia sinensis showed high potential in wound healing activity. PMID:23864889

  8. Cloning of a caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase from Camellia sinensis and analysis of its catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Lv, Hai-peng; Ma, Cheng-ying; Guo, Li; Tan, Jun-feng; Peng, Qun-hua; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me) present in leaves of Camellia sinensis has many beneficial biological activities for human health. However, EGCG3"Me occurs naturally in tea leaves in extremely limited quantities. Finding an enzyme from C. sinensis to catalyze the synthesis of EGCG3"Me is an alternative method to make up for the scarcity of EGCG3"Me in natural situations. In the present study, a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding region and genomic DNA of the caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) gene were isolated from C. sinensis (designated CsCCoAOMT). Nucleotide sequence analysis of CsCCoAOMT revealed an open reading frame of 738 bp that encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 28 kDa, which correlated well with the results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The full-length DNA sequence (2678 bp) contained five exons and four introns. The deduced amino acid sequence of CsCCoAOMT shared 92% identity with CCoAOMTs from Codonopsis lanceolata and Betula luminifera. The catalytic activity of CsCCoAOMT was analyzed. Three monomethylated epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) compounds (EGCG4"Me, EGCG3"Me, and EGCG3'Me) were produced by CsCCoAOMT with K(m) in the micromolar range. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments indicated that the CsCCoAOMT transcript was present at low levels during the early stages of leaf maturity (the first leaf and bud on a shoot) but the relative expression was augmented at advanced stages of leaf maturity (the third or fourth leaf on a shoot), which accorded well with changes in EGCG3"Me content in fresh leaves. Hence, we concluded that CsCCoAOMT catalyzes the syntheses of methylated EGCGs. PMID:25644465

  9. Cloning of a caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase from Camellia sinensis and analysis of its catalytic activity*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Lv, Hai-peng; Ma, Cheng-ying; Guo, Li; Tan, Jun-feng; Peng, Qun-hua; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me) present in leaves of Camellia sinensis has many beneficial biological activities for human health. However, EGCG3"Me occurs naturally in tea leaves in extremely limited quantities. Finding an enzyme from C. sinensis to catalyze the synthesis of EGCG3"Me is an alternative method to make up for the scarcity of EGCG3"Me in natural situations. In the present study, a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding region and genomic DNA of the caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) gene were isolated from C. sinensis (designated CsCCoAOMT). Nucleotide sequence analysis of CsCCoAOMT revealed an open reading frame of 738 bp that encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 28 kDa, which correlated well with the results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The full-length DNA sequence (2678 bp) contained five exons and four introns. The deduced amino acid sequence of CsCCoAOMT shared 92% identity with CCoAOMTs from Codonopsis lanceolata and Betula luminifera. The catalytic activity of CsCCoAOMT was analyzed. Three monomethylated epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) compounds (EGCG4"Me, EGCG3"Me, and EGCG3'Me) were produced by CsCCoAOMT with K m in the micromolar range. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments indicated that the CsCCoAOMT transcript was present at low levels during the early stages of leaf maturity (the first leaf and bud on a shoot) but the relative expression was augmented at advanced stages of leaf maturity (the third or fourth leaf on a shoot), which accorded well with changes in EGCG3"Me content in fresh leaves. Hence, we concluded that CsCCoAOMT catalyzes the syntheses of methylated EGCGs. PMID:25644465

  10. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Catechins

    PubMed Central

    Paveto, Cristina; Güida, María C.; Esteva, Mónica I.; Martino, Virginia; Coussio, Jorge; Flawiá, Mirtha M.; Torres, Héctor N.

    2004-01-01

    The trypanocidal action of green tea catechins against two different developmental stages of Trypanosoma cruzi is reported for the first time. This activity was assayed with the nonproliferative bloodstream trypomastigote and with the intracellular replicative amastigote parasite forms. An ethyl acetate fraction from Camellia sinensis green tea leaves, which contains most of the polyphenolic compounds and the maximal trypanocidal activity, was obtained by fractionation of the aqueous extract with organic solvents. The active compounds present in this extract were further purified by LH-20 column chromatography and were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with a photo diode array detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. The following flavan-3-ols derivatives, known as catechins, were identified: catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate. The purified compounds lysed more than 50% of the parasites present in the blood of infected BALB/c mice at concentrations as low as 0.12 to 85 pM. The most active compounds were gallocatechin gallate and epigallocatechin gallate, with minimal bactericidal concentrations that inhibited 50% of isolates tested of 0.12 and 0.53 pM, respectively. The number of amastigotes in infected Vero cells decreased by 50% in the presence of each of these compounds at 100 nM. The effects of the catechins on the recombinant T. cruzi arginine kinase, a key enzyme in the energy metabolism of the parasite, were assayed. The activity of this enzyme was inhibited by about 50% by nanomolar concentrations of catechin gallate or gallocatechin gallate, whereas the other members of the group were less effective. On the basis of these results, we suggest that these compounds could be used to sterilize blood and, eventually, as therapeutic agents for Chagas' disease. PMID:14693520

  11. CsSAD: a fatty acid desaturase gene involved in abiotic resistance in Camellia sinensis (L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Z T; Shen, J Z; Pan, L L; Wang, Y U; Li, Y S; Wang, Y; Sun, H W

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a thermophilic evergreen woody plant that has poor cold tolerance. The SAD gene plays a key role in regulating fatty acid synthesis and membrane lipid fluidity in response to temperature change. In this study, full-length SAD cDNA was cloned from tea leaves using rapid amplification of cDNA ends and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Sequence analysis demonstrated that CsSAD had a high similarity to other corresponding cDNAs. At 25°C, the CsSAD transcriptional level was highest in the leaf and lowest in the stem, but there was no obvious difference between the root and stem organs. CsSAD expression was investigated by reverse transcription-PCR, which showed that CsSAD was upregulated at 4° and -5°C. At 25°C, CsSAD was induced by polyethylene glycol, abscisic acid, and wounding, and a similar trend was observed at 4°C, but the mean expression level at 4°C was lower than that at 25°C. Under natural cold acclimation, the 'CsCr05' variety's CsSAD expression level increased before decreasing. The CsSAD expression level in variety 'CsCr06' showed no obvious change at first, but rapidly increased to a maximum when the temperature was very low. Our study demonstrates that CsSAD is upregulated in response to different abiotic conditions, and that it is important to study the stress resistance of the tea plant, particularly in response to low temperature, drought, and wounding. PMID:26985937

  12. The inhibitory effect of Camellia sinensis extracts against the neuromuscular blockade of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Reis Rosa, Luana; Silva, Gleidy Ana Araujo; Filho, Jorge Amaral; Silva, Magali Glauzer; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    In geographically isolated populations where intensive medical care or serum therapy is not easily accessible snake envenomation is a major cause for concern. The aim of the present study was to test Camellia sinensis extracts, theaflavin and epigallocatechin (two of the main C. sinensis components) against the irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus venom in mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparations. A quantitative histological study was also performed. The venom (20µg/ml) completely decreased twitch tension after 70min and 5µg/ml venom abolished 50% of twitch amplitude after 60min. C. sinensis extract induced intense facilitatory effect in the preparation activity at 0.2mg/ml and slightly facilitatory effect at 0.05mg/ml. Both 0.05mg/ml C. sinensis extract and 0.05mg/ml commercial theaflavin maintained partial muscular activity in presence of 5µg/ml venom. The histological data confirms that Cs is able to protect the muscle from the myotoxic activity of the venom. Commercial epigallocatechin gallate did not show pre-synaptic nor post-synaptic activities. C. sinensis extract was able to protect the mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm against the irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by C. durissus terrificus venom. PMID:21544176

  13. Cloning and Characterization of a Flavonoid 3′-Hydroxylase Gene from Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tian-Shan; Zhou, Rui; Yu, You-Ben; Xiao, Yao; Li, Dong-Hua; Xiao, Bin; Yu, Oliver; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaves contain abundant flavan-3-ols, which include dihydroxylated and trihydroxylated catechins. Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H: EC 1.14.13.21) is one of the enzymes in the establishment of the hydroxylation pattern. A gene encoding F3′H, designated as CsF3′H, was isolated from Camellia sinensis with a homology-based cloning technique and deposited in the GenBank (GenBank ID: KT180309). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that CsF3′H was highly homologous with the characterized F3′Hs from other plant species. Four conserved cytochrome P450-featured motifs and three F3′H-specific conserved motifs were discovered in the protein sequence of CsF3′H. Enzymatic analysis of the heterologously expressed CsF3′H in yeast demonstrated that tea F3′H catalyzed the 3′-hydroxylation of naringenin, dihydrokaempferol and kaempferol. Apparent Km values for these substrates were 17.08, 143.64 and 68.06 μM, and their apparent Vmax values were 0.98, 0.19 and 0.44 pM·min−1, respectively. Transcription level of CsF3′H in the new shoots, during tea seed germination was measured, along with that of other key genes for flavonoid biosynthesis using real-time PCR technique. The changes in 3′,4′-flavan-3-ols, 3′,4′,5′-flavan-3-ols and flavan-3-ols, were consistent with the expression level of CsF3′H and other related genes in the leaves. In the study of nitrogen supply for the tea plant growth, our results showed the expression level of CsF3′H and all other tested genes increased in response to nitrogen depletion after 12 days of treatment, in agreement with a corresponding increase in 3′,4′-catechins, 3′,4′,5′-catechins and flavan 3-ols content in the leaves. All these results suggest the importance of CsF3′H in the biosynthesis of 3′,4′-catechins, 3′,4′,5′-catechins and flavan 3-ols in tea leaves. PMID:26907264

  14. Assessment of the fungal diversity and succession of ligninolytic endophytes in Camellia japonica leaves using clone library analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Dai; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Osono, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Fungal assemblages in live, newly shed and partly decomposed leaves of Camellia japonica were investigated with a clone library analysis to assess the fungal diversity and succession in a subtropical forest in southern Japan. Partly decomposed leaves were divided into bleached and adjacent nonbleached portions to estimate the fungi functionally associated with lignin decomposition in the bleached portions, with an emphasis on Coccomyces sinensis (Rhytismataceae, Ascomycota). From 144 cloned 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, 48 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were defined based on a sequence similarity threshold of 98%. Forty-one (85%) of the 48 OTUs belonged to the Ascomycota and seven OTUs (15%) to the Basidiomycota. Twenty-six OTUs (54%) were detected only once (singletons). The number of OTUs and the diversity indices of the fungal assemblages in the different leaves were in this order: live leaves > newly shed leaves > bleached portions > nonbleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. The fungal assemblages were similar in newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. Ligninolytic fungi of the genera Coccomyces, Lophodermium and Xylaria were frequently detected in the bleached portions. OTU3, identified as Coccomyces sinensis, was detected in live and newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves, suggesting that this fungus latently infects live leaves, persists after leaf fall and takes part in lignin decomposition. PMID:23709486

  15. Genetic Variation of Flavonols Quercetin, Myricetin, and Kaempferol in the Sri Lankan Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and Their Health-Promoting Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Jeganathan, Brasathe; Kottawa-Arachchi, J. Dananjaya; Ranatunga, Mahasen A. B.; Abeysinghe, I. Sarath B.; Gunasekare, M. T. Kumudini; Bandara, B. M. Ratnayake

    2016-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides in tea leaves have been quantified as aglycones, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. Occurrence of the said compounds was reported in fruits and vegetable for a long time in association with the antioxidant potential. However, data on flavonols in tea were scanty and, hence, this study aims to envisage the flavonol content in a representative pool of accessions present in the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. Significant amounts of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol have been detected in the beverage type tea accessions of the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. This study also revealed that tea is a good source of flavonol glycosides. The Camellia sinensis var. sinensis showed higher content of myricetin, quercetin, and total flavonols than var. assamica and ssp. lasiocalyx. Therefore flavonols and their glycosides can potentially be used in chemotaxonomic studies of tea germplasm. The nonbeverage type cultivars, especially Camellia rosaflora and Camellia japonica Red along with the exotic accessions resembling China type, could be useful in future germplasm studies because they are rich sources of flavonols, namely, quercetin and kaempferol, which are potent antioxidants. The flavonol profiles can be effectively used in choosing parents in tea breeding programmes to generate progenies with a wide range of flavonol glycosides. PMID:27366737

  16. Effects of the medicinal plants Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis on halitosis control.

    PubMed

    Farina, Vitor Hugo; Lima, Ana Paula de; Balducci, Ivan; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

    2012-01-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) are the gases mainly responsible for halitosis (bad breath). The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on halitosis control. Two commonly used plants were tested: Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis (green tea). These plants were prepared as an aqueous solution and used as mouthwashes, compared with a standard mouthwash of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate and a placebo (water). The experiment was conducted with 30 volunteers from the School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos, Univ. Estadual Paulista - UNESP, SP, Brazil. Each volunteer tested the four mouthwashes. The Cysteine Challenge Method, modified for this study, was used for initial breath standardization. Four breath assessments were conducted after volunteers rinsed orally with acetylcysteine: one before the test mouthwash was used; the second, one minute after its use; a third 90 minutes later; and the last 180 minutes later. The results showed that chlorhexidine gluconate lowered VSC production immediately, and that this effect lasted up to 3 hours, while the tested plants had immediate inhibitory effects but no residual inhibitory effects on VSC. We concluded that Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis, prepared as infusions and used as mouthwashes, did not have a residual neutralizing effect on VSC. PMID:23019084

  17. The distribution of minerals and flavonoids in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Ferrara, L; Montesano, D; Senatore, A

    2001-01-01

    Camellia sinensis is a plant growing in India, Sri Lanka, Java, Japan and its properties were known 4000 years ago. Since then, traditional Chinese medicine has recommended this plant for headaches, body aches and pains, digestion, depression, detoxification, as an energiser and, in general, to prolong life. Tea contains volatile oils, vitamins, minerals, purines, polyphenols, particularly carechins. We have analysed ten commercial teas from various countries to determine their mineral composition and we have analysed a green tea, an Oolong tea and a White tea to determine their polyphenols and flavonoids content. Our study shows that the variation of mineral composition, polyphenols and flavonoids are linked to different origins of the plant. For the determination of phenols compounds and flavonoids we used an HPLC apparatus and for mineral analysis an atomic absorption apparatus. PMID:11482766

  18. Tea triterpenoidal saponins from the roots of Camellia sinensis have inhibitory effects against alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Titto; Manir, Md Maniruzzaman; Rahaman, Mozahidur; Kim, Jeong Kee; Lee, Byeong-Gon; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2011-12-01

    Ten new polyhydroxyolean-12-ene pentacyclic triterpenoidal saponins, named rogchaponins 1-10, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the roots of Camellia sinensis by a series of chromatographic methods (silica gel flash column and C18 MPLC followed by C18 HPLC). Their structures were established by 1D and 2D-NMR techniques along with IR and HR-TOF-MS. Rogchaponins R4 ( 4) and R5 (5) showed inhibitory activities against yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with IC (50) values of 16.1 ± 3.2 and 15.4 ± 3.3 µM, respectively. A 4-methylpyrazole positive control exhibited an IC (50) of 2750 ± 50 µM. However, the saponins showed no inhibitory activity against yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). PMID:21786220

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Major Phytochemicals in Orthodox tea (Camellia sinensis), Oxidized under Compressed Air Environment.

    PubMed

    Panda, Brajesh Kumar; Datta, Ashis Kumar

    2016-04-01

    This study describes major changes in phytochemical composition of orthodox tea (Camellia sinensis var. Assamica) oxidized under compressed air (CA). The experiments for oxidation were conducted under air pressure (101, 202, and 303 kPa) for 150 min. Relative change in the concentrations of caffeine, catechins, theaflavins (TF), and thearubigins (TR) were analyzed. Effect of CA pressure was found to be nonsignificant in regulating caffeine concentration during oxidation. But degradation in different catechins as well as formation of different TF was significantly affected by CA pressure. At high CA pressure, TF showed highest peak value. TR was found to have slower rate of formation during initial phase of oxidation than TF. Even though the rate of TR formation was significantly influenced by CA, a portion of catechins remained unoxidized at end of oxidation. Except caffeine, the percent change in rate of formation or degradation were more prominent at 202 kPa. PMID:26970442

  20. Anti-ulcer effect of the hot water extract of black tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Maity, S; Vedasiromoni, J R; Ganguly, D K

    1995-06-01

    The effect of the hot water extract of black tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, Theaceae) on ulceration induced by various ulcerogens and by cold restraint stress (CRS) was investigated in albino rats. While prior administration of tea extract for 7 days significantly reduced the incidence of ulcer, ulcer number and ulcer index produced by aspirin, indomethacin, ethanol, reserpine and CRS, it failed to inhibit the ulcers induced by serotonin and histamine. Tea extract also favourably altered the changes in acid and peptic activity of gastric secretion induced by aspirin, indomethacin, ethanol, reserpine and CRS. The observations suggest that the hot water extract of black tea possesses anti-ulcer activity, probably mediated through prostaglandins. PMID:7564415

  1. Optimization of a DNA Nicking Assay to Evaluate Oenocarpus bataua and Camellia sinensis Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Leba, Louis-Jérôme; Brunschwig, Christel; Saout, Mona; Martial, Karine; Vulcain, Emmanuelle; Bereau, Didier; Robinson, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the DNA damage protective activity of different types of extracts (aqueous, methanolic and acetonic) using an in vitro DNA nicking assay. Several parameters were optimized using the pUC18 plasmid, especially FeSO4, EDTA, solvent concentrations and incubation time. Special attention has been paid to removing the protective and damaging effect of the solvent and FeSO4 respectively, as well as to identifying the relevant positive and negative controls. For each solvent, the optimal conditions were determined: (i) for aqueous extracts, 0.33 mM of FeSO4 and 0.62 mM of EDTA were incubated for 20 min at 37 °C; (ii) for acetone extracts, 1.16% solvent were incubated for 15 min at 37 °C with 1.3 mM of FeSO4 and 2.5 mM of EDTA and (iii) for methanol extracts, 0.16% solvent, were incubated for 1.5 h at 37 °C with 0.33 mM of FeSO4 and 0.62 mM of EDTA. Using the optimized conditions, the DNA damage protective activity of aqueous, methanolic and acetonic extracts of an Amazonian palm berry (Oenocarpus bataua) and green tea (Camellia sinensis) was assessed. Aqueous and acetonic Oenocarpus bataua extracts were protective against DNA damage, whereas aqueous, methanolic and acetonic extracts of Camellia sinensis extracts induced DNA damage. PMID:25302614

  2. Volatile Glycosylation in Tea Plants: Sequential Glycosylations for the Biosynthesis of Aroma β-Primeverosides Are Catalyzed by Two Camellia sinensis Glycosyltransferases1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ohgami, Shoji; Ono, Eiichiro; Horikawa, Manabu; Murata, Jun; Totsuka, Koujirou; Toyonaga, Hiromi; Ohba, Yukie; Dohra, Hideo; Asai, Tatsuo; Mizutani, Masaharu; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis) store volatile organic compounds (VOCs; monoterpene, aromatic, and aliphatic alcohols) in the leaves in the form of water-soluble diglycosides, primarily as β-primeverosides (6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosides). These VOCs play a critical role in plant defenses and tea aroma quality, yet little is known about their biosynthesis and physiological roles in planta. Here, we identified two UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) from C. sinensis, UGT85K11 (CsGT1) and UGT94P1 (CsGT2), converting VOCs into β-primeverosides by sequential glucosylation and xylosylation, respectively. CsGT1 exhibits a broad substrate specificity toward monoterpene, aromatic, and aliphatic alcohols to produce the respective glucosides. On the other hand, CsGT2 specifically catalyzes the xylosylation of the 6′-hydroxy group of the sugar moiety of geranyl β-d-glucopyranoside, producing geranyl β-primeveroside. Homology modeling, followed by site-directed mutagenesis of CsGT2, identified a unique isoleucine-141 residue playing a crucial role in sugar donor specificity toward UDP-xylose. The transcripts of both CsGTs were mainly expressed in young leaves, along with β-PRIMEVEROSIDASE encoding a diglycoside-specific glycosidase. In conclusion, our findings reveal the mechanism of aroma β-primeveroside biosynthesis in C. sinensis. This information can be used to preserve tea aroma better during the manufacturing process and to investigate the mechanism of plant chemical defenses. PMID:25922059

  3. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Spermine Synthesis Gene Associated with Cold Tolerance in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xujun; Li, Qinghui; Hu, Jingyan; Wang, Mingle; Li, Xinghui

    2015-11-01

    Spermine synthase (SPMS, EC 2.5.1.22), enzyme of spermine (Spm) biosynthesis, has been shown to be related to stress response. In this study, attempts were made to clone and characterize a gene encoding SPMS from tea plant (Camellia sinensis). The effect of exogenous application of Spm in C. sinensis subjected to low-temperature stress was also investigated. A full-length SPMS complementary DNA (cDNA) (CsSPMS) with an open reading frame of 1113 bp was cloned using reverse transcription-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques from cultivar "Yingshuang". The CsSPMS gene, which encoded a 371 amino acid polypeptide, in four cultivars is highly homologous. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the CsSPMS gene shows tissue-specific expression, mainly in the leaf and root of tea plant. The expression analysis demonstrated that the CsSPMS gene is quickly induced by cold stress and had similar trends in four cultivars. Spm-supplemented "Baicha" cultivar contains higher endogenous polyamines compared to the control, coupling with higher expression levels of ADC and SPMS. In addition, activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as free proline content in the Spm-supplemented samples were higher than the control during the experiment course or at a given time point, indicating that Spm exerted a positive effect on antioxidant systems. Moreover, Agrobacterium-mediated expression of CsSPMS in tobacco leaves showed relatively higher cold tolerance. Taken together, these findings will enhance the understanding of the relationships among CsSPMS gene regulatory, polyamines accumulation, and cold tolerance in tea plant. PMID:26276446

  4. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect.

    PubMed

    Scoparo, Camila T; Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda P; Borato, Débora G; Baggio, Cristiane H; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1→4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection. PMID:26861826

  5. Metabolic Changes of Caffeine in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) as Defense Response to Colletotrichum fructicola.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Qian, Wen-Jun; Li, Na-Na; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Xiao, Bin; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most economically valuable crops in the world. Anthracnose can affect the growth of leaves and cause serious yield losses of tea. Tea plants are rich in secondary metabolites; however, their roles in resistance to anthracnose are unclear. Herein we compared the contents of total phenolics, catechins, and caffeine in two cultivars with different resistances to anthracnose during Colletotrichum fructicola infection. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (+)-catechin (C), caffeine, and critical regulatory genes were induced in C. fructicola-resistant tissues. In vitro antifungal tests showed that caffeine more strongly inhibited mycelial growth than tea polyphenols and catechins. Both electron microscopy and bioactivity analysis results showed that caffeine can affect mycelial cell walls and plasma membranes. Through promoter sequences analysis, a number of stress response-related cis-acting elements were identified in S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and tea caffeine synthase. These results demonstrated that (-)-EGCG, (+)-C, and caffeine may be involved in the resistance of tea plants to anthracnose. PMID:27541180

  6. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Mohammad M.; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose, 0.1 g·L−1 l-glutamine and 5 g·L−1 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L−1 sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties. PMID:27428960

  7. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis.

    PubMed

    Rana, Mohammad M; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L(-1) sucrose, 0.1 g·L(-1) l-glutamine and 5 g·L(-1) polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L(-1) sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties. PMID:27428960

  8. Genetic Divergence between Camellia sinensis and Its Wild Relatives Revealed via Genome-Wide SNPs from RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Wu, Jun-Lan; Li, Zheng-Guo; Zhang, Liang; Jian, Jian-Bo; Li, Ye-Yun; Tai, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Jiang, Chang-Jun; Xia, Tao; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages across the world and is made exclusively from cultivars of Camellia sinensis. Many wild relatives of the genus Camellia that are closely related to C. sinensis are native to Southwest China. In this study, we first identified the distinct genetic divergence between C. sinensis and its wild relatives and provided a glimpse into the artificial selection of tea plants at a genome-wide level by analyzing 15,444 genomic SNPs that were identified from 18 cultivated and wild tea accessions using a high-throughput genome-wide restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) approach. Six distinct clusters were detected by phylogeny inferrence and principal component and genetic structural analyses, and these clusters corresponded to six Camellia species/varieties. Genetic divergence apparently indicated that C. taliensis var. bangwei is a semi-wild or transient landrace occupying a phylogenetic position between those wild and cultivated tea plants. Cultivated accessions exhibited greater heterozygosity than wild accessions, with the exception of C. taliensis var. bangwei. Thirteen genes with non-synonymous SNPs exhibited strong selective signals that were suggestive of putative artificial selective footprints for tea plants during domestication. The genome-wide SNPs provide a fundamental data resource for assessing genetic relationships, characterizing complex traits, comparing heterozygosity and analyzing putatitve artificial selection in tea plants. PMID:26962860

  9. Tissue-specific, development-dependent phenolic compounds accumulation profile and gene expression pattern in tea plant [Camellia sinensis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaolan; Liu, Yajun; Li, Weiwei; Zhao, Lei; Meng, Fei; Wang, Yunsheng; Tan, Huarong; Yang, Hua; Wei, Chaoling; Wan, Xiaochun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds in tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.)] play a crucial role in dominating tea flavor and possess a number of key pharmacological benefits on human health. The present research aimed to study the profile of tissue-specific, development-dependent accumulation pattern of phenolic compounds in tea plant. A total of 50 phenolic compounds were identified qualitatively using liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry technology. Of which 29 phenolic compounds were quantified based on their fragmentation behaviors. Most of the phenolic compounds were higher in the younger leaves than that in the stem and root, whereas the total amount of proanthocyanidins were unexpectedly higher in the root. The expression patterns of 63 structural and regulator genes involved in the shikimic acid, phenylpropanoid, and flavonoid pathways were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and cluster analysis. Based on the similarity of their expression patterns, the genes were classified into two main groups: C1 and C2; and the genes in group C1 had high relative expression level in the root or low in the bud and leaves. The expression patterns of genes in C2-2-1 and C2-2-2-1 groups were probably responsible for the development-dependent accumulation of phenolic compounds in the leaves. Enzymatic analysis suggested that the accumulation of catechins was influenced simultaneously by catabolism and anabolism. Further research is recommended to know the expression patterns of various genes and the reason for the variation in contents of different compounds in different growth stages and also in different organs. PMID:23646127

  10. Tissue-Specific, Development-Dependent Phenolic Compounds Accumulation Profile and Gene Expression Pattern in Tea Plant [Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiwei; Zhao, Lei; Meng, Fei; Wang, Yunsheng; Tan, Huarong; Yang, Hua; Wei, Chaoling; Wan, Xiaochun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds in tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.)] play a crucial role in dominating tea flavor and possess a number of key pharmacological benefits on human health. The present research aimed to study the profile of tissue-specific, development-dependent accumulation pattern of phenolic compounds in tea plant. A total of 50 phenolic compounds were identified qualitatively using liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry technology. Of which 29 phenolic compounds were quantified based on their fragmentation behaviors. Most of the phenolic compounds were higher in the younger leaves than that in the stem and root, whereas the total amount of proanthocyanidins were unexpectedly higher in the root. The expression patterns of 63 structural and regulator genes involved in the shikimic acid, phenylpropanoid, and flavonoid pathways were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and cluster analysis. Based on the similarity of their expression patterns, the genes were classified into two main groups: C1 and C2; and the genes in group C1 had high relative expression level in the root or low in the bud and leaves. The expression patterns of genes in C2-2-1 and C2-2-2-1 groups were probably responsible for the development-dependent accumulation of phenolic compounds in the leaves. Enzymatic analysis suggested that the accumulation of catechins was influenced simultaneously by catabolism and anabolism. Further research is recommended to know the expression patterns of various genes and the reason for the variation in contents of different compounds in different growth stages and also in different organs. PMID:23646127

  11. Evaluation of seven different drying treatments in respect to total flavonoid, phenolic, vitamin C content, chlorophyll, antioxidant activity and color of green tea (Camellia sinensis or C. assamica) leaves.

    PubMed

    Roshanak, Sahar; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The effect of seven drying treatments (sun, shade, oven 60 °C, oven 80 °C, oven 100 °C, microwave and freeze-drying) were evaluated with respect total flavonoid (TFC), phenolic (TPC), antioxidant activity, vitamin C and color characteristics of green tea. In general, drying increased antioxidant activity, TPC, TFC and chlorophyll content, while it led to a decrease in vitamin C. The highest TPC (209.17 mg Gallic acid/gdw) and TFC (38.18 mg Quercitin/gdw) were obtained in oven drying at 60 and 100 °C, respectively. Among methods, oven drying at 60 °C revealed the highest radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 167.166 μg/ml), while microwave showed the lowest one (IC50 = 505.5 μg/ml). Similar trend was also observed in reducing power assay. The highest vitamin C (16.36 mg/100gDM) and Chlorophyll a (17.35 mg/l) were obtained in freeze drying. Finally, sun and freeze drying methods were considered as the least and the most desirable drying methods, respectively the final color of green tea leaves. PMID:26787992

  12. A novel cold-regulated gene from Camellia sinensis, CsCOR1, enhances salt- and dehydration-tolerance in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xian-Wen; Feng, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Hui-Min; Zhu, Xiao-Pei; Liu, Jun; Yuan, Hong-Yu

    2010-04-02

    In present research, the full-length cDNA and the genomic sequence of a novel cold-regulated gene, CsCOR1, were isolated from Camellia sinensis L. The deduced protein CsCOR1 contains a hydrophobic N-terminus as a signal peptide and a hydrophilic C-terminal domain that is rich in glycine, arginine and proline. Two internal repetitive tridecapeptide fragments (HSVTAGRGGYNRG) exist in the middle of the C-terminal domain and the two nucleotide sequences encoding them are identical. CsCOR1 was localized in the cell walls of transgenic-tobaccos via CsCOR1::GFP fusion approach. The expression of CsCOR1 in tea leaves was enhanced dramatically by both cold- and dehydration-stress. And overexpression of CsCOR1 in transgenic-tobaccos improved obviously the tolerance to salinity and dehydration.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of a polyphenols-rich extract from tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers in acute and chronic mice models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bang-Tian; Li, Wei-Xi; He, Rong-Rong; Li, Yi-Fang; Tsoi, Bun; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    While beneficial health properties of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention is paid to the flowers of tea. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of hot water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers were investigated. Pharmacological studies found that administration of tea flowers extract (TFE) could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenin-induced paw edema. Furthermore, administration of TFE also protected against Propionibacterium acnes (P. ances) plus lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced liver inflammation by reversing the histologic damage and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increase. Moreover, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-(TNF)-α and interleukin-(IL-) 1β mRNA in mouse liver were markedly suppressed after treatment with TFE in mice with immunological liver inflammation. These results indicated that tea flowers had potent anti-inflammatory effects on acute and immunological inflammation in vivo, and may be used as a functional natural food. PMID:22900128

  14. Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Probably Relevant to the Uniqueness of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) and Its Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yan; Jing, Wang; Youxiang, Zhou; Mingming, Zhao; Yan, Gong; Hua, Ding; Lijun, Peng; Dingjin, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a popular beverage all over the world and a number of studies have focused on the genetic uniqueness of tea and its cultivars. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are largely undefined. In this report, based on expression data available from public databases, we performed a series of analyses to identify genes probably relevant to the uniqueness of C. sinensis and two of its cultivars (LJ43 and ZH2). Evolutionary analyses showed that the evolutionary rates of genes involved in the pathways were not significantly different among C. sinensis, C. oleifera, and C. azalea. Interestingly, a number of gene families, including genes involved in the pathways synthesizing iconic secondary metabolites of tea plant, were significantly upregulated, expressed in C. sinensis (LJ43) when compared to C. azalea, and this may partially explain its higher content of flavonoid, theanine, and caffeine. Further investigation showed that nonsynonymous mutations may partially contribute to the differences between the two cultivars of C. sinensis, such as the chlorina and higher contents of amino acids in ZH2. Genes identified as candidates are probably relevant to the uniqueness of C. sinensis and its cultivars should be good candidates for subsequent functional analyses and marker-assisted breeding. PMID:26543846

  15. Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Probably Relevant to the Uniqueness of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) and Its Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yan; Jing, Wang; Youxiang, Zhou; Mingming, Zhao; Yan, Gong; Hua, Ding; Lijun, Peng; Dingjin, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a popular beverage all over the world and a number of studies have focused on the genetic uniqueness of tea and its cultivars. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are largely undefined. In this report, based on expression data available from public databases, we performed a series of analyses to identify genes probably relevant to the uniqueness of C. sinensis and two of its cultivars (LJ43 and ZH2). Evolutionary analyses showed that the evolutionary rates of genes involved in the pathways were not significantly different among C. sinensis, C. oleifera, and C. azalea. Interestingly, a number of gene families, including genes involved in the pathways synthesizing iconic secondary metabolites of tea plant, were significantly upregulated, expressed in C. sinensis (LJ43) when compared to C. azalea, and this may partially explain its higher content of flavonoid, theanine, and caffeine. Further investigation showed that nonsynonymous mutations may partially contribute to the differences between the two cultivars of C. sinensis, such as the chlorina and higher contents of amino acids in ZH2. Genes identified as candidates are probably relevant to the uniqueness of C. sinensis and its cultivars should be good candidates for subsequent functional analyses and marker-assisted breeding. PMID:26543846

  16. Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Imrana; Siddiqui, Zeba N.; Rizvi, Shamim J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g). The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM) test, open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). Result: Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days) induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days). Restraint stress-induced (a) increased latency and (b) decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion: O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities. PMID:21206619

  17. A comparative analysis of chemical compositions in Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara, a novel Chinese tea, by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Fang; Ouyang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yi-Qun; Wang, Ting-Mei; Li, Wei-Xi; Tian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Hong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2017-02-01

    Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara (Puan tea) is a kind of ancient tea plant newly found in Jiangxipo and the surrounding areas of Puan County (Guizhou, China). People there always believe that drinking Puan tea is beneficial to the promotion of health and prevention of diseases. However, detailed information on its compositions has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the varieties and contents of purine alkaloids and polyphenols in Puan tea were identified and determined by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Our results showed that theacrine, but not caffeine, was the dominated purine alkaloid detected in Puan tea. Meanwhile, Puan tea contained B-type procyanidin dimer, trimer and dimer monogallate, which were not detected in Camellia sinensis, Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia assamica var. kucha. The obtained results could support the local uses of Puan tea in health and nutrition and contribute to the research of tea variety. PMID:27596421

  18. A novel green chemical route for synthesis of silver nanoparticles using camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Sarika Srinivas Kalyan; Sahoo, Prasanta Kumar; Vimala, Johnson; Premkumar, Manda; Ram, Shanker; Durai, Loganathan

    2010-12-01

    The thrust to develop environmental friendly procedures for production of Nanoparticles arises from the very fact that current nanotechnology research uses a lot of chemicals, which are potential threat to both environment and public health. Tea (Camellia Sinensis) with its rich source of polyphenolic compounds has been exploited for the reduction and capping of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), making it a complete green chemical route. The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 was observed by the color change from pale yellow to dark yellow. The reaction was followed with the help of UV-Visible spectrometer. Crystal structure was obtained by carrying out X-ray diffraction studies and it showed face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The particle size and morphology were obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. An average particle size of 25 nm silver particles could be obtained using this method and the TEM and SAXS data corroborate with each other. PMID:24061881

  19. Effects of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) on pregnancy of rats.

    PubMed

    Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekera D; Fernando, Thimbiripalage S P

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential effects of black tea brew of Camellia sinensis using Sri Lankan high grown dust grade no. 1 tea on pregnancy outcome of rats when exposed during early (days 1-7), mid (days 8-14) and late (days 15-21) pregnancy of rats. Different doses of black tea brew (mg/ml/day) was orally administered daily during this period to separate groups of rats (n = 6/group): 84 (equivalent to 1.5 cups), 167 (3 cups), 501 (9 cups), and 1336 (24 cups). The results showed that black tea brew did not significantly (P > 0.05) change the pregnancy outcome (in terms of quantal pregnancy, number of uterine implants, number of viable implants, implantation index, pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss, gestation index, number of pups born, litter index, live birth index and viability index) and pre- (in terms of length of the implants/foetus, gestation length, cranial length, cranial diameter and tail length of pups) and postnatal (in terms of time taken to open eyes, eruption of incisors and appearance of fur) development. Furthermore, black tea brew did not induce gross morphological birth abnormalities. If the results are applicable to women, it is concluded that even heavy consumption of black tea brew during pregnancy may not be harmful for pregnancy outcome. PMID:19422356

  20. Effect of Camellia sinensis supplementation and increasing holding time on quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    PubMed

    Gale, I; Gil, L; Malo, C; González, N; Martínez, F

    2015-06-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is still considered suboptimal due to the low fertility when compared with fresh semen. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) supplementation of the freezing extender at different concentration (0, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) and also to determine the influence of increasing holding time from 2 to 24 h at 15 °C. Seventeen ejaculates from nine boars were used to make pools of three of them and then cryopreserved. Sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, membrane functionality (HOST) and capacitation status were determined before freezing and at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after thawing. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated just after thawing. The main findings emerging from this study were the following: (i) no improvement in quality of thawed spermatozoa with addition of tea to the freezing extender, (ii) no improvement in quality of thawed spermatozoa with prolonged holding time, (iii) lower peroxidation rate in presence of tea 5% and (iv) a decrease in the number of uncapacited viable spermatozoa with any tea supplementation. We conclude that amplification of holding time in semen cryopreservation process does not vary results, facilitating freezing protocol. Tea supplementation reduces lipoxidation but did not improve quality parameters. PMID:24909203

  1. Estimating Biochemical Parameters of Tea (camellia Sinensis (L.)) Using Hyperspectral Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Schlerf, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, T.

    2012-07-01

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)) is an important economic crop and the market price of tea depends largely on its quality. This research aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing on predicting the concentration of biochemical components, namely total tea polyphenols, as indicators of tea quality at canopy scale. Experiments were carried out for tea plants growing in the field and greenhouse. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), which has proven to be the one of the most successful empirical approach, was performed to establish the relationship between reflectance and biochemical concentration across six tea varieties in the field. Moreover, a novel integrated approach involving successive projections algorithms as band selection method and neural networks was developed and applied to detect the concentration of total tea polyphenols for one tea variety, in order to explore and model complex nonlinearity relationships between independent (wavebands) and dependent (biochemicals) variables. The good prediction accuracies (r2 > 0.8 and relative RMSEP < 10 %) achieved for tea plants using both linear (partial lease squares regress) and nonlinear (artificial neural networks) modelling approaches in this study demonstrates the feasibility of using airborne and spaceborne sensors to cover wide areas of tea plantation for in situ monitoring of tea quality cheaply and rapidly.

  2. Effect of salt treatment on theanine biosynthesis in Camellia sinensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wang, Shuo; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Hu, Xiang-Yang

    2012-07-01

    Theanine synthetase (TS) is an enzyme involved in theanine biosynthesis in tea plants. Recent studies have revealed that theanine biosynthesis, derived from nitrogen metabolism in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plants, could be influenced by salt treatment. We have characterized CsTS at the molecular and biochemical level. The expression pattern of CsTS protein was examined by western blot using a self-prepared polyclonal antibody with high specificity and sensitivity. The effect of salt treatment on the levels of theanine synthesis was investigated in this study. Levels of theanine and the total free amino acids were gradually increased in shoots, and reached the maximum on the 8th day after treatment (DAT). The immunoblotting analysis suggested the accumulation of CsTS protein had increased gently up to 8 DAT, and subsequently declined, both in roots and shoots, which is one of the main evidences that resulted in the variation of theanine concentration under salt treatment. Together, these data revealed that theanine synthesis takes place both in root and shoot and CsTS accumulation is positively affected by salt treatment. PMID:22579942

  3. Metabolomic unveiling of a diverse range of green tea (Camellia sinensis) metabolites dependent on geography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Hak-Nam; Kim, Eun-Hee; Jung, Sungheuk; Lee, Hyosang; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick

    2015-05-01

    Numerous factors such as geographical origin, cultivar, climate, cultural practices, and manufacturing processes influence the chemical compositions of tea, in the same way as growing conditions and grape variety affect wine quality. However, the relationships between these factors and tea chemical compositions are not well understood. In this study, a new approach for non-targeted or global analysis, i.e., metabolomics, which is highly reproducible and statistically effective in analysing a diverse range of compounds, was used to better understand the metabolome of Camellia sinensis and determine the influence of environmental factors, including geography, climate, and cultural practices, on tea-making. We found a strong correlation between environmental factors and the metabolome of green, white, and oolong teas from China, Japan, and South Korea. In particular, multivariate statistical analysis revealed strong inter-country and inter-city relationships in the levels of theanine and catechin derivatives found in green and white teas. This information might be useful for assessing tea quality or producing distinct tea products across different locations, and highlights simultaneous identification of diverse tea metabolites through an NMR-based metabolomics approach. PMID:25529705

  4. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Poonam; Tandan, Neeraj; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Divyansh; Kumar, Monu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:25254057

  5. Role of glutathione in the antiulcer effect of hot water extract of black tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Maity, S; Vedasiromoni, J R; Ganguly, D K

    1998-11-01

    The role of a hot water extract of black tea (Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze Theaceae) in the gastric cytoprotective mechanisms was studied using gastric mucosal lesions produced by various ulcerogens in rats as an experimental model. Prior oral administration of black tea extract (BTE) at 20 ml/kg, i.g. once a day for 7 days significantly reduced the incidence of gastric erosions and severity induced by ethanol, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and diethylmaleate (DEM). This treatment also favorably altered the changes in acid and peptic activity of gastric juice in these ulcerogen-treated animals. Singular administration of succimer (60 mg/kg, i.g.), the standard sulfhydryl containing antiulcer drug used as a reference drug, was also effective. The levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were significantly decreased after treatment with ethanol, DDC and DEM, and this decrease was prevented by BTE pretreatment in the aforesaid manner. Other major features of BTE-induced reversal of ulcerogenic agents include a significant decrease in the protein content and a marked increase in hexosamine and sialic acid content. These results suggest a major role for glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant, in the cytoprotection against ulceration afforded by BTE. PMID:9869262

  6. Predicting foliar biochemistry of tea (Camellia sinensis) using reflectance spectra measured at powder, leaf and canopy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Meng; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Schlerf, Martin; Wang, Tiejun; Liu, Yanfang; Zeng, Rong; Fei, Teng

    2013-04-01

    Some biochemical compounds are closely related with the quality of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)). In this study, the concentration of these compounds including total tea polyphenols, free amino acids and soluble sugars were estimated using reflectance spectroscopy at three different levels: powder, leaf and canopy, with partial least squares regression. The focus of this study is to systematically compare the accuracy of tea quality estimations based on spectroscopy at three different levels. At the powder level, the average r2 between predictions and observations was 0.89 for polyphenols, 0.81 for amino acids and 0.78 for sugars, with relative root mean square errors (RMSE/mean) of 5.47%, 5.50% and 2.75%, respectively; at the leaf level, the average r2 decreased to 0.46-0.81 and the relative RMSE increased to 4.46-7.09%. Compared to the results yielded at the leaf level, the results from canopy spectra were slightly more accurate, yielding average r2 values of 0.83, 0.77 and 0.56 and relative RMSE of 6.79%, 5.73% and 4.03% for polyphenols, amino acids and sugars, respectively. We further identified wavelength channels that influenced the prediction model. For powder and leaves, some bands identified can be linked to the absorption features of chemicals of interest (1648 nm for phenolic, 1510 nm for amino acids, 2080 nm and 2270 nm for sugars), while more indirectly related wavelengths were found to be important at the canopy level for predictions of chemical compounds. Overall, the prediction accuracies achieved at canopy level in this study are encouraging for future study on tea quality estimated at the landscape scale using airborne and space-borne sensors.

  7. Selection of suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization during leaf development and hormonal stimuli in tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Tian, Chang; Jiang, Qian; Li, Xing-Hui; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) leaf is an important non-alcoholic beverage resource. The application of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has a profound significance for the gene expression studies of tea plant, especially when applied to tea leaf development and metabolism. In this study, nine candidate reference genes (i.e., CsACT7, CsEF-1α, CseIF-4α, CsGAPDH, CsPP2A, CsSAND, CsTBP, CsTIP41, and CsTUB) of C. sinensis were cloned. The quantitative expression data of these genes were investigated in five tea leaf developmental stages (i.e., 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and older leaves) and normal growth tea leaves subjected to five hormonal stimuli (i.e., ABA, GA, IAA, MeJA, and SA), and gene expression stability was calculated using three common statistical algorithms, namely, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper. Results indicated that CsTBP and CsTIP41 were the most stable genes in tea leaf development and CsTBP was the best gene under hormonal stimuli; by contrast, CsGAPDH and CsTUB genes showed the least stability. The gene expression profile of CsNAM gene was analyzed to confirm the validity of the reference genes in this study. Our data provide basis for the selection of reference genes for future biological research in the leaf development and hormonal stimuli of C. sinensis. PMID:26813576

  8. Selection of suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization during leaf development and hormonal stimuli in tea plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Tian, Chang; Jiang, Qian; Li, Xing-Hui; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) leaf is an important non-alcoholic beverage resource. The application of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has a profound significance for the gene expression studies of tea plant, especially when applied to tea leaf development and metabolism. In this study, nine candidate reference genes (i.e., CsACT7, CsEF-1α, CseIF-4α, CsGAPDH, CsPP2A, CsSAND, CsTBP, CsTIP41, and CsTUB) of C. sinensis were cloned. The quantitative expression data of these genes were investigated in five tea leaf developmental stages (i.e., 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and older leaves) and normal growth tea leaves subjected to five hormonal stimuli (i.e., ABA, GA, IAA, MeJA, and SA), and gene expression stability was calculated using three common statistical algorithms, namely, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper. Results indicated that CsTBP and CsTIP41 were the most stable genes in tea leaf development and CsTBP was the best gene under hormonal stimuli; by contrast, CsGAPDH and CsTUB genes showed the least stability. The gene expression profile of CsNAM gene was analyzed to confirm the validity of the reference genes in this study. Our data provide basis for the selection of reference genes for future biological research in the leaf development and hormonal stimuli of C. sinensis. PMID:26813576

  9. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of commercially available tea (Camellia sinensis) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Anesini, Claudia; Ferraro, Graciela E; Filip, Rosana

    2008-10-01

    Tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theaceae) is cultivated in Argentina in the northeastern region (provinces of Misiones and Corrientes), between 26 degrees and 28 degrees south latitude, the southernmost area of the world where tea is cultivated. The objective of this work was to determine the total polyphenol content and the in vitro antioxidant capacity of green and black tea cultivated and industrialized in Argentina. Twelve samples of eight brands were analyzed. The total polyphenol content was determined according to the International Organization for Standardization method (ISO) 14502-1 for the determination of substances characteristic of green and black tea. The antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric thiocyanate method (FTC) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging assay. Green tea showed a higher polyphenol content than black tea. The total polyphenol concentration in green tea was found to vary from 21.02 +/- 1.54 to 14.32 +/- 0.45% of gallic acid equivalents (GAE), whereas in black tea, the polyphenol content ranged from 17.62 +/- 0.42 to 8.42 +/- 0.55% of GAE (P < 0.05). A similar profile was observed for the antioxidant capacity determined by both methods. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total polyphenol content (r (2) = 0.9935 for the ferric thiocyanate method and r (2) = 0.9141 for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay). This is the first systematic screening for the quantification of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in tea commercialized in Argentine markets. The results obtained herein allow one to conclude that Argentine tea is of very good quality when compared to teas from other sources. PMID:18778031

  10. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Xu, Hui; Mischke, Sue; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Zhang, Dapeng; Zhu, Xujun; Li, Xinghui; Fang, Wanping

    2014-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant under drought stress is essential to develop drought-tolerant tea genotypes, along with crop management practices that can mitigate drought stress. The objective of the present investigation is evaluation of effects of exogenous ABA on the leaf proteome in tea plant exposed to drought stress. Leaf protein patterns of tea plants under simulated drought stress [(polyethylene glycol (PEG)-treated] and exogenous ABA treatment were analyzed in a time-course experiment using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Among the 72 protein spots identified by MALDI-TOF MS, 16 proteins were downregulated and two were upregulated by exogenous ABA. The upregulated proteins have roles in glycolysis and photosystem II stabilization. Twenty-one protein spots were responsive to drought stress and most participate in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, control of reactive oxygen species (ROS), defense, signaling or nucleic acid metabolism. The combined treatments of exogenous ABA and drought showed upregulation of 10 protein spots at 12 h and upregulation of 11 proteins at 72 h after initiation of drought stress. The results support the importance of the role that ABA plays in the tea plant during drought stress, by improving protein transport, carbon metabolism and expression of resistance proteins. PMID:27076915

  11. Camellia sinensis Ameliorates the Efficacy of Last Line Antibiotics Against Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Pallavi; Chawla, Raman; Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Tanwar, Ankit; Goel, Rajeev; Narula, Alka; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Aquo-ethanolic extract of Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A), standardized using Fourier transform infrared analysis, was found to have seven common functional groups in comparison with pre-identified marker compound 'quercetin'. Phyto-chemical quantitation analysis revealed the presence of 10.65 µg/mg of flavonoids. The bioactivity fingerprint profile of PTRC-31911-A includes IC50 (Hydroxyl radical site specific scavenging)  = 11.36 ± 0.5 µg/mL, IC80 (Hydroxyl radical non-site specific scavenging)  = 26.44 ± 0.5 µg/mL and IC50 (Superoxide ion scavenging)  = 10.141 ± 0.5 µg/mL. The drug combination analysis of PTRC-31911-A with five third-line antibiotics was carried out against carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli. The analysis of combination of PTRC-31911-A (6.25-1000 µg/mL) and antibiotics (6.25-1000 µg/mL) revealed synergistic behaviour (fractional inhibitory concentration indices < 1) with tigecycline, ertapenem, meropenem, colistin and augmentin. The lead combination of PTRC-31911-A + ertapenem or meropenem showed maximum augmentative potential at 50 and 100 µg/mL, respectively, with nearly five-fold decrease in minimum inhibitory concentrations as compared with respective antibiotics alone. The synergistic effects implied that the antibacterial combinations of PTRC-31911-A and ertapenem, meropenem, colistin, tigecycline or augmentin would be more effective than a single monotherapy with either of the antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26620305

  12. Brassinosteroids Improve Quality of Summer Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by Balancing Biosynthesis of Polyphenols and Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Ahammed, Golam J.; Li, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Lan; Wei, Ji-Peng; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Summer grown green tea is less popular due to bitterness and high astringency, which are attributed to high levels of tea polyphenols (TP) and low levels of amino acids (AA) in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.). Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of steroidal plant hormones can regulate primary and secondary metabolism in a range of plant species under both normal and stress conditions. However, specific effects of BRs on the photosynthesis of tea plants and the quality of summer green tea are largely unknown. Here we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive BR, promoted photosynthesis in tea plants in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulation in photosynthesis by EBR resulted in an increased summer tea yield. Although all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm) of EBR increased concentrations of TP and AA, a moderate concentration (0.5 ppm) caused the highest decrease in TP to AA ratio, an important feature of quality tea. Time-course analysis using 0.5 ppm EBR as foliar spray revealed that TP or AA concentration increased as early as 3 h after EBR application, reaching the highest peak at 24 h and that remained more or less stable. Importantly, such changes in TP and AA concentration by EBR resulted in a remarkably decreased but stable TP to AA ratio at 24 h and onward. Furthermore, concentrations of catechins and theanine increased, while that of caffeine remained unaltered following treatment with EBR. EBR improved activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) enzymes involved in catechins and theanine biosynthesis, respectively. Transcript analysis revealed that transcript levels of CsPAL and CsGS peaked as early as 6 h, while that of CsGOGAT peaked at 12 h following application of EBR, implying that EBR increased the concentration of TP and AA by inducing their biosynthesis. These results suggest a positive role of BR in enhancing green tea quality, which might have potential

  13. Brassinosteroids Improve Quality of Summer Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by Balancing Biosynthesis of Polyphenols and Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Ahammed, Golam J; Li, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Lan; Wei, Ji-Peng; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Summer grown green tea is less popular due to bitterness and high astringency, which are attributed to high levels of tea polyphenols (TP) and low levels of amino acids (AA) in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.). Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of steroidal plant hormones can regulate primary and secondary metabolism in a range of plant species under both normal and stress conditions. However, specific effects of BRs on the photosynthesis of tea plants and the quality of summer green tea are largely unknown. Here we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive BR, promoted photosynthesis in tea plants in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulation in photosynthesis by EBR resulted in an increased summer tea yield. Although all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm) of EBR increased concentrations of TP and AA, a moderate concentration (0.5 ppm) caused the highest decrease in TP to AA ratio, an important feature of quality tea. Time-course analysis using 0.5 ppm EBR as foliar spray revealed that TP or AA concentration increased as early as 3 h after EBR application, reaching the highest peak at 24 h and that remained more or less stable. Importantly, such changes in TP and AA concentration by EBR resulted in a remarkably decreased but stable TP to AA ratio at 24 h and onward. Furthermore, concentrations of catechins and theanine increased, while that of caffeine remained unaltered following treatment with EBR. EBR improved activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) enzymes involved in catechins and theanine biosynthesis, respectively. Transcript analysis revealed that transcript levels of CsPAL and CsGS peaked as early as 6 h, while that of CsGOGAT peaked at 12 h following application of EBR, implying that EBR increased the concentration of TP and AA by inducing their biosynthesis. These results suggest a positive role of BR in enhancing green tea quality, which might have potential

  14. Selection and Verification of Candidate Reference Genes for Mature MicroRNA Expression by Quantitative RT-PCR in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Cong; Wang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Ailin; Wei, Chaoling

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a rapid and sensitive method for analyzing microRNA (miRNA) expression. However, accurate qRT-PCR results depend on the selection of reliable reference genes as internal positive controls. To date, few studies have identified reliable reference genes for differential expression analysis of miRNAs among tissues, and among experimental conditions in plants. In this study, three miRNAs and four non-coding small RNAs (ncRNA) were selected as reference candidates, and the stability of their expression was evaluated among different tissues and under different experimental conditions in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) using the geNorm and NormFinder programs. It was shown that miR159a was the best single reference gene in the bud to the fifth leaf, 5S rRNA was the most suitable gene in different organs, miR6149 was the most stable gene when the leaves were attacked by Ectropis oblique and U4, miR5368n and miR159a were the best genes when the leaves were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), respectively. Our results provide suitable reference genes for future investigations on miRNA functions in tea plants. PMID:27240406

  15. Selection and Verification of Candidate Reference Genes for Mature MicroRNA Expression by Quantitative RT-PCR in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Cong; Wang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Ailin; Wei, Chaoling

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a rapid and sensitive method for analyzing microRNA (miRNA) expression. However, accurate qRT-PCR results depend on the selection of reliable reference genes as internal positive controls. To date, few studies have identified reliable reference genes for differential expression analysis of miRNAs among tissues, and among experimental conditions in plants. In this study, three miRNAs and four non-coding small RNAs (ncRNA) were selected as reference candidates, and the stability of their expression was evaluated among different tissues and under different experimental conditions in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) using the geNorm and NormFinder programs. It was shown that miR159a was the best single reference gene in the bud to the fifth leaf, 5S rRNA was the most suitable gene in different organs, miR6149 was the most stable gene when the leaves were attacked by Ectropis oblique and U4, miR5368n and miR159a were the best genes when the leaves were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), respectively. Our results provide suitable reference genes for future investigations on miRNA functions in tea plants. PMID:27240406

  16. Electroantennogram Responses of the Tea Slug Moth, Iragoides fasciata to Some Plant Volatiles Associated with Tea, Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, An-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Cun; Liu, Ben-Ying; Wang, Yuan-Jiang; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Ning, J ing; Han, Bao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Electroantennogram responses to a wide range of plant volatile compounds that have been identified in tea plants Camellia sinensis L. (Ericales: Theaceae) were recorded from males and females of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The responses to 26 compounds, belonging to several chemical classes, and two mixtures were evaluated. The results showed significantly different electroantennogram responses to the different chemicals, as well as significantly different responses according to gender. The green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in males. In general, the antennae of males were more sensitive, and responded more strongly, to most of the compounds. Responses to sesquiterpenoids were lower in both males and females. Dose-dependent response studies indicated differences in response between genders and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the green leaf volatiles class appeared to be important clues in host-plant selection by this oligophagous species. PMID:23414096

  17. Electroantennogram responses of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata to some plant volatiles associated with tea, Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, An-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Cun; Liu, Ben-Ying; Wang, Yuan-Jiang; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Ning, Jing; Han, Bao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Electroantennogram responses to a wide range of plant volatile compounds that have been identified in tea plants Camellia sinensis L. (Ericales: Theaceae) were recorded from males and females of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The responses to 26 compounds, belonging to several chemical classes, and two mixtures were evaluated. The results showed significantly different electroantennogram responses to the different chemicals, as well as significantly different responses according to gender. The green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in males. In general, the antennae of males were more sensitive, and responded more strongly, to most of the compounds. Responses to sesquiterpenoids were lower in both males and females. Dose-dependent response studies indicated differences in response between genders and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the green leaf volatiles class appeared to be important clues in host-plant selection by this oligophagous species. PMID:23414096

  18. Heavy metal content in tea soils and their distribution in different parts of tea plants, Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Anderson, Todd Alan; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2016-07-01

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals may pose a threat to environment and human health if metals enter the food chain over and above threshold levels. In general, there is a lack of information on the presence of heavy metals in tea [Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze] plants and the soils in which they are grown. Therefore, an attempt was made to establish a database on the important heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). For an initial survey on heavy metals, soil samples were collected randomly from tea-growing areas of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka, India. Parallel studies were conducted in the greenhouse on uptake of Pb, Cd, and Ni from soils supplemented with these metals at different concentrations. Finally, metal distribution in the tea plants under field conditions was also documented to assess the accumulation potential and critical limit of uptake by plants. PMID:27334344

  19. Transition rates of selected metals determined in various types of teas (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) and herbal/fruit infusions.

    PubMed

    Schulzki, Grit; Nüßlein, Birgit; Sievers, Hartwig

    2017-01-15

    Teas and raw materials used as ingredients of herbal and fruit infusions (HFI) were analysed by means of ICP-MS for their content of aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and mercury in the dry product and in the infusion. Samples of tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) were selected to include different origins, types (black, green), leaf grades (whole leaf, broken, fannings, dust) and manufacturing techniques (orthodox, "crush, tear, curl"). The selected HFI raw materials (chamomile, elderberries, fennel, hibiscus, mate, peppermint, rooibos and rose hip) cover the most important matrices (flower, fruit, seed, herb, leaf) and reflect the economic significance of these HFI materials in trade. Infusions were prepared under standardised conditions representing typical household brewing. Transition rates for the investigated metals vary significantly but are mostly well below 100%. We propose default transition rates for metals to avoid overestimation of exposure levels from tea/HFI consumption. PMID:27542446

  20. Assessment of aquo-ethanolic extract of Camellia sinensis against Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli: In Vivo Trials in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Pallavi; Chawla, Raman; Narula, Alka; Goel, Rajeev; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli (CRE) has increased considerably during the last decade, which can be ascribed to relative scarcity of effective non toxic antimicrobial agents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aquo-ethanolic (1:1) extract of leaves of Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) against Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli at preclinical level using peritonitis infection model in Sprague Dawley rats. Efficacy analysis of PTRC-31911-A involved enumeration of CRE colonies in blood and urine samples of test animals for a period of 5 days from infection. A reduction in microbial count of biological fluids was considered as the primary endpoint of the selected murine model. Physical, biochemical, hematological and histological indices of toxicity were employed as secondary relative indicators of the induced disease. Physical manifestations of infected rats included significantly high body temperature (TempInfected=103.18°F, ∼5% increase) and noteworthy reduction in weight (WeightInfected=126.83g, ∼15% decrease) as compared to control. Significant (P<0.05) increase in total white blood cells, eosinophil and monocyte counts as well as a significant decrease (P<0.05) in erythrocytes count, hematocrit volume, red blood cell distribution width and hemoglobin concentration were observed in the infected group as compared to the control group. Furthermore, noteworthy increase in liver and kidney function test parameters were observed in case of infected groups. All the hematological and biochemical parameters were found to be within optimum range in case of treatment group, indicating restoration of homeostasis. Histopathological studies also presented symptoms of hemorrhage and glomerular damage with structural distortion in glomerular capillary loops of infected groups, which were later recovered in treated groups, indicating the nephro-protective potential of PTRC-31911-A. The study clearly points

  1. Aluminium dynamics from soil to tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.): is it enhanced by municipal solid waste compost application?

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Paul, Ranjit K; Frankowski, Marcin; Boruah, Romesh K; Dutta, Amrit K; Das, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    Application of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivation can increase the fertility status of soils and thus enhance the plant growth. The present study attempts at application of MSWC in tea (TV1 and TV23 clones) cultivation to assess the effect of different doses of MSWC on growth and translocation potential of Al on this plant as well as fate of Al in soil, through the calculation of a risk assessment code (RAC). The sequential extraction of Al in MSWC amended soils showed that the fractionation of Al in soil changed after compost application, with an overall increase of the fractions associated to with Fe-Mn oxides, organic and of the residual fraction. The accumulation of Al in different parts ofC. sinensisL., grown on MSWC amended soil effected an overall increased growth of the plant with increasing doses of MSWC. According to RAC, Al falls in medium to high risk, though no adverse effect on plant health was observed. Tea plants were found to adapt well to MSWC amended soils. However, long term field trials are necessary to completely assess the risk of Al accumulation in soils upon MSWC application. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied aiming to check for the presence of homogenous groups among different treatments. It was found that in both TV1 and TV23, treatments formed two different groups. PMID:25259883

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Indole-3-Butyric Acid-Induced Adventitious Root Formation in Nodal Cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Li, Hai-Lin; Tan, Li-Qiang; Cao, Hong-Li; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties. PMID:25216187

  3. Transcriptome analysis of indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.).

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Li, Hai-Lin; Tan, Li-Qiang; Cao, Hong-Li; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties. PMID:25216187

  4. Protective role of tannin-rich fraction of Camellia sinensis in tissue arsenic burden in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Chandronitha, C; Ananthi, S; Ramakrishnan, G; Lakshmisundaram, R; Gayathri, V; Vasanthi, Hannah R

    2010-09-01

    The protective effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) was tested against arsenic-induced toxicity. However, the possible role of tannins in green tea in alleviating hepatic and renal oxidative injury has also been studied. Administration of sodium arsenite (100 mg/kg/day) for 28 days in Sprague Dawley female rats resulted in significant reduction of biochemical parameters such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the index of nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels. The tissue arsenic burden was increased after arsenic exposure for a period of 28 days. Green tea crude fraction (GTC) co-treated with sodium arsenite for 28 days caused significant (p < .01) elevation of ALAD, GSH, GPx, SOD, and nitrate/nitrite levels and reduction of the TBARS level and tissue burden when compared to detannified green tea fraction (GTDT)-treated groups. The protective role of tannin-rich fraction of C. sinensis when compared to the detannified fraction was also confirmed by histological examinations. The greater activity of GTC than that of detannified green tea fraction correlates with the higher content of tannins in green tea. Overall, these results indicate that the tannin-rich green tea could have improved the defense mechanism against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and reduced the tissue arsenic burden. PMID:20144955

  5. Identification of UDP-glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lilan; Yao, Shengbo; Dai, Xinlong; Yin, Qinggang; Liu, Yajun; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wu, Yahui; Qian, Yumei; Pang, Yongzhen; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Galloylated catechins and flavonol 3-O-glycosides are characteristic astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis). The mechanism involved in the formation of these metabolites remains unknown in tea plants. In this paper, 178 UGT genes (CsUGTs) were identified in C. sinensis based on an analysis of tea transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 132 of these genes were clustered into 15 previously established phylogenetic groups (A to M, O and P) and a newly identified group R. Three of the 11 recombinant UGT proteins tested were found to be involved in the in vitro biosynthesis of β-glucogallin and glycosylated flavonols. CsUGT84A22 exhibited catalytic activity toward phenolic acids, in particular gallic acid, to produce β-glucogallin, which is the immediate precursor of galloylated catechin biosynthesis in tea plants. CsUGT78A14 and CsUGT78A15 were found to be responsible for the biosynthesis of flavonol 3-O-glucosides and flavonol 3-O-galactosides, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Q373H substitution for CsUGT78A14 indicated that the Q (Gln) residue played a catalytically crucial role for flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase activity. The expression profiles of the CsUGT84A22, CsUGT78A14, and CsUGT78A15 genes were correlated with the accumulation patterns of β-glucogallin and the glycosylated flavonols which indicated that these three CsUGT genes were involved in the biosynthesis of astringent compounds in C. sinensis. PMID:26941235

  6. Identification of UDP-glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Cui, Lilan; Yao, Shengbo; Dai, Xinlong; Yin, Qinggang; Liu, Yajun; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wu, Yahui; Qian, Yumei; Pang, Yongzhen; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Galloylated catechins and flavonol 3-O-glycosides are characteristic astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis). The mechanism involved in the formation of these metabolites remains unknown in tea plants. In this paper, 178 UGT genes (CsUGTs) were identified inC. sinensis based on an analysis of tea transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 132 of these genes were clustered into 15 previously established phylogenetic groups (A to M, O and P) and a newly identified group R. Three of the 11 recombinant UGT proteins tested were found to be involved in the in vitro biosynthesis of β-glucogallin and glycosylated flavonols. CsUGT84A22 exhibited catalytic activity toward phenolic acids, in particular gallic acid, to produce β-glucogallin, which is the immediate precursor of galloylated catechin biosynthesis in tea plants. CsUGT78A14 and CsUGT78A15 were found to be responsible for the biosynthesis of flavonol 3-O-glucosides and flavonol 3-O-galactosides, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Q373H substitution for CsUGT78A14 indicated that the Q (Gln) residue played a catalytically crucial role for flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase activity. The expression profiles of the CsUGT84A22, CsUGT78A14, and CsUGT78A15 genes were correlated with the accumulation patterns of β-glucogallin and the glycosylated flavonols which indicated that these three CsUGT genes were involved in the biosynthesis of astringent compounds inC. sinensis. PMID:26941235

  7. Deep sequencing of the Camellia sinensis transcriptome revealed candidate genes for major metabolic pathways of tea-specific compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, CY; Yang, H; Wei, CL; Yu, O; Zhang, ZZ; Sun, J; Wan, XC

    2011-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. However, the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is difficult to culture in vitro, to transform, and has a large genome, rendering little genomic information available. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA-seq, the transcriptome from poly (A){sup +} RNA of C. sinensis was analyzed at an unprecedented depth (2.59 gigabase pairs). Approximate 34.5 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 127,094 unigenes, with an average length of 355 bp and an N50 of 506 bp, which consisted of 788 contig clusters and 126,306 singletons. This number of unigenes was 10-fold higher than existing C. sinensis sequences deposited in GenBank (as of August 2010). Sequence similarity analyses against six public databases (Uniprot, NR and COGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG) found 55,088 unigenes that could be annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. Some of the unigenes were assigned to putative metabolic pathways. Targeted searches using these annotations identified the majority of genes associated with several primary metabolic pathways and natural product pathways that are important to tea quality, such as flavonoid, theanine and caffeine biosynthesis pathways. Novel candidate genes of these secondary pathways were discovered. Comparisons with four previously prepared cDNA libraries revealed that this transcriptome dataset has both a high degree of consistency with previous EST data and an approximate 20 times increase in coverage. Thirteen unigenes related to theanine and flavonoid synthesis were validated. Their expression patterns in different organs of the tea plant were analyzed by RT-PCR and quantitative real

  8. CsICE1 and CsCBF1: two transcription factors involved in cold responses in Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Jiang, Chang-Jun; Li, Ye-Yun; Wei, Chao-Ling; Deng, Wei-Wei

    2012-01-01

    C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factors (CBFs) can induce the expression of a suite of cold-responsive genes to increase plant cold tolerance, and inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1) is a major activator for CBF. In the present study, we isolated the full-length cDNAs of ICE1 and CBF from Camellia sinensis, designated as CsICE1 and CsCBF1, respectively. The deduced protein CsICE1 contains a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and C-terminal region of ICE1-like proteins. CsCBF1 contains all conserved domains of CBFs in other plant species and can specifically bind to the C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element (CRT/DRE) as confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The transcription of CsICE1 had no apparent alteration after chilling treatment (4°C). CsCBF1 expression was not detected in normal temperature (20°C) but was induced immediately and significantly by low temperature (4°C). Our results suggest that ICE1-CBF cold-response pathway is conserved in tea plants. CsICE1 and CsCBF1, two components of this pathway, play roles in cold responses in tea plants. PMID:21850593

  9. De novo Sequencing of the Leaf Transcriptome Reveals Complex Light-Responsive Regulatory Networks in Camellia sinensis cv. Baijiguan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Quanjin; Chen, Zhidan; Sun, Weijiang; Deng, Tingting; Chen, Mingjie

    2016-01-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) possess high genetic diversity that is important for breeding. One cultivar, Baijiguan, exhibits a yellow leaf phenotype, reduced chlorophyll (Chl) content, and aberrant chloroplast structures under high light intensity. In contrast, under low light intensity, the flush shoot from Baijiguan becomes green, the Chl content increases significantly, and the chloroplasts exhibit normal structures. To understand the underlying molecular mechanisms for these observations, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling using Illumina sequencing technology. De novo transcriptome assembly identified 88,788 unigenes, including 1652 transcription factors from 25 families. In total, 1993 and 2576 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in Baijiguan plants treated with 3 and 6 days of shade, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses indicated that the DEGs are predominantly involved in the ROS scavenging system, chloroplast development, photosynthetic pigment synthesis, secondary metabolism, and circadian systems. The light-responsive gene POR (protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase) and transcription factor HY5 were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 20 selected DEGs confirmed the RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) results. Overall, these findings suggest that high light intensity inhibits the expression of photosystem II 10-kDa protein (PsbR) in Baijiguan, thus affecting PSII stability, chloroplast development and chlorophyll biosynthesis. PMID:27047513

  10. Maillard Reaction of Pidan White as Inhibited by Chinese Black Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis) in the Pickling Solution

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Benjakul, Soottawat; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Maillard reaction of pidan white were monitored with A294, fluorescence intensity, and browning intensity during pickling in the absence and presence of Chinese black tea extract (Camellia sinensis) at levels of 2% and 5% together with 0.2% ZnCl2 or 0.2% CaCl2 up to 3 wk, followed by ageing for another 3 wk. Browning intensity and A294 of pidan white increased with increasing pickling/ageing, while fluorescence intensity decreased during ageing (p<0.05), irrespective of treatments. At wk 6, pidan white treated with 0.2% ZnCl2 and 0.2% CaCl2 showed slightly higher browning intensity, fluorescence intensity and A294 than those treated with divalents together with Chinese black tea (p<0.05). Free amino group and sugar contents showed continuous decrease during pickling and ageing irrespective of tea and cations used. However, pidan treated without Chinese black tea extract showed significantly lower free amino group and sugar during the ageing of 6 wk (p<0.05). Thus, Chinese black tea extract had an inhibitory effect on the Maillard reaction during ageing of pidan white. PMID:26761277

  11. Maillard Reaction of Pidan White as Inhibited by Chinese Black Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis) in the Pickling Solution.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Benjakul, Soottawat; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Maillard reaction of pidan white were monitored with A294, fluorescence intensity, and browning intensity during pickling in the absence and presence of Chinese black tea extract (Camellia sinensis) at levels of 2% and 5% together with 0.2% ZnCl2 or 0.2% CaCl2 up to 3 wk, followed by ageing for another 3 wk. Browning intensity and A294 of pidan white increased with increasing pickling/ageing, while fluorescence intensity decreased during ageing (p<0.05), irrespective of treatments. At wk 6, pidan white treated with 0.2% ZnCl2 and 0.2% CaCl2 showed slightly higher browning intensity, fluorescence intensity and A294 than those treated with divalents together with Chinese black tea (p<0.05). Free amino group and sugar contents showed continuous decrease during pickling and ageing irrespective of tea and cations used. However, pidan treated without Chinese black tea extract showed significantly lower free amino group and sugar during the ageing of 6 wk (p<0.05). Thus, Chinese black tea extract had an inhibitory effect on the Maillard reaction during ageing of pidan white. PMID:26761277

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant interactions in combined extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti).

    PubMed

    Ranjbar Nedamani, Elham; Sadeghi Mahoonak, Alireza; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti) are of known medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. They provide substantial antioxidant activities but the possible antioxidant interaction between them has not been studied. In the present study first the bioactive compounds from these three plants were first extracted and thereafter assayed for total phenols, 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and reducing power. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts individually and in combinations were evaluated in soy bean oil as food system. There was a direct relation between total phenolics and antioxidant activities of extracts. Green tea and oak fruit extracts had the highest and least activity, respectively. All three kinds of interactions (synergistic, antagonistic and additive) were observed. In soy bean oil, the only effect was antagonism but even with this effect, combined extract was significantly (P < 0.05) better than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control sample. Results showed that these three natural extracts and their combination can be effectively used as a substituent of synthetic antioxidant BHT. PMID:26139926

  13. Adsorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon produced from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed shells: kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics studies*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun-jie; Qin, Ye-bo; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Dong-dong; Xu, Ping; Hochstetter, Danielle; Wang, Yue-fei

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed shells, the main byproduct of the manufacture of tea seed oil, were used as precursors for the preparation of tea activated carbon (TAC) in the present study. A high yield (44.1%) of TAC was obtained from tea seed shells via a one-step chemical method using ZnCl2 as an agent. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and the total pore volumes of the obtained TAC were found to be 1 530.67 mg2/g and 0.782 6 cm3/g, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption results were complied with Langmuir isotherm model and its maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 324.7 mg/g for methylene blue. Adsorption kinetics studies indicated that the pseudo-second-order model yielded the best fit for the kinetic data. An intraparticle diffusion model suggested that the intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. Thermodynamics studies revealed the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the sorption process. These results indicate that tea seed shells could be utilized as a renewable resource to develop activated carbon which is a potential adsorbent for methylene blue. PMID:23825151

  14. De novo Sequencing of the Leaf Transcriptome Reveals Complex Light-Responsive Regulatory Networks in Camellia sinensis cv. Baijiguan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Quanjin; Chen, Zhidan; Sun, Weijiang; Deng, Tingting; Chen, Mingjie

    2016-01-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) possess high genetic diversity that is important for breeding. One cultivar, Baijiguan, exhibits a yellow leaf phenotype, reduced chlorophyll (Chl) content, and aberrant chloroplast structures under high light intensity. In contrast, under low light intensity, the flush shoot from Baijiguan becomes green, the Chl content increases significantly, and the chloroplasts exhibit normal structures. To understand the underlying molecular mechanisms for these observations, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling using Illumina sequencing technology. De novo transcriptome assembly identified 88,788 unigenes, including 1652 transcription factors from 25 families. In total, 1993 and 2576 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in Baijiguan plants treated with 3 and 6 days of shade, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses indicated that the DEGs are predominantly involved in the ROS scavenging system, chloroplast development, photosynthetic pigment synthesis, secondary metabolism, and circadian systems. The light-responsive gene POR (protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase) and transcription factor HY5 were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 20 selected DEGs confirmed the RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) results. Overall, these findings suggest that high light intensity inhibits the expression of photosystem II 10-kDa protein (PsbR) in Baijiguan, thus affecting PSII stability, chloroplast development and chlorophyll biosynthesis. PMID:27047513

  15. Multiresidue method for the fast determination of pesticides in nutraceutical products (Camellia sinensis) by GC coupled to triple quadrupole MS.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Romero-González, Roberto; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2014-03-01

    A method based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) has been developed and validated for the determination and quantification of more than 140 pesticides in nutraceutical products obtained from green tea (Camellia sinensis). Extraction was performed with acidified acetonitrile (acetic acid 1%, v/v) and a clean-up step using primary secondary amine (50 mg), graphitized black carbon (100 mg) and magnesium sulfate (200 mg) was needed. Pesticide determination was achieved utilizing GC coupled to triple quadrupole MS/MS using the selective-reaction monitoring mode. The total run time was 23 min. Pesticides were quantified using matrix-matched calibration. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% and relative SD was lower than 25% at 10, 50, and 100 μg/kg. LOQs were lower than 10 μg/kg. 148 pesticides were validated. The validated method was applied to commercial nutraceutical products, detecting 4,4-dichlorobenzophenone (28 μg/kg), o,p'-dicofol (38 μg/kg) and p,p-dicofol (44 μg/kg) in a few samples. PMID:24532456

  16. Comparing the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% Camellia sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children

    PubMed Central

    Hambire, Chaitali U.; Jawade, Rashmi; Patil, Amol; Wani, Vaibhav R.; Kulkarni, Ankur A.; Nehete, Parag B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease which requires a susceptible host, a cariogenic microflora, and a suitable substrate that must be present for a sufficient length of time. Tea is prepared by the infusion of dried leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, which contains bioactive compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, and catechins that are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to tea. These compounds have multidimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase, and inhibition of acid production. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% C. sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children. Materials and Methods: A randomized blinded controlled trial with 60 healthy children of age group 9–14 years was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups, i.e. group A – 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, group B – 0.05% sodium fluoride, and group C – 0.5% C. sinensis extract, with 20 subjects per group. Plaque accumulation and gingival condition were recorded using plaque index and gingival index. Oral hygiene was assessed by simplified oral hygiene index (OHIS). Salivary pH was assessed using indikrom pH strips. Plaque, gingival, and simplified OHI scores as well as salivary pH were recorded at baseline, immediately after first rinse, after 1 week, and in the 2nd week. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using a computer software program (SPSS version 17). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to identify significant differences between the means of the study groups. Finally, paired t-tests were used to assess the significance of changes within each group between time periods. Critical P values of significance were set at 0.05 and the confidence level set at 95%. Results: Mean plaque and gingival scores were reduced over the

  17. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a component of tea (Camellia sinensis): a study by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Miller, J M; Shah, S

    1999-07-15

    A component of aqueous extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), known to reverse methicillin-resistance in staphylococci, causes extensive morphological changes in methicillin-resistant but not in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Clumps of partly divided cocci, consisting of up to 14 individuals, with thickened internal but normal external cell walls were seen by electron microscopy in cultures of methicillin-resistant S. aureus grown in the presence of the active principle. The morphological changes observed were consistent with selective inhibition of penicillin-binding proteins. PMID:10427729

  18. Identification, classification, and expression profiles of heat shock transcription factors in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) under temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xing-Hui; Huang, Ying; Li, Hui; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-15

    In vascular plants, heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate heat stress response by regulating the expression of heat shock proteins. This study systematically and comprehensively analyzed the Hsf family in tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. A total of 16 CsHsfs were identified from the transcriptome database of tea plant and analyzed for their phylogenetic relationships, motifs, and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of the phylogenetic comparison of tea plant with Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Theobroma cacao, and Oryza sativa, the CsHsfs were classified into three classes, namely, A (56.25%), B (37.50%), and C (6.25%). Heat mapping showed that the expression profiles of CsHsf genes under non-stress conditions varied among four tea plant cultivars, namely, 'Yunnanshilixiang', 'Chawansanhao', 'Ruchengmaoyecha', and 'Anjibaicha'. Six CsHsf genes (CsHsfA1a, CsHsfA1b, CsHsfA6, CsHsfB1, CsHsfB2b, and CsHsfC1) were selected from classes A, B, and C to analyze the expression profiles of CsHsf genes through quantitative real-time PCR in 'Yingshuang', 'Anjibaicha', and 'Yunnanshilixiang' under high (38 °C) or low (4 °C) temperature stress. Temperature stress positively or negatively regulated all of the selected CsHsf genes, and the expression levels evidently varied even among CsHsf genes belonging to the same class. This study provided a relatively detailed summary of Hsfs in tea plant and may serve as a reference for further studies on the mechanism of temperature stress regulation by CsHsfs. PMID:26431998

  19. Relationship between gene expression and the accumulation of catechin during spring and autumn in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Tian, Heng-lu; Wu, Jian-Hua; Cang, Ren-Rong; Wang, Run-Xian; Qi, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Xue-Hao

    2015-01-01

    The tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) is an important commercial crop with remarkably high catechin concentrations. Tea is popular worldwide given the plant's health benefits. Catechins are the main astringent substance in tea and are synthesized mainly via the phenylpropanoid pathway. In this study, eight cultivars of tea plants harvested both in spring and autumn were used to investigate differences in catechin concentrations by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression levels of genes associated with catechin biosynthesis were investigated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the total catechin (TC) concentrations were significantly higher in tea plants harvested in autumn than in those harvested in spring, based on higher concentrations of epigallocatechin (EGC) in autumn tea (P<0.01). The expression of the genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) is closely related to the TC content of tea plants in both spring and autumn. Positive correlations between PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), F3H, and DFR expression and EGC accumulation in autumn tea were identified, with correlation coefficients of 0.710, 0.763, 0.884, and 0.707, respectively. A negative correlation between ANS expression level and EGC concentrations in tea plants harvested in spring was noted (r=−0.732). Additionally, negative correlations between F3H and ANS expression levels and the catechin content were identified in spring tea, whereas the correlations were positive in autumn tea. Significant differences in the F3H and ANS expression levels between spring and autumn tea indicate that F3H and ANS are potentially key genes affecting catechin accumulation in tea plants. PMID:26504566

  20. Construction of a SSR-Based Genetic Map and Identification of QTLs for Catechins Content in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-Lei; Wang, Xin-Chao; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Chen, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Catechins are the most important bioactive compounds in tea, and have been demonstrated to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for catechins content in the tender shoots of tea plant, we constructed a moderately saturated genetic map using 406 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, based on a pseudo-testcross population of 183 individuals derived from an intraspecific cross of two Camellia sinensis varieties with diverse catechins composition. The map consisted of fifteen linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of tea plant (2n = 2x = 30). The total map length was 1,143.5 cM, with an average locus spacing of 2.9 cM. A total of 25 QTLs associated with catechins content were identified over two measurement years. Of these, nine stable QTLs were validated across years, and clustered into four main chromosome regions on LG03, LG11, LG12 and LG15. The population variability explained by each QTL was predominantly at moderate-to-high levels and ranged from 2.4% to 71.0%, with an average of 17.7%. The total number of QTL for each trait varied from four to eight, while the total population variability explained by all QTLs for a trait ranged between 38.4% and 79.7%. This is the first report on the identification of QTL for catechins content in tea plant. The results of this study provide a foundation for further cloning and functional characterization of catechin QTLs for utilization in improvement of tea plant. PMID:24676054

  1. Oral diuretic activity of hot water infusion of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abeywickrama, K. R. W.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Amarakoon, A. M. T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Black tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (family: Theaceae)] has been used by Sri Lankan traditional practitioners to promote diuresis. However, the type and grade of tea is not specified. Materials and Methods: This study investigates the diuretic activity of black tea infusion (BTI) in rats using Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings (BOPF) grade from major agroclimatic elevations: high-, mid-, and low-grown. Different concentrations of BTI, furosemide (positive control), and water (vehicle) were orally administered to starved (18 h) male rats (n = 9/group), then hydrated. Acute and chronic (28 days) diuretic activities were assessed by measuring cumulative urine output at hourly intervals for 6 h. Electrolyte levels (Na+, K+, Ca2+, H+, Cl−, HCO3−), pH, osmolarity of urine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of treated rats were determined. Results: Administration of BTI induced a significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent diuretic activity, which varied with the tea produced in different agroclimatic elevations. Diuretic activity had a rapid onset (1st h), peaked at 2nd h and maintained up to 4th h (except the low dose). Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent increase in micturition frequency, which peaked at 2nd h. A close association between the caffeine content of tea and diuretic activity was evident. BTI-induced diuresis was accompanied with an increased urine Na+ level and GFR. The diuretic activity of BTI was mediated via multiple mechanisms: inhibition of both aldosterone secretion (with increased Na+/K+ ratio) and carbonic anhydrase [with decreased Cl−/(Na+ + K+) ratio] and via thiazide type of diuretic action (evaluated with increased Na+/Cl− ratio). Conclusion: The Sri Lankan BOPF grade black tea possesses mild oral diuretic activity whose efficacy differs with the agroclimatic elevation of production. Furthermore, it supports the traditional claim that the black tea acts as a diuretic. PMID:21120027

  2. In vitro antibacterial activity of Camellia sinensis extract against cariogenic microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Anita, P.; Sivasamy, Shyam; Madan Kumar, P. D.; Balan, I. Nanda; Ethiraj, Sumathi

    2014-01-01

    Context: Dental caries, a ubiquitous multifactorial infectious disease, is primarily caused by microorganisms like Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Use of antimicrobials is an important strategy to curb cariogenic microorganisms. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of C. sinensis extract on S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Study Setting and Design: Experimental design, in vitro study, lab setting. Materials and Methods: Aqueous, acetone and ethanolic extracts of C. sinensis were subjected to antioxidant analysis. The ethanolic extract was used for assessment of antimicrobial properties. Ethanolic green tea extract at ten different concentrations and 0.2% chlorhexidine was used. Microbiological investigations were carried out to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and zone of Inhibition of the test and control agents against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Statistical Analysis: Kruskall–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: MIC of green tea extract on S. mutans and L. acidophilus was found to be 0.2% and 0.3% respectively, MBC was found to be 0.8% and 0.9%, respectively. The mean zone of inhibition for 30 μl containing 300 μg of ethanolic extract of green tea and control against S. mutans were 18.33 mm and 14.67 mm, respectively. The mean zone of inhibition for 30 μl containing 300 μg of ethanolic extract of green tea and control against L. acidophilus were 12.67 mm and 7.33 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Green tea has antibacterial activity against predominant cariogenic bacteria namely S. mutans and L. acidophilus. PMID:25538470

  3. New bibenzyl glycosides from leaves of Camellia oleifera Abel. with cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuelong; Tang, Ling; Feng, Baomin; Shi, Liying; Wang, Huiguo; Wang, Yongqi

    2011-04-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of leaves of Camellia oleifera Abel. led to the isolation of 3 new bibenzyl glycosides. Their structures have been elucidated as 1-(3',5'-dihydroxy)phenyl-2-(4″-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)phenylethane (1), 1-(3',5'-dimethoxy)phenyl-2-(4″-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)phenylethane (2) and 1-(3',5'-dimethoxy)phenyl-2-[4″-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(6→1)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]phenylethane (3) through spectral studies including HR-ESI-MS, ((1))H NMR, ((13))C NMR and 2D NMR experiments. All the above 3 bibenzyl glycosides showed cytotoxic activities to Hela and hep2 cell lines. PMID:21219989

  4. The occurrence and distribution of Tuckerella japonica (Acari: Tuckerellidae) on tea bushes, Camellia sinensis and C. assamica, in Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Childers, Carl C; Ebert, Timothy A; Rogers, Michael E; Shepard, Merle

    2016-08-01

    Adults, immatures and eggs of Tuckerella japonica (Ehara) were collected from unknown clones or varieties of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze tea bushes in the Clemson University Farm, Coastal Research and Education Center, Charleston, South Carolina; from Assam hybrids in The Caw Caw Nature Preserve in Ravenel, SC; from C. sinensis and C. assamica (Masters) in the Charleston Tea Plantation on Wadmalaw Island, SC; C. sinensis in the Fairhope Tea Plantation in Fairhope, Alabama; and from C. sinensis 'Rosea' and a C. sinensis and C. assamica hybrid in Savannah and Ellabell, Georgia, between 1994 and 2015. This mite was consistently collected from 1-, 2- and 3+-year-old wood of tea plants with significantly greater numbers collected from 2-year-old wood. All stages of the mite were found within longitudinally split areas of the wood where underlying green bark tissues were exposed. As 1-year-old wood matured, there was increased splitting of the bark with increased mite presence. Mature green fruit (= developing seed pods) of tea were also frequented by T. japonica between June-July and October and their numbers were no greater than those on 1- or 3+-year wood. When the fruit were small (March-May) or as they hardened in late fall, they were not suitable feeding sites for this mite. Very few T. japonica were collected from 50 mature, inner or outer leaf samples with none usually found. Tuckerella japonica has multiple, overlapping generations and occurs on tea throughout the year in Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina, USA. PMID:27294360

  5. Occurrence and de novo biosynthesis of caffeine and theanine in seedlings of tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl xanthine) and theanine (γ-glutamyl-L-ethylamide) are the major nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites in tea leaves. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the relative concentration and amounts of these compounds and the de novo biosynthetic activity in different parts of tea seedlings grown for 27-, 106- and 205 days. The results indicated that caffeine and its biosynthetic activity occur only in leaves and stems, while theanine is distributed in all organs, including roots. The concentration of caffeine and theanine in leaves ranged from 0.3-1.1 mg N/g and 0.1-0.5 mg N/g fresh weight, respectively. A higher concentration of theanine was found in roots (0.5-1.1 mg N). The total amounts of theanine expressed as g N/seedling were 1.1-1.5 times higher than that of caffeine. The high biosynthetic activity of caffeine from NH4+ was found in young leaves during the first 106 days after germination. Theanine biosynthetic activity probably occurs in roots, since higher 15N atom% excess was observed in roots during the first 27 days. Theanine may be synthesized mainly in roots and translocated to leaves. The de novo biosynthesis of caffeine and theanine in tea seedlings and their accumulation and translocation are discussed. PMID:26058139

  6. Purple foliage coloration in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) arises from activation of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsAN1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Binmei; Zhu, Zhangsheng; Cao, Panrong; Chen, Hao; Chen, Changming; Zhou, Xin; Mao, Yanhui; Lei, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanpin; Meng, Wei; Wang, Yingxi; Liu, Shaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Purple foliage always appears in Camellia sinensis families; however, the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is unknown. The tea bud sport cultivar ‘Zijuan’ confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in a mutant phenotype that has a striking purple color in young foliage and in the stem. In this study, we aimed to unravel the underlying molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthetic regulation in C. sinensis. Our results revealed that activation of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) anthocyanin1 (CsAN1) specifically upregulated the bHLH TF CsGL3 and anthocyanin late biosynthetic genes (LBGs) to confer ectopic accumulation of pigment in purple tea. We found CsAN1 interacts with bHLH TFs (CsGL3 and CsEGL3) and recruits a WD-repeat protein CsTTG1 to form the MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) complex that regulates anthocyanin accumulation. We determined that the hypomethylation of a CpG island in the CsAN1 promoter is associated with the purple phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that low temperature and long illumination induced CsAN1 promoter demethylation, resulting in upregulated expression to promote anthocyanin accumulation in the foliage. The successful isolation of CsAN1 provides important information on the regulatory control of anthocyanin biosynthesis in C. sinensis and offers a genetic resource for the development of new varieties with enhanced anthocyanin content. PMID:27581206

  7. Purple foliage coloration in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) arises from activation of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsAN1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Binmei; Zhu, Zhangsheng; Cao, Panrong; Chen, Hao; Chen, Changming; Zhou, Xin; Mao, Yanhui; Lei, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanpin; Meng, Wei; Wang, Yingxi; Liu, Shaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Purple foliage always appears in Camellia sinensis families; however, the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is unknown. The tea bud sport cultivar 'Zijuan' confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in a mutant phenotype that has a striking purple color in young foliage and in the stem. In this study, we aimed to unravel the underlying molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthetic regulation in C. sinensis. Our results revealed that activation of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) anthocyanin1 (CsAN1) specifically upregulated the bHLH TF CsGL3 and anthocyanin late biosynthetic genes (LBGs) to confer ectopic accumulation of pigment in purple tea. We found CsAN1 interacts with bHLH TFs (CsGL3 and CsEGL3) and recruits a WD-repeat protein CsTTG1 to form the MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) complex that regulates anthocyanin accumulation. We determined that the hypomethylation of a CpG island in the CsAN1 promoter is associated with the purple phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that low temperature and long illumination induced CsAN1 promoter demethylation, resulting in upregulated expression to promote anthocyanin accumulation in the foliage. The successful isolation of CsAN1 provides important information on the regulatory control of anthocyanin biosynthesis in C. sinensis and offers a genetic resource for the development of new varieties with enhanced anthocyanin content. PMID:27581206

  8. Determination of some selected secondary metabolites and their invitro antioxidant activity in commercially available Ethiopian tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Bizuayehu, Dereje; Atlabachew, Minaleshewa; Ali, Mirtachew Tihar

    2016-01-01

    Eight brands of tea (Camellia sinensis),which are cultivated and commercially available in Ethiopian market, were analyzed for estimation of their total secondary metabolites (polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins) content and free radical scavenging activity which is expressed on dry weight basis. In this present study, the total polyphenols, tannin and flavonoid contents were studied spectrophotometrically using Folin-Dennis, Folin-Dennis/protein precipitation and aluminium chloride methods respectively. The free radical scavenging activity was determined by using DPPH radical assay. Results of the analysis revealed that the total polyphenol content varied from 21.3 ± 0.24 to 31.6 ± 0.31 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of dry matter. Total flavonoids content in the tea samples varied from 8.17 ± 0.68 to 23.2 ± 0.68 mg of catechin equivalent/g of dry weight and tannin content varied from 5.64 ± 0.39 7.45 ± 0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of dry weight basis. The free radical scavenging activity among the tea brand samples ranged from 28.8 ± 1.86 to 80.0 ± 0.63 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50%) values varied from 7.3 ± 1.35 to 64.0 ± 2.81 µg/mL of extract. The correlation between the antioxidant activity with total polyphenol content (R = 0.91325), with flavonoids (R = 0.80658) and with tannin (R = 0.73125) was calculated and maximum correlation value was found between polyphenol content and the free radical scavenging activity of the tea samples. The results in this study also revealed that green tea had the higher polyphenolic content and found to have the most promising antioxidant activity. This study further confirmed that Ethiopia tea is reach in phenolic compounds as compared to some overseas tea cultivars/varieties. PMID:27069832

  9. Ethylamine content and theanine biosynthesis in different organs of Camellia sinensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Ogita, Shinjiro; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the distribution of ethylamine, glutamic acid and alanine, which are utilized in theanine biosynthesis, and other major amino acids in leaves, stems, cotyledons and roots of 6-week-old tea seedlings. Ethylamine and glutamic acid, which are substrates of theanine synthetase, were distributed almost uniformly in all parts of the seedlings; the contents in micromol/g fresh wt varied from 0.44-0.88 (ethylamine) and 1.6-2.4 (glutamic acid). The content of alanine, a possible precursor of ethylamine synthesis, was significantly higher in roots (3.1 micromol/g fresh wt) than in other parts. Incorporation of radioactivity from [U-14C]-alanine into theanine was also higher in roots than in other organs. In 10-week-old seedlings, [1-14C]ethylamine was converted to theanine in young and developed leaves, stems, main and lateral roots; the highest rates of conversion were detected in the main and lateral roots. These results suggest that the theanine synthesis preferentially takes place in roots but is not restricted to them; substrates and the enzymatic machinery for theanine synthesis are available in all parts of tea seedlings. PMID:19678543

  10. In vitro antioxidant activity and potential inhibitory action against α-glucosidase of polysaccharides from fruit peel of tea (Camellia sinensis L.)* #

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-fei; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jing; Xu, Ping; Wang, Yi-qi; Gao, Jun-jie; Hochstetter, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    The conditions for extracting polysaccharides from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruit peel (TFPPs) were studied. Three parameters (temperature, time, and liquid/solid ratio) affecting the extraction of TFPP were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized conditions, the yield of TFPP was predicted to be 4.98%. The physicochemical properties, in vitro antioxidant activities, and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase of fractionated TFPPs (TFPP-0, TFPP-20, TFPP-40, and TFPP-60) were investigated. We found that the TFPPs were all acid protein-bound heteropolysaccharides, although with different chemical compositions. They had not only remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and reducing activity, but also excellent inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase in vitro. Our results suggest that tea fruit peel could be treated as a potential bioresource for the development of polysaccharide antioxidants. PMID:24510710

  11. Differential Metabolic Profiles during the Albescent Stages of ‘Anji Baicha’ (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Fang; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Ma, Chun-Lei; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    ‘Anji Baicha’ is an albino tea cultivar with white shoots at low air temperature and green shoots at high air temperature in early spring. The metabolite contents in the shoots dynamically vary with the color changes and with shoot development. To investigate the metabolomic variation during the albescent and re-greening stages, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis were applied to analyze the metabolite profiles in the different color stages during the development of 'Anji Baicha' leaves. The metabolite profiles of three albescent stages, including the yellow-green stage, the early albescent stage, and the late albescent stage, as well as the re-greening stage were distinguished using principal component analysis, revealing that the distinct developmental stages were likely responsible for the observed metabolic differences. Furthermore, a group classification and pairwise discrimination was revealed among the three albescent stages and re-greening stage by partial least squares discriminant analysis. A total of 65 differential metabolites were identified with a variable influence on projection greater than 1. The main differential metabolic pathways of the albescent stages compared with the re-greening stage included carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms and the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. Compared with the re-greening stage, the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolic pathways were disturbed during the albescent stages. During the albescent stages, the sugar (fructofuranose), sugar derivative (glucose-1-phosphate) and epicatechin concentrations decreased, whereas the amino acid (mainly glycine, serine, tryptophan, citrulline, glutamine, proline, and valine) concentrations increased. These results reveal the changes in metabolic profiling that occur during the color changes associated with the development of the albino tea plant leaves. PMID:26444680

  12. Development of CAPS markers to identify Indian tea (Camellia sinensis) clones with high catechin content.

    PubMed

    Elangbam, M; Misra, A K

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaves are rich in plant secondary phenolics, especially flavonoids. Catechins are considered to be the most valuable flavonoids, and the catechin content in tea is an important trait for determining its quality. We have developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS)-based markers for evaluating total catechin content that target two important secondary metabolite pathway genes, PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) and CHS (chalcone synthase). Catechin content levels in the tea samples tested ranged from 9 to 33 mg/mg. The CAPS technique identified clones with the homozygous profile PRc1, which has relatively lower catechin content than clones with the heterozygous profile PRc2. A significant difference (t = 16.85) in the level of catechin content was also detected between heterozygotes and homozygotes in the tea seed stock TS379. We found a polynomial relationship between the marker developed for CHS2 and catechin content in these tea samples with R2 = 0.9788. Moreover, PAL has less of a relationship with catechin content. Therefore, we recommend tea clones with heterozygous CAPS profiles for the gene CHS2+RcaI for the further improvement in these clones. PMID:27323162

  13. A stress-responsive late embryogenesis abundant protein 7 (CsLEA7) of tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] encodes for a chaperone that imparts tolerance to Escherichia coli against stresses.

    PubMed

    Paul, Asosii; Singh, Sewa; Sharma, Shweta; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-11-01

    The present study characterized CsLEA7, a group 7 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) gene, from tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. The gene had an open reading frame of 462 base pairs encoding 153 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 16.63 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.93. Analysis revealed CsLEA7 to be an intrinsically ordered protein consisting of nine β-strands and two α-helices. CsLEA7 expressed ubiquitously in all the tissues analyzed with highest level of transcripts in mature leaf as compared to in flower bud, younger leaves, stem and fruit. Expression was the least in root tissue. CsLEA7 exhibited up-regulation in response to low temperature, polyethylene glycol-8000, sodium chloride and hydrogen peroxide in tea. Analysis of the promoter of CsLEA7 revealed a core promoter element and distinct cis-acting regulatory elements regulating gene expression under abiotic stresses. CsLEA7 exhibited chaperonic activity as evinced by protection to malate dehydrogenase against heat denaturation assay. Recombinant Escherichia coli cells producing CsLEA7 exhibited improved tolerance against diverse cues: polyethylene glycol-8000, sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and low temperature signifying its role in imparting stress tolerance. PMID:25052187

  14. Combined Cytological and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway Involved in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weidong; Sheng, Xianyong; Shu, Zaifa; Li, Dongqin; Pan, Junting; Ye, Xiaoli; Chang, Pinpin; Li, Xinghui; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule plays crucial roles in many abiotic stresses in plant development processes, including pollen tube growth. Here, the signaling networks dominated by NO during cold stress that inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth are investigated in vitro. Cytological analysis show that cold-induced NO is involved in the inhibition of pollen tube growth along with disruption of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ gradient, increase in ROS content, acidification of cytoplasmic pH and abnormalities in organelle ultrastructure and cell wall component distribution in the pollen tube tip. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs)-related to signaling pathway, such as NO synthesis, cGMP, Ca2+, ROS, pH, actin, cell wall, and MAPK cascade signal pathways, are identified and quantified using transcriptomic analyses and qRT-PCR, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above cytological results. Taken together, these findings suggest that a complex signaling network dominated by NO, including Ca2+, ROS, pH, RACs signaling and the crosstalk among them, is stimulated in the C. sinensis pollen tube in response to cold stress, which further causes secondary and tertiary alterations, such as ultrastructural abnormalities in organelles and cell wall construction, ultimately resulting in perturbed pollen tube extension. PMID:27148289

  15. Combined Cytological and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway Involved in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Tube Growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Sheng, Xianyong; Shu, Zaifa; Li, Dongqin; Pan, Junting; Ye, Xiaoli; Chang, Pinpin; Li, Xinghui; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule plays crucial roles in many abiotic stresses in plant development processes, including pollen tube growth. Here, the signaling networks dominated by NO during cold stress that inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth are investigated in vitro. Cytological analysis show that cold-induced NO is involved in the inhibition of pollen tube growth along with disruption of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) gradient, increase in ROS content, acidification of cytoplasmic pH and abnormalities in organelle ultrastructure and cell wall component distribution in the pollen tube tip. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs)-related to signaling pathway, such as NO synthesis, cGMP, Ca(2+), ROS, pH, actin, cell wall, and MAPK cascade signal pathways, are identified and quantified using transcriptomic analyses and qRT-PCR, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above cytological results. Taken together, these findings suggest that a complex signaling network dominated by NO, including Ca(2+), ROS, pH, RACs signaling and the crosstalk among them, is stimulated in the C. sinensis pollen tube in response to cold stress, which further causes secondary and tertiary alterations, such as ultrastructural abnormalities in organelles and cell wall construction, ultimately resulting in perturbed pollen tube extension. PMID:27148289

  16. SWAPDT: A method for Short-time Withering Assessment of Probability for Drought Tolerance in Camellia sinensis validated by targeted metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Nyarukowa, Christopher; Koech, Robert; Loots, Theodor; Apostolides, Zeno

    2016-07-01

    Climate change is causing droughts affecting crop production on a global scale. Classical breeding and selection strategies for drought-tolerant cultivars will help prevent crop losses. Plant breeders, for all crops, need a simple and reliable method to identify drought-tolerant cultivars, but such a method is missing. Plant metabolism is often disrupted by abiotic stress conditions. To survive drought, plants reconfigure their metabolic pathways. Studies have documented the importance of metabolic regulation, i.e. osmolyte accumulation such as polyols and sugars (mannitol, sorbitol); amino acids (proline) during drought. This study identified and quantified metabolites in drought tolerant and drought susceptible Camellia sinensis cultivars under wet and drought stress conditions. For analyses, GC-MS and LC-MS were employed for metabolomics analysis.%RWC results show how the two drought tolerant and two drought susceptible cultivars differed significantly (p≤0.05) from one another; the drought susceptible exhibited rapid water loss compared to the drought tolerant. There was a significant variation (p<0.05) in metabolite content (amino acid, sugars) between drought tolerant and drought susceptible tea cultivars after short-time withering conditions. These metabolite changes were similar to those seen in other plant species under drought conditions, thus validating this method. The Short-time Withering Assessment of Probability for Drought Tolerance (SWAPDT) method presented here provides an easy method to identify drought tolerant tea cultivars that will mitigate the effects of drought due to climate change on crop losses. PMID:27137993

  17. Characterization of L-phenylalanine metabolism to acetophenone and 1-phenylethanol in the flowers of Camellia sinensis using stable isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin; Baldermann, Susanne; Kajitani, Yutaka; Ota, Shogo; Kasuga, Hisae; Imazeki, Yumi; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2012-02-15

    Acetophenone (AP) and 1-phenylethanol (1PE) are the two major endogenous volatile compounds in flowers of Camellia sinensis var. Yabukita. Until now no information has been available on the biosynthesis of AP and 1PE in plants. Here we propose that AP and 1PE are derived from L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), based on feeding experiments using stable isotope-labeled precursors L-[(2)H(8)]Phe and L-[(13)C(9)]Phe. The subacid conditions in the flowers result in more hydrogenation than dehydrogenation in the transformation between AP and 1PE. Due to the action of some enzyme(s) responsible for the formation of (R)-1PE from AP in the flowers, (R)-1PE is the dominant endogenous steroisomer of 1PE. The modification of 1PE into nonvolatile glycosidic forms is one of the reasons for why only a little 1PE is released from the flowers. The levels of AP, 1PE, and glycosides of 1PE increase during floral development, whereas the level of L-Phe decreases. These metabolites occur mostly in the anthers. PMID:22209218

  18. Influence of cytokinins in combination with GA₃ on shoot multiplication and elongation of tea clone Iran 100 (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

    PubMed

    Gonbad, Reza Azadi; Rani Sinniah, Uma; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2014-01-01

    The use of in vitro culture has been accepted as an efficient technique for clonal propagation of many woody plants. In the present research, we report the results of a number of experiments aimed at optimizing micropropagation protocol for tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) (clone Iran 100) using nodal segments as the explant. The effect of different combinations and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGR) (BAP, TDZ, GA₃) on shoot multiplication and elongation was assessed. The influence of exposure to IBA in liquid form prior to transfer to solid media on rooting of tea microshoots was investigated. The results of this study showed that the best treatment for nodal segment multiplication in terms of the number of shoot per explant and shoot elongation was obtained using 3 mg/L BAP in combination with 0.5 mg/L GA₃. TDZ was found to be inappropriate for multiplication of tea clone Iran 100 as it resulted in hyperhydricity especially at concentrations higher than 0.05 mg/L. Healthy shoots treated with 300 mg/L IBA for 30 min followed by transfer to 1/2 strength MS medium devoid of PGR resulted in 72.3% of shoots producing roots and upon transferring them to acclimatization chamber 65% survival was obtained prior to field transfer. PMID:24605069

  19. Neuroprotective Properties of the Standardized Extract from Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) and Its Main Bioactive Components, Epicatechin and Epigallocatechin Gallate, in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bitu Pinto, Natália; da Silva Alexandre, Bruno; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; Silva, Aline Holanda; Leal, Luzia Kalyne A. M.; Viana, Glauce S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Camellia sinensis (green tea) is largely consumed, mainly in Asia. It possesses several biological effects such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives were to investigate the neuroprotective actions of the standardized extract (CS), epicatechin (EC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on a model of Parkinson's disease. Male Wistar rats were divided into SO (sham-operated controls), untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned and 6-OHDA-lesioned treated for 2 weeks with CS (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg), EC (10 mg/kg), or EGCG (10 mg/kg) groups. One hour after the last administration, animals were submitted to behavioral tests and euthanized and their striata and hippocampi were dissected for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and HVA) and antioxidant activity determinations, as well as immunohistochemistry evaluations (TH, COX-2, and iNOS). The results showed that CS and catechins reverted behavioral changes, indicating neuroprotection manifested as decreased rotational behavior, increased locomotor activity, antidepressive effects, and improvement of cognitive dysfunction, as compared to the untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned group. Besides, CS, EP, and EGCG reversed the striatal oxidative stress and immunohistochemistry alterations. These results show that the neuroprotective effects of CS and its catechins are probably and in great part due to its powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, pointing out their potential for the prevention and treatment of PD. PMID:26167188

  20. Impact of nitrogen supply on carbon/nitrogen allocation: a case study on amino acids and catechins in green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] plants.

    PubMed

    Ruan, J; Haerdter, R; Gerendás, J

    2010-09-01

    The concentrations of free amino acids (AA) and polyphenols (PP) are important determinants of green tea quality. Levels of AA and PP are governed interactively by nitrogen (N) supply and carbon (C) status, so the impact of C/N allocation on green tea quality was investigated in saplings cultivated hydroponically with 0.3, 0.75, 1.5 or 4.5 mmol l(-1) N. Activities of glutamine synthetase (GS), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) were determined, as were concentrations of AA, PP and soluble sugars. Concentrations of AA increased with increasing N supply, and the AA profile was shifted towards AA characterised by low C/N ratios (arginine, glutamine) and away from theanine, the unique non-protein AA that is abundant in Camellia sinensis. High N supply significantly reduced the concentrations of PP in young shoots, and was accompanied by lower levels of carbohydrates (soluble sugars). Analysis of the C and N status and selected enzyme activities, combined with path coefficient analysis of variables associated with C and N metabolism, demonstrated increasing deviation of C flux to AA under abundant N supply. Accumulation of AA and PP depended strongly on N status, and the balance shifted toward increasing synthesis of AA associated with enhanced growth, while investment of C in secondary metabolites did not change proportionally under the condition of ample N supply. PMID:20701695

  1. [Determination of the antimicrobial capacity of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against the potentially pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger].

    PubMed

    Mora, Andreína; Pawa, Jonathan; Chaverri, José M; Arias, María Laura

    2013-09-01

    Many studies can be found in scientific literature demonstrating the antimicrobial capacity of different herbs, including green tea. Never-theless, many results are divergent or cannot be compared. Several green tea formulations may be found in market, but there is scarce or non-information about its activity. In this work, the potential antimicrobial effect of 50 samples of dry green tea and in 10% infusion against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger distributed in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica, was determined. This activity was compared with the effect produced by Chinese origin green tea (Camellia sinensis). Different solvents were evaluated for preparing polyphenol enriched extracts from green tea samples. Total phenols were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric methodology, using galic acid as reference. Antimicrobial activity of green tea extracts and infusions was evaluated using the microplate methodology described by Breuking (2006). Ethanol was the most efficient solvent used for the polyphenol extractions. There was no antimicrobial effect of the different green tea extracts and infusions against the microorganisms evaluated, except for Listeria monocytogenes, where the extracts of 70% of samples analyzed and the control showed an inhibitory effect in the 10.5 mg/mL and 1.05 mg/L concentrations. None of the infusions tested, including the control, showed any effect against this bacteria. PMID:25362825

  2. Application of QuEChERS based method for the determination of pesticides in nutraceutical products (Camellia sinensis) by liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Nieto-García, Antonio José; Romero-González, Roberto; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-06-15

    A QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) based method has been evaluated and validated for the determination and quantification of approximately 100 LC-amenable pesticides in nutraceutical products obtained from green tea (Camellia sinensis). Extraction was performed with acidified acetonitrile (acetic acid 1% (v/v)), and additional clean-up steps were not necessary. Pesticides determination was achieved using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). Total running time was 11 min. Pesticides were quantified using matrix-matched calibration. Recoveries ranged from 70% to 117% and relative standard deviation (RSD) was lower than 20% at concentration levels of 25, 50 and 100 μg/kg for intra-day precision and equal or lower than 25% for inter-day precision. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were equal or lower than 25 μg/kg. The validated method was applied to commercial nutraceutical products, detecting acetamiprid (56 μg/kg) and carbendazim (13 μg/kg) in two samples. PMID:25660875

  3. Influence of Cytokinins in Combination with GA3 on Shoot Multiplication and Elongation of Tea Clone Iran 100 (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    PubMed Central

    Gonbad, Reza Azadi; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2014-01-01

    The use of in vitro culture has been accepted as an efficient technique for clonal propagation of many woody plants. In the present research, we report the results of a number of experiments aimed at optimizing micropropagation protocol for tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) (clone Iran 100) using nodal segments as the explant. The effect of different combinations and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGR) (BAP, TDZ, GA3) on shoot multiplication and elongation was assessed. The influence of exposure to IBA in liquid form prior to transfer to solid media on rooting of tea microshoots was investigated. The results of this study showed that the best treatment for nodal segment multiplication in terms of the number of shoot per explant and shoot elongation was obtained using 3 mg/L BAP in combination with 0.5 mg/L GA3. TDZ was found to be inappropriate for multiplication of tea clone Iran 100 as it resulted in hyperhydricity especially at concentrations higher than 0.05 mg/L. Healthy shoots treated with 300 mg/L IBA for 30 min followed by transfer to 1/2 strength MS medium devoid of PGR resulted in 72.3% of shoots producing roots and upon transferring them to acclimatization chamber 65% survival was obtained prior to field transfer. PMID:24605069

  4. Identification of genes involved in indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Chengcai; Ma, Chunlei; Zhang, Liqun; Gong, Wuyun; Wu, Liyun

    2013-02-10

    The plant hormone auxin plays a key role in adventitious rooting. To increase our understanding of genes involved in adventitious root formation, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in single nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 77 differentially expressed transcripts, including 70 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated sequences, were identified in tea cuttings under IBA treatment. Seven candidate transcripts were selected and analyzed for their response to IBA, and IAA by real time RT-PCR. All these transcripts were up regulated by at least two folds one day after IBA treatment. Meanwhile, IAA showed less positive effects on the expression of candidate transcripts. The full-length cDNA of a F-box/kelch gene was also isolated and found to be similar to a group of At1g23390 like genes. These unigenes provided a new source for mining genes related to adventitious root formation, which facilitate our understanding of relative fundamental metabolism. PMID:23201417

  5. Effect on the epigallocatechin gallate/epigallocatechin ratio in a green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract of different extraction temperatures and its effect on IgA production in mice.

    PubMed

    Monobe, Manami; Ema, Kaori; Tokuda, Yoshiko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2010-01-01

    We found that the epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)/epigallocatechin (EGC) ratio in a green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract was affected by the extraction temperature. The EGCG/EGC ratio in the 4 °C extract was around 1:3-4, whereas in the 100 °C extract, it was around 1:0.7. Oral administration of the mixture with a high EGC ratio (1:2-3 = EGCG/EGC) resulted in greater IgA production by murine Peyer's patch cells. PMID:21150115

  6. Nitric Oxide Participates in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Germination and Tube Growth Partly via cGMP In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhu-Ge, Qiang; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Wei-Dong; Fang, Wan-Ping; Chen, Xuan; Li, Xing-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays essential roles in many biotic and abiotic stresses in plant development procedures, including pollen tube growth. Here, effects of NO on cold stress inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in Camellia sinensis were investigated in vitro. The NO production, NO synthase (NOS)-like activity, cGMP content and proline (Pro) accumulation upon treatment with NO scavenger cPTIO, NOS inhibitor L-NNA, NO donor DEA NONOate, guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor ODQ or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor Viagra at 25°C (control) or 4°C were analyzed. Exposure to 4°C for 2 h reduced pollen germination and tube growth along with increase of NOS-like activity, NO production and cGMP content in pollen tubes. DEA NONOate treatment inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in a dose-dependent manner under control and reinforced the inhibition under cold stress, during which NO production and cGMP content promoted in pollen tubes. L-NNA and cPTIO markedly reduced the generation of NO induced by cold or NO donor along with partly reverse of cold- or NO donor-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. Furthermore, ODQ reduced the cGMP content under cold stress and NO donor treatment in pollen tubes. Meanwhile, ODQ disrupted the reinforcement of NO donor on the inhibition of pollen germination and tube growth under cold condition. Additionally, Pro accumulation of pollen tubes was reduced by ODQ compared with that receiving NO donor under cold or control condition. Effects of cPTIO and L-NNA in improving cold-treated pollen germination and pollen tube growth could be lowered by Viagra. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of cPTIO and L-NNA on Pro accumulation were partly reversed by Viagra. These data suggest that NO production from NOS-like enzyme reaction decreased the cold-responsive pollen germination, inhibited tube growth and reduced Pro accumulation, partly via cGMP signaling pathway in C. sinensis. PMID:23272244

  7. The impact of packaging materials on the antioxidant phytochemical stability of aqueous infusions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmok; Welt, Bruce A; Talcott, Stephen T

    2011-05-11

    Ready to drink (RTD) teas are a growing segment in the beverage category, brought about by improvements in the flavor of these products and healthy market trends driven by consumers. The presented results evaluated the antioxidant phytochemical stability of RTD teas from aqueous infusions of traditional green tea (Camellia sinensis) and a botanical tea from yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) as influenced by packaging materials during cold storage. Two common packaging materials for RTD products are glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and have been compared to a retortable pouch (RP), an emerging packaging material for various types of food since it is durable, inexpensive, lightweight, and easy to sterilize. Storage stability was then evaluated for each aqueous infusion prepared at 10 g/L at 90 °C for 10 min and evaluated at 3 °C in the absence of light over 12 weeks. Analyses included quantification and characterization of individual polyphenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry as well as changes in total antioxidant capacity. For green tea, concentrations of the three major flavan-3-ols, epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin gallate were better retained in glass bottles as compared to other packages over 12 weeks. In yaupon holly, chlorogenic acid and its isomers that were the predominant compounds were generally stable in each packaging material, and a 20.6-fold higher amount of saponin was found as compared to green tea, which caused higher stability of flavonol glycosides present in yaupon holly during storage. The antioxidant capacity of green tea was better retained in glass and PET versus RP, whereas no differences were again observed for yaupon holly. Results highlight the superiority of oxygen-impervious glass packaging, but viable alternatives may be utilizable for RTD teas with variable phytochemical compositions. PMID:21434687

  8. Evaluation of free radical-scavenging and antihemolytic activities of quince (Cydonia oblonga) leaf: a comparative study with green tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Costa, Rossana M; Magalhães, Ana S; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Carvalho, Márcia; Silva, Branca M

    2009-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the phenolic profile and to investigate the antioxidant potential of quince (Cydonia oblonga) leaf, comparing it with green tea (Camellia sinensis). For these purposes, methanolic extracts were prepared and phenolics content of quince leaf was determined by HPLC/UV. The antioxidant properties were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity assay and by the ability to quench the stable free radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and to inhibit the 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes.5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid was found to be the major phenolic compound in quince leaf extract. Quince leaf exhibited a significantly higher reducing power than green tea (mean value of 227.8 +/- 34.9 and 112.5 +/- 1.5 g/kg dry leaf, respectively). Quince leaf extracts showed similar DPPH radical-scavenging activities (EC50 mean value of 21.6 +/- 3.5 microg/ml) but significantly lower than that presented by green tea extract (EC50 mean value of 12.7 +/- 0.1 microg/ml). Under the oxidative action of AAPH, quince leaf methanolic extract significantly protected the erythrocyte membrane from hemolysis in a similar manner to that found for green tea (IC50 mean value of 30.7 +/- 6.7 and 24.3 +/- 9.6 microg/ml, respectively, P > 0.05). These results point that quince leaf may have application as preventive or therapeutic agent in diseases in which free radicals are involved. PMID:19271320

  9. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management

  10. Effects of Extreme Climate Events on Tea (Camellia sinensis) Functional Quality Validate Indigenous Farmer Knowledge and Sensory Preferences in Tropical China

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management

  11. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) alleviates arsenic-induced damages to DNA and intestinal tissues in rat and in situ intestinal loop by reinforcing antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Nirmallya; Sajed Ali, Sk; Deb, Bimal; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-09-01

    This study elucidates the protective role of Green tea (Camellia sinensis or CS) against arsenic-induced mutagenic DNA-breakage/intestinal (small) damages in female rats. Intestinal epithelial cells receive ingested arsenic initially. Though, the possibility of damages in this tissue is immense and the therapeutic strategies against this damage are of great concern, reports on either issue are scanty. Our earlier study on arsenic-exposed human unveils a link between carcinogenesis and mutagenic DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that supplementation of CS-extract (10 mg/mL water) with NaAsO2 (0.6 ppm)/100 g b.w. for 28 days to rats offered a significant protection against arsenic-induced oxidative damages to DNA and intestinal (small) tissues by buttressing antioxidant systems. Necrotic and apoptotic damages and their CS-protection are shown in DNA-fragmentation, comet-assay, and histoarchitecture (hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-schiff staining) results. Only arsenic exposure significantly decreased intestinal superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and level of soluble thiol with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde/conjugated dienes. Alteration of serum necrotic marker lactate dehydrogenase and the metabolic inflammatory marker c-reactive protein also indicate the impairment may be occurring at transcription and/or cellular signal transduction level. In addition, in situ incubation in rat intestinal loop filled for 24 h with NaAsO2 alone (250 µM) or with aqueous CS-extract (250 mg/mL) suggests that small intestinal epithelial cells are significantly protected by CS against arsenic-associated necrotic/mutagenic damages, which is observed in DNA-breakage studies. In conclusion, besides intensifying endogenous antioxidant system, CS polyphenols also offer a direct role on free radical scavenging activity that is associated to the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakages and prevention of tissue necrosis/carcinogenesis generated by arsenic. PMID

  12. Time series changes in radiocaesium distribution in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.)) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Yuhei; Nonaka, Kunihiko

    2016-02-01

    Radiocaesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) release following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, belonging to the Tokyo Electric Power Company caused severe contamination of new tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.)) shoots by radiocaesium in many prefectures in eastern Japan. Because tea plants are perennial crops, there is the fear that the contamination might last for a long time. The objectives of this study were to reveal time series changes in the distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants after radioactive fallout and to evaluate the effect of pruning on reduction of radiocaesium concentrations in new shoots growing next year. The experimental tea field was located in Shizuoka, Japan, approximately 400 km away from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in a southwest direction. Time series changes in radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea, a tea product primarily produced for making Japanese green tea, from May 2011 to June 2013 and distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants from May 2011 to May 2012 were monitored. The radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea exponentially decreased; the effective half-lives for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.30 and 0.36 y during the first 2 y after the accident, respectively. With time, the highest concentrations of (137)Cs moved from the upper to the lower parts of plants. Medium pruning 2-3 months after the accident reduced the concentration of (137)Cs in new shoots harvested in the first crop season of the following year by 56% compared with unpruned tea plants; thus, pruning is an effective measure for reducing radiocaesium concentration in tea. PMID:26695880

  13. Comparison of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of tilia (Tilia argentea Desf ex DC), sage (Salvia triloba l.), and black tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, A; Mavi, A; Oktay, M; Kara, A A; Algur, O F; Bilaloglu, V

    2000-10-01

    The antioxidant activity of the water extract of Tilia argentea Desf ex DC was determined by the thiocyanate method. The antioxidant activity of the water extract increased with the increasing amount of lyophilized extract (50-400 microg) added into the linoleic acid emulsion. Statistically significant effect was determined in 100 microg and higher amounts. Antioxidant activities of water extracts of tilia (Tilia argentea Desf ex DC), sage (Salvia triloba L.), and two Turkish black teas commercially called Rize tea and young shoot tea (Camellia sinensis) were compared. For comparison studies, 100 microg portions of extracts were added into test samples. All samples were able to show statistically significant antioxidant effect. Both of the tea extracts showed highest antioxidant activities, nevertheless, differences between tilia and sage and tilia and tea were not statistically significant (for both cases p > 0.05). Like antioxidant activity, the reducing power of water extract of Tilia argentea Desf ex DC was also concentration dependent. Even in the presence of 50 microg of extract, the reducing power was significantly higher than that of the control (p < 0.05) in which there was no extract. Unlike antioxidant activity, the highest reducing power activity was shown by sage extract. Among the tea extracts, young shoot extract was the most effective one, however, it had significantly lower activity than sage (p < 0.05). Although tea flower had the lowest reducing power activity, it was higher than that of tilia. But this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). From these results, we could suggest that although the reducing power of a substance may be an indicator of its potential antioxidant activity, there may not always be a linear correlation between these two activities. In addition, antimicrobial activities of each of the above extracts were studied by disk diffusion methods on different test microorganisms. None of the extracts showed

  14. Fractionation and speciation of arsenic in three tea gardens soil profiles and distribution of As in different parts of tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Abollino, Ornella; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Das, Kishore K; Paul, Ranjit K

    2011-10-01

    The distribution pattern and fractionation of arsenic (As) in three soil profiles from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) gardens located in Karbi-Anglong (KA), Cachar (CA) and Karimganj (KG) districts in the state of Assam, India, were investigated depth-wise (0-10, 10-30, 30-60 and 60-100 cm). DTPA-extractable As was primarily restricted to surface horizons. Arsenic speciation study showed the presence of higher As(V) concentrations in the upper horizon and its gradual decrease with the increase in soil depths, following a decrease of Eh. As fractionation by sequential extraction in all the soil profiles showed that arsenic concentrations in the three most labile fractions (i.e., water-soluble, exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions) were generally low. Most arsenic in soils was nominally associated with the organic and Fe-Mn oxide fractions, being extractable in oxidizing or reducing conditions. DTPA-extractable As (assumed to represent plant-available As) was found to be strongly correlated to the labile pool of As (i.e. the sum of the first three fractions). The statistical comparison of means (two-sample t-test) showed the presence of significant differences between the concentrations of As(III) and As(V) for different soil locations, depths and fractions. The risk assessment code (RAC) was found to be below the pollution level for all soils. The measurement of arsenic uptake by different parts of tea plants corroborated the hypothesis that roots act as a buffer and hold back contamination from the aerial parts. PMID:21752421

  15. Structural elucidation of two new megastigmane glycosides from the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Xia, Fang; Wang, Shu; Wang, Ke-Yuan; Chen, Jin-Ming; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2015-04-01

    The present study was designed to determine the chemical constituents and identify new components of the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. The compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectrometry. Eight megastigmane glycosides and two cucurbitacins were isolated and identified as (9S) megastigma-4,7-diene-2,3,9-triol 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (9S) megastigma-4(13),7-diene-3,6,9-triol 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), macarangloside D (3), corchoionoside C (4), staphylionoside H (5), (+) 3-oxo-α-ionol-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), (-) 3-oxo-α-ionol-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), citroside B (8), 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl cucurbitacin I (9), bryoamaride (10). Compounds 1 and 2 were newly identified megstigmane glucosides and reported from this genus for the first time. PMID:25908626

  16. Integrated RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq Analysis Identifies Chilling and Freezing Responsive Key Molecular Players and Pathways in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yu; Shen, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yinfei; Jia, Sisi; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang

    2015-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants' growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃) and freezing (-5℃) stress. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., 'Photosynthesis'), GO terms (e.g., 'response to karrikin') and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1) which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR), a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology. PMID:25901577

  17. Integrated RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq Analysis Identifies Chilling and Freezing Responsive Key Molecular Players and Pathways in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yu; Shen, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yinfei; Jia, Sisi; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang

    2015-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants’ growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃) and freezing (-5℃) stress. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., ‘Photosynthesis’), GO terms (e.g., ‘response to karrikin’) and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1) which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR), a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology. PMID:25901577

  18. Evaluation of Camellia sinensis catechins as a swine antimicrobial feed additive that does not cause antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Akira; Kataoka, Shinichiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Terasaki, Toshiaki; Kiso, Masaaki; Okubo, Mitsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) have been banned and phased out because their use has been linked to the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens; however, the ban has had a marked impact on livestock production, and feed additive alternatives to AGPs are required. We focused on green tea leaves as potential alternatives to AGPs because they contain significant amounts of polyphenol catechins, which have antivirus and antimicrobial effects. We examined cross-resistance between epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is the most abundant catechin of green tea leaves, and commercially available antimicrobials in clinically problematic antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and whether bacteria have the ability to acquire resistance by consecutive passage in sub-inhibitory concentrations of EGCG. EGCG did not display any cross-resistance with reference antimicrobials and the bacteria did not acquire EGCG resistance. Further, we examined the growth-promoting effects of dried green tea leaves on the breeding of a new Japanese breed, Tokyo-X pigs. While the mortality rates of the green tea leaf (GTL) and AGP groups were both 11.1% (one in nine piglets), the mortality rate was 50% for the control group with an additive-free diet (four in eight piglets). The rate of body weight increase in both the GTL and AGP groups was approximately the same. The growth-promoting effects of green tea leaves and AGPs were similar, and there was no possibility that the antimicrobial properties of catechins caused the same problem as AGPs. Thus, it can be concluded that green tea leaves are a safe feed additive alternative to AGPs. PMID:23138151

  19. Analysis of accumulation patterns and preliminary study on the condensation mechanism of proanthocyanidins in the tea plant [Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaolan; Liu, Yajun; Wu, Yahui; Tan, Huarong; Meng, Fei; Wang, Yun sheng; Li, Mingzhuo; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Li; Qian, Yumei; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, proanthocyanidins were qualitatively and quantitatively identified using hydrolysis and thiolysis assays, NP-HPLC, HPLC-ESI-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR techniques in different organs of tea plants. The results showed that in leaves, the tri-hydroxyl, cis- and galloylated flavan-3-ols were the main monomeric catechins units, and (epi)catechin was found to be the major unit of polymeric flavan-3-ols when the degree of polymerization was greater than five. In roots, the PAs were found to be abundant, and epicatechin formed the predominant extension unit of oligomeric and polymeric PAs. In order to understand the mechanism of proanthocyanidins polymerization, auto-condensation of the flavan-3-ols was investigated. The results showed that the same trimers (m/z 865) were detected in the extracts of tea plants and in the non-enzymatic in vitro assay, in weak acid as well as weak alkaline solutions at room temperature, when the substrates used were either procyanidin B2 and monomeric flavan-3-ols (epicatechin or catechin), or only procyanidin B2. This suggested that procyanidin B2 not only released carbocation as electrophilic upper units, but also could be used as nucleophilic lower units directly itself, to form the procyanidin trimer in vitro or in vivo. PMID:25735226

  20. The ethanolic extract of Juglans sinensis leaves and twigs attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Heejung; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nuts of Juglans sinensis Dode, walnut tree, are rich in unsaturated fatty acids and bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity on liver damages. However, hepatoprotective activity of the leaves and twigs of J. sinensis have not intensively studied yet. Objective: Hepatoprotective activity of the refined ethanolic extract of J. sinensis (JSE3) was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 for 6 weeks in the presence or absence of JSE3 (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight). The hepatoprotective activity of JSE3 was assessed by biochemical parameters including plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxide, reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione, along with histopathological studies on hepatic tissue. Results: JSE3 significantly decreased the elevated levels of AST and ALT and restored the reduced levels of antioxidant enzymes. JSE3 also decreased the amounts of collagen content accumulated by CCl4 intoxication. Conclusion: These results suggested that the refined extract of J. sinensis may have a potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent to treat hepatic diseases, such as fatty liver and hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26246728

  1. Effect of liming and seasonal variation on lead concentration of tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-Yan; Shi, Yuan-Zhi; Ma, Li-Feng; Ruan, Jiang-Yun; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2007-01-01

    Tea is a widely consumed beverage. However, recent studies revealed that there were an increasing number of cases of tea products exceeding the former maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in China for Pb (2 mg kg(-1)). Tea Pb contamination is an issue affecting trade and consumer confidence. Root uptake of Pb could contribute significantly to Pb accumulation in tea leaves due to the strong acidity of many tea garden soils. We conducted pot and field experiments to evaluate the effect of liming on Pb uptake by tea plants on two highly acidic soils (pH3.6). Additions of CaCO(3) significantly increased soil pH by up to 1 unit and decreased soil extractable Pb by up to 32%. Liming resulted in a decrease in the proportion of Pb in the exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions, with a concurrent increase in the fractions bound to Fe/Mn oxides and residues. Liming significantly decreased Pb concentrations of fine roots, stems and new shoots of tea plants in the pot experiment. In the field experiments, the effect of liming was not significant during the first year following CaCO(3) application, but became significant during the second and third years and Pb concentration in the new shoots was decreased by approximately 20-50%, indicating that liming of acidic tea garden soils is an effective way to reduce Pb contamination of tea. The study also reveals a distinct seasonal variation, with Pb concentration in the new shoots following the order of spring>autumn>summer. PMID:16844190

  2. Effect of green tea powder (Camellia sinensis L. cv. Benifuuki) particle size on O-methylated EGCG absorption in rats; The Kakegawa Study.

    PubMed

    Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Ema, Kaori; Tokuda, Yoshiko; Monobe, Manami; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Yoichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2011-03-01

    Tea polyphenols, e.g., (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl gallate (EGCG3"Me), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC), are believed to be responsible for the beneficial effects of tea. 'Benifuuki', a tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivar grown in Japan, is rich in the anti-allergic molecule epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me). Pulverized Benifuuki green tea powder (BGP) is more widely distributed than leaf tea in Japan. Japanese people mix their pulverized tea with water directly, whereas it is common to drink leaf tea after extraction. However, few studies of the effects of BGP particle size on polyphenol bioavailability have been performed. This study was conducted to investigate the absorption of catechins in rats after the intragastric administration of Benifuuki green tea. Therefore, we assessed the plasma concentrations of catechins following the ingestion of BGP with different mean particle sizes (2.86, 18.6, and 76.1 μm) or Benifuuki green tea infusion (BGI) as a control in rats. The bioavailabilities of EGCG3"Me, EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC were analyzed after the oral administration of a single dose of Benifuuki green tea (125 mg/rat) to rats. The plasma concentrations of tea catechins were determined by HPLC analysis combined with of electrochemical detection (ECD) using a coulometric array. The AUC (area under the drug concentration versus time curve; min μg/mL) of ester-type catechins (EGCG3"Me, EGCG, and ECG) for the BGP 2.86 μm were significantly higher than those in the infusion and 18.6 and 76.1 μm BGP groups, but the AUC of free-type catechins (EGC and EC) showed no differences between these groups. Regarding the peak plasma level of EGCG3"Me adjusted for intake, BGP 2.86 μm and BGI showed higher values than the BGP 18.6 and 76.1 μm groups, and the peak plasma levels of the other catechins displayed the same tendency. The present study

  3. MicroRNA Regulatory Mechanisms on Citrus sinensis leaves to Magnesium-Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui-Lan; Qi, Yi-Ping; Liang, Wei-Wei; Yang, Lin-Tong; Lu, Yi-Bin; Guo, Peng; Ye, Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-deficiency, which affects crop productivity and quality, widespreadly exists in many agricultural crops, including citrus. However, very limited data are available on Mg-deficiency-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs) in higher plants. Using Illumina sequencing, we isolated 75 (73 known and 2 novel) up- and 71 (64 known and 7 novel) down-regulated miRNAs from Mg-deficient Citrus sinensis leaves. In addition to the remarkable metabolic flexibility as indicated by the great alteration of miRNA expression, the adaptive responses of leaf miRNAs to Mg-deficiency might also involve the following several aspects: (a) up-regulating stress-related genes by down-regulating miR164, miR7812, miR5742, miR3946, and miR5158; (b) enhancing cell transport due to decreased expression of miR3946 and miR5158 and increased expression of miR395, miR1077, miR1160, and miR8019; (c) activating lipid metabolism-related genes by repressing miR158, miR5256, and miR3946; (d) inducing cell wall-related gene expansin 8A by repressing miR779; and (e) down-regulating the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of S, K and Cu by up-regulating miR395 and miR6426. To conclude, we isolated some new known miRNAs (i.e., miR7812, miR8019, miR6218, miR1533, miR6426, miR5256, miR5742, miR5561, miR5158, and miR5818) responsive to nutrient deficiencies and found some candidate miRNAs that might contribute to Mg-deficiency tolerance. Therefore, our results not only provide novel information about the responses of plant to Mg-deficiency, but also are useful for obtaining the key miRNAs for plant Mg-deficiency tolerance. PMID:26973661

  4. MicroRNA Regulatory Mechanisms on Citrus sinensis leaves to Magnesium-Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cui-Lan; Qi, Yi-Ping; Liang, Wei-Wei; Yang, Lin-Tong; Lu, Yi-Bin; Guo, Peng; Ye, Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-deficiency, which affects crop productivity and quality, widespreadly exists in many agricultural crops, including citrus. However, very limited data are available on Mg-deficiency-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs) in higher plants. Using Illumina sequencing, we isolated 75 (73 known and 2 novel) up- and 71 (64 known and 7 novel) down-regulated miRNAs from Mg-deficient Citrus sinensis leaves. In addition to the remarkable metabolic flexibility as indicated by the great alteration of miRNA expression, the adaptive responses of leaf miRNAs to Mg-deficiency might also involve the following several aspects: (a) up-regulating stress-related genes by down-regulating miR164, miR7812, miR5742, miR3946, and miR5158; (b) enhancing cell transport due to decreased expression of miR3946 and miR5158 and increased expression of miR395, miR1077, miR1160, and miR8019; (c) activating lipid metabolism-related genes by repressing miR158, miR5256, and miR3946; (d) inducing cell wall-related gene expansin 8A by repressing miR779; and (e) down-regulating the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of S, K and Cu by up-regulating miR395 and miR6426. To conclude, we isolated some new known miRNAs (i.e., miR7812, miR8019, miR6218, miR1533, miR6426, miR5256, miR5742, miR5561, miR5158, and miR5818) responsive to nutrient deficiencies and found some candidate miRNAs that might contribute to Mg-deficiency tolerance. Therefore, our results not only provide novel information about the responses of plant to Mg-deficiency, but also are useful for obtaining the key miRNAs for plant Mg-deficiency tolerance. PMID:26973661

  5. Identification and quantification of 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA) from Camellia sinensis tea leaves and dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1, 3-Dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is a CNS stimulant which has recently been identified in multiple dietary supplements and sometimes labeled as a natural constituent of Pouchung tea. DMBA is an homologue of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) which the US Food and Drug Administration has attempted to remov...

  6. Bioactive constituents of wood rot extract of tea, Camellia sinensis L.O. Kuntze against alates of low country live wood termite Glyptotermes dilatatus Bugnion and Popoff (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Senanayake, P D; Mohotti, K; Paranagama, P A

    2015-01-01

    Low country live wood termite (LCLWT), Glyptotermes dilatatus is attractive to rotted stumps of tea plant, Camellia sinensis. Rotted stumps are formed due to the attack of wood rot fungi in pruned stems. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of LCLWT to extracts of rotted and healthy stems of susceptible tea cultivars, TRI 2023 and TRI 4042 and tolerant cultivars, TRI 2027 and TRI 4049 and isolate the LCLWT attractive fractions of tea stem extract. Since pieces of rotted stem of both susceptible and tolerant tea cultivars were more attractive to the alates than that of healthy stems, effects of EtOAc extracts of rotted and healthy stems of four tea cultivars were compared on behavior of the alates. The results revealed that the alates positively responded to extracts of rotted tea stems of four tea cultivars than that of healthy tea stems. Therefore hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanol fractions of the extracts of rotted stems were tested against alates using orientation bioassays. Results revealed that the hexane fraction of rotted stem of each cultivar was more attractive than that of the chloroform and methanol fractions. The results of bioassay guided fractionation of the hexane fraction using column chromatography revealed the presence of two bioactive sub-fractions suggesting non-polar compounds in rotted tea wood are more attractive to G. dilatatus than other sub-fractions. These two fractions can be used to develop a trapping mechanism to strengthen present IPM program of LCLWT. PMID:26618100

  7. Secondary metabolite profiles of leaves of healthy and huanglongbing-infected orange (Citrus sinensis L.) seedlings measured by HPLC-fluorescence detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaves of greenhouse-grown ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ orange (Citrus sinensis L.) seedlings were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography in a study of the progression of changes in secondary metabolite profiles resulting from infection by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the Huanglo...

  8. Short-term regulation and alternative pathways of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves.

    PubMed

    Trubitsin, Boris V; Vershubskii, Alexey V; Priklonskii, Vladimir I; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2015-11-01

    In this work, using the EPR and PAM-fluorometry methods, we have studied induction events of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves. The methods used are complementary, providing efficient tools for in situ monitoring of P700 redox transients and photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII). The induction of P700(+) in dark-adapted leaves is characterized by the multiphase kinetics with a lag-phase, which duration elongates with the dark-adaptation time. Analyzing effects of the uncoupler monensin and artificial electron carrier methylviologen (MV) on photooxidation of P700 and slow induction of chlorophyll a fluorescence (SIF), we could ascribe different phases of transient kinetics of electron transport processes in dark-adapted leaves to the following regulatory mechanisms: (i) acceleration of electron transfer on the acceptor side of PSI, (ii) pH-dependent modulation of the intersystem electron flow, and (iii) re-distribution of electron fluxes between alternative (linear, cyclic, and pseudocyclic) pathways. Monensin significantly decreases a level of P700(+) and inhibits SIF. MV, which mediates electron flow from PSI to O2 with consequent formation of H2O2, promotes a rapid photooxidation of P700 without any lag-phase peculiar to untreated leaves. MV-mediated water-water cycle (H2O→PSII→PSI→MV→O2→H2O2→H2O) is accompanied by generation of ascorbate free radicals. This suggests that the ascorbate peroxidase system of defense against reactive oxygen species is active in chloroplasts of H. rosa-sinensis leaves. In DCMU-treated chloroplasts with inhibited PSII, the contribution of cyclic electron flow is insignificant as compared to linear electron flow. For analysis of induction events, we have simulated electron transport processes within the framework of our generalized mathematical model of oxygenic photosynthesis, which takes into account pH-dependent mechanisms of electron transport control and re-distribution of

  9. Antioxidant activities of Toona Sinensis leaves extracts using different antioxidant models.

    PubMed

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Chang, Wen-Huei; Chen, Chee-Shan; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Huang, Chin-Jung; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chia, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Wu, Jia-Jiuan; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of Toona sinensis (TS; 0-100 microg/mL) and gallic acid (0-50 microg/mL), with the purified natural phenolic components evaluated using different antioxidant models. It was found that the TS extracts and gallic acid possess effective antioxidant activity against various oxidative systems in vitro, including the scavenging of free and superoxide anion radicals, reducing power, and metal chelation. However, antioxidant activity in terms of metal chelation was not observed for the gallic acid. Moreover, TS extracts and gallic acid appear to possess powerful antioxidant properties with respect to oxidative modification of human LDL induced by CuSO4, AAPH or sodium nitroprusside, as assessed by the relative electrophoretic mobility, TBARS formation, and cholesterol degradation of oxidized LDL. Furthermore, AAPH-induced oxidative hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, and decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in human erythrocytes were prevented by both the TS extracts and the gallic acid. Our findings suggest that T. sinensis may act as a chemopreventative agent, providing antioxidant properties and offering effective protection from atherogenesis. PMID:17703862

  10. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Key Flavonoid 3′-Hydroxylase and Flavonoid 3′,5′-Hydroxylase Genes in Affecting the Ratio of Dihydroxylated to Trihydroxylated Catechins in Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Zhang, Chengcai; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Zhang, Fen; Cheng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of dihydroxylated to trihydroxylated catechins (RDTC) is an important indicator of tea quality and biochemical marker for the study of genetic diversity. It is reported to be under genetic control but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) are key enzymes involved in the formation of dihydroxylated and trihydroxylated catechins. The transcriptome and HPLC analysis of tea samples from Longjing43 and Zhonghuang2 under control and shading treatment were performed to assess the F3′H and F3′5′H genes that might affect RDTC. A total of 74.7 million reads of mRNA seq (2×101bp) data were generated. After de novo assembly, 109,909 unigenes were obtained, and 39,982 of them were annotated using 7 public databases. Four key F3′H and F3′5′H genes (including CsF3′5′H1, CsF3′H1, CsF3′H2 and CsF3′H3) were identified to be closely correlated with RDTC. Shading treatment had little effect on RDTC, which was attributed to the stable expression of these key F3′H and F3′5′H genes. The correlation of the coexpression of four key genes and RDTC was further confirmed among 13 tea varieties by real time PCR and HPLC analysis. The coexpression of three F3′H genes and a F3′5′H gene may play a key role in affecting RDTC in Camellia sinensis. The current results may establish valuable foundation for further research about the mechanism controlling catechin composition in tea. PMID:26367395

  11. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  12. Genome Size Variation among and within Camellia Species by Using Flow Cytometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qun-Jie; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Background The genus Camellia, belonging to the family Theaceae, is economically important group in flowering plants. Frequent interspecific hybridization together with polyploidization has made them become taxonomically “difficult taxa”. The DNA content is often used to measure genome size variation and has largely advanced our understanding of plant evolution and genome variation. The goals of this study were to investigate patterns of interspecific and intraspecific variation of DNA contents and further explore genome size evolution in a phylogenetic context of the genus. Methodology/Principal Findings The DNA amount in the genus was determined by using propidium iodide flow cytometry analysis for a total of 139 individual plants representing almost all sections of the two subgenera, Camellia and Thea. An improved WPB buffer was proven to be suitable for the Camellia species, which was able to counteract the negative effects of secondary metabolite and generated high-quality results with low coefficient of variation values (CV) <5%. Our results showed trivial effects on different tissues of flowers, leaves and buds as well as cytosolic compounds on the estimation of DNA amount. The DNA content of C. sinensis var. assamica was estimated to be 1C = 3.01 pg by flow cytometric analysis, which is equal to a genome size of about 2940 Mb. Conclusion Intraspecific and interspecific variations were observed in the genus Camellia, and as expected, the latter was larger than the former. Our study suggests a directional trend of increasing genome size in the genus Camellia probably owing to the frequent polyploidization events. PMID:23724111

  13. 'Anacostia' Camellia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Camellia japonica, ‘Anacostia’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Anacostia’ (NA35667, PI659061) is a seedling selection grown from a controlled cross made in the late 1960s by Skip March. The female parent was an undetermined white-flowered selection of C. japonica, whil...

  14. Polyphenols from fresh frozen tea leaves (Camellia assamica L.,) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol entrainer - application of response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Gadkari, Pravin Vasantrao; Balarman, Manohar; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2015-02-01

    Fresh frozen tea leaves (Camellia assamica L.) were extracted with SC-CO2 to obtain polyphenols rich in EGCG and compared with conventional solvent extraction. Extraction parameters such as temperature, pressure and solvent to material ratio were critical factors in extraction and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The maximum yield of extractable solids using SC-CO2 with ethanol entrainer was carried out at pressures 150 to 350 bar, temperatures from 40 °C to 60 °C and solvent to material ratio 100 to 200. The theoretical yield was 3.91 % (w/w), while experimental yield was 4.20 ± 0.27 % (w/w) at temperature of 50 °C, pressure 250 bar and solvent to material ratio of 200. The chemical compositions of extracted solids were investigated by HPLC which showed 722.68-848.09 ± 1.12 mg of EGCG/g of extractable solids were separated in SC-CO2. Also, 54.62 ± 1.19 mg of EGCG/g of extractable solids was separated using conventional extraction which is quantitatively lesser than SC-CO2 extraction yield. Thus, SC-CO2 extraction was proved to be effective technique in obtaining extracts rich in EGCG (>95 %). PMID:25694680

  15. Effects of boron deficiency on major metabolites, key enzymes and gas exchange in leaves and roots of Citrus sinensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Bin; Yang, Lin-Tong; Li, Yan; Xu, Jing; Liao, Tian-Tai; Chen, Yan-Bin; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-06-01

    Boron (B) deficiency is a widespread problem in many crops, including Citrus. The effects of B-deficiency on gas exchange, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, total soluble proteins and phenolics, and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in 'Xuegan' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves and roots were investigated. Boron-deficient leaves displayed excessive accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and much lower CO2 assimilation, demonstrating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. Dark respiration, concentrations of most organic acids [i.e., malate, citrate, oxaloacetate (OAA), pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate] and activities of enzymes [i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NAD-malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME), NADP-ME, pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase (PEPP), citrate synthase (CS), aconitase (ACO), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH) and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B-deficient leaves than in controls. Also, total free amino acid (TFAA) concentration and related enzyme [i.e., NADH-dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (NADH-GOGAT) and glutamate OAA transaminase (GOT)] activities were enhanced in B-deficient leaves. By contrast, respiration, concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids (malate, citrate and pyruvate), and activities of most enzymes [i.e., PEPC, NADP-ME, PK, PEPP, CS, ACO, NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase, NADP-IDH and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction, as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes (i.e., nitrate reductase, NADH-GOGAT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase) were lower in B-deficient roots than in controls. Interestingly, leaf and root concentration of total phenolics increased, whereas that of total soluble protein decreased

  16. Fractionation of the secondary metabolites of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is interest in the detection of changes in secondary metabolites in orange leaves in response to citrus greening disease. Conventional HPLC analysis readily provides detection of major phenolic compounds, but further, more detailed chromatographic analyses show many more compounds, to an exten...

  17. (Z)-3-hexenyl and trans-linalool 3,7-oxide beta-primeverosides isolated as aroma precursors from leaves of a green tea cultivar.

    PubMed

    Nishikitani, M; Wang, D; Kubota, K; Kobayashi, A; Sugawara, F

    1999-09-01

    6-O-beta-D-Xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides (beta-primeverosides) of (Z)-3-hexenol and trans-linalool 3,7-oxide were newly isolated from fresh leaves of a tea cultivar (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Yabukita). In addition, the already identified beta-primeverosides of benzyl alcohol, methyl salicylate, and trans-linalool 3,6-oxide from an oolong tea cultivar were isolated from the Yabukita cultivar. It was confirmed that all aglycones of the linalool oxide glycosides isolated here were of the optically active S-form by chiral GC after enzymatic hydrolysis with glycosidase. PMID:10540751

  18. Long-term boron-deficiency-responsive genes revealed by cDNA-AFLP differ between Citrus sinensis roots and leaves

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Bin; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Lee, Jinwook; Guo, Peng; Ye, Xin; Jia, Meng-Yang; Li, Mei-Li; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck were supplied with boron (B)-deficient (without H3BO3) or -sufficient (10 μM H3BO3) nutrient solution for 15 weeks. We identified 54 (38) and 38 (45) up (down)-regulated cDNA-AFLP bands (transcript-derived fragments, TDFs) from B-deficient leaves and roots, respectively. These TDFs were mainly involved in protein and amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, cell transport, signal transduction, and stress response and defense. The majority of the differentially expressed TDFs were isolated only from B-deficient roots or leaves, only seven TDFs with the same GenBank ID were isolated from the both. In addition, ATP biosynthesis-related TDFs were induced in B-deficient roots, but unaffected in B-deficient leaves. Most of the differentially expressed TDFs associated with signal transduction and stress defense were down-regulated in roots, but up-regulated in leaves. TDFs related to protein ubiquitination and proteolysis were induced in B-deficient leaves except for one TDF, while only two down-regulated TDFs associated with ubiquitination were detected in B-deficient roots. Thus, many differences existed in long-term B-deficiency-responsive genes between roots and leaves. In conclusion, our findings provided a global picture of the differential responses occurring in B-deficient roots and leaves and revealed new insight into the different adaptive mechanisms of C. sinensis roots and leaves to B-deficiency at the transcriptional level. PMID:26284101

  19. Long-term boron-deficiency-responsive genes revealed by cDNA-AFLP differ between Citrus sinensis roots and leaves.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Bin; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Lee, Jinwook; Guo, Peng; Ye, Xin; Jia, Meng-Yang; Li, Mei-Li; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck were supplied with boron (B)-deficient (without H3BO3) or -sufficient (10 μM H3BO3) nutrient solution for 15 weeks. We identified 54 (38) and 38 (45) up (down)-regulated cDNA-AFLP bands (transcript-derived fragments, TDFs) from B-deficient leaves and roots, respectively. These TDFs were mainly involved in protein and amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, cell transport, signal transduction, and stress response and defense. The majority of the differentially expressed TDFs were isolated only from B-deficient roots or leaves, only seven TDFs with the same GenBank ID were isolated from the both. In addition, ATP biosynthesis-related TDFs were induced in B-deficient roots, but unaffected in B-deficient leaves. Most of the differentially expressed TDFs associated with signal transduction and stress defense were down-regulated in roots, but up-regulated in leaves. TDFs related to protein ubiquitination and proteolysis were induced in B-deficient leaves except for one TDF, while only two down-regulated TDFs associated with ubiquitination were detected in B-deficient roots. Thus, many differences existed in long-term B-deficiency-responsive genes between roots and leaves. In conclusion, our findings provided a global picture of the differential responses occurring in B-deficient roots and leaves and revealed new insight into the different adaptive mechanisms of C. sinensis roots and leaves to B-deficiency at the transcriptional level. PMID:26284101

  20. Rapid and direct volatile compound profiling of black and green teas (Camellia sinensis) from different countries with PTR-ToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Yener, Sine; Sánchez-López, José A; Granitto, Pablo M; Cappellin, Luca; Märk, Tilmann D; Zimmermann, Ralf; Bonn, Günther K; Yeretzian, Chahan; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-05-15

    Volatile profiles of 63 black and 38 green teas from different countries were analysed with Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) both for tea leaves and tea infusion. The headspace volatile fingerprints were collected and the tea classes and geographical origins were tracked with pattern recognition techniques. The high mass resolution achieved by ToF mass analyser provided determination of sum formula and tentative identifications of the mass peaks. The results provided successful separation of the black and green teas based on their headspace volatile emissions both from the dry tea leaves and their infusions. The volatile fingerprints were then used to build different classification models for discrimination of black and green teas according to their geographical origins. Two different cross validation methods were applied and their effectiveness for origin discrimination was discussed. The classification models showed a separation of black and green teas according to geographical origins the errors being mostly between neighbouring countries. PMID:26992494

  1. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea. PMID:25772466

  2. Aroma characteristics of cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla Chang).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Jiaxian; Ye, Chuangxing; Kubota, Kikue

    2010-01-01

    Three types of Cocoa tea, green, oolong, and black, were prepared from fresh young leaves of Camellia ptilophylla. Their aroma characteristics were compared by a sensory evaluation with corresponding traditional tea samples made from C. sinensis. The aroma profile of Cocoa green tea was quite different from that of traditional green tea, but fermented Cocoa oolong tea and black tea showed aroma profiles similar to those of traditional oolong tea and black tea. Cocoa green tea contained vanillin as the most abundant aroma constituent. Almost the same aroma compounds of jasmine lactone, indole and monoterpene alcohols, which are known as important aroma constituents in commercial oolong tea and black tea, were identified as the main aroma compounds in the fermented Cocoa tea types. The composition of these aroma compounds well explained the aroma profile of each Cocoa tea. The monoterpene alcohols seemed to be released during fermented tea manufacture, because seventeen glycosides consisting of the aglycons of terpene alcohols were identified in Cocoa tea leaves, and hydrolytic activity of crude enzymes in the p-nitrophenol glycoside substrate was also detected. PMID:20460717

  3. Antifungal activities of major tea leaf volatile constituents toward Colletorichum camelliae Massea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Ying-Bo; Qi, Li; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2006-05-31

    A crude glycosidic fraction was prepared from fresh tea leaves and treated with the crude tea enzyme, fractions of cis-3-hexenol, linalool oxide I (cis-furanoid), linalool oxide II (trans-furanoid), linalool, methyl salicylate, geraniol, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were monitored to be the major aglycone moieties by analyzing the released volatiles. The amount of the released aglycone moieties is 5.8 times higher than those in free form. For investigation of the functions of the glycosidically bound form aroma constituents in tea leaves, their antifungal activities were determined by antifungal assay. Geraniol, linalool, methyl salicylate, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol exhibited significant antifungal activities toward Colletorichum camelliae Massea, although cis-3-hexenol and linalool oxides showed weaker activities by comparison. Among them, geraniol was shown to be the most potential antifungal substance with a MIC value of 440 microg/mL. The crude glycosidic fraction prepared from tea leaves also exhibited significant antifungal activities in a wide range of concentrations from 2 to 25 mg/mL in a PDA medium. It was deduced that the glycosidically bound volatiles are formed and stored in the intact tissue of tea leaf and hydrolyzed by the actions of both the endogenous and the exogenous glycosidases to release volatiles as antifungal substances when exposed to Colletorichum camelliae Massea. The results suggested that the higher content of the bound form geraniol in tea leaves of var. sinensis might be responsible for their stronger antipathogen properties toward tea leaf blight, as opposed to those of var. assamica. PMID:16719518

  4. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies).

    PubMed

    Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

    2014-01-01

    Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33 mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00 mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective. PMID:24949007

  5. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies)

    PubMed Central

    Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

    2014-01-01

    Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33 mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00 mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective. PMID:24949007

  6. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the methanolic extract from leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Purobi; Yadav, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) are used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhea, to promote draining of abscesses and as analgesic agent in the traditional medicine of Cook Islands, Haiti, Japan and Mexico. Aim: The present study investigated the oral acute and subacute toxicity of methanol leaf extract of H. rosa-sinensis in mice. Materials and Methods: In the acute toxicity study, a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract was given to five mice at 48 h intervals. Animals were observed individually for any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, mice were treated with 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses of the extract for 14 days. The hematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and kidneys of animals were studied at the end of the experiment. Results: For acute treatment, the extract did not reveal any signs of toxicity or mortality in any animal, during the 14 days observation period. The LD50 of extract was estimated to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. In the sub-acute toxicity study, administration of 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses of extract to mice for two weeks did not reveal any marked adverse effects on hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney in the 400 mg/kg group. However, hepato-renal toxicity as evidenced by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total and indirect bilirubin, urea and creatinine was seen in the animals that received 800 mg/kg dose of extract for 14 days. In addition, in the same group of animals, the histological assessments of liver and kidney also showed various adverse effects viz. dilated sinusoids, apoptotic nuclei and inflammatory infiltrate inside sinusoidal capillaries in the liver, and marked the disorganization of tubules and glomeruli, and enlarged interstitial spaces in the kidney. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that for traditional medicinal

  7. Differences in secondary metabolites in leaves from orange trees (Citrus sinensis L.) affected with greening disease (Huanglongbing) (HLB)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary analyses by HPLC-MS of methanolic extracts of two sets of orange leaves that are symptomatic of the Greening Disease (HLB) have shown several consistent differences. The main flavonoids in symptomatic and nonsymptomatic leaves were monitored in the HPLC chromatograms at 330 nm, and signi...

  8. Phytohormone profiling of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves and roots using GC-MS-based method.

    PubMed

    Nehela, Yasser; Hijaz, Faraj; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser A; El-Zahaby, Hassan M; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-07-20

    Phytohormones mainly affect plant development and trigger varied responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The sensitivity of methods used to profile phytohormones is a vital factor that affects the results. We used an improved GC-MS-based method in the selective ion-monitoring (SIM) mode to study the phytohormone profiling in citrus tissues. One extraction solvent mixture and two derivatization reagents were used, methyl chloroformate (MCF) and N-Methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA). The method showed a low limit of detection and low limit of quantification with high extraction recovery percentage and reproducibility. Overall, we detected 13 phytohormones belonging to six different groups. Auxins, SAs, tJA, and ABA were detected after derivatization with MCF while cytokinins and GAs were detected after derivatization with MSTFA. Cytokinins, SAs, and gibberellins were found in all tissues while auxins and tJA were observed only in the leaves. ABA was found in leaves and roots, but not in root tips. The method we used is efficient, precise, and appropriate to study citrus phytohormonal profiles to understand their crosstalk and responses to environmental and biological stresses. PMID:27224902

  9. The use of laser light to enhance the uptake of foliar-applied substances into citrus (Citrus sinensis) leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Fanton Borges, Ana; Brodersen, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Uptake of foliar-applied substances across the leaf cuticle is central to world food production as well as for physiological investigations into phloem structure and function. Yet, despite the presence of stomata, foliar application as a delivery system can be extremely inefficient due to the low permeability of leaf surfaces to polar compounds. Methods: Using laser light to generate microscopic perforations in the leaf cuticle, we tested the penetration of several substances into the leaf, their uptake into the phloem, and their subsequent movement through the phloem tissue. Substances varied in their size, charge, and Stokes radius. Results: The phloem-mobile compounds 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), lysine, Biocillin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), trehalose, carboxyfluorescein-SE, and poly(amidomine) (PAMAM) dendrimer G-4 nanoparticles (4.5 nm in size) showed a high degree of mobility and were able to penetrate and be transported in the phloem. Discussion: Our investigation demonstrated the effectiveness of laser light technology in enhancing the penetration of foliar-applied substances into citrus leaves. The technology is also applicable to the study of phloem mobility of substances by providing a less invasive, highly repeatable, and more quantifiable delivery method. The implied superficial lesions to the leaf can be mitigated by applying a waxy coating. PMID:26819863

  10. Next-generation sequencing reveals differentially amplified tandem repeats as a major genome component of Northern Europe's oldest Camellia japonica.

    PubMed

    Heitkam, Tony; Petrasch, Stefan; Zakrzewski, Falk; Kögler, Anja; Wenke, Torsten; Wanke, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Northern Europe's oldest and largest Camellia japonica growing at the Pillnitz Castle (Germany) for over 200 years is of botanical and cultural importance and is a reference for C. japonica molecular scale analysis. In order to provide a fundament for genome analysis of the genus Camellia, we characterize the C. japonica tandem repeat fraction, constituting 12.5 % of the Pillnitz camellia's genome. A genomic library of the Pillnitz C. japonica was produced and Illumina sequenced to generate 36 Gb of paired-end reads. We performed graph-based read clustering implemented in the RepeatExplorer pipeline to estimate the C. japonica repeat fraction of 73 %. This enabled us to identify and characterize the most prominent satellite DNAs, Camellia japonica satellite 1-4 (CajaSat1-CajaSat4), and the 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) by bioinformatics, fluorescent in situ and Southern hybridization. Within the Camellia genus, satellite spreading, array expansion and formation of higher-order structures highlight different modes of repeat evolution. The CajaSat satellites localize at prominent chromosomal sites, including (peri)centromeres and subtelomeres of all chromosomes, thus serving as chromosomal landmarks for their identification. This work provides an insight into the C. japonica chromosome organization and significantly expands the Camellia genomic knowledge, also with respect to the tea plant Camellia sinensis. PMID:26582634

  11. Assessment of Bioautography and Spot Screening of TLC of Green Tea (Camellia) Plant Extracts as Antibacterial and Antioxidant Agents.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S; Khan, B M; Babar, M; Andleeb, S; Hafeez, M; Ali, S; Khan, M F

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out as a prerequisite to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Camellia varieties. The crude extracts of six different plants of green tea Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis were tested against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using agar disk diffusion method at 50 mg/ml concentration. 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and diphenyl-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium free radical scavenging methods were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Phytochemical constituents and trace metals were detected through thin layer chromatography and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer, respectively. The maximum inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus was recorded by dimethyl sulphoxide extracts of green tea varieties. The measured zone of inhibition of dimethyl sulphoxide extracts by Qimen was (10.00±0.0 mm), Japanese (10.00±0.0 mm), Turkish (10.00±0.0 mm), Indonesian (8.33±1.0 mm), P3 clone (10.00±0.0 mm) and Sri Lankan (10.00±0.0 mm). Maximum scavenging potential activity was found with ethanol, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide extracts. Spot screening of TLC-developed plates indicated that the presence of active biological compounds such as flavonoids, proteins, phenols, alkaloids and glycosides also exhibited strong activity against tested bacterial strains. This study reveals the potential biological activities of Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis having massive phytochemical constituents and trace elements. PMID:25284935

  12. Theaflavin Synthesized in a Selective, Domino-Type, One-Pot Enzymatic Biotransformation Method with Camellia sinensis Cell Culture Inhibits Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Masumi; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Saijo, Ryoyasu

    2016-08-01

    The polyphenolic compound theaflavin, which is the main red pigment present in black tea, is reported to elicit various physiological effects. Because of the extremely low concentration of theaflavin present in black tea, its extraction from black tea leaves in quantities sufficient for use in medical studies has been difficult. We have developed a simple, inexpensive, selective, domino-type, one-pot enzymatic biotransformation method for the synthesis of theaflavin that is suitable for use in medical studies. Subsequent administration of this synthetic theaflavin to high-fat diet-induced obese mice inhibited both body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, with no significant difference in the amount of faeces between the experimental and control mice. PMID:27237789

  13. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

  14. Unravelling Colletotrichum species associated with Camellia: employing ApMat and GS loci to resolve species in the C. gloeosporioides complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Weir, B S; Damm, U; Crous, P W; Wang, Y; Liu, B; Wang, M; Zhang, M; Cai, L

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic diversity of 144 Colletotrichum isolates associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic tissues of Camellia sinensis and other Camellia spp. from seven provinces in China (Fujian, Guizhou, Henan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), and seven isolates obtained from other countries, including Indonesia, UK, and the USA. Based on multi-locus (ACT, ApMat, CAL, GAPDH, GS, ITS, TUB2) phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characters, 11 species were distinguished, including nine well-characterised species (C. alienum, C. boninense, C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. karstii, C. sia-mense), and two novel species (C. henanense and C. jiangxiense). Of these, C. camelliae proved to be the most dominant and probably host specific taxon occurring on Camellia. An epitype is also designated for the latter species in this study. Colletotrichum jiangxiense is shown to be phylogenetically closely related to the coffee berry pathogen C. kahawae subsp. kahawae. Pathogenicity tests and the pairwise homoplasy index test suggest that C. jiangxiense and C. kahawae subsp. kahawae are two independent species. This study represents the first report of C. alienum and C. cliviae occurring on Camellia sinensis. In addition, our study demonstrated that the combined use of the loci ApMat and GS in a phylogenetic analysis is able to resolve all currently accepted species in the C. gloeosporioides species complex. PMID:26823629

  15. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of Four Major Flavonol Glycosides in the Leaves of Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roemer (Chinese Toon) from Various Origins by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Liting; Cao, Yaqi; Gu, Qinying; Yang, Huan; Tam, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roemer is an endemic species of Toona genus native to Asian area. Its dried leaves are applied in the treatment of many diseases; however, few investigations have been reported for the quantitative analysis and comparison of major bioactive flavonol glycosides in the leaves harvested from various origins. Objective: To quantitatively analyze four major flavonol glycosides including rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside in the leaves from different production sites and classify them according to the content of these glycosides. Materials and Methods: A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for their simultaneous determination was developed and validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, and repeatability. Moreover, the method established was then employed to explore the difference in the content of these four glycosides in raw materials. Finally, a hierarchical clustering analysis was performed to classify 11 voucher specimens. Results: The separation was performed on a Waters XBridge Shield RP18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) kept at 35°C, and acetonitrile and H2O containing 0.30% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phase was driven at 1.0 mL/min during the analysis. Ten microliters of solution were injected and 254 nm was selected to monitor the separation. A strong linear relationship between the peak area and concentration of four analytes was observed. And, the method was also validated to be repeatable, stable, precise, and accurate. Conclusion: An efficient and reliable HPLC-DAD method was established and applied in the assays for the samples from 11 origins successfully. Moreover, the content of those flavonol glycosides varied much among different batches, and the flavonoids could be considered as biomarkers to control the quality of Chinese Toon. SUMMARY Four major flavonol glycosides in the leaves

  16. Translocation of radiocesium from stems and leaves of plants and the effect on radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kagiya, Shigeo

    2012-09-01

    An accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011 at which time large amounts of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere and the sea. In early May 2011, it was found that newly emerged tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves contained radiocesium, both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in some areas more than 300 km away from the Fukushima plant. To understand the mechanisms of radiocesium transfer to newly emerged tissues (shoots, leaves and fruits) of other plants in the future, radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged leaves of 14 plant species collected from the sampling areas in and near National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. The studied plant types were: (1) herbaceous plants, (2) woody plants with no old leaves at the time of the March accident, and (3) woody plants with old leaves out before the accident. About 40-50 d after the start of the accident, newly emerged leaves from woody plant with old leaves tended to show higher values than other woody or herbaceous plants. Concentrations of radiocesium in newly emerged tissues of trees decreased with time, but they did not decrease to the level of herbaceous plants. The type of the plant and presence of old leaves at the time of the heavy deposition period affected the radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged tissues. PMID:22027214

  17. Evaluation of Camellias for zone 6b

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent hybridization of camellias has yielded several selections recognized as cold hardy to USDA Hardiness Zone 6. Several of the cold hardy camellias, in an established camellia evaluation since 2004, were damaged with foliar bronzing and stem dieback after a severe freeze in November 2013 in McMi...

  18. Arsenic species and leaching characters in tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chungang; Gao, Erle; He, Bin; Jiang, Guibin

    2007-12-01

    Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages consumed in the world. Arsenic including species totalling to 47 Chinese tea samples from 18 tea-producing provinces in China were analyzed. By simulating the infusion process, leaching characters, effects of extraction time and temperature on arsenic extraction were investigated. Total amount of arsenic in tea leaf samples was in the range below the detection limit to 4.81 microg/g. Leaching of arsenic was strongly affected by extraction time and temperature. Because arsenic leaching ability by hot water was low and most of the arsenic was left in tea leaf residues after infusion, the concentration of arsenic in tea infusion was low even when some original tea leaf samples contained high level of arsenic. The major species in tea infusion were inorganic arsenic form (arsenite As(III) and arsenate As(V)). Compared with the amount of arsenic in infusion, more organic arsenic species were found in the original tea leaf samples. The contents of extractable inorganic arsenic in tea leaf samples were in the range below the detection limit to 226 ng/g. Considering ingestion dose and assuming one person (60 kg body weight) consumes 10 g of Chinese tea per day, the maximum inorganic arsenic contribution from tea infusion is 2.26 microg, which is equal to 0.038 microg/kg/d excluding water contribution. This value only accounts for 1.8% of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) (2.1 microg/kg/d) recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization [FAO/WHO, 1989. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Thirty-third Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series No. 776, Geneva, World Health Organization]. PMID:17892910

  19. Camellia sinensis (Tea): Implications and role in preventing dental decay.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Karun, Vinayak; Nigam, Anant G; Dutta, Samir; Marwah, Nikhil

    2013-07-01

    Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages with bioactive compounds like polyphenols-flavonoids-catechins, which are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to the tea. These compounds have multi-dimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase and inhibition of acid production. This article outlines the possible role of these compounds coupled with the presence of high fluoride content in tea to exhibit an anticariogenic effect. PMID:24347923

  20. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  1. Camellia sinensis (Tea): Implications and role in preventing dental decay

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Karun, Vinayak; Nigam, Anant G.; Dutta, Samir; Marwah, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages with bioactive compounds like polyphenols-flavonoids-catechins, which are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to the tea. These compounds have multi-dimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase and inhibition of acid production. This article outlines the possible role of these compounds coupled with the presence of high fluoride content in tea to exhibit an anticariogenic effect. PMID:24347923

  2. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity. PMID:26028699

  3. Aqueous Extracts of Toona sinensis Leaves Inhibit Renal Carcinoma Cell Growth and Migration Through JAK2/stat3, Akt, MEK/ERK, and mTOR/HIF-2α Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chia; Chien, Ling-Hui; Huang, Bu-Miin; Chia, Yi-Chen; Chiu, Hui-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Toona sinensis (TS) is a type of deciduous tree, which is distributed widely in Asia and used as a traditional herb medicine. Previously, we demonstrated that aqueous extracts of TS leaves (TSL-1) induce apoptosis in two clear types of human renal carcinoma cells (ccRCC) via mitochondria-dependent pathway. In this study, we further investigated the more detailed mechanism of TSL-1-induced antitumor effects on ccRCCs. TSL-1 treatment arrested ccRCC cells in G0/G1 phase through the decrease of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, and CDK4 as well as induction of p53 and FOXO3a protein expressions. On the other hand, the inhibitory effects of TSL-1 on migration were also observed in 786-O and A-498 cells. Mechanically, we presented that TSL-1 could suppress cell cycle progression and motility via inhibiting the phosphorylation of JAK2/stat3, Akt, MEK/ERK, and mTOR in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that TSL-1 inhibited p21, HIF-2α, c-Myc, VEGF, and MMP9 protein expressions in both cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggested that TS-induced apoptosis and its antimigration activity in ccRCC cells were accompanied by inactivation of several oncogenic pathways. PMID:27115866

  4. Comparison of the Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Green Branches and Leaves of Egyptian Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var. malesy).

    PubMed

    Eldahshan, Omayma A; Halim, Ahmed F

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from the leaves and green branches of the Egyptian navel orange trees were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 33 and 24 compounds were identified from the oils of the leaves and branches accounting for 96.0% and 97.9%, respectively, of the total detected constituents. The major ones were sabinene (36.5; 33.0%), terpinen-4-ol (8.2; 6.2%), δ-3-carene (7.0; 9.4%), limonene (6.8; 18.7%), trans-ocimene (6.7; 6.1%), and β-myrcene (4.5; 4.4%). The antimicrobial activities of both oils were evaluated using the agar-well diffusion method toward three representatives for each of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. The oil of leaves was more effective as antimicrobial agent than that of the branches. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most sensitive bacteria and fungi by the leaves oil. PMID:26948682

  5. Delivery of tea polyphenols to the oral cavity by green tea leaves and black tea extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mao-Jung; Lambert, Joshua D; Prabhu, Saileta; Meng, Xiaofeng; Lu, Hong; Maliakal, Pius; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yang, Chung S

    2004-01-01

    Catechins and theaflavins, polyphenolic compounds derived from tea (Camellia sinensis, fam. Theaceae), have been reported to have a wide range of biological activities including prevention of tooth decay and oral cancer. The present study was undertaken to determine the usefulness of green tea leaves and black tea extract for the delivery of catechins and theaflavins to the oral cavity. After holding either green tea leaves (2 g) or brewed black tea (2 g of black tea leaves in 100 ml) in the mouth for 2-5 min and thoroughly rinsing the mouth, high concentrations of catechins (C(max) = 131.0-2.2 micro M) and theaflavins (C(max) = 1.8-0.6 micro M) were observed in saliva in the 1st hour. Whereas there was significant interindividual variation in the peak levels of catechins and theaflavins, the overall kinetic profile was similar, with t(1/2) = 25-44 min and 49-76 min for catechins and theaflavins, respectively (average coefficient of variation in t(1/2) was 23.4%). In addition to the parent catechin and theaflavin peaks, five unidentified peaks were also observed in saliva after black tea treatment. Hydrolysis of theaflavin gallates, apparently by salivary esterases, was observed in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that tea leaves can be used as a convenient, slow-release source of catechins and theaflavins and provide information for the possible use of tea in the prevention of oral cancer and dental caries. PMID:14744744

  6. Assessment of Bioautography and Spot Screening of TLC of Green Tea (Camellia) Plant Extracts as Antibacterial and Antioxidant Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, S.; Khan, B. M.; Babar, M.; Andleeb, S.; Hafeez, M.; Ali, S.; Khan, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out as a prerequisite to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Camellia varieties. The crude extracts of six different plants of green tea Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis were tested against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using agar disk diffusion method at 50 mg/ml concentration. 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and diphenyl-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium free radical scavenging methods were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Phytochemical constituents and trace metals were detected through thin layer chromatography and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer, respectively. The maximum inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus was recorded by dimethyl sulphoxide extracts of green tea varieties. The measured zone of inhibition of dimethyl sulphoxide extracts by Qimen was (10.00±0.0 mm), Japanese (10.00±0.0 mm), Turkish (10.00±0.0 mm), Indonesian (8.33±1.0 mm), P3 clone (10.00±0.0 mm) and Sri Lankan (10.00±0.0 mm). Maximum scavenging potential activity was found with ethanol, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide extracts. Spot screening of TLC-developed plates indicated that the presence of active biological compounds such as flavonoids, proteins, phenols, alkaloids and glycosides also exhibited strong activity against tested bacterial strains. This study reveals the potential biological activities of Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis having massive phytochemical constituents and trace elements. PMID:25284935

  7. Cloning of β-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-01-01

    A β-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of β-primeverosides (6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The β-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The β-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The β-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to β-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the β-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze β-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl β-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the β-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the β-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the β-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl β-primeveroside by the β-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the β-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the β-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed. PMID:12481100

  8. Application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the simultaneous prediction of alkaloids and phenolic substances in green tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Engelhardt, U H; Wegent, A; Drews, H; Lapczynski, S

    1999-12-01

    A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS) method for the prediction of polyphenol and alkaloid compounds in the leaves of green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] was developed. Reference measurements of the individual catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, and theobromine were performed by reversed-phase HPLC. The total polyphenols were determined according to the colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Using the partial least-squares algorithm, very good calibration statistics were obtained for the prediction of gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, caffeine, and theobromine (R(2) > 0.85) with standard deviation/standard error of cross-validation (SD/SECV) ratio ranging from 2.00 to 6.27. Simultaneously, the dry matter content of the tea leaves can be analyzed very precisely (R(2) = 0.94; SD/SECV = 4.12). Furthermore, it is possible to discriminate tea leaves of different age by principal component analysis on the basis of the received NIR spectra. Prediction of the total polyphenol content is performed with a lower accuracy, which might be due to the lack of specificity in the colorimetric reference method. The study demonstrates that NIRS technology can be successfully applied as a rapid method not only for breeding and cultivation purposes but also to estimate the quality and taste of green tea and to control industrial processes, for example, decaffeination. PMID:10606573

  9. Beneficial Effects of Camellia Oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) on Hepatoprotective and Gastroprotective Activities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that increased dietary intake of natural antioxidants is beneficial for health because of their bioactivities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation actions. Camellia oil made from tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is commonly used as an edible oil and a traditional medicine in Taiwan and China. Until now, the camellia oil has been widely considered as a dietary oil for heath. In this review, we summarize the protective effects of camellia oil with antioxidant activity against oxidative stress leading to hepatic damage and gastrointestinal ulcers. The information in this review leads to the conclusion that camellia oil is not only an edible oil but also a vegetable oil with a potential function for human health. PMID:26598814

  10. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration. PMID:27087091

  11. Critical factors determining fluoride concentration in tea leaves produced from Anhui province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Peng, Chuanyi; Xu, Wei; Li, Daxiang; Wang, Yijun; Fang, Shihui; Li, Yeyun; Hu, Shaode; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the fluoride present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and its relationship to soils, varieties, seasons and tea leaf maturity. The study also explored how different manufacturing processes affect the leaching of fluoride into tea beverages. The fluoride concentration in the tea leaves was significantly correlate to the concentration of water-soluble fluoride in the soil. Different tea varieties accumulated different levels of fluoride, with varieties, Anji baicha having the highest and Nongkang zao having the lowest fluoride concentration. In eight different varieties of tea plant harvested over three tea seasons, fluoride concentration were highest in the summer and lowest in the spring in china. The fluoride concentration in tea leaves was directly related to the maturity of the tea leaves at harvest. Importantly, the tea manufacturing process did not introduced fluoride contamination. The leaching of fluoride was 6.8% and 14.1% higher in black and white tea, respectively, than in fresh tea leaves. The manufacturing step most affecting the leaching of fluoride into tea beverage was withering used in white, black and oolong tea rather than rolling or fermentation. The exposure and associated health risks for fluoride concentration in infusions of 115 commercially available teas from Chinese tea markets was determined. The fluoride concentration ranged from 5.0 to 306.0mgkg(-1), with an average of 81.7mgkg(-1). The hazard quotient (HQ) of these teas indicated that there was no risk of fluorosis from drinking tea, based on statistical analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:27162130

  12. Mineral and metabolic profiles in tea leaves and flowers during flower development.

    PubMed

    Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jianhui; Ding, Zhaotang; Liang, Qing; Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverage crops in the world, and the physiological processes and gene regulations involved in development in tea plants have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the metabolic changes combined with mineral distributions that occur during flower development. Here we detected the contents of 11 elements in tea leaves and flowers and found that, some of them, especially phosphorus, sulfur and copper, showed significant changes during tea flowering. We also detected 122 metabolites in tea leaves and flowers and found that, 72 of them showed significant differences between flowers and leaves, of which sugars, organic acids, and flavonoids dominated. The sugars, such as trehalose and galactose, all accumulated in tea flowers, and the organic acids, such as malic acid, citric acid and fumaric acid involved in TCA cycle. The flavonoids, like epicatechin, catechin gallate and epigallocatechin, were more abundant in leaves. Furthermore, we found that the contents of 33 metabolites changed during the development of flowers. Especially, citric acid, phenylalanine and most flavonoids decreased while fructose and galactose increased during flowering stages in flowers. We also analyzed the correlations between the ions and metabolites and found that, some mineral nutrients including phosphorus, sulfur, manganese and zinc had close relations to organic acids, flavonoids, sugars and several amino acids during flowering. We mapped the metabolic pathway according to the KEGG database. This work will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to the understanding of mineral metabolism. PMID:27372442

  13. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  14. Camellia nanningensis sp. nov.: the earliest fossil wood record of the genus Camellia (Theaceae) from East Asia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu-Liang; Jin, Jian-Hua; Quan, Cheng; Oskolski, Alexei A

    2016-09-01

    A new species Camellia nanningensis was described on the basis of well-preserved mummified wood from the upper Oligocene Yongning Formation of Nanning Basin in Guangxi Province, South China. This represents the most ancient fossil wood assigned to Camellia, and the earliest fossil record of the family Theaceae in China. This fossil material shows that Camellia occurred in China as early as the late Oligocene, suggesting more ancient radiation of this genus than estimated by molecular dating. PMID:27379410

  15. [Chemical constituents from Spatholobus sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yin, Ting; Liu, Hua; Wang, Bin; Tu, Guang-Zhong; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Spatholobus sinensis is a plant of the Spatholobus genus (Leguminosae family). Its caulis are used as "ji-xue-teng" regionally. However, to our knowledge, no phytochemical investigation on S. sinensis has been reported to date. In this study, eight compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the caulis of S. sinensis, by solvents extraction and column chromatography methods. By analysis of their physic-chemical constants and spectral data, the structures of 8 compounds were identified as spatholosineside A (1), 2',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), lupinalbin A (4), coumestrol (5), naringenin (6), protocatechuic acid (7), leonuriside A (8). Compound 1 is a new compound. PMID:18357735

  16. Commercialized non-Camellia tea: traditional function and molecular identification

    PubMed Central

    Long, Ping; Cui, Zhanhu; Wang, Yingli; Zhang, Chunhong; Zhang, Na; Li, Minhui; Xiao, Peigen

    2014-01-01

    Non-Camellia tea is a part of the colorful Chinese tea culture, and is also widely used as beverage and medicine in folk for disease prevention and treatment. In this study, 37 samples were collected, including 33 kinds of non-Camellia teas and 4 kinds of teas (Camellia). Traditional functions of non-Camellia teas were investigated. Furthermore, non-Camellia teas of original plants were characterized and identified by molecular methods. Four candidate regions (rbcL, matK, ITS2, psbA-trnH) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. In addition, DNA barcodes were used for the first time to discriminate the commercial non-Camellia tea and their adulterants, and to evaluate their safety. This study showed that BLASTN and the relevant phylogenetic tree are efficient tools for identification of the commercial non-Camellia tea and their adulterants. However, some sequences from original plants have not been found and there is a limitation of sequence number of original plants in GenBank. Submitting more original plant sequences to the GenBank will be helpful for evaluating the safety of non-Camellia teas. PMID:26579387

  17. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. PMID:25930125

  18. [Cloning and tissue expression of 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene in Angelica sinensis].

    PubMed

    Wen, Sui-chao; Wang, Yin-quan; Luo, Jun; Xia, Qi; Fan, Qin; Li, Shu-nan; Wang, Zhen-heng

    2015-12-01

    4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in higher plant and may regulate the biosynthesis of ferulic acid in Angelica sinensis. In this study, the homology-based cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique were used to clone a full length cDNA encoding 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene (4CL), and then qRT-PCR was taken for analyzing 4CL gene expression levels in the root, stem and root tissue at different growth stages of seedlings of A. sinensis. The results showed that a full-length 4CL cDNA (1,815 bp) was obtained (GenBank accession number: KT880508) which shares an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 632 bp, encodes 544 amino acid polypeptides. We found 4CL gene was expressed in all tissues including leaf, stem and root of seedlings of A. sinensis. The expressions in the leave and stem were increased significantly with the growth of seedlings of A. sinensis (P < 0.05), while it in the root showed little change. It indicates a time-space pattern of 4CL gene expression in seedlings of A. sinensis. These findings will be useful for establishing an experiment basis for studying the structure and function of 4CL gene and elucidating mechanism of ferulic acid biosynthesis and space-time regulation in A. sinensis. PMID:27245029

  19. Determination of minerals extracted from several commercial teas (Camellia sinensis) to hot water (infusion).

    PubMed

    Gezgin, Sait; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Atalay, Emine

    2006-01-01

    Mineral contents of some tea and their infusions drunk in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The Al, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, and S contents were very high in both infusions and tea (i.e., pieces of the tea plant). The As, Cd, Cr, Li, Pb, and Se contents of infusion and tea were found to be very low. The level of K of all samples is higher than those of other minerals. Generally, mineral contents of tea were found to be higher than those of tea infusions. In addition, the health benefits of teas and knowledge of their mineral contents are of great interest and may be useful for further study of enzyme systems and vital biochemical functions. PMID:16579740

  20. Varietal identification of tea (Camellia sinensis) using nanofluidic array of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wan-Ping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Tan, Hua-Wei; Zhou, Lin; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Apart from water, tea is the world’s most widely consumed beverage. Tea is produced in more than 50 countries with an annual production of approximately 4.7 million tons. The market segment for specialty tea has been expanding rapidly owing to increased demand, resulting in higher revenues and profits for tea growers and the industry. Accurate varietal identification is critically important to ensure traceability and authentication of premium tea products, which in turn contribute to on-farm conservation of tea genetic diversity. Using a set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers developed from the expressed sequence tag (EST) database of Camilla senensis, we genotyped deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples extracted from a diverse group of tea varieties, including both fresh and processed commercial loose-leaf teas. The validation led to the designation of 60 SNPs that unambiguously identified all 40 tested tea varieties with high statistical rigor (p<0.0001). Varietal authenticity and genetic relationships among the analyzed cultivars were further characterized by ordination and Bayesian clustering analysis. These SNP markers, in combination with a high-throughput genotyping protocol, effectively established and verified specific DNA fingerprints for all tested tea varieties. This method provides a powerful tool for variety authentication and quality control for the tea industry. It is also highly useful for the management of tea genetic resources and breeding, where accurate and efficient genotype identification is essential. PMID:26504544

  1. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    PubMed Central

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops. PMID:27465480

  2. Calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) analysis for the identification of decayed tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Huang, Linpei

    2014-01-01

    The history of tea is poorly known, mainly due to the questionable identification of decayed tea plants in archaeological samples. This paper attempts to test the utility of calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) for the identification of tea in archaeological samples. It provides the first survey of the macropatterns of calciphytoliths in several species of Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants. Crystals were extracted from 45 samples of tea, Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants, and detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. In tea plants, druse and trichome base are the most distinctive crystals. Druses have the smallest diameter (11.65 ± 3.64 μm), and trichome bases have four distinctive straight and regular cracks, similar to a regular extinction cross. The results provide morphological criteria for distinguishing tea from other plants, specifically the presence of identifiable druses together with calcified trichome bases. The implications are significant for understanding the history of tea and plant exploitation, especially for plants for which the preservation of macrofossils is poor. PMID:25342006

  3. Calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) analysis for the identification of decayed tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Huang, Linpei

    2014-01-01

    The history of tea is poorly known, mainly due to the questionable identification of decayed tea plants in archaeological samples. This paper attempts to test the utility of calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) for the identification of tea in archaeological samples. It provides the first survey of the macropatterns of calciphytoliths in several species of Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants. Crystals were extracted from 45 samples of tea, Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants, and detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. In tea plants, druse and trichome base are the most distinctive crystals. Druses have the smallest diameter (11.65 ± 3.64 μm), and trichome bases have four distinctive straight and regular cracks, similar to a regular extinction cross. The results provide morphological criteria for distinguishing tea from other plants, specifically the presence of identifiable druses together with calcified trichome bases. The implications are significant for understanding the history of tea and plant exploitation, especially for plants for which the preservation of macrofossils is poor. PMID:25342006

  4. Genoprotective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in human subjects: results of a controlled supplementation trial.

    PubMed

    Han, K C; Wong, W C; Benzie, Iris F F

    2011-01-01

    Green tea is rich in polyphenolic antioxidants and has widely reported but largely unsubstantiated health benefits. In the present study, genoprotective effects of two types of green tea were studied both in an in vitro and in a human supplementation trial. For the in vitro study, human lymphocytes were pre-incubated in tea (0·005-0·1 %, w/v), washed and subjected to oxidant challenge induced by H2O2. In a placebo-controlled, cross-over supplementation study, eighteen healthy volunteers took 2 x 150 ml/d of 1% (w/v) green tea ('Longjing' green tea or 'screw-shaped' green tea) or water (control) for 4 weeks (n 6). Subjects took all the three treatments in a random order, with 6 weeks' washout between each treatment. Fasting blood and urine were collected before and after each treatment. The comet assay was used to measure the resistance of lymphocytic DNA to H2O2-induced challenge. Basal oxidation-induced DNA damage was measured using the formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg) enzyme-assisted comet assay. Urine 7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG, mol/mmol creatinine), a biomarker of whole-body oxidative stress, was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem MS. In vitro testing results of tea-treated cells showed increased (P < 0·05) resistance of DNA to the challenge. In the supplementation trial, a significant (P < 0·05) increase in resistance was also observed. Furthermore, the FPg comet data showed .20% decrease in DNA damage with tea supplementation: mean and standard deviation changes in %DNA in comet tail in the Fpg-assisted comet assay were: -5·96 (SD 3·83) % after Longjing tea; -6·22 (SD 3·34) % after screw-shaped tea; +0·91 (SD 5·79) % after water (P < 0·05). No significant changes in urine 8-oxodG were seen. The results indicate that green tea has significant genoprotective effects and provide evidence for green tea as a 'functional food'. PMID:20807462

  5. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanhuan; Wang, Ya; Chen, Yana; Zhang, Pan; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Yewei; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physiological functions. Classical histochemical localization staining reagents can not specifically detect galloylated catechins; thus, their subcellular localization remains controversial. In the present study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against galloylated catechins, which can be used for the subcellular localization of galloylated catechins in the tea plant by immunohistochemistry. Direct ELISA and ForteBio Octet Red 96 System assay indicated the mAb could recognize the galloylated catechins with high specificities and affinities. In addition, tea bud was ascertained as the optimal tissue for freezing microtomic sections for immunohistochemistry. What’s more, the high quality mAbs which exhibited excellent binding capability to galloylated catechins were utilized for the visualization of them via immunohistochemistry. Our findings demonstrated that vacuoles were the primary sites of localization of galloylated catechins at the subcellular level. PMID:27303422

  6. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-07-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze).

    PubMed

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops. PMID:27465480

  8. Differential Growth Suppression of Human Melanoma Cells by Tea (Camellia sinensis) Epicatechins (ECG, EGC and EGCG)

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Vaishali; Moon, Songeun; Ruiz, Carlos; Muthugounder, Sakunthala

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that catechins of green tea have different antiproliferative effects on cell lines derived from gender-dependent cancers; epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) had the strongest inhibitory effect. In the present study, we examined the effects of epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-gallate (ECG) and EGC 3-gallate (EGCG) on the viability, density, doubling time and cycle number of cell lines derived from melanoma metastasized to lymph nodes (MB-1133 and SE-0154) or distant organs (CH-0356, JK-0346, SA-1171, GE-0208, NS-1176 and LF-0023). These catechins have been documented to have no growth suppressive or apoptotic effects on normal melanocytes (Nihal et al., Int J Cancer 2005;114:513–21). EGCG (50 μM) showed greater inhibitory potency than EGC (50 μM) in SE-0154, NS-1176, GE-0208 and LF-0023 cell lines but the two catechins produced similar inhibitory effects in CH-0356, JK-0346 and SA-1171 cell lines. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) was lower for EGC than EGCG in MB-1133 and CH-0356 cells, higher for EGC than EGCG in GE-0208 cells and comparable (11–12 μM) for both the catechins in LF-0023 cells. When compared with EGC, the cytotoxic effect (% dead cell counts) and the suppression of the growth (change in cell number) of all melanoma cell lines tested were pronounced with EGCG. This investigation validates the hypothesis that anticancer action of the various catechins may vary with the type of malignancy and provides a model for tumor cell heterogeneity based on susceptibility and resistance of tumor cells to different green tea catechins. Therefore, this information is critical for undertaking chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic trials against melanoma and gender-based cancers. PMID:18955299

  9. Differentiation of tea (Camellia sinensis) varieties and their geographical origin according to their metal content.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cáceres, P L; Martín, M J; Pablos, F; González, A G

    2001-10-01

    The metal content of 46 tea samples, including green, black, and instant teas, was analyzed. Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, Ti, and Zn were determined by ICP-AES. Potassium, with an average content of 15145.4 mg kg(-1) was the metal with major content. Calcium, magnesium, and aluminum had average contents of 4252.4, 1978.2, and 1074.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. The average amount of manganese was 824.8 mg kg(-1). There were no clear differences between the metal contents of green and black teas. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and artificial neural networks (ANN), were applied to differentiate the tea types. LDA and ANN provided the best results in the classification of tea varieties. These chemometric procedures were also useful for distinguishing between Asian and African teas and between the geographical origin of different Asian teas. PMID:11600020

  10. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding ribosome inactivating protein from Dianthus sinensis L.

    PubMed

    Cho, H J; Lee, S J; Kim, S; Kim, B D

    2000-04-30

    To isolate a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) gene, six plant species were surveyed for antiviral activity. Crude proteins extracted from these plants were tested for the antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Nicotiana glutinosa. All the plants, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Dianthus superbus, Dianthus sinensis and Celosia cristata, with an exception of Oenanthe stolonifera, presented 70-90% inhibition of viral infectivity. In an attempt to search for the RIP gene from D. sinensis, partial cDNA was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the poly(A)+ RNA from D. sinensis leaves. DNA gel blot analysis showed that D. sinensis has multi-copy RIP genes. The expression of RIP gene was investigated in the flower, leaf, root and stem of D. sinensis, and was found to be most abundant in the leaf. Using the partial cDNA as a probe, seven full-length cDNAs were isolated from a library prepared from D. sinensis leaves. They were divided into three groups on the basis of their nucleotide sequence homology. The three representative clones, cDsRIP1, cDsRIP2 and cDsRIP3 were completely sequenced. They all had an open reading frame of 882 bp. The cDsRIP2 showed 79% homology with dianthin 30 and saporin genes; 59% with PAP and Mirabilis antiviral protein MAP genes. From the analysis of deduced amino acid sequences, it was predicted that D. sinensis RIP cDNAs might have a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues at their N-terminus. When the cDNA was expressed in E. coli, the bacteria was unable to grow upon IPTG induction, suggesting that expression of the gene renders toxicity to E. coli cells. PMID:10850653

  11. Quality Evaluation on Use of Camellia Oil as an Alternative Method in Dried Seaweed Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Park, Hui Gyu; Kim, Cho Rong; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Cho, Kye Man; Choi, Jine Shang; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The fatty acid and volatile compound compositions of camellia oil were analyzed in this study. The impacts of the replacement of conventional vegetable oil with camellia oil on the sensory attributes of dried seaweed were also determined. C18:1 (83.59%), followed by C16:0 and C18:2, were the most abundant fatty acids in camellia oil. A total of 11 and 32 volatile compounds were identified in camellia oil and sesame oil, respectively. In the preference test, the camellia oil samples received a higher, although insignificant, liking rating in overall acceptability of appearance. Overall, there were no differences between the sensory attributes of camellia oil and sesame oil. This finding, combined with the unique fatty acid composition, thermal stability, and health benefits of camellia oil indicate that further study into the use of camellia oil in foods is warranted. PMID:25320722

  12. Effect of feeding dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaves on growth performance, carcass traits, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler during the finisher phase.

    PubMed

    Alzawqari, M H; Al-Baddany, A A; Al-Baadani, H H; Alhidary, I A; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Aqil, G M; Abdurab, A

    2016-09-01

    The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dried sweet orange peel (SOP) and lemon grass leaves (LGL) as feed additives on broiler growth performance, serum metabolites, and antioxidant status. A total of 192-day-old (Ross 308) broiler chickens were distributed randomly into 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment. The dietary treatments included a control diet without any feed additive (T1), a diet containing 0.8 % SOP (T2), a diet containing 0.8 % LGL (T3), and a diet containing combination of 0.4 % SOP + 0.4 % LGL (T4) was fed during the growth period from 22 to 42 days. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass traits, serum components, and antioxidant status were measured. At the end of the experimental period, the results indicated that supplementation of SOP and LGL alone or in combination did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect BWG, FI, FCR, and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens. Serum total protein was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in T3 and T4 compared to the other treatments. Also, serum globulin increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated groups. Serum glucose, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups, while cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein decreased in T2 compared to the other groups. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher total antioxidant status was observed in T2 compared to the other treatments. In conclusion, these results indicate that SOP, LGL, and their combination may positively modify some serum components and the antioxidant status without any beneficial effect on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. PMID:27209636

  13. CO2 assimilation, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, carbohydrates and photosynthetic electron transport probed by the JIP-test, of tea leaves in response to phosphorus supply

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zheng-He; Chen, Li-Song; Chen, Rong-Bing; Zhang, Fang-Zhou; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Tang, Ning

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the effects of P deficiency on tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) growth, P uptake and utilization as well as leaf gas exchange and Chl a fluorescence have been investigated, very little is known about the effects of P deficiency on photosynthetic electron transport, photosynthetic enzymes and carbohydrates of tea leaves. In this study, own-rooted 10-month-old tea trees were supplied three times weekly for 17 weeks with 500 mL of nutrient solution at a P concentration of 0, 40, 80, 160, 400 or 1000 μM. This objective of this study was to determine how P deficiency affects CO2 assimilation, Rubisco, carbohydrates and photosynthetic electron transport in tea leaves to understand the mechanism by which P deficiency leads to a decrease in CO2 assimilation. Results Both root and shoot dry weight increased as P supply increased from 0 to 160 μM, then remained unchanged. P-deficient leaves from 0 to 80 μM P-treated trees showed decreased CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, but increased intercellular CO2 concentration. Both initial and total Rubisco activity, contents of Chl and total soluble protein in P-deficient leaves decreased to a lesser extent than CO2 assimilation. Contents of sucrose and starch were decreased in P-deficient leaves, whereas contents of glucose and fructose did not change significantly except for a significant increase in the lowest P leaves. OJIP transients from P-deficient leaves displayed a rise at the O-step and a depression at the P-step, accompanied by two new steps at about 150 μs (L-step) and at about 300 μs (K-step). RC/CSo, TRo/ABS (or Fv/Fm), ETo/ABS, REo/ABS, maximum amplitude of IP phase, PIabs and PItot, abs were decreased in P-deficient leaves, while VJ, VI and dissipated energy were increased. Conclusion P deficiency decreased photosynthetic electron transport capacity by impairing the whole electron transport chain from the PSII donor side up to the PSI, thus decreasing ATP content which limits

  14. De Novo Assembly and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Provide Insight into Lysine Biosynthesis in Toona sinensis Roem

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Song, Zhenqiao; Liu, Tian; Guo, Linlin; Li, Xingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Toona sinensis Roem is a popular leafy vegetable in Chinese cuisine and is also used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, leaf samples were collected from the same plant on two development stages and then used for high-throughput Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). 125,884 transcripts and 54,628 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly. A total of 25,570 could be annotated with known biological functions, which indicated that the T. sinensis leaves and shoots were undergoing multiple developmental processes especially for active metabolic processes. Analysis of differentially expressed unigenes between the two libraries showed that the lysine biosynthesis was an enriched KEGG pathway, and candidate genes involved in the lysine biosynthesis pathway in T. sinensis leaves and shoots were identified. Our results provide a primary analysis of the gene expression files of T. sinensis leaf and shoot on different development stages and afford a valuable resource for genetic and genomic research on plant lysine biosynthesis. PMID:27376077

  15. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  16. Metal analysis in citrus sinensis fruit peel and psidium guajava leaf.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-07-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's 't' test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  17. Meroterpenoid enantiomers from Ganoderma sinensis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wen-Wen; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Yong-Xian; Wang, Shu-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Zizhines A-F (1-6), six pairs of new meroterpenoid enantiomers and a known meroterpenoid (7) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sinensis. The structures and absolute configurations of the new substances were assigned by spectroscopic and computational methods. All the compounds apart from 7 were evaluated for their inhibition on extracellular matrix component (fibronectin) generation by using TGF-β1-induced rat kidney tubular epithelial cells. Although none of them was found to be active in these cells, the present findings add new facets for the chemistry of Ganoderma. PMID:26947249

  18. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF GASTRIC WALL IN CHINESE ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR SINENSIS INFECTED WITH ORTLEPPASCARIS SINENSIS (NEMATODA: ASCARIDOIDEA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhong; Wang, Shaosheng; Tu, Genjun; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing; Li, Chaopin

    2015-01-01

    Crocodiles are susceptible to infection with a wide array of external and internal gastrointestinal helminths, yet little is known on the histopathology following infection or the effects of these parasites. The present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of infection by Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) on the stomach of captive Alligator sinensis. The histological examination of the stomach revealed presence of superficial ulcer in mucous layer and granulomatous inflammation in submucous layer at entire gastric walls of the Alligator sinensis. Our findings also confirm that development of Ortleppascaris sinensis is in close association with the wall of the stomach. PMID:26319836

  19. Survival Analysis to Determine the Length of the Incubation Period of Camellia Twig Blight Caused by Colletorichum gloeosporioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camellia twig blight, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a prevalent disease problem on several Camellia species in the southern United States. To determine the potential seasonal differences in incubation periods, twelve to sixteen stems of Camellia sasanqua ‘Rosa’ plants grown in pine ba...

  20. Use of tea extracts (Camelia sinensis) in jelly candies as polyphenols sources in human diet.

    PubMed

    Gramza-Michalowska, Anna; Regula, Julita

    2007-01-01

    Diet rich in polyphenols may be important factor in preventing cardiovascular, neoplastic diseases and slowing down the aging processes. Because tea (Camelia sinensis) is most popular beverage containing relatively large amounts of polyphenols, it could be tremendously important source of polyphenolic constituents in human diet. However, there has been no data on the tea extracts use in particular everyday snacks. Objective of the study was to investigate potential use of tea polyphenol extracts in jelly candies, its taste, colour, consistency and general consumer's acceptance. Sensory analyses were conducted on two kinds of sweet jellies, with gelatin and agar used as thickening agents. As polyphenol source green and black tea extracts (Camellia sinensis) were used at concentration of 1.0% and 1.5%. Total polyphenol content in jellies ranged between 245.9-1256.5 mg/100g of candies and EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) strong antioxidant content ranged between 3.2-170.1 mg/100g of candies. Sensory analyses included evaluation of overall appearance, colour, taste, aroma, consistence (homogenicity, clot presence) and clarity of jellies. Comparison of two thickening agents resulted in better properties of gelatin jellies according to its quality: colour, clarity, consistence, taste and aroma (p<0.05). It was found that agar containing jellies were not so clear and aromatic as compared with gelatin (p<0.05). Colour and overall appearance was also much more acceptable by the consumers in gelatin jellies. According to tea extract used it was found that ethanol extracts resulted in lower acceptance for overall acceptance and consistency (p<0.05). Present study indicated that tea polyphenols extracts were accepted by consumers as food product constituents, and might be an interest of wider usage as food components. PMID:17392075

  1. Anti-photoaging capability of antioxidant extract from Camellia japonica leaf.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Taeko; Masaki, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that the Camellia japonica leaf exhibits antioxidant activity because of its high content of polyphenolic compounds. Thus, the extract prepared from mature leaves of C. japonica (CJML) has been widely used as an anti-ageing material in foods and cosmetics. Concerning the process of growing C. japonica, it is expected that the extract from green leaves (CJGL) has superior effects compared with that from mature leaves. However, there are few reports that discuss the difference between green and mature leaves. In this study, both CJML and CJGL were extracted with 50% 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG) and used for investigations. In a chemical examination, we compared both extracts in terms of scavenging activities against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and hydroxyl radicals. CJGL exhibited higher scavenging activities against both types of ROSs compared with CJML. In addition, CJGL reduced the carbonylation of tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC) after UVB irradiation. In a biological study, the intra-cellular ROS level of HaCaT keratinocytes precultured with CJGL for 24 h was significantly lower than that of the control cells. Furthermore, cell damage induced by H2 O2 exposure was attenuated by 24 h precultivation with CJGL but not by 2 h precultivation. The results of examinations indicate that CJGL possess properties that reduce oxidative stress. In addition, the result of 2 h precultivation with CJGL suggests that CJGL might affect the status of intra-cellular antioxidants. PMID:25234832

  2. Seasonal Responses in the Time it Takes for Camellia Twig Blight Symptoms to Develop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about how long after infection by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides camellia twigs can appear healthy before disease symptoms become evident, which is termed the incubation period. Individual twigs were wound inoculated monthly on separate sets of container-grown Camellia sasanqua ‘Rose...

  3. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  4. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  5. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:27072414

  6. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:26907240

  7. The Effect of Camellia Seed Oil Intake on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Satou, Tadaaki; Sato, Naoko; Kato, Haruyo; Kawamura, Mana; Watanabe, Sanae; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Camellia seed oil has mainly been applied to the production of cosmetics, and research into its dietary effects is required. Alterations in lipid metabolism by the intake of camellia seed oil were investigated. Health parameters such as diet intake, weight gain, fat mass, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in mice fed a high fat diet containing camellia seed oil; comparisons were made to a normal diet and a high fat diet containing either soybean oil or olive oil as controls. No significant differences in weight gain and diet intake were observed between the groups. However, the camellia seed oil diet suppressed epididymal fat weight similarly to the olive oil diet. In total cholesterol and HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels, the soybean oil, olive oil and camellia seed oil diet groups showed significant increases compared with the normal diet. However, increases in LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were inhibited by the camellia seed oil diet similarly to the olive oil diet. As the high oleic acid content of camellia seed oil is similar to that of olive oil, it is proposed that its presence mitigated fat accumulation and plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:27396207

  8. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Galloyltransferase Involved in Catechin Galloylation in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yajun; Gao, Liping; Liu, Li; Yang, Qin; Lu, Zhongwei; Nie, Zhiyin; Wang, Yunsheng; Xia, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Catechins (flavan-3-ols), the most important secondary metabolites in the tea plant, have positive effects on human health and are crucial in defense against pathogens of the tea plant. The aim of this study was to elucidate the biosynthetic pathway of galloylated catechins in the tea plant. The results suggested that galloylated catechins were biosynthesized via 1-O-glucose ester-dependent two-step reactions by acyltransferases, which involved two enzymes, UDP-glucose:galloyl-1-O-β-d-glucosyltransferase (UGGT) and a newly discovered enzyme, epicatechin:1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose O-galloyltransferase (ECGT). In the first reaction, the galloylated acyl donor β-glucogallin was biosynthesized by UGGT from gallic acid and uridine diphosphate glucose. In the second reaction, galloylated catechins were produced by ECGT catalysis from β-glucogallin and 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ol. 2,3-cis-Flavan-3-ol and 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose were appropriate substrates of ECGT rather than 2,3-trans-flavan-3-ol and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose. Purification by more than 1641-fold to apparent homogeneity yielded ECGT with an estimated molecular mass of 241 to 121 kDa by gel filtration. Enzyme activity and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the native ECGT might be a dimer, trimer, or tetramer of 60- and/or 58-kDa monomers, and these monomers represent a heterodimer consisting of pairs of 36- or 34- of and 28-kDa subunits. MALDI-TOF-TOF MS showed that the protein SCPL1199 was identified. Epigallocatechin and epicatechin exhibited higher substrate affinities than β-glucogallin. ECGT had an optimum temperature of 30 °C and maximal reaction rates between pH 4.0 and 6.0. The enzyme reaction was inhibited dramatically by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, HgCl2, and sodium deoxycholate. PMID:23132863

  9. Volatile profile analysis and quality prediction of Longjing tea (Camellia sinensis) by HS-SPME/GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jie; Dai, Yi; Guo, Ya-nan; Xu, Hai-rong; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the volatile chemical profile of Longjing tea, and further develop a prediction model for aroma quality of Longjing tea based on potent odorants. A total of 21 Longjing samples were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pearson’s linear correlation analysis and partial least square (PLS) regression were applied to investigate the relationship between sensory aroma scores and the volatile compounds. Results showed that 60 volatile compounds could be commonly detected in this famous green tea. Terpenes and esters were two major groups characterized, representing 33.89% and 15.53% of the total peak area respectively. Ten compounds were determined to contribute significantly to the perceived aroma quality of Longjing tea, especially linalool (0.701), nonanal (0.738), (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate (−0.785), and β-ionone (−0.763). On the basis of these 10 compounds, a model (correlation coefficient of 89.4% and cross-validated correlation coefficient of 80.4%) was constructed to predict the aroma quality of Longjing tea. Summarily, this study has provided a novel option for quality prediction of green tea based on HS-SPME/GC-MS technique. PMID:23225852

  10. White tea (Camellia sinensis Kuntze) exerts neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    López, Víctor; Calvo, Maria Isabel

    2011-03-01

    Tea is a popular beverage whose consumption is associated with prevention of certain disorders. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of white tea extract (WTE) on hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Cells were treated with various doses of WTE (10-250 μg/ml) before exposition to 250 μM hydrogen peroxide and cell survival was determined through the MTT and LDH assays. Oxidative stress was quantified in the cells after treatments as intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed in a cell free system in terms of free radical scavenging capacity. Results showed that WTE has a significant protective effect in the PC12 cell line against hydrogen peroxide as cell survival was significantly superior in WTE-treated cells compared to hydrogen peroxide-treated cells. A reduction on intracellular oxidative stress as well as radical scavenging properties were produced by WTE. Results suggest that WTE protects PC12 cells against H(2)O(2)-induced toxicity, and that an antioxidant mechanism through ROS scavenging may be in part responsible for cells neuroprotection. PMID:21271291

  11. Geographical and climatic dependencies of green tea (Camellia sinensis) metabolites: a (1)H NMR-based metabolomics study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Chung, Jin-Oh; Hwang, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sang-Jun; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Hong, Young-Shick

    2010-10-13

    The effects of climatic conditions on green tea metabolites in three different growing areas of Jeju Island, South Korea, were investigated through global metabolite profiling by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed clear discriminations of green teas from the three different growing areas. Variations of theanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, threonine, glutamine, quinic acid, glucose, epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and caffeine levels were responsible for the discriminations. Green teas grown in an area with high temperature, long sun exposure time, and high rainfall had higher levels of theanine but lower levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, EC, EGC, EGCG, and caffeine than those grown in areas with relatively low temperature, short sun exposure time, and low rainfall. These results indicate that high temperature, long sun exposure, and high preciptation stimulate theanine synthesis in green tea during the spring season. This study highlights how metabolomics coupled with multivariate statistical analysis can illuminate the metabolic characteristics of green tea associated with climatic variables, thereby allowing for the assessment of quality strategy in green tea production. PMID:20828156

  12. Genetic integrity of somaclonal variants in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze) as revealed by inter simple sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jibu; Vijayan, Deepu; Joshi, Sarvottam D; Joseph Lopez, S; Raj Kumar, R

    2006-05-17

    Adoption of inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique to analyze the genetic variability of somatic embryo derived tea plants was evaluated. Morphological characterisation of the field grown plants revealed no identical character aligning with the parent, UPASI-10. Out of 40 primers, 15 exhibited concurrent polymorphism were selected for the study. Genetic variability of somaclones derived from single line cotyledonary culture ranged from 33.0 to 55.0%. A unique fragment of 1.2Kb was visible in majority of the accessions whereas the fragments below the length of 0.6Kb were noticed only in 50% of the variants. Out of 120 interactions attempted using Pearson's coefficient correlation, only 9.2% of somaclones exhibited significant similarity at genetic level. Dendrogram constructed based on simple matching coefficient revealed a distance of 2.257-3.317 between the final clusters. This strengthens the existence of wide genetic variation among the somaclones. PMID:16360228

  13. Effect of green tea (camellia sinensis l.) leaf extract on reproductive system of adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shyamal Kanti; Karmakar, Soumendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Green tea leaf extract (GTLE), used in this experiment has shown great influence on male reproductive system functionally as well as morphologically. The extract was prepared according to the method of Wei. H. et al. The extract was given to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses during 26 consecutive days. After treatment it was found that, the weight of the testis was markedly reduced instead of normal weight gain of all the animals. The sperm count and motility were reduced for the treated groups as compared with control animal group. The enzymes like SGPT and SGOT were as usual and other blood parameters like glucose and protein were also as usual comparing with controlled group. Testosterone level was reduced in the treated groups. FSH and LH levels were also altered accordingly in treated groups. Histological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis as evidenced by disintegration of seminiferous tubules of testis. Result of this study showed that GTLE has potent castrative effect on male reproductive system in dose dependent manner. PMID:27073594

  14. Aqueous extract of black tea (Camellia sinensis) prevents ethanol+cholecystokinin-induced pancreatitis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Sandip; Das, Asankur S; Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Mitra, Chandan

    2006-04-01

    Black Tea Extract (BTE), a phytocompound has been attributed with a plethora of health-promoting actions. We have previously demonstrated that BTE inhibits chronic hepatitis in a rat model induced with high-fat and ethanol (EtOH). This study reports that BTE prevents altered pancreatic acinar cell functions, oxidative stress, inflammatory changes and DNA damage in the EtOH+cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced model of pancreatitis. The EtOH+CCK model rats were administered with BTE, and were examined the activity of pancreatic digestive enzymes (amylase and lipase), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha), oxidative and antioxidative enzymes (nitric oxide, NO; malondialdehyde, MDA; superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT), antioxidant level (glutathione, GSH), histopathological changes and the integrity of genomic DNA. Results show that because of chronic EtOH treatment, serum level of amylase and lipase (two biomarkers for pancreatitis) and pancreatic levels of MDA and NO (two biomarkers of oxidative stress) increased significantly, which could be effectively blunted by BTE. BTE could normalize EtOH+CCK-induced suppressed activities of SOD and CAT, and GSH content of pancreatic tissue. Also, histopathological and inflammatory changes during EtOH+CCK-induced pancreatitis could be blunted by BTE. Furthermore, BTE could effectively reduce EtOH+CCK-induced increase in DNA fragmentation and damage. These findings suggest that BTE prevents pancreatitis caused by chronic EtOH+CCK toxicity presumably by enhancing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activity in rats. PMID:16289561

  15. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08–1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11–2.41 and 1.41–1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5–84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop. PMID:26406463

  16. Varietal identification of tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) using nanofluidic array of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apart from water, tea is the world’s most widely consumed beverage. Tea is produced in more than 50 countries with an annual production of approximately 4.7 million tons. The market segment for specialty tea has been expanding rapidly owing to increased demand, resulting in higher revenues and profi...

  17. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.

    PubMed

    Adhirajan, N; Ravi Kumar, T; Shanmugasundaram, N; Babu, Mary

    2003-10-01

    Petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, 1% extract of leaves and flowers in liquid paraffin was applied topically over the shaved skin of albino rats and monitored and assessed for 30 days. The length of hair and the different cyclic phases of hair follicles, like anagen and telogen phases, were determined at different time periods. In vitro, the hair follicles from albino rat neonates were isolated and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 0.01 mg/ml petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers. From the study it is concluded that the leaf extract, when compared to flower extract, exhibits more potency on hair growth. PMID:12963149

  18. Green tea (Camellia sinesis) ameliorates female Schistosoma mansoni-induced changes in the liver of Balb/C mice

    PubMed Central

    Bin Dajem, Saad M.; Shati, Ali A.; Adly, Mohamed A.; Ahmed, Osama M.; Ibrahim, Essam H.; Mostafa, Osama M.S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of green tea, an aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis, on the oxidative stress, antioxidant defense system and liver pathology of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Green tea at concentration of 3% (w/v) was given orally to treated mice as sole source of drinking water from the end of the 4th week to the end of 10th week post-infection; untreated mice were allowed to drink normal water. The data of the studied S. mansoni-infected mice exhibited a suppression of hepatic total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione content. The liver lipid peroxidation was deleteriously elevated in S. mansoni-infected mice. The hepatic total protein content, AST and ALT activities were profoundly decreased in the S. mansoni-infected mice. Most hepatocytes were damaged and showed abnormal microscopic appearance with aggressive necrosis. Both total protein and glycogen levels have been greatly reduced as indicated by histochemical examination. The treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with green tea succeeded to suppress oxidative stress by decreasing the lipid peroxides but failed to significantly enhance the antioxidant defense system and deteriorated changes owing to liver damage and necrosis. In consistence with biochemical data, histopathological and histochemical data indicated that treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with green tea could ameliorate hepatocytes thus reduce cellular necrosis and partially restore both total protein and glycogen levels. Thus, the study concluded that the green tea suppresses the oxidative stress through its constituent with free radicals scavenging properties rather than through the endogenous antioxidant defense system. PMID:23961148

  19. Antidiabetic properties of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. leaf extract fractions on nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse.

    PubMed

    Moqbel, Fahmi S; Naik, Prakash R; Najma, Habeeb M; Selvaraj, S

    2011-01-01

    On fractionation the ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinensis leaves, 5 fractions were obtained. Of these, fraction-3 (F3) and fraction-5 (F5) were chosen for detailed investigation on non obese diabetic (NOD) mouse to study anti-diabetic properties because they were more active than others. Serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglyceride, cholesterol, blood urea, insulin, LDL, VLDL, and HDL were estimated. Both fractions F3 and F5 on oral feeding (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) demonstrated insulinotropic nature and protective effect in NOD mice. These fractions may contain potential oral hypoglycemic agent. PMID:21365992

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Shrew Gymnure, Neotetracus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Tu, Feiyun; Yan, Chaochao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Zeng, Tao

    2013-06-01

    The Shrew Gymnure Neotetracus sinensis belongs to family Erinaceidae, and distributes in China, Myanmar, and northern Vietnam. In this study, the whole mitochondrial genome of N. sinensis was first sequenced and characterized. The genome is 16,982 bases in length. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees based on 12 concatenated protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analyses further confirm the subfamily Galericinae diverged prior to the subfamily Erinaceinae, support the species N. sinensis was in distinct genus Neotetracus rather than Hylomys, and N. sinensis diverged later than Echinosorex gymnura. PMID:23206249

  1. [Quantitative analysis of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in tea leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Sakata, I; Ikeuchi, M; Maruyama, I; Okuda, T

    1991-12-01

    The quantitative analysis of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a C-18 reversed-phase column. EGCG was then eluted within 20 min by using methanol-water-acetic acid (20:75:5 (v/v/v)) as an eluent. As an internal standard, tryptophan was used. The content of EGCG in five kinds of green tea (sencha, gyokuro, bancha, matsucha and oolong tea) and in a cup of those was determined by both the extraction method with 50% (v/v) methanol and the infusion method with water. The largest amount of EGCG was obtained from matsucha by the extraction method, or from sencha by the infusion method. Furthermore, EGCG contents in various parts of the tea plant were examined. The first leaf had the highest concentration of EGCG, and the concentration of EGCG decreased with the aging of the leaf. PMID:1806661

  2. Camellia Oil-Enriched Diet Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2016-09-01

    Camellia oil is commonly used as an adjuvant in medicine. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to examine effects of camellia oil consumption on oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation, and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The study design was a randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Women with hypercholesterolemia (n = 50) were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 25) was provided camellia oil-enriched diets and the control group (n = 25) was provided diets cooked with soybean oil three meals (45 mL oil) a day for 8 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed before and the after intervention. Camellia oil consumption significantly decreased malondialdehyde (11.2%; P < .001) whereas glutathione was not changed (P = .382). Moreover, the camellia oil group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in oxidized LDL-C (8.7%; P < .001) compared with the control group. Furthermore, camellia oil consumption significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (12.3%; P < .001) whereas tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were not different (P = .079; P = .660, respectively) compared with the control group. These data indicate that the consumption of camellia oil-enriched diet could decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic women. Therefore, camellia oil consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:27627703

  3. Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted fluoride accumulation in tea plants (Camellia sinesis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Chen; Gao, Hong-Jian; Wu, Hong-Hong; Yang, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Mao, Jing-Dong; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. kuntze) is known to be a fluoride (F) and aluminum (Al(3+)) hyper-accumulator. Previous study showed that pre-treatment of Al(3+) caused a significant increase of F accumulation in tea plants. However, less is known about the intricate network of Al(3+) promoted F accumulation in tea plants. In this study, the involvement of endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea plants was investigated. Our results showed that Al(3+) induced the inverse change of intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and stimulated Ca(2+) trans-membrane transport in the mature zone of tea root. Also, a link between internal Ca(2+) and CaM was found in tea roots under the presence of Al(3+). In order to investigate whether Ca(2+) and CaM were related to F accumulation promoted by Al(3+) pretreatment, Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and CaM antagonists CPZ and TFP were used. EGTA, CPZ, and TFP pretreatment inhibited Al(3+)-induced increase of Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and CaM content in tea roots, and also significantly reduced Al(3+)-promoted F accumulation in tea plants. Taken together, our results suggested that the endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea roots. PMID:26318146

  4. Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) Species Using Leaf Architecture Variations and Pattern Recognition Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species. PMID:22235330

  5. Light response of native and introduced Miscanthus sinensis seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Miscanthus sinensis is an Asian grass introduced to the U.S. for ornamental purposes, which has formed naturalized populations across the Eastern and Midwest regions. In both its native and exotic ranges M. sinensis is found in open habitats with high light levels. Within its exotic range M. sinen...

  6. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica 'Nuccio's Pearl'. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6-8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6-8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  7. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed Central

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica ‘Nuccio’s Pearl’. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6–8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6–8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  8. Hydroxylated gedunin derivatives from Cedrela sinensis.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Kumiko; Saito, Hiroaki; Yamamura, Ryota; Fukaya, Haruhiko; Hitotsuyanagi, Yukio; Takeya, Koichi

    2006-09-01

    Four new limonoids, 11alpha-hydroxygedunin (1), 11beta-hydroxygedunin (2), 7-deacetoxy-7alpha,11alpha-dihydroxygedunin (3), and 7-deacetoxy-7alpha,11beta-dihydroxygedunin (4), were isolated from the cortex of Cedrela sinensis, together with three known compounds, gedunin (5), 7-deacetoxy-7alpha-hydroxygedunin (6), and 11-oxogedunin (7). The structures of 1-4 were determined by a combination of 2D NMR experiments and chemical methods and by X-ray crystallography of 1 and 2. PMID:16989525

  9. A new hydrochalcone from Miliusa sinensis.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Tran Thi Thanh; Quan, Tran Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Van Sung, Tran

    2011-08-01

    A new dihydrochalcone 4',6'-dihydroxy-2',3',4-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (1) along with nine known compounds, pashanone (2), dihydropashanone (3), pinostrobin (4), 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (5), 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone (6), 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone (7), 24-methylencycloartane-3β,21-diol (8), liriodenine (9) and 3,5-dihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (10), were isolated from the extracts, exhibiting cytotoxic activity (n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts) of Miliusa sinensis. The structure of (1) was elucidated by the analysis of spectral data (IR, HR-MS, EI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). PMID:21859261

  10. Preliminary Screening of Antibacterial Activity Using Crude Extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

    PubMed

    Arullappan, Sangeetha; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Basri, Dayang Fredalina

    2009-12-01

    Hibiscus rosa sinensis, a member of the Malvaceae family, is widely cultivated in the tropics as an ornamental plant. It is often planted as a fence or hedge plant, and has several forms of flowers with varying colours. It is also used in traditional medicine to induce abortion, ease menstrual cramps, assist in childbirth and relieve headache, fever and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of H. rosa sinesis extract using a disc diffusion method. Crude petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract from the leaves, stems and flowers of the plant were prepared using a cold extraction technique. These extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 4 mg/disc to 0.017 mg/disc against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. The petroleum ether extract from the leaves, stems and flowers and methanol extract from the leaves showed inhibition zones with diameters > 12 mm against MRSA. Overall, the petroleum ether extract from flowers at concentrations of 4 mg/disc and 2 mg/disc displayed the strongest inhibition zones of 18.6 ± 2.85 mm and 18.5 ± 0.29 mm, respectively, as compared to vancomycin (30 μg/ml), which did not differ significantly from the 18.0 ± 0.10 mm size of the vancomycin (30 μg/ml) inhibition zone (p < 0.05). In conclusion, H. rosa sinensis extract is a potential antibacterial agent for treating MRSA infection. PMID:24575183