A system of treatment of venous leg ulcers by leg elevation, dry gauze dressings and inelastic bandage boots is compared with regimens in which a series of elastic bandage boots are applied to squeeze oedema from swollen ulcerated legs.
Bourne, I H J
Chronic leg ulcers occur most frequently in the elderly population as a result of an underlying vascular disease especially chronic venous insufficiency. But it also occurs less commonly in younger people due to other aetiologies, for example, infections, vasculitis, neoplasia or genetic diseases. The following case report presents chronic leg ulcers as a rare cause for the first diagnosis of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. We report about a 21-year-old man with painful chronic leg ulcers resistant to different wound treatments for 4 months. After exclusion of the more common vascular aetiologies and reviewing the patient's family history, we considered an epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica which could be confirmed by genetic analyses. We treated the patient with debridement, modified negative pressure therapy with non-adhesive foil and skin grafting. The chronic leg ulcers healed completely. This case report demonstrates that the family history and genetic diseases should be considered as rare causes for therapy-refractory chronic leg ulcers, especially in young patients. PMID:22974048
Bafaraj, Mazin G; Cesko, Elvir; Weindorf, Maren; Dissemond, Joachim
Venous ulcers are the most common form of leg ulcers and their incidence is increasing as the population ages. The diagnosis should be confirmed with tests for venous insufficiency and an assessment of arterial disease determined by a Doppler Ankle-Brachial ratio. The most important component of venous ulcer treatment is the use of high compression bandages for pitting edema. Non-healing ulcers may require a skin biopsy of the edge to confirm the diagnosis, medical treatment for woody fibrosis, adjustment of compression therapy, or use of a skin substitute or biological preparation. PMID:9866605
Sibbald, R G
Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri-ulcer injection of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, self-help (advice to elevate leg, to keep leg active, to modify diet, to stop smoking, to reduce weight), short-stretch bandages, single-layer non-elastic system, skin grafting, superficial vein surgery, systemic mesoglycan, therapeutic ultrasound, and topical treatments (antimicrobial agents, autologous platelet lysate, calcitonin gene-related peptide plus vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, freeze-dried keratinocyte lysate, mesoglycan, negative pressure, recombinant keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor).
Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri-ulcer injection of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, short-stretch bandages, single-layer non-elastic system, skin grafting, superficial vein surgery, systemic mesoglycan, therapeutic ultrasound, self-help (advice to elevate leg, advice to keep leg active, advice to modify diet, advice to stop smoking, advice to reduce weight), and topical treatments (antimicrobial agents, autologous platelet lysate, calcitonin gene-related peptide plus vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, freeze-dried keratinocyte lysate, mesoglycan, negative-pressure recombinant keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor).
An 80-year-old man presented with painful leg ulceration due to steal phenomenon from a groin arteriovenous fistula (AVF) 10 years following a coronary angiogram. The diagnosis of the AVF was confirmed by duplex examination of the groin vessels which demonstrated characteristic flow pattern in the femoral arterial and venous system. Angiography further confirmed the site of the fistulous communication and this was managed by a covered stent graft. We discuss the incidence of AVF, risk factors for its development, relevant diagnostic investigations and management options along with strategies to reduce the incidence of AVF following percutaneous punctures.
Mylankal, Kurian J; Johnson, Brian; Ettles, Duncan F
Mycoplasma hominis is a common inhabitant of the human urogenital tract and most frequently causes diseases of the genitourinary tract. Extragenital M. hominis infections are uncommon, with almost all occurring in immunosuppressed persons or those predisposed due to surgery or trauma. We report a case of non surgical, non-traumatic wound infection caused by M. hominis. A 28-year-old immunocompetent woman with livedo vasculopathy had an open wound on dorsum of her right foot with signs and symptoms of infection. However, gram staining of the wound swab demonstrated no microorganisms, and initial bacterial cultures did not reveal any microbial growth. After 2 days of culture, minute translucent colonies were appeared and subsequently identified as M. hominis. She was successfully treated with levofloxacin(LVFX). For the patient's being immune-competent, this infection seems to need a substantial bacterial transfer from the inhabitant organ. The transfer is likely mediated by the fluid's drop, for anatomical locations of vagina and the infection site on leg. Namely, the hinder leg infection is suspected to be caused by continual and heavy bacterial exposure originated from the vaginal M. hominis. This clinical case suggests that infections may occur even in normal immunological status if the site is close to, and lacks anatomical barrier from, the M. hominis inhabitant organ. Especially in infection at chronic refractory lower leg ulceraion, M. hominis should be considered as a causative organism. PMID:23383571
Yamakami, Shinji; Mikami, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kazuko; Saya, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Chie; Eto, Hikaru; Takeda, Kyoko
An increasing numbers of physical treatment options are available for chronic leg ulcer. In this review article, compression therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, negative pressure therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, electrostimulation therapy, electromagnetic therapy, photodynamic therapy, water-filtered infrared-A-radiation and hydrotherapy are discussed in terms of their practical applications and the underlying evidence. With the exception of compression therapy for most of these treatments, good scientific data are not available. However this is a widespread problem in the treatment of chronic wounds. Nevertheless, several of the described methods such as negative pressure therapy represent one of the gold standards in practical treatment of patients with chronic leg ulcers. Although the use of physical treatment modalities may improve healing in patients with chronic leg ulcers, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying causes are essential for long-lasting success. PMID:20376423
We have given a brief summary of the scale of the problem caused by venous ulceration in the UK, and have then reviewed the various theories of causation, including a historical survey, and presented the evidence for and against the two main current theories of fibrin cuffs and white cell trapping. We also outline previous hypotheses of the aetiology of venous ulceration, including arteriovenous microanastomoses, stasis and oedema. The contribution of superficial venous incompetence in the pathogenesis of ulceration is also examined.
Shami, S. K.; Shields, D. A.; Scurr, J. H.; Smith, P. D.
Six hundred patients with chronic leg ulcers were studied by detailed history and examination as part of a population survey. In 22% ulceration began before the age of 40, and in this group the sex incidence was equal. Over age 40 there was an increasing preponderance of women. Ulcers were significantly more common in the left leg in women but
M J Callam; D R Harper; J J Dale; C V Ruckley
A 48-year-old woman presented with a red, pruritic and painful skin rash on her legs bilaterally after she snorted cocaine. This was associated with fever and cough. Physical examination showed large violaceous plaques and large flaccid bullae, involving bilateral lower extremities. Blood work showed neutropoenia with absolute neutrophil count of 0.64×10(9) cells/L. Antinuclear antibody, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and anti-double-stranded DNA were positive. Biopsy showed thrombogenic vasculopathy which is consistent mainly with levamisole ingestion that was reported with levamisole ingestion. The patient was counselled to stop cocaine misuse and treated with skin emollients and antibiotics for the pneumonia that was discovered on the chest X-ray. Skin ulcers improved and she was discharged in stable condition. Ten days after discharge, she was readmitted with new lesions and worsening necrotic ulcers from the old lesions. The patient admitted to snorting cocaine again a few days after being discharged. PMID:23997085
Shawwa, Khaled; Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Eisa, Naseem; Alraies, M Chadi
Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of leg ulcer. Most patients have venous leg ulcer due to chronic venous insufficiency. Less often, patients have arterial leg ulcer resulting from peripheral arterial occlusive disease, the most common cause of which is arteriosclerosis. Leg ulcer may be of a mixed arteriovenous origin. In diabetic patients, distal symmetric neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are probably the most important etiologic factors in the development of diabetic leg ulcer. Other causes of chronic leg ulcers are hematologic diseases, autoimmune diseases, genetic defects, infectious diseases, primary skin diseases, cutaneous malignant diseases, use of some medications and therapeutic procedures, and numerous exogenous factors. Diagnosis of leg ulcer is based on medical history, inspection, palpation of skin temperature, palpation of arteries, fascia holes, presence and degree of edema, firm painful cords, and functional testing to assess peripheral occlusive arterial disease or identify superficial and deep venous reflux of the legs. Knowledge of differential diagnosis is essential for ensuring treatment success in patients with leg ulcer. There are many possible etiologic factors of leg ulcers and sometimes, clinical findings are similar. Additional testing should be performed, e.g., serologic testing such as blood count, C-reactive protein, HBA1c, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, differential blood count, total proteins, electrolytes, coagulation parameters, circulating immune complex, cryoglobulins, homocysteins, AT, PAI-1, APC resistance, proteins C and S, paraproteins, ANA, ENA, ANCA, dsDNA, antiphospholipid antibodies, urea, creatinine, blood lipids, vitamins and trace elements. Also, biopsy of the lesion for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence, bacteriology and mycology should be included. Other tests are Raynaud (cold stimulation) test and pathergy test. Device-based diagnostic testing should be performed for future clarification. Ankle brachial pressure index, color duplex sonography, plethysmography, MSCT and MR angiography, digital subtraction angiography, phlebography, angiography, x-ray, and capillaroscopy in lupus erythematosus are indicated. Except for bacteriologic analyses of wound biopsies, there is no test to provide specific information on the wound condition. PMID:24371972
Chronic leg ulceration is a very common clinical problem in the elderly. Good management depends entirely on making an accurate diagnosis, and planning treatment after considering all aspects of patient well-being. All elderly patients with leg ulcers benefit from an assessment of their vascular status, since the effects of gravity influence treatment and healing irrespective of the diagnosis. The most common causes of ulceration are venous and arterial disease. Diabetes mellitus, pressure, vasculitis, metabolic abnormalities and skin cancer are all unusual causes of leg ulceration, but must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Almost all patients with ulcerated legs benefit from the use of compression bandaging at a level appropriate to their vascular status. In patients with venous ulcers, this can be achieved with a number of bandaging techniques; however, multilayer bandaging appears to be the most cost-effective means available, particularly when combined with community-based leg ulcer clinics. The effects of oral drug therapy for venous and arterial disease have been disappointing. Local dressings are important in ulcers that are not suitable for compression therapy. The choice of dressing depends on the nature of the ulcer and the tolerability of the dressing for the patient. PMID:9143855
The aim of the study was to analyze the diagnostic and surgical criteria in cases of "critical" venous leg ulcers. This report describes the management of 200 patients with trophic lesions of the lower limbs. Patients with venous leg ulcers were identified with the aid of ultrasonography and echocolor Doppler. Among these patients, according to the chronic evolution of the lesions, we identified all those with critical venous leg ulcers. The management of the lesions involved both medical and fairly aggressive surgical treatment with the use of general anaesthesia and deep surgical toilette of the ulcer. In the cases with poor epithelialisation we adopted oxygen therapy and skin grafts using the "mesh graft" technique. Critical venous leg ulcers were identified in 23 patients (19%). After surgical treatment, we observed complete epithelialisation of the lesion only in 5 cases (21.7%). In 13 patients (56.6%) the use of oxygen therapy was necessary and epithelialisation occurred on postoperative day 12. Skin grafts were used in 5 cases (21.7%). Only one recurrence was observed one year after operation in an area adjacent to the site of the graft. The "golden goal" of critical venous leg ulcer management is to establish a correct aetiological diagnosis, distinguishing between venous leg ulcers and other trophic lesions of the lower limbs. The medical and surgical treatment described in this report reduce healing time and the social costs of the disease, without any significant complications for the patient. PMID:11396072
Mordente, S; Pacca, G; Guarino, A; Benincasa, M; Leo, E
Previous hypotheses about the causes of venous ulceration are inconsistent with recently published data. In patients with chronic venous insufficiency the number of functioning capillary loops visible in the skin on microscopy fell after the legs had been dependent for 30 minutes. Another study had shown that leucocytes became trapped in the circulation in dependent legs. A new hypothesis linking
P D Coleridge Smith; P Thomas; J H Scurr; J A Dormandy
Background: Tetanus disease is caused by Clostridium tetani and is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Despite international recommendations for patients with a chronic leg ulcer, there has been a distinctive lack of protection provided by vaccination for these patients in the past decades. Methods: Within the context of our prospective clinical investigation we consecutively determined the concentrations
A. Körber; N. Graue; J. Rietkötter; E. Kreuzfelder; S. Grabbe; J. Dissemond
Opinion statement Selecting the appropriate treatment for venous leg ulcerations is essential for optimal wound healing and patient quality\\u000a of life. Compression therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for these wounds. Compression methods should be carefully selected\\u000a and tailored for compatibility with patients’ daily life. Pain management should not be neglected. When response to compression\\u000a therapy is limited, adjuvant therapy such
Ronda S. Farah; Mark D. P. Davis
plete recovery from the ulcerations occurred quickly after withdrawal of treatment in 33 (80%) of the cases. Conclusions: This longest-reported series of patients confirms the role of hydroxyurea therapy in the onset of leg ulcerations. Healing or improvement requires cessa- tion of treatment. Cutaneous atrophy and impaired wound healing may explain the relationship between hydroxyurea and leg ulcers. In addition,
Marie-Emmanuelle Sirieix; C. Debure; N. Baudot; L. Dubertret; M.-E. Roux; P. Morel; C. Frances; S. Loubeyres; C. Beylot; D. Lambert; P. Humbert; O. Gauthier; M. Dandurand; B. Guillot; L. Vaillant; G. Lorette; J.-M. Bonnetblanc; C. Lok; J.-P. Denoeux
Ulcers of the lower extremities, particularly in individuals older than 65, are a common cause for visits to the dermatologist, primary-care physician, or vascular surgeon. There are many different causes of leg ulcers, among which vascular causes are the most frequent. Less commonly, other pathological processes result in leg ulcers. Unfortunately some of them are malignant. Large B-cell lymphoma, leg type, is a malignant lymphoma of intermediate behavior, occurring mostly on the legs in elderly patients. Usually it presents as erythematous or bluish-red nodules or tumors, but ulcerations are not uncommon. When faced with unusual and non-healing ulcers, the physician should also have in mind rarer but more lethal causes. PMID:20372769
Stopajnik, N; Zgavec, B; Luzar, B; Kecelj Leskovec, N
The most frequent causes of leg ulcers (90-95%) are chronic venous insufficiency (45-60%), obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries (10-20%), diabetes mellitus (15-25%) and their combinations (10-15%). The leg ulcers, specified as pyoderma gangrenosum, are the rare and severe pathology, which is very often misdiagnosed. The case history of a 58-year old female patient with vast leg ulcers of the both shanks is analyzed. The leg ulcers were caused by pyoderma gangrenosum and chronic venous insufficiency due to the varicose disease. Complete epithelization of both ulcers was achieved by means of dermoplasty combined using the dermal equivalent against the background of system immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:23808240
Andreev, D Iu; Abramova, N V; Blinova, M I; Pinaev, G P
BACKGROUND: Current nursing care for leg ulcer patients often focuses on wound care and providing compression therapy. Nurses perceive leg ulcer patients as 'under-served' with regard to problems patients experience in daily life. An overview of patient problems is a first and essential step in the development of comprehensive nursing care. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To gather information about the impact
Anke Persoon; Maud M. Heinen; Carien J. M. van der Vleuten; Michette J. de Rooij; Theo van Achterberg
Restless Legs Syndrome - Causes & Symptoms Causes What causes of restless legs syndrome varies from person to person. In some cases ... with brain cell communication that can lead to restless legs syndrome. If you think you have restless legs syndrome ...
Summary Background Large leg ulcers (LLU) may complicate autoimmune diseases. They pose a therapeutic challenge and are often resistant to treatment. To report three cases of autoimmune diseases complicated with LLU. Case Report Case 1. A 55-year old woman presented with long-standing painful LLU due to mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Biopsy from the ulcer edge showed small vessel vasculitis. IV methylprednisolone (MethP) 1 G/day, prednisolone (PR) 1mg/kg, monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CYC), cyclosporine (CyA) 100mg/day, IVIG 125G, ciprofloxacin+IV Iloprost+enoxaparin+aspirin (AAVAA), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HO), maggot debridement and autologous skin transplantation were performed and the LLU healed. Case 2. A 45-year old women with MCTD developed multiple LLU’s with non-specific inflammation by biopsy. MethP, PR, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azathioprine (AZA), CYC, IVIG, AAVAA failed. Treatment for underlying the LLU tibial osteomyelitis and addition of CyA was followed by the LLU healing. Case 3. A 20-year-old man with history of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) developed painful LLU’s due to small vessel vasculitis (biopsy). MethP, PR 1 mg/kg, CYC, CyA 100 mg/d, AAVAA failed. MRSA sepsis and relapse of systemic PAN developed. IV vancomycin, followed by ciprofloxacin, monthly IVIG (150 g/for 5 days) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) were instituted and the LLU’s healed. Conclusions LLU are extremely resistant to therapy. Combined use of multiple medications and services are needed for healing of LLU due to autoimmune diseases.
Rozin, Alexander P.; Egozi, Dana; Ramon, Yehuda; Toledano, Kohava; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Markovits, Doron; Schapira, Daniel; Bergman, Reuven; Melamed, Yehuda; Ullman, Yehuda; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the effectiveness of community clinics for leg ulcers. DESIGN--All patients with leg ulceration were invited to community clinics that offered treatment developed in a hospital research clinic. Patients without serious arterial disease (Doppler ankle\\/brachial index > 0.8) were treated with a high compression bandage of four layers. SETTING--Six community clinics held in health centres in Riverside District Health
C. J. Moffatt; P. J. Franks; M. Oldroyd; N. Bosanquet; P. Brown; R. M. Greenhalgh; C. N. McCollum
In a study on 30 patients suffering from arterio-venous leg ulcers, we found an increased blood level of 2,3biphosphoglycerate (10.33 mumol/ml; control group: 5.16 mumol/ml). This difference, which is statistically significant (p less than 0.001), shows that the blood oxygen pressure is lower both in the tissue of the leg ulcer (literary communication) and in the whole body. PMID:2080656
Buchtová, L; Arenberger, P; Záruba, F
This case study features a 37-year-old drug user with a chronic leg ulcer caused by injecting Heroin into his leg veins. The case study demonstrates collaborative working between two specialist services based in Leicester. This joint working and knowledge sharing has allowed for appropriate leg ulcer management in this erratic and vulnerable group of mainly young people. Many factors need to be taken into account when prescribing a dressing regimen for this group, and the successes and complications encountered are described. PMID:17551426
The exact mechanism for the occurrence of sickle leg ulcers (SLUs) has not been fully explained, although, popular opinion supports a multifactorial etio-pathogenetic process. Leg ulceration in sickle cell is a chronic and debilitating condition which is difficult to treat and may worsen the psychosocial impact of this illness. This study aims to evaluate the laboratory and clinical correlates of SLUs. One hundred sixty-seven patients who had been diagnosed with sickle cell anemia (homozygous S) had their steady-state hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit, white cell count, platelet count, serum bilirubin, and aspartate transaminase (AST) as well as frequency of crisis per annum evaluated with respect to their relationship to the occurrence of leg ulcers. They were aged 6-53 years (mean age 24.3 years), and prevalence of leg ulcer was found to be 2.75 per 1000 (2.54 per 1000 in females and 2.83 per 1000 in males). The independent sample t-test showed a significant difference in the serum AST levels in those with SLU (p = 0.029), though a positive correlation did not exist. Other predictors of disease severity found to have positive relationship with each other were the AST and total serum bilirubin 0.207 (p = 0.012); Hb and age 0.130 (p = 0.035); Hb and white cell count -0.159 (p = 0.010), white cell count and age -0.113 (p = 0.018). SLUs do not occur in patients with severe disease in sickle cell. The clinical and laboratory indicators of severe sickle cell disease do not correlate positively with the occurrence of SLU. Serum AST may have a relationship with leg ulceration in these patients. Environmental factors most likely play a major part in the etiopathogenesis of leg ulcer and this may require further studies in different sociocultural settings. PMID:24134724
Madu, Anazoeze Jude; Ubesie, Agozie; Madu, Kenechi Anthony; Okwor, Bismarck; Anigbo, Chukwudi
Objectives: The management of intractable leg ulcers requires a team approach which includes vascular surgeons and plastic surgeons. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the management of intractable leg ulcers by plastic surgeons. Patients and Methods: A total of 73 patients with intractable leg ulcers, (79 limbs) were treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery at our institution. Skin perfusion pressure (SPP) around the ulcer on the limb was measured before and after arterial reconstructive procedures. Local ulcer management involved intra-wound continuous negative pressure and irrigation therapy or negative pressure wound therapy. We examined the rates of wound healing and associated prognostic factors. Results: There were 21 limbs without ischemia (non-peripheral arterial disease [Non-PAD] group) and 58 limbs with ischemia (PAD group). The healing rates were 66% in the PAD group and 81% in the Non-PAD group, but the difference between the groups was not significant. A total of 41 limbs in the PAD group underwent revascularization, which involved bypass surgery in 18 limbs and endovascular therapy in 23 limbs. The salvage rate of the revascularized limbs was 83% at 1 year. The primary patency rates at 1 year were 87% for bypass surgery and 58% for endovascular therapy. The healing rate of the revascularized limbs was 66%, and the presence of concomitant hemodialysis, infected ulcers, and limbs without improved SPP were shown to be poor prognostic factors. Limbs treated with bypass surgery had a better healing rate than limbs treated with endovascular therapy, but the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Good ulcer-healing rates were achieved by effective revascularization and aggressive local management. These results suggest that a team approach is useful for the management of intractable leg ulcers. (English translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2011; 20: 913-920)
Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Akaiwa, Keiichi; Ishida, Masaru; Furuyama, Tadashi; Onohara, Toshihiro
Leg ulcers are a debilitating complication of patients with sickle cell disease, and their frequency in North America was reported to be 2.5% by the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease more than 20 years ago. We sought to determine if the frequency of leg ulcers in sickle cell patients in the United States had declined and to assess which treatments providers use most commonly. We sent an e-mail survey to health professionals belonging to the national Sickle Cell Adult Provider Network. Responses were obtained from 31 of them (26.0%). Most of them (96.0%) reported having some patients with leg ulcers. Providers reported a total of 185 patients with active leg ulcers and 224 in the previous 5 years, for a total of 409 patients. Hb SS (homozygous sickle cell anemia) was the most common genotype of affected individuals, followed by Hb SC (double heterozygote for Hb S [?6(A3)Glu?Val, GAG>GTG; HBB: c.20A>T] and Hb C [?6(A3)Glu?Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.19G>A]). Males showed a 2:1 predominance. Two-thirds of patients were treated with either hydroxyurea (HU) or transfusion therapy and most used compression stockings and topical therapies as directed by wound care services. We conclude that leg ulcers continue to be a debilitating complication of young adults with sickle cell disease, despite improved supportive care and the widespread use of disease modifying agents such HU and transfusion. While some providers offer office-based ulcer care, the majority prefer specialty consultation including podiatry, plastic surgery and dermatology. Despite their frequency, there is no clear consensus among providers as to the best treatment. PMID:23600469
Delaney, Kara-Marie H; Axelrod, Karen C; Buscetta, Ashley; Hassell, Kathryn L; Adams-Graves, Patricia E; Seamon, Catherine; Kato, Gregory J; Minniti, Caterina P
Hydroxyurea is commonly used in the treatment of various hematologic disorders, e.g., chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), polycythemia vera, and occasionally, at lower doses, for severe psoriasis vulgaris. Cutaneous side effects such as alopecia, diffuse hyperpigmentation, poikiloderma, atrophy of the skin, or nail changes occur, especially with long-term treatment. Painful leg ulcers in association with hydroxyurea have only rarely been reported.
Georg Weinlich; Gerold Schuler; Richard Greil; Heinz Kofler; Peter Fritsch
Leg ulcer management is complex, time-consuming and of high socio-economic importance. Data on cost-of-illness in leg ulcer care are sparse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-of-illness in leg ulcer treatment in the metropolitan area of Hamburg. About 147 institutions involved in wound care participated in a cross-sectional study. Patients consecutively recruited underwent a standardised interview and clinical examination. Main economic outcomes were direct, indirect and intangible costs from a societal perspective. Five hundred and two patients with a mean age of 71 years and mean wound duration of 9 years were enrolled. Annual total costs summed up to a mean of 9060€ /patient/year (8288€ direct, 772€ indirect costs). Direct costs carried by statutory health insurances amounted to 7680€ , patients themselves paid on average 607€. Leg ulcer is associated with high costs for health insurances, patients and the society. Exploratory predictor analyses suggest that early, interprofessional disease-management could lower treatment costs. PMID:23020710
Augustin, Matthias; Brocatti, Leyla K; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Schäfer, Ines; Herberger, Katharina
Background: The treatment of chronic leg ulcers requires frequent assessments of local wound status and adjustment of therapy. The availability of reasonably priced photographic equipment and quick electronic transfer of high-quality digital images should make it possible that the assessment of wound status can be made by remote experts. Objective: This study examines the feasibility of using teledermatology for wound
Wolfgang Salmhofer; Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof; Gerald Gabler; Karin Rieger-Engelbogen; Dieter Gunegger; Barbara Binder; Thomas Kern; Helmut Kerl; H. Peter Soyer
An investigation of effectiveness of topical treatment of nonhealing chronic venous leg ulcers with propolis ointment was conducted. 56 patients were included in the study and randomized into two groups. In group 1, there were 28 patients (ulceration area: 6.9–9.78?cm2) treated by means of topical propolis ointment application and short stretch bandage compression. In group 2, there were 29 patients (ulceration area: 7.2–9.4?cm2) treated by means of Unna boot leg compression without topical propolis treatment. In the study, the efficacy of both treatment methods in patients with resistive venous leg ulcers was compared. The ulceration of patients from group 1 healed completely after 6 weeks of therapy in all cases. In all patients from group 2, the process of healing was longer but successfully completed after 16 weeks of the therapy. We found that an adjunctive propolis ointment treatment increases the efficacy of the short stretch bandage compression stocking, and this combined treatment is more effective than Unna's boot compression alone.
Kucharzewski, M.; Kozka, M.; Urbanek, T.
An investigation of effectiveness of topical treatment of nonhealing chronic venous leg ulcers with propolis ointment was conducted. 56 patients were included in the study and randomized into two groups. In group 1, there were 28 patients (ulceration area: 6.9-9.78?cm(2)) treated by means of topical propolis ointment application and short stretch bandage compression. In group 2, there were 29 patients (ulceration area: 7.2-9.4?cm(2)) treated by means of Unna boot leg compression without topical propolis treatment. In the study, the efficacy of both treatment methods in patients with resistive venous leg ulcers was compared. The ulceration of patients from group 1 healed completely after 6 weeks of therapy in all cases. In all patients from group 2, the process of healing was longer but successfully completed after 16 weeks of the therapy. We found that an adjunctive propolis ointment treatment increases the efficacy of the short stretch bandage compression stocking, and this combined treatment is more effective than Unna's boot compression alone. PMID:23662121
Kucharzewski, M; Kózka, M; Urbanek, T
The aetiology of lower limb ulcers is often the result of intricate vascular pathology and the quality of the peri-ulcer microcirculation is a major factor in the prognosis of the disease. We measured the skin perfusion pressure (S.P.P.) using an infra-red photoplethysmograph of the PPG type (ESM, Mauguio, France). The study included 30 healthy subjects, 25 patients with leg ulcers of varied etiology (venous: 14, arterial: 11), and 15 patients with uncomplicated varicose veins. Measurements were undertaken in dorsal decubitus position after a 15 minute rest. The S.P.P. was expressed as the percentage of humeral blood pressure. The results showed an important decrease of S.P.P. in patients with arterial ulcers when compared to patients with healthy legs (39.9 +/- 16.4% and 82.8 +/- 10.0% respectively). The S.P.P. values were intermediate (54.4 +/- 19.3%) in patients with venous ulcers while they were normal in the patients with uncomplicated varicose veins (87.3 +/- 12.3%). Among this population, 18 patients (11 with uncomplicated varicose veins and 7 with venous ulcers) were investigated before and after a one month treatment with a flavonoid (Daflon 500 mg, 2 tablets per day). An increase of S.P.P. to normal values after treatment was found in patients with venous ulcers though not in patients with varicose veins. This non invasive procedure appreciating the microcirculation status in peri-ulcerous skin could be of predictive value for the healing potential. It could be a good method to assess the efficacy of vasculotropic agents. PMID:3183454
Guillot, B; Dandurand, M; Guilhou, J J
Low energy laser therapy (LELT) was used to treat chronic leg ulcers. Seven patients, aged 59 to 96 years, with 11 leg ulcers were referred for laser therapy by plastic surgeons. They had a history of ulceration of 3 - 50 years and five of the patients had breakdown of previous skin grafts. Laser treatments were administered with a microprocessor-controlled device. A 22 red ((lambda) equals 660 nm) laser head was utilized to provide a dose of (4 - 6) J/cm2 and 7 infrared ((lambda) equals 880 nm) head to provide a dose of (4 - 8) J/cm2. The patients were treated three to five times per week, 25 - 30 treatments per course. Three patients underwent two courses of laser therapy with three weeks interval between them. All patients, after 5 - 10 laser treatments, have gotten relief of pain and decreased the amount of analgesics used. All ulcers in six patients were completely healed and two ulcers in the seventh patient decreased in size by 75%. One may conclude the developed laser methodology might be used as a preventative measure to avoid plastic surgery or improve its success.
Telfer, Jacqui; Filonenko, Natalia; Salansky, Norman M.
Background A systematic review was conducted to analyse journal articles that describe or measure the impact of leg ulceration on patients' quality of life (QoL) in order to improve the content of an educational programme that aims to enhance self-care agency in leg ulcer patients. Method Original articles published in English and German between 1990 and 2006 were included if the findings were analysed at the level of patients. Articles were excluded if (1) they investigated the impact of specific treatments or settings on QoL or (2) focused mainly on arterial ulcers or diabetic foot ulcers. Results Twenty-four original research articles met the inclusion criteria; 11 studies used a quantitative, 11 studies a qualitative, and 2 used a mixed method approach. The findings were collapsed into 5 core domains. Quantitative studies commonly investigated the parameters of pain, sleep, social isolation, and physical mobility. Patients had significantly more pain, more restrictions regarding social functioning, less vitality, and limitations with respect to emotional roles compared to the respective controls. Other problem areas identified were restrictions in work capacity, recreation, social interaction, psychological well-being, as well as problems caused by treatment regimes. Inconclusive results were obtained regarding pain intensity, physical restrictions, and gender effects. Limitations Numerous original studies neither undertook a differentiation of participants by ulcer aetiology nor did they analyse the results according to gender differences. Conclusion As leg ulceration has an impact on QoL, national guidelines on the treatment of leg ulceration need to more specifically address these far-ranging effects identified in this review.
Herber, Oliver R; Schnepp, Wilfried; Rieger, Monika A
Summary. Leg ulcers of different etiology disable up to 1% of total population, and up to 15% individuals over 70 years old. It is an old disease, which troubles the patients and medical personnel and is hard to cure. It might take several years to cure the ulcer fully. Most of the patients with leg ulcers are being treated at
BACKGROUND: A systematic review was conducted to analyse journal articles that describe or measure the impact of leg ulceration on patients' quality of life (QoL) in order to improve the content of an educational programme that aims to enhance self-care agency in leg ulcer patients. METHOD: Original articles published in English and German between 1990 and 2006 were included if
Oliver R Herber; Wilfried Schnepp; Monika A Rieger
Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of larval therapy with a standard debridement technique (hydrogel) for sloughy or necrotic leg ulcers.Design Pragmatic, three armed randomised controlled trial.Setting Community nurse led services, hospital wards, and hospital outpatient leg ulcer clinics in urban and rural settings, United Kingdom.Participants 267 patients with at least one venous or mixed venous and arterial ulcer with
Jo C Dumville; Gill Worthy; J Martin Bland; Nicky Cullum; Christopher Dowson; Cynthia Iglesias; Joanne L Mitchell; E Andrea Nelson; Marta O Soares; David J Torgerson
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy and proctocolitis. We report a patient with a persistent genital ulcer due to LGV (serovar L2b), an unusual presentation among US men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum should be considered when evaluating persistent genital ulcers, and LGV-specific testing should be sought. PMID:24622642
Marcotte, Terrence; Lee, Yer; Pandori, Mark; Jain, Vivek; Cohen, Stephanie Elise
Leg ulceration is a debilitating condition characterized by long periods of ulceration and a high incidence of recurrence. The quality of life of sufferers is compromised by many issues including pain and social isolation. Day-to-day care focuses predominantly on the provision of wound care, often with limited attention to the wide-ranging effects that the ulceration poses to the life of the sufferer. Part 1 of this two-part series provides a review of qualitative studies that explore the health-related quality of life of patients with chronic venous leg ulceration. Part 2 will be published in the June 2010 Wound Care Alliance supplement. PMID:20216504
Green, Julie; Jester, Rebecca
Objective To determine whether pentoxifylline 400 mg (Trental 400) taken orally three times daily, in addition to ambulatory compression bandages and dressings, improves the healing rate of pure venous ulcers. Design Randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial, parallel group study of factorial design, permitting the simultaneous evaluation of alternative pharmaceutical, bandaging, and dressings materials. Setting Leg ulcer clinics of a teaching and a district general hospital in southern Scotland. Participants 200 patients with confirmed venous ulcers and in whom other major causal factors were excluded. Interventions Pentoxifylline 400 mg three times daily or placebo. Main outcome measure Complete healing (full epithelialisation) of all ulcers on the trial leg. Results Complete healing occurred in 65 of the 101 (64%) patients receiving pentoxifylline and 52 of the 99 (53%) patients receiving placebo. Conclusions The difference in the healing rates between patients taking pentoxifylline and those taking placebo did not reach statistical significance. Key messagesLeg ulcers cost the NHS around £400 million per annum50%-75% of venous leg ulcers can be succesfully treated with dressings and compression bandages but take many months to healA drug that reduced the healing time of venous ulcers would be useful, although no agent has been proved to be effective to dateTrials with pentoxifylline, a vasoactive drug used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, as an adjunct to the treatment of venous ulcers have been inconclusiveAt the 5% level, pentoxifylline had a non-significant effect on healing rates of pure venous ulcers
Dale, J J; Ruckley, C V; Harper, D R; Gibson, B; Nelson, E A; Prescott, R J
Non-healing leg ulcers are becoming a major public health problem. The high prevalence of leg ulcer directly affects patients' quality of life because it produces psychological (anxiety, depression), social and physical (amputation) handicap. Most leg ulcers become unsightly and they hardly if ever, yield to conventional treatment. Healing of an amputated part may pose a problem, hence amputation cannot be recommended without extensive pre-operative investigations. Prevalence is high among the poor, for whom expenses of surgery are not affordable. Few surgeons try skin graft but unfavourable local condition of the ulcer leads to rejection and all efforts prove futile. Keeping all these factors in mind, we have tested a Unani formulation for its ulcer healing properties; early results were surprising and in some cases unbelievable. PMID:23116214
Zulkifle, Mohd; Ansari, Abdul H; Shakir, Mohd; Kamal, Zahid; Alam, Md Tanwir
Background The purpose of this manuscript was to determine whether the change in wound surface area over time could be described through nonlinear mathematics. Methods We studied 3,588 serial wound tracings of 338 venous leg ulcers (VLUs) that had been followed during a controlled, prospective, randomized trial of two topical wound treatments. Results A majority (72%) of VLUs exhibited surface area reduction via an exponential decay model, particularly during the early stages of healing. These results were consistent with the mechanics of wound contraction and epithelial cell proliferation, supported by the higher frequency at which exponential surface area reduction associated with full wound closure (35% of wounds that fit the exponential model healed vs. 21% of wounds that did not fit the exponential model completely healed during the study period, p = 0.018). Goodness-of-fit statistics suggested that much of the individual variation in healing could be described as nonlinear variation from the exponential model. Conclusion We believe that parameter estimates from a mathematical model may provide a more accurate quantification of wound healing rates, and that similar models may someday reach routine use in comparing the efficacy of various treatments in routine practice and in product registration trials.
Cardinal, Matthew; Phillips, Tania; Eisenbud, David E; Harding, Keith; Mansbridge, Jonathan; Armstrong, David G
Healing of leg ulcers constitutes a major clinical problem. Local methods for accelerating the healing process include modern wound dressings, but it is unclear what impact these dressings have on ulcer healing. This study examines the collective evidence on the effectiveness of modern dressings in the treatment of leg ulcers. To this end, a meta-analysis was conducted covering randomized clinical trials identified following a systematic review of the literature in different databases. Estimates of effect were calculated according to the fixed effects model. Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (26 on ulcers of venous etiology, 5 on ulcers of mixed or poorly differentiated etiology). We found no study that exclusively addressed arterial ulcers. Although studies displayed considerable methodological limitations, analysis showed no significant differences in terms of the proportion of healed ulcers or reduction in wound size for both modern and conventional dressings. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between the different modern dressings compared in the studies. Thus, the current medical literature is poor in supporting the use of modern dressings to improve the healing rate of leg ulcers. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether the choice of any specific dressing type affects the healing course of these ulcers. Well-conducted trials are warranted to reliably address this question. PMID:15953039
Bouza, Carmen; Muñoz, Ana; Amate, José María
We report two patients, who presented within six months with the classic clinical picture of 'spontaneous' oesophageal perforation, which was caused by a perforated Barrett's ulcer. These two cases underline the importance of postoperative endoscopy in ruling out intrinsic oesophageal disease as the cause of the rupture in every patient, who survives this life threatening condition.
Limburg, A J; Hesselink, E J; Kleibeuker, J H
The effect of oral zinc on the healing of chronic venous leg ulcers has been investigated in 91 hospitalized patients aged approximately 70 years. The patients were divided into three groups: group A consisted of patients with serum zinc concentrations in the upper normal range (Zn greater than or equal to 1.0 mg/l) who received no zinc therapy. Groups B and C consisted of patients with serum zinc concentrations in the lower normal range (Zn less than 1.0 mg/l) who received either 3 daily doses of 220 mg zinc sulphate (group B) or placebo (group C). In group B, a marked increase in serum zinc concentration occured within one month (from 0.9 to 1.25 mg/L). In group A, serum zinc levels decreased slightly during the observation period of three months (from 1.1 to 1.0 mg/l) while a slight rise was seen in group C (from 0.9 to 1.0 mg/l). The healing rate of the ulcers in group A was not superior to that in group C. Zinc substitution in the low zinc group B did not improve healing as compared to placebo-treated low zinc group C. A favourable effect of oral zinc on wound healing in patients with initially low serum zinc concentrations could not be demonstrated. Initial ulcer areas were significantly smaller in patients with higher serum zinc levels than in patients with lower serum zinc levels. Low serum zinc levels appear to be a consequence of insufficient nutrition, an observation which may indicate a correlation between nutritional deficiency and ulcer area. The healing rate did not depend significantly upon age, sex, weight or cause. It was, however, accelerated in the case of larger ulcers. PMID:7423160
Floersheim, G L; Lais, E
A consecutive series of 50 patients with large leg ulcers (surface area > 100 cm2) were investigated for evidence of arterial, venous and nutritional problems. Arterial insufficiency was found in 34%, venous reflux in 50%. A group of eight patients had no arterial or venous problem but had serious deficiencies of vitamin C and zinc. Arterial bypass was performed successfully in 15 of the 17 patients with arterial disease. All patients had a mesh split-skin graft. The 25 with venous incompetence had compression bandaging; in these patients the ulcer had healed on discharge but 10 had recurrent ulceration within 6 months. The leg ulcers in patients with corrected arterial insufficiency healed significantly more rapidly than those with venous incompetence. The ulcers in those with nutritional deficiency healed promptly after skin grafting and correction of the deficiency. It is important to be aware of arterial insufficiency and nutritional deficiency in patients with leg ulcers, as such deficiencies may contribute to the non-healing of an apparently straightforward leg ulcer.
Balaji, P.; Mosley, J. G.
Secondary lymphedema occurs after trauma, cancer surgery, or obesity, and wounds in lymphedema can easily become intractable. We report positive results using lymphatico-venous anastomosis (LVA) to treat a post-traumatic lymph fistula and an intractable ulcer in a severely obese patient. A 41-year-old male (BMI 51.8), one year prior, had a traffic injury, and had an 18-cm contusion in his right leg. Six months later, lymph leakage in a 14 cm?×?8 cm region and a 5 cm?×?3 cm skin ulcer occurred in the center of the wound. We made a diagnosis of lymphedema resulting from obesity, accompanied with lymphorrhea and intractable ulcer. He was unable to reach his legs owing to obesity, making complex physical therapy impossible. We performed LVA under local anesthesia. The lymphorrhea healed 2 weeks after the operation and had not recurred 3 months after the operation. The leg lymphedema improved after the surgery without the compression therapy. In cases of intractable ulcers, suspected of being caused by lymphostasis, treatments indicated for lymphedema, for example LVA, may possibly allow satisfactory wound healing. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:64-67, 2014. PMID:24038321
Mihara, Makoto; Hara, Hisako; Todokoro, Takeshi; Seki, Yukio; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao; Murai, Noriyuki
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the prognostic factors in uncomplicated venous leg ulcer healing. DESIGN--Randomised parallel group controlled trial with subjects stratified by initial ulcer diameter and four months' maximum duration of follow up. SETTING--Assessment at Northwick Park Hospital vascular unit with community based treatment. PATIENTS--200 patients with clinical and objective evidence of uncomplicated venous leg ulceration and an initial ulcer diameter > 2 cm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Time to complete healing of the ulcer. RESULTS--In the presence of graduated compression healing occurred more rapidly in patients with a smaller initial ulcer area (relative risk of healing 1.92 associated with halving of ulcer area (95% confidence interval 1.58 to 2.33)), shorter duration of ulceration (relative risk 1.35 associated with halving duration (1.17 to 1.56)), younger age (relative risk 1.34 associated with 10 year decrease (1.12 to 1.59)), and no deep vein involvement (relative risk 1.8 (1.19 to 2.78)). CONCLUSION--These prognostic factors used in a simple scoring system predict time to healing.
Skene, A. I.; Smith, J. M.; Dore, C. J.; Charlett, A.; Lewis, J. D.
With an aging population venous ulceration is likely to become an increasing problem. Despite improvements in care and the widespread introduction of compression bandaging, the mainstay of current management, a significant proportion of venous leg ulcers remain hard to heal. Therefore, a single-blinded, randomized multicenter study was performed to compare wound size reduction using amelogenin proteins (Xelma) formulated into a solution which forms a temporary extracellular matrix on contact with the wound bed. Propylene glycol alginate 7% served as a control. Patients were randomized to receive either amelogenin protein or control treatment. The investigational products were applied weekly under soft silicone secondary dressings for up to a maximum of 12 weeks. Compression therapy was maintained throughout the investigation. Wound size reduction was measured by tracing and all wounds were photographed. In total 123 patients were recruited, 62 patients in the amelogenin group, and 61 in the control group, respectively. Subgroup analyses were performed for ulcers with a size>10 cm2 at baseline and for ulcers of duration of >12 months. The wound size reduction was greatest in the group treated with amelogenin (33.8 vs. 25.6%, n=117), this difference being greatest for larger ulcers (25 vs. 7.9% for ulcers>10 cm(2), n=61) and those of long duration (29.3 vs. 10.9% for ulcers>12-month duration, n=61). We conclude that this product may be clinically useful in the treatment of these venous leg ulcers. PMID:16808801
Vowden, Peter; Romanelli, Marco; Peter, Ralf; Boström, Asa; Josefsson, Anna; Stege, Helger
Prevalence of leg ulcer in general population is important and new efficient treatments are now needed, especially for chronic leg ulcers. Human amniotic membrane (HAM) can be used as an alternative treatment for recalcitrant leg ulcers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a HAM extract on normal fibroblasts (NF) and ulcer fibroblasts (UF). NF and UF were obtained from biopsies by explants technique. HAM extract was used at 10 ?g of total proteins per ml. Single patient-matched NF and UF were compared, without or with HAM extract. Studied parameters were proliferation rate, retraction of free-floating lattices, alpha smooth muscle actin expression by flow cytometry, and synthesis of elastin, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), pro-collagen I, MMP-1 and TIMP-1. Our results show that UF had a specific phenotype compared to NF: low proliferation, high expression of alpha-SM actin and high synthesis of MMP-1, TIMP-1 and elastin. HAM extract significantly increased the synthesis of GAGs, pro-collagen I and MMP-1 in NF and decreased retraction of free lattices. HAM extract transiently increased UF proliferation, slowed down lattices retraction and decreased elastin synthesis. In conclusion, HAM extract has little effect on UF for the parameters studied and NF are more responsive than UF. However, clinical beneficial effect of HAM application on leg ulcers was previously observed and might rather be related to an action on keratinocytes and/or a modulation of the highly inflammatory environment of these chronic wounds. PMID:24515295
Tauzin, H; Robin, S; Humbert, P; Viennet, C; Saas, P; Courderot-Masuyer, C; Muret, P
Chronic venous disorders are common in the Western world. The current treatment of venous leg ulcers is unsatisfactory despite the availability of well-documented standards of care. Patients today are interested in alternative approaches to modern medicine. We have developed a wound-healing powder containing natural ingredients with absorptive, aromatic, antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory synergistic properties. This report describes 3 cases that were successfully treated with the powder, demonstrating the potential of herbal remedies in the clinical treatment of venous leg ulcers.
Ghatnekar, Angela V.; Elstrom, Tuan; Ghatnekar, Gautam S.; Kelechi, Teresa
Imaging is defined as the process of obtaining geometric images, either in two or three dimensions by digitizing an existing object. In this research, 3D information of the human skin surface is retrieved and analysed to determine volume of leg ulcers for medical purposes. Volume determination is an important criterion in clinical assessment of leg ulcer as it will indicate
K. K. Chong; A. M. Abdul-Rani; M. H. Ahmad Fadzil; Y. B. Yap; A. Jamil
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of bacterial cross-contamination between the nasal cavity and leg ulcers. Sixteen patients were included in the study. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the leg ulcer of 13 patients and 6 of these patients also harboured S. aureus in the nasal cavity. Klebsiella oxytoca was found in the ulcer and the nasal cavity of one patient. PFGE analysis revealed that patients harbouring S. aureus both in the nasal cavity and the leg ulcer had the same bacterial type at both sites. None of the S. aureus isolates were methicillin resistant. PMID:23459213
Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Skindersoe, Mette Elena; Skov, Robert Leo; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki
Neuropathic leg ulcers (NLUs) affect more than 10% of diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and represent the most common cause of ulceration of the leg in these patients. Though their pathogenesis is well known, related to the chronic neuropathic edema, the management of NLUs, mainly based on elastocompression, is still controversial, with lower healing rates than nondiabetic venous leg ulcers. The authors tested if a novel gel formulation, containing amino acids and hyaluronic acid (Vulnamin)gel; Errekappa, Milan, Italy), will improve the outcomes of NLUs when used together with elastocompression. Thirty patients affected by NLU were randomized into 2 groups, both treated with 4-layer elastocompressive bandaging: patients in group A were topically treated with the application of Vulnamin) gel, whereas patients in group B received only the inert gel vehicle. The healing rate at 3 months was evaluated as the primary endpoint, whereas the secondary endpoints were healing time, reduction in ulcer area and ulceration score in 4 weeks, number of infective complications, and overall satisfaction of patients. Healing rate was significantly (P < .05) higher in patients in group A when compared with those in group B; healing time, patients' satisfaction, and reduction in ulcer area and ulceration score in 4 weeks were also higher in patients in group A. However, no significant differences were found in the prevalence of infections and other adverse events. The use of Vulnamin) gel with elastocompression is safe and effective in the management of NLUs of diabetic patients. PMID:19703948
Abbruzzese, L; Rizzo, L; Fanelli, G; Tedeschi, A; Scatena, A; Goretti, C; Macchiarini, S; Piaggesi, A
The aim of the study was to use negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with chronic venous leg ulceration. The authors present their experience in treatment of 15 patients whose average ulceration surface area was 62.6?cm2. In 10 patients, the ulcers healed within 6 weeks and in the remaining patients within 20 weeks. Based on the results obtained, the authors imply that NPWT is an effective method in the treatment of chronic venous leg.
Mieszczanski, Pawel; Wilemska-Kucharzewska, Katarzyna; Taradaj, Jakub; Kuropatnicki, Andrzej; Sliwinski, Zbigniew
The aim of the study was to use negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with chronic venous leg ulceration. The authors present their experience in treatment of 15 patients whose average ulceration surface area was 62.6 cm(2). In 10 patients, the ulcers healed within 6 weeks and in the remaining patients within 20 weeks. Based on the results obtained, the authors imply that NPWT is an effective method in the treatment of chronic venous leg. PMID:24696847
Kucharzewski, Marek; Mieszcza?ski, Pawe?; Wilemska-Kucharzewska, Katarzyna; Taradaj, Jakub; Kuropatnicki, Andrzej; Sliwi?ski, Zbigniew
The standard treatments for venous diseases of the lower limb include compression bandaging and stockings as well as surgical removal of varicose veins. There are a number of conditions in which these conventional treatments are ineffective, particularly in the management of leg ulceration. Drug treatments for healing venous leg ulcers have yet to be developed to the stage of good clinical efficacy, but these may assist in the management of patients. Flavonoid drugs have been widely used in the management of the symptoms of venous disease for many years and have recently been studied in some detail to assess their effects on the microcirculation. Work in animal models of ischemia-reperfusion show that MPFF (micronized purified flavonoid fraction) modulates leukocyte adhesion and prevents endothelial damage. Similar biochemical effects have been observed in patients with venous disease and may explain the efficacy of this drug in the management of edema and other symptoms of venous disease. There is clinical evidence that MPFF modifies venous leg ulcer healing. PMID:12934756
Coleridge Smith, Philip D
Objective To assess the clinical effectiveness of weekly delivery of low dose, high frequency therapeutic ultrasound in conjunction with standard care for hard to heal venous leg ulcers.Design Multicentre, pragmatic, two arm randomised controlled trial.Setting Community and district nurse led services, community leg ulcer clinics, and hospital outpatient leg ulcer clinics in 12 urban and rural settings (11 in the
Judith M Watson; Arthur R Kang’ombe; Marta O Soares; Ling-Hsiang Chuang; Gill Worthy; J Martin Bland; Cynthia Iglesias; Nicky Cullum; David Torgerson; E Andrea Nelson
Shewanella algae is an emerging seawater-associated bacterium. In immunocompromised patients, infections may result in bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. Our patient, suffering from autoimmune vasculitis and myasthenia gravis, developed typical hemorrhagic bullae and leg ulcers because of S algae. She was treated efficiently with a combination of ciprofloxacin and piperacillin. PMID:23809079
Wagner, Nicola; Otto, Lisa; Podda, Maurizio; Schmitt, York; Tappe, Dennis
The purpose of the present research was to determine if metalloproteinase levels were elevated in human chronic wound fluid. Samples of blood and wound fluid from acute (mastectomy) and chronic (leg ulcer) wounds were collected, and metalloproteinase profiles of the samples were determined by gelatin zymography. Compared to serum, acute wound fluid (mastectomy fluid) contained markedly increased levels (five- to
Annette B. Wysocki; Lisa Staiano-Coico; Frederick Grinnell
A postal survey in two health board areas in Scotland, encompassing a population of about one million, identified 1477 patients with chronic ulcers of the leg. Women outnumbered men by a ratio of 2.8:1. The median age of the women was 74 and of the men 67. Seventy two (5%) were hospital inpatients, 174 (12%) were managed jointly by the
M J Callam; C V Ruckley; D R Harper; J J Dale
Objective: To identify and describe the qualitative variations in how physical activity is perceived and understood by individuals with current or previous venous leg ulcer. Design: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Method: Twenty-two individuals aged 60–85 years were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by three researchers using a phenomenographic research approach. A set of categories of descriptions and their internal relationships were constructed based on the essential features of the variation in patients’ perceptions of physical activity. Results: Four categories of descriptions were identified: (i) ‘self-management’, (ii) ‘instructions and support’, (iii) ‘fear of injury’ and (iv) ‘a wish to stay normal’. The categories could be interpreted by a two-dimensional construct: (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. Chronicity and behaviour combined together formed a 2?×?2 square housing the four qualitatively different categories. Irrespective of category, the participants reported that information given by caregivers regarding leg ulcer and physical activity was insufficient or contradictory. Written information or exercise programmes were not obtained regularly and not at all in primary care. Conclusion: A dichotomous view emerged from participants’ experiences of physical activity based on (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity.
Biguet, Gabriele; Elfving, Britt
The aim of this study was to compare five types of compression therapy in venous leg ulcers (intermittent pneumatic vs. stockings vs. multi layer vs. two layer short stretch bandages vs. Unna boots). Primary study endpoints were analysis of changes of the total ulcer surface area, volume and linear dimensions inside observed groups. The secondary end points were comparisons between all groups the number of completely healed wounds (ulcer healing rates), Gilman index and percentage change of ulcer surface area. In total, 147 patients with unilateral venous leg ulcers were included to this study. Participants were randomly allocated to the groups: A, B, C, D and E. After two months the healing rate was the highest in group A (intermittent pneumatic compression) - 57.14%, 16/28 patients, B (ulcer stocking system) - 56.66%, 17/30 patients and C (multi layer short stretch bandage) - 58.62%, 17/29 patients. Significantly much worse rate found in group D (two layer short stretch bandages) - only 16.66%, 5/30 patients and E (Unna boots) - 20%, 6/30 patients. The analysis of changes of the percentage of Gilman index and wound total surface area confirmed that intermittent pneumatic compression, stockings and multi layer bandages are the most efficient. The two layer short - stretch bandages and Unna boots appeared again much less effective. PMID:24396284
Dolibog, Pawel; Franek, Andrzej; Taradaj, Jakub; Dolibog, Patrycja; Blaszczak, Edward; Polak, Anna; Brzezinska-Wcislo, Ligia; Hrycek, Antoni; Urbanek, Tomasz; Ziaja, Jacek; Kolanko, Magdalena
We herein describe a case of 55-year-old farmer, who presented with chronic non-healing ulcers over both shins of 4 years duration. Intravenous drug abuse was suspected due to inability to find any venous access and all peripheral veins being found thickened and fibrosed. There were multiple atrophic scars in linear distribution in all limbs as well as in both groins. In addition there were multiple discrete fibrous papules in linear distribution on both hands, which were more obvious on the left side. The patient denied abusing intravenous drugs. However, his relatives confirmed that he abused pentazocine for almost one year before his chronic pain in abdomen was treated by appendicectomy. With subsequent counseling, it was found that he continued to abuse pentazocine at times even after surgery leading to the non-healing of ulcers. PMID:17456919
De, Dipankar; Dogra, Sunil; Kanwar, Amrinder J
Ulceration of the leg is often associated with significant consequences for both the individual and society. The diagnosis of chronic leg ulcer is not appropriate. Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCLBCL), leg type, is a distinct clinicopathological entity. Chemotherapy in the form of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin and prednisolone) is considered to be the first line of treatment for these lymphomas. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic leg ulcer with a first negative biopsy and a diagnosis of PCLBCL, leg type, verified on the subsequent biopsy. This case report emphasises the importance of differential diagnosis of lymphoma in non-healing ulcers and also the value of repeat tissue biopsy in cases with a negative initial result but strong clinical suspicion. PMID:21944785
Khan, Junaid Alam; Usman, Farooq; Abbasi, Shaista; Shoab, Syed Sulaiman
Comprehensive care of chronic venous insufficiency and associated ulcers requires a multipronged and interprofessional approach to care. A comprehensive treatment approach includes exercise, nutritional assessment, compression therapy, vascular reconstruction, and advanced treatment modalities. National guidelines, meta-analyses, and original research studies provide evidence for the inclusion of these approaches in the patient plan of care. The purpose of this paper is to review present guidelines for prevention and treatment of venous leg ulcers as followed in the US. The paper further explores evidence-based yet pragmatic tools for the interprofessional team to use in the management of this complex disorder.
White-Chu, E Foy; Conner-Kerr, Teresa A
Skin equivalents, consisting of a non-contracted collagen gel populated with allogeneic fibroblasts and covered with autologous cultured keratinocytes were used for grafting of venous leg ulcers. The results were compared in the same patient with those ob...
M. A. E. Mol B. P. Nanninga J. P. van Eendenburg W. Westerhof C. J. W. van Ginkel
The significant impact of leg ulcers upon quality of life and disease burden cannot be overemphasised, with the financial and economic impact from an individual, local and national perspective being widely acknowledged. This article attempts to highlight issues relating to education in leg ulcer management while identifying some current and emerging challenges faced in this area by professionals. With regard to education, formal training and perception of professionals, the provision of more specialised and focused training, increased use of patient-related outcome measures and the concept of knowledge brokering have been identified as important aspects in the planning and further development of education. Issues in the domains of community nursing, technology, pain management, nursing diagnosis, availability of research and recurrence were also highlighted. PMID:24912833
Background Venous leg ulcers are common, troublesome, and their failure to heal is often related to a heavy bio-burden. Ionized silver has both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The ulcer healing properties of the silver releasing foam dressing Biatain Ag has been examined in 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Aim To evaluate ulcer healing through a meta-analytic approach after treatment with either Biatain Ag or a non-active dressing. Patients and Methods 685 subjects with pure or mixed hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers were included in the meta-analysis. Results Biatain Ag showed a significant treatment effect (p<0.0001), responder rate (p<0.001), and healing rate (p?=?0.002). Conclusion The meta-analysis of the 4 RCTs provided statistical significant evidence to support the use of Biatain Ag dressing in treatment of hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers.
Leaper, David; Munter, Christian; Meaume, Sylvie; Scalise, Alessandro; Mompo, Nacho Blanes; Jakobsen, Birte Petersen; Gottrup, Finn
Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of larval therapy with a standard debridement technique (hydrogel) for sloughy or necrotic leg ulcers. Design Pragmatic, three armed randomised controlled trial. Setting Community nurse led services, hospital wards, and hospital outpatient leg ulcer clinics in urban and rural settings, United Kingdom. Participants 267 patients with at least one venous or mixed venous and arterial ulcer with at least 25% coverage of slough or necrotic tissue, and an ankle brachial pressure index of 0.6 or more. Interventions Loose larvae, bagged larvae, and hydrogel. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was time to healing of the largest eligible ulcer. Secondary outcomes were time to debridement, health related quality of life (SF-12), bacterial load, presence of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, adverse events, and ulcer related pain (visual analogue scale, from 0 mm for no pain to 150 mm for worst pain imaginable). Results Time to healing was not significantly different between the loose or bagged larvae group and the hydrogel group (hazard ratio for healing using larvae v hydrogel 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.68; P=0.54). Larval therapy significantly reduced the time to debridement (2.31, 1.65 to 3.2; P<0.001). Health related quality of life and change in bacterial load over time were not significantly different between the groups. 6.7% of participants had MRSA at baseline. No difference was found between larval therapy and hydrogel in their ability to eradicate MRSA by the end of the debridement phase (75% (9/12) v 50% (3/6); P=0.34), although this comparison was underpowered. Mean ulcer related pain scores were higher in either larvae group compared with hydrogel (mean difference in pain score: loose larvae v hydrogel 46.74 (95% confidence interval 32.44 to 61.04), P<0.001; bagged larvae v hydrogel 38.58 (23.46 to 53.70), P<0.001). Conclusions Larval therapy did not improve the rate of healing of sloughy or necrotic leg ulcers or reduce bacterial load compared with hydrogel but did significantly reduce the time to debridement and increase ulcer pain. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN55114812 and National Research Register N0484123692.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of subfascial endoscopy by use of a mediastinoscope in the identification and ligation of incompetent perforating veins in patients with venous ulceration of the lower leg.Methods: All patients who underwent subfascial endoscopy for venous ulceration between Jan. 1, 1994, and Mar. 1, 1995, at the Sint Franciscus Gasthuis in
E. G. J. M. Pierik; H. van Urk; C. H. A. Wittens
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of oral treatment with Daflon 500 mg (micronized purified flavonoid fraction [MPFF]) on leg ulcer healing. This study was conducted as a meta-analysis of randomized prospective studies using Daflon 500 mg as an adjunct to conventional treatment. Medical literature databases and the manufacturer's records were searched for relevant clinical trials. Five prospective, randomized, controlled studies in which 723 patients with venous ulcers were treated between 1996 and 2001 were identified. Conventional treatment (compression and local care) in addition to Daflon 500 mg 2 tablets daily was compared with conventional treatment plus placebo in two studies (n = 309), or with conventional treatment alone in three studies (n = 414). The primary end point was complete ulcer healing at 6 months. The results are expressed as a reduction in the relative risk (RRR) of healing with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Since, in the present case, the desired treatment effect is increased ulcer healing, RRR should be positive to indicate a benefit of adjunctive Daflon 500 mg over conventional therapy alone. Type 1 error was set at 5%. At 6 months, the chance of ulcer healing was 32% better in patients treated with adjunctive Daflon 500 mg than in those managed by conventional therapy alone (RRR, 32%; 95% CI, 3% to 70%). This difference was present from month 2 (RRR, 44%; 95% CI, 7% to 94%), and was associated with a shorter time to healing (16 weeks vs 21 weeks; p = 0.0034). The benefit of Daflon 500 mg was found in the subgroup of ulcers between 5 and 10 cm2 in area (RRR, 40%; 95% CI, 6% to 87%), as well as in patients with ulcers of 6 to 12 months' duration (RRR, 44%; 95% CI, 6% to 97%). These results confirm that venous ulcer healing is accelerated by Daflon 500 mg treatment. Daflon 500 mg might be a useful adjunct to conventional therapy in large and longstanding ulcers that might be expected to heal slowly. PMID:16193225
Smith, Philip Coleridge
This is a randomized factorial design clinical trial that investigates the efficacy and feasibility of providing prognostic information on wound healing. Prognostic information was provided based on baseline or 4-week wound characteristics. Healing rates were then determined at 24 weeks for venous leg ulcers and 20 weeks for diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. Centers that had access to baseline information for venous leg ulcer prognosis had an odds ratio (OR) of healing of 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03, 1.95) while centers that had access to information at 4 weeks had an OR of healing of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.95) compared with controls. Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcer patients treated in centers that had been randomized to receive only 4-week prognostic information were more likely to heal than individuals seen in centers randomized to receive no intervention (OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.14). Our study found that it is feasible and efficacious to provide prognostic information on venous leg ulcers and diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers in a wound care setting using an existing administrative database. This intervention was easy to administer and likely had low associated costs. This method of dispersing prognostic information to healthcare providers should be expanded to include recently published treatment algorithms. PMID:19660039
Kurd, Shanu K; Hoffstad, Ole J; Bilker, Warren B; Margolis, David J
Amniotic membrane (AM), the most internal placental membrane, has unique properties including antiadhesive effects, bacteriostatic, wound protection and pain-reduction properties, as well as epithelialization initialization capacities. Furthermore, AM is widely available and less costly than other bioengineered skin substitutes. In a prospective pilot study, we evaluated the safety, feasibility, and the effects on healing of AM graft in 15 patients with chronic venous leg ulcers. AM grafts were prepared from placentas harvested during cesarean section. All grafted AM had adhered to the wound bed 7 days after being applied with a 100% engraftment rate. The percentage of granulation tissue increased significantly (from 17% on day 0 to 69% on day 14, p<0.0001), along with a significant decrease of fibrinous slough (from 36% at day 0 to 16% at day 14, p<0.001). A significant clinical response occurred in 12 patients (80%) including complete healing (20%) in three during the 3-month follow-up period. The ulcer surface area decreased significantly from a mean value (+/- standard deviation) of 4.59 +/- 2.49 cm(2) at baseline to 2.91+/-2.01 cm(2) on day 30 (p<0.001). All patients experienced a significant reduction of ulcer-related pain rapidly after AM transplantation. No adverse events were recorded. AM transplantation seems to function as a safe substrate, promoting proper epithelialization while suppressing excessive fibrosis. Further advantages of biotherapy with AM are its easy and low-cost production, and that it can be applied as an ambulatory treatment without immobilization. AM transplantation may thus be considered to be an alternative method for treating chronic leg ulcers. PMID:17650088
Mermet, Isabelle; Pottier, Nathalie; Sainthillier, Jean Marie; Malugani, Carole; Cairey-Remonnay, Sandrive; Maddens, Stéphane; Riethmuller, Didier; Tiberghien, Pierre; Humbert, Philippe; Aubin, François
Leg ulcers caused by chronic venous insufficiency plague an estimated 500,000 Americans, but there have been few improvements in conservative treatment in this century, and Unna's boot continues to be a mainstay of therapy. A recent report suggests that Duoderm CGF dressing provides greater patient comfort and enhanced compliance, but Duoderm alone (without compression) resulted in slower healing compared with Unna's boot. We enrolled 30 patients (30 ulcers) in a clinical trial to compare Duoderm CGF plus compression (Coban wrap) to Unna's boot. No significant difference was observed between the two groups with respect to age, sex, initial ulcer area, ulcer duration, or extent of venous insufficiency by duplex scan. Eight of 16 ulcers (50%) in the Duoderm group healed completely versus 6 of 14 ulcers (43%) in the Unna's boot group (p = 0.18). Healing rates (square centimeters per week) correlated significantly with initial ulcer area and initial ulcer perimeter for both groups but best correlated with initial ulcer perimeter (r = 0.88 with Duoderm, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.80 with Unna's boot, p less than 0.002). After adjusting for differences in initial ulcer perimeter, healing rates were significantly faster for patients on Duoderm than patients on Unna's boot during the first 4 weeks of therapy (0.384 +/- 0.059 cm2/wk/cm perimeter for Duoderm versus 0.135 +/- 0.043 cm2/wk/cm perimeter for Unna's boot; p = 0.002). At 12 weeks patients on Duoderm again appeared to heal faster than those on Unna's boot, although the result did not reach statistical significance (0.049 +/- 0.007 cm2/wk/cm perimeter for Duoderm versus 0.020 +/- 0.017 for Unna's boot, p = 0.11).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1538504
Cordts, P R; Hanrahan, L M; Rodriguez, A A; Woodson, J; LaMorte, W W; Menzoian, J O
Background: Therapeutic low-frequency ultrasound (US) has been used for many years to improve wound healing in chronic wounds like venous leg ulcers. No human data are available for the possible effects of single US applications on microcirculation and their frequency-dependency. Aims: To investigated the role of therapeutic low-frequency US on microcirculation of venous leg ulcers in vivo. Patients and Methods: This is a pilot study on an inpatient basis. We use a newly developed low-frequency continuous-wave US-equipment composed of a US transducer based on piezo-fiber composites that allow the change of frequency. In this study, we apply US of 34 kHz, 53.5 kHz, and 75 kHz respectively. Twelve patients with chronic venous leg ulcers are analyzed. As an adjunct to good ulcer care, therapeutic US is applied, non-contacting, once a day, in a subaqual position for 10 minutes. Microcirculation is assessed in the ulcers adjacent to skin before US-therapy, immediately after the treatment and 30 minutes later. We use a micro-light guide spectrophotometer (O2C, LEA Medizintechnik GmbH, Gie?en, Germany) for calculation of blood flow velocity, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SCO2) and relative hemoglobin concentration (rHb) in 2 and 8 mm depth. Contact-free remission spectroscopy (SkinREM3, Color Control Chemnitz GmbH, Chemnitz, Germany) allows contact free measurements in the VIS-NIR range of the spectrum (400 ± 1600 nm). Results: It is seen that therapeutic US is well tolerated. One patient dropped out from a treatment series since he developed erysipelas responding to standard antibiotic. Effects were seen at 34 kHz only. The SO2 values increased after single US application. The values for rHb were higher in the superficial layer of the wound bed (depth 2 mm) compared to deeper parts (8 mm depth). US treatment did not result in significant changes of rHb and blood cell velocity. The data obtained by remission spectroscopy disclose an increase of oxygenized hemoglobin. Conclusions: The major findings are that continuous-wave low-frequency US of 34 kHz, but not, 53.5 kHz or 75 kHz, has a temporary stimulatory effect on microcirculation mainly due to an improved oxygenation. Further studies with treatment series are necessary.
Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit; Naumann, Gunther; Scheibe, Armin; Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Neugebauer, Reimund
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers are a common and distressing condition that can impair quality of life. Larval therapy has been widely promoted for the treatment of different types of chronic wounds, yet little is known about its acceptability to patients. OBJECTIVES: To explore patients' experiences of venous leg ulceration and of the acceptability of larval therapy as a treatment. DESIGN: Qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews alongside a randomized controlled trial. Interview data were transcribed and analysed for thematic content. Data were collected from April 2007 to July 2007. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen people (12 men, 6 women), aged between 29 and 93 years (median age 64 years), with at least one venous leg ulcer, took part in the study. Fourteen people were recruited from two vascular clinics (one attached to a hospital and the other located in a community setting). A further four people were recruited through referral from a team of community nurses. FINDINGS: Participants portrayed lives blighted by the presence of one or more leg ulcers. The majority were willing to try 'maggots' (larvae) and able to overcome feelings of squeamishness because of their strong desire to heal their ulcers. Five people treated with larvae were included in the study. Initial improvements in the condition of their ulcers were not sustained, and two participants experienced severe pain. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Patients may hold unrealistic expectations that larval therapy will effect a longed-for cure for their leg ulcer(s) but an absence of healing may lead to feelings of disappointment or despair. PMID:23409783
McCaughan, Dorothy; Cullum, Nicky; Dumville, Joanne
This is a randomized factorial design clinical trial which investigates the efficacy and feasibility of providing prognostic information on wound healing. Prognostic information was provided based on baseline or four-week wound characteristics. Healing rates were then determined at 24 weeks for venous leg ulcers and 20 weeks for diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. Centers that had access to baseline information for venous leg ulcer prognosis had an OR of healing of 1.42 (95%CI: 1.03, 1.95) while centers that had access to information at four weeks had an OR of healing of 1.43 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.95) compared to controls. Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcer patients treated in centers that had been randomized to receive only four-week prognostic information were more likely to heal than individuals seen in centers randomized to receive no intervention (OR 1.50, 95%CI: 1.05, 2.14). Our study found that it is feasible and efficacious to provide prognostic information on venous leg and diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers in a wound care setting using an existing administrative database. This intervention was easy to administer and likely had low associated costs. This method of dispersing prognostic information to healthcare providers should be expanded to include recently published treatment algorithms.
Kurd, Shanu K.; Hoffstad, Ole J.; Bilker, Warren B.; Margolis, David J.
The cortex of Mimosa tenuiflora is a popular remedy utilized in Mexico for the treatment of skin lesions. Modern studies support the existence in this cortex of compounds with cicatrizing properties. In the present study the therapeutic effectiveness of an extract elaborated with this bark in the treatment of venous leg ulceration disease was explored. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with ambulatory patients distributed into two groups, one receiving a hydrogel containing 5% of a crude extract standardized in its tannin concentration (1.8%), while the control group, was administered the same hydrogel but without addition of the extract. In both aseptic washings were performed initially followed by topical application of the corresponding hydrogel and dressing. Follow-up lasted 13 weeks and ulcer healing was determined through measurement of the lesion area by digital-photographic parameters. Therapeutic effectiveness occurred in all patients of the extract group; after the 8th treatment week, ulcer size was reduced by 92% as mean value in this group, whereas therapeutic effectiveness was observed only in one patient of the control group (chi(2), p=0.0001). No side effects were observed in any patient in either group. PMID:17088036
Rivera-Arce, Erika; Chávez-Soto, Marco Antonio; Herrera-Arellano, Armando; Arzate, Silvia; Agüero, Juan; Feria-Romero, Iris Angélica; Cruz-Guzmán, Angélica; Lozoya, Xavier
Hypertensive leg ulcer (HLU) is an inflammatory disease characterized by intense pain, alteration of vascularization, and skin necrosis. The optimal treatment relies on surgical removal of necrotic tissues covered by a split-skin graft. We studied the histomorphology of the lesions and investigated the involvement of inflammatory cells and cytokines to further define the physiopathology of HLU. We report epidermis acanthosis and a preferential occlusion of the precapillary arterioles with infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages, and T lymphocytes in the dermis. OSM, IL-1?, and IL-6 were overexpressed in the ulcer, whereas the Th17-derived cytokines were not. In vitro, the addition of IL-1? and OSM promoted acanthosis and destructuring of reconstructed epidermis. Exogenous IL-1? and OSM synergistically induced epidermal acanthosis in mice. These data show that OSM and IL-1? are not only a biological characteristic signature of HLU, but these cytokines reflect a specific inflammatory state, directly involved in the pathogenesis. We suggest that anti-cytokine biotherapies could be an alternative strategy to surgery to treat HLU. PMID:23313749
Giot, Jean-Philippe; Paris, Isabelle; Levillain, Pierre; Huguier, Vincent; Charreau, Sandrine; Delwail, Adrianna; Garcia, Martine; Garnier, Julien; Bernard, François-Xavier; Dagregorio, Guy; Guillet, Gérard; Morel, Franck; Lecron, Jean-Claude; Favot, Laure
Endoscopic subfascial dissection was performed in patients with chronic venous insufficiency of CEAP class 4-6. 76 surgeries were performed in 68 patients. Mean age of the patients was 56 years. The causes of chronic venous insufficiency were varicose (37) and postthrombotic diseases. Trophic ulcers were in 46 patients. Thirty patients underwent earlier various phlebectomies, including Linton's surgery (6 patients). In 33 patients endoscopic subfascial dissection of venous perforants was combined with various phlebectomy, in 37 patients -- with excision of ulcer with following autodermoplasty few days after surgery. Endoscopic subfascial dissection was carried out with special surgical R.Wolf endoscope with 6 mm instrumental canal, and also standard laparoscopic optical devices "Olympus". Complications during surgery were seen in 2 patients: bleeding in subfascial space (1.3%) and perforation of tissues in ulcer zone (1.3%). In postoperative period long (up to 14 days) lymphorrhea and suppuration of surgical wound were in 2 (2.6%) patients. It is concluded that endoscopic approach is optimal for elimination of pathological reflux through venous perforants in complicated forms of chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities, including trophic ulcers resistant to treatment. PMID:16007017
Shishin, K V; Strekalovski?, V P; Starkov, Iu G; Svetukhin, A M; Askerov, N G; Sapelkin, S V
Apligraf® (Organogenesis, Canton, MA) is a bi-layered bioengineered skin substitute and was the first engineered skin US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved to promote the healing of ulcers that have failed standard wound care. Constructed by culturing human foreskin-derived neonatal fibroblasts in a bovine type I collagen matrix over which human foreskin-derived neonatal epidermal keratinocytes are then cultured and allowed to stratify, Apligraf provides both cells and matrix for the nonhealing wound. Its exact mechanism of action is not known, but it is known to produce cytokines and growth factors similar to healthy human skin. Initially approved by the FDA in 1998 for the treatment of venous ulcers greater than one-month duration that have not adequately responded to conventional therapy, Apligraf later received approval in 2000 for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers of greater than three weeks duration. Herein, we review the use of Apligraf in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers. Our goal is to provide a working understanding of appropriate patient selection and proper use of the product for any physician treating this segment of the aging population.
Zaulyanov, Larissa; Kirsner, Robert S
One of the main functions of wound dressings is to control water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) from wounded skin. In this paper, the influence of hydrocolloid, knitted viscose and gauze dressings was evaluated through in vivo measurement of WVTR in burns and chronic leg ulcers utilizing an evaporimeter. The results suggest that the evaporative water vapour loss from exposed skin wounds depends mainly on the wound depth, and that chronic leg ulcers have the same level of the WVTR as full thickness burns. Compared with the knitted viscose and gauze dressings, hydrocolloid dressing has a greater effect on reducing evaporative water loss, with WVTR being 20-30% of that of exposed wounds under the conditions used in this study. This result is in agreement with that obtained in an in vitro evaluation. PMID:8830962
Wu, P; Nelson, E A; Reid, W H; Ruckley, C V; Gaylor, J D
Sickle-cell anaemia (SCA) is a multi-system disease, associated with episodes of acute illness and progressive organ damage. Disease severity shows substantial variation and it is often a burden for adolescents. Complications such as leg ulcer and priapism have a significant impact on quality of life. There are still no definitive treatment guidelines available. Considering the embarrassing nature of priapism and the dire consequences for erectile dysfunction, it is important to inform patients, parents and providers about the relationship of SCA to prolonged painful erections. This article will review the pathophysiology and treatment options of SCA focusing the complications of leg ulcers, priapism, cholelithiasis and retinopathy. The case study of a 14-year-old boy is used to present a management challenge of multiple SCA-related complications.
Vasconcelos, Alexandra; Prior, Ana Rita; Ferrao, Anabela; Morais, Anabela
\\u000a Low level (intensity) Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been shown to have biostimulatory effects on wounds however, the precise mechanism\\u000a remains unclear. Recently antioxidants have been reported to play a significant role in the wound healing process. Twenty\\u000a two patients suffering from chronic leg ulcers were exposed to three sessions per week of 632.8 nm He–Ne laser irradiation\\u000a at energy density
M. E. E. Batanouny; S. Korraa; A. Kamali
Background: Current treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers are time consuming, expensive, and only moderately successful. Recent data suggest that creating a subatmospheric pressure by vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C., KCI Concepts, San Antonio, Texas) therapy supports the wound healing process. Methods: The efficacy of vacuum-assisted closure in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers was prospectively studied in a randomized controlled trial
Jeroen D. D. Vuerstaek; Tryfon Vainas; Jan Wuite; Patty Nelemans; Martino H. A. Neumann; Joep C. J. M. Veraart
Chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) affect approximately 600,000 people annually in the United States and accrue yearly treatment costs of US$2.5–5 billion. As the population ages, demands on health care resources for CVLU treatments are predicted to drastically increase because the incidence of CVLUs is highest in those ?65 years of age. Furthermore, regardless of current standards of care, healing complications and high recurrence rates prevail. Thus, it is critical that factors leading to or exacerbating CVLUs be discerned and more effective, adjuvant, evidence-based treatment strategies be utilized. Previous studies have suggested that CVLUs’ pathogenesis is related to the prolonged presence of high numbers of activated neutrophils secreting proteases in the wound bed that destroy growth factors, receptors, and the extracellular matrix that are essential for healing. These events are believed to contribute to a chronically inflamed wound that fails to heal. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to review studies from the past 15 years (1996–2011) that characterized neutrophil activity in the microenvironment of human CVLUs for new evidence that could explicate the proposed relationship between excessive, sustained neutrophil activity and CVLUs. We also appraised the strength of evidence for current and potential therapeutics that target excessive neutrophil activity.
McDaniel, Jodi C.; Roy, Sashwati; Wilgus, Traci A.
Economic Evaluation of the Treatment of Chronic Wounds: Hydroactive Wound Dressings in Combination with Enzymatic Ointment Versus Gauze Dressings in Patients with Pressure Ulcer and Venous Leg Ulcer in Germany
Objective: The treatment costs for pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers were estimated based on the hospital administrator's perspective in Germany. Design: A spreadsheet model using input data from various hospitals in Germany was developed. Interventions: Five currently used treatment strategies were analysed: gauze, impregnated gauze, calcium alginate and hydroactive wound dressing with enzymatic ointment. Participants: All cases used for
Rito Bergemann; Karl W. Lauterbach; Wolfgang Vanscheidt; Klaus-Dieter Neander; Reinhard Engst
Background Implementation of lifestyle interventions in patient care is a major challenge. Understanding factors that influence implementation is a first step in programs to enhance uptake of these interventions. A lifestyle-counseling intervention, Lively Legs, delivered by trained nurses, can effectively improve the lifestyle in patients with venous leg ulcers. The aim of this study was to identify factors that hindered or facilitated implementation of this intervention in outpatient dermatology clinics and in home care. Methods A mixed-methods multiple case study in five purposefully selected healthcare settings in the Netherlands was conducted. Measurements to identify influencing factors before and after implementation of Lively Legs included interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and nurses’ registration. Analyses focused on qualitative data as the main data source. All data were compared across multiple cases to draw conclusions from the study as a whole. Results A total of 53 patients enrolled in the Lively Legs program, which was delivered by 12 trained nurses. Barriers for implementation were mainly organizational. It was difficult to effectively organize reaching and recruiting patients for the program, especially in home care. Main barriers were a lack of a standardized healthcare delivery process, insufficient nursing time, and a lack of motivated nurses to deliver the program. Facilitating factors were nurse-driven coordination of care and a standardized care process to tie Lively Legs into, as this resulted in better patient recruitment and better program implementation. Conclusions This study identified a range of factors influencing the implementation of a lifestyle-counseling program, mainly related to the organization of healthcare. Using a case study method proved valuable in obtaining insight into influencing factors for implementation. This study also shed light on a more general issue, which is that leg ulcer care is often fragmented, indicating that quality improvement is needed.
IntroductionA root cause analysis was performed on the occurrence of gastroduodenal ulceration after hepatic radioembolization (RE). We aimed to identify the risk factors in the treated population and to determine the specific mechanism of nontarget RE in individual cases. Methods: The records of 247 consecutive patients treated with yttrium-90 RE for primary (n = 90) or metastatic (n = 157) liver cancer using either resin (n = 181) or glass (n = 66) microspheres were reviewed. All patients who developed a biopsy-proven microsphere-induced gastroduodenal ulcer were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on baseline parameters and procedural data to determine possible risk factors in the total population. Individual cases were analyzed to ascertain the specific cause, including identification of the culprit vessel(s) leading to extrahepatic deposition of the microspheres. Results: Eight patients (3.2 %) developed a gastroduodenal ulcer. Stasis during injection was the strongest independent risk factor (p = 0.004), followed by distal origin of the gastroduodenal artery (p = 0.004), young age (p = 0.040), and proximal injection of the microspheres (p = 0.043). Prolonged administrations, pain during administration, whole liver treatment, and use of resin microspheres also showed interrelated trends in multivariate analysis. Retrospective review of intraprocedural and postprocedural imaging showed a probable or possible culprit vessel, each a tiny complex collateral vessel, in seven patients. Conclusion: Proximal administrations and those resulting in stasis of flow presented increased risk for gastroduodenal ulceration. Patients who had undergone bevacizumab therapy were at high risk for developing stasis.
Lam, Marnix G. E. H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Banerjee, Subhas [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (United States)] [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (United States); Louie, John D.; Abdelmaksoud, Mohamed H. K. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)] [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (United States)] [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (United States); Ennen, Rebecca E.; Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: email@example.com [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)
BACKGROUND Venous ulcers have a significant impact on patient quality of life, and constitute a worldwide public health problem. Treatment is complex, with high failure rates. OBJECTIVES To identify clinical and therapeutic factors that influence healing of venous ulcers. METHODS Retrospective cohort study of patients with venous ulcers. Ulcer area was measured at the first visit (T0) and after 6 months (T6) and 1 year (T12). A reduction in ulcer area of 50% or more at T6 and T12 was the outcome of interest, weighted by clinical, demographic and treatment aspects. RESULTS Ninety-four patients were included (137 ulcers). A reduction in ulcer area of 50% or more was seen in 40.1% of patients (95%CI 31.9 to 48.4%) at T6 and 49.6% (95%CI 41.2 to 58.1%) at T12. Complete healing occurred in 16.8% (95%CI 10.5 to 23.1%) at T6 and 27% (95%CI 19.5 to 39.5%) at T12. The lowest ulcer area reductions at T6 were associated with longstanding ulcer (RR=0.95; 95%CI 0.91 to 0.98), poor adherence to compression therapy (RR=4.04; 95%CI 1.31 to 12.41), and infection episodes (RR= 0.42; 95%CI 0.23 to 0.76). At T12, lower reductions were associated with longstanding ulcer (RR=0.95; 95%CI 0.92 to 0.98), longer topical antibiotic use (RR=0.93; 95%CI 0.87 to 0.99), and systemic antibiotic use (RR=0.63; 95%CI 0.40 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS Longstanding ulcer, infection, poor adherence to compression therapy, and longer topical and systemic antibiotic use were independently correlated with worse healing rates.
Scotton, Marilia Formentini; Miot, Helio Amante; Abbade, Luciana Patricia Fernandes
Aim To estimate the cost-effectiveness of silver dressings using a health economic model based on time-to-wound-healing in hard-to-heal chronic venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Background Chronic venous ulceration affects 1–3% of the adult population and typically has a protracted course of healing, resulting in considerable costs to the healthcare system. The pathogenesis of VLUs includes excessive and prolonged inflammation which is often related to critical colonisation and early infection. The use of silver dressings to control this bioburden and improve wound healing rates remains controversial. Methods A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatment with silver compared with non-silver dressings for four weeks in a primary care setting. The outcomes: ‘Healed ulcer’, ‘Healing ulcer’ or ‘No improvement’ were developed, reflecting the relative reduction in ulcer area from baseline to four weeks of treatment. A data set from a recent meta-analysis, based on four RCTs, was applied to the model. Results Treatment with silver dressings for an initial four weeks was found to give a total cost saving (£141.57) compared with treatment with non-silver dressings. In addition, patients treated with silver dressings had a faster wound closure compared with those who had been treated with non-silver dressings. Conclusion The use of silver dressings improves healing time and can lead to overall cost savings. These results can be used to guide healthcare decision makers in evaluating the economic aspects of treatment with silver dressings in hard-to-heal chronic VLUs.
Jemec, Gregor B. E.; Kerihuel, Jean Charles; Ousey, Karen; Lauem?ller, Sanne Lise; Leaper, David John
Leg Clubs have been established to empower patients to become stakeholders in their own treatment. This case report describes how attendance at a Leg Club resulted in healing in a patient who previously was non-concordant with treatment. PMID:15909442
Hampton, S; Lindsay, E
Thallium 201 perfusion analysis was compared with Doppler ultrasound as a means of determining the healing potential of an ischemic ulcer of the leg in 27 patients. The degree of hyperemia was determined by comparative point counting of the 201Tl distribution in and about the ulcer. Using established Doppler criteria and a hyperemia ratio greater than 1.5:1, ultrasound alone correctly predicted healing in 15 out of 23 cases and 201Tl in 20 out of 23. Ultrasound correctly predicted non-healing in 3 out of 6 cases, compared with 5 out of 6 for 201Tl. The positive predictive value of the 201Tl study was 63%, versus 27% for ultrasound, and the negative predictive value was 95% for 201Tl and 83% for ultrasound. The accuracy of 201Tl and ultrasound was 86% and 62%, respectively. This limited study suggests that 201Tl perfusion scanning is a useful noninvasive test of ulcer healing potential and may be more sensitive than Doppler ultrasound.
Siegel, M.E.; Stewart, C.A.; Kwong, P.; Sakimura, I.
Chronic ulcers are a growing cause of patient morbidity and contribute significantly to the cost of health care in the United States. The most common etiologies of chronic ulcers include venous leg ulcers (VLUs), pressure ulcers (PrUs), diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers (DFUs), and leg ulcers of arterial insufficiency. Chronic wounds account for an estimated $6 to $15 billion annually in US health care costs; however, it is difficult to get accurate measurements on this, because these patients are often seen in a variety of settings or simply fail to access the health care system. PMID:22117872
Markova, Alina; Mostow, Eliot N
We report four patients with long-lasting therapy-resistant ulcus cruris, on which a new erysipelas was superimposed. In one case there was a total closure of the ulcers under the erysipelas. In three patients a reduction in size occurred. All ulcers became flatter. Other stimuli of wound healing were excluded. Because of the long-lasting existence and well known therapy resistance in each case, these changes suggest a positive effect of the erysipelas on the healing of the ulcers. We assume that serum cytokines could offer a possible explanation for this. The concentrations of the IL-6 and IL-2-receptor were initially raised and then later decreased in three of the four cases. Because of the complex stimulation and regulation mechanisms in the cytokine network which are triggered by inflammation, systemic and local effects of keratinocytes, monocytes/macrophages, fibroblasts and endothelium cells could also be assumed to support wound healing. PMID:14965798
Trebing, Dietrich; Göring, Hans-Dieter
The last years of research have proposed that bacteria might be involved in and contribute to the lack of healing of chronic wounds. Especially it seems that Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a crucial role in the healing. At Copenhagen Wound Healing Centre it was for many years clinical suspected that once chronic venous leg ulcers were colonized (weeks or months preoperatively)
Trine Høgsberg; Thomas Bjarnsholt; Jens Schiersing Thomsen; Klaus Kirketerp-Møller; Markus M. Heimesaat
Background Venous leg ulcers can be very hard to heal and represent a significant medical need with no effective therapeutic treatment currently available. Principal Findings In wound edge biopsies from human venous leg ulcers we found a striking upregulation of dermal N-cadherin, Zonula Occludens-1 and the gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43) compared to intact skin, and in stark contrast to the down-regulation of Cx43 expression seen in acute, healing wounds. We targeted the expression of these proteins in 3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate their role in venous leg ulcers healing. Knockdown of Cx43 and N-cadherin, but not Zonula Occludens-1, accelerated cell migration in a scratch wound-healing assay. Reducing Cx43 increased Golgi reorientation, whilst decreasing cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, Connexin43 and N-cadherin knockdown led to profound effects on fibroblast cytoskeletal dynamics after scratch-wounding. The cells exhibited longer lamelipodial protrusions lacking the F-actin belt seen at the leading edge in wounded control cells. This phenotype was accompanied by augmented activation of Rac-1 and RhoA GTPases, as revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and pull down experiments. Conclusions Cx43 and N-cadherin are potential therapeutic targets in the promotion of healing of venous leg ulcers, by acting at least in part through distinct contributions of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and cytoskeletal dynamics.
Mendoza-Naranjo, Ariadna; Cormie, Peter; Serrano, Antonio E.; Hu, Rebecca; O'Neill, Shay; Wang, Chiuhui Mary; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Power, Kieran T.; White, Alexis; Serena, Thomas; Phillips, Anthony R. J.; Becker, David L.
BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering is an emerging field. Novel bioengineered skin substitutes and genetically derived growth factors offer innovative approaches to reduce the burden of diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers for both patients and health care systems. However, they frequently are very costly. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this study assesses the cost-effectiveness of these growth factors
Astrid Langer; Wolf Rogowski
Endovascular treatment of posttraumatic arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) in the lower extremities by means of covered stent-grafts is widely accepted, and many cases have been reported in the iliac-femoral region. However, few reports exist on the treatment of infrapopliteal AVFs, with or without a pseudoaneurysm, using this method. The authors present this case report dealing with a patient who had undergone a tibial and peroneal open fracture in his left limb 34 years ago. He developed a leg ulcer as a consequence of AVF between the tibialis posterior artery and vein, which resulted in venous insufficiency, which was treated by the endovascular approach with the placement of a stent-graft. Total healing was achieved over a period of 3 months. Angio-CT was performed, showing stent-graft patency 6 months after the endovascular procedure. PMID:22843636
Rabellino, Martín; Shinzato, Sergio; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Peralta, Oscar; Marenchino, Ricardo; García-Mónaco, Ricardo
An Excel model was developed to compare total costs (including primary and secondary dressings only) of Hydrofiber(®) ; dressing (2010 branded price) versus an alginate dressing (generic or branded price) in managing exuding venous leg ulcers considering mean wear time and mean duration of exudate management phase, from the French Social Security perspective over 5 years (2011-2015). Budget impact (based on prevalence of venous leg ulcers in France) was estimated as the difference between scenario 1 (Hydrofiber(®) ; versus alginate dressing usage proportion increasing slightly per year) and Scenario2 (proportion remaining at 2010 levels). Annual costs and net savings per patient for the dressings were calculated in analyses 1 and 2. Analysis 1 (28-day mean exudate management phase for both Hydrofiber(®) ; and alginate dressing groups): total costs 66·82€ Hydrofiber(®) ;, 70·08€ generic alginate, 77·0€ branded alginate; net savings 3·26€ and 10·18€ for Hydrofiber(®) ; versus generic and branded alginate. Analysis 2 (mean exudate management phase of 22·2 versus 28 days for Hydrofiber(®) ; versus alginate): total costs 52·92€, 70·08€ and 77·0€, and net savings 17·10€ and 24·02€, accordingly. Total cost savings (budget impact scenario 1 minus scenario 2): Analysis 1 - 223 107€ and 696 304€ for Hydrofiber(®) ; versus generic and branded alginate dressings, respectively; Analysis 2 - 1 169 845€ and 1 643 042€ accordingly. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results are reliable. This conservative analysis shows that effective exudate management using Hydrofiber(®) ; dressing can produce sizeable cost savings. PMID:23020759
Yan, Songkai; Colin, Xavier; Coudray-Omnès, Carole; Guido-Morin, Pascale; Kommala, Dheerendra R
Summary In the year 1828 Jean-Nicolas Marjolin described the formation of ulcers specifically in chronic burn scars, and in 1903 De Costa coined the term "Marjolin's ulcer", applying it to tumours arising in simple leg ulcers. The causes of this condition are described, as also treatment protocols, and a case report is presented.
Atiyeh, B.S.; Hayek, S.N.; Kodeih, M.G.
We report a 40-year old man in Uganda with ulcerated skins lesions, hypotension, and anaphylaxis caused by bites of safari ants. Treatment was successful. Physicians should be aware of anaphylaxis caused by ant bites.
Chianura, Leonardo; Pozzi, Federica
... a charley horse), frequently caused by the following: Dehydration or low amounts of potassium, sodium, calcium, or ... your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) ...
We often accept patients with soft tissue ulcer caused by all kinds of reasons in the long treatment practices. Ulcer is common for those who lie up over a long period of time and can't take care of themselves or for those in poor nursing, sanitation and nutrition conditions. The commonly occurring region is the pressed catapophysis at the sacral
We report a case of severe restless legs syndrome (RLS) that occurred as a side effect of olanzapine therapy. It was refractory to treatment with 2 mg of clonazepam and 3 mg ropinirole. There was partial relief with propoxyphene, however, it was stopped because of side effects. The symptoms disappeared once olanzapine was switched to another antipsychotic medication. Only two prior published reports associate olanzapine usage with development of RLS. In one report, low-dose benzodiazepines and ropinirole were associated with resolution of RLS symptoms stating dopamine depletion as the likely etiology. In our patient, however, RLS due to olanzapine was refractory to the trial of both high-dose benzodiazepine and ropinirole. This suggests that RLS occurring as a side effect of olanzapine therapy may have additional causative mechanisms beyond simple dopamine depletion as postulated before. High-dose narcotics, if tolerated, may be an alternative in such refractory cases. PMID:19317385
Khalid, Imran; Rana, Lopa; Khalid, Tabindeh J; Roehrs, Timothy
Objective: To verify the diagnostic efficiency of venous duplex ultrasound and lymphangioscintigraphy (LAS) in establishing the cause of leg edema and to clarify the pathology of these leg edemas. Materials and Methods: Between April 2009, and March 2010, 62 patients with leg edema of unknown origin were referred to the Edema Clinic of the Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine. All patients underwent a venous duplex ultrasound scan and LAS. Results: Of 62 patients, lymphatic insufficiency, venous insufficiency or both was diagnosed in 42 (68%), and lymphedema, in 29 (47%). Venous duplex ultrasound detected obvious venous disorders in only 13 (21%), and for 20 patients, the ultrasound and LAS did not reveal any abnormalities; however, for 15 of the 20 (24% of all patients), venous edema was attributed to functional causes. Conclusion: Venous duplex ultrasound and LAS assisted in the diagnosis of leg edema of unknown origin and also proved useful in establishing treatment strategies.
The cause of sexually acquired genital ulceration was studied in 240 consecutive migrant mineworkers attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Carletonville, Transvaal. Chancroid proved to be the most common cause of genital ulcer disease, with Haemophilus ducreyi being isolated from 164 patients (68%). In 60% of cases the disease was locally acquired and in the remaining 40%, the infection was acquired in Lesotho, Botswana, Natal, Transkei and Malawi. Syphilis was diagnosed in 62 patients (26%), lymphogranuloma venereum in 16 (7%), genital herpes in 8 (3%) and granuloma inguinale in 1. No cause of ulceration could be found in 31 patients (13%). Mixed infections were documented in 41 patients (17%). Diagnosis of the cause of genital ulcer disease is not possible without relatively sophisticated laboratory support; however, simplified strategies for management and treatment have been developed. PMID:2799580
Dangor, Y; Fehler, G; Exposto, F D; Koornhof, H J
Solitary rectal ulcer causing lower gastrointestinal bleeding is extremely rare in children. Rare presentation, non-specific symptoms, insufficient experience, and characteristics mimicking other rectal diseases may cause misdiagnosis or delay of diagnosis in some pediatric patients. Here, we report a 10-year-old boy with solitary rectal ulcer diagnosed two years after onset of the symptoms who responded well to the conservative therapy, including high-fiber diet, laxatives, defecation training, and sucralfate enema. PMID:21644097
Temiz, Abdulkerim; Tander, Burak; Temiz, Muhyittin; Bar??, Sancar; Ar?türk, Ender
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Daflon 500 mg (Dios)* in venous ulcers. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo (Plac) trial was conducted, with stratification according to the size of ulcer (< or = 10 cm and > 10 cm). The protocol called for a two-month treatment with Dios (one tablet = 450 mg micronized purified Diosmin) or a placebo, two tablets/day, in addition to compression therapy. Evaluations were performed every fifteen days, from D0 to D60. The primary endpoint, in accordance with Alexander House group requirements were: percentage of patients with complete ulcer healing, ie, comparison between Dios and Plac group at D60, and comparison of survival curves in each group between D0 and D60 (log rank test). Secondary endpoints included ulcer surface area assessed by computerized planimetric measurements, qualitative evaluation of ulcers, and symptoms. The patients were 105 men and women ranging in age from eighteen to eighty-five years, with standard compression stocking, who were undergoing standardized local care of ulcer and had no significant arterial disease (ankle/arm systolic pressure index > 0.8). Fifty-three patients received Dios, and 52 received Plac. The 2 groups were well matched for age (m +/- 1 SD = seventy-one +/- eleven years), gender, ulcer size, and associated disorders. Among patients with ulcer size < or = 10 cm (Dios = 44, Plac = 47) a significantly larger number of patients had a complete ulcer healing at two months in the Dios group (n = 14) in comparison with the Plac group (n = 6) (32% vs 13%, P = 0.028) with a significantly shorter time duration of healing (P = 0.037). No difference was shown for the secondary criteria, except for sensation of heavy legs (P = 0.039) and a less atonic aspect of ulcer (P = 0.030) in favor of Dios. Among the 14 patients with ulcer size > 10 cm (Dios = 9, Plac = 5), subjected to a descriptive analysis only, no ulcer healed. This study showed that a two-month course of Daflon 500 mg at a daily dose of two tablets, in addition to conventional treatment, is of benefit in patients with venous ulcer < or = 10 cm by accelerating complete healing. PMID:8995348
Guilhou, J J; Dereure, O; Marzin, L; Ouvry, P; Zuccarelli, F; Debure, C; Van Landuyt, H; Gillet-Terver, M N; Guillot, B; Levesque, H; Mignot, J; Pillion, G; Février, B; Dubeaux, D
Summary Background The well-known active chlorine compound chloramine T (CAT) with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity is in common therapeutic use for leg ulcers with purulent coatings; however, this treatment is painful. The tolerability of the less aggressive N-chlorotaurine (NCT), an endogenous compound also produced in vivo by stimulated human granulocytes, could be superior. Objectives To assess the tolerability and efficacy of
M. Nagl; V. A. Nguyen; W. Gottardi; H. Ulmer; R. Hopfl
Wound pain is a serious problem for elderly patients suffering from chronic leg ulcers, and it may lead to reduced wound healing rates and reduced quality of life. Biatains-Ibu Non-adhesive (Coloplast A\\/S), a new pain-reducing moist wound healing dressing containing ibuprofen was tested for pain reduction, safety, and efficacy on 1012 patients in a single-blinded crossover study against Biatain Non-adhesive
Bo Jorgensen; Gitte Juel Friis; Finn Gottrup
Leg ulcers are a manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), and characteristically respond poorly to treatment. Because\\u000a the similar findings both clinical and pathological to pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), we treated these patients with a combination\\u000a of immunosuppression (steroids, azathioprine or cyclosporine), acetylsalicylic acid and anticoagulation. We evaluated the\\u000a response to the combined treatment with steroids, immunosuppression, acetylsalicylic acid, anticoagulation and local
Carlos A. Cañas; Carlos E. Durán; Juan C. Bravo; Dora E. Castaño; Gabriel J. Tobón
Amelogenins are extracellular matrix proteins that, under physiological conditions, self-assemble into globular aggregates up to micron-sizes. Studies with periodontal fibroblasts indicate that attachment to these structures increases the endogenous secretion of multiple growth factors and cell proliferation. Pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that cutaneous wounds benefit from treatment with amelogenins. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving patients with hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers (VLUs) (ie, ulcers with a surface area ?10 cm2 and duration of ?6 months) showed that the application of amelogenin (Xelma®, Molnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg, Sweden) as an adjunct treatment to compression results in significant reduction in ulcer size, improvement in the state of ulcers, reduced pain, and a larger proportion of ulcers with low levels of exudate, compared with treatment with compression alone. Amelogenin therapy was also shown to be safe to use in that there were no significant differences in adverse events noted between patients treated with amelogenin plus compression and those treated with compression alone. Case study evaluations indicate that the benefits of amelogenin therapy demonstrated in the RCT are being repeated in “real life” situations and that amelogenin therapy may also have a role to play in the treatment of other wound types such as diabetic foot ulcers.
Romanelli, Marco; Dini, Valentina; Vowden, Peter; Agren, Magnus S
Amelogenins are extracellular matrix proteins that, under physiological conditions, self-assemble into globular aggregates up to micron-sizes. Studies with periodontal fibroblasts indicate that attachment to these structures increases the endogenous secretion of multiple growth factors and cell proliferation. Pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that cutaneous wounds benefit from treatment with amelogenins. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving patients with hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers (VLUs) (ie, ulcers with a surface > or = area 10 cm2 and duration of > or = 6 months) showed that the application of amelogenin (Xelma, Molnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg, Sweden) as an adjunct treatment to compression results in significant reduction in ulcer size, improvement in the state of ulcers, reduced pain, and a larger proportion of ulcers with low levels of exudate, compared with treatment with compression alone. Amelogenin therapy was also shown to be safe to use in that there were no significant differences in adverse events noted between patients treated with amelogenin plus compression and those treated with compression alone. Case study evaluations indicate that the benefits of amelogenin therapy demonstrated in the RCT are being repeated in "real life" situations and that amelogenin therapy may also have a role to play in the treatment of other wound types such as diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:18686749
Romanelli, Marco; Dini, Valentina; Vowden, Peter; Agren, Magnus S
The last years of research have proposed that bacteria might be involved in and contribute to the lack of healing of chronic wounds. Especially it seems that Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a crucial role in the healing. At Copenhagen Wound Healing Centre it was for many years clinical suspected that once chronic venous leg ulcers were colonized (weeks or months preoperatively) by P. aeruginosa, the success rate of skin grafting deteriorated despite aggressive treatment. To investigate this, a retrospective study was performed on the clinical outcome of 82 consecutive patients with chronic venous leg ulcers on 91 extremities, from the 1(st) of March 2005 until the 31(st) of August 2006. This was achieved by analysing the microbiology, demographic data, smoking and drinking habits, diabetes, renal impairment, co-morbidities, approximated size and age of the wounds, immunosuppressive treatment and complicating factors on the clinical outcome of each patient. The results were evaluated using a Student T-test for continuous parameters, chi-square test for categorical parameters and a logistic regression analysis to predict healing after 12 weeks. The analysis revealed that only 33,3% of ulcers with P. aeruginosa, isolated at least once from 12 weeks prior, to or during surgery, were healed (98% or more) by week 12 follow-up, while 73,1% of ulcers without P. aeruginosa were so by the same time (p?=?0.001). Smoking also significantly suppressed the outcome at the 12-week follow-up. Subsequently, a logistic regression analysis was carried out leaving P. aeruginosa as the only predictor left in the model (p?=?0.001). This study supports our hypothesis that P. aeruginosa in chronic venous leg ulcers, despite treatment, has considerable impact on partial take or rejection of split-thickness skin grafts. PMID:21655269
Høgsberg, Trine; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Thomsen, Jens Schiersing; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus
The last years of research have proposed that bacteria might be involved in and contribute to the lack of healing of chronic wounds. Especially it seems that Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a crucial role in the healing. At Copenhagen Wound Healing Centre it was for many years clinical suspected that once chronic venous leg ulcers were colonized (weeks or months preoperatively) by P. aeruginosa, the success rate of skin grafting deteriorated despite aggressive treatment. To investigate this, a retrospective study was performed on the clinical outcome of 82 consecutive patients with chronic venous leg ulcers on 91 extremities, from the 1st of March 2005 until the 31st of August 2006. This was achieved by analysing the microbiology, demographic data, smoking and drinking habits, diabetes, renal impairment, co-morbidities, approximated size and age of the wounds, immunosuppressive treatment and complicating factors on the clinical outcome of each patient. The results were evaluated using a Student T-test for continuous parameters, chi-square test for categorical parameters and a logistic regression analysis to predict healing after 12 weeks. The analysis revealed that only 33,3% of ulcers with P. aeruginosa, isolated at least once from 12 weeks prior, to or during surgery, were healed (98% or more) by week 12 follow-up, while 73,1% of ulcers without P. aeruginosa were so by the same time (p?=?0,001). Smoking also significantly suppressed the outcome at the 12-week follow-up. Subsequently, a logistic regression analysis was carried out leaving P. aeruginosa as the only predictor left in the model (p?=?0,001). This study supports our hypothesis that P. aeruginosa in chronic venous leg ulcers, despite treatment, has considerable impact on partial take or rejection of split-thickness skin grafts.
H?gsberg, Trine; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Thomsen, Jens Schiersing; Kirketerp-M?ller, Klaus
Myiasis is the infestation of the skin and mucous membranes by fly larvae. Myiasis of the lower extremity caused by Chrysomya bezziana is rarely fatal, but it can be associated with considerable morbidity. Proper wound exploration and en masse removal of all the larvae using thorough wound debridement can eradicate the infestation and promote wound healing. In the present report, the management of 4 separate cases of lower extremity infestation with fly larvae is described. PMID:23820040
Lam, Kwok Hang; Lui, Tun Hing
This study investigated the performance of a new gelling fibre dressing containing silver (DURAFIBER™ Ag; Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK) in moderate to highly exuding venous leg ulcers with one or more clinical signs of infection. Fourteen patients with venous leg ulceration of median ulcer duration 12·5?weeks, recruited from three centres in South Africa, received treatment with the new dressing for a maximum of 8?weeks. Multilayer compression bandaging was used for all patients, at the majority of assessments. The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical acceptability of the dressing in terms of the following characteristics: antimicrobial properties, the progress of the wound towards healing, wear time, exudate management, conformability, patient comfort, pain on application, pain on removal and dressing integrity. The new dressing was rated as clinically acceptable for all characteristics, for all 14 patients (100%). It was easy to apply and remove; in 96·8% of removals, the dressing stayed intact on removal and could be removed in one piece. Fifty per cent of the wounds healed within the 8-week study duration; between baseline and final assessment, the median percentage reduction in wound area was 98·2% and the median percentage reduction in devitalised tissue was 78%. Exudate levels and wound pain were significantly improved at final assessment compared to baseline assessment, and an increase in the number of patients with healthy peri-wound skin between baseline and final assessment was observed. A reduction in bioburden and signs of clinical infection and an improvement in quality of life were observed over the 8-week period. The average wear time was 6·4?days. This study supports the use of new dressing in the management of moderately to highly exuding venous leg ulcers with clinical signs of infection. PMID:24602074
Forlee, Martin; Rossington, Alan; Searle, Richard
Chronic painful wounds, a major health problem, have a detrimental impact on the quality of life due to associated pain. Some clinical reports have suggested that local administration of morphine could be beneficial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of topically applied morphine on chronic painful leg ulcers. Twenty-one patients were randomly assigned to receive either morphine or placebo in a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study. Each patient was treated four times in total. Pain was measured by the visual analogue score (VAS) before application of gel, directly after and after 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Although an overall, clinically relevant, reduction of pain was observed upon treatment with morphine, the difference was not statistically significant. Morphine reduced pain scores more than placebo on treatment occasions 1 and 2. The difference was statistically significant only 2 hours after dressing on the first treatment occasion. Thus, our study did not demonstrate a consistent and globally significant difference in nociception in patients treated with morphine. However, the relatively small number of patients included in our study and other methodological limitations makes it difficult for us to draw general conclusions regarding efficacy of topically applied morphine as an effective treatment for some painful ulcers. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the value of topically applied morphine in the treatment of patients with chronic painful leg ulcers. PMID:22151619
Bastami, Salumeh; Frödin, Thomas; Ahlner, Johan; Uppugunduri, Srinivas
Rats were subjected to tail-cast suspension hypokinesia for 6 days with one leg immobilized in dorsal flexion by casting. Control animals were also tail-casted. The soleus, gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles of uncasted hypokinetic legs were smaller than control muscles. Dorsal flexion prevented atrophy of these muscles and caused the soleus to hypertrophy. The anterior muscles were unaffected by hypokinesia. The smaller size of the soleus of the uncasted leg relative to the dorsal flexed and weight bearing limbs correlated with slower protein synthesis and faster proteolysis. The capacity of this muscle to synthesize glutamine (gln), which carries nitrogenous waste from muscle was also measured. Although tissue homogenates showed higher activities of gln synthetase, the rate of de novo synthesis was not altered in intact muscle but the tissue ratio of gln/glutamate was decreased. Glutamate and ATP were not limiting for gln synthesis, but availability of ammonia may be a limiting factor for this process in hypokinesia.
Tischler, M. E.; Jaspers, S. R.; Fagan, J. M.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of octenidine dihydrochloride/phenoxyethanol (OHP) found in vitro by conducting a randomized, double-blind controlled clinical study focusing on its safe and effective use in chronic venous leg ulcers. In total, 126 male and female patients were treated with either OHP (n = 60) or Ringer solution (n = 66). The treatment lasted over a period of maximum 12 weeks. For the assessment of the wound-healing process, clinical outcome parameters were employed, that is, time span until 100% epithelization, wound status and the wound surface area were analysed. Side effects were recorded during the study period. The median time to complete ulcer healing was comparable between the OHP and Ringer solution groups (92 versus 87 days; P = 0·952), without being influenced by wound size or duration of the target ulcer (P-values: 0·947/0·978). In patients treated with OHP, fewer adverse events (AEs) were observed compared with the Ringer group (17% versus 29% of patients reported 20 versus 38 AEs). OHP is well suitable for the treatment of chronic wounds without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, OHP does not impair the wound healing in chronic venous ulcers. PMID:22074592
Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Harding, Keith; Téot, Luc; Siebert, Jörg
It is a well-known observation that patients submitted to operation for benign duodenal or gastric ulceration have reduced long-term survival as compared with the basic population. This excessive mortality may attributed to association between peptic ulceration and other conditions, particularly pulmonary disease, cirrhosis of the liver and suicide. In order to investigate whether there is a difference in the pattern of causes of death in patients treated with classical gastric resection and patients treated the vagotomy methods employed in recent years, an analysis of the causes of death in 169 patients was undertaken. During the years 1972-1977 these patients had been treated with selective gastric vagotomy with drainage, selective gastric vagotomy with antrectomy, parietal cell vagotomy with or without drainage for duodenal ulceration, pyloric ulceration, prepyloric ulceration or combined ulceration. This is termed the Aarhus County Vagotomy Trial. Comparison with the basic population reveals statistically significant excessive mortality from gastro-intestinal disease including the subgroups benign ulcer disease and cirrhosis of the liver and accidents including the subgroup of suicide. The mortality from malignant conditions did not differ significantly from the control group with the exception of significantly increased incidence of cancer of the stomach. The death ratio was increased for cancer in the lungs and pancreas but this was not statistically significant. These results are in agreement with reviews based on resection materials apart from the observation that a significant excess mortality from cancer of the stomach was demonstrated in this patient group in the present investigation which is not a constant finding in previous investigations. In addition, no increased incidence of benign pulmonary disease could be demonstrated. PMID:2603235
Over recent years, a number of functional investigations have been developed that allow a better evaluation of the physiology of the cutaneous microcirculation than that provided by the morphologic method. These investigations are also useful in pharmacologic studies. Following a review of the anatomy and physiology of the cutaneous microcirculation, the author presents the principal techniques of investigation and the results obtained with Daflon 500 mg* on the cutaneous microcirculation evaluated by photoplethysmography of the skin in patients with venous insufficiency and leg ulcers. PMID:8203785
Background Tissue engineering is an emerging field. Novel bioengineered skin substitutes and genetically derived growth factors offer innovative approaches to reduce the burden of diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers for both patients and health care systems. However, they frequently are very costly. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this study assesses the cost-effectiveness of these growth factors and tissue-engineered artificial skin for treating chronic wounds. Methods On the basis of an extensive explorative search, an appropriate algorithm for a systematic database search was developed. The following databases were searched: BIOSIS Previews, CRD databases, Cochrane Library, EconLit, Embase, Medline, and Web of Science. Only completed and published trial- or model-based studies which contained a full economic evaluation of growth factors and bioengineered skin substitutes for the treatment of chronic wounds were included. Two reviewers independently undertook the assessment of study quality. The relevant studies were assessed by a modified version of the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC) list and a published checklist for evaluating model-based economic evaluations. Results Eleven health economic evaluations were included. Three biotechnology products were identified for which topical growth factors or bioengineered skin substitutes for the treatment of chronic leg ulceration were economically assessed: (1) Apligraf®, a bilayered living human skin equivalent indicated for the treatment of diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers (five studies); (2) Dermagraft®, a human fibroblast-derived dermal substitute, which is indicated only for use in the treatment of full-thickness diabetic foot ulcers (one study); (3) REGRANEX® Gel, a human platelet-derived growth factor for the treatment of deep neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers (five studies). The studies considered in this review were of varying and partly low methodological quality. They calculated that due to shorter treatment periods, fewer complications and fewer inpatient episodes the initial cost of the novel biotechnology products may be offset, making the treatment cost-effective or even cost-saving. The results of most studies were sensitive to initial costs of the products and the evidence of effectiveness. Conclusion The study results suggest that some growth factors and tissue-engineered artificial skin products feature favourable cost-effectiveness ratios in selected patient groups with chronic wounds. Despite the limitations of the studies considered, it is evident that health care providers and coverage decision makers should take not only the high cost of the biotechnology product but the total cost of care into account when deciding about the appropriate allocation of their financial resources. However, not only the cost-effectiveness but first of all the effectiveness of these novel biotechnology products deserve further research.
Langer, Astrid; Rogowski, Wolf
This case report describes the endovascular treatment of an acute non-contained rupture of the descending aorta with a stent-graft as an emergency procedure. The aortic rupture was caused by a penetrating aortic ulcer. One year follow-up documents the complete recovery of the patient.
Pitton, Michael B.; Duber, Christoph [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Neufang, Achim [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Schlegel, Jens [Department of Pneumology, UniversityHospital of Mainz, Mainz (Germany)
PURPOSE: The therapeutic efficacy of lymphocytapheresis in autoimmune diseases is presumed to be caused by depletion of activated lymphocytes. However, nothing is known about the inducer of activated lymphocytes, the antigen-presenting dendritic cells, during lymphocytapheresis. BASIC PROCEDURES: Six sessions of lymphocytapheresis were done in five patients with ulcerative colitis. Dendritic cells were enriched from the buffy coat of depleted lymphocytes
Yoshio Ikeda; Hidetaka Matsui; Hidehiro Murakami; Morikazu Onji
IntroductionClassifying symptoms by patient pain drawing (PPD) may be helpful in diagnosing chronic anterior compartment syndrome (CACS). We have investigated the sensitivity and interobserver reliability of the PPD to diagnose CACS among patients with exercise-induced leg pain (EILP).MethodsThis study included 88 consecutive patients (48 men, 40 women; mean age 33, range 13–66, years). Two observers independently diagnosed the causes of
K Rennerfelt; Q Zhang; J Styf
Purpose: Vitamin A deficiency is a very rare condition in the developed world and can lead to a variety of ocular changes from xerosis and xerophthalmia to corneal ulcer and perforation. The treatment of this devastating disease is simple and inexpensive. It is therefore important to recognize and treat accordingly, especially in the event of ulcers unresponsive to treatment or in the presence of severe malnutrition/malabsorption syndromes. The purpose of this case report is to remind physicians of the potentially devastating effects of vitamin A deficiency on the eyes and to demonstrate outcomes after vitamin A treatment. Methods: Single observational case report. Results: A 29-year-old male with known eosinophilic gastroenteropathy was treated with oral steroids for peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Two weeks after resolution, the patient suffered from peripheral ulcerative keratitis in his other eye, with a self-sealing perforation. Vitamin A deficiency was confirmed and successfully treated, leading to subsequent resolution of signs and symptoms. Conclusions: Vitamin A deficiency can be present in patients with malabsorption and malnutrition syndromes and should be considered as cause of corneal ulceration.
Lange, Alex P.; Moloney, Greg; Sheldon, Claire A.; Sasaki, Sachiko; Holland, Simon P.
Using data from a national wound-specific electronic medical record (WoundExpert, Net Health, Pittsburgh, PA), we compared the effectiveness of a bilayered living cellular construct (BLCC) and an acellular porcine small intestine submucosa collagen dressing (SIS) for the treatment of venous leg ulcer. Data from 1,489 patients with 1,801 refractory venous leg ulcers (as defined by failure to have >40% reduction in size in the 4 weeks prior to treatment) with surface areas between 1 and 150?cm(2) in size, treated between July 2009 and July 2012 at 158 wound care facilities across the US were analyzed. Patient baseline demographics and wound characteristics were comparable between groups. Kaplan-Meier-derived estimates of wound closure for BLCC (1,451 wounds) was significantly greater (p?=?0.01, log-rank test) by weeks 12 (31% vs. 26%), 24 (50% vs. 41%), and 36 (61% vs. 46%), respectively, compared with SIS (350 wounds). BLCC treatment reduced the median time to wound closure by 44%, achieving healing 19 weeks sooner (24 vs. 43 weeks, p?=?0.01, log-rank test). Treatment with BLCC increased the probability of healing by 29% compared with porcine SIS dressing (hazard ratio?=?1.29 [95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.56], p?=?0.01). PMID:24628712
Marston, William A; Sabolinski, Michael L; Parsons, Nathan B; Kirsner, Robert S
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has a role in the multifactorial etiology of peptic ulcer disease. A link between H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease is now established. Other contributing factors and their interaction with the organism may initiate the ulcerative process. The fact that eradication of H. pylori infection leads to a long-term cure in the majority of duodenal ulcer patients and the fact that the prevalence of infection is higher in ulcer patients than in the normal population are cogent arguments in favor of it being the primary cause of the ulceration. Against this concept there are issues that need explanation such as the reason why only a minority of infected persons develop duodenal ulceration when infection with H. pylori is widespread. There is evidence that H. pylori infection has been prevalent for several centuries, yet duodenal ulceration became common at the beginning of the twentieth century. The prevalence of duodenal ulceration is not higher in countries with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. This paper debate puts forth the point of view of two groups of workers in this field whether H. pylori infection is the primary cause of duodenal ulcer disease or a secondary factor.
Ananthakrishnan, N.; Tovey, Frank I.
Fusarium species, a mold which causes disease mainly in plants has emerged as pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Fusarium is known to cause keratitis, onychomycosis, and endophthalmitis. Fusarium solani, is the most common isolate from clinical specimen. Here is a case, a 65-year-old male with type II diabetes mellitus since 10 years presented with a large ulcer on the left leg since 8 months following trauma. The fungal culture of the escar of the ulcer isolated a mold, Fusarium solani. The patient's leg was amputated and was treated with amphotericin B. The patient was discharged on healing of the stump. This case gives emphasis on fungal culture in chronic diabetic ulcer.
Pai, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Shreevidya, K; Shenoy, Divakar
Background: Chronic venous leg ulcers (CVU) are a common, unresolved medical problem. Silica gel fibre (SGF) is a novel biodegradable inorganic material developed to serve as a carrier substrate for the local release of pharmaceutical agents facilitating tissue repair. Objectives: To assess the performance and safety of SGF in subjects with CVU. Methods: Open, randomized, standard-of-care-controlled, multi-centre trial. Subjects (ITT 120 patients) received either SGF in addition to standard treatment or standard-of-care treatment (S-o-C) alone. The primary performance variable was the time to healing of the target ulcer until the end of a 12 week treatment period. Results: SGF was well tolerated. Mean time to healing up to week 12 was 85.62 days for the SGF group (SE ± 1.5) and 79.66 days for the S-o-C group (SE ± 1.77) (p-value = 0.217). There was no statistically relevant difference regarding the incidence of complete healing of the target ulcers by weeks 12 and 24 between the SGF and the S-o-C groups (p-value >0.05). Conclusion: SGF is well tolerated and offers a promising perspective as a carrier substrate for the local release of active pharmaceutical agents into the wound site to promote tissue repair. PMID:24839984
Brown, Anneke; Augustin, Matthias; Jünger, Michael; Zutt, Markus; Dissemond, Joachim; Rabe, Eberhard; Kaufmann, Roland; Simon, Margrit; Stücker, Markus; Karrer, Sigrid; Koenen, Wolfgang; Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Scharfetter-Kochanek, Karin; Wollina, Uwe; Krieg, Thomas; Eming, Sabine A
The accidental leakage of the compound, in this case heroin, from the veins where it is injected, causes the formation of tissue lesions. Similar mechanisms lead to progressive tissue necrosis, which, if not immediately treated, results in the loss of the relevant function. A 57-year-old man presented a skin lesion on the posterior region of the left forearm with extensive necrosis of skin and subcutaneous layer involving the underlying muscle planes, caused by a venous extravasation of heroin that he reports having injected himself. The wound size is 15 × 10 cm; it had a sanious, fibrinous, secreting and smelly bottom. In this period, the patient was subjected to daily focused dressing before debridement of the lesion through a collagenase plus hyaluronic acid ointment: Bionect Start®; (FIDIA Pharmaceutical, Abano, Italy). The therapeutic choice was rewarded with a complete resolution of the wound through a non-invasive technique and over a short period. Avoiding the hospitalisation of the patient achieved a reduction of risks for him and of the costs for the National Health Service (NHS). The Bionect Start®; (FIDIA Pharmaceutical) as well as allowing the healing of the wound also decreased significantly the pain felt by the patient, the amount of exudate and the bad smell improving in a non-negligible way his quality of life. PMID:23107007
Onesti, Maria G; Fioramonti, Paolo; Fino, Pasquale; Massera, Diego; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolo
A 61-year-old male had osmotic demyelination syndrome caused by rapid correction of gastric ulcer bleeding and vomiting related hyponatraemia with normal saline. It is rare to see severe hyponatraemia caused by gastric ulcer bleeding and vomiting. Hypokalaemia may be the determinant predisposing factor. There was no specific brain image finding until 17 days after the initial clinical presentation of this disease. Brain diffusion weighted MRI series did not help for the early diagnosis in this case. Outcome of this case may be more favourable if we corrected his hyponatraemia with half-saline or other hypotonic saline and close monitored serum sodium level, and relowered with dextrose water and desmopressin once we observed that the correction rate of hyponatraemia was beyond the recommended rate. PMID:24724762
Yen, H-W; Wang, J P; Lin, P-Y; Lai, M-Y; Lirng, J-F; Chao, Y
The authors present a case in which a patient suffered a bleeding jejunal ulcer caused by heterotopic gastric mucosa in a congenital duplication of a segment of jejunum. This is the first case diagnosed preoperatively by two different radiographic means. These lesions were shown by both pertechnetate flow and barium small bowel studies. The rarity of these entities and the modalities used for diagnosis are described.
Newmark, H.; Ching, G.; Halls, J.; Levy, I.J.
ObjectivesPlatelet products have been proposed as adjuvant therapy for wound healing. We undertook this study to determine the healing effect of topically applied frozen autologous platelets (FAP) on chronic venous ulcers, compared with effect of placebo, and whether use of topical FAP modifies local expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and tissue
Patricia Senet; François-Xavier Bon; Marc Benbunan; Annette Bussel; Richard Traineau; Fabien Calvo; Louis Dubertret; Christine Dosquet
Background Infectious crystalline keratopathy is commonly caused by Streptococcus viridans and other gram positive organisms. We present the first case of infectious crystalline keratopathy that developed into a corneal ulcer and grew Abiotrophia defectiva which responded well to topical and systemic antimicrobial therapy and did not require re-grafting. A 78-year-old man underwent penetrating keratoplasty for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. He presented 1.5?years later with infectious crystalline keratopathy which progressed to a corneal ulcer. The patient received topical fortified vancomycin and moxifloxacin, as well as oral moxifloxacin. Findings The corneal ulcer base was cultured and grew A. defectiva, or nutritionally deficient streptococcus. Complete resolution of the corneal infiltrates was obtained within three?months. Conclusions Nutritionally deficient streptococcus has been implicated in numerous human diseases, including endocarditis, and is increasingly being recognized as an important pathogen. This represents the second reported case of A. defectiva causing infectious crystalline keratopathy in humans and the first case of A. defectiva successfully treated with antibiotics. This case shows that aggressive antibiotic therapy can be effective in A. defectiva-associated infectious crystalline keratopathy.
The protective effect of beef and pig collagen hydrolysates and their fractions were tested as anti-ulcerogenic agents in rats (weighing 250-350 g) against ulcerative lesions caused by ethanol. Beef and pig collagen hydrolysates were fractionated by ultrafiltration into different molecular weight fractions. The protocol employed a negative and a positive control and a single dose of the experimental samples given by intragastric intubation. The beef collagen did not present a dose-response correlation in the ethanol model, whereas pig collagen showed a logarithmic dose-response relationship. Beef collagen hydrolysate decreased the ulcerative lesion index of 55% versus a 61% decrease for pig collagen hydrolysate at the same dosage (750 mg/kg of body weight). No significant differences were found (P > .05) between the hydrolysates and their fractions. PMID:17472480
Castro, G A; Sgarbieri, V C; Carvalho, J E; Tinti, S V; Possenti, A
Silver-based dressings have been used extensively in wound management in recent years, but data on their antimicrobial activity in the clinical setting are limited. In order to explore their effects on chronic leg ulcer flora, 14 ulcers were cultured after at least 3 weeks treatment with Aquacel Ag(®) or Acticoat(®). Phenotypic and genetic silver resistance were investigated in a total of 56 isolates. Silver-based dressings had a limited effect on primary wound pathogens, which were present in 79% of the cultures before, and 71% after, treatment. One silver-resistant Enterobacter cloacae strain was identified (silver nitrate minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)?>?512 mg/l, positive for silE, silS and silP). Further studies in vitro showed that inducible silver-resistance was more frequent in Enterobacteriaceae with cephalosporin-resistance and that silver nitrate had mainly a bacteriostatic effect on Staphylococcus aureus. Monitoring of silver resistance should be considered in areas where silver is used extensively. PMID:22215013
Sütterlin, Susanne; Tano, Eva; Bergsten, Agneta; Tallberg, Anna-Britta; Melhus, Asa
Flaminal Forte is an enzyme alginogel,whose activity depends on the absorption and binding of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are known to play a crucial role in delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of Flaminal on MMP-2/-9 activity in ulcer exudate, ex vivo. Eight patients with bilateral venous leg ulcers were treated for 4 weeks with Flaminal Forte covered by hydrocolloid ('F' wounds), or with hydrocolloid alone ('H' wounds) as a reference control. Clinical assessment did not reveal any differences between F and H wounds regarding surface reduction and general wound condition. Nevertheless, although non-significant, there was a visible difference in peri-wound skin appearance in F wounds, as compared to H wounds. The wound exudate contained high MMP-2/-9 levels, which gradually decreased as wounds healed. The attenuation of MMPs was stronger in F than in H exudate, however, in standard zymography this difference appeared non-significant. Real-time zymography revealed that Flaminal mediated a powerful direct inhibition of gelatinolytic activity of wound exudate and of recombinant MMP-2/-9 in vitro. PMID:24810313
Grzela, T; Niderla-Bielinska, J; Litwiniuk, M; White, R
Objectives To evaluate the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and all-cause mortality. Design Four prospective cohort studies. Setting The Dortmund Health Study (DHS) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) from Germany. The Women's Health Study (WHS) and the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) from the USA. Participants In DHS: a random sample (n=1?299) from the population of Dortmund; in SHIP: a sample (n=4?291) from residents living in West Pomerania were drawn by multistage random sampling design; in WHS: female healthcare professionals (n=31?370); in PHS: male physicians (n=22?926) Main outcome measures All-cause mortality. Results The prevalence of RLS ranged between 7.4% and 11.9% at baseline. During follow-up (ranging between 6 and 11?years) RLS was not associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in any of the four cohorts. The multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for all-cause mortality ranged from 0.21 (0.03 to 1.53) to 1.07 (0.93 to 1.23) across the four studies. The HRs for all-cause mortality did not differ according to gender. Conclusions In these four independently conducted large prospective cohort studies from Germany and the USA, RLS did not increase the risk of all-cause mortality. These findings do not support the hypothesis that RLS is a risk factor for mortality of any cause.
Szentkiralyi, Andras; Winter, Anke C; Schurks, Markus; Volzke, Henry; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; E Buring, Julie; Gaziano, J Michael; Kurth, Tobias; Berger, Klaus
Non-specific ulcerations of the small intestine are very rare. The cause and pathogenesis of these lesions remain obscure. The diagnosis of primary ileal ulcer is commonly overlooked and infrequently is established intraoperatively. Here we described a case of a 73-year-old woman who was presented to the emergency surgical department with the five days history of vomiting, distension, constipation, and abdominal pain. On physical examination abdomen was mildly distended and diffusely painful on palpation. Bowel sounds were present and active. Plain abdominal x-ray film showed ileus of the small intestine. Multislice computed tomography showed stenosing process of the ileum. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy. Approximately 60 cm from the ileocecal valve ileum was inflamed and hypertrophic with a point of obstruction. Grossly, it appeared as a small intestine carcinoma. Involved segment of ileum including the point of obstruction was resected. Pathological examination showed ulceration of the ileum. After the surgery the patient made rapid recovery and was discharged from the hospital on the tenth postoperative day. PMID:23390850
Grandi?, Leo; Pogoreli?, Zenon; Prusac, Ivana Kuzmi?; Perko, Zdravko; Boschi, Vladimir; Punda, Ante; Mrkli?, Ivana
The effectiveness of a four-layer compression bandage system in comparison with Class 3 compression hosiery on healing and quality of life in patients with venous leg ulcers: a randomised controlled trial.
An increasing number of compression systems available for treatment of venous leg ulcers and limited evidence on the relative effectiveness of these systems are available. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomised controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of a four-layer compression bandage system and Class 3 compression hosiery on healing and quality of life (QL) in patients with venous leg ulcers. Data were collected from 103 participants on demographics, health, ulcer status, treatments, pain, depression and QL for 24 weeks. After 24 weeks, 86% of the four-layer bandage group and 77% of the hosiery group were healed (P = 0·24). Median time to healing for the bandage group was 10 weeks, in comparison with 14 weeks for the hosiery group (P = 0·018). The Cox proportional hazards regression found participants in the four-layer system were 2·1 times (95% CI 1·2-3·5) more likely to heal than those in hosiery, while longer ulcer duration, larger ulcer area and higher depression scores significantly delayed healing. No differences between groups were found in QL or pain measures. Findings indicate that these systems were equally effective in healing patients by 24 weeks; however, a four-layer system may produce a more rapid response. PMID:22716129
Finlayson, Kathleen J; Courtney, Mary D; Gibb, Michelle A; O'Brien, Jane A; Parker, Christina N; Edwards, Helen E
Inherited white-matter disorders are a broad class of diseases for which treatment and classification are both challenging. Indeed, nearly half of the children presenting with a leukoencephalopathy remain without a specific diagnosis. Here, we report on the application of high-throughput genome and exome sequencing to a cohort of ten individuals with a leukoencephalopathy of unknown etiology and clinically characterized by hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL), as well as the identification of compound-heterozygous and homozygous mutations in cytoplasmic aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (DARS). These mutations cause nonsynonymous changes to seven highly conserved amino acids, five of which are unchanged between yeast and man, in the DARS C-terminal lobe adjacent to, or within, the active-site pocket. Intriguingly, HBSL bears a striking resemblance to leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and elevated lactate (LBSL), which is caused by mutations in the mitochondria-specific DARS2, suggesting that these two diseases might share a common underlying molecular pathology. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that mutations in tRNA synthetases can cause a broad range of neurologic disorders.
Taft, Ryan J.; Vanderver, Adeline; Leventer, Richard J.; Damiani, Stephen A.; Simons, Cas; Grimmond, Sean M.; Miller, David; Schmidt, Johanna; Lockhart, Paul J.; Pope, Kate; Ru, Kelin; Crawford, Joanna; Rosser, Tena; de Coo, Irenaeus F.M.; Juneja, Monica; Verma, Ishwar C.; Prabhakar, Prab; Blaser, Susan; Raiman, Julian; Pouwels, Petra J.W.; Bevova, Marianna R.; Abbink, Truus E.M.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Wolf, Nicole I.
Background Venous leg ulcers constitute a chronic recurring complaint that affects 1.0–1.3% of the adult population at some time in life, and which corresponds to approximately 75% of all chronic ulcers of the leg. Multilayer compression bandaging is, at present, the only treatment that has been proved to be effective in treating this type of ulcer. There is no consensus, however, about the dressings that may be applied, beneath the compression, to promote the healing of this type of ulcer, as there does not seem to be any added benefit from using special dressings rather than simple, low-adherence ones. As well as analgesia, acupuncture provokes peripheral vasodilation, in skin and muscles – which has been demonstrated both experimentally and in clinical practice – probably due to the axon reflex, among other mechanisms. The aim of the present study is to measure the effectiveness and cost of compression treatment for venous leg ulcers combined with special dressings, in comparison with low-adherence ones and acupuncture. Methods/design Cluster-randomized open-labeled trial, at 15 primary healthcare clinics in the Sevilla-Sur Healthcare District, with a control group treated with compression bandaging and low-adherence dressings; the experiment will consist, on the one hand, of the compression treatment applied in combination with special dressings (Treatment 1), and on the other, the compression treatment applied in association with low-adherence dressings, together with acupuncture (Treatment 2). Discussion The results will be measured and recorded in terms of the median time elapsed until complete healing of the ulcer, and the rate of complete healing at 3 months after beginning the treatment. An economic analysis will also be made. This study, carried out in the context of real clinical practice, will provide information for decision-taking concerning the effectiveness of special dressings. Moreover, for the first time a high-quality study will evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the process of healing venous leg ulcers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN26438275.
Vas, Jorge; Modesto, Manuela; Mendez, Camila; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Aguilar, Inmaculada; Carrasco-Lozano, Jesus Manuel; Faus, Vicente; Martos, Francisco
Background MUC2 mucin produced by intestinal goblet cells is the major component of the intestinal mucus barrier. The inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis is characterized by depleted goblet cells and a reduced mucus layer, but the aetiology remains obscure. In this study we used random mutagenesis to produce two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease, characterised the basis and nature of the inflammation in these mice, and compared the pathology with human ulcerative colitis. Methods and Findings By murine N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis we identified two distinct noncomplementing missense mutations in Muc2 causing an ulcerative colitis-like phenotype. 100% of mice of both strains developed mild spontaneous distal intestinal inflammation by 6 wk (histological colitis scores versus wild-type mice, p < 0.01) and chronic diarrhoea. Monitoring over 300 mice of each strain demonstrated that 25% and 40% of each strain, respectively, developed severe clinical signs of colitis by age 1 y. Mutant mice showed aberrant Muc2 biosynthesis, less stored mucin in goblet cells, a diminished mucus barrier, and increased susceptibility to colitis induced by a luminal toxin. Enhanced local production of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IFN-? was seen in the distal colon, and intestinal permeability increased 2-fold. The number of leukocytes within mesenteric lymph nodes increased 5-fold and leukocytes cultured in vitro produced more Th1 and Th2 cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-13). This pathology was accompanied by accumulation of the Muc2 precursor and ultrastructural and biochemical evidence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in goblet cells, activation of the unfolded protein response, and altered intestinal expression of genes involved in ER stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and wound repair. Expression of mutated Muc2 oligomerisation domains in vitro demonstrated that aberrant Muc2 oligomerisation underlies the ER stress. In human ulcerative colitis we demonstrate similar accumulation of nonglycosylated MUC2 precursor in goblet cells together with ultrastructural and biochemical evidence of ER stress even in noninflamed intestinal tissue. Although our study demonstrates that mucin misfolding and ER stress initiate colitis in mice, it does not ascertain the genetic or environmental drivers of ER stress in human colitis. Conclusions Characterisation of the mouse models we created and comparison with human disease suggest that ER stress-related mucin depletion could be a fundamental component of the pathogenesis of human colitis and that clinical studies combining genetics, ER stress-related pathology and relevant environmental epidemiology are warranted.
Price, Gareth R; Tauro, Sharyn B; Taupin, Douglas; Thornton, David J; Png, Chin Wen; Crockford, Tanya L; Cornall, Richard J; Adams, Rachel; Kato, Masato; Nelms, Keats A; Hong, Nancy A; Florin, Timothy H. J; Goodnow, Christopher C; McGuckin, Michael A
Venous leg ulceration has a high recurrence rate. Patients with healed or frequently recurring venous ulceration are required to perform self-care behaviours to prevent recurrence or promote healing, but evidence suggests that many find these difficult to perform. Bandura's self-efficacy theory is a widely used and robust behaviour change model and underpins many interventions designed to promote self-care in a variety of chronic conditions. By identifying areas where patients may experience difficulty in performing self-care, interventions can be developed to strengthen their self-efficacy beliefs in performing these activities successfully. There are currently a variety of self-efficacy scales available to measure self-efficacy in a variety of conditions; but not a disease-specific scale for use with venous ulcer patients. The aim of this study, therefore, was to develop and validate a disease-specific, patient-focused self-efficacy scale for patients with healed venous leg ulceration. This scale will need further validation studies; however, it is ready for use in clinical practice and will enable practitioners to identify those patients who may need additional support in performing self-care activities to prevent recurrence. PMID:24373556
Brown, Annemarie; Kendall, Sally; Flanagan, Madeleine; Cottee, Michaela
A retrospective clinical study of 188 consecutive patients to examine the effectiveness of a biologically active cryopreserved human skin allograft (TheraSkin®) on the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers.
A biologically active human skin allograft, currently distributed under the brand name TheraSkin(®), was examined for safety and efficacy in the treatment of venous leg ulcers (VLUs) and diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). The objective was to determine if TheraSkin could serve as a safe and effective alternative to bioengineered skin substitutes such as Apligraf(®) and Dermagraft(®). The authors conducted a retrospective study of 214 consecutive patients seen at the Inova Wound Center (Mt Vernon, Virginia), with either a DFU or a VLU. After excluding patients who did not meet the study criteria, the final eligible cohort consisted of 188 subjects, with 134 VLUs and 54 DFUs. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline wound size and the proportion of healed wounds after 12 and 20 weeks from initial allograft application. The authors found that by the 12th week, DFUs closed 60.38% of the time and VLUs closed 60.77% of the time. After 20 weeks, the number of closed DFUs increased to 74.1% and the number of VLUs increased to 74.6%. The mean wound size in the DFU group was 6.2 cm(2) (±11.8) and 11.8 cm(2) (±22.5) in the VLU group. The mean number of TheraSkin allografts required ranged from 1 to 8, with an average of 2.03 (±1.47) at the 12-week point and an average of 3.23 (±2.77) at the 20-week point. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of wound healing by week 12 and week 20 in each group. The authors also analyzed adverse events and found TheraSkin to be noncontributory to any adverse events, verifying the safety of TheraSkin in this study population. In this study, TheraSkin has been shown to be highly effective for the treatment of both VLUs and DFUs with an acceptable safety profile. PMID:21135263
Landsman, Adam Scott; Cook, Jeremy; Cook, Emily; Landsman, Arnold Robert; Garrett, Philip; Yoon, Joonhyun; Kirkwood, Alfred; Desman, Eric
Tepescohuite is an extract obtained from the bark of the Mimosa tenuiflora tree and is used as an empirical treatment in wounds for its healing and antiseptic properties. Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are a common health care problem in most countries with a high rate of morbidity. The standard of care is moist interactive healing and compression; however, the ideal topical treatment is yet to be established. This study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of M. tenuiflora cortex extract (MTC-2G) in the treatment of VLUs in an Interdisciplinary Wound and Ostomy Care Center (IWOCC). A randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial was conducted to compare the use of a hydrogel containing MTC-2G with the hydrogel alone in VLUs. The study included all patients with venous ulcers referred to the IWOCC. Laboratory tests and tissue biopsies were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. The patients were instructed to daily cleansing followed by topical application of the hydrogel and compression. Forty-one patients were included, 22 patients received the MTC-2G and 19 patients received the hydrogel only. Of the 41 patients, 32 completed the study, 18 in the experimental arm and 14 in the control group, 19 were women and 13 men. The mean age of the subjects was 60 years. The mean time from presentation was 38 months. The mean surface reduction was 6·29 cm(2) [confidence interval (IC) 95%: 3·28-9·29] (P = 0·0001) in the MTC-2G group and 5·85 cm(2) (95% CI: 3·58-8·12) (P = 0·001) in the hydrogel group. There was no significant difference between the groups (P = 0·815). No changes in the laboratory parameters were noted. In the histology, there were not any differences between groups either. A hydrogel containing MTC-2G was not superior to a hydrogel alone in the treatment of VLUs. PMID:22128789
Lammoglia-Ordiales, Lorena; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Herrera-Arellano, Armando; Rivera-Arce, Erika; Agüero, Juan; Vargas-Martinez, Felipe; Contreras-Ruiz, José
Leg pain is common, and patients may have more than one cause. Although simple questionnaires or descriptors (eg, cramps, aching) are inadequate to distinguish between etiologies, history plays a key role in diagnosis. Timing and triggers of symptoms as well as lateralization can narrow the differential. Nocturnal symptoms are likely to be cramps, RLS, or DSP. Exertional symptoms suggest PAD, whereas symptoms caused by standing may be LSS or venous insufficiency. DVT and radiculopathy are usually unilateral, whereas DSP, RLS, and statin myalgia tend to be bilateral. Fortunately, few of the diagnoses discussed constitute medical emergencies. DVT, acute compartment syndrome, pyomyositis, and malignancy all require prompt diagnosis and treatment. However, PAD (without rest pain, ulceration, or gangrene) is unlikely to progress rapidly, and routine radiculopathy and spinal stenosis (with no cauda equina syndrome or rapidly progressive neurologic deficit) can safely be managed conservatively. That said, accurate diagnosis of leg discomfort can afford patients a prognosis and, in some cases, effective therapy. PMID:24758955
tient had no symptom of diarrhea, and abdomen CT showed no evidence of any abdominal mass or inflammation. Endoscopic examination revealed a small ulcer on the antrum and deformity of the duodenal bulb, with marked shortening of the lesser curvature of the stomach. Forceps biopsies taken from the ulcer revealed histologically the colonization of Helicobacter pylori, with no evidence of
Yuko Akazawa; Yohei Mizuta; Masayuki Osabe; Tsuguto Nakamura; Shunichi Morikawa; Hajime Isomoto; Fuminao Takeshima; Shigeru Kohno; Ikuo Murata
Perioperative treatment of several rats in our facility with ketoprofen (5 mg/kg SC) resulted in blood loss, peritonitis, and death within a day to a little more than a week after surgery that was not related to the gastrointestinal tract. Published reports have established the 5-mg/kg dose as safe and effective for rats. Because ketoprofen is a nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug that can damage the gastrointestinal tract, the putative diagnosis for these morbidities and mortalities was gastrointestinal toxicity caused by ketoprofen (5 mg/kg). We conducted a prospective study evaluating the effect of this therapeutic dose of ketoprofen on the rat gastrointestinal tract within 24 h. Ketoprofen (5 mg/kg SC) was administered to one group of rats that then received gas anesthesia for 30 min and to another group without subsequent anesthesia. A third group was injected with saline followed by 30 min of gas anesthesia. Our primary hypothesis was that noteworthy gastrointestinal bleeding and lesions would occur in both groups treated with ketoprofen but not in rats that received saline and anesthesia. Our results showed marked gastrointestinal bleeding, erosions, and small intestinal ulcers in the ketoprofen-treated rats and minimal damages in the saline-treated group. The combination of ketoprofen and anesthesia resulted in worse clinical signs than did ketoprofen alone. We conclude that a single 5-mg/kg dose of ketoprofen causes acute mucosal damage to the rat small intestine.
Shientag, Lisa J; Wheeler, Suzanne M; Garlick, David S; Maranda, Louise S
Introduction: Dopaminergic drugs are the mainstay of treatment for restless legs syndrome (RLS). We analyzed the frequency and clinical characteristics of impulse control disorders (ICD) in patients with RLS on transdermal rotigotine treatment. Methods: Retrospective case series at a university movement disorder clinic (n = 28, 17 women). Symptoms of ICD were assessed via detailed history taking and scoring with the Zurich
S. R. Schreglmann; A. R. Gantenbein; G. Eisele; C. R. Baumann
Skin ulcers were found in 7 koalas from Raymond Island in the Gippsland Lakes of southeastern Australia. Ulcers in 4 koalas showed loss and underrunning of cutaneous tissue, with coagulative necrosis of subcutaneous tissue. These lesions contained large numbers of acid-fast bacilli, and areas of granulation tissue formation and superficial inflammation were present. Mycobacterium ulcerans was isolated from 2 of these animals. The ulcers from the other 3 koalas contained both M. ulcerans and M. scrofulaceum, and in these the necrotic tissue was surrounded by a granulomatous reaction which, in one case, extended into bone. Four of the koalas had more than one ulcer. The possible origin of the infections is discussed. PMID:6514393
Mitchell, P J; Jerrett, I V; Slee, K J
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Daflon® 500 mg (Dios)* in venous ulcers. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo (Plac) trial was conducted, with stratification according to the size of ulcer (? 10 cm and > 10 cm). The protocol called for a two-month treatment with Dios (one tablet = 450 mg micronized purified
Jean-Jacques Guilhou; Olivier Dereure; Loïc Marzin; Pierre Ouvry; François Zuccarelli; Clélia Debure; Hervé Van Landuyt; Marie-Noëlle Gillet-Terver; Bernard Guillot; Hervé Levesque; Jean Mignot; Gérard Pillion; Benoit Février; Dominique Dubeaux
Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue-penetration and with a low thermal burden to the surface of the skin. wIRA is able to improve essential and energetically meaningful factors of wound healing by thermal and non-thermal effects. Aim of the study: prospective study (primarily planned randomised, controlled, blinded, de facto with one exception only one cohort possible) using wIRA in the treatment of patients with recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs with thermographic follow-up. Methods: 10 patients (5 males, 5 females, median age 62 years) with 11 recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs were treated with water-filtered infrared-A and visible light irradiation (wIRA(+VIS), Hydrosun® radiator type 501, 10 mm water cuvette, water-filtered spectrum 550–1400 nm) or visible light irradiation (VIS; only possible in one patient). The uncovered wounds of the patients were irradiated two to five times per week for 30 minutes at a standard distance of 25 cm (approximately 140 mW/cm2 wIRA and approximately 45 mW/cm2 VIS). Treatment continued for a period of up to 2 months (typically until closure or nearly closure of the ulcer). The main variable of interest was “percent change of ulcer size over time” including complete wound closure. Additional variables of interest were thermographic image analysis, patient’s feeling of pain in the wound, amount of pain medication, assessment of the effect of the irradiation (by patient and by clinical investigator), assessment of feeling of the wound area (by patient), assessment of wound healing (by clinical investigator) and assessment of the cosmetic state (by patient and by clinical investigator). For these assessments visual analogue scales (VAS) were used. Results: The study showed a complete or nearly complete healing of lower leg ulcers in 7 patients and a clear reduction of ulcer size in another 2 of 10 patients, a clear reduction of pain and pain medication consumption (e.g. from 15 to 0 pain tablets per day), and a normalization of the thermographic image (before the beginning of the therapy typically hyperthermic rim of the ulcer with relative hypothermic ulcer base, up to 4.5°C temperature difference). In one patient the therapy of an ulcer of one leg was performed with the fully active radiator (wIRA(+VIS)), while the therapy of an ulcer of the other leg was made with a control group radiator (only VIS without wIRA), showing a clear difference in favour of the wIRA treatment. All mentioned VAS ratings improved remarkably during the period of irradiation treatment, representing an increased quality of life. Failures of complete or nearly complete wound healing were seen only in patients with arterial insufficiency, in smokers or in patients who did not have venous compression garment therapy. Discussion and conclusions: wIRA can alleviate pain considerably (with an impressive decrease of the consumption of analgesics) and accelerate wound healing or improve a stagnating wound healing process and diminish an elevated wound exudation and inflammation both in acute and in chronic wounds (in this study shown in chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs) and in problem wounds including infected wounds. In chronic recalcitrant wounds complete healing is achieved, which was not reached before. Other studies have shown that even without a disturbance of wound healing an acute wound healing process can be improved (e.g. reduced pain) by wIRA. wIRA is a contact-free, easily used and pleasantly felt procedure without consumption of material with a good penetration effect, which is similar to solar heat radiation on the surface of the earth in moderate climatic zones. Wound healing and infection defence (e.g. granulocyte function including antibacterial oxygen radical formation of the granulocytes) are critically dependent on a sufficient energy supply (and on sufficient oxygen). The good clinical effect of wIRA on wounds and also on problem woun
Mercer, James B.; Nielsen, Stig Pors; Hoffmann, Gerd
We report two cases of protracted keratitis complicated by corneal ulcer. Burkholderia gladioli, primarily known as a plant pathogen, was cultured from corneal swabs. The epithelial defects healed after extended adequate antibiotic therapy. Despite identical patterns of both strains in restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, a common infection source was not detectable. PMID:18434558
Lestin, Franka; Kraak, Robert; Podbielski, Andreas
Leg swelling is an extremely frequent symptom with a broad variety of largely differing causes. The most important mechanisms behind the symptom include venous and lymphatic pathology, volume overload, increased capillary permeability, and lowered oncotic pressure. Therefore, the most frequent diseases associated with leg swelling are deep vein thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency, primary or secondary lymphedema, cardiac failure, hypoproteinemia due to liver or renal failure, idiopathic cyclic edema, and drug-induced edema. Lipedema as a misnomer represents an important differential diagnosis. History and physical examination, when based on a sound knowledge of the diseases of interest, enable a conclusive diagnosis in most cases. Additional test are required in only a minority of patients. The present review discusses pathophysiology and clinical features of the most prevalent types of leg swelling. Finally, a brief guide to differential diagnosis is given. PMID:24264570
Schellong, S M; Wollina, U; Unger, L; Machetanz, J; Stelzner, C
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Restless Legs Syndrome? Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong ... and to find better treatments. Rate This Content: Restless Legs Syndrome Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...
This study reports the case of a 71-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes whose paronychia rapidly progressed to the right middle finger and then to the whole dorsal aspect necrosis of the right hand. After admission, the diagnosis of diabetic hand ulcer was established and Streptococcus agalactiae found as the pathogen. The authors controlled glucose, used 3% hydrogen peroxide and sulfadiazine silver in routine dressing, as well as surgical debridement, topical negative pressure, and skin grafting. The wound closed in 32 days after surgery. Diabetic hand ulcer is often developed from a small wound. The wound, if neglected, will expand very quickly and may lead to amputation and even death. So early diagnosis, standardized treatment, and postoperative rehabilitation is very important. PMID:22863692
Tian, Ming; Wang, Xiqiao; Xiao, Yurui; Lu, Shuliang; Jiang, Yuzhi
We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340
Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Eric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques
Objectives: A false-negative biopsy urease test (BUT) is common in Helicobacter pylori-associated bleeding peptic ulcers. Although blood in the stomach is thought to interfere with the biopsy urease test, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This in vitro experiment sought to identify the blood component(s) that interfere with the biopsy urease test, and delineate the mechanism of inhibition. Methods: The modified
W. K. Leung; Joseph J. Y. Sung; Kris L. K. Siu; Francis K. L. Chan; Thomas K. W. Ling; Augustine F. B. Cheng
Objectives:A false-negative biopsy urease test (BUT) is common in Helicobacter pylori-associated bleeding peptic ulcers. Although blood in the stomach is thought to interfere with the biopsy urease test, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This in vitro experiment sought to identify the blood component(s) that interfere with the biopsy urease test, and delineate the mechanism of inhibition.Methods:The modified Hazell's microtiter test
W. K. Leung; Joseph J. Y. Sung; Kris L. K. Siu; Francis K. L. Chan; Thomas K. W. Ling; Augustine F. B. Cheng; Joseph J Y Sung
Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is an invasive, opportunistic disease of both freshwater and estuarine fishes. Originally documented as the cause of mycotic granulomatosis of ornamental fishes in Japan and as the cause of EUS of fishes in southeast Asia and Australia, this pathogen is also present in estuaries and freshwater bodies of the Atlantic and gulf coasts of the USA. We describe a mass mortality event of 343 captive juvenile bullseye snakehead Channa marulius collected from freshwater canals in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Clinical signs appeared within the first 2 d of captivity and included petechiae, ulceration, erratic swimming, and inappetence. Histological examination revealed hyphae invading from the skin lesions deep into the musculature and internal organs. Species identification was confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Despite therapeutic attempts, 100% mortality occurred. This represents the first documented case of EUS in bullseye snakehead fish collected from waters in the USA. Future investigation of the distribution and prevalence of A. invadans within the bullseye snakehead range in south Florida may give insight into this pathogen-host system.
Saylor, Ryan K.; Miller, Debra L.; Vandersea, Mark W.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Bennett, Wayne A.
Background Gossypiboma is a term used to describe a mass that forms around a cotton sponge or abdominal compress accidentally left in a patient during surgery. Transmural migration of an intra-abdominal gossypiboma has been reported to occur in the digestive tract, bladder, vagina and diaphragm. Open surgery is the most common approach in the treatment of gossypiboma. However, gossypibomas can be extracted by endoscopy while migrating into the digestive tract. We report a case of intractable duodenal ulcer caused by transmural migration of gossypiboma successfully treated by duodenorrhaphy. A systemic literature review is provided and a scheme of the therapeutic approach is proposed. Case presentation A 61-year-old Han Chinese man presented with intermittent epigastric pain for the last 10 months. He had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy conversion to open cholecystectomy for acute gangrenous cholecystitis 10 months ago at another hospital. Transmural migration of gossypiboma into the duodenum was found. Endoscopic intervention failed to remove the entire gauze, and duodenal ulcer caused by the gauze persisted. Surgical intervention was performed and the gauze was removed successfully. The penetrated ulcer was repaired with duodenorrhaphy. The postoperative period was uneventful. We systematically reviewed the literature on transmural migration of gossypiboma into duodenum and present an overview of published cases. Our PubMed search yielded seven reports of transmural migration of retained surgical sponge into the duodenum. Surgical interventions were necessary in two patients. Conclusion Transmural migration of gossypiboma into the duodenum is a rare surgical complication. The treatment strategies include endoscopic extraction and surgical intervention. Prompt surgical intervention should be considered for emergent conditions such as active bleeding, gastrointestinal obstruction, or intra-abdominal sepsis. For non-emergent conditions, surgical intervention could be considered for intractable cases in which endoscopic extraction failed.
... more severe problems related to PAD, such as leg pain, ulcers and amputations, according to a news release from the University of Michigan. However, women were less likely to report leg discomfort, fatigue or cramping during activity. "The reasons ...
Chronic wound healing states are often associated with aging, and despite the increased number of aged patients with nonhealing wounds, controversy still exists concerning the effects of age on wound repair. Our previous work showed that in both venous ulcers in humans and acute wounds in aged animals, fibronectin, an early component in granulation tissue, is deficient compared to normal skin and acute wounds in healthy young animals, respectively. In the present study, we have determined the protease responsible for fibronectin degradation by analyzing tissue taken from the margins of chronic venous ulcers and standardized acute cutaneous wounds collected from a large cohort of "Health status"-defined aged human subjects (screened as per the SENIEUR protocol). When tissue samples were subjected to fibronectin zymography, the main protease involved in the breakdown of fibronectin in both venous ulcers and acute wounds of elderly subjects was found to be a serine protease with a molecular weight of approximately 30 kd. This protease was identified as neutrophil elastase by immunoblotting. In tissue biopsies, elastase was localized to granulocytes by immunocytochemical techniques and shown to be present in greater quantities in venous ulcers and Day-7 and -14 healing acute wounds of healthy aged subjects relative to those of young subjects. The highest quantities were found in acute wounds of elderly women. Our results suggest that the process of aging in healthy human subjects is associated with an up-regulation of elastase during acute wound healing and that an abnormality in down-regulation of this protease could be partially responsible for the transition to chronic wound healing states in the aged. PMID:9314951
Herrick, S; Ashcroft, G; Ireland, G; Horan, M; McCollum, C; Ferguson, M
Compression therapy--including inelastic, elastic, and intermittent pneumatic compression--is the standard of care for venous ulcers (VLUs) and chronic venous insufficiency, but there is no consensus in the literature regarding the most effective type of compression therapy. A prospective, randomized, clinical pilot study was conducted among 70 patients with unilateral VLUs treated in a hospital dermatology department in Poland to compare three types of compression therapy (intermittent pneumatic compression, stockings, and short-stretch bandages) in persons with superficial deep venous reflux alone or combined with the segmental variety. Study endpoints were change in ulcer dimensions and proportions healed. Patients with superficial or combined superficial and deep vein insufficiency were randomly allocated to receive one of the three therapies (one of each vein type for each treatment option, six groups total). All patients received saline-soaked gauze dressings along with micronized purified flavonoid fraction, diosmin, hesperidin, and Daflon 500 once daily. Compression treatments were changed or pneumatic compression provided daily for 15 days. Wound size reduction and percentage of wounds healed were significantly higher in groups receiving intermittent pneumatic compression or stockings than in groups using short-stretch bandages (for percentage change of ulcer surface area, P = 0.02; for healing rates P = 0.01). These results warrant additional randomized controlled clinical studies with a larger sample size and longer patient follow-up. PMID:23934375
Dolibog, Pawel; Franek, Andrzej; Taradaj, Jakub; Polak, Anna; Dolibog, Patrycja; Blaszczak, Edward; Wcislo, Ligia; Hrycek, Antoni; Urbanek, Tomasz; Ziaja, Jacek; Kolanko, Magdalena
CONTEXT Coagulase-negative staphylococci are common colonizers of the human skin and have become increasingly recognized as agents of clinically significant nosocomial infections. CASE REPORT The case of a 79-year-old male patient with multi-infarct dementia who presented systemic inflammatory response syndrome is reported. This was attributed to bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus, which was grown on blood cultures originating from an infected pressure ulcer. The few cases of Staphylococcus cohnii infection reported in the literature consist of bacteremia relating to catheters, surgical prostheses, acute cholecystitis, brain abscess, endocarditis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection and septic arthritis, generally presenting a multiresistant profile, with nearly 90% resistance to methicillin. CONCLUSIONS The reported case is, to our knowledge, the first case of true bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus caused by an infected pressure ulcer. It shows that this species may be underdiagnosed and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for community-acquired skin infections. PMID:23538597
Soldera, Jonathan; Nedel, Wagner Luis; Cardoso, Paulo Ricardo Cerveira; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves
Systemic causes of leg edema include idiopathic cyclic edema, heart failure, cirrhosis, nephrosis and other hypoproteinemic states. Lymphedema may be primary, or secondary to neoplasm, lymphangitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis and, rarely (in the U.S.), filariasis. Thrombophlebitis and chronic venous insufficiency are not uncommon causes. Finally, infection, ischemia, lipedema, vascular anomalies, tumors and trauma can be responsible for the swollen leg. PMID:188330
Young, J R
Peritonitis due to viscus perforation in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients can be catastrophic. We describe the first reported case of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) in a PD patient. This 78-year-old man presented with a 1-day history of mild abdominal pain. He had been receiving nocturnal intermittent PD for 2 years and had ischemic heart disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Pneumoperitoneum and peritonitis were documented, but the symptoms were mild. The "board-like abdomen" sign was not noted. Air inflation and contrast radiography indicated a perforation in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and laparotomy disclosed a perforation in the prepyloric great curvature. Unfortunately, the patient died during surgery. This case illustrates that the "board-like abdomen" sign may be absent in PD patients with PPU because of dilution of gastric acid by the dialysate. Free air in the abdomen, although suggestive of PPU, is also not uncommon in PD patients without viscus perforation. Because PD has to be discontinued after laparotomy and exploratory laparotomy may be fatal in high-risk patients, other diagnostic methods should be used to confirm viscus perforation before surgery. PPU, which can be proved by air inflation and contrast radiography, should be suspected in PD patients with pneumoperitoneum and peritonitis. PMID:10196037
Huang, J W; Peng, Y S; Wu, M S; Tsai, T J
Previous structure-activity and pharmacologic studies with duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine and propionitrile implicating catecholamines in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration have now been followed up by dose- and time-response biochemical investigations to assess the importance of monoamines in the development of duodenal ulcers. The concentrations of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in total brain, brain regions, stomach, duodenum, pancreas and adrenals in the rat. Turnover of catecholamines was determined in rats pretreated with the inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The duodenal ulcerogens caused a dose- and time-dependent depletion of norepinephrine in virtually all the tissues examined. The effect was maximal 4 or 7 hr after cysteamine or propionitrile, and norepinephrine levels returned to normal in 24 hr. Dopamine changes were selective and often biphasic, e.g., elevation in adrenals, biphasic in brain cortex, hippocampus and midbrain, but uniformly decreasing in glandular stomach and duodenum. In the median eminence dopamine levels decreased by 181 and 324% at 15 and 30 min, respectively, after cysteamine, but neither dopamine nor 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was modified in the periventricular nucleus. Serotonin levels were relatively stable, revealing slight elevations or no changes in most of the tissues. The turnover of norepinephrine was accelerated by both chemicals in virtually all brain regions, but dopamine turnover was affected only in a few areas, e.g., in the corpus striatum and medulla oblongata cysteamine decreased dopamine turnover, whereas propionitrile first (at 1 hr) accelerated then (at 8 hr) significantly suppressed it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Szabo, S.; Horner, H.C.; Maull, H.; Schnoor, J.; Chiueh, C.C.; Palkovits, M.
Leg length inequality, a common abnormality, can cause musculoskeletal pain, scoliosis, and osteoarthritis of the hip. Seven percent of the asymptomatic population has a leg length inequality greater than 12 mm; the incidence is considerably higher (13%-22%) in individuals complaining of low back pain. Correction can usually be accomplished by shoe modification, and can result in dramatic relief of pain. Leg length inequality of more than half an inch is considered clinically significant. Leg length measurement should be routine in all patients complaining of low back pain, hip pain, and atypical flank and lower quadrant pain. Correction might prove very cost-effective.
Sharpe, Colin R.
We studied a patient with edema secondary to protein losing enteropathy, and recurrent bouts of bloating and abdominal pain secondary to intestinal subocclusion episodes. After the clinical study, the patient was diagnosed of cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis (CMUSE), that is a rare disease, probably caused by mutations in the gene PLA2G4A, and characterized by multiple short stenosis of the small bowel with superficial ulcers, which do not exceed the submucosa layer. Inflammatory bowel disease (Chron's disease), intestinal tuberculosis and intestinal ulcers secondary to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the main differential diagnosis. To sum up, physicians should included CMUSE in the differential diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain, iron deficiency anaemia, occult intestinal bleeding, edema and protein losing enteropathy. PMID:24035666
Guisado Vasco, P; Fraile Rodríguez, G
The Barnstaple Leg Club has been running for almost two years in north Devon providing treatment and support to older people with leg ulcers on a weekly basis. This article examines the concept of leg clubs and describes how the community nursing team that leads the club offers holistic care to local people. The nurses are able to see more patients than they would by carrying out home visits, healing their wounds and boosting their self-esteem and confidence, while at the same time reducing social isolation. PMID:24673324
The present study describes a case of leg lymphedema due to iliopectineal bursitis associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which was satisfactorily controlled by surgery and combination therapy with methotrexate (MTX) and tacrolimus. A 68-year-old male, who had a six-year history of RA, developed an iliopectineal bursa associated with destruction of the hip joint. The mass gradually increased in size, and there was swelling in his right lower extremity. The patient was subsequently hospitalized with increasing right hip pain and leg edema. A colorless transparent lymph fluid leaked from his leg, and leg lymphedema was thus diagnosed. The patient also had a 20-year history of myelodysplastic syndrome. Therefore, the extensive or total resection of the bursa was considered to be too invasive, so a partial bursal excision was performed via an anterior approach. Following the partial bursal excision, total hip arthroplasty (THA) was performed using the Hardinge approach. The leg lymphedema disappeared following the surgery, and the iliopectineal bursa was no longer enlarged. MTX and tacrolimus were postoperatively administered to strictly control the RA. The RA was subsequently well controlled, without any increases in the levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein and matrix metalloproteinase-3. This case demonstrated that iliopectineal bursitis was resolved following THA, without complete excision of the intrapelvic bursa, and that strict RA control led to a good clinical course without recurrent inflammation of the bursa. Similar procedures may be beneficial in other patients contraindicated for resection of the entire bursa.
KUROYANAGI, GEN; YAMADA, KUNIO; IMAIZUMI, TSUKASA; MIZUTANI, JUN; WADA, IKUO; KOZAWA, OSAMU; TOKUDA, HARUHIKO; OTSUKA, TAKANOBU
Myiasis is usually caused by flies of the Calliphoridae family, and Cochliomyia hominivorax is the etiological agent most frequently found in myiasis. The first case of myiasis in a diabetic foot of a 54-year-old male patient in Argentina is reported. The patient attended the hospital of the capital city of Tucumán Province for a consultation concerning an ulcer in his right foot, where the larval specimens were found. The identification of the immature larvae was based on their morphological characters, such as the cylindrical, segmented, white yellow-coloured body and tracheas with strong pigmentation. The larvae were removed, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. The larvae were reared until the adults were obtained. The adults were identified by the setose basal vein in the upper surface of the wing, denuded lower surface of the wing, short and reduced palps, and parafrontalia with black hairs outside the front row of setae. The main factor that favoured the development of myiasis is due to diabetes, which caused a loss of sensibility in the limb that resulted in late consultation. Moreover, the poor personal hygiene attracted the flies, and the foul-smelling discharge from the wound favoured the female's oviposition. There is a need to implement a program for prevention of myiasis, in which the population is made aware not only of the importance of good personal hygiene and home sanitation but also of the degree of implication of flies in the occurrence and development of this disease. PMID:24623889
Olea, María Sofía; Centeno, Néstor; Aybar, Cecilia Adriana Veggiani; Ortega, Eugenia Silvana; Galante, Guillermina Begoña; Olea, Luis; Juri, María Julia Dantur
Background: Venous ulcers are wounds that are thought to occur due to improper functioning of venous valves, usually of the legs. They are the major cause of chronic wounds, occurring in 70% to 90% of chronic wound cases. The treatment of venous ulcers also entails substantial costs. Autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a simple office based procedure which helps in enhancing the wound healing by releasing many growth factors like platelet derived growth factors, fibroblast derived growth factors and epidermal growth factors. Aim: To study the efficacy of autologous platelet rich plasma in the management of chronic venous ulcer. Methodology: 12 patients with 17 venous ulcers were treated with PRP and treatment outcome was measured by percentage of improvement in area and volume of the ulcer. Results: 12 patients with 17 ulcers were treated with PRP. The mean age of the patients was 33.5 years (SD 9.82). 10 were males and 2 were females. The mean duration of the healing of the ulcers was in 5.1 weeks (SD 3.1). The mean percentage improvement in the area and volume of the ulcer was 94.7% (SD 11.12) and 95.6% (SD 10.19) respectively. Conclusions: PRP is safe, simple and effective procedure in treating chronic venous ulcers
Sarvajnamurthy, Sacchidanand; Suryanarayan, Shwetha; Budamakuntala, Leelavathy; Suresh, Deepak Hurkudli
A novel, non-invasive diagnostic clinical procedure for the determination of an oxygenation status of chronic lower leg ulcers using peri-ulceral transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure measurements: Results of its application in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)
The basis for the new procedure is the simultaneous transcutaneous measurement of the peri-ulceral oxygen partial pressure (tcPO2), using a minimum of 4 electrodes which are placed as close to the wound margin as possible, additionally, as a challenge the patient inhales pure oxygen for approximately 15 minutes. In order to evaluate the measurement data and to characterise the wounds, two new oxygen parameters were defined: (1) the oxygen characteristic (K-PO2), and (2) the oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO2) of a chronic wound. The first of these is the arithmetic mean of the two lowest tcPO2 measurement values, and the second is the variation coefficient of the four measurement values. Using the K-PO2 parameter, a grading of wound hypoxia can be obtained. To begin with, the physiologically regulated (and still compensated) hypoxia with K-PO2 values of between 35 and 40 mmHg is distinguished from the pathological decompensated hypoxia with K-PO2 values of between 0 and 35 mmHg; the first of these still stimulates self-healing (within the limits of the oxygen balance). The decompensated hypoxia can be (arbitrarily) divided into “simple” hypoxia (Grade I), intense hypoxia (Grade II) and extreme hypoxia (Grade III), with the possibility of intermediate grades (I/II and II/III). Measurements were carried out using the new procedure on the skin of the right inner ankle of 21 healthy volunteers of various ages, and in 17 CVI (chronic venous insufficiency) wounds. Sixteen of the 17 CVI wounds (i.e., 94%) were found to be pathologically hypoxic, a state which was not found in any of the healthy volunteers. The oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO2) of the individual chronic wounds increased exponentially as a function of the hypoxia grading (K-PO2), with a 10-fold increase with extreme hypoxia in contrast to a constant value of approximately 14% in the healthy volunteers. This pronounced oxygen inhomogeneity explains inhomogeneous wound healings, resulting in the so-called mosaic wounds. The hypoxia grades found in all of the chronic wounds was seen to be evenly distributed with values ranging from 0 to 40 mmHg, and therefore extremely inhomogeneous. In terms of oxygenation, chronic wounds are therefore inhomogeneous in two respects: (1) within the wound itself (intra-individual wound inhomogeneity) and (2) between different wounds (inter-individual wound inhomogeneity). Due to the extreme oxygen inhomogeneity, single measurements are not diagnostically useful. In healthy individuals the oxygen inhalation challenge (see above) results in synchronised tcPO2 oscillations occurring at minute rhythms, which are not seen in CVI wounds. These oscillations can be interpreted as a sign of a functioning arterial vasomotor system. The new procedure is suitable for the routine characterisation of chronic wounds in terms of their oxygen status, and correspondingly, their metabolically determining (and limiting) potential for healing and regeneration. The oxygen characteristic K-PO2 can furthermore be used as a warning of impending ulceration, since the oxygen provision worsens over time prior to the demise of the ulcerated tissue, thus making a controlled prophylaxis possible.
Barnikol, Wolfgang K. R.; Potzschke, Harald
Chronic venous disease represents a healthcare problem due to high prevalence and recurrence rates. Studies on chronic venous ulcer wound fluid (CVUWF) have demonstrated increased inflammation and proteolysis which can cause tissue destruction and delayed healing. This review discusses: nearly all known metabolites discovered in the past 25 years in CVUWF studies; the omics approaches characterizing the microenvironment of human venous leg ulcers; and the use of biocompounds as prognostic biomarkers and as possible targets for therapeutic approaches. A biomarker is a biological compound that can be functional or non-functional, specific or non-specific in the diagnosis/prognosis to a disease state and may be quantified to determine progression or regression of disease. Omics studies in CVUWF provide the impetus for future identification of biomarkers within the intricate network in chronic venous disease and set the basis for determining the appropriate combination of molecules that are expressed with the healing status of venous leg ulcers. PMID:24918119
Mannello, Ferdinando; Ligi, Daniela; Canale, Matteo; Raffetto, Joseph D
Background: It has been shown that restless legs syndrome (RLS) in adults may be linked to abnormalities in iron stores. Whether reduced iron stores play a role in children is not clear.Methods: We evaluated the status of iron stores and sleep in three teenagers who presented with severe sleep onset insomnia, subjective sleep latency exceeding 60 min and excessive daytime
Meir H Kryger; Kazuo Otake; John Foerster
Introduction We describe a case of rare complication of typhoid fever in a seven-year-old child and review the literature with regard to other rare causes of bleeding per rectum. Dieulafoy's lesion is an uncommon but important cause of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. Dieulafoy's lesion located extragastrically is rare. We report a case of typhoid ulcer with Dieulafoy's lesion of the ileum causing severe life-threatening bleeding and discuss the management of this extremely uncommon entity. Case presentation As a complication of typhoid fever, a seven-year-old Kurdish girl from Northern Iraq developed massive fresh bleeding per rectum. During colonoscopy and laparotomy, she was discovered to have multiple bleeding ulcers within the Dieulafoy's lesion in the terminal ileum and ileocecal region. Conclusion Although there is no practical way of predicting the occurrence of such rare complications, we emphasize in this case report the wide array of pathologies that can result from typhoid fever.
Diabetic foot ulcers are a major health care problem. Complications of foot ulcers are a leading cause of hospitalization and amputation in diabetic patients. Diabetic ulcers result from neuropathy or ischemia. Neuropathy is characterized by loss of protective sensation and biomechanical abnormalities. Lack of protective sensation allows ulceration in areas of high pressure. Autonomic neuropathy causes dryness of the skin by decreased sweating and therefore vulnerability of the skin to break down. Ischemia is caused by peripheral arterial disease, not by microangiopathy. Poor arterial inflow decreases blood supply to ulcer area and is associated with reduced oxygenation, nutrition and ulcer healing. Necrotic tissue is laden with bacteria apt to grow in such an environment, which also impairs general defence mechanisms against infection. Infections often complicate existing ulcers, but are seldom the cause for ulcers. Protective footwear helps to reduce ulceration in diabetic feet at risk. Relieving pressure on the ulcer area is necessary to allow healing. Blood supply needs to be improved by revascularisation whenever compromised. Systemic antibiotics are helpful in treating acute foot infections, but not uninfected ulcers. Osteomyelitis may underlie a diabetic ulcer and is often treated by resection of the infected bone and always by antibiotics, the mode and length of treatment depending on the adequacy of the debridement. The aim of ulcer bed preparation is to convert the molecular and cellular environment of the chronic ulcer to that of an acute healing wound by debridement, irrigating and cleaning. Moist dressings maintain wound environment favorable for healing. All attempts should be done to prevent diabetic foot ulceration and treat existing ulcers by multidisciplinary teams in order to decrease amputations. Indeed, improvement in ulcer healing has been observed with primary healing rates of 65-85% in mixed series. Even when healed, diabetic foot should be regarded as a life-long condition and treated accordingly to prevent recurrence. Long-term efforts have reduced amputation 37-75% in different European countries over 10-15 years. PMID:19543189
Vuorisalo, S; Venermo, M; Lepäntalo, M
Leg ulceration can be defined as any chronic ulcer of the lower leg excluding those on the forefoot or toes (Lees & Lambert, 1992). Venous or stasis ulcers account for 80%-85% of all leg ulcers with an overall prevalence of approximately 1% in the United States (Collins & Seraj, 2010; O'Meara, Al-Kurdi, & Ovington, 2008). Venous ulcers are more common in women and the older population (Abbade & Lastoria, 2005; Bergqvist, Lindholm, & Nelzen, 1999). Venous ulcers are often recurrent and chronic and can persist from weeks to even years. Severe complications include cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and malignant changes (Collins & Seraj, 2010). This column discusses the pathophysiology of venous insufficiency and ulcerations, presentation, diagnosis, and current treatment. PMID:23188154
Eurypterids have a pair of paddle-like swimming legs located at the back edge of the head. These legs are connected to the body by toothplates or "gnathobases." The toothplates border a slit-like mouth and are lined by teeth. The large slab pictured above (also from Passage Gulf, NY) contains a complete swimming leg (center) connected to a partial toothplate (upper right) and another partial toothplate (lower center) with a series of thorn-like teeth (left side).
Recent intervention of nonspecific genital ulcers has added refreshing dimensions to genital ulcer disease. It was considered pertinent to dwell on diverse clinical presentation and diagnostic strategies. It seems to possess spectrum. It includes infective causes, Epstein Bar Virus, tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, HIV/AIDS related ulcers and amoebiasis. Noninfective causes are immunobullous disorders, aphthosis, Behcet's disease (BD), inflammatory bowel disease, lichen planus and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, drug reactions, premalignant and malignant conditions, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa. The diagnostic features and treatment option of each disorder are succinctly outlined for ready reference. PMID:24559562
Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta
Gastroduodenal ulceration is becoming recognised as an important disease in foals during the first few months of life. Aetiopathogenesis is presumed to be similar to peptic disease in humans associated with back diffusion of hydrogen ions into the mucosa. Many factors have been incriminated as predisposing foals to ulceration but few have been proven. To date, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents has been the only documented cause of gastroduodenal ulceration in foals. The clustering of affected foals on certain farms suggests an infectious aetiology but attempts to identify a causative organism have been unsuccessful. Four clinical syndromes defined for foals with gastroduodenal ulceration include: silent ulcers, which occur most often in the non-glandular stomach along the margo plicatus and are identified as incidental findings at necropsy; active ulcers which are often manifested by abdominal pain, excessive salivation and bruxism; perforating ulcers which usually result in a severe, diffuse peritonitis; and pyloric or duodenal obstruction from a healing ulcer. General approaches to therapy of a foal with active ulceration consist of reduction of gastric acidity and enhancement of mucosal protection. Antacids and type 2 histamine receptor antagonists are used most often to neutralise or decrease acid secretion, respectively. Sucralfate, a locally active sulphated sucrose preparation, is commonly used as a cytoprotective agent. The efficacy and safety of many products used have not been evaluated adequately in foals. Perforating ulcers are usually associated with death or humane destruction of the foal because of fulminating peritonitis. Surgical intervention and bypass procedures are indicated in foals that develop pyloric or duodenal obstructions from healing ulcers. PMID:3758011
Becht, J L; Byars, T D
Peptic ulcer remains the commonest and most significant cause of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The incidence of peptic ulcer bleeding is rising in elderly patients, particularly for duodenal ulcer. Patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who have low Rockall scores are at low risk of rebleeding and death. These patients currently utilize considerable health-care resources, but could safely be managed at home. The Rockall score can be used to predict the risk of rebleeding and death following variceal bleeding, but for patients with ulcer bleeding, its ability to predict death is questioned. Acid suppression is effective in preventing rebleeding from peptic ulcer. Standard doses of intravenous omeprazole may be as effective as high-dose regimens. Oral omeprazole also reduces rebleeding following endoscopic therapy for peptic ulcer. Mallory-Weiss tears result in significant bleeding in 23 % of cases. Endoscopic therapy may only be required in cases in which active bleeding is present. Endoscopic therapy is effective and safe in patients with major peptic ulcer bleeding who are over 80 years old. For peptic ulcer, injection of larger volumes of epinephrine (adrenaline; mean 16.5 ml) are more effective than small volumes (mean 8 ml). Injection of normal saline alone is less effective than bipolar electrocoagulation. The addition of fibrin glue to epinephrine injection does not confer an additional benefit over epinephrine alone. Argon plasma coagulation can be used to treat a range of lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. It is also effective for treatment of bleeding ulcer, but is no better than established methods. Haemoclips may be useful in bleeding Mallory-Weiss tears, but their use is difficult in patients bleeding from peptic ulcer. The presence of a large ulcer and active bleeding at the time of endoscopy are independent predictors of failure of endoscopic therapy. PMID:12510222
Church, N I; Palmer, K R
A 41-year-old man underwent total arch replacement and aorto-bifemoral bypass owing to type A acute aortic dissection complicated by ischemia of both lower extremities. Just after the operation, he developed myonephropathic metabolic syndrome due to severe ischemia of the right leg, and hemodiafiltration was performed. However, the serum potassium was elevated to an uncontrollable level. Ligation of the right femoral artery and the right branch of the bypass graft was performed one hour after the transfer to intensive care unit (ICU), and the serum potassium dropped to a normal level. He underwent amputation of the right lower limb above the knee on the 13th postoperative day, and was discharged after long-term rehabilitation. PMID:24917407
Watanabe, Suguru; Minagawa, Tadanori; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Kanda, Keisuke; Miura, Makoto; Tabayashi, Koichi
Isolated ulcers of the large intestine are not associated with an underlying colitis and may be an incidental finding on screening colonoscopy or present with abdominal pain, hematochezia, chronic gastrointestinal bleeding, and rarely, perforation. A common cause of isolated colonic ulcers is the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with ulcers in the cecum and right colon. Isolated rectal ulcers are caused by ischemia, solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS), radiation, or fecal impaction. Stercoral ulceration and nonspecific ulcers of the colon are rare but can cause colonic perforation. Infectious causes include tuberculosis and amebiasis. Histology is important to rule out malignancy but is not helpful for diagnosis except in SRUS and certain infections. The approach to isolated colonic ulceration includes biopsy of the ulcer and surrounding tissue, cessation of any NSAIDs, management of constipation, and recognition of the patient with SRUS. Inflammatory bowel disease should be ruled out in appropriate patients. PMID:17991345
Nagar, Anil B
In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation. The prevalent notion among sections of population in this country and perhaps in others is that "red pepper" popularly known as "Chilli," a common spice consumed in excessive amounts leads to "gastric ulcers" in view of its irritant and likely acid secreting nature. Persons with ulcers are advised either to limit or avoid its use. However, investigations carried out in recent years have revealed that chilli or its active principle "capsaicin" is not the cause for ulcer formation but a "benefactor." Capsaicin does not stimulate but inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali, mucus secretions and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which help in prevention and healing of ulcers. Capsaicin acts by stimulating afferent neurons in the stomach and signals for protection against injury causing agents. Epidemiologic surveys in Singapore have shown that gastric ulcers are three times more common in the "Chinese" than among Malaysians and Indians who are in the habit of consuming more chillis. Ulcers are common among people who are in the habit of taking NSAIDS and are infected with the organism "Helicobacter Pylori," responsible for excessive acid secretion and erosion of the mucosal layer. Eradication of the bacteria by antibiotic treatment and avoiding the NSAIDS eliminates ulcers and restores normal acid secretion. PMID:16621751
Satyanarayana, M N
A 74 year-old female developed a trigeminal neurotrophic ulcer (TNU) 20 years following surgical ablation of the trigeminal nerve. The diagnosis of this unusual disorder is suggested when an ulcerative lesion develops. In the ala nasi in a patient with trigeminal sensory loss. A history of self-induced trauma to that area and some form of mental impairment further support the diagnosis. Exclusion of basal cell carcinoma and other causes of facial ulceration is mandatory before the diagnosis of TNU is established. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5
El-Daly, Ahmed; Snyderman, Carl H.
Release of corticosterone in hungry kittiwake chicks facilitates begging and allows them to restore depleted energy reserves by increasing parental food provisioning. However, in order to avoid detrimental effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone, chicks might suppress adrenocortical activity in response to prolonged food shortages. In this study we examined temporal dynamics of corticosterone release in red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) chicks exposed to prolonged restrictions in energy content and/or nutritional quality (low versus high lipid content) of their food. Starting at the age of 15 days, chicks were fed either high- or low-lipid fish at 40%, 65%, and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. Body mass measurements and baseline plasma samples were taken on a weekly basis after beginning of the treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where in addition to a baseline sample, three plasma samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. We found that food-restricted chicks had lower body mass, chronically (during 2-3 weeks) elevated baseline and higher acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. Low lipid content of food further exacerbated these effects. An increase in baseline levels of corticosterone was observed within a week after energy requirements of food-restricted chicks exceeded their daily energy intake. A tendency for suppression of adrenocortical activity was observed in treatments fed low-lipid diets only at the end of the experiment. We suggest that nest-bound chicks, if food-stressed, might suffer deleterious effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone.
Kitaysky, A. S.; Kitaiskaia, E. V.; Wingfield, J. C.; Piatt, J. F.
Riboflavin/UV cross-linking is a surgical method for stabilizing a progressive form of keratoconus which was developed in Germany and is now used worldwide. The procedure is considered to be safe and rarely results in complications. In this article we report the case of a 40-year-old male patient with a severe infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) after uneventful cross-linking in the better eye. Despite intensive local and oral therapy the ulcer did not heal completely and penetrating keratoplasty had to be performed. PMID:23053334
Bödemann, M; Kohnen, T
We report a case of triple acid-base disorder with metabolic alkalosis as the primary disorder in a 65-year-old man due to ingestion and application to leg ulcers of baking soda (calcium bicarbonate). The blood pH was 7.65 with hypochloremia, hypokalemia, and prerenal azotemia. He was treated with isotonic saline with K replacement, and the patient improved without any adverse clinical consequences. We discuss the causes, mechanisms, and management of Cl-responsive (depletion) metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21185672
John, Ruby Samuel; Simoes, Sonia; Reddi, Alluru S
Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus farmed in different places in Austria and free of the viral diseases viral haemorrhagic septcaemia (VHS), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) experienced disease and mortality. Diseased fish showed skin ulceration and pathological signs of sepsis. Aeromonas sp. was isolated as pure culture from the kidney of freshly euthanized diseased fish. Three independent isolates from outbreaks that occurred on 2 of the affected farms were analyzed phylogenetically by DNA sequence analysis of the rrs and gyrB genes and phenotypically with biochemical reactions. All 3 isolates were identified as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia. Analysis of virulence genes in these isolates revealed the presence of a Type III secretion system as well as several related virulence effector genes including aexT, encoding the Aeromonas exotoxin AexT, aopP and aopH. These genes are characteristic for virulent strains of typical and atypical subspecies of A. salmonicida. PMID:19899353
Goldschmidt-Clermont, E; Hochwartner, O; Demarta, A; Caminada, A-P; Frey, J
The case of a 73-year-old female patient is reported with a 25-year-long history of widespread cutaneous sarcoidosis without any known extracutaneous manifestations. The skin manifestations started with erythematous and plaque-like lesions that had ulcerated on the legs for the last half-year. A relevant venous insufficiency or other etiology of the ulcers could not be found. Histology from lesions of the
M. Streit; L. M. Böhlen; L. R. Braathen
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) results from venous hypertension secondary to superficial or deep venous valvular reflux, as well as venous obstruction. The most severe clinical manifestation of CVI is venous leg ulceration that can result in significant morbidity, including venous gangrene and amputation, albeit rare. Treatment modalities are aimed at reducing venous hypertension. Diuretic therapy, although widely used, only provides short-term improvement of the edema but provides no long-term benefit. Compression therapy is the cornerstone in the management of CVI. Compression can be achieved using compression bandaging, compression pumps, or graduated compression stockings. Topical steroid creams may reduce inflammation, venous eczema, and pain in the short term, but they can be detrimental in the long run. Apligraf (a living, bilayered, cell-based product) in conjunction with compression therapy was noted to be more effective in healing venous leg ulcerations, when compared with treatment with compression therapy and zinc paste. Endovascular and surgical techniques that minimize valvular reflux and relieve venous obstruction improve venous hemodynamics, promoting wound healing. PMID:24840970
Leg pain and discomfort are common complaints in any primary physician's clinic. Two common causes of pain or discomfort in legs are nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) and restless leg syndrome (RLS). NLC present as painful and sudden contractions mostly in part of the calf. Diagnosis of NLC is mainly clinical and sometimes involves investigations to rule out other mimics. RLS is a condition characterized by the discomfort or urge to move the lower limbs, which occurs at rest or in the evening/night. The similarity of RLS and leg cramps poses the issue of errors in diagnosing and differentiating the two. In this paper we review the pathopysiology of each entity and their diagnosis as well as treatment. The two conditions are then compared to appreciate the differences and similarities. Finally, suggestions are recommended for complete assessment. PMID:24931546
Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Fatima; Mosabbir, Abdullah; Ondo, William
Heels are the second most common anatomical location for pressure ulcers. A combination of risk factors, including pressure, may cause ulceration. Heel pressure ulcers are a particular concern for surgical patients. A review of the literature, including poster presentations, shows that controlled clinical studies to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of available interventions are not available. Case series (with or
Evonne Fowler; Suzy Scott-Williams; James B. McGuire
Explains that the ulcer is a disease of modern man. Dr. Dennis McCarthy, Specialist with the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases, discusses the reasons for its prevalence. He analyzes the differences between gastric and duo...
Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions? Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? Background A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by as much as 400%, to increase the frequency and duration of hospitalization, and to decrease the quality of life of affected patients. The cost of treating pressure ulcers has been estimated at approximately $9,000 (Cdn) per patient per month in the community setting. Considering the high prevalence of pressure ulcers in the Ontario health care system, the total cost of treating pressure ulcers is substantial. Technology Wounds normally heal in 3 phases (inflammatory phase, a proliferative phase of new tissue and matrix formation, and a remodelling phase). However, pressure ulcers often fail to progress past the inflammatory stage. Current practice for treating pressure ulcers includes treating the underlying causes, debridement to remove necrotic tissues and contaminated tissues, dressings to provide a moist wound environment and to manage exudates, devices and frequent turning of patients to provide pressure relief, topical applications of biologic agents, and nutritional support to correct nutritional deficiencies. A variety of adjunctive physical therapies are also in use. Method Health technology assessment databases and medical databases were searched from 1996 (Medline), 1980 (EMBASE), and 1982 (CINAHL) systematically up to March 2008 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the following treatments of pressure ulcers: cleansing, debridement, dressings, biological therapies, pressure-relieving devices, physical therapies, nutritional therapies, and multidisciplinary wound care teams. Full literature search strategies are reported in appendix 1. English-language studies in previous systematic reviews and studies published since the last systematic review were included if they had more than 10 subjects, were randomized, and provided objective outcome measures on the healing of pressure ulcers. In the absence of RCTs, studies of the highest level of evidence available were included. Studies on wounds other than pressure ulcers and on surgical treatment of pressure ulcers were excluded. A total of 18 systematic reviews, 104 RCTs, and 4 observational
'What ever I do it's a lost cause.' The emotional and behavioural experiences of individuals who are ulcer free living with the threat of developing further diabetic foot ulcers: a qualitative interview study.
Objective? Individuals who have had one diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) are at high risk for developing further DFUs. This study was designed to examine the emotional and behavioural consequences of living with this heightened risk of re-ulceration. Participants and setting? Fifteen women and men living in south-west England were interviewed at home or at the university by an academic psychologist. Design? Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis using the constant comparative method was employed for data analysis. Results? Participants reported having little perceived control in preventing further DFUs. This lack of control was associated with a range of negative emotions including fears and worries about developing further foot ulcers, amputation and guilt for the past neglect. Tensions were present between participants' beliefs and reported behaviours, that is, what they felt they ought to be doing and what they were actually doing to care for their feet; most engaged in 'strategic adherence', that is, conducting a trade-off between living a normal life and following foot-care advice. Conclusion? A lack of perceived control appears central to the emotional and behavioural responses of individuals living with the threat of re-ulceration. We propose that these responses may serve to increase individuals' risk of re-ulceration and that these 'risk factors' should be considered part of the management of this patient group. PMID:22429399
Beattie, Angela M; Campbell, Rona; Vedhara, Kavita
The prevalence and significance of restless legs syndrome was assessed in 307 patients presenting to an acute-care geriatric medical service. Fifteen patients (5%) had restless legs syndrome; 13 (87%) of these patients had insomnia and 10 (67%) reported troublesome or frequent leg symptoms. Of 147 patients with current insomnia, iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 18 ng/ml) was present in 4/13 (31%) patients with restless legs and 8/134 (6%) patients without restless legs (P < 0.025). Improvement in symptoms of restless legs was noted with iron repletion. These findings suggest that restless legs syndrome is relatively common in the elderly and causes significant discomfort and sleep disturbance. Iron deficiency is a common and treatable cause.
O'Keeffe, S. T.; Noel, J.; Lavan, J. N.
\\u000a Lower leg pain rarely occurs from the usual activities of daily living of children and adolescents. Nonacute, repetitive microtraumatic\\u000a injuries are typically related to running and jumping associated with sports. Pain in the tibia or fibula not caused by acute\\u000a trauma is most often associated with recurrent impact loading. Training errors and inappropriate equipment are often causative\\u000a factors. In addition,
Angela D. Smith
In an endoscopic study of 90 consecutive patients with more than one peptic ulcer, the ulcers in an individual were profoundly spatially clustered. Clustering of ulcer locations was shown using a non-parametric test of clustering (Kruskal-Wallis statistic with 89 degrees of freedom = 151.31, probability of observing this extreme statistic with no clustering less than 0.0005) and a parametric test of clustering (F test statistic with 89 and 124 degrees of freedom = 5.41, probability of observing this extreme statistic with no clustering less than 0.0005). Patients having their largest ulcer in any given region had a much greater likelihood than other patients of having other ulcers in that same site. For example, the 26 patients with their largest ulcer in the proximal duodenal bulb had 20 of 33, or 61% (9) (standard error), of their other ulcers in the proximal duodenal bulb. In contrast, the 18 patients with their largest ulcer in the proximal stomach had four of 23, or 17% (8), of their other ulcers in the proximal duodenal bulb. Of the 59 patients who had two simultaneous ulcers, 28 patients had adjacent ulcers (distance between ulcers less than 4% of the distance from the gastric cardia to the apex of the duodenal bulb). These findings suggest that local factors may be important in the pathogenesis of simultaneous peptic ulcers, including infection caused by Campylobacter pylori or other microorganisms, ischaemia and mucosal barrier disruption.
Cappell, M S
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. The etiology is unknown. Risk factors include a history of recent infection with Salmonella or Campylobacter, living in Western industrialized nations and at higher latitudes, and a family history of the disease. The incidence peaks in early adulthood, but patients can develop the disorder from early childhood through adulthood. Ulcerative colitis often presents with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hematochezia. It is important to exclude infectious etiologies. Anemia and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein level may suggest inflammatory bowel disease, but the absence of laboratory abnormalities does not rule out ulcerative colitis. The diagnosis is suspected clinically and confirmed through endoscopic biopsy. First-line treatment is therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid. Corticosteroids may be added if 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy is ineffective. Infliximab can be added to induce and sustain remission. Patients with severe or nonresponsive ulcerative colitis should be hospitalized, and intravenous corticosteroids should be given. If medical management has been ineffective, surgical intervention is indicated for severe disease. Patients with ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of colon cancer and should have periodic colonoscopy beginning eight to 10 years after diagnosis. PMID:23939448
Adams, Stephen M; Bornemann, Paul H
A noninvasive method allowing measurements of the propeptides of collagen type III (PIIINP) and type I (PICP) in ulcer washings was developed. The response to topical human growth hormone was examined. Fourteen patients with venous ulcers were treated sequentially with human growth hormone (0.1, 0.25, and 1 IU/cm2/day), each dose for 1 week, followed by 1 week washout. On alternate days, three and two times during treatment and washout periods, respectively, the ulcers were washed and incubated for 30 minutes with sterile water. No changes in healing rates in relation to growth hormone application were observed. In contrast, PIIINP increased significantly to 168% (154% to 184%) (mean, 95% confidence interval) and 195% (179% to 218%) 5 and 9 days, respectively, after start of treatment, (p < 0.01). Propeptides of collagen type I reached a significant increase, to 196% (172% to 232%), in the fourth week, (p < 0.01). The areas under the curves of PICP and PIIINP correlated significantly with the healing rates (r = 0.57, p = 0.04; and r = 0.64, p = 0.01, respectively). The authors conclude that propeptide measurements may be useful markers of healing in clinical studies. Images FIG. 1.
Rasmussen, L H; Jensen, L T; Avnstorp, C; Karlsmark, T; Peters, K; H?rslev-Petersen, K
We have fabricated several kinds of uni-leg thermoelectric (TE) modules using Sb-doped n-type Mg2Si. In order to evaluate the influence of the structure of the modules on their durability with respect to heat-cycling, modules of two different types were evaluated. One was a conventional-structured module, in which the upper and lower surfaces of the legs were each fixed to a ceramic substrate. The other was a `half skeleton' module, in which the `cold-side' substrate was removed and a thermal-conductive sheet was used instead of a ceramic plate for the cold-side insulator. From the result of this evaluation, it was confirmed that, although some variation in the output power was observed for the `half-skeleton' module, the power variation was markedly less than for the conventional-structured module. Additionally, to improve the output power of the module, we replaced the Al2O3 substrate with Si3N4, which has a higher thermal conductivity than the Al2O3 substrate. The observed output power of a module (25 mm × 24 mm × 8.3 mm) fabricated using the Si3N4 substrate was 1,293 mW at ?T = 500 K. The output value of the module using the Si3N4 plate was improved by 29 % compared with the output value of the module using the Al2O3 substrate. Moreover, based on the structures of these modules, a 36 mm × 41 mm × 8.3 mm module was fabricated. The expected value of the output power of the module was 1.9 W at ?T = 500 K.
Nemoto, Takashi; Iida, Tsutomu; Sato, Junichi; Suda, Hiroshi; Takanashi, Yoshifumi
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the rectum and colon. Results from many studies in people and animals of intestinal inflammation suggest that ulcerative colitis results from environmental factors triggering a loss of tolerance for normal intestinal flora in genetically susceptible individuals. Although progress has been made in the overall management of the disease, no innovative treatment has been developed. By contrast with Crohn's disease, there are few clinical data on biological agents. Probiotics seem the most promising of several experimental and traditional agents that have been investigated in controlled clinical trials. PMID:11830216
Farrell, Richard J; Peppercorn, Mark A
NINDS Restless Legs Syndrome Information Page Condensed from Restless Legs Syndrome Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Restless Legs Syndrome? Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder ...
OBJECTIVE--To determine which social and clinical factors are associated with healing in patients with venous ulceration. DESIGN--Patients were questioned about social factors at their first visit to a community ulcer clinic. They were treated by high compression bandage system and were interviewed again after 12 weeks. SETTING--Community leg ulcer clinics held in health centres throughout Riverside Health Authority in London. PATIENTS--All patients referred to five community leg ulcer clinics with venous ulceration over a six month period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--These were factors significantly associated with healing within 12 weeks of beginning treatment, measured by odds ratio (OR) given by logistic regression analysis. MAIN RESULTS--Of 168 patients with venous ulceration, 87 (52%) healed after 12 weeks of treatment. Univariate analysis showed that low social class (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.17, 10.14), lack of central heating (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.18, 4.18), and being single (OR = 2.77, 95% CI 1.15, 6.69) were all significantly associated with delayed healing. After adjustment for the known risk factors of ulcer size, ulcer duration, and general mobility only lack of central heating was still significant (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.11, 4.55). The remaining factors failing to achieve statistical significance because of their inter-relationship with the known risk factors. CONCLUSIONS--Clinical features of the ulcer seem to determine the progress of healing in patients with leg ulceration. Although there were associations between socio-economic factors and poor healing, adjustment for clinical risk factors generally led to lower non-significant associations. Only lack of central heating retained its association and may play a part in prolonging healing of venous ulceration.
Franks, P J; Bosanquet, N; Connolly, M; Oldroyd, M I; Moffatt, C J; Greenhalgh, R M; McCollum, C N
As leg ulcer research has generally focused on aspects of treatment, the psychosocial impact of leg ulceration remains understudied. This article reports the findings of a study exploring the prevalence of anxiety and depression in 190 patients with chronic venous ulceration across 9 Trusts in the northwest of England. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was used to screen patients for the presence of anxiety and depression using a cut-off point of 9 for level of "caseness". A total of 52 (27%) people scored as depressed while 50 (26%) scored as anxious. The two symptoms which appeared to be associated with anxiety and depression were pain and odour, while there was no association found between living alone, mobility and exudate. These findings suggest that the focus of care needs to be redirected for many patients for whom cure is not an option, but who are left to live with a chronic wound. Furthermore, psychological factors, including depression, should be a focus in assessment and ongoing review of patients with leg ulceration. PMID:16835511
Jones, June; Barr, Wally; Robinson, Jude; Carlisle, Caroline
This study aims to determine whether the features of dyspepsia can discriminate a subgroup of patients who present with non-ulcer dyspepsia from other diagnostic categories. The following groups were studied: One hundred and thirteen patients with endoscopically confirmed non-ulcer dyspepsia in the absence of clinical, biochemical or radiological evidence of other gastrointestinal diseases or disorders, termed essential dyspepsia; Fifty five patients with symptomatic and endoscopically proven peptic ulceration (32 duodenal ulcers, 23 gastric ulcers); Fifty three patients admitted to hospital with biliary pain and cholelithiasis without other lesion at laparotomy. All patients completed a structured history questionnaire at personal interview. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was done on 19 predefined variables to determine if one or more of these could discriminate between the diagnostic categories. The results suggest that certain groups of symptoms may be of diagnostic value, but many are not. Upper abdominal pain aggravated by food or milk, pain severity, night pain, vomiting, weight loss, and age significantly discriminated essential dyspepsia from the other diagnostic categories. A scoring system was established based on these discriminating symptoms. Using the weighted score, at a sensitivity of 57%, the specificity for a diagnosis of essential dyspepsia was 94%, but only prospective studies will determine if this scoring system is of actual clinical value.
Talley, N J; McNeil, D; Piper, D W
Nocturnal eating/drinking syndrome is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably. We report a middle-aged male patient with schizophrenia who had nocturnal eating/drinking syndrome with restless legs syndrome whose condition improved with the administration of the herbal medicine Yi-Gan San (Yokukan-San in Japanese). PMID:23151467
Kawabe, Kentaro; Ueno, Shu-ichi; Hosoda, Yoshiki; Horiguchi, Jun
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the rectum which progressively extents. Its etiology remains unknown and the number of treatments available is limited. Studies of UC patients have identified an unbalanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the non-inflamed colonic mucosa. Animal models with impaired ER stress are sensitive to intestinal inflammation, suggesting that an unbalanced ER stress could cause inflammation. However, there are no ER stress-regulating strategies proposed in the management of UC partly because of the lack of relevant preclinical model mimicking the disease. Here we generated the IL10/Nox1dKO mouse model which combines immune dysfunction (IL-10 deficiency) and abnormal epithelium (NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) deficiency) and spontaneously develops a UC-like phenotype with similar complications (colorectal cancer) than UC. Our data identified an unanticipated combined role of IL10 and Nox1 in the fine-tuning of ER stress responses in goblet cells. As in humans, the ER stress was unbalanced in mice with decreased eIF2? phosphorylation preceding inflammation. In IL10/Nox1dKO mice, salubrinal preserved eIF2? phosphorylation through inhibition of the regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 PP1R15A/GADD34 and prevented colitis. Thus, this new experimental model highlighted the central role of epithelial ER stress abnormalities in the development of colitis and defined the defective eIF2? pathway as a key pathophysiological target for UC. Therefore, specific regulators able to restore the defective eIF2? pathway could lead to the molecular remission needed to treat UC.
Treton, Xavier; Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cecile; Ladeiro, Yannick; Sedghi, Shirin; Vallee, Melissa; Fernandez, Neike; Bruyere, Emilie; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Ducroc, Robert; Montcuquet, Nicolas; Freund, Jean-Noel; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Barreau, Frederick; Marah, Assiya; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric
Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers? Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recurrence. Implementation: Potential pitfalls to avoid are: Failure to exclude underlying arterial disease before application of compression.Unusual-looking ulcers or those slow to heal should be biopsied to exclude malignant transformation.
Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan
Pressure ulcers represent a major health problem causing both considerable morbidity and a high financial burden for the healthcare system. The geriatric segment of the population at risk of pressure ulcer is progressively increasing. This condition occurs at home, in old people's homes and in hospitals as well. The severity, duration and orientation of forces applied to the skin represent the most important factors responsible for pressure ulcers. Prevention measures are essential to reduce the prevalence of the disease. PMID:19911669
Devillers, C; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Giet-Lesuisse, M; Piérard, G E
Background Pressure ulcers are considered an important issue, mainly affecting immobilized older patients. These pressure ulcers increase the care burden for the professional health service staff as well as pharmaceutical expenditure. There are a number of studies on the effectiveness of different products used for the prevention of pressure ulcers; however, most of these studies were carried out at a hospital level, basically using hyperoxygenated fatty acids (HOFA). There are no studies focused specifically on the use of olive-oil-based products and therefore this research is intended to find the most cost-effective treatment and achieve an alternative treatment. Methods/design The main objective is to assess the effectiveness of olive oil, comparing it with HOFA, to treat immobilized patients at home who are at risk of pressure ulcers. As a secondary objective, the cost-effectiveness balance of this new application with regard to the HOFA will be assessed. The study is designed as a noninferiority, triple-blinded, parallel, multi-center, randomized clinical trial. The scope of the study is the population attending primary health centers in Andalucía (Spain) in the regional areas of Malaga, Granada, Seville, and Cadiz. Immobilized patients at risk of pressure ulcers will be targeted. The target group will be treated by application of an olive-oil-based formula whereas the control group will be treated by application of HOFA to the control group. The follow-up period will be 16 weeks. The main variable will be the presence of pressure ulcers in the patient. Secondary variables include sociodemographic and clinical information, caregiver information, and whether technical support exists. Statistical analysis will include the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, symmetry and kurtosis analysis, bivariate analysis using the Student’s t and chi-squared tests as well as the Wilcoxon and the Man-Whitney U tests, ANOVA and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Discussion The regular use of olive-oil-based formulas should be effective in preventing pressure ulcers in immobilized patients, thus leading to a more cost-effective product and an alternative treatment. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01595347.
Acute corneal ulceration in malnourished children is the commonest cause of childhood blindness in Northern Nigeria and usually develops after measles. Other severe diseases in malnourished children rarely precipitate corneal ulceration. A survey in a school for blind children showed that 69% of the children were blind from corneal disease, and a survey of children with corneal scars showed that
J H Sandford-Smith; H C Whittle
Despite more efficient and safer technics of radiation therapy, the problem of radiation-induced injury to the skin and soft tissue persists. The problem of adequate coverage of these painful, ischemic, and fibrotic ulcers remains challenging. Split-thickness skin grafts are seldom sufficient coverage, as the graft almost always has areas that do not take. Although these areas may eventually heal by epithelialization, the result is never ideal. Most often flap coverage is required, but elevation of local flaps is jeopardized because the tissue surrounding the ulcer crater frequently has been sufficiently compromised to cause loss of at least part of the flap. In the past, this necessitated use of pedicled flaps, tubed and transposed from a distance. With the development of axial-pattern musculocutaneous and muscle flaps, as well as microvascular free flaps, the difficulty in dealing with these ulcers has been decreased. Surgeons can now recommend earlier use of adequate debridement, many times of the entire irradiated area, and immediate coverage with a well vascularized axial-pattern musculocutaneous flap or revascularized free flap.
About 7% of the population are affected by the restless legs syndrome (RLS). The most invalidating subjective complaints are dysesthesia / pain / an urge to move the legs (46%), an alteration of sleep (38%), and difficulties in performing activities of daily life (7%). The onset of the disease is variable, ranging from childhood (often unrecognised) to old age. The clinical course is generally chronic with phases of spontaneous remission. The cause of RLS is probably mainly genetic with a dysfunction of iron and dopamine metabolism accentuated by peripheral factors (neuropathy, radiculopathy, and temperature). There are secondary forms of RLS, such as iron deficiency (under debate), side effects of drugs (that can be stopped), renal insufficiency, radiculopathy, and neuropathy. RLS can come up during pregnancy, in particular in the last trimenon. Treatment of aggravating factors and sleep hygiene are general measures. Drug treatment of the RLS comprises levodopa, dopaminergic drugs, opioids, and antiepileptic drugs; however, drug treatment is only necessary in about a third of the affected. PMID:17953080
Droste, Dirk W; Diederich, Nico
Medical and surgical disorders in pregnancy can be can be quite challenging for the obstetrician gynaecologist even in resource rich countries. Reaching an accurate diagnosis and admininstering appropriate management can be difficult in the presence of an on-going pregnancy. The importance of involving specialist from other disciplines (multidisciplinary care) cannot be overemphasized. We present an interesting case of perforated duodenal ulcer in a pregnant patient, review the literature ,discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluate the management principles for this rare condition.
Essilfie, Papa; Hussain, M.; Bolaji, I.
Restless-legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movements and is exacerbated or occurs at night and in the evening. RLS sufferers represent 2 to 3% of the general population in Western countries. Supportive criteria include a family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. The RLS phenotypes include an early onset form, usually idiopathic with a familial history and a late onset form, usually secondary to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, an atypical RLS phenotype without PLM and l-DOPA resistant has been characterized. RLS can occur in childhood and should be distinguished from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, growing pains and sleep complaints in childhood. RLS should be included in the diagnosis of all patients consulting for sleep complaints or discomfort in the lower limbs. It should be differentiated from akathisia, that is, an urge to move the whole body without uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test can detect PLM. Furthermore, an l-DOPA challenge has recently been validated to support the diagnosis of RLS. RLS may cause severe-sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In most cases, RLS is idiopathic. It may also be secondary to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drugs, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. The small-fiber neuropathy can mimic RLS or even trigger it. RLS is associated with many neurological and sleep disorders including Parkinson's disease, but does not predispose to these diseases. The pathophysiology of RLS includes an altered brain-iron metabolism, a dopaminergic dysfunction, a probable role of pain control systems and a genetic susceptibility with nine loci and three polymorphisms in genes serving developmental functions. RLS treatment begins with the elimination of triggering factors and iron supplementation when deficient. Mild or intermittent RLS is usually treated with low doses of l-DOPA or codeine; the first-line treatment for moderate to severe RLS is dopaminergic agonists (pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine). In severe, refractory or neuropathy-associated RLS, antiepileptic (gabapentin, pregabalin) or opioid (oxycodone, tramadol) drugs can be used. PMID:18656214
Karroum, E; Konofal, E; Arnulf, I
A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.
Medical and surgical disorders in pregnancy can be can be quite challenging for the obstetrician gynaecologist even in resource rich countries. Reaching an accurate diagnosis and admininstering appropriate management can be difficult in the presence of an on-going pregnancy. The importance of involving specialist from other disciplines (multidisciplinary care) cannot be overemphasized. We present an interesting case of perforated duodenal ulcer in a pregnant patient, review the literature ,discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluate the management principles for this rare condition. PMID:22567500
Essilfie, Papa; Hussain, M; Bolaji, I
Standard of care for venous leg ulcers (VLUs) consists of the application of compression bandages or stockings and of local moist wound care. While the majority of patients heal with the above mentioned treatments some ulcers become refractory to treatment causing significant disability and costs. The authors present the observation made on two patients with VLUs who had failed to respond to a comprehensive state of the art wound care approach for 11 and 3 years respectively. Both patients were treated with a poly-N-acetyl glucosamine-derived membrane (pGlcNAc) (Talymed, Marine Polymer Technologies, Danvers, Massachusetts, USA) in addition to compression bandaging. Both patients healed within 6 weeks of the first application of pG1cNAc. The authors present two cases of VLUs that had been considered non-healable that were successfully treated in a very short period of time with the application of a novel technology.
Maus, Erik Alberto
The concentration of zinc in the skin has been determined noninvasively in patients with varicose vein ulcers. The examinations were performed with the use of diagnostic x-ray spectrometry, a method based on x-ray fluorescence for in vivo noninvasive evaluation of trace elements. Four skin foci were examined: at the periphery of the ulcer and control areas in a nonulcerated area in the diseased leg, in the noninvolved leg, and in the proximal inner surface of the arm. Zinc levels around the ulcer (mean +/- SD, 9.8 +/- 4.0 micrograms of zinc in 1 g of wet tissue) were higher than those in the nonulcerated skin in the diseased leg (6.9 +/- 3.0 micrograms/g, p greater than 0.05) and those in the noninvolved leg (5.4 +/- 2.0 micrograms/g, p less than 0.01). The concentration of zinc in the inner proximal surface of the arm (9.8 +/- 2.8 micrograms/g) was significantly higher than those of a control group (5.3 +/- 1.9 micrograms/g, p less than 0.01). These results suggest a defect of zinc distribution in patients with varicose vein ulcers.
Ackerman, Z.; Loewenthal, E.; Seidenbaum, M.; Rubinow, A.; Gorodetsky, R. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel))
The purpose of this project was to compare the effectiveness of hot particles with different energy betas in producing ulcers on skin. The sources were man-made hot particles similar in size and activity to those found in the commercial nuclear power industry. Four different particle types were used. These were thulium (Tm-170) with a 0.97 MeV maximum energy beta, ytterbium (Yb-175) with a maximum beta energy of 0.47 MeV, scandium (Sc-46) with a 0.36 MeV beta, which was used as a surrogate for cobalt-60 (0.31 MeV beta) and uranium (in the carbide form) with an average maximum beta energy of about 2.5 MeV. Since higher energy beta particles penetrate further in skin, they will affect a higher number and different populations of target cells. The experiments were designed as threshold studies such that the dose needed to produce ulcers ten percent of the time (ED 10%) for each particle type could be compared against each other.
Pressure ulcer is a severe threat for immobilized and peripheral neuropathic patients such as bed-ridden, elderly, and diabetics. Once developed, the complication of pressure ulcer causes pain, suffering, and longer hospitalization for the patients. Additionally, pressure ulcer management imposes a serious burden on the health care providers. The optimal strategy to deal with pressure ulcers is prevention. The current standard
S. Ostadabbas; R. Yousefi; M. Nourani; M. Faezipour; L. Tamil; M. Pompeo
Significant among the medical findings following prolonged space flight are reduced orthostatic tolerance and ergometric work capacity. Changes in hemodynamics of the legs with increased blood pooling and reduction in cardiac output must be considered one of the most probable causes of these effects. Concern for the above plus the observed marked tissue changes occurring in the legs during flight prompted the addition of several procedures to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the leg; resting arterial blood flow, venous compliance and muscle pumping were investigated. In so far as possible, the initial reaction to pressure in the smallest possible vein segment was examined.
Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.
Problems may confront the practitioner in the diagnosis of leg pain related to exercise. The diagnostic features of the history and the physical examination that will help to elucidate the various causes of leg pain are outlined in this article, and the necessity for re-examination of the patient after a period of exercise is stressed. In most patients the diagnosis can most easily be made by means of clinical methods, without recourse to special investigations.
Provan, J L; Moreau, P; MacNab, I
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a poorly understood sensory-motor neurological disorder whose prevalence in Caucasian populations ranges from 10% to 15%. The patient reports unpleasant sensations in the lower limbs with dysesthesia resulting in an urge to move the legs. The symptoms occur during periods of inactivity, increasing in the evening and at night. Moving the legs provides relief. In 80% of cases, polysomnography shows periodic leg movements during sleep. Patients with idiopathic RLS often report similar symptoms in family members. Secondary RLS may be due to medications, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, iron deficiency, neurological disorders, or rheumatoid arthritis. In secondary RLS, the management rests on treatment of the cause. Symptomatic treatment is warranted in patients with moderate-to-severe symptoms that adversely affect the quality of life. Dopaminergic agents are tried first. When they fail or induce adverse effects, weak opioids, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants or, if needed, strong opioids, may be used. PMID:16213771
Vergne-Salle, Pascale; Coyral, Damien; Dufauret, Karine; Bonnet, Christine; Bertin, Philippe; Trèves, Richard
This paper reviews the history of the transition from the belief that gastrointestinal ulcers are caused primarily by psychological factors to the current state of belief that they are caused primarily by infection and argues that neither is fully accurate. We argue that psychological factors play a significant role as predisposing to vulnerability, modulating of precipitation, and sustaining of gastric ulceration. We review data that challenge the assumption of a simple infectious disease model and adduce recent preclinical data that confirm the predisposing, modulatory, and sustaining roles for psychological factors. We note that others, too, are now challenging the adequacy of the contemporary simple bacterial infection model. We hope to replace the competition between psychology and medicine with cooperation in understanding and treating patients suffering gastric ulceration and ulcer.
Overmier, J Bruce; Murison, Robert
This paper reviews the history of the transition from the belief that gastrointestinal ulcers are caused primarily by psychological factors to the current state of belief that they are caused primarily by infection and argues that neither is fully accurate. We argue that psychological factors play a significant role as predisposing to vulnerability, modulating of precipitation, and sustaining of gastric ulceration. We review data that challenge the assumption of a simple infectious disease model and adduce recent preclinical data that confirm the predisposing, modulatory, and sustaining roles for psychological factors. We note that others, too, are now challenging the adequacy of the contemporary simple bacterial infection model. We hope to replace the competition between psychology and medicine with cooperation in understanding and treating patients suffering gastric ulceration and ulcer. PMID:23457084
Overmier, J Bruce; Murison, Robert
It has been proposed that excessive and uncontrolled proteolytic activity is an important pathogenetic factor for chronic wounds. Identification of molecules that either control or reflect proteolysis in wounds may prove to be useful in determining wound healing activity. In this study wound fluid was sampled under a polyurethane dressing or on hydrophilic glass filters. Multiple chronic wound fluid components were identified; viz. the previously described alpha2-macroglobulin, alpha1-antitrypsin and fibronectin, as well as "novel" wound fluid molecules such as complement factor C3, inter-alpha-inhibitor, kininogen, IgG, IgA, C-reactive protein, tetranectin, orosomucoid and ceruloplasmin. There appeared to be a highly variable degradation of alpha1-antitrypsin in the wounds; furthermore, the activation of C3 appeared to correlate with the appearance of fibronectin breakdown products. In wound fluid, inter-alpha-inhibitor was degraded. The influence of the sampling procedures was studied. It was shown that contact phase activation must be taken into account in the study of molecules (such as kininogens) activated by hydrophilic charged surfaces. PMID:10954207
Clinicians are expected to show improved healing rates, reduction in recurrence rates and to demonstrate greater patient satisfaction. All patients should rightly expect a high standard of holistic care that supports both their physical and emotional needs. Keeping the patient engaged in the "healing process" has many beneficial outcomes, not least to their emotional wellbeing. Managing to heal the wounds within a realistic timeframe is the required outcome for all parties. This article demonstrates how a new compression device, Juxta CURES, has a positive impact on patients' quality of life, also benefiting the clinician while maintaining cost-saving efficiencies. PMID:24575602
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungus. It involves several areas of the body, but the rhinocerebral form is most relevant to health care providers. Zygomycosis is associated with medically compromised patients. Our case reports an unhealed ulcer present over the palate of 15 days duration associated with swelling over the maxillary sinus region. This case is a blend of clinical, radiological, and histological manifestations of mucormycosis in a patient.
Garg, Ranjana; Gupta, Vivek Vijay; Ashok, L.
Every year, nearly four million people in the United States are afflicted with stomach ulcers. The explanation of how you contract an ulcer has evolved from what seemed like an educated guess 50 years ago to something based more in scientific fact today. In 1982, two Australian scientists were able to link a specific bacteria to most stomach ulcers. They eventually went on to win the 2005 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their work.
A 34-year-old man experienced extensive oral ulceration as a consequence of attempted ingestion of sulphuric acid as part of an act of deliberate self harm. All oral lesions healed within 28 days after local and systemic therapy. Oral ulceration has many potential causes ranging from physical trauma to malignancy. Chemicals are a less common cause of traumatic ulceration. Most chemical
S. R. Porter; S. Fedele; C. Gilvetti
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sleep-related disorder principally characterised by leg paresthesia associated with\\u000a an irresistible urge to move. A majority of RLS patients experience periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and wakefulness.\\u000a Pharmacological evidence suggests that RLS-PLMS may be caused by a central nervous system dopaminergic (DA) dysfunction. The\\u000a aim of the present study was to evaluate
Martin Michaud; Jean-Paul Soucy; Allal Chabli; Gilles Lavigne; Jacques Montplaisir
This paper reports the beneficial effects of ozone autohemotherapy (OHT) in 2 patients afflicted with painful, intractable leg ulcers. One patient had diabetes mellitus type II (DM), the other had vasculitis. Both patients had seen multiple specialists, including a dermatologist, an internist, and a vascular surgeon, but their clinical course continued to worsen. When the pain became intolerable, the patients came to our pain clinic. Chemical lumbar sympathectomy as well as epidural blockade with bupivacaine and morphine were moderately effective in reducing their pain but had no effect on the ulcers. Only after OHT treatments were performed for several months was satisfactory healing observed. PMID:15865505
de Monte, Amato; van der Zee, Hoyte; Bocci, Velio
... t Curb the Urge to Move? Living With Restless Legs Syndrome Staying active is usually a good thing. But ... move goes to unwelcome extremes for people with restless legs syndrome. The condition can cause throbbing, pulling or creeping ...
This article describes how a collaborative project within an NHS hospital reduced the incidence of pressure ulcers in hip fracture patients by 79.8%, thus improving outcomes of care and patient experience. The impetus for the project came from the negative effects on functional recovery that pressure ulcers can cause, a prevalence of 9.3% in the existing patient group, and the trust's commitment to reduce pressure ulcers for all patients by 50%, as per local quality indicators. Using a multiprofessional collaborative team approach, issues with current practice and how improvements could be made were identified. Following this, a best practice guideline and educational session based on national guidelines, but tailored to the local and holistic needs of hip fracture patients, was developed. The author proposes that the tailoring of an intervention to the specific needs of high risk patient groups is transferable to any area of practice where pressure ulcers are prevalent. PMID:21841645
When British attention was drawn to the issue of leprosy in the Empire, humanitarian organisations rose to take on responsibility for the ‘fight against leprosy’. In an effort to fundraise for a distant cause at a time when hundreds of charities competed for the financial support of British citizens, fundraisers developed propaganda to set leprosy apart from all other humanitarian causes. They drew on leprosy’s relationship with Christianity, its debilitating symptoms, and the supposed vulnerability of leprosy sufferers in order to mobilise Britain’s sense of humanitarian, Christian, and patriotic duty. This article traces the emergence of leprosy as a popular imperial humanitarian cause in modern Britain and analyses the narratives of religion, suffering, and disease that they created and employed in order to fuel their growth and sell leprosy as a British humanitarian cause.
It is known that at least 90% of duodenal ulcers are caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Eradicating\\u000a this organism usually results in complete resolution of the disease (Rosengren, Br J Gen Pract 46(409):491–492, 1996). To study the different changes if any in stomach wall at sites other than the ulcer in chronic duodenal ulcer patients\\u000a by upper
Jagmohan Mishra; Souvagya Panigrahi
Immunosuppressive drugs are commonly used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Patients receiving immunosuppressants are susceptible to a variety of infections with opportunistic pathogens. We present a case of skin infection with Mycobacterium chelonae in a 60-year-old Caucasian woman with ulcerative colitis who had been treated with corticosteroids and azathioprine. The disease manifested with fever and rash involving the right leg. Infliximab was administered due to a presumptive diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum, leading to worsening of the clinical syndrome and admission to our hospital. Routine cultures from various sites were all negative. However, Ziehl-Neelsen staining of pus from the lesions revealed acid-fast bacilli, and culture yielded a rapidly growing mycobacterium further identified as M. chelonae. The patient responded to a clarithromycin-based regimen. Clinicians should be aware of skin lesions caused by atypical mycobacteria in immunocompromised patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Furthermore, they should be able to thoroughly investigate and promptly treat these conditions.
Bamias, Giorgos; Daikos, George L.; Siakavellas, Spyros I.; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Smilakou, Stavroula; Katsogridakis, Ioannis; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Ladas, Spiros D.
Water striders (Gerris remigis) have remarkable non-wetting legs that enable them to stand effortlessly and move quickly on water, a feature believed to be due to a surface-tension effect caused by secreted wax. We show here, however, that it is the special hierarchical structure of the legs, which are covered by large numbers of oriented tiny hairs (microsetae) with fine
Xuefeng Gao; Lei Jiang
The ''cold leg'' in a PWR is defined as that portion of the primary coolant loop that lays between the coolant pump and the reactor vessel. One of the conditions which may lead to failure in a cold leg consists of repeated cycles of stress. These repeated stress cycles may cause the growth of any small defect in the weld
M. E. Mayfield; E. C. Rodabaugh; R. J. Eiber
Background Ghana is a Buruli ulcer (BU) endemic country yet there is paucity of socio-cultural research on BU. Examining distinctive experiences and meanings for pre-ulcers and ulcers of BU may clarify the disease burden, illness experience and local perceptions of causes and spread, and environmental features of BU, which are useful to guide public health programmes and future research. This study aimed to explain local meanings and experiences of BU for persons with pre-ulcers and ulcers in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Accra. Methods Semi-structured interviews based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue framework were administered to 181 respondents comprising 15 respondents with pre-ulcers and 166 respondents with ulcers. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare categories of illness experiences (PD) and perceived causes (PC) among respondents with pre-ulcer and ulcer conditions. The Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the most troubling PD and the most important PC variables. Qualitative phenomenological analysis of respondents’ narratives clarified illness experiences and meanings with reference to PC and PD variables. Results Families of respondents with pre-ulcers and the respondents themselves were often anxious about disease progression, while families of respondents with ulcers, who had to give care, worried about income loss and disruption of school attendance. Respondents with pre-ulcers frequently reported swimming in ponds and rivers as a perceived cause and considered it as the most important PC (53.3%). Respondents with ulcers frequently attributed their BU illness to witchcraft (64.5%) and respondents who claimed they had no water contact, questioned the credibility of health messages Conclusions Affected persons with pre-ulcers are likely to delay treatment because of social and financial constraints and the absence of pain. Scepticism on the role of water in disease contagion and prolonged healing is perceived to make ideas of witchcraft as a PC more credible, among respondents with ulcers. Health messages should address issues of locally perceived risk and vulnerability. Guided by study findings, further research on the role of environmental, socio-cultural and genetic factors in BU contagion, is also needed to clarify and formulate health messages and strengthen public health initiatives.
This report documents recent progress in exploring active balance for dynamic legged systems. Balance in 3D can be achieved with a very simple control system. The control system has three separate parts, one that controls forward running velocity, one tha...
M. H. Raibert H. B. Brown M. Chepponis E. Hastings J. Koechling
A 19-year-old Iraqi girl had pseudofolliculitis of the legs. Plucking the hair was the initiating factor, and its discontinuation was followed by great improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this entity at this site. PMID:1267455
An ulcer by pressure is produced when a constant pressure is exerted over the skin. This generates the collapse of the blood vessels and, therefore, a lack in the contribution of the necessary nutrients for the affected zone. As a consequence, the skin deteriorates, eventually causing an ulcer. In order to prevent it, a protocol must be applied to the
Cristian F Pasluosta; Juan M Fontana; Diego A Beltramone; Ricardo A M Taborda
During August 2010–December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer.
Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S.; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M.; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc
During August 2010-December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346
Phillips, Richard O; Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc
Solitary ulcer of the rectum is usually a disease of young adults of either sex which has a characteristic appearance on sigmoidoscopy. Distinctive changes may also be seen in biopsies taken from mucosa adjacent to the ulcer.The name `solitary ulcer' is misleading because more than one ulcer may be present. Moreover, there is a preulcerative phase which is clinically and
M. R. Madigan; B. C. Morson
An actuator device is provided for moving an artificial leg of a person having a prosthesis replacing an entire leg and hip joint. The device includes an articulated hip joint assembly carried by the natural leg and a second articulated hip joint assembly...
J. L. Burch
Objectives To investigate changes in ulcer healing time and antibiotic treatment in Sweden following the introduction of the Registry of Ulcer Treatment (RUT), a national quality registry, in 2009. Design A statistical analysis of RUT data concerning the healing time and antibiotic treatment for patients with hard-to-heal ulcers in Sweden between 2009 and 2012. Setting RUT is a national web-based quality registry used to capture areas of improvement in ulcer care and to structure wound management by registering patients with hard-to-heal leg, foot and pressure ulcers. Registration includes variables such as gender, age, diagnosis, healing time, antibiotic treatment, and ulcer duration and size. Population Every patient with a hard-to-heal ulcer registered with RUT between 2009 and 2012 (n=1417) was included. Main outcome measures Statistical analyses were performed using Stata V.12.1. Healing time was assessed with the Kaplan-Meier analysis and adjustment was made for ulcer size. A log-rank test was used for equality of survivor functions. Results According to the adjusted registry in December 2012, patients’ median age was 80?years (mean 77.5?years, range 11–103?years). The median healing time for all ulcers, adjusted for ulcer size, was 146?days (21?weeks) in 2009 and 63?days (9?weeks) in 2012 (p=0.001). Considering all years between 2009 and 2012, antibiotic treatment for patients with hard-to-heal ulcers was reduced from 71% before registration to 29% after registration of ulcer healing (p=0.001). Conclusions Healing time and antibiotic treatment decreased significantly during 3?years after launch of RUT.
Oien, Rut F; Forssell, Henrik W
Lower leg amputation generally induces asymmetrical weight-bearing, even after rehabilitation treatment is completed. This is detrimental to the amputees’ long term quality of life. In particular, increasing strains on joint surfaces that receive additional weight load causes back and leg pain, premature wear and tear and arthritis. This pilot study was designed to determine whether subjects with lower leg amputation
Cyril Duclos; Régine Roll; Anne Kavounoudias; Jean-Philippe Mongeau; Jean-Pierre Roll; Robert Forget
Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the stomach, the bacteria infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use had been considered to be the 2 main causes of peptic ulcers. However, there have been recent reports of an increase in the proportion of peptic ulcers without these known risk factors; these are termed idiopathic peptic ulcers. Such trend was firstly indicated in 1990s from some reports in North America. In Asia, numerous studies reported that idiopathic ulcers accounted for a small percentage of all ulcers in the 1990s, but in the 2000s, multiple studies reported that the proportion of idiopathic ulcers had reached 10%-30%, indicating that the incidence of idiopathic ulcers in Asia has also been rising in recent years. While a decline in H. pylori infection rates of general population in Asia is seen as the main reason for the increased incidence of idiopathic ulcers, it is also possible that the absolute number of idiopathic ulcer cases has increased. Advanced age, serious systemic complication, and psychological stress are considered to be the potential risk factors for idiopathic ulcers. Management of idiopathic ulcers is challenging, at present, because there is no effective preventative measure against recurrence in contrast with cases of H. pylori-positive ulcers and NSAIDs-induced ulcers. As it is expected that H. pylori infection rates in Asia will decline further in the future, measures to treat idiopathic ulcers will also likely become more important.
Iijima, Katsunori; Kanno, Takeshi; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder diagnosed by the clinical characteristics of restlessness in the legs associated often with abnormal sensations that start at rest and are improved by activity, occurring with a diurnal pattern of worsened symptoms at night and improvement in the morning. RLS is the cause of impaired quality of life in those more severely afflicted. Treatment of RLS has undergone considerable change over the last few years. Several classes of medications have demonstrated efficacy, including the dopaminergic agents and the alpha-2-delta ligands. Levodopa was the first dopaminergic agent found to be successful. However, chronic use of levodopa is frequently associated with augmentation that is defined as an earlier occurrence of symptoms frequently associated with worsening severity and sometimes spread to other body areas. The direct dopamine agonists, including ropinirole, pramipexole, and rotigotine patch, are also effective, although side effects, including daytime sleepiness, impulse control disorders, and augmentation, may limit usefulness. The alpha-2-delta ligands, including gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, and pregabalin, are effective for RLS without known occurrence of augmentation or impulse control disorders, although sedation and dizziness can occur. Other agents, including the opioids and clonazepam do not have sufficient evidence to recommend them as treatment for RLS, although in an individual patient, they may provide benefit. PMID:24363103
Comella, Cynthia L
Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most\\u000a commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental\\u000a pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the\\u000a affected compartment at the same
Alicia K. Tucker
... drugs that suppress the immune system, such as cyclophosphamide Some Trade Names LYOPHILIZED CYTOXAN taken by mouth ... Book Mobile Versions VIEW STUDENT STORIES Pronunciations arthritis cyclophosphamide keratitis peripheral ulcerative keratitis Back to Top Previous: ...
Background. Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a commonly under diagnosed organic cause of insomnia. Prevalence ranges from 4% to 16%. Thirty- five percent of US adults report insomnia annually. There is evidence that insomnia leads to psychic distress which...
Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a commonly under diagnosed organi cause of insomnia. There is evidence that insomnia leads to psychic distress which impacts health care utilization. Purpose: To examine a proposed model which links RLS to insomnia, and ins...
C. C. Bourguet
The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic sensori-motor disorder characterized by a complaint of an irresistible urge to move the legs. This urge can often be accompanied by pain or other unpleasant sensations, it either occurs or worsens with rest, particularly at night, and temporarily improves with activity. Prevalence estimates vary between 7.2% and 11.5% of the Caucasian adult population. RLS prevalence increases with age, and women are more frequently affected than men. In France, a prevalence rate of 8.5% was estimated. Although RLS is mainly idiopathic, several clinical conditions have been associated with it, mainly pregnancy, iron deficiency with or without anemia, end-stage renal disease and peripheral neuropathy. RLS is often underdiagnosed and there is a clear need for complementary education to improve the accurate diagnosis of RLS. Indeed, a better knowledge of this syndrome is a prerequisite to prompt an appropriate therapeutic management. PMID:20334990
Ghorayeb, Imad; Tison, François
Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.
Myers, William Neil (Inventor)
A surgeon faced with a patient presenting with an open tibial\\/fibular fracture in combination with severe damage of the surrounding soft tissues, has to make the difficult decision whether to attempt salvage or to perform an immediate amputation of the leg.\\u000a\\u000aUntil late in the nineteenth century the mortality from open fractures was high - mainly due to sepsis after
Jochem Maarten Hoogendoorn
In this problem students practice counting by twos as they explore the natural phenomenon that legs on creatures always come in pairs, laying the foundation for doubling and halving. A set of cards can be downloaded (pdf) and matched. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, an expanded set of cards (pdf), and links to related activities (Noah and Number Tracks, both cataloged separately).
This article describes a campaign to eliminate avoidable grade 2-4 pressure ulcers at University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire Trust. The 100 Days Free strategy used traditional educational approaches along with ward-based power training and social media to engage staff and update practice. Root cause analysis has been vital in providing feedback to staff and identifying training needs. PMID:23696992
The purpose of this collective review is to outline the predisposing factors in the development of pressure ulcers and to identify a pressure ulcer prevention program. The most frequent sites for pressure ulcers are areas of skin overlying bony prominences. There are four critical factors contributing to the development of pressure ulcers: pressure, shearing forces, friction, and moisture. Pressure is now viewed as the single most important etiologic factor in pressure ulcer formation. Prolonged immobilization, sensory deficit, circulatory disturbances, and poor nutrition have been identified as important risk factors in the development of pressure ulcer formation. Among the clinical assessment scales available, only two, the Braden Scale and Norton Scale, have been tested extensively for reliability and/or validity. The most commonly used risk assessment tools for pressure ulcer formation are computerized pressure monitoring and measurement of laser Doppler skin blood flow. Pressure ulcers can predispose the patient to a variety of complications that include bacteremia, osteomyelitis, squamous cell carcinoma, and sinus tracts. The three components of pressure ulcer prevention that must be considered in any patient include management of incontinence, nutritional support, and pressure relief. The pressure relief program must be individualized for non-weight-bearing individuals as well as those that can bear weight. For those that can not bear weight and passively stand, the RENAISSANCE Mattress Replacement System is recommended for the immobile patient who lies supine on the bed, the stretcher, or operating room table. This alternating pressure system is unique because it has three separate cells that are not interconnected. It is specifically designed so that deflation of each individual cell will reach a ZERO PRESSURE during each alternating pressure cycle. The superiority of this system has been documented by comprehensive clinical studies in which this system has been compared to the standard hospital bed as well as to two other commercially available pressure relief mattresses. The most recent advance in pressure ulcer prevention is the development of the ALTERN8* seating system. This seating system provides regular periods of pressure relief and stimulation of blood flow to skin areas while users are seated. By offering the combination of pressure relief therapy and an increase in blood flow, the ALTERN8* reportedly creates an optimum pressure ulcer healing environment. Foam is the most commonly used material for pressure reduction and pressure ulcer prevention and treatment for the mobile individual. For those immobilized individuals who can achieve a passive standing position, a powered wheelchair that allows the individual to achieve a passive standing position is recommended. The beneficial effects of passive standing have been documented by comprehensive scientific studies. These benefits include reduction of seating pressure, decreased bone demineralization, increased blander pressure, enhanced orthostatic circulatory regulation, reduction in muscular tone, decrease in upper extremity muscle stress, and enhanced functional status in general. In the absence of these dynamic alternating pressure seating systems and mattresses, there are enormous medicolegal implications to the healthcare facility. Because there is not sufficient staff to provide pressure relief to rotate the patient every 2 hours in a hospital setting, with the exception of the intensive care unit, the immobile patient is prone to develop pressure ulcers. The cost of caring for these preventable pressure ulcers may now be as high as 60,000 dollars per patient. The occupational physical strain sustained by nursing personnel in rotating their patients has led to occupational back pain in nurses, a major source of morbidity in the healthcare environment. PMID:15447627
Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Woodard, Charles R; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Long, William B; Gebhart, Jocelynn H; Ma, Eva K
In-stent restenosis occurs in 10–60% of cases undergoing interventional therapy. Many mechanisms explain the reason for in-stent restenosis, but restenosis due to an ulcerated plaque is very rare and has not been well reported in the literature. We report an interesting case of 72-year-old man presenting with neurological symptoms secondary to in-stent restenosis of the carotid artery caused by an ulcerated plaque. We also explain the different mechanisms for restenosis along with the treatment options.
Kalavakunta, Jagadeesh Kumar; Gangula, Shravan; Gupta, Vishal
Diabetes has been reported to cause an increase in offensive and decrease in defensive gastric mucosal factors, the imbalance of which can cause ulceration and delay the ulcer healing. Eugenia jambolana has been documented to have both antidiabetic and antiulcer activities. The present study evaluates the effects of ethanolic extract of E. jambolana on gastric ulcer healing and on rat
ADITI CHATURVEDI; G. BHAWANI; P. K. AGARWAL; SHALINI GOEL; A. SINGH; R. K. GOEL
The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.
Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul
A 25-year-old Japanese man showed symptoms of common cold and digestive problems for 1 month. He later developed hypoesthesia ascending from the lower extremities and consulted the emergency outpatient department with the chief complaint of generalised dysesthesia. Because of a history of ulcerative colitis, his condition was initially treated as acute aggravation of the disease; however, after admission, his consciousness level gradually deteriorated. Physical findings showed weakened tendon reflexes, and anti-GQ1b antibodies were strongly positive in the cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE). Plasmapheresis was performed 8 times, resulting in an improvement of the symptoms; the patient was discharged 1 month later. Campylobacter infections are the main cause of BBE, and its incidence is high among patients with ulcerative colitis. Therefore, in cases where patients with ulcerative colitis develop disturbance in consciousness, BBE should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:23001109
Yamamoto, Miyuki; Inokuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Kensuke; Yahagi, Naoki
Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common in horses. A history of mild intermitted recurrent colic signs after eating is noted in many horses. Management of horses with abdominal pain caused by gastric ulcers is especially difficult, because non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, typically used to control abdominal pain, may exacerbate this condition. Effective pharmacologic agents are available to treat EGUS and eliminate abdominal pain, but more comprehensive measures of environmental and dietary management are needed to manage horses with EGUS and prevent recurrence. This article focuses on the history, clinical signs, diagnosis, and management of horses with abdominal pain associated with gastric ulcers. The primary goal is to provide an understanding of EGUS and to review effective pain management and specific antiulcer treatments and management strategies in horses with EGUS. PMID:19580940
Videla, Ricardo; Andrews, Frank M
Venous ulcers are the most common ulcers of the lower limb. It has a high morbidity and results in economic strain both at a personal and at a state level. Chronic venous hypertension either due to primary or secondary venous disease with perforator paucity, destruction or incompetence resulting in reflux is the underlying pathology, but inflammatory reactions mediated through leucocytes, platelet adhesion, formation of pericapillary fibrin cuff, growth factors and macromolecules trapped in tissue result in tissue hypoxia, cell death and ulceration. Duplex scan with colour flow is the most useful investigation for venous disease supplying information about patency, reflux, effects of proximal and distal compression, Valsalva maneuver and effects of muscle contraction. Most venous disease can be managed conservatively by leg elevation and compression bandaging. Drugs of proven benefit in venous disease are pentoxifylline and aspirin, but they work best in conjunction with compression therapy. Once ulceration is chronic or the patient does not respond to or cannot maintain conservative regime, surgical intervention treating the underlying venous hypertension and cover for the ulcer is necessary. The different modalities like sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping of superficial varicose veins, endoscopic subfascial perforator ligation, endovenous laser or radiofrequency ablation have similar long-term results, although short-term recovery is best with radiofrequency and foam sclerotherapy. For deep venous reflux, surgical modalities include repair of incompetent venous valves or transplant or transposition of a competent vein segment with normal valves to replace a post-thrombotic destroyed portion of the deep vein. PMID:23162226
Chatterjee, Sasanka S
We present the results obtained in a case of a 20-year-old Caucasian woman with a posttraumatic injury “hard-to-heal” of the left leg treated using autologous fat graft. Considering our experience in treatment of chronic posttraumatic ulcers by autologous fat graft, we decided to use this surgical technique to induce a regenerative effect in this young patient. We have had complete wound closure with only a single surgical procedure after 1 month; after the second intervention of autologous fat graft we observed an improvement in the quality of the scar tissue. The patient satisfaction was excellent. The results were long lasting and remained virtually unchanged after 1 year.
Caviggioli, Fabio; Klinger, Francesco Maria; Vinci, Valeriano; Cornegliani, Guido; Klinger, Marco
This page from Suzanne Alejandre's Math Forum blog has links to nine short videos (5 minutes or less) of Ms. Alejandre implementing the "Wooden Legs" Problem of the Week with a fifth grade class. The "Notice/Wonder" strategy is used to introduce the problem, and additional materials describe other problem solving strategies. The blogpost describes the goals of the lesson and also includes links to the teacher materials including the problem, solution, sample student answers, a scoring rubric, and teaching suggestions. Suggested browsers are Chrome, Firefox, or Safari. (It's been reported to us that when using IE9 (PC) the videos do not display.)
In this three-day (or three-part) math lesson, learners represent the number eight in writing and with a variety of manipulatives related to spiders. Learners construct sets of eight by cutting eight strips of paper and counting eight pretzel sticks that represent spider legs. Learners also use eight plastic spiders to show eight with a ten frame and count on from a given number to make eight. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions. Note: The snack activity involves peanut butter, but any other creamy food can be used instead.
Golden, Deeanna D.
A randomized controlled trial of Solcoseryl, DuoDerm and conventional conservative therapy with Eusol has been performed in 32 patients with homozygous sickle-cell (SS) disease. After 12 weeks' baseline observation, patients were randomized to one of three therapies and monitored for a further 12 weeks. Of 44 ulcerated legs, 20 received control treatment, 12 Solcoseryl and 12 DuoDerm. DuoDerm was generally unacceptable, and two-thirds of the patients defaulted from this treatment. Solcoseryl increased ulcer healing compared to the controls but the difference was not significant. Solcoseryl was well tolerated and may have a role in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers of sickle-cell disease. PMID:8273321
La Grenade, L; Thomas, P W; Serjeant, G R
During the summer of 1933, lesions of a disease were noted among some fingerling brook, rainbow, blackspotted, and lake trout at the Cortland (New York) trout hatchery. Although these lesions bore a marked superficial resemblance to those of furunculosis, they were sufficiently atypical to warrant further investigation. A more detailed examination of the lesions proved them to be of a distinct disease, which for lack of a better name is herein called "ulcer disease," for the lesions closely resemble those described by Calkins (1899) under this name. Because of the marked resemblance to furunculosis, ulcer disease has not been generally recognized by trout culturists, and any ulcer appearing on fish has been ascribed by them to furunculosis without further question.
Fish, F. F.
Endocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic system associated with specific skin manifestations are rare. We report a 53-year-old female who presented with migratory annular and arcuate ulcers on her limbs. Histopathology was similar to necrolytic erythema family which includes necrolytic migratory erythema (NME). Though initial CT scans were normal, follow up scans revealed multiple mass lesions in the tail of pancreas. Her skin lesions responded to oral zinc sulphate and monthly injections of octreotide. Prior to planned FNAC from the mass lesion, patient developed altered sensorium and succumbed to the disease. This case report seems to differ from NME clinically, due to unique finding of deep migrating ulcers which heal with scarring. ‘Necrolytic migratory ulceration’ thus appears to be a new paraneoplastic manifestation, secondary to pancreatic malignancy.
Pakran, Jaheersha; Riyaz, Najeeba
As the use of drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increases, so too do gastrointestinal ulcers, bleeding, perforation and obstruction. Diaphragm disease of the small intestine is formed by submucosal fibrosis and destruction of lamina muscularis due to chronic ulceration, which corresponds to the most severe stage of NSAID enteropathy. It may lead to stricture of the small intestine. If such ulcerations and strictures in the small intestine are multiple, differential diagnosis is between diaphragm disease and cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis (CMUSE), because the gross findings of diaphragm disease are similar to those of CMUSE. We report a rare case of diaphragm disease caused by NSAID. It has been finally confirmed by capsule endoscopy and the origin of chronic obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was found to be multiple ulcers and strictures in the small intestine. After operation, we diagnosed the patient with diaphragm disease rather than CMUSE. PMID:21734797
Chung, Sook Hee; Jo, Yunju; Ryu, Sang Ryol; Ahn, Sang Bong; Son, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan; Park, Young Sook; Hong, Young Ok
Background:?Our objectives were to elucidate the pathophysiology of leg edema in immobile patients and to discuss reasonable management of this condition. Methods and Results:?The 30 patients with leg edema had visited our clinic between April 2009 and March 2013; they suffered from severe gait disturbance, had no significant venous abnormalities detected using duplex ultrasound, and did not have any systemic diseases that could cause leg edema. Here, we review their symptoms, examinations, and treatments. Among 59 edematous legs of the 30 patients, 30 legs (51%) had symptoms that indicated advanced chronic venous insufficiency. The ankle range of motion and calf : ankle circumference ratio were abnormal in only 3 (5%) and 10 (17%) of the legs, respectively. The severity of edema and subcutaneous inflammation, which was confirmed using ultrasonography, was significantly influenced by gravity. Air plethysmography and lymphangioscintigraphy were completed in 15 and 10 patients, respectively, neither of which revealed any significant abnormalities. Reasonable success for all patients was achieved by compression therapy and physical therapy without medications. Conclusions:?It was assumed that leg edema in these immobile patients was mainly caused by venous stasis because of the immobility itself, not because of anatomical problems. The patients were successfully managed by compression and physical therapy alone.??(Circ J?2014; 78: 1733-1739). PMID:24790031
Suehiro, Kotaro; Morikage, Noriyasu; Murakami, Masanori; Yamashita, Osamu; Ueda, Koshiro; Samura, Makoto; Hamano, Kimikazu
Cryptococcosis occurs most often in immunocompromised people. The cutaneous features of cryptococcosis include papules, pustules, nodules, subcutaneous swelling, abscesses, molluscum contagiosum-like or tumour-like lesions, cellulitis, blisters, ulcers and very rarely, necrotizing fasciitis (NF). NF is a destructive soft-tissue infection that is most typically caused by group A streptococci or by a combination of facultative and anaerobic bacteria. We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with pemphigus vegetans, who developed cryptococcal NF in the legs. She had been treated with immunosuppressants including plasmapheresis and pulse therapy with steroid and cyclophosphamide. Cryptococcal NF localized to the legs is very rare. Because diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal infection is often delayed, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of cryptococcal infection when antibacterial therapy is not effective in an immunocompromised patient. PMID:19663839
Adachi, M; Tsuruta, D; Imanishi, H; Ishii, M; Kobayashi, H
Contents: Deaths due to peptic ulcer; Prevalence of peptic ulcer; Economic costs of peptic ulcer: the concept; loss due to disability; loss due to death; costs of medical care; the total economic cost; Some results from recent studies on the economic cost...
I. S. Blumenthal
Major morphological structures are sometimes produced not once, but twice. For example, stick insects routinely shed legs to escape a predator or tangled moult, and these legs are subsequently re-grown. Here, I show that in Sipyloidea sipylus, re-growth of a leg during development causes adults to have disproportionately smaller wings and increases wing loading. These morphological consequences of leg regeneration led to significant reductions in several biologically relevant measures of individual flight performance. This previously unrecognized tradeoff between legs and wings reveals the integrated nature of phasmid phenotypes, and I propose how this tradeoff may have shaped phasmid evolution.
Maginnis, Tara L
We have developed criteria for radionuclide angiography to assess skin ulcer perfusion as an indicator of healing capacity. Twenty-six studies were performed on 21 consecutive patients with nonhealing ulcers of the lower leg; 20 mCi of technetium-99m phosphate was injected intravenously with immediate sequential scintillation camera imaging of the ulcer and surrounding area at 2 second intervals, followed by blood pool and delayed static images. Two radiologists without clinical bias graded the perfusion to the ulcer on the images as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite limb. Patients were either followed as outpatients for more than 10 days, as inpatients for at least 10 days, or both to determine whether ulcers showed clinical evidence of wound healing with optimal outpatient and in-hospital care. Of the 17 patients whose ulcers healed, imaging with technetium-99m phosphate predicted the outcome in 16. In nine patients the ulcers did not heal. This was correctly predicted by technetium-99m phosphate in eight of the patients. Overall, the sensitivity was 94 percent and the specificity was 89 percent. This technique appears to be a simple, reliable way to predict the microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing.
Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.; Disbro, M.A.; Alazraki, N.
This patent describes an offshore platform assembly. It comprises a floatable hull having wells extending vertically therethrough; a plurality of inclined supporting legs secured to the hull and movable between a first, retracted position and a second, hull supporting position; flexible guide means for absorbing bending moments and forces acting on a leg chord of a corresponding leg which moves through a flexible guide means during elevation of the hull, each of the guide means being positioned in a corresponding well of the hull; means for elevating the hull with respect to the supporting legs; and wherein each of the flexible guide means is movable to a limited degree along a horizontal plane to absorb bending moments and forces acting on a corresponding leg while the hull is being elevated to an operating level.
Goldman, J.; Bennett, R.M.
Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the horizontal plane. Changes in the horizontal projection of leg length were linearly related to changes in horizontal-plane leg forces. Consequently, the passive dynamic stabilization associated with spring-mass behavior may contribute to stability during maneuvers in bipeds. Understanding the mechanics of maneuverability will be important for understanding the motor control of maneuvers and also potentially be useful for understanding stability.
Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu
A diagnostic method is presented for measuring the leg length and the difference in leg lengths with ultrasound. A special device for holding and moving the ultrasound transducer was constructed. The measuring points on the hip, knee, and upper ankle can be visualized with a 5- or 7.5-MHz linear scanner. The measuring device gives the distance of the points in centimeters so that the difference corresponds to the real length of the leg, femur, and tibia. Tests conducted on corpses and clinical examples show that ultrasound in combination with our special device is an ideal method for determining the exact length of the leg. Ultrasound measurement of the leg length offers a reliable, noninvasive, and easily performed method. Because ultrasound is not limited by radiation hazards, our technique can be used for clinical screening. PMID:12017860
Konermann, W; Gruber, G
Leg compliance is "causally related with greater susceptibility" to orthostatic stress. Since peak O2 uptake (peak VO2) and muscle strength may be related to leg compliance, we examined the relationships between leg compliance and factors related to muscle size and physical fitness. Ten healthy men, 25-52 yr, underwent tests for determination of vascular compliance of the calf (Whitney mercury strain gauge), peak VO2 (Bruce treadmill), calf muscle strength (Cybex isokinetic dynamometer), body composition (densitometry), and anthropometric measurements of the calf. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of muscle, fat, and bone in the calf were determined by computed tomography scans. Leg compliance was not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (peak VO2, calf strength, age, body weight, or composition). Leg compliance correlated with calf CSA (r = -0.72, P less than 0.02) and calculated calf volume (r = -0.67, P less than 0.03). The most dominant contributing factor to the determination of leg compliance was CSA of calf muscle (r = -0.60, P less than 0.06), whereas fat and bone were poor predictors (r = -0.11 and 0.07, respectively). We suggest that leg compliance is less when there is a large muscle mass providing structural support to limit expansion of the veins. This relationship is independent of aerobic and/or strength fitness level of the individual. PMID:3366725
Convertino, V A; Doerr, D F; Flores, J F; Hoffler, G W; Buchanan, P
Scar ulcers that spread over the Achilles tendon and posterior heel disturb patients by causing pain, impeding hygiene, and creating difficulty in finding appropriate shoe wear. As this region undergoes pressure, effective reconstruction is based on the flap use. The most popular flaps currently used are distally based sural fasciocutaneous flap, calcaneal artery skin flap, and free flaps. These flaps, however, are insensate, can create soft-tissue excess, and cause donor site morbidity. Ulcerous soft-tissue defects over Achilles tendon and posterior heel after burns, frost, and trauma were studied and reconstructed in 16 patients, using proximally based sural adipose-cutaneous flap, the anatomy of which was studied on lower extremities of 27 cadavers. Ulcerous soft-tissue defect consists of two parts: ulcer and surrounding pathologic scars that should be excised in one block. Resulting soft-tissue defects with exposed tendon and calcaneal bone varied from 6 to 20 cm in length and 6 cm in width. For such wound resurfacing a flap was developed that was sensate, thin, large, and having steady blood circulation. The flap was harvested from the lower third of the leg and lateral foot, consisting of skin and subcutaneous fat layer (without fascia), including the sural nerve and lesser vein. The blood supply was ensured through peroneal and anterior tibial artery perforators, which formed a vascular net in the flap. In 14 of 16 cases excellent and stable functional and good cosmetic results with acceptable donor site morbidity were achieved. In two patients the distal flap loss took place because of arteriitis obliterans (one case) and because of the cross-cutting of the sural nerve and vessels during previous surgeries (another case). Proximally based sural adipose-cutaneous/scar flap is the only flap that satisfies all requirements for Achilles tendon and posterior heel region resurfacing. The author believes that this technique, based on this flap use, is anatomically justified, clinically profitable, and should be considered as the first choice operation. PMID:24043244
Grishkevich, Viktor M
Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the affected compartment at the same time, distance, or intensity of exercise. CECS is a clinical diagnosis; however, it is confirmed by intracompartmental pressure testing. Fasciotomy is the treatment of choice for athletes who would like to maintain the same level of activity. Athletes who have a release of the anterior and lateral compartments have a high success rate.
Ulcerative colitis may be associated with a number of skin lesions such as erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum. We here describe an unusual case of a 33-year-old-caucasian male with ulcerative colitis and skin lesions diagnosed as leukocytoclastic vasculitis. An initial treatment with oral deflazacort led to little benefit, while treatment with oral mesalazine caused remission of the skin and intestinal manifestations in 2 weeks. PMID:18799375
Tripodi Cutrì, F; Salerno, R; Lo Schiavo, A; Gravina, A G; Romano, M; Ruocco, E
\\u000a Patients with spinal cord injury are prone to develop decubital ulcers, especially around the pelvic girdle and in the buttocks.\\u000a These ulcers are caused by excessive pressure on the tissues. An established pressure ulcer poses a great medical threat to\\u000a the patient and treatment is extensive. There-fore, the prevention of pressure ulcers is of major importance. We describe\\u000a the construction
M. Eneling; B. Ragnemalm; J. Wiman; K. Maack; A. Felin; D. Lidman; J. Thorfinn
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by a distressing urge to move the legs and sometimes other parts of the body. Diagnosis is based on clinical features that may be easily remembered with the mnemonic URGE: Urge to move, Rest induced, Gets better with activity, and Evening and night accentuation. RLS is common, its prevalence increases with age, and women are more frequently affected. The course is chronic with often severe sleep disruption, including periodic leg movements. Differential diagnosis includes disorders of restlessness and leg discomfort. Primary RLS is familial and likely to be genetic. Important causes of secondary RLS are end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, and iron deficiency. Every patient should be checked for iron status with a serum ferritin measurement. PMID:17824723
Hening, Wayne; Allen, Richard P; Tenzer, Penny; Winkelman, John W
Chronic ulcers are a challenge in dermatological therapy. It is essential to establish their etiology in order to treat them, but on many occasions local therapy is of great interest. Treatment of chronic ulcers is currently based on so-called moist wound healing, and it takes two aspects into consideration: the underlying pathology and local treatment. Local treatment is always necessary and includes: cleaning, debridement, the control of any infection, and the application of different topical agents, both medication and dressings. Recently, new therapeutic strategies are being established, some of which are still being assessed, and which include: skin replacement using biological skin substitutes, growth factors, laser, hyperbaric oxygen, electrical stimulation and negative pressure dressings. In this work, we review the therapeutic advances in this pathology, without neglecting the validity of classic treatments. PMID:16476354
Moreno-Giménez, José C; Galán-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Jiménez-Puya, Rafael
Chronic active type B gastritis is invariably the result of Helicobacter pylori infection and is an important factor in duodenal ulcer disease. The actions of mediators produced (a protein factor, a lipid soluble "pore-forming factor" and urease) or induced (immune/inflammatory cell mediators) by this bacterium on the control of gastric acid secretion are currently being investigated. These studies are reviewed in light of our current knowledge of the physiological control of gastric acid secretion.
Muller, M. J.; Hunt, R. H.
\\u000a Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a diffuse inflammatory disease of the mucosal lining of the colon and rectum that manifests clinically\\u000a as diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, and rectal bleeding. Since removal of the affected organ is curative, surgery\\u000a has assumed a pivotal position in the management of these patients. Although removal of the entire colon and rectum with a
Zuri Murrell; Phillip Fleshner
The first step in the management of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is to identify, and if possible to treat any condition which might cause or worsen RLS, such as iron deficiency or some drug treatments. The patients suffering from RLS should be prompted to keep a healthy sleep schedule. Drug treatment should be restricted to patients with a clear clinical diagnosis, decided on an individual basis, when the clinical impact is serious. Four drug classes are central to the treatment of RLS: dopaminergic agents, some antiepileptics, opioids, and benzodiazepines. Dopaminergic agonists are the treatment of choice, especially when daily treatment is indicated, or if the symptoms are severe. Two dopaminergic agonists are licensed in France for the treatment of RLS: ropinirole (Adartrel) and pramipexole (Sifrol). After initiation of treatment, the patients should benefit from a regular follow-up in order to evaluate the efficacy of treatment and to identify possible side-effects. Special care should be given to the detection of augmentation, a phenomenon characterized by a paradoxical worsening of the symptoms with treatment. Some particular conditions, such as RLS comorbid with renal insufficiency, during pregnancy, and in the child are discussed. PMID:20303704
Haba-Rubio, José; Krieger, Jean
In a determined search for the cause of a "factitial" ulcer of the jaw, consultation with 3 dentists was required before an underlying periapical abscess was discovered. Within 3 months of endodontic surgery, this ulcer of 12 years duration had completely healed and remains healed. Too often dental infection is neither suspected nor detected as a cause of skin disease. PMID:10321619
Shelley, W B; Shelley, E D
We report a case of diabetic foot ulcer caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in a seventy year old male patient with uncontrolled diabetes. Scedosporium apiospermum, the asexual phase of Pseudallescheria boydii a fungus isolated from a variety of natural substrates throughout the world including soil, polluted water, sewage and manure of poultry and cattle. P.boydii is now recognized as a medically important opportunistic fungus. This case has been reported for its rarity. PMID:24392407
D, Vijaya; T, Nagaratnamma; Jv, Sathish
Buruli ulcer disease (BUD), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a neglected bacterial infection of the poor in remote rural areas, mostly affecting children. BUD is a mutilating disease\\u000a leading to severe disability; it is the third most common mycobacterial infection in immunocompetent people after tuberculosis\\u000a and leprosy. It is most endemic in West Africa, but cases have been reported from
Kris Huygen; Ohene Adjei; Dissou Affolabi; Gisela Bretzel; Caroline Demangel; Bernhard Fleischer; Roch Christian Johnson; Jorge Pedrosa; Delphin M. Phanzu; Richard O. Phillips; Gerd Pluschke; Vera Siegmund; Mahavir Singh; Tjip S. van der Werf; Mark Wansbrough-Jones; Françoise Portaels
With suitable pharmacotherapy, patients with any degree of restless legs syndrome (RLS) should be able to obtain substantial relief of symptoms. The best therapeutic success is attained when the physician tailors therapy to the patient's specific symptoms and can flexibly try a variety of agents, if needed. Therapy should be reserved for those in whom RLS cannot be managed with just sleep hygiene and related practices. It should not be withheld, however, if a patient reasonably believes that his or her quality of life is being impaired by RLS. The optimal initial approach to RLS in the general patient is usually the use of a dopaminergic agent: low-dose levodopa in milder cases, a dopamine agonist in more severe ones. Patients whose problems are primarily sleep related can initially be treated with a benzodiazepine. Patients who have symptoms primarily while awake can initially be treated with a dopaminergic agent or an opioid. Patients whose RLS discomfort is truly painful can initially be treated with gabapentin. Combination therapy with two or three agents from different classes can be useful as well. Determination of iron status is the most important initial laboratory evaluation in patients with RLS. Iron supplementation should be used as indicated. In the future, delivery modes other than oral administration of medications may be of significant benefit, especially in more severe cases. PMID:11096718
Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning.
Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoit G.
Oil rose of mosqueta (Rosa aff. Rubiginosa L.) is a concentrated solution in linoleic (41%) and linolenic acid (39%), that offers benefit therapeutic effects in the wound healing. Ten patients affected of leg ulcers and post-surgical wounds were treated by 26% oil concentrated rose of mosqueta with very notable improvement on its healing compared with the control group. Due to the lack of side effects, we believe rose of mosqueta oil is very usefull to these conditions. Mechanism of actions and others indications are discussed. PMID:2214931
Moreno Gimenez, J C; Bueno, J; Navas, J; Camacho, F
Venous leg ulcer is a pathological condition afflicting prevalently elderly patients, which has been found to have a major impact on individuals' health and social aspects of quality of life. Actually, the best practice treatment is recommended to include wound dressing and multilayer compression therapy. In this study, we have tested the effectiveness and safety of Vulnamin(®), a novel dressing in the form of a metal cellulose gel containing the amino acids glycine, L: -lysine, L: -proline, L: -leucine, and hyaluronic acid, and elastic compressive bandages in the treatment of chronic venous ulcers of the lower limbs. The study has been conducted in two groups of patients, one treated with Vulnamin(®) plus Ca-alginate (ulcer duration = 25.4 ± 6.2 weeks; mean baseline ulcer area = 13.9 ± 4.5 cm(2)) and a control group treated with Ca-alginate alone (ulcer duration = 23.4 ± 4.2 weeks; mean baseline ulcer area = 15.1 ± 4.7 cm(2)). Results have shown that after 70 days of treatment patients significantly ameliorate their pathological condition if they are treated with Vulnamin(®), as compared with patients treated with Ca-alginate alone. In fact, at the end of the treatment, complete healing closure was 61% in the group treated with Vulnamin(®) and, respectively, 27% in the control group. Moreover, ulcer areas showed a significant reduction in patients treated with Vulnamin(®) (mean ulcer area = 3.04 ± 0.8 cm(2)), as compared with controls (mean ulcer area = 10.96 ± 3.8 cm(2)). Overall, the results of this study indicate that Vulnamin(®) together with elastocompression is safe and more effective than standard dressing together with elastocompression in inducing a faster healing in chronic venous ulcers of the lower limb. PMID:21559987
Maggio, Giulio; Armenio, Andrea; Ruccia, Francesca; Giglietto, Domenico; Pascone, Michele; Ribatti, Domenico
Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is a saprophytic fungus, found in soil. It causes human nail infection. Corneal ulcer with this organism is unusual. Here a case of a 36-year-old farmer is reported who developed a paracentral corneal ulcer in the right eye. The ulcer was caused by mixed infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. It was treated with topical natamycin 5% and moxifloxacin 0.5% drops. This is a unique case of corneal ulcer with mixed infection of Staphylococcus aureus and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis without any history of trauma, which was treated successfully, resulting in a minimal corneal opacity. PMID:23025228
Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Chitrita; Ray, Biswarup; Das, Debabrata; Biswas, Supreeti; Banerjee, Parthajit
This study investigated the relationship between abomasal hairballs (trichobezoars) and perforating abomasal ulcers in unweaned beef calves <4 mo of age. The calves enrolled in the study represented routine necropsy submissions to veterinary practitioners in western Canada and to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine. Regardless of the cause of death, each calf was examined for evidence of abomasal ulcers and hairballs. Thirty-two practitioners and the Western College of Veterinary Medicine provided 166 cases for the study; 56 died of perforating ulcers (ulcer calves), and 110 died of causes unrelated to abomasum (non-ulcer calves). The calves ranged in age from 1-90 d; 154 (92.8%) were <61 d of age. Overall, ulcer calves were 2.74 (P = 0.003) times more likely to die with an abomasal hairball than were the nonulcer calves. However, stratifying the calves into 2 age groups, young (<31 d) and old (>30 d), yielded conflicting results. While the young ulcer calves were 3.81 (P = 0.003) times more likely to have a hairball than were the young nonulcer calves, there was no statistically significant relationship (OR = 0.76, P = 0.65) between ulcer and hairballs in the older calves. The authors concluded that the relationship between hairballs and ulcers in the young calves was probably spurious, created by a Berkson's bias. It is unlikely that abomasal hairballs have a significant role in the development of fatal perforating ulcers in beef calves.
Jelinski, M D; Ribble, C S; Campbell, J R; Janzen, E D
Caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease which leads to large cutaneous ulceration and is responsible for huge socio-economic consequences. Since 1997 the World Health Organization has started a global Buruli ulcer initiative in which African endemic countries are committed. After an epidemiological background of the disease in Côte-d'Ivoire and a description of the different clinical aspects, we report the main disease management actions carried out in the country by the National Program for Buruli ulcer control from 1998 to 2003. It seems that surgical team missions carried out in health center to treat cases, early detection and treatment of cases together with the implementation of a specific poly-chemotherapy lead to an effective control of the disease. PMID:16568681
Kanga, J M; Kacou, E D; Kouamé, K; Kassi, K; Kaloga, M; Yao, J K; Dion-Lainé, M; Avoaka, L E; Yoboué-Yao, P; Sangaré, A; Ecra, J E; Ahogo, C; Djédjé, M S; Kadiri, A J; Ayé, C
Nicorandil, a commonly prescribed anti-anginal agent, has been reported to be associated with ulceration in various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. A 68-year-old general practitioner presented with severe rectal bleeding and abdominal pain associated with terminal ileal ulceration diagnosed by colonoscopy. Capsule endoscopy revealed no other source of bleeding and CT was normal. Diclofenac and/or aspirin were assumed to be causative factors and discontinued. Aspirin was temporarily resumed then discontinued after a second massive, but self-limiting, haemorrhage and persistent abdominal pain. Repeat colonoscopy 5 weeks later confirmed that the previously documented terminal ileal ulceration had worsened. Histopathology was consistent with localised mucosal ischaemia. Nicorandil was withdrawn, after which no further episode of bleeding occurred and his pain settled. Repeat colonoscopy 3 months later confirmed complete healing. This report implicates nicorandil as a cause of terminal ileal ulceration leading to life-threatening rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. PMID:22751206
Swinscoe, Mark Thomas; Savani, Ramesh; Lobo, Alan J; Stephenson, Timothy J; Shorthouse, Andrew J
Pressure ulcer is a critical problem for bed-ridden and wheelchair-bound patients, diabetics, and the elderly. Pa- tients need to be regularly repositioned to prevent excessive pressure on a single area of body, which can lead to ulcers. Pressure ulcers are costly to treat and cause many other health problems, including death. The current standard for prevention is to reposition at-risk
Sarah Ostadabbas; Rasoul Yousefi; Miad Faezipour; Mehrdad Nourani; Matthew Pompeo
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits in Norwegian Red cows. A total of 188,928 cows with claw health status recorded at claw trimming from 2004 to September 2013 and 210,789 first-lactation cows with feet and leg conformation scores from 2001 to September 2013 were included in the analyses. Traits describing claw health were corkscrew claw, infectious claw disorders (dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital phlegmon), and laminitis-related claw disorders (sole ulcer, white line disorder, and hemorrhage of sole and white line). The feet and leg conformation traits were rear leg rear view (new and old definition), rear leg side view, foot angle, and hoof quality. Feet and leg conformation traits were scored linearly from 1 to 9, with optimum scores depending on the trait. Claw disorders were defined as binary (0/1) traits for each lactation. Threshold sire models were used to model claw disorders, whereas the feet and leg conformation traits were described by linear sire models. Three multivariate analyses were performed, each including the 5 feet and leg conformation traits and 1 of the 3 claw disorders at a time. Posterior means of heritability of liability of claw disorders ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 and heritabilities of feet and leg conformation traits ranged from 0.04 to 0.11. Posterior standard deviation of heritability was ?0.01 for all traits. Genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits were all low or moderate, except between corkscrew claw and hoof quality (-0.86), which are supposed to measure the same trait. The genetic correlations between rear leg rear view (new) and infectious claw disorders (-0.20) and laminitis-related claw disorders (0.26), and between hoof quality and laminitis-related claw disorders (-0.33) were moderate. Eight of the 15 genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits had 0 included in the 95% highest posterior density interval. These results imply that selection for feet and leg conformation is not an efficient approach to genetically improve claw health in Norwegian Red cattle. PMID:24767887
Odegård, C; Svendsen, M; Heringstad, B
Defining the decubitus ulcer proves as difficult as agreeing on a name for the condition. Causes include pressure over bony prominences, shearing force, destruction of skin, and compromised blood flow. Evidence is emerging of the importance of ischemia as a primary causative agent, rather than pressure, which needs further investigation. Scales, staging, and treatment and prevention guidelines should be used with caution due to their arbitrary implementation and lack of evidence-based support. Unfortunately, much of the research and expert opinion developed by the government and touted as regulation lacks appropriate strength-of-evidence. Although decubitus ulcers should be prevented and treated to the best of our abilities, recognizing the possibility that the skin, like any other organ in the body, may fail is crucial. PMID:20797513
Campbell, Caren; Parish, Lawrence Charles
A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.
Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)
A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.
Forty-nine cases of duodenal ulcer in children are presented. Strict radiological and clinical criteria were observed in making this diagnosis. The children came from a population of approximately 100,000 children over a 10-year period. Upper abdominal pain was the commonest presenting symptom, and exacerbations and remissions of the disease were observed to be shorter than is expected in the adult. Haemorrhage occurred as a complication in 24% and there were no cases of perforation or stenosis. A family history of duodenal ulcer was found to be highly significant, and it was found that in 55% of patients there was an important element of stress. Treatment was conservative in all but 2 cases, in both of which a vagotomy and pyloroplasty were performed. These operations were judged to have been successful. 6 cases had appendicectomy in the hope of relieving undiagnosed abdominal pain, in which it was unsuccessful. A plea is made for keeping this diagnosis in mind when dealing with abdominal pain in children.
Robb, J. D. A.; Thomas, P. S.; Orszulok, J.; Odling-Smee, G. W.
Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.
The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.
AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the extremities, mostly the legs, caused or accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the affected limbs. Symptoms appear or increase in the evening or during the night and at rest. Sleep disturbances are the most frequent reason why patients seek medical aid. The diagnosis of periodic
Magdolna Hornyak; Claudia Trenkwalder
Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of sleep complaints and restless legs syndrome (RLS) in type 2 adult diabetics. To test the hypothesis that sleep complaints are more common among adult diabetics.Background: Restless legs syndrome is a common disorder and is a cause of insomnia and daytime somnolence. An association between RLS and diabetes mellitus has been hypothesized but
R. P Skomro; S Ludwig; E Salamon; M. H Kryger
The cold leg in a PWR, for the purpose of this report, is defined as that portion of the primary coolant loop that lays between the coolant pump and the reactor vessel. One of the conditions which may lead to failure in a cold leg consists of repeated cycles of stress. These repeated stress cycles may cause the growth of
M. E. Mayfield; E. C. Rodabaugh; R. J. Eiber
Many patients with exercise induced lower leg pain will undergo additional diagnostic investigations to exclude diagnoses other than CECS. Isotopic bone scintigraphy is currently used to investigate possible bony causes of lower leg pain in athletes. However, it has been suggested that there may in fact be a typical 'linear' scintigraphic uptake appearance in those patients with CECS'(10), that is
K L. Bennell; L. Trease; B Van Every; M. Kelly; C. Bradshaw; P D. Brukner
This study examined whether ground reaction force (GRF) asymmetry of 2-legged countermovement jumps (CMJ) is related to 1-legged CMJ asymmetry. The GRF asymmetry of a 2-legged CMJ has been suggested as a preferred test to the 1-legged CMJ for functional strength and power deficit assessment. Twenty-eight men and 30 women performed 5 trials each of a 1-legged CMJ with the right limband the left limb, and a 2-legged CMJ. Vertical GRFs were collected from each lower limb using 2 force platforms. Although several GRF variables were calculated, vertical impulse correlated most strongly with jump height in all conditions (p < 0.05), and they were used in subsequent analyses. A moderate correlation was found for impulse asymmetry between the 1- and 2-legged CMJs for women (r = 0.45, p < 0.05), but not for men (r = 0.06, p = 0.76). In contrast, cross-tabulation analyses of subjects presented with the same dominant characteristics in the 1- and 2-legged CMJs revealed poor associations for both men (Freeman-Halton exact p = 0.61) and women (Freeman-Halton exact p = 0.19). Only 11 women recorded the same dominant limb for both 1- and 2-legged CMJs. This suggests that impulse asymmetries found in the 1- and 2-legged CMJ were unrelated. As the 1-legged CMJ relies on the extension forces generated entirely from 1 limb, variations in jump heights and GRF impulses by left and right limbs separately were more indicative of functional strength differences between sides. Hence, it is recommended that the 1-legged CMJ is used when examining functional strength asymmetry in the lower limbs. In contrast, factors causing asymmetry in GRF impulses during 2-legged CMJs are more complicated and require further investigation. PMID:23287834
Benjanuvatra, Nat; Lay, Brendan S; Alderson, Jacqueline A; Blanksby, Brian A
Spontaneous gastrojejunal fistula formation is an extremely rare complication of gastric ulcer disease. We report a 77-year old woman who presented with diffuse abdominal pain, weight loss, malaise, nausea, and occasional dark stools. Laboratory tests showed extreme hyposideremic anemia with inflammatory syndrome. In addition, biochemical parameters of malnourishment were presented. Upper endoscopy revealed the patent esophagus along the full length without any pathological changes. Large and deep ulceration with perforation in the small intestine was detected in the posterior gastric wall. The small intestine loop was reached by endoscope through spontaneously developed gastrojejunal fistula. Polytopic biopsies of described ulcerative change were carried out. Histopathologically reepithelialized ulcerous zone was seen in the gastric mucosa. Also, gastrojejunal fistula was visualized after wide opening of hepatogastric and gastrocolic ligament. Jejunal loop 25 cm from ligament of Treitz was attached to mesocolon and posterior gastric wall because of ulcer penetration. Postoperative course was uneventful. Per oral intake started on the 4th postoperative day, and the patient was discharged on the 8th postoperative day. In summary, this case indicates that persistent symptoms of peptic ulcer disease associated with nutritional disturbances may be caused by gastrojejunal fistula.
Culafic, ?or?e M; Matejic, Olivera D; ?ukic, Vladimir S; Vukcevic, Miodrag D; Kerkez, Mirko D
Introduction: The Nottingham health profile (NHP) has been used in several studies of patients being treated for chronic venous leg ulceration,\\u000a though there is a paucity of information on the validity of the NHP in this patient group. This study was carried out to determine\\u000a this validity and to compare and contrast the results with a previous study that had
P. J. Franks; C. J. Moffatt
Heel ulceration, on average, costs 1.5 times more than metatarsal ulceration. The aim of this study was to analyze the determinant factors of healing in diabetic patients with heel ulcers and the late outcomes at Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Centre Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. Data were collected prospectively for 96 of 100 diabetic patients presenting with heel ulcers at the Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Centre Khartoum from May 2003 to January 2005. Late outcome was assessed 3 years later (February 2008). Heeling was achieved in one half of the patients (n = 48). In the remaining 48 patients, 22 ended with major lower extremity amputation and 22 were still receiving wound care. A total of 8 patients died, 4 in each group, the healed and unhealed. The most significant determinants of healing using a logistic multivariate regression model, 95% confidence intervals, and odds ratios included a shorter duration of diabetes (p < .009), adequate lower limb perfusion (p < .043), and a superficial foot ulcer (p < .012). Three years later, of the 88 patients who could be traced, 78 were alive and 59 had healed ulcers (7 had died of unrelated causes and 3 of diabetic-related complications), and no additional lower extremity amputation was recorded. Mortality in the series was 18 patients, of whom 14 had undergone a previous lower extremity amputation. Superficial heel ulcers in diabetic patients with a short history of diabetes and with good limb circulation are more likely to heal within an average duration of 25 weeks. At 3 years of follow-up, 75% showed a favorable outcome for ulcer healing, and 22 patients underwent lower extremity amputation (25%), of whom 14 were dead within 3 years. PMID:22078157
Bakheit, Haseeb E; Mohamed, Mohamed F; Mahadi, Seif ElDin I; Widatalla, Abu Bakr H; Shawer, Mohamed A; Khamis, Amar H; Ahmed, Mohamed E
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder related to abnormal and unpleasant sensations and movements in the legs. It usually occurs at nighttime and thus has a detrimental impact on the ability to sleep, leading to poor patient quality of life. UCB has been developing rotigotine transdermal patch system (Neupro; SPM-962) as a treatment for RLS. This system is designed to replace levels of dopamine in the body via once-daily application of the patch, in a bid to restore proper motor functioning. The rotigotine patch has been authorized for the treatment of RLS since August 2008. PMID:19956807
Both generalized and localized edema needs to be submitted to a differential diagnostic investigation. In the case of edema affecting the lower extremities, in particular the Stemmer sign which is the inability to tent the skin at the dorsum of the toes is a useful distinguishing aid. If there is acute unilateral swelling of a leg, other processes with diffuse space-consuming processes need to be distinguished from deep venous thrombosis and secondary lymphedema. Chronic bilateral leg edema is usually due to a venous flowoff obstruction (stasis edema). Less commonly, lipedema or a primary lymphedema may be responsible for the swelling. PMID:15222499
In this paper, we review the concept of quality of ulcer healing (QOUH) in the gastrointestinal tract and its role in the ulcer recurrence. In the past, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been a chronic disease with a cycle of repeated healing/remission and recurrence. The main etiological factor of PUD is Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which is also the cause of ulcer recurrence. However, H. pylori-negative ulcers are present in 12%-20% of patients; they also recur and are on occasion intractable. QOUH focuses on the fact that mucosal and submucosal structures within ulcer scars are incompletely regenerated. Within the scars of healed ulcers, regenerated tissue is immature and with distorted architecture, suggesting poor QOUH. The abnormalities in mucosal regeneration can be the basis for ulcer recurrence. Our studies have shown that persistence of macrophages in the regenerated area plays a key role in ulcer recurrence. Our studies in a rat model of ulcer recurrence have indicated that proinflammatory cytokines trigger activation of macrophages, which in turn produce increased amounts of cytokines and chemokines, which attract neutrophils to the regenerated area. Neutrophils release proteolytic enzymes that destroy the tissue, resulting in ulcer recurrence. Another important factor in poor QOUH can be deficiency of endogenous prostaglandins and a deficiency and/or an imbalance of endogenous growth factors. Topically active mucosal protective and antiulcer drugs promote high QOUH and reduce inflammatory cell infiltration in the ulcer scar. In addition to PUD, the concept of QOUH is likely applicable to inflammatory bowel diseases including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
Arakawa, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Toshio; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Ken'ichi
Nettle extract produced from leaves crushed to 40-70 nm fragments protects the stomach mucous membrane, and does it better than the extract derived from same leaves crushed to 1 mm fragments, on the models of peptic ulcers caused by acetylsalicylic acid, histamine, prednisolone, and immobilized stress. The antiulcer activity of the nettle extract from 40-70 nm fragments is comparable with the effect of buckthorn oil. Nettle extracts also hinder the excess acid secretion and diminish the acidity of stomach juice in experimental peptic ulcer caused by pylorus ligation. PMID:21476271
Burkova, V N; Boev, S G; Vengerovski?, A I; Iudina, N V; Arbuzov, A G
Background Pressure ulcer remains a significant problem in the healthcare system. In addition to the suffering it causes patients, it bears a growing financial burden. Although pressure ulcer prevention and care have improved in recent years, pressure ulcer still exists and occurs in both hospital and community settings. In Jordan, there are a handful of studies on pressure ulcer. This study aims to explore levels of knowledge and knowledge sources about pressure ulcer prevention, as well as barriers to implementing pressure ulcer prevention guidelines among Jordanian nurses. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design and a self-administered questionnaire, data was collected from 194 baccalaureate and master’s level staff nurses working in eight Jordanian hospitals. From September to October of 2011, their knowledge levels about pressure ulcer prevention and the sources of this knowledge were assessed, along with the barriers which reduce successful pressure ulcer care and prevention. ANOVA and t-test analysis were used to test the differences in nurses’ knowledge according to participants’ characteristics. Means, standard deviation, and frequencies were used to describe nurses’ knowledge levels, knowledge sources, and barriers to pressure ulcer prevention. Results The majority (73%, n = 141) of nurses had inadequate knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention. The mean scores of the test for all participants was 10.84 out of 26 (SD = 2.3, range = 5–17), with the lowest score in themes related to PU etiology, preventive measures to reduce amount of pressure/shear, and risk assessment. In-service training was the second source of education on pressure ulcer, coming after university training. Shortage of staff and lack of time were the most frequently cited barriers to carrying out pressure ulcer risk assessment, documentation, and prevention. Conclusions This study highlights concerns about Jordanian nurses’ knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention. The results of the current study showed inadequate knowledge among Jordanian nurses about pressure ulcer prevention based on National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel guidelines. Also, the low level of nurses’ pressure ulcer knowledge suggests poor dissemination of pressure ulcer knowledge in Jordan, a suggestion supported by the lack of relationship between years of experience and pressure ulcer knowledge.
Pressure ulcers are a common medical complication associated with individuals who, due to injury or disease have compromised mobility and\\/or sensation. Pressure ulcers that start at the bone-muscle interfaces are the most perilous, as they can cause extensive damage to the deep tissue layers before exhibiting any signs in the skin. Lack of oxygenation to the tissue and the cascade
Leandro R. Solis; Daniel Hallihan; Richard E. Uwiera; Vivian K. Mushahwar
The foot ulcer is one of most common and devastating complications of diabetes and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The major causes of these ulcers are ischemia\\/hypoxia, neuropathy, and infection, and they often coexist. Despite conventional therapy including revascularization procedures when appropriate, three situations lead frequently to amputation: persistent critical limb ischemia, soft tissue infection, and impaired wound
Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The histopathologic exam is not a diagnostic tool in the majority of cases and should not be considered the gold standard test, being of little value in cases of NSTD and STD ulcers. PMID:17625773
Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira
Mycobacterium ulcerans skin infection or Buruli ulcers are common in children in many rural tropical areas. The usual clinical appearance is a deep, rapidly developing chronic ulcer associated with necrosis of subcutaneous fat. Patients are usually seen at an advanced stage. Bacteriologic identification is not always possible because the pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is an atypical mycobacteria that is difficult to isolate and grows slowly in culture. Medium although of little assistance in tropical regions, the histological features are highly characteristic and can allow diagnosis in areas in which the disease is rare and unsuspected. The pathogenic effects of Mycobacterium ulcerans are due to the production of a necrotizing exotoxin with an immunosuppressive action. Treatment using antituberculosis and antileprosy drugs has been disappointing. Surgery is usually required and causes extensive sequels in many cases, the best technique being an excision/graft procedure. Many epidemiologic characteristics of Buruli ulcers which are andemic in regions with and aquatic ecosystem are still unclear including the mode of infection, transmission and reservoir. Recent outbreaks, particularly in west Africa, may be related to changes in the natural environment. PMID:8830223
Josse, R; Guedenon, A; Darie, H; Anagonou, S; Portaels, F; Meyers, W M
To assess the efficacy of sucralfate enemas in distal colonic ulcerative lesions, 22 patients with radiation proctitis (n=8), idiopathic ulcerative proctitis (n=5), and solitary rectal ulcer (n=5) unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, and those with ulcerated and bleeding rectal polyps awaiting polypectomy (n=4) were studied. Enemas of sucralfate suspension (2 gm in 20 ml water) were administered twice daily for
R. Kochhar; S. K. Mehta; R. Aggarwal; A. Dhar; F. Patel
The results of medical treatment in 113 patients with chronic ulceration of the angulus and vertical part of the stomach are reported. The ulcers failed to heal in 38% and healed but recurred in 22%. The ulcers healed and, except for minor recurrences in a few, remained healed for five years in 40%. The prognosis for patients with ulcers with
The pancreatic polypeptide (PP) response to a protein-rich meal has been studied in similarly aged patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and controls. The response of the gastric ulcer patients was significantly lower at all points than that of the duodenal ulcer patients or controls, which were similar to one another. Vagal stimulation is probably the single most important factor
Anthony I. Stern; Jack Hansky
Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a commonly under or misdiagnosed organic cause of insomnia. Prevalence estimates range form 4 to 16%, with 29% reported among Veterans. Thirty-five percent of US adults report insomnia annually. There is evidence that insom...
C. C. Bourguet
Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species.
Gastroendoscopy was performed on 111 horses (1 to 22 years old) that had signs of abdominal discomfort of variable duration and severity. At least 1 episode of colic had been observed within 48 hours of examination in 31 horses. Recurrent episodes of colic were observed in 28 horses within 2 to 10 days of examination, 31 horses within 11 to 30 days, 12 horses within 31 to 60 days, and in 9 horses at more than 60 days after the initial examination. Gastric ulceration was found in 91 of 111 horses examined. Other abnormalities involving the gastrointestinal tract or other abdominal viscera were not found on examination in 57 of 91 horses with gastric ulcers. The most frequent concurrent abnormalities found in the remaining 34 horses with gastric ulcers were impaction of the large colon (n = 6), colonic tympany (n = 6), peritonitis (n = 6), gastric impaction (n = 4), ileocecal intussusception (n = 3), small-colon impaction (n = 4), and proximal enteritis (n = 2). Thirteen horses with gastric ulceration underwent abdominal surgery, and in 5 horses, lesions were not found at surgery. Gastric ulceration was determined to be the primary cause of colic in 31 horses on the basis of the lack of other abnormalities, clinical response to treatment with histamine type-2 receptor (H2) antagonists, and confirmation of improvement or resolution of gastric ulceration via endoscopy. Gastric ulceration was the suspected cause of colic in 26 other horses on the basis of the lack of other abnormalities, severity of lesions, and clinical response to treatment with H2 antagonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1644631
Murray, M J
In this lesson, students are given a variety of materials and are asked to design a heat loss experiment that will result in a reasonable explanation of why whales do not have legs. Students will learn that natural selection favors a body design that is energy efficient.
Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the affected compartment at the same time, distance, or intensity of exercise. CECS is a clinical diagnosis; however, it is confirmed by intracompartmental pressure testing. Fasciotomy is the treatment of choice for athletes who would like to maintain the same level of activity. Athletes who have a release of the anterior and lateral compartments have a high success rate. PMID:21063498
Tucker, Alicia K
Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of leg movements experienced by patients with the restless legs syndrome (RLS) during wakefulness using the suggested immobilization test (SIT).Methods: Forty patients with primary RLS who showed an index of leg movements greater than 40 during the SIT were selected for these analyses.Results: In general, Coleman's criteria for scoring PLMS were appropriate for scoring leg
Martin Michaud; Gaétan Poirier; Gilles Lavigne; Jacques Montplaisir
The three "legs" on which science instruction rests are the content of science, process of science, and the nature of science. Each leg performs its own function and need not be competitive with the others. This article uses the metaphor of a three-legged stool to remind teachers that good science instruction must have a balance that is both stable and engaging.
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Restless Legs Syndrome Treated? Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has no cure. If a condition or ... to prevent these side effects. Rate This Content: Restless Legs Syndrome Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...
Laparoscopic techniques have become increasingly used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: in experienced hands, they are safe and feasible. Recovery advantages have not been consistently demonstrated and functional results have been comparable to open surgery. Other possible benefits and costs issues have also been inconsistent. Further investigation on the role of laparoscopic surgery for ulcerative colitis with larger populations and longer follow-up with a focus on recovery parameters, quality of life, and costs are needed.
Skin ulcers are most commonly due to circulatory or metabolic disorders and are a major public health concern. In developed countries, chronic wounds affect more than 1 % of the population and their incidence is expected to follow those observed for diabetes and obesity. In tropical and subtropical countries, an additional issue is the occurrence of ulcers of infectious origins with diverse etiologies. While the severity of cutaneous Leishmaniasis correlates with protective immune responses, Buruli ulcers caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans develop in the absence of major inflammation. Based on these two examples, this review aims to demonstrate how studies on microorganism-provoked wounds can provide insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling skin integrity. We highlight the potential interest of a mouse model of non-inflammatory skin ulceration caused by intradermal injection of mycolactone, an original lipid toxin with ulcerative and immunosuppressive properties produced by M. ulcerans. PMID:24445815
Guenin-Macé, Laure; Oldenburg, Reid; Chrétien, Fabrice; Demangel, Caroline
Chronic skin ulcer (CSU), including diabetic ulcers, venous ulcers, radiation ulcers, and pressure ulcers, remains a great challenge in the clinic. CSU seriously affects the quality of life of patients and requires long-term dedicated care, causing immense socioeconomic costs. CSU can cause the loss of the integrity of large portions of the skin, even leading to morbidity and mortality. Chinese doctors have used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of CSU for many years and have accumulated much experience in clinical practice by combining systemic regulation and tropical treatment of CSU. Here, we discuss the classification and pathogenic process of CSU and strategies of TCM for the intervention of CSU, according to the theories of TCM. Particularly, we describe the potential intervenient strategies of the “qing-hua-bu” protocol with dynamic and combinational TCM therapies for different syndromes of CSU.
Li, Fu-Lun; Wang, Yi-Fei; Li, Xin; Li, Feng; Xu, Rong; Chen, Jie; Geng, Lin; Li, Bin
Summary Background Cellulitis (erysipelas) of the leg is a common, painful infection of the skin and underlying tissue. Repeat episodes are frequent, cause significant morbidity and result in high health service costs. Objectives To assess whether prophylactic antibiotics prescribed after an episode of cellulitis of the leg can prevent further episodes. Methods Double-blind, randomized controlled trial including patients recently treated for an episode of leg cellulitis. Recruitment took place in 20 hospitals. Randomization was by computer-generated code, and treatments allocated by post from a central pharmacy. Participants were enrolled for a maximum of 3 years and received their randomized treatment for the first 6 months of this period. Results Participants (n = 123) were randomized (31% of target due to slow recruitment). The majority (79%) had suffered one episode of cellulitis on entry into the study. The primary outcome of time to recurrence of cellulitis included all randomized participants and was blinded to treatment allocation. The hazard ratio (HR) showed that treatment with penicillin reduced the risk of recurrence by 47% [HR 0·53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·26–1·07, P = 0·08]. In the penicillin V group 12/60 (20%) had a repeat episode compared with 21/63 (33%) in the placebo group. This equates to a number needed to treat (NNT) of eight participants in order to prevent one repeat episode of cellulitis [95% CI NNT(harm) 48 to ? to NNT(benefit) 3]. We found no difference between the two groups in the number of participants with oedema, ulceration or related adverse events. Conclusions Although this trial was limited by slow recruitment, and the result failed to achieve statistical significance, it provides the best evidence available to date for the prevention of recurrence of this debilitating condition.
We studied the common kinematic features of the coxa and trochanter in cursorial and raptorial legs, which are the short size of the podomers, predominantly monoaxial joints, and the approximate orthogonality of adjacent joint axes. The chain coxa-trochanter with its short elements and serial orthogonality of joint axes resembles the gimbals which combine versatility and tolerance to external perturbations. The geometry of legs was studied in 23 insect species of 12 orders. Insects with monoaxial joints were selected. The joint between the trochanter and the femur (TFJ) is defined either by two vestigial condyles or by a straight anterior hinge. Direction of the joint axes in the two basal podomers was assessed by 3D measurements or by goniometry in two planes. Length of the coxa is <15% (mostly <8%) of the total length of the cursorial leg, that of the trochanter <10%. Angles between the proximal and distal joint axes in the middle coxa range from 124 to 84 degrees (mean 97+/-14 degrees ), in the trochanter (in all legs studied) from 125 to 72 degrees (mean 90+/-13 degrees ). Vectors of the distal axis in the coxa are concentrated about the normal to the plane defined by the proximal axis and the midpoint between the distal condyles. These vectors in the trochanter lie at various angles to the normal; angles are correlated with the direction of the TFJ relative to the femur. Range of reduction about the TFJ is over 60 degrees in the foreleg of Ranatra linearis, Mantispa lobata and the hind leg in Carabus coriaceus (confirming observations of previous authors), 40-60 degrees in the foreleg of Vespa crabro and in the middle one in Ammophila campestris, 10-30 degrees in other studied specimens. The special role of the trochanter in autotomy and in active propulsion in some insect groups is discussed. The majority of insects possess small trochanters and slightly movable TFJs with the joint axis laying in the femur-tibia plane. We pose the hypothesis that the TFJ damps external forces, the vectors of which lie off the femur-tibia plane, the reductor muscle acting as a spring. Thus the TFJ contributes to dynamic stability of legged locomotion. PMID:18765299
Frantsevich, Leonid; Wang, Weiying
This paper describes the results of endoscopic dissection of the leg perforating veins in patients suffering from different forms of chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Varicosity was present in 54 (88.4%) and postthrombophlebitis in 7 (11.6%) patients. Before operation the patients were provided ultrasound Doppler and duplex scanning. Microcirculation was examined by laser Doppler flowmetry. The study evidences decreased perfusion of the superficial skin layers during the growth of arteriolo-venular blood shunting that occurs because of phlebohypertension. For endoscopic dissection of the leg perforating veins an original titanium nickelide clips was employed, which allowed ligation of the veins measuring over 5 mm via a standard endoscopic canal. The use of the given technique made it possible to minimize the time of operation, to decrease traumatic injury of intervention due to the exclusion of incisions in the area of trophic disorders. The mean time required for ulcerous defect healing accounted for 32.3+/-1.7 days. Regulation of lower limb microcirculation was restored 3 months after surgical treatment. PMID:17053763
Zherlov, G K; Plotnikov, E V; Chirkov, D N
The aim of this study was to determine the rate of venous ulcer recurrence and the level of compliance in patients wearing European class 1 or class 2 compression stockings. A total of 100 patients with healed venous leg ulcers were recruited, and were randomised to either class 1 (n = 50) or class 2 (n = 50) compression stockings. Follow-up was at 1 week, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months to monitor ulcer recurrence and compliance. Patients had a duplex scan to identify the source of venous incompetence. The rate of ulcer recurrence after 12 months was 16·1%, and the difference in recurrence rate between classes was not statistically significant (P = 0·287) although greater numbers in class 1 developed a recurrence. Participants (88·9%) were compliant; non-compliant patients were at a significantly greater risk of recurrence (P? 0·0001). Thirteen patients had both superficial and deep incompetence; those randomised to class 1 stockings (n = 4) developed ulcer recurrence. Patients with a history of multiple episodes of ulceration were more likely to develop a recurrence (P = 0·001). The lowest venous ulcer recurrence rates were seen in patients who were compliant with hosiery regardless of the compression level. Patients with both superficial and deep incompetence had a lower rate of recurrence with class 2 compression. PMID:23078587
Clarke-Moloney, Mary; Keane, Niamh; O'Connor, Veronica; Ryan, Mary Anna; Meagher, Helen; Grace, Pierce A; Kavanagh, Eamon; Walsh, Stewart R; Burke, Paul E
AIMS Whether corticosteroids induce peptic ulcer disease (PUD) remains uncertain. The study evaluated and compared the occurrence of PUD between nephrotic patients receiving oral prednisolone therapy and nephritic patients without steroid therapy. METHODS The prospective case control study compared 60 nephrotic syndrome patients who received 60 mg daily prednisolone therapy for 3 months with 30 age-and sex-matched nephritic patients without steroid therapy. Each patient underwent endoscopic examination and tissue and blood sampling before and after the study. Examined parameters included Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, and gastric and serum prostaglandin (PG) E2 and thromboxane (TX) B2 concentrations. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of endoscopic peptic ulcers between the two groups, while the secondary end point was the occurrence of ulcer complications. RESULTS The two groups were comparable in sex, age, smoking habits, alcohol drinking, past history of PUD, H. pylori infection rate and serum creatinine. There were no differences in the occurrence of endoscopic peptic ulcers (1.6% vs. 3.3%) and ulcer complications (0% vs. 0%), pre-therapy gastric PGE2, and pre- and post-therapy gastric TXB2, serum PGE2 and serum TXB2 between the two groups. However, there was significantly lower post-therapy gastric PGE2 concentrations in the prednisolone group. CONCLUSIONS Three-month therapy with 60 mg daily prednisolone caused few endoscopic ulcers (1.6%) and no ulcer complications in nephrotic patients. Corticosteroids therapy did not increase PUD in nephrotic syndrome patients [odds ratio 0.492 with 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03, 8.142, P= 0.620]. Further larger studies are needed to clarify the role of corticosteroids in PUD.
Hsiang, Kuo-Wei; Ng, Yee-Yung; Lu, Ching-Liang; Chen, Tseng-Shing; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Wu, Jia-Min; Lin, Han-Chieh; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Shou-Dong
The causes of leg pain in the athlete are diverse. Pain can relate to more common etiologies, such as musculotendinous injury to the hamstrings and Achilles tendon as well as stress injury to bone, with tibial stress injuries comprising the most common cause for lower leg pain in athletes. Less-common causes include chronic exertional compartment syndrome and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, both of which cause pain as a result of muscle ischemia. Radiologic evaluation plays an important role in differentiating among the many possible causes of leg pain and is often essential in determining degree of injury as well as in documenting healing before patient return to athletic activity. With PAES and hamstring and Achilles injuries, imaging may be helpful in surgical planning as well as in determining an underlying anatomic cause for injury. Several of these conditions can be evaluated with multiple different imaging modalities. The imaging modality of choice should be selected based on the sensitivity and specificity of the imaging examination but should also be tailored to each individual patient after determining comorbidities that may preclude certain types of imaging as well as assessing the patient's ability to undergo such testing. PMID:22341013
Bresler, Michael; Mar, Winnie; Toman, Jordan
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes two similar yet distinct conditions called ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). These diseases affect the digestive system and cause the inflammation of intestinal tissue, form sores and bleed easily. Most children with IBD are diagnosed in late childhood and adolescence. However, both UC and CD have been reported as early as in infancy.
Jun Yun; Chang-Tai Xu; Bo-Rong Pan
Mucosal tissues are vulnerable to nasal pressure ulcers (NPUs) secondary to nasogastric tubes, and can cause hospital-associated complications and increased length of stay. The findings of this study suggest a commercially available device significantly reduces NPUs and is more adherent compared to conventional adhesive taping. PMID:24933786
Ambutas, Shirley; Staffileno, Beth A; Fogg, Louis
Various investigators have reported that relapses after healing of duodenal ulcers with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS, De-Nol®) occur less frequently than after healing with H2- antagonists. To date, treatment with CBS has been limited to 8 weeks. After a volunteer study showed that prolonged administration of CBS did not cause safety problems, a trial was undertaken in which the effects
Bianchi Porro; M. Lazzaroni; W. R. E. Cortvriendt
A 54-year-old man presented with progressive asymmetric leg pain and weakness. He had a history of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that was fully treated 2 years earlier. His leg symptoms progressed relentlessly during several months. Imaging studies demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina and leptomeninges of the lower spinal cord. Initial cerebrospinal fluid examination showed an elevated protein concentration and lymphocytic pleocytosis with no malignant cells on cytological analysis. There was short-term improvement in symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities with intravenous steroids. Two additional cerebrospinal fluid studies showed normal cytological findings, elevated IgG synthesis, and elevated antibody titers to varicella-zoster virus. Over time, the patient worsened, developed cranial neuropathies, and ultimately died. The pathological diagnosis and the approach to the clinical data are discussed. PMID:23440264
Navalkele, Digvijaya D; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Burns, Dennis K; Greenberg, Tasha; Vernino, Steven
Leg soft tissue defects with bone or tendon exposure need to be covered with a flap. Various local and free flaps with more or less consistent donor site defects have been described in the past. After the introduction of the perforator-based flap concept, new flaps have also been described for the leg. An evolution and simplification of the perforator flap concept, together with the 'free style' flap harvesting method, are the propeller flaps, i.e. local flaps, based on a perforator vessel, which becomes the pivot point for the skin island that can, therefore, be rotated up to 180 degrees . In this prospective study, six consecutive patients, having post-traumatic soft tissue defects of the leg or knee prosthesis infection, with bone or tendon exposure, were treated with propeller flaps. Complete and stable coverage of the soft tissue losses was obtained in all cases with an inconspicuous, only cosmetic, donor site defect. No flap necrosis was observed, with the exception of a small superficial necrosis of the tip of one flap, due to the inclusion in the design of scarred tissue. In two cases, transient venous congestion was observed and resolved spontaneously. Mean operative time was 2 h (ranging from 60 min to 6 h when an orthopaedic procedure was also needed) and mean hospital stay after surgery was 10 days. Propeller flaps allow the coverage of wide defects, can be raised with a relatively simple surgical technique, have a high success rate and good cosmetic results without functional impairment. In the light of this they can be considered among the first surgical choices to resurface complex soft tissue defects of the leg. PMID:18450531
Pignatti, Marco; Pasqualini, Monica; Governa, Maurizio; Bruti, Massimiliano; Rigotti, Gino
The data acquisition facility for the LEGS medium energy photonuclear beam line is composed of an auxiliary crate controller (ACC) acting as a front-end processor, loosely coupled to a time-sharing host computer based on a UNIX-like environment. The ACC services all real-time demands in the CAMAC crate: it responds to LAMs generated by data acquisition modules, to keyboard commands, and
M. J. LeVine
Abstract—New areas of research ,focus on bridging the gap between mobile robotics on land and atsea. This paper describes the evolution of RHex, a power-autonomous legged land-based robot, into one capable of both sea and land-based locomotion. In working towards an amphibious robot, three versions ofRHex with increasing levels of aquatic capability were created. While all three platforms share the
Chris Prahacs; Aaron Saunders; Matthew K. Smith; Dave McMordie; Martin Buehler
Gastric anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the gastric mucosal penetration of the Anisakis larvae ingested with raw fish. Acute gastric anisakiasis is diagnosed by the endoscopic visualization of Anisakis larvae along with mucosal edema, erythema, hemorrhage, and/or an ulcer, whereas chronic anisakiasis is often observed as a localized tumor commonly occurring in the submucosal layer, and is characterized by eosinophilic granuloma with edema and embedded Anisakis larvae on pathological examination of surgical specimens. We report here a case of chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer, which is a rare clinical manifestation of this condition.
Kang, Dong Baek; Park, Won Cheol
Due to its increased presence in the press and on television, the diagnosis of lipedema is on the way to becoming a trendy diagnosis for those with thick legs. Despite this, one must recognize that lipedema is a very rare disease. It is characterized by disproportional obesity of the extremities, especially in the region of the hip and the legs, hematoma development after minimal trauma, and increased pressure-induced or spontaneous pain. Aids for making the correct diagnosis are (duplex) sonography, the waist-hip index or the waist-height index and lymphoscintigraphy. Important differential diagnoses are constitutional variability of the legs, lipohypertrophy in obesity, edema in immobility, edema in chronic venous insufficiency and rheumatic diseases. The symptom-based therapy of lipedema consists of conservative (compression, manual lymphatic drainage, exercise) and surgical treatments (liposuction). Until now there is no curative therapy. Obesity is an important risk factor for the severity and prognosis of lipedema. Further studies for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of lipedema and in the end possible curative treatments are urgently needed. PMID:23231593
Reich-Schupke, Stefanie; Altmeyer, Peter; Stücker, Markus
The epidemics we have observed, were due to the presence and growth in the frogs of Bacillus hydrophilus fuscus. This was proved by recovering the bacillus in pure culture from the body fluids of frogs sick or dead of the disease, and the inoculation of healthy frogs with an emulsion of the pure culture, and by obtaining the same clinical picture and pathological findings as in the original diseased frogs; and, finally, by recovering the bacillus in pure culture from frogs inoculated and sick or dying as a result of the inoculation. The disease is widely distributed throughout North America and Europe, and in this country and Canada is known as "red-leg." It has been observed by us chiefly in the warm weather of September and October. The disease is characterized by congestion of the ventral surfaces of the body, with more or less ulceration in, and hæmorrhage beneath, the skin, bloating due to serous exudation into the lymph sacs, gradual failure to respond to stimuli, which symptoms are followed by coma and death, the last being occasionally preceded by tetanic seizures. After death hæmorrhages into the muscles and degenerative changes in the muscles, spleen, liver, and, to a slight degree, in the intestinal tract, are found. The blood shows an advanced degree of anæmia and leucocytosis. Predisposing causes of the disease are lesions of the skin, which seem to be the usual portal of entry of the infection, and lowered resistance from heat and from anæmia. By a series of controlled experiments with inoculated frogs we have shown that, while temperatures a little above freezing have no harmful effect upon the frogs, they completely control all manifestations of the disease in inoculated or diseased frogs, if the frogs are left in the cold for a period as long as seven days; and, further, that even short periods in the cold chamber will bring about a delay of the fatal results in diseased or inoculated frogs. The anæmia so often found in apparently healthy frogs seems in many cases to be due to the presence in the lungs of the frog of a parasite, the Distomum cylindraceum, which, occurring in sufficiently large numbers in an individual frog, is capable of materially diminishing the available supply of red corpuscles. Severe laking of the blood, the presence of numerous isolated red-cell nuclei, and great diminution in the number, or almost total absence of the red cells in the diseased frogs, are in proportion to the severity of the infection and due to bacterial action. The presence of the hæmatozoan parasite, the Drepanidium, does not play any part as a predisposing or exciting cause of the disease. The ascarid Rhabdomena nigrovenosum, although frequently present as a parasite in the lungs of the frogs, plays no part in causing or promoting the disease.
Emerson, Haven; Norris, Charles
We present a patient with a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma/mycosis fungoides (CTCL/MF) followed for more than 10 years. After several different aggressive treatments to control progression of CTCL/MF, the patient developed several ulcerated tumors on the abdomen and limbs. Specific systemic antibiotic therapy failed to treat skin infection. While treating the stage III CTCL with polychemotherapy, we used an active colloidal hydrogel topically to manage wound healing and to treat and prevent potential sources of sepsis. After 11 weeks of treatment we observed complete cicatrization of ulcerated tumors. We reported on this case to describe the importance of a correct management of skin ulcers in immunosuppressed patients in order to avoid possible systemic spread of infection which represents the major cause of death in these patients. PMID:16638409
Panasiti, Vincenzo; Devirgiliis, Valeria; Borroni, Riccardo G; Rossi, Mariarita; Curzio, Michela; Mancini, Monica; Bottoni, Ugo; Calvieri, Stefano
Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, increased inflammatory injury of colon mucosa shown by colonoscopy and elevated peripheral eosinophil count after mesalamine suppositories administration, and the Naranjo algorithm score of 10, the possibility of hypersensitivity reaction to mesalamine suppositories should be considered, warning us to be aware of this potential reaction after administration of mesalamine formulations even if it is the suppositories. PMID:24707159
Ding, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Jing
A patient with ulcerated gastric cancer causing mild anaemia and simultaneous three-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent “off pump” coronary artery bypass grafting (OP-CABG) and total D2 gastrectomy.
Cantarella, F; Graziosi, L; Cavazzoni, E; Severini, D; Da Col, U; Ragni, T; Donini, A
The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.
Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.
The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common central nervous system disorder. It is characterized by complaints of unpleasant sensation in the legs occurring during periods of leg inactivity which worsen or only occur in the evening or at night and relieved partially or totally by movement. The RLS may be idiopathic or due to secondary causes. It is associated with several pathological or physiological conditions. Iron metabolism and dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system are the most important factors in the pathophysiology. There are several studies suggesting multiple sclerosis as one of the causes of symptomatic RLS. Here, we report a case of RLS as the initial presentation of MS. The sudden onset of RLS symptoms in our patient suggested the possibility of an underlying cause. His diagnostic evaluation excluded other causes of RLS and his clinical course suggested that RLS was due to MS. MS with the spinal cord involvement is mostly associated with RLS, but any lesion in the hypothalamic-spinal connection may cause disinhibition of lower spinal levels, resulting in RLS. RLS as the initial presentation of MS reflects that the pathophysiology of RLS in MS is related to inflammatory demyelination rather than axonal degeneration.
Vurall?, Doga; Karacay Ozkalayc?, Sebnem
In patients with no known systemic disease or immune dysfunction, necrotizing periodontitis (NUP) appears to share many of the clinical and etiologic characteristics of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) except that patients with NUP demonstrate loss of clinical attachment and alveolar bone at affected sites. In these patients, NUP may be a sequela of a single or multiple episodes of NUG or may be the result of the occurrence of necrotizing disease at a previously periodontitis-affected site. The existence of immune dysfunction may predispose patients to NUG and NUP, especially when associated with an infection of microorganisms frequently associated with periodontal disease such as Treponema and Selenomonas species, Fuscobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The role of immune dysfunction is exemplified by the occasionally aggressive nature of necrotic forms of periodontal disease seen in patients with HIV infection or malnutrition, both of which may impact host defenses. Clinical studies of HIV-infected patients have shown that patients with NUP are 20.8 times more likely to have CD4+ cell counts below 200 cells/mm3. However, these same studies have demonstrated that most patients with CD4+ cell counts below 200 cells/mm do not have NUP, suggesting that other factors, in addition to immunocompromisation, are involved. Further studies are needed to define the complex interactions between the microbial, or viral, etiology of necrotic lesions and the immunocompromised host. It is, therefore, recommended that NUG and NUP be classified together under the grouping of necrotizing periodontal diseases based on their clinical characteristics. PMID:10863377
Novak, M J
We have developed a device for walking rehabilitation which has a treadmill in a lower body positive pressure (LBPP) chamber to unload the lower extremities. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge of effects of gravity, LBPP, and walking on leg fluid turnover in standing human. Prolonged standing caused swelling in the legs due to an effect of hydrostatic pressure. Circumferences of leg gradually increased during standing still and reached a plateau level after 30-40 minutes. Exposure to LBPP significantly improved the swelling in the thigh, suggesting that the LBPP possibly reduces fluid filtration by decreasing transmural pressure gradient in the capillaries and/or increases lymphatic outflow from the tissue. Walking also decreased the leg swelling by muscle pump activity, and this effect was further enhanced by applying LBPP. These results suggest that applying LBPP can change the body fluid turnover, resulting in a decrease in the tissue fluid of the legs in standing and walking human.
Matsuo, Satoshi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kawai, Yasuaki
Passive leg raising is a simple diagnostic maneuver that has been proposed as a measure of arterial vasodilator reserve and possibly endothelial function. While passive leg raising has previously been shown to lower blood pressure, increase flow velocity and cause brachial artery dilation, its effects on microvascular flow has not been well studied. Also, passive leg raising has been directly compared previously to upper arm but never to lower arm occlusion of blood flow induced hyperemia responses. We compared changes in macrovascular indices measured by brachial artery ultrasound and microvascular perfusion measured by Laser Doppler Flowmetry induced by passive leg raising to those provoked by upper arm and lower arm induced hyperemia in healthy subjects. Upper arm induced hyperemia increased mean flow velocity by 398%, induced brachial artery dilatation by 16.3%, and increased microvascular perfusion by 246% (p<.05 for all). Lower arm induced hyperemia increased flow velocity by 227%, induced brachial artery dilatation by 10.8%, and increased microvascular perfusion by 281%. Passive leg raising increased flow velocity by 29% and brachial artery dilatation by 5.6% (p<.05 for all), but did not change microvascular perfusion (-5%, p=ns). In conclusion, passive leg raising increases flow velocity orders of magnitude less than does upper arm or lower arm induced hyperemia. Passive leg raising-induced brachial artery dilatation is less robust than either of these hyperemic techniques. Finally, although upper arm and lower arm hyperemia elicits macrovascular and microvascular responses, passive leg raising elicits only macrovascular responses. PMID:23261755
Bapat, Manasi; Musikantow, Daniel; Khmara, Kseniya; Chokshi, Priya; Khanna, Neel; Galligan, Sean; Kamran, Haroon; Salciccioli, Louis; Barone, Frank C; Lazar, Jason M
Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous condition which is relatively common in adults but rarely affects children. The present study is a report on an unusual case of ulcerative oral LP involving the dorsum of tongue in a 12-year-old boy. Patient complained of painful oral lesion on the tongue which was burning in nature and obstructing talking and eating spicy foods. On intraoral examination, a white ulcerative lesion on the dorsum of tongue was observed. Diagnosis was made based on clinical examination and histopathological features. We instituted local treatment and patient responded well to the treatment. Although rarely reported in childhood, lichen planus should be considered in a differential diagnosis of hyperkeratotic, reticular, and ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa in children.
Padmini, Chiyadu; Bai, K. Yellamma; Chaitanya, Vinil; Reddy, M. Shilpa
In 69 patients with recidivation ulcer after an operation of the stomach (51 times Billroth II and 18 times Billroth I) was investigated whether or not there are differences in the localisation of an ulcer. In patients operated on according to Billroth II ulcers of the anastomoses are dominating, whereas in patients operated on according to Billroth I the majority of ulcers is to be found in the residual stomach. The causes for the deviating distribution pattern are not unequivocal. Changed diagnostics (in the first place endoscopy), different effect of the bile reflux, differing colonisation with Campylobacter pylori and differences in the size of the resection are discussed. The free interval between operation and recidivation of ulcer is distinctly shorter in Billroth I patients. PMID:2336868
Bretzke, G; List, A
Duodenal and gastric ulcer are chronic often recurring conditions that in the past were grouped together as peptic ulcer. Many diverse environmental and genetic factors, which create an imbalance between secretion of acid and pepsin by by the stomach and ...
F. C. Garland E. D. Gorham
Introduction Diabetic foot ulceration is full-thickness penetration of the dermis of the foot in a person with diabetes. Severity is classified using the Wagner system, which grades it from 1 to 5. The annual incidence of ulcers among people with diabetes is 2.5% to 10.7% in resource-rich countries, and the annual incidence of amputation for any reason is 0.25% to 1.8%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent foot ulcers and amputations in people with diabetes? What are the effects of treatments in people with diabetes with foot ulceration? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 50 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: debridement, human cultured dermis, human skin equivalent, patient education, pressure off-loading with felted foam or pressure-relief half-shoe, pressure off-loading with total-contact or non-removable casts, screening and referral to foot-care clinics, systemic hyperbaric oxygen for non-infected ulcers, systemic hyperbaric oxygen in infected ulcers, therapeutic footwear, topical growth factors, and wound dressings.
Pressure ulcers are a largely avoidable, but serious health problem in the UK. Nurses should be knowledgeable of the signs and symptoms of pressure ulcers, and preventive strategies to reduce their incidence. This article explores the literature on nurses' understanding and use of risk assessment tools to identify patients at increased risk of developing pressure ulcers and how, if at all, this contributes to fewer pressure ulcers in the healthcare setting. PMID:23705257
Joseph, Jamuna; Clifton, Sian Davies
Raynaud, digital ulcers and calcinosis are frequent manifestations of patients with systemic sclerosis. Digital ulcers are seen in more than half of the patients with scleroderma. Hospitalizations, ischemic complications and impairment of hand function are frequently observed in patients with digital ulcers, especially if treatment is delayed. Rapid and intensive treatment escalation in patients with scleroderma and refractory Raynaud's phenomenon is one of the most effective preventive action available in order to avoid the development of digital ulcers and tissue loss. PMID:22835924
New models and theories of legged locomotion are needed to better explain and predict the robustly stable legged locomotion of animals and some bio-inspired robots. In this paper we observe that a hip-torque and leg-damping mechanism is fundamental to many legged robots and some animals and determine its affect on locomotion dynamics. We discuss why this hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism is not so easily understood. We investigate how hip-torque and leg-damping affect the stability and robustness of locomotion using a mathematical model: First, we extend the canonical spring-loaded-inverted-pendulum model to include constant hip torque and leg damping proportional to leg length speed. Then, we calculate the stability and robustness of locomotion as a function of increasing levels of torque and damping, starting from zero-the energy conserving and marginally stable special case-to high levels of torque and damping. We find that the stabilizing effects of hip-torque and leg-damping occur in the context of the piecewise-continuous dynamics of legged locomotion, and so linear intuition does not apply. We discover that adding hip torque and leg damping changes the stability of legged locomotion in an unexpected way. When a small amount of torque and damping are added, legged locomotion is initially destabilized. As more torque and damping are added, legged locomotion turns stable and becomes increasingly more stable and more robust the more torque and damping are added. Also, stable locomotion becomes more probable over the biologically-relevant region of the parameter space, indicating greater prediction and explanatory capabilities of the model. These results provide a more clear understanding of the hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism of legged locomotion, and extend existing theory of legged locomotion towards a greater understanding of robustly stable locomotion. PMID:22989956
Shen, Z H; Seipel, J E
A great part of diabetic ulcers on the lower extremities have difficult healing and represent the most common cause of non-traumatic amputation In case of patients unresponsive to the classical therapy with debridement, dressings and systemic antibiotic therapy, cell therapy may be an excellent indication. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of autologous skin cell (fibroblasts and keratinocytes) implants cultivated ex vivo and applied to long-standing (9-34 years) skin ulcers of five diabetic patients (4 DM2 and 1 DM1) with autologous fibrin glue. There were six ulcers of onset between 4 months and 20 years before and from 4.0 to 36.62 cm(2) in size, located on the lower limbs and unresponsive to the several conventional treatments. Complete healing was observed in five ulcers (83.3%), after 21-120 days. The patient who presented the largest ulcer had partial improvement in 40 days. It is believed that the more distal ulcer location is, the worse is its prognosis. There probably is a correlation between healing time, ulcer size and prior duration. No adverse reactions derived from the treatment occurred. It is concluded that this method is an excellent therapeutic option for diabetic ulcers, allowing faster healing. Its great advantage is being a minimally invasive procedure that can be carried out in an outpatient clinic. PMID:21442296
Marcelo, Dinato; Beatriz, Puzzi Maria; Jussara, Rehder; Fabiana, Batista
Excessive wound exudate in chronic wounds can cause skin maceration to occur around a wound, which may delay healing and lead to other complications. In order to assess possible treatment options with topical therapy there is a need to characterize the permeability of wound and peri-ulcer tissue. Previously we have reported the permeability of a range of chemicals with differing physicochemical properties in human ulcerated and peri-ulcer ischaemic tissue. The findings suggested that wound tissue and peri-ulcer tissue were not representative of normally functioning skin barriers. In the present work we have investigated the permeability of tritiated water in peri-ulcer and whole skin human tissue obtained from clinically diagnosed diabetic ischaemic patients. Permeability data for peri-ulcer tissue was generally higher and more variable than for normal tissue. Histological examination confirmed the breakdown of the skin tissue in the peri-ulcer area and also in the normal skin tissue samples taken from diabetic ischaemic patients. The impaired skin barrier function both in the peri-ulcer and normal tissue may offer opportunities for dermal and transdermal therapies for management of diabetes-related complications. PMID:18372129
Walker, Mike; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E
A 24-hour-old colt presented with clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration. Treatment was initiated with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist and clinical signs resolved. Gastroscopy at 16 d confirmed the presence of a gastric ulcer. Although gastric ulceration is common in foals, it is rarely reported in foals this young. PMID:12757136
The association between chronic ulcers and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) is well established. Their clinical presentations, however, are varied, ranging from innocously appearing lesions to overtly exophytic growths. We present a series of cases with heterogeneous clinical presentations and different treatment outcomes. Case series - patient 1 was a 69-year-old man with an 18-month history of static non healing venous leg ulcer, but no sinister features, biopsy was performed to rule out Marjolin's transformation, histology revealed SCC and treatment was simple excision and skin grafting; patient 2 was a 73-year-old lady with an 18-month history of non healing ulcer (innocuous appearance) over distal interphalangeal joint of index finger, histology revealed SCC with deeper extension and treatment was amputation of distal half of finger; patient 3 was a 73-year-old lady with a 12-month history of non healing fungating leg ulcer with irregular borders and everted edges, histology revealed SCC (tumour eroding tibia and distant metastasis) and treatment was above-knee amputation, radiotherapy and palliation. Whilst SCC is amenable to simple excision in the early stages, delay in diagnosis could result in loss of the affected digit or limb; an SCC which has metastasised is also life threatening. Therefore, a low threshold to biopsy static non healing ulcers or ulcers in unusual sites should be adopted even in those not manifesting any evidence of malignancy. PMID:16722875
Enoch, Stuart; Miller, David R; Price, Patricia E; Harding, Keith G
Background Chronic skin ulcers such as diabetic ulcers and venous leg ulcers are increasing and are a costly problem in health care. We have developed a novel artificial dermis, collagen/gelatin sponge (CGS), that is capable of the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for more than 10 days. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CGS impregnated with bFGF in the treatment of chronic skin ulcers. Methods/ Design Seventeen patients (? 20 years of age) with chronic skin ulcers that have not healed by conventional therapy for at least 4 weeks are being recruited. Patients will be applied with CGS impregnated with bFGF of 7 ?g/cm2 or 14 ?g/cm2 after debridement, and the wound bed improvement will be assessed 14 days after application. “Wound bed improvement” is defined as a granulated and epithelialized area on Day 14 in proportion to the baseline wound area after debridement of 50% or higher. Patients will be followed up until 28 days after application to observe the adverse events related to the application of CGS. Conclusion This study has been designed to address the safety and efficacy of CGS impregnated with bFGF. If successful, this intervention may be an alternative to bioengineered skin substitutes and lead to substantial and important changes in the management of chronic skin ulcers such as diabetic ulcers and venous ulcers.
Morimoto, Naoki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Niimi, Miyuki; Ito, Tatsuya; Tada, Harue; Teramukai, Satoshi; Murayama, Toshinori; Toyooka, Chikako; Takemoto, Satoru; Kawai, Katsuya; Yokode, Masayuki; Shimizu, Akira; Suzuki, Shigehiko
The anatomical and functional status of the epifascial and subfascial lymphatic compartments was analyzed using two compartment lymphoscintigraphy in five groups of patients (total 55) with various forms of edema of the lower extremities. Digital whole body scintigraphy enabled semiquantitative estimation of radiotracer transport with comparison of lymphatic drainage between those individuals without (normal) and those with leg edema by calculating the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical transported to regional lymph nodes. A visual assessment of the lymphatic drainage pathways of the legs was also performed. In patients with cyclic idiopathic edema, an accelerated rate of lymphatic transport was detected (high lymph volume overload or dynamic insufficiency). In those with venous (phlebo) edemas, high volume lymphatic overload (dynamic insufficiency) of the epifascial compartment was scintigraphically detected by increased tracer uptake in regional nodes. In patients with deep femoral venous occlusion (post-thrombotic syndrome). subfascial lymphatic transport was uniformly markedly reduced (safety valve lymphatic insufficiency). On the other hand, in the epifascial compartment, lymph transport was accelerated. In those patients with recurrent or extensive skin ulceration, lymph transport was reduced. Patients with lipedema (obesity) scintigraphically showed no alteration in lymphatic transport. This study demonstrates that lymphatic drainage is notably affected (except in obesity termed lipedema) in various edemas of the leg. Lymphatic drainage varied depending on the specific compartment and the pathophysiologic mechanism accounting for the edema. Two compartment lymphoscintigraphy is a valuable diagnostic tool for accurate assessment of leg edema of known and unknown origin. PMID:9664268
Bräutigam, P; Földi, E; Schaiper, I; Krause, T; Vanscheidt, W; Moser, E
Recent studies indicate that human locomotion is quadrupedal in nature. An automatic rhythm-generating system is thought to play a crucial role in controlling arm and leg movements. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate differences between intrinsic arm and leg automaticity by investigating cadence variability during simultaneous arm and leg (AL) cycling. Participants performed AL cycling with visual feedback of arm or leg cadence. Participants were asked to focus their attention to match the predetermined cadence; this affects the automaticity of the rhythm-generating system. Leg cadence variability was only mildly affected when the participants intended to precisely adjust either their arm or leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. In contrast, arm cadence variability significantly increased when the participants adjusted their leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms underlie the automaticities of arm and leg cycling and that the latter is stronger than the former during AL cycling. PMID:24548625
Sakamoto, Masanori; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Endoh, Takashi; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi
Over a period of 6 months, dozens of moon jelly (Aurelia aurita) medusae from a single-species exhibit at the California Science Center (CSC) developed exumbrellar ulcers. Ulcers were progressive, causing umbrellar creases that expanded radially to the bell rim and occasional adoral erosions that extended into gastrovascular cavities. Husbandry interventions, including addition of ultraviolet light sterilizers, repopulation with fresh cultures, and enclosure disinfection, did not arrest the recurrence of lesions. Biopsies or whole specimens representing 17 medusae (15 affected and 2 grossly unaffected) from CSC and 2 control medusae from Aquarium of the Pacific were submitted to a private diagnostic laboratory and processed for light and electron microscopy. Microscopic lesions were present in all CSC medusae and were not observed or negligible in control medusae. Lesions included ulceration, necrosis, and hyperplasia in all umbrellar layers, with most severe lesions in the exumbrella and amoebocyte infiltration in the underlying mesoglea. Special stains, electron microscopy, and fungal culture did not associate microorganisms with the lesions. Bacterial cultures from the CSC population consistently grew Shewanella and Vibrio spp, both of which were considered commensal. Trauma and environmental stress are proposed as possible causes for the ulcers. PMID:23024139
LaDouceur, E E B; Garner, M M; Wynne, J; Fish, S; Adams, L
A 39-year-old female presented to our hospital with diarrhea, vomiting, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Virtual enteroscopy was performed to evaluate the small bowel; we found annular stenoses at 89, 100, 116, 147, and 154 cm from the ligament of Treitz. Small bowel resection was performed, and annular ulcers were confirmed at 58, 71, 90, 130, 138, 218, and 225 cm from the ligament of Treitz. Clinical records and pathological examination failed to determine the cause of these ulcers, and we diagnosed chronic multiple ulcers of the small intestine. Thus, we believe that virtual enteroscopy can be beneficial in preoperatively diagnosing multiple ulcers and stenoses in the small bowel. PMID:24769465
Yoshikawa, Toshiyuki; Shirane, Hisafumi; Matsuda, Masanori; Suzuki, Naoyuki; Kurokami, Takafumi; Taki, Yusuke; Arai, Kazumori; Kikuyama, Masataka
This article is a review of larval therapy and includes a case study that uses larval therapy in the treatment of complex leg ulcer wounds. Complex wounds require careful management from the multidisciplinary team and present clinicians with intricate challenges to save the limb. Wound-bed preparation and debridement needs to be as effective and non-traumatic as possible for the patient. Larval therapy removes the devitalised tissue effectively with minimal tissue trauma. This case study reports on a patient with a non-progressing, full-thickness wound with exposed tendon following reconstructive surgery at a local vascular unit. The patient was left with very limited treatment options, as traditional dressings for the arterial ulcer nearly resulted in amputation due to the deterioration in the wound. As part of the patient's management, she was treated with larval therapy in an attempt to salvage her limb. This article follows the progress of complex leg ulcer wounds employing BioFoam® dressing (BioMonde, Bridgend) for larvae debridement therapy over a 4-week period and incorporating five applications of three BioFoam dressing bags. This care pathway ensured the patient's safety by promoting effective wound healing with the larval therapy leading to excellent clinical patient outcomes. PMID:23587971
While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?
Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.