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Management of leg ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leg ulcer is a leading cause of morbidity among older subjects, especially women in the Western world. About 400 years BC, Hippocrates wrote, “In case of an ulcer, it is not expedient to stand, especially if the ulcer be situated on the leg”. Hippocrates himself had a leg ulcer. The best treatment of any leg ulcer depends upon the accurate

P K Sarkar; S Ballantyne



Leg ulcers and lymphoedema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leg ulcers are a common and costly problem that can be influenced by a number of medical conditions. It is imperative that the correct diagnosis is made and therefore a thorough medical history plus careful examination of the wound and the surrounding skin is required. At each visit the maximal longitudinal length should be recorded and the wound documented photographically.

Kate Short; Richard Bull



Venous leg ulcer pain.  


Venous disease and venous leg ulcers are frequently painful. The pain experienced may be constant or intermittent. Constant pain can originate from vascular structures (superficial, deep phlebitis), pitting edema, collagen (lipodermatosclerosis), infection, or scarring (atrophie blanche). Ulcer region pain is often episodic and may be due to surgical or other debridement procedures. Intermittent pain is often related to dressing removal or recent applications of new dressings. An approach to pain control will consider the cause of pain and utilize local measures, regional approaches to edema control, and systemic medication aimed at constant, episodic, or intermittent pain triggers. PMID:12856289

Ryan, Siobhan; Eager, Cathy; Sibbald, R Gary



[Mixed leg ulcers].  


Coexisting peripheral arterial disease is not uncommon (15 - 21 %) in patients with ulcera cruris primarily based on a venous etiology. Patient's history, clinical examination and detection of ABI as well as duplex scan will establish diagnosis of mixed arterial-venous ulcera. Clinical significance of coexisting arterial disease is often difficult to define and should be evaluated by a vascular specialist. The concept of treatment of mixed ulcers should always include the arterial component. Frequently peripheral arterial perfusion and healing can be improved by minimal invasive, endovascular revascularization. Compression therapy is the corner stone in treatment of venous disease and should be complemented by contemporary two piece graduated compression systems if ulcera are present. According to circumstances ablation of varicose veins must be considered. PMID:21360460

Willenberg, Torsten



Leg ulcerations in livedoid vasculitis.  


Leg ulcerations associated with livedoid vasculitis may undergo a benign or very serious course depending on the presence of underlying disease. The disease has fairly distinctive clinical and histopathologic features, and it should be considered in cases of ulcerations refractory to conventional treatment. Most of these cases may eventually heal after a long course of intermittent eruptions and ulcerations. However, in rare instances, the loss of limbs may be unavoidable. PMID:3889951

Cabbabe, E B; Clift, S D



Venous leg ulcers.  


In 1837, Piorry, a French professor of medicine stated, "It is rather difficult to understand why the investigation of veins has been passed over almost in silence, while such a great diagnostic value has been attached to the investigation of arteries." Even today, our understanding of venous disease pales in comparison to our understanding of arterial disease. This is despite the fact that millions of Americans are afflicted with chronic venous insufficiency and hundreds of thousands suffer from debilitating lower extremity venous ulcers. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of venous disease is necessary to provide appropriate and efficient medical care for patients suffering from lower extremity venous ulcerations. PMID:14614698

Gonsalves, Carin F



Chronic ulcer of the leg: clinical history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hundred patients with chronic leg ulcers were studied by detailed history and examination as part of a population survey. In 22% ulceration began before the age of 40, and in this group the sex incidence was equal. Over age 40 there was an increasing preponderance of women. Ulcers were significantly more common in the left leg in women but

M J Callam; D R Harper; J J Dale; C V Ruckley



Painful leg ulceration: a prospective, longitudinal cohort study.  


This study aimed to explore the relationship between pain mechanism, pain intensity, and leg ulcer characteristics using a 6-month longitudinal cohort study in a community setting in the north of England. Patients with leg ulceration referred consecutively to district nurses were invited to participate (n=96). The main outcome measures were pain intensity using daily visual analogue scores, leg ulcer characteristics (etiology, size, location, duration), and LANSS (Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs). Results suggested that type, duration, position, and size of the leg ulcer had no effect on average daily pain scores. Using the LANSS questionnaire, 43.5% of respondents reported symptoms suggestive of a neuropathic mechanism to their pain. Patients with neuropathic symptoms had higher average daily pain scores (p<0.001). Fewer people had healed ulcers at 6 months with neuropathic symptoms compared with those with no neuropathic symptoms (30.8 vs. 52.1%). It would seem that the severity of pain can not be predicted by the type, size, position, or duration of ulceration. Patients who scored positively for neuropathic symptoms had higher average daily pain scores and fewer had healed leg ulcers at 6 months compared with those who did not experience neuropathic signs and symptoms. PMID:17352749

Briggs, Michelle; Bennett, Michael I; Closs, S José; Cocks, Kim


Sickle cell disease and leg ulcers.  


Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder of hemoglobin synthesis leading to a deformation of the red blood cell. This disorder is associated with painful, slow-to-heal leg ulcers. This article discusses the wound bed preparation paradigm as a guide to the treatment of sickle cell-associated leg ulcers. PMID:22914039

Ladizinski, Barry; Bazakas, Andrea; Mistry, Nisha; Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Salcido, Richard



Chronic venous insufficiency and venous leg ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous ulcers are the most common form of leg ulcers. Venous disease has a significant impact on quality of life and work productivity. In addition, the costs associated with the long-term care of these chronic wounds are substantial. Although the exact pathogenic steps leading from venous hypertension to venous ulceration remain unclear, several hypotheses have been developed to explain the

Isabel C. Valencia; Anna Falabella; Robert S. Kirsner; William H. Eaglstein



Clinical predictors of leg ulcer healing.  


Background Identification of factors associated with healing can help in understanding the causes of delayed healing in chronic leg ulceration, and can allow for programmes to be developed to modify these factors to improve patient outcomes. Objectives To determine factors associated with healing in patients with chronic leg ulceration of all types within a defined patient population. Methods The patients were identified within the combined acute/community leg ulcer service within Wandsworth Primary Care Trust. All identified patients agreed to be interviewed and those who were able underwent clinical and noninvasive testing to determine the cause of the ulceration. Follow ups were to a maximum of 48 weeks, with time to healing given as the principal outcome measure. Analysis was by the Cox proportional hazards model for both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results were expressed as hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals derived from the models. Results In total, 113 patients took part in this study. Univariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences for delayed healing according to the ulcer duration (P = 0.002), complexity of the ulcer aetiology (P = 0.035), presence of lipodermatosclerosis (P = 0.02), history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (P = 0.03) and thrombophlebitis (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that ulcer duration (P = 0.014), DVT (P = 0.008) and a lack of Pseudomonas on wound swab (P = 0.005) were independently associated with delayed healing. Conclusions The results indicate the complexity of determining risk factors for poor healing in patients with chronic leg ulceration. There appears to be little scope for interventions to improve healing from the factors identified. PMID:19785616

Moffatt, C J; Doherty, D C; Smithdale, R; Franks, P J



Approach to leg edema of unclear etiology.  


A common challenge for primary care physicians is to determine the cause and find an effective treatment for leg edema of unclear etiology. We were unable to find existing practice guidelines that address this problem in a comprehensive manner. This article provides clinically oriented recommendations for the management of leg edema in adults. We searched on-line resources, textbooks, and MEDLINE (using the MeSH term, "edema") to find clinically relevant articles on leg edema. We then expanded the search by reviewing articles cited in the initial sources. Our goal was to write a brief, focused review that would answer questions about the management of leg edema. We organized the information to make it rapidly accessible to busy clinicians. The most common cause of leg edema in older adults is venous insufficiency. The most common cause in women between menarche and menopause is idiopathic edema, formerly known as "cyclic" edema. A common but under-recognized cause of edema is pulmonary hypertension, which is often associated with sleep apnea. Venous insufficiency is treated with leg elevation, compressive stockings, and sometimes diuretics. The initial treatment of idiopathic edema is spironolactone. Patients who have findings consistent with sleep apnea, such as daytime somnolence, loud [corrected] snoring, or neck circumference >17 inches, should be evaluated for pulmonary hypertension with an echocardiogram. If time is limited, the physician must decide whether the evaluation can be delayed until a later appointment (eg, an asymptomatic patient with chronic bilateral edema) or must be completed at the current visit (eg, a patient with dyspnea or a patient with acute edema [<72 hours]). If the evaluation should be conducted at the current visit, the algorithm shown in Figure 1 could be used as a guide. If the full evaluation could wait for a subsequent visit, the patient should be examined briefly to rule out an obvious systemic cause and basic laboratory tests should be ordered for later review (complete blood count, urinalysis, electrolytes, creatinine, blood sugar, thyroid stimulating hormone, and albumin). PMID:16513903

Ely, John W; Osheroff, Jerome A; Chambliss, M Lee; Ebell, Mark H


Management of leg ulcers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic sclerosis: The importance of concomitant arterial and venous disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We assessed the etiology and the prevalence of peripheral arterial and venous disease in leg ulcers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis and analyzed the outcome after treatment of macrovascular disease. Methods: A clinical study on 15 consecutive patients with chronic leg ulcers in collagen vascular disease (nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis, six patients with systemic sclerosis)

Jürg Hafner; Ernst Schneider; Günter Burg; Paolo C. Cassina



Venous leg ulcers and the family physician.  


Family physicians often are the first contact for patients with venous leg ulcerations (VLUs). A random survey of 2,000 family physicians was conducted to determine patterns for diagnosis and treatment of VLUs, including type of leg ulcer (arterial, venous, diabetic), whether compression therapy was ordered, whether a Doppler system was available to aide in diagnosis, and which health care professional ultimately cared for the patient. Of the 325 family physicians who participated, 96% (311/325) see patients with VLUs, averaging 1.5 VLUs per week. Compression therapy is prescribed by 96% of family physicians, and 83% (259/325) refer these patients to other health care professionals. Only 27% (89/325) have a Doppler system in the office to measure the ankle-brachial index (ABI). These findings document for the first time in the United States the large number of patients with VLUs seen by family physicians. PMID:10326351

McGuckin, M; Kerstein, M D


Venous Leg Ulcerations: A Treatment Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Selecting the appropriate treatment for venous leg ulcerations is essential for optimal wound healing and patient quality\\u000a of life. Compression therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for these wounds. Compression methods should be carefully selected\\u000a and tailored for compatibility with patients’ daily life. Pain management should not be neglected. When response to compression\\u000a therapy is limited, adjuvant therapy such

Ronda S. Farah; Mark D. P. Davis



Nicorandil-induced leg ulceration without mucosal involvement.  


We report a case of leg ulceration occurring in a patient without mucosal ulcers, in whom nicorandil appeared to be the main aetiological factor. Having failed to heal on compression therapy, the ulcer rapidly improved and healed after the discontinuation of nicorandil. Most cases of nicorandil-induced ulcers reported in the literature develop on mucosal surfaces, including oral, vulval, perianal and peristomal ulcers. There are rare reports of cutaneous ulceration attributable to nicorandil, occurring concurrently with mucosal ulcers. To our knowledge, this is the first case of nicorandil-induced leg ulceration affecting the skin without mucosal involvement. PMID:21564175

Mikeljevic, J; Highet, A S



Leg ulcer plastic surgery descent by laser therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low energy laser therapy (LELT) was used to treat chronic leg ulcers. Seven patients, aged 59 to 96 years, with 11 leg ulcers were referred for laser therapy by plastic surgeons. They had a history of ulceration of 3 - 50 years and five of the patients had breakdown of previous skin grafts. Laser treatments were administered with a microprocessor-controlled

Jacqui Telfer; Natalia Filonenko; Norman M. Salansky



Oxpentifylline treatment of venous ulcers of the leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the effect of oxpentifylline on the healing of venous ulcers of the leg. DESIGN--Double blind, randomised, prospective, placebo controlled, parallel group study. SETTING--Four outpatient clinics treating leg ulcers in England and the Republic of Ireland. PATIENTS--80 Consecutive patients with clinical evidence of venous ulceration of the leg in whom appreciable arterial disease was excluded by the ratio of

M P Colgan; J A Dormandy; P W Jones; I G Schraibman; D G Shanik; R A Young



Prevalence of leg ulceration in a London population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Current prevalence estimates of chronic leg ulceration are frequently based on studies from the 1980s. During the last decade, major changes have occurred in the application of evidence-based practice to this condition. Aim: To determine the prevalence and cause of leg ulceration in a defined geographical population after 8 years of providing standardized evidence based protocols of care.




Venous leg ulcer: Incidence and prevalence in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Venous leg ulcer is a disease most common in those aged 65 years and older. However, the incidence and prevalence have not been well established. Objective: Our purpose was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of venous leg ulcers in the elderly. Methods: We studied the General Practice Research Database, validated our case ascertainment strategy, and estimated the annual

David J. Margolis; Warren Bilker; Jill Santanna; Mona Baumgarten



Leg ulcer after care: the role of compression hosiery.  


The management of venous leg ulcers is an important issue for many healthcare professionals. However, the care and management does not stop when the ulcer has healed. Prevention of recurrence and lifelong compression is an important issue that is often neglected. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the venous system, investigates the causes of venous leg ulcers and describes the principles of graduated compression. Compression hosiery and its role in the treatment of varicose veins is also looked at as well as deep vein thrombosis and preventing recurrence of the venous leg ulcer. PMID:11261055

Williams, C


Martorell hypertensive ischemic leg ulcer: an underdiagnosed Entity©.  


Martorell hypertensive ischemic leg ulcer represents rapidly progressive and extremely painful ulcers that are frequently underdiagnosed. These occur most commonly on the lateral-dorsal calf and are associated with hypertension and diabetes. This article will synthesize a review of the literature for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of this painful debilitating condition. PMID:23151767

Alavi, Afsaneh; Mayer, Dieter; Hafner, Jürg; Sibbald, R Gary



Secondary hyperparathyroidism: Uncommon cause of a leg ulcer  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Most leg ulcers are vascular based. Only if vascular therapy fails other causes are considered. We report the case of a female with incapacitating leg ulcers caused by a rare condition which was only diagnosed after failing treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE The female had an extensive previous history including diabetes, renal insufficiency and cardiovascular disease and presented with three large and painful ulcers on her left lower leg. Standard treatment with antibiotics, wound excision and additional treatment with hyperbaric oxygen were ineffective. One month post hospital-admission calciphylaxis cutis caused by renal failure induced secondary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed. Surgical treatment by a parathyroidectomy induced rapid regeneration of the ulcers. DISCUSSION Our patient's vast comorbidity and previous history had expanded differential considerations causing a delay in diagnosis. Our patient's previous history led us to believe her ulcers were vascular based, however her chronic renal failure appeared responsible for her condition. CONCLUSION Although less probable than venous insufficiency and concomittant leg ulcers or other differential considerations, calciphylaxis cutis should be part of the differential diagnosis in any end stage renal disease-patient with unexplained ulcers as an effective therapy is readily available.

van Rijssen, L.B.; Brenninkmeijer, E.E.A.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E.J.M.



A systematic review of compression treatment for venous leg ulcers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the clinical and cost effectiveness of compression systems for treating venous leg ulcers. METHODS: Systematic review of research. Search of 19 electronic databases including Medline, CINAHL, and Embase. Relevant journals and conference proceedings were hand searched and experts were consulted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of healing and proportion of ulcers healed within a time period. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials, published or unpublished, with no restriction on date or language, that evaluated compression as a treatment for venous leg ulcers. RESULTS: 24 randomised controlled trials were included in the review. The research evidence was quite weak: many trials had inadequate sample size and generally poor methodology. Compression seems to increase healing rates. Various high compression regimens are more effective than low compression. Few trials have compared the effectiveness of different high compression systems. CONCLUSIONS: Compression systems improve the healing of venous leg ulcers and should be used routinely in uncomplicated venous ulcers. Insufficient reliable evidence exists to indicate which system is the most effective. More good quality randomised controlled trials in association with economic evaluations are needed, to ascertain the most cost effective system for treating venous leg ulcers.

Fletcher, A.; Cullum, N.; Sheldon, T. A.



Oxpentifylline treatment of venous ulcers of the leg.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine the effect of oxpentifylline on the healing of venous ulcers of the leg. DESIGN--Double blind, randomised, prospective, placebo controlled, parallel group study. SETTING--Four outpatient clinics treating leg ulcers in England and the Republic of Ireland. PATIENTS--80 Consecutive patients with clinical evidence of venous ulceration of the leg in whom appreciable arterial disease was excluded by the ratio of ankle to brachial systolic pressure being greater than 0.8. INTERVENTIONS--All patients received either oxpentifylline 400 mg three times a day by mouth or a matching placebo for six months (or until their reference ulcer healed if this occurred sooner) in addition to a locally standardised method of compression bandaging. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The primary end point was complete healing of the reference ulcer within six months. The secondary end point was the change in the area of the ulcer over the six month observation period. RESULTS--Complete healing of the reference ulcer occurred in 23 of the 38 patients treated with oxpentifylline and in 12 of the 42 patients treated with a placebo. Life table analysis showed that the proportion of ulcers healed at six months was 64% in the group treated with oxpentifylline compared with 34% in the group treated with a placebo (log rank test chi 2 = 4.78, p = 0.03), which was significant (odds ratio = 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.20 to 2.71). CONCLUSION--Oxpentifylline used in conjunction with compression bandaging improves the healing of venous ulcers of the leg.

Colgan, M P; Dormandy, J A; Jones, P W; Schraibman, I G; Shanik, D G; Young, R A



Venous leg ulcer management: single use negative pressure wound therapy.  


A number of leg ulcer specialist/tissue viability specialists from across the UK were invited to evaluate PICO (Smith and Nephew, Hull) as a treatment for venous leg ulcers also in conjunction with a variety of compression bandages and garments. Patients across 5 sites had PICO applied in conjunction with compression therapy. This group of treating clinicians were then asked to give feedback on the outcome of the patients on whom they had used the new device. All feedback was recorded at a meeting and this was used to create a guideline for use. PMID:24156166

Dowsett, Caroline; Grothier, Lorraine; Henderson, Valerie; Leak, Kathy; Milne, Jeanette; Davis, Lynn; Bielby, Alistair; Timmons, John



A Team Approach to the Management of Intractable Leg Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The management of intractable leg ulcers requires a team approach which includes vascular surgeons and plastic surgeons. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the management of intractable leg ulcers by plastic surgeons. Patients and Methods: A total of 73 patients with intractable leg ulcers, (79 limbs) were treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery at our institution. Skin perfusion pressure (SPP) around the ulcer on the limb was measured before and after arterial reconstructive procedures. Local ulcer management involved intra-wound continuous negative pressure and irrigation therapy or negative pressure wound therapy. We examined the rates of wound healing and associated prognostic factors. Results: There were 21 limbs without ischemia (non-peripheral arterial disease [Non-PAD] group) and 58 limbs with ischemia (PAD group). The healing rates were 66% in the PAD group and 81% in the Non-PAD group, but the difference between the groups was not significant. A total of 41 limbs in the PAD group underwent revascularization, which involved bypass surgery in 18 limbs and endovascular therapy in 23 limbs. The salvage rate of the revascularized limbs was 83% at 1 year. The primary patency rates at 1 year were 87% for bypass surgery and 58% for endovascular therapy. The healing rate of the revascularized limbs was 66%, and the presence of concomitant hemodialysis, infected ulcers, and limbs without improved SPP were shown to be poor prognostic factors. Limbs treated with bypass surgery had a better healing rate than limbs treated with endovascular therapy, but the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Good ulcer-healing rates were achieved by effective revascularization and aggressive local management. These results suggest that a team approach is useful for the management of intractable leg ulcers. (English translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2011; 20: 913-920)

Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Akaiwa, Keiichi; Ishida, Masaru; Furuyama, Tadashi; Onohara, Toshihiro



Leg ulcers in sickle cell disease: current patterns and practices.  


Leg ulcers are a debilitating complication of patients with sickle cell disease, and their frequency in North America was reported to be 2.5% by the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease more than 20 years ago. We sought to determine if the frequency of leg ulcers in sickle cell patients in the United States had declined and to assess which treatments providers use most commonly. We sent an e-mail survey to health professionals belonging to the national Sickle Cell Adult Provider Network. Responses were obtained from 31 of them (26.0%). Most of them (96.0%) reported having some patients with leg ulcers. Providers reported a total of 185 patients with active leg ulcers and 224 in the previous 5 years, for a total of 409 patients. Hb SS (homozygous sickle cell anemia) was the most common genotype of affected individuals, followed by Hb SC (double heterozygote for Hb S [?6(A3)Glu?Val, GAG>GTG; HBB: c.20A>T] and Hb C [?6(A3)Glu?Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.19G>A]). Males showed a 2:1 predominance. Two-thirds of patients were treated with either hydroxyurea (HU) or transfusion therapy and most used compression stockings and topical therapies as directed by wound care services. We conclude that leg ulcers continue to be a debilitating complication of young adults with sickle cell disease, despite improved supportive care and the widespread use of disease modifying agents such HU and transfusion. While some providers offer office-based ulcer care, the majority prefer specialty consultation including podiatry, plastic surgery and dermatology. Despite their frequency, there is no clear consensus among providers as to the best treatment. PMID:23600469

Delaney, Kara-Marie H; Axelrod, Karen C; Buscetta, Ashley; Hassell, Kathryn L; Adams-Graves, Patricia E; Seamon, Catherine; Kato, Gregory J; Minniti, Caterina P



Venous leg ulcer care: How evidence-based is nursing practice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to (1) determine how congruent community-provided leg ulcer care was with best practice for venous leg ulcers and (2) identify organizational and clinical factors associated with the provision of best practice for venous leg ulcers. Design: The practice variation study group was an audit of nursing agency client records to determine the provision

Karen R. Lorimer; Margaret B. Harrison; Ian D. Graham; Elaine Friedberg; Barbara Davies



Deciphering the impaired cytokine cascades in chronic leg ulcers (review).  


Chronic leg ulcers are typically wounds that do not heal at a normal rate. Impaired healing appears to be due to primary microvascular changes and it is aggravated by ongoing bacteria-driven vasculitis. The various cytokines identified in experimental wounds are also present in leg ulcers. VEGF is strongly implicated as a promoter of blood vessel growth in patients with venous disease. In addition, there is good evidence of increased expression of bFGF, TGF-beta1, and PDGF in lipodermatosclerosis. All of these growth factors are involved in wound healing. Upregulated TGF-beta1 is probably one of the main causes of the fibrosis observed in lipodermatosclerosis. In leg ulcers, cytokines appear to be trapped in the perivascular fibrinoid deposits. It is not the nature and amount of cytokines that are inadequate in leg ulcers, but rather their spatial distribution. Dermal dendrocytes (DD) are resident factor XIIIa-enriched macrophages. They likely play a role in tissue repair when boosted adequately. New therapies aiming at helping the release of cytokines by DD apparently promote and improve the healing phase. PMID:12632091

Quatresooz, Pascale; Henry, Frédérique; Paquet, Philippe; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine; Harding, Keith; Pierard, Gérald E



Leg ulcer plastic surgery descent by laser therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low energy laser therapy (LELT) was used to treat chronic leg ulcers. Seven patients, aged 59 to 96 years, with 11 leg ulcers were referred for laser therapy by plastic surgeons. They had a history of ulceration of 3 - 50 years and five of the patients had breakdown of previous skin grafts. Laser treatments were administered with a microprocessor-controlled device. A 22 red ((lambda) equals 660 nm) laser head was utilized to provide a dose of (4 - 6) J/cm2 and 7 infrared ((lambda) equals 880 nm) head to provide a dose of (4 - 8) J/cm2. The patients were treated three to five times per week, 25 - 30 treatments per course. Three patients underwent two courses of laser therapy with three weeks interval between them. All patients, after 5 - 10 laser treatments, have gotten relief of pain and decreased the amount of analgesics used. All ulcers in six patients were completely healed and two ulcers in the seventh patient decreased in size by 75%. One may conclude the developed laser methodology might be used as a preventative measure to avoid plastic surgery or improve its success.

Telfer, Jacqui; Filonenko, Natalia; Salansky, Norman M.



Leg ulcer in Werner syndrome (adult progeria): a case report.  


Werner syndrome (WS; MIM#277700) or adult progeria, is a rare disease, associated with mutations of a single gene (RECQL2 or WRN), located on chromosome 8 (8p12). It codes a DNA-helicase, whose defects cause genomic instability. The highest incidences are reported in Japan and Sardinia (Italy). On this major island of the Mediterranean Basin, the WS cases have been observed in the northern areas. The authors describe the apparently first case reported in southern Sardinia, a 51-year-old woman, who was born in and resides in the province of Cagliari. She presented with a 9-year history of an intractable leg ulcer and other characteristic symptoms, including "bird-like" face, high-pitched voice, premature greying, short stature, abdominal obesity in contrast with thin body type, scleroderma-like legs, decreased muscle mass, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and premature menopause. A specialized genetic Institute of Research (IRCCS-IDI, Rome) confirmed the clinical diagnosis. There is no cure or specific treatment and patients must be periodically screened for an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and malignancies. Among the many findings, leg ulcers significantly affect the patient's quality of life. This problem may send the patient to the dermatologist, who finally suspects the diagnosis. Poor response to medical treatment may require aggressive repeated surgery, with poor or temporary results. PMID:23552003

Fumo, Giuseppe; Pau, Monica; Patta, Federico; Aste, Nicola; Atzori, Laura



Laboratory and Echocardiography Markers in Sickle Cell Patients with Leg Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Chronic leg ulcers are a debilitating complication of sickle cell disease, associated with increased morbidity and perhaps mortality that affect 8 to 50% of patients. We evaluated the characteristics of SCD patients with a history of leg ulceration, including hemolytic rate, estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure, and other parameters in a cohort of 505 adults with SCD. Ninety four subjects (18%) had either active ulcers at enrollment or history of leg ulceration. Patients affected were older and predominantly had homozygous SS, lower body mass index, and pulse oximetry, higher tricuspid regurgitation velocities, markers of hemolysis, serum uric acid and serum NT-proBNP, when compared to subjects without such history. In this prospective cohort of adults with SCD, we confirm that leg ulcers are still frequent and are associated with elevated TRVand markers of hemolysis. We describe a novel association of leg ulcer with hyperuricemia and oxygen desaturation and suggest potential implications for uric acid as a marker of vascular dysfunction.

Minniti, Caterina P.; Taylor, James G.; Hildesheim, Mariana; O'Neal, Patricia; Wilson, Jonathan; Castro, Oswaldo; Gordeuk, Victor; Kato, Gregory J.



A systematic review on the impact of leg ulceration on patients' quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A systematic review was conducted to analyse journal articles that describe or measure the impact of leg ulceration on patients' quality of life (QoL) in order to improve the content of an educational programme that aims to enhance self-care agency in leg ulcer patients. METHOD: Original articles published in English and German between 1990 and 2006 were included if

Oliver R Herber; Wilfried Schnepp; Monika A Rieger



Risk Factors Associated With the Failure of a Venous Leg Ulcer to Heal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Venous leg ulcers afflict a significant por- tion of the population. The most popular form of therapy for venous leg ulcers is a compression bandage (eg, Unna boot), a therapy that is frequently unsuccessful. Objective: To describe risk factors associated with the failure of a wound to heal when treated with a limb- compression bandage for 24 weeks. Design:

David J. Margolis; Jesse A. Berlin; Brian L. Strom



Evaluation of healing and antimicrobiological effects of herbal therapy on venous leg ulcer: pilot study.  


Venous leg ulcers represent a significant public health problem that will increase as the population ages. Numerous herbs and their extracts are potentially conducive to wound healing, including the ability to serve as an antimicrobial, antifungal, astringent, etc. A total of 32 patients with venous leg ulcers were randomized into two groups: a group with herbal therapy treatment (PT) (17 patients) and a control group (C) (15 patients). The investigation focused on five controls of parameter changes important for ulcer healing and the control of microbiological flora. Within-treatment analysis of the PT group showed that, following herbal therapy treatment, there was a significant decrease in the scores of surface leg ulcer and venous leg ulcer after week 7 of treatment (p < 0.05). In group C following topical antibiotic treatment there was no significant decrease in the surface leg ulcer. Comparing the results of decreased venous leg ulcer surface of the) PT group with the C group showed a significant difference at p < 0.05 after week 7 of treatment. The number of different types of isolated bacterial species decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the use of herbal preparations. The results of this pilot study demonstrate the healing and antimicrobiological effects of herbal therapy on non-infected venous leg ulcer. PMID:19610037

Bini?, Ivana; Jankovi?, Aleksandar; Jankovi?, Dimitrije; Jankovi?, Irena; Vrucini?, Zoran



Chronic leg ulceration with livedoid vasculitis, and response to oral ketanserin.  


We report a patient with a 6-year history of recalcitrant painful ulceration of both lower legs, diagnosed as being due to livedoid vasculitis. The lesions healed rapidly and remained healed on treatment with oral ketanserin. PMID:2638912

Rustin, M H; Bunker, C B; Dowd, P M



Management of non healing leg ulcers in Unani system of medicine.  


Non healing leg ulcers are becoming a major public health problem. The high prevalence of leg ulcer directly affects patients' quality of life because it produces psychological (anxiety, depression), social and physical (amputation) handicap. Most leg ulcers become unsightly and they hardly if ever, yield to conventional treatment. Healing of an amputated part may pose a problem, hence amputation cannot be recommended without extensive pre-operative investigations. Prevalence is high among the poor, for whom expenses of surgery are not affordable. Few surgeons try skin graft but unfavourable local condition of the ulcer leads to rejection and all efforts prove futile. Keeping all these factors in mind, we have tested a Unani formulation for its ulcer healing properties; early results were surprising and in some cases unbelievable. PMID:23116214

Zulkifle, Mohd; Ansari, Abdul H; Shakir, Mohd; Kamal, Zahid; Alam, Md Tanwir



Clinician's perspectives on the treatment of venous leg ulceration.  


Treatment of venous leg ulcers (VLU) represents a considerable challenge to the health care professional and to the patient alike. Much of the current literature regarding VLU focuses on either wound pathophysiology and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency or the patients' experience of the condition. We present two studies that examine more closely the clinicians' experience of treating VLU and reflect upon how that understanding may further enhance better outcomes for patients in the future. The first of these studies is a qualitative investigation of 49 clinicians treating VLU in the UK and USA. The second is a quantitative, online survey of 304 clinicians' beliefs, attitudes and practices in the UK, Germany and USA. Findings show that the clinicians' experience of treating VLU is often accompanied by frustration and dissatisfaction with treatment challenges and uncertain outcomes. Practices and treatment choices were found to vary widely and differ by countries. We conclude that a key aspect in improving VLU treatment is in listening to the frustrations of the clinician when considering new approaches to therapy. PMID:19912394

Cullen, George H; Phillips, Tania J



Chronic leg ulcers: an underestimated problem in primary health care among elderly patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to establish leg ulcer point prevalence, basal patient characteristics, and level of caretaking. DESIGN--The study was a postal cross sectional survey. The validity was ensured by examining a randomly selected sample of reported patients. Responding health care officials were asked to report all patients with an open wound below knee (including foot ulcer) which did not

O Nelzén; D Bergqvist; A Lindhagen; T Hallböök



Pressure Ulcer or Decubitus : clinical and etiological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure ulcers (PU), also called bedsores or decubitus, present a significant problem in healthcare. This thesis addresses some aspects of the aetiology of PU. The possible benefit of interventions with nutrional supplementation and the use of a risk assessment tool are evaluated. The role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of pressure ulcer coupled with possible therapeutical interventions with

R. H. Houwing



[Gastric ulceration in horses: etiology, diagnosis, and therapy: a review].  


Since it has become possible to make an ante-mortem diagnosis of gastric ulceration in horses by means of endoscopy, interest in the presence and treatment of this syndrome has increased. Several endoscopic surveys have indicated that the frequency of gastric ulceration in Thoroughbreds in training is fairly high. Less is known about other breeds and horses that are kept under different (training) conditions. The equine stomach is covered by two different kinds of mucous membranes: squamous and glandular. These two areas differ from one another in the incidence and aetiology of ulceration and, therefore, the therapeutic approach is not similar. Clinical signs that typically are associated with gastric ulceration include recurrent colic, poor appetite, weight loss, and, in foals, diarrhoea. Often symptoms are less obvious (such as poor performance), or not even noticeable. Treatment is possible with, for example, H2-antagonists or proton pump inhibitors. Management measurements are important in preventing ulcer recurrence. PMID:11109275

van den Wollenberg, L; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M



Health-related quality of life and chronic venous leg ulceration: Part 2.  


Leg ulceration is a debilitating condition which compromises the quality of life of the sufferer, owing to factors such as pain, exudate, odour and social isolation. As nurses, much of the daily care provided for such patients focuses on the provision of wound care; often failing to fully address the wide ranging effects that the ulceration is having on the life of the sufferer. This article reviews the quantitative studies that have explored the health-related quality of life of patients with chronic venous leg ulceration and presents a synthesis of their findings. PMID:20220639

Green, Julie; Jester, Rebecca



Collaborative working to improve leg ulcer outcomes for injecting drug users.  


This case study features a 37-year-old drug user with a chronic leg ulcer caused by injecting Heroin into his leg veins. The case study demonstrates collaborative working between two specialist services based in Leicester. This joint working and knowledge sharing has allowed for appropriate leg ulcer management in this erratic and vulnerable group of mainly young people. Many factors need to be taken into account when prescribing a dressing regimen for this group, and the successes and complications encountered are described. PMID:17551426

Wheatley, Carolyn


[Primary antiphospholipid syndrome: newly developed leg ulcer and history of stroke].  


Antiphospholipid syndrome features not only deep vessel thrombosis but also may have cutaneous manifestations such as Raynaud phenomenon, acral necrosis, livedo reticularis, subcutaneous nodules, and leg ulcers. A 72-year-old man presented with a rapidly progressing leg ulcer. He was already on anticoagulation with warfarin due to atrial fibrillation and disclosed a history of stroke with temporary paresis of the left leg. Histopathology of a biopsy of the edge of the ulcer revealed occlusive arteriosclerosis of medium-sized arteries. Serology showed autoantibodies against cardiolipin, ?2- glycoprotein I, and phosphatidylserine which led to the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin, dexamethasone, and azathioprine in combination with stage-adjusted wound care led to complete healing of the ulcer within 5 months. PMID:23744031

Van Beek, N; Schumacher, N; Haase, O; Zillikens, D; Kahle, B; Schmidt, E



Eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA) 5% cream as a primary dressing on a painful lower leg ulcer.  


Patients living with chronic leg ulceration may frequently experience moderate to severe wound-related pain, which may not be alleviated by oral analgesics alone. Poorly controlled leg ulcer pain can prevent timely and effective wound management strategies being implemented, and increase wound healing times. Furthermore, patients with poorly controlled leg ulcer pain can experience continuous pain, which significantly affects quality of life. This case report introduces an innovative way of using the eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA) 5% cream to reduce wound-related pain, reduce oral analgesic intake, and improve health-related quality of life for a patient with a painful, chronic lower leg ulcer. PMID:22886329

Purcell, A; Marshall, A; King, J; Buckley, T



[Leg ulcers in patient affected by polycythemia vera in treatment with hydroxycarbamide. Case report].  


Leg ulcers are a frequent and serious complication of polycythemia vera (PV). They are caused by a synergic action of vascular, neurological and infectious physiopathologic mechanisms. Furthermore, cytostatic therapies commonly employed to control the myeloproliferative disease negatively interfere on the development of granulation tissue, slowing down the recovery of the ulcer. We describe the case of a 70 years old woman with PV, who had calcaneous and perimalleolar ulcers. They were so painful that they made it almost impossible for her to sleep and walk normally. These ulcers were particularly resistant to common topical therapy. Further and accurate investigations showed that these ulcers were a complication of hydroxycarbamide therapy employed and they were not a complication of the ematologic disease. Leg ulcers during hydroxycarbamide therapy are a relatively frequent but underestimated condition. Pathogenesis is bound to numerous factors, i.o. cellular damage and tissutal hypoxia, consequent of drug induced macroerythrosis. In our patient drug substitution and prosecution of topic therapies allowed the recovery of the leg ulcers, particularly serious for both, extensiveness and symptoms. PMID:20426925

Chiummariello, S; Arleo, S; Alfano, C



[Comparative analysis of horizontal venous reflux surgical correction by large trophic lower leg ulcers].  


Subfascial perforant veins dissection (SPVD) of the lower leg was performed in patients with chronic venous insufficiency CEAP class 5 and 6. 252 operations were performed in 236 patients. All patients had trophic lesions (skin hyperpigmentation and lipodermatosclerosis) 218 (92,4%) patients had trophic lower leg ulcer to the time of operation. 30 patients had earlier performed phlebectomy. Open SPVD was performed in 122 cases, endoscopic technique was used in 114 patients. Comparative analysis of these two methods was performed. Long-term results were accessed with the use of SF-36 questionnaire. Efficacy, pathogenetic validity and economic expedience of SPVD by large trophic lower leg ulcers are confirmed by the decrease of postoperative complications and recurrence rate. The horizontal venous reflux elimination and trophic ulcer dissection with intraoperative skin plasty allow a significant improvement of treatment results. PMID:20032933

Askerov, N G; Zhukov, A O; Malinina, V N



Venous leg ulcers: a prognostic index to predict time to healing.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the prognostic factors in uncomplicated venous leg ulcer healing. DESIGN--Randomised parallel group controlled trial with subjects stratified by initial ulcer diameter and four months' maximum duration of follow up. SETTING--Assessment at Northwick Park Hospital vascular unit with community based treatment. PATIENTS--200 patients with clinical and objective evidence of uncomplicated venous leg ulceration and an initial ulcer diameter > 2 cm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Time to complete healing of the ulcer. RESULTS--In the presence of graduated compression healing occurred more rapidly in patients with a smaller initial ulcer area (relative risk of healing 1.92 associated with halving of ulcer area (95% confidence interval 1.58 to 2.33)), shorter duration of ulceration (relative risk 1.35 associated with halving duration (1.17 to 1.56)), younger age (relative risk 1.34 associated with 10 year decrease (1.12 to 1.59)), and no deep vein involvement (relative risk 1.8 (1.19 to 2.78)). CONCLUSION--These prognostic factors used in a simple scoring system predict time to healing.

Skene, A. I.; Smith, J. M.; Dore, C. J.; Charlett, A.; Lewis, J. D.



Phase I Study of H5.020CMV.PDGF-? to Treat Venous Leg Ulcer Disease  

PubMed Central

Venous leg ulcers are a prevalent nonhealing wound of the lower extremity. Although topically applied growth factors successfully improve wound repair in animal studies, similar studies on humans with venous leg ulcers have not been successful. This study was designed to evaluate the acute safety and biologic feasibility of peri-ulcer injection of a replication-incompetent adenoviral construct expressing platelet-derived growth factor-? (PDGF-?). In this phase I study, we demonstrate the initial safety, feasibility, and biologic plausibility of using H5.020CMV.PDGF-? to treat venous leg ulcer disease.

Margolis, David J; Morris, Lee M; Papadopoulos, Maryte; Weinberg, Linda; Filip, Jennifer C; Lang, Stephanie A; Vaikunth, Sachin S; Crombleholme, Timothy M



[Lipid peroxidation and lysosomal enzyme activity in patients with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage of peptic ulcer etiology].  


In examination of 51 patient with acute gastrointestinal bleeding of ulcer etiology, the activity of lysosomal enzymes, peroxide oxidation of lipids were increased, the activity of antioxidant system was decreased. This can lead to inhibition of proliferative processes, stipulating the severity of blood loss, course of the postoperative period, the incidence of postoperative complications, and lethality. PMID:2391822

Kharaberiush, V A; Kondratenko, P G; Mareeva, T E; Skliar, V F; Ialovetski?, V D



Eosinophilic fasciitis in association with chronic vasculitic-like leg ulcerations.  


Vasculitic lesions are not generally associated with eosinophilic fasciitis. Eosinophilic fasciitis is reported to be a syndrome distinct from progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). More recent studies, however, note overlapping features in the clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings of eosinophilic fasciitis and scleroderma. We report a typical presentation of eosinophilic fasciitis that developed vasculitic-like leg ulcerations as seen in scleroderma. PMID:8467618

Wong, A L; Anderson-Wilms, N; Mortensen, S E; Colburn, K K



Myeloid Sarcoma Developing in Prexisting Hydroxyurea-Induced Leg Ulcer in a Polycythemia Vera Patient  

PubMed Central

Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is an extramedullary tumour consisting of myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells located in an extramedullary site. It may occur at presentation of AML, at relapse, or prior to the onset of frank leukemia. We report a rare case of MS developing in prexisting Hydroxyurea-induced leg Ulcer in a 70-year-old woman.

Nafil, Hatim; Tazi, Illias; Mahmal, Lahoucine



Wound Fluid from Chronic Leg Ulcers Contains Elevated Levels of Metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to determine if metalloproteinase levels were elevated in human chronic wound fluid. Samples of blood and wound fluid from acute (mastectomy) and chronic (leg ulcer) wounds were collected, and metalloproteinase profiles of the samples were determined by gelatin zymography. Compared to serum, acute wound fluid (mastectomy fluid) contained markedly increased levels (five- to

Annette B. Wysocki; Lisa Staiano-Coico; Frederick Grinnell



Chronic ulceration of the leg: extent of the problem and provision of care  

Microsoft Academic Search

A postal survey in two health board areas in Scotland, encompassing a population of about one million, identified 1477 patients with chronic ulcers of the leg. Women outnumbered men by a ratio of 2.8:1. The median age of the women was 74 and of the men 67. Seventy two (5%) were hospital inpatients, 174 (12%) were managed jointly by the

M J Callam; C V Ruckley; D R Harper; J J Dale



Therapeutic effectiveness of a Mimosa tenuiflora cortex extract in venous leg ulceration treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cortex of Mimosa tenuiflora is a popular remedy utilized in Mexico for the treatment of skin lesions. Modern studies support the existence in this cortex of compounds with cicatrizing properties. In the present study the therapeutic effectiveness of an extract elaborated with this bark in the treatment of venous leg ulceration disease was explored. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical

Erika Rivera-Arce; Marco Antonio Chávez-Soto; Armando Herrera-Arellano; Silvia Arzate; Juan Agüero; Iris Angélica Feria-Romero; Angélica Cruz-Guzmán; Xavier Lozoya



Travel-related chronic hemorrhagic leg ulcer infection by Shewanella algae.  


Shewanella algae is an emerging seawater-associated bacterium. In immunocompromised patients, infections may result in bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. Our patient, suffering from autoimmune vasculitis and myasthenia gravis, developed typical hemorrhagic bullae and leg ulcers because of S algae. She was treated efficiently with a combination of ciprofloxacin and piperacillin. PMID:23809079

Wagner, Nicola; Otto, Lisa; Podda, Maurizio; Schmitt, York; Tappe, Dennis



Chronic leg ulcers in adult patients with rheumatological diseases - a 7-year retrospective review.  


Chronic leg ulcers in patients with rheumatological diseases can cause significant morbidity. We performed a retrospective case review to describe the epidemiology, clinical features and outcome of chronic leg ulcers in this group of patients. Twenty-nine patients with underlying rheumatological conditions, namely, rheumatoid arthritis (15 patients), systemic lupus erythematosus (8 patients), overlap syndromes (3 patients), systemic sclerosis (1 patient) and ankylosing spondylitis (1 patient) were included. The ulcers were mostly located around the ankle (55·2%) and calves (37·9%). The predominant aetiology of the ulcers, in decreasing order of frequency, was venous disease, multifactorial, vasculitis or vasculopathy, infective, pyoderma gangrenosum, ischaemic microangiopathy and iatrogenic. Treatment modalities included aggressive wound bed preparation, compression therapy (17 patients), changes in immunosuppressive therapy (15 patients), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (4 patients) and cellular skin grafting (2 patients). Management of chronic leg ulcers in rheumatological patients is challenging and the importance of careful clinicopathological correlation and treatment of the underlying cause cannot be overemphasised. PMID:23237056

Chia, Hui Y; Tang, Mark By



Skin Iron Deposition Characterises Lipodermatosclerosis and Leg Ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIt is commonly reported that chronic venous disease (CVD) increases the skin iron content in which the excess is stored as haemosiderin. Despite increasing interest in the role of haemosiderin in venous ulceration, no study has systematically evaluated the occurrence of iron overload in the limbs of patients with CVD.

A. Caggiati; C. Rosi; A. Casini; M. Cirenza; V. Petrozza; M. C. Acconcia; P. Zamboni



Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as a chronic leg ulcer: the importance of repeat tissue biopsy.  


Ulceration of the leg is often associated with significant consequences for both the individual and society. The diagnosis of chronic leg ulcer is not appropriate. Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCLBCL), leg type, is a distinct clinicopathological entity. Chemotherapy in the form of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin and prednisolone) is considered to be the first line of treatment for these lymphomas. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic leg ulcer with a first negative biopsy and a diagnosis of PCLBCL, leg type, verified on the subsequent biopsy. This case report emphasises the importance of differential diagnosis of lymphoma in non-healing ulcers and also the value of repeat tissue biopsy in cases with a negative initial result but strong clinical suspicion. PMID:21944785

Khan, Junaid Alam; Usman, Farooq; Abbasi, Shaista; Shoab, Syed Sulaiman



Role of lymphoscintigraphy in diagnosis and management of patients with leg swelling of unclear etiology  

PubMed Central

Background: To study the utility of lymphoscintigraphy in detection of lymphatic obstruction in patients with leg swelling of unclear etiology, selection of site for nodo venous shunt procedure, and follow-up lymphoscintigraphic documentation of improved lymph flow in surgically treated limb. Materials and Methods: Twenty four consecutive patients with leg swelling, 10 male, 14 female with mean age 47 years, range from 13 years to 74 years underwent lymphoscintigraphy. All patients were referred from Department of Plastic Surgery, after initial work-up, and routine investigations to rule out the other causes of leg swelling. Both clinical and scintigraphic staging performed for all patients. All clinically and scintigraphically positive patients treated with decongestive lymphatic therapy (DLT). In addition to the DLT, those patients positive for unilateral or bilateral lymphedema, consented for surgical intervention, nodo venous shunt (NVS) in their only affected or one of the two affected lower limbs. Follow-up lymphoscintigraphy performed in operated cases after 3 months to 6 months of surgery, lymphoscintigraphy images of each patient in pre and post-surgery compared. Results: In 20/24 cases (83%) of clinically positive leg swelling were found to be positive for lymphedema on lymphoscintigraphy and remaining, 4/24 were scintigraphically normal. Based on the clinical and lymphoscintigraphy staging, 03/20 cases (15%) had Grade I lymphedema, 01/20 (5%) Grade II lymphedema, 06/20 (30%) Grade III and remaining 10/20 (50%) had Grade IV lymphedema. 11/20 cases of Lymphedema (55%) were managed conservatively by only DLT and in remaining 09/20 cases (45%), who were case of Grade IV, lymphedema (five patients with unilateral and four patients with bilateral disease) initially treated with DLT, and on completion of DLT, undergone for NVS procedure, in their unilaterally affected lower limb or one of the two diseased lower limbs. All nine patients showed remarkable clinical improvement in leg swelling and their follow-up lymphoscintigraphy showed normal visualization of lymphatic channels. No patient developed any recurrence. Conclusion: Pre-operative functional evaluation of lymphatic channels using lymphoscintigraphy, is a widely available, simple imaging test and highly useful for documentation of lymphedema in patients with leg swelling of unclear etiology and also for exact localization of inguinal lymph nodes to perform the NVS procedure. Further, it can play important role for follow-up of patients receiving DLT or DLT with surgical intervention that provides early relief from clinical symptoms.

Kalawat, Tek Chand; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Reddy, Praveen Kumar; Suneetha, Batchu; Narayan, Ravishwar; Ravi, Parthsarthi



Grafting of Venous Leg Ulcers: An Ultra-Individual Comparison between Cultured Skin Equivalents and Full Thickness Skin Punches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Skin equivalents, consisting of a non-contracted collagen gel populated with allogeneic fibroblasts and covered with autologous cultured keratinocytes were used for grafting of venous leg ulcers. The results were compared in the same patient with those ob...

M. A. E. Mol B. P. Nanninga J. P. van Eendenburg W. Westerhof C. J. W. van Ginkel



Topical PDGF-BB results in limited healing in a patient with Werner's syndrome and chronic leg ulcers.  


Impaired wound healing is a feature of Werner's syndrome. Treatment of one such patient with painful chronic leg ulcers included topical application of PDGF-BB. Granulation increased slightly, enabling full-thickness skin grafting to take place. PMID:15575568

Wollina, U; Gruner, M; Koch, A; Köstler, E; Hubl, W; Hanson, N B; Oshima, J



Double-filtration plasmapheresis in the treatment of leg ulcers in cryoglobulinemia.  


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major cause of cryoglobulinemia. Skin lesions are frequent and can be cured from the removal of cryoglobulins by therapeutic apheresis. We describe a case of HCV-positive type I cryoglobulinemia with severe leg ulcers, not responsive to antiviral and immunosuppressive treatment. Thirty sessions of double filtration plasmapheresis were performed, over a period of 6 months, with no other associated treatment. Before and after each session an assessment of immunoglobulins, complement, cryocrit, and fibrinogen was made. HCV RNA levels were determined in serum cryoprecipitate, supernatant before and after each session, and in the collection bag. No differences in pre and postapheresis values were observed in the serum concentrations and the supernatant, whereas the postapheresis cryoprecipitate showed a significantly reduced viral load (P < 0.02) as compared with the preapheresis values. There was improvement in the condition of ulcers in the leg during apheresis and had completely regressed by the end of the cycle. PMID:18484642

Ramunni, A; Lauletta, G; Brescia, P; Saliani, M T; Montrone, M; Chironna, M; Sansonno, D; Dammacco, F; Coratelli, P



The Use of Biatain Ag in Hard-to-Heal Venous Leg Ulcers: Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Venous leg ulcers are common, troublesome, and their failure to heal is often related to a heavy bio-burden. Ionized silver has both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The ulcer healing properties of the silver releasing foam dressing Biatain Ag has been examined in 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Aim To evaluate ulcer healing through a meta-analytic approach after treatment with either Biatain Ag or a non-active dressing. Patients and Methods 685 subjects with pure or mixed hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers were included in the meta-analysis. Results Biatain Ag showed a significant treatment effect (p<0.0001), responder rate (p<0.001), and healing rate (p?=?0.002). Conclusion The meta-analysis of the 4 RCTs provided statistical significant evidence to support the use of Biatain Ag dressing in treatment of hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers.

Leaper, David; Munter, Christian; Meaume, Sylvie; Scalise, Alessandro; Mompo, Nacho Blanes; Jakobsen, Birte Petersen; Gottrup, Finn



Issues affecting concordance with leg ulcer care and quality of life.  


This article examines the issues that influence patients' concordance with leg ulcer treatment regimens and the effect this may have on quality of life. Nurses need to have a good understanding of the physical and psychosocial factors that affect patients' concordance with treatment and how any issues can be resolved to enable successful patient-professional partnership, effective care planning and delivery, and better patient outcomes. PMID:20701054

Williams, Anne Margaret


Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma as an unusual cause of refractive chronic bilateral leg ulceration.  


Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma is a progressive histiocytic granulomatous disease with frequent extracutaneous involvement. We have documented an unusual case of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma in a 58-year-old man with a history of recalcitrant and chronic arm and leg ulcerations in the absence of characteristic periorbital involvement. Our patient demonstrates a therapeutic challenge and may display a new necrobiotic inflammatory disorder not previously characterized. PMID:23222162

Ghiasi, Nazli; Alavi, Afsaneh; Coutts, Patricia M; Ghazarian, Danny; Sibbald, R Gary



Efficacy and Safety of Rituximab in the Treatment of Vasculitic Leg Ulcers Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Vasculitic leg ulcers are a cutaneous manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often associated with cryoglobulinemia. Their treatment is difficult and is based on steroids and immunosuppressive drugs with an erratic response and a high probability of adverse reaction. We report three patients with vasculitic leg ulcers associated with hepatitis C virus infection who were treated successfully with rituximab. The pain control and healing were achieved quickly. No adverse effects with rituximab in these patients were presented.

Bonilla-Abadia, Fabio; Echeverri, Andres F.; Izquierdo, Jorge H.; Canas, Felipe; Canas, Carlos A.



Laser irradiation effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms isolated from venous leg ulcer.  


Chronic wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers, represent a significant cause of morbidity in developed countries, predominantly in older patients. The aetiology of these wounds is probably multifactorial, but the role of bacteria in their pathogenesis is still unclear. Moreover, the presence of bacterial biofilms has been considered an important factor responsible for wounds chronicity. We aimed to investigate the laser action as a possible biofilm eradicating strategy, in order to attempt an additional treatment to antibiotic therapy to improve wound healing. In this work, the effect of near-infrared (NIR) laser was evaluated on mono and polymicrobial biofilms produced by two pathogenic bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus PECHA10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PECHA9, both isolated from a chronic venous leg ulcer. Laser effect was assessed by biomass measurement, colony forming unit count and cell viability assay. It was shown that the laser treatment has not affected the biofilms biomass neither the cell viability, although a small disruptive action was observed in the structure of all biofilms tested. A reduction on cell growth was observed in S. aureus and in polymicrobial biofilms. This work represents an initial in vitro approach to study the influence of NIR laser treatment on bacterial biofilms in order to explain its potentially advantageous effects in the healing process of chronic infected wounds. PMID:22182280

Baffoni, Marina; Bessa, Lucinda J; Grande, Rossella; Di Giulio, Mara; Mongelli, Matteo; Ciarelli, Antonio; Cellini, Luigina



Efficacy of subfascial endoscopy in eradicating perforating veins of the lower leg and its relation with venous ulcer healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of subfascial endoscopy by use of a mediastinoscope in the identification and ligation of incompetent perforating veins in patients with venous ulceration of the lower leg.Methods: All patients who underwent subfascial endoscopy for venous ulceration between Jan. 1, 1994, and Mar. 1, 1995, at the Sint Franciscus Gasthuis in

E. G. J. M. Pierik; H. van Urk; C. H. A. Wittens



Etiological agents of corneal ulcer: five years prospective study in eastern Nepal.  


To identify the most common isolates from the corneal ulcers with antimicrobial pattern of bacterial isolates. All patients with suspected corneal ulceration presenting to BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences from Jan 2004 - Dec 2008 were evaluated. Corneal scraping was performed and processed for direct microscopy, bacteriological and fungal culture. Bacterial isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Of 351 specimens examined, growth of etiological agents were obtained in 278 (79.20%). Of these, 113 (40.65%) had pure fungal growth, 108 (38.85%) had pure bacterial growth and 57 (20.50%) had mixed fungal and bacterial infection. The commonest fungal pathogen was Aspergillus spp 50 (33.33%) followed by Fusarium spp 19 (12.66%). Staphylococcal aureus 57 (44.53%) was isolated as commonest bacterial agent. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci 20 (15.6%) was second in the list. Pseudomonas spp 12 (9.40%) was the most common gram negative bacilli isolated. Most of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to commonly used antibiotics. Corneal Ulcer is a common problem in eastern Nepal. Knowledge of both fungal and bacterial agents associated with this condition is of value for the prevention and management of corneal ulcers and their complications. PMID:24047020

Amatya, R; Shrestha, S; Khanal, B; Gurung, R; Poudyal, N; Bhattacharya, S K; Badu, B P



Cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma of the leg masquerading as a chronic venous ulcer.  


We report on a 74-year-old female patient with a primary cutaneous CD20+, diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma of the lower leg resembling a chronic non-healing leg ulcer. There was no evidence of systemic involvement on computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis; a slightly enlarged lymph node in the right groin showed dermatopathic lymphadenopathy on histology and immunohistochemistry. Involvement of the bone marrow and peripheral blood was ruled out by punch biopsy and fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis of the blood, respectively. Therapeutic anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab was given at 375 mg m(-2) i.v. once weekly for 7 weeks, without adverse effects, resulting in a minor improvement in the centre of the ulcerated tumour. Unfortunately, the response was not maintained, and after 7 weeks of treatment the patient started to develop new tumour lesions at the border of the ulcer. Local radiotherapy was started and combined photon and electron beam irradiation induced complete remission of the B-cell lymphoma. PMID:11841383

Garbea, A; Dippel, E; Hildenbrand, R; Bleyl, U; Schadendorf, D; Goerdt, S



Prognostic implications of leg ulcers from hydroxycarbamide therapy in patients with essential thrombocythaemia.  


Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a clonal stem-cell disorder characterized by persistent thrombocytosis. Patients with ET and risk factors for thrombotic complications have been shown to benefit from cytoreductive therapy, the most common agent used being, hydroxycarbamide. Although this agent is usually well-tolerated, one of the recognized adverse effects is the development of leg ulcers. We undertook retrospective analysis of consecutive ET patients treated with hydroxcarbamide and identified several specific features for this complication including advanced age, female preponderance, reduced overall survival, tendency to develop future vascular events and intolerance to the second line agent, anagrelide. PMID:22196956

Francis, Sebastian; Bareford, David; Baggott, Christina; Baginott, Christina; Thachil, Jecko



Iatrogenic Arteriovenous Fistula as a Cause for Leg Ulcers: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

An 80-year-old man presented with painful leg ulceration due to steal phenomenon from a groin arteriovenous fistula (AVF) 10 years following a coronary angiogram. The diagnosis of the AVF was confirmed by duplex examination of the groin vessels which demonstrated characteristic flow pattern in the femoral arterial and venous system. Angiography further confirmed the site of the fistulous communication and this was managed by a covered stent graft. We discuss the incidence of AVF, risk factors for its development, relevant diagnostic investigations and management options along with strategies to reduce the incidence of AVF following percutaneous punctures.

Mylankal, Kurian J; Johnson, Brian; Ettles, Duncan F



Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula as a cause for leg ulcers: a case report.  


An 80-year-old man presented with painful leg ulceration due to steal phenomenon from a groin arteriovenous fistula (AVF) 10 years following a coronary angiogram. The diagnosis of the AVF was confirmed by duplex examination of the groin vessels which demonstrated characteristic flow pattern in the femoral arterial and venous system. Angiography further confirmed the site of the fistulous communication and this was managed by a covered stent graft. We discuss the incidence of AVF, risk factors for its development, relevant diagnostic investigations and management options along with strategies to reduce the incidence of AVF following percutaneous punctures. PMID:23555445

Mylankal, Kurian J; Johnson, Brian; Ettles, Duncan F




PubMed Central

Background: Therapeutic low-frequency ultrasound (US) has been used for many years to improve wound healing in chronic wounds like venous leg ulcers. No human data are available for the possible effects of single US applications on microcirculation and their frequency-dependency. Aims: To investigated the role of therapeutic low-frequency US on microcirculation of venous leg ulcers in vivo. Patients and Methods: This is a pilot study on an inpatient basis. We use a newly developed low-frequency continuous-wave US-equipment composed of a US transducer based on piezo-fiber composites that allow the change of frequency. In this study, we apply US of 34 kHz, 53.5 kHz, and 75 kHz respectively. Twelve patients with chronic venous leg ulcers are analyzed. As an adjunct to good ulcer care, therapeutic US is applied, non-contacting, once a day, in a subaqual position for 10 minutes. Microcirculation is assessed in the ulcers adjacent to skin before US-therapy, immediately after the treatment and 30 minutes later. We use a micro-light guide spectrophotometer (O2C, LEA Medizintechnik GmbH, Gie?en, Germany) for calculation of blood flow velocity, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SCO2) and relative hemoglobin concentration (rHb) in 2 and 8 mm depth. Contact-free remission spectroscopy (SkinREM3, Color Control Chemnitz GmbH, Chemnitz, Germany) allows contact free measurements in the VIS-NIR range of the spectrum (400 ± 1600 nm). Results: It is seen that therapeutic US is well tolerated. One patient dropped out from a treatment series since he developed erysipelas responding to standard antibiotic. Effects were seen at 34 kHz only. The SO2 values increased after single US application. The values for rHb were higher in the superficial layer of the wound bed (depth 2 mm) compared to deeper parts (8 mm depth). US treatment did not result in significant changes of rHb and blood cell velocity. The data obtained by remission spectroscopy disclose an increase of oxygenized hemoglobin. Conclusions: The major findings are that continuous-wave low-frequency US of 34 kHz, but not, 53.5 kHz or 75 kHz, has a temporary stimulatory effect on microcirculation mainly due to an improved oxygenation. Further studies with treatment series are necessary.

Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit; Naumann, Gunther; Scheibe, Armin; Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Neugebauer, Reimund



Leg Ulceration in Rheumatoid Arthritis – An Underreported Multicausal Complication with Considerable Morbidity: Analysis of Thirty-Six Patients and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease which may present with extra-articular symptoms, including cutaneous manifestations. Ulcerated rheumatoid nodules, necrotic vasculitic lesions and pyoderma gangrenosum are fairly characteristic and well-recognized causes of skin ulcers in RA. However, most RA patients develop leg ulcers due to other pathophysiological factors posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and leading to considerable

Cornelia S. Seitz; Nikolaus Berens; Eva-B. Bröcker; Axel Trautmann



Nurse clinic versus home delivery of evidence-based community leg ulcer care: A randomized health services trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: International studies report that nurse clinics improve healing rates for the leg ulcer population. However, these studies did not necessarily deliver similar standards of care based on evidence in the treatment venues (home and clinic). A rigorous evaluation of home versus clinic care is required to determine healing rates with equivalent care and establish the acceptability of clinic-delivered care.

Margaret B Harrison; Ian D Graham; Karen Lorimer; Elizabeth VandenKerkhof; Maureen Buchanan; Phil S Wells; Tim Brandys; Tadeusz Pierscianowski



Chronic leg ulceration associated with polycythemia vera responding to ruxolitinib (jakafi(®)).  


We present the case of a 63-year-old white male with bilateral chronic leg ulcers due to polycythemia vera and hydroxyurea therapy who demonstrated dramatic healing of his wounds in response to ruxolitinib (Jakafi(®), Novartis), a novel Janus kinase-1 and -2 inhibitor. This patient's wound had previously been refractory to multiple surgical interventions and immunosuppression. After the initiation of ruxolitinib, the patient underwent successful split-thickness skin grafting, with resultant healing of his wounds. He was stable without prednisone and other immunosuppressant therapy and had healed at 6 months. Ruxolitinib therapy could represent a novel option for patients who develop persistent inflammatory wounds in the setting of polycythemia vera and hydroxyurea therapy. PMID:23953278

Shanmugam, Victoria K; McNish, Sean; Shara, Nawar; Hubley, Katherine J; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Dunning, David M; Attinger, Christopher E; Steinberg, John S



Proteolytic activity by multiple bacterial species isolated from chronic venous leg ulcers degrades matrix substrates.  


Background:A major feature of chronic wounds is the loss of tissue, with the exposure of dermal components preventing primary closure and leading to bacterial colonization. Bacterial colonization has been proposed as one of the common underlying pathologies present in chronic wounds. The objective of this exploratory study was to identify bacteria cultured from chronic venous leg ulcers and test for proteolytic activity that degrades matrix substrates.Method:Bacteria were isolated, cultured, and identified from six subjects (average age = 62.8 years) over 2-10 months under an approved protocol using swabs and microbiological culture media. Proteolytic activity against (a) gelatin, (b) an elastin substrate, and (c) a serine/trypsin-sensitive substrate was determined using a colorimetric plate assay with an ELISA plate reader and zymography.Results:We identified 13 bacteria that expressed proteolytic activity against one or more of the tested substrates. Of these, six were Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Corynebacterium, and Streptococcus bovis) and seven were Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacteroides fragilis, and Serratia marcescens) organisms. Two of these, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, are recognized wound pathogens.Conclusions:Multiple bacteria species isolated from colonized venous leg ulcers have the capacity to secrete proteases capable of degrading components of the extracellular matrix important for wound healing. Matrix degradation by bacteria may contribute to delays in tissue deposition and repair, suggesting that treatment of chronic wounds should include appropriate management of colonizing bacteria. PMID:23118301

Wysocki, Annette B; Bhalla-Regev, Sandhya K; Tierno, Philip M; Stevens-Riley, Marla; Wiygul, Ryan-Claire



Randomized study assessing the influence of supervised exercises on ankle joint mobility in patients with venous leg ulcerations  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a supervised programme of exercises on ankle joint mobility in patients with venous leg ulcerations. Material and methods The study was carried out between 2008 and 2009 at the Venous Ulcer Treatment Outpatient Clinic and Clinic of General and Vascular Surgery of the Dr Jan Biziel University Hospital no. 2 in Bydgoszcz. It was a randomized control study in which 32 patients with venous leg ulcerations were qualified. Patients with ulcerations were randomized to 2 groups – 16 patients were included in the group with a supervised programme of exercises and the other 16 patients were included in the control group performing physical exercises by themselves, without supervision. The ranges of ankle joint mobility were assessed before, during and after the end of the 9-week exercise programme. A 32 cm goniometer with a scale from 0° to 180° with accuracy to 1° was used for measurements. Results In both groups a substantial increase of ankle joint mobility (p < 0.05) was observed. The total ankle joint mobility after completion of the exercises was significantly higher in the group performing exercises under the supervision of a nurse. Having a significant effect on the mobility of the ankle were the ulceration area, the extent of lipodermatosclerosis, and the intensity of symptoms and signs of CVI (p < 0.05). Conclusions Supervised physical exercises broaden the range of ankle joint mobility. They should constitute an integral part of a holistic model of care for patients with venous leg ulcerations.

Jawien, Arkadiusz; Cwajda-Bialasik, Justyna; Cierzniakowska, Katarzyna; Moscicka, Paulina; Hancke, Elzbieta



Treatment of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers with autologous keratinocytes in fibrin sealant: a multinational randomized controlled clinical trial.  


In a multicenter trial, the effect of a commercially available combination of autologous keratinocytes (3-6 x 10(6)/mL) with fibrin sealant (Tissucol Duo S Immuno, Baxter Hyland Immuno) on the healing of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers (duration >3 months) was compared with standard care. The primary endpoint was time to healing, and the secondary endpoint was number of healed ulcers in both groups. Both groups received compression therapy with short-stretch bandages. Forty-four (38.3%) of the 116 patients who had BioSeed-S treatment achieved complete healing of the target ulcer compared with 24 (22.4%) of 109 patients who received standard treatment. The advantage for treatment with BioSeed-S over standard treatment was statistically significant (chi-square test: p=0.0106). Time to complete healing of ulcers: the log-rank test for equality over strata revealed a superiority of treatment with BioSeed-S+compression (median: 176 days) over compression+standard care (median >201 days) (p<0.0001). This study, to date the largest multicenter study with autologous keratinocytes, provides evidence for its efficacy in the treatment of patients with therapy-resistant chronic venous leg ulcers. PMID:17537117

Vanscheidt, W; Ukat, A; Horak, V; Brüning, H; Hunyadi, J; Pavlicek, R; Emter, M; Hartmann, A; Bende, J; Zwingers, Th; Ermuth, T; Eberhardt, R


The causes of skin damage and leg ulceration in chronic venous disease.  


Chronic venous disease with skin changes of the leg is a common condition affecting up to 1 in 20 people in westernized countries. The causes of this problem are not fully understood, although research in recent years has revealed a number of important mechanisms that contribute to the disease process. Patients with chronic venous disease suffer persistently raised pressures in their deep and superficial veins in the lower limb. Leucocytes become "trapped" in the circulation of the leg during periods of venous hyper-tension produced by sitting or standing. Studies of the plasma levels of neutrophil granule enzymes shows that these are increased during periods of venous hypertension, suggesting that this causes activation of the neutrophils. Investigation of the leucocyte surface ligands CD11b and CD62L shows that the more activated neutrophils and monocytes are sequestered during venous hypertension. Measurement of plasma levels of the soluble parts of the endothelial adhesion molecules VCAM, ICAM, and ELAM show that these are all elevated in patients with chronic venous disease compared to controls. Following 30 minutes of venous hypertension produced by standing, these levels are further increased. These data suggest that venous hypertension causes neutrophil and monocyte activation, which in turn causes injury to the endothelium. Chronic injury to the endothelium leads to a chronic inflammatory condition of the skin that we know clinically as lipodermatosclerosis. This is mediated by perivascular inflammatory cells, principally macrophages, in the skin microcirculation. These stimulate fibroblasts in the skin leading to tissue remodeling and laying down of fibrous tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates proliferation of capillaries within the skin. Skin in this state has the potential to ulcerate in response to minor injury. PMID:16928672

Smith, Philip Coleridge



Non-healing leg ulcers in a patient with dystrophic calcification and crest syndrome: a challenging clinical case.  


The management of non-healing leg ulcers in patients with CREST syndrome and subdermal calcification is rarely reported in medical literature. Only one similar case was found in the literature (1). Dealing with such patients can be a challenge for wound specialists. In this article, we discuss the clinical progress of an interesting case of extensive non-healing leg ulcers in a CREST patient with dystrophic calcification. The combination of systemic physiological deficits and immune compromise, along with the local physical abnormalities associated with the wound pose a complex multifactorial aetiological mix. There is no conclusive data on the optimal management of these wounds in CREST patients. It seems that ablation of the calcific deposits may offer some hope. PMID:21827631

Al-Najjar, Mahmoud; Jackson, Mark J



Developing a nurse-led education program to enhance self-care agency in leg ulcer patients.  


Patients with leg ulceration face changing self-care demands associated with the consequences of the disease and treatment. Often patients can manage their self-care for some time, but new therapeutic self-care demands may emerge that require more complex self-care actions. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a nurse-led education program in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany, that aims to help patients with leg ulcers to meet their therapeutic self-care demands. Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory is used as a framework to provide the conceptual context for this supportive-educative nursing system that is being tested in a multi-site clinical trial. PMID:18378825

Herber, Oliver R; Schnepp, Wilfried; Rieger, Monika A



Stasis Ulcer  


newsletter | contact Share | Stasis Ulcer Information for adults A A A This image displays a patient with chronic leg swelling with stasis dermatitis and a stasis ulcer. Overview A stasis ulcer is a breakdown of ...


A review of a bi-layered living cell treatment (Apligraf ®) in the treatment of venous leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers  

PubMed Central

Apligraf® (Organogenesis, Canton, MA) is a bi-layered bioengineered skin substitute and was the first engineered skin US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved to promote the healing of ulcers that have failed standard wound care. Constructed by culturing human foreskin-derived neonatal fibroblasts in a bovine type I collagen matrix over which human foreskin-derived neonatal epidermal keratinocytes are then cultured and allowed to stratify, Apligraf provides both cells and matrix for the nonhealing wound. Its exact mechanism of action is not known, but it is known to produce cytokines and growth factors similar to healthy human skin. Initially approved by the FDA in 1998 for the treatment of venous ulcers greater than one-month duration that have not adequately responded to conventional therapy, Apligraf later received approval in 2000 for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers of greater than three weeks duration. Herein, we review the use of Apligraf in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers. Our goal is to provide a working understanding of appropriate patient selection and proper use of the product for any physician treating this segment of the aging population.

Zaulyanov, Larissa; Kirsner, Robert S



Autologous cultured keratinocytes on porcine gelatin microbeads effectively heal chronic venous leg ulcers.  


We have established a specific bioreactor microcarrier cell culture system using porcine gelatin microbeads as carriers to produce autologous keratinocytes on a large scale. Moreover, we have shown that autologous keratinocytes can be cultured on porcine collagen pads, thereby forming a single cell layer. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of autologous cultured keratinocytes on microbeads and collagen pads in the treatment of chronic wounds. Fifteen patients with recalcitrant venous leg ulcers were assigned to three groups in a single-center, prospective, uncontrolled study: five underwent a single treatment with keratinocyte monolayers on collagen pads (group 1); another five received a single grafting with keratinocyte-microbeads (group 2); and the last five received multiple, consecutive applications of keratinocyte-microbeads 3 days apart (group 3). All patients were followed for up to 12 weeks. By 12 weeks, there was a mean reduction in the initial wound area of 50, 83, and 97 percent in the three groups, respectively. The changes in wound size were statistically significant between the first and third groups (p= 0.0003). Keratinocyte-microbeads proved to be more effective than keratinocyte monolayers on collagen pads when the former were applied every 3 days. Rapid availability within 10-13 days after skin biopsy and easy handling represent particular advantages. PMID:15086765

Liu, Jin Yu; Hafner, Jürg; Dragieva, Galya; Seifert, Burkhardt; Burg, Günter


Neutrophil activity in chronic venous leg ulcers--A target for therapy?  

PubMed Central

Chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) affect approximately 600,000 people annually in the United States and accrue yearly treatment costs of US$2.5–5 billion. As the population ages, demands on health care resources for CVLU treatments are predicted to drastically increase because the incidence of CVLUs is highest in those ?65 years of age. Furthermore, regardless of current standards of care, healing complications and high recurrence rates prevail. Thus, it is critical that factors leading to or exacerbating CVLUs be discerned and more effective, adjuvant, evidence-based treatment strategies be utilized. Previous studies have suggested that CVLUs’ pathogenesis is related to the prolonged presence of high numbers of activated neutrophils secreting proteases in the wound bed that destroy growth factors, receptors, and the extracellular matrix that are essential for healing. These events are believed to contribute to a chronically inflamed wound that fails to heal. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to review studies from the past 15 years (1996–2011) that characterized neutrophil activity in the microenvironment of human CVLUs for new evidence that could explicate the proposed relationship between excessive, sustained neutrophil activity and CVLUs. We also appraised the strength of evidence for current and potential therapeutics that target excessive neutrophil activity.

McDaniel, Jodi C.; Roy, Sashwati; Wilgus, Traci A.



EMLA cream as a topical anesthetic for the repeated mechanical debridement of venous leg ulcers: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A granulating surface is important for skin grafting and healing of leg ulcers. Mechanical debridement to remove necrotic tissue often must be stopped before completion because of pain. Objective: Our purpose was to assess the effect of EMLA cream on the number of debridements required to obtain a clean ulcer and on pain during debridement and to determine its

Catherine Lok; Carle Paul; Pierre Amblard; Didier Bessis; Clélia Debure; Brigitte Faivre; Bernard Guillot; Jean Paul Ortonne; Gunilla Huledal; Bernard Kalis



Effect of sharp debridement using curette on recalcitrant nonhealing venous leg ulcers: a concurrently controlled, prospective cohort study.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sharp debridement on the progression of recalcitrant chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLU) and to assess the feasibility of performing this procedure in an outpatient setting. We performed a prospective study of 55 CVLU (53 patients) over a 12-month period. The study group, which underwent debridement, contained 28 CVLU whose wound beds had slough, nonviable tissue, and no granulation tissue. The control group was 27 CVLU with minimal (15-20%) granulation tissue, but no slough or nonviable tissue. Treatments were otherwise similar. Age, body mass index, mean ulcer surface area (MSA) and mean ulcer duration were comparable in both groups. Ulcer measurements were taken at 4 weeks before debridement, at the time of debridement, and 4 and 20 weeks post-debridement. There was no change in the MSA from 4 weeks before to the time of debridement in either group. At 4 weeks post-debridement, the study ulcers showed a 6 cm(2) reduction in the MSA vs. a 1 cm(2) reduction in controls (P = 0.02). By week 20 post-debridement, the study ulcers achieved a 7.4 cm(2) reduction in the MSA vs. an increase of 1.3 cm(2) in controls (P = 0.008). Between weeks 8 and 20 post-debridement, 16% of study ulcers vs. 4.3% of control ulcers achieved complete healing. Infection rates and antimicrobial usage were similar. We conclude that sharp debridement is effective in stimulating healing of recalcitrant CVLU. It is safe, well tolerated, and can be performed in an outpatient setting. PMID:15828937

Williams, Dean; Enoch, Stuart; Miller, David; Harris, Karen; Price, Patricia; Harding, Keith G




An ulcer is a crater-like sore on the skin or mucous membrane . Ulcers form when the top layers of skin or ... Ulcers can be caused by inflammation or infection. Some ulcers may be caused by a cancer.


Health service pathways for patients with chronic leg ulcers: identifying effective pathways for facilitation of evidence based wound care  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic leg ulcers cause long term ill-health for older adults and the condition places a significant burden on health service resources. Although evidence on effective management of the condition is available, a significant evidence-practice gap is known to exist, with many suggested reasons e.g. multiple care providers, costs of care and treatments. This study aimed to identify effective health service pathways of care which facilitated evidence-based management of chronic leg ulcers. Methods A sample of 70 patients presenting with a lower limb leg or foot ulcer at specialist wound clinics in Queensland, Australia were recruited for an observational study and survey. Retrospective data were collected on demographics, health, medical history, treatments, costs and health service pathways in the previous 12 months. Prospective data were collected on health service pathways, pain, functional ability, quality of life, treatments, wound healing and recurrence outcomes for 24 weeks from admission. Results Retrospective data indicated that evidence based guidelines were poorly implemented prior to admission to the study, e.g. only 31% of participants with a lower limb ulcer had an ABPI or duplex assessment in the previous 12 months. On average, participants accessed care 2–3 times/week for 17 weeks from multiple health service providers in the twelve months before admission to the study clinics. Following admission to specialist wound clinics, participants accessed care on average once per week for 12 weeks from a smaller range of providers. The median ulcer duration on admission to the study was 22 weeks (range 2–728 weeks). Following admission to wound clinics, implementation of key indicators of evidence based care increased (p?leg or foot ulcers. Results demonstrate that access to wound management expertise can promote streamlined health services and evidence based wound care, leading to efficient use of health resources and improved health.



Nurse clinic versus home delivery of evidence-based community leg ulcer care: A randomized health services trial  

PubMed Central

Background International studies report that nurse clinics improve healing rates for the leg ulcer population. However, these studies did not necessarily deliver similar standards of care based on evidence in the treatment venues (home and clinic). A rigorous evaluation of home versus clinic care is required to determine healing rates with equivalent care and establish the acceptability of clinic-delivered care. Methods Health Services RCT was conducted where mobile individuals were allocated to either home or nurse clinic for leg ulcer management. In both arms, care was delivered by specially trained nurses, following an evidence protocol. Primary outcome: 3-month healing rates. Secondary outcomes: durability of healing (recurrence), time free of ulcers, HRQL, satisfaction, resource use. Data were collected at base-line, every 3 months until healing occurred, with 1 year follow-up. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results 126 participants, 65 randomized to receive care in their homes, 61 to nurse-run clinics. No differences found between groups at baseline on socio-demographic, HRQL or clinical characteristics. mean age 69 years, 68% females, 84% English-speaking, half with previous episode of ulceration, 60% ulcers at inclusion < 5 cm2 for < 6 months. No differences in 3-month healing rates: clinic 58.3% compared to home care at 56.7% (p = 0.5) or in secondary outcomes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that organization of care not the setting where care is delivered influences healing rates. Key factors are a system that supports delivery of evidence-based recommendations with care being provided by a trained nursing team resulting in equivalent healing rates, HRQL whether care is delivered in the home or in a community nurse-led clinic. Trial registration Protocol Registration System: NCT00656383

Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D; Lorimer, Karen; VandenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Buchanan, Maureen; Wells, Phil S; Brandys, Tim; Pierscianowski, Tadeusz



Use of weekly, low dose, high frequency ultrasound for hard to heal venous leg ulcers: the VenUS III randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the clinical effectiveness of weekly delivery of low dose, high frequency therapeutic ultrasound in conjunction with standard care for hard to heal venous leg ulcers. Design Multicentre, pragmatic, two arm randomised controlled trial. Setting Community and district nurse led services, community leg ulcer clinics, and hospital outpatient leg ulcer clinics in 12 urban and rural settings (11 in the United Kingdom and one in the Republic of Ireland). Participants 337 patients with at least one venous leg ulcer of >6 months’ duration or >5 cm2 area and an ankle brachial pressure index of ?0.8. Interventions Weekly administration of low dose, high frequency ultrasound therapy (0.5 W/cm2, 1 MHz, pulsed pattern of 1:4) for up to 12 weeks plus standard care compared with standard care alone. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was time to healing of the largest eligible leg ulcer. Secondary outcomes were proportion of patients healed by 12 months, percentage and absolute change in ulcer size, proportion of time participants were ulcer-free, health related quality of life, and adverse events. Results The two groups showed no significant difference in the time to healing of the reference leg ulcer (log rank test, P=0.61). After adjustment for baseline ulcer area, baseline ulcer duration, use of compression bandaging, and study centre, there was still no evidence of a difference in time to healing (hazard ratio 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.40), P=0.97). The median time to healing of the reference leg ulcer was inestimable. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of participants with all ulcers healed by 12 months (72/168 in ultrasound group v 78/169 in standard care group, P=0.39 for Fisher’s exact test) nor in the change in ulcer size at four weeks by treatment group (model estimate 0.05 (95% CI –0.09 to 0.19)). There was no difference in time to complete healing of all ulcers (log rank test, P=0.61), with median time to healing of 328 days (95% CI 235 to inestimable) with standard care and 365 days (224 days to inestimable) with ultrasound. There was no evidence of a difference in rates of recurrence of healed ulcers (17/31 with ultrasound v 14/31 with standard care, P=0.68 for Fisher’s exact test). There was no difference between the two groups in health related quality of life, both for the physical component score (model estimate 0.69 (–1.79 to 3.08)) and the mental component score (model estimate –0.93 (–3.30 to 1.44)), but there were significantly more adverse events in the ultrasound group (model estimate 0.30 (0.01 to 0.60)). There was a significant relation between time to ulcer healing and baseline ulcer area (hazard ratio 0.64 (0.55 to 0.75)) and baseline ulcer duration (hazard ratio 0.59 (0.50 to 0.71)), with larger and older ulcers taking longer to heal. In addition, those centres with high recruitment rates had the highest healing rates. Conclusions Low dose, high frequency ultrasound administered weekly for 12 weeks during dressing changes in addition to standard care did not increase ulcer healing rates, affect quality of life, or reduce ulcer recurrence. Trial registration ISRCTN21175670 and National Research Register N0484162339



/sup 201/Tl perfusion study of ''ischemic'' ulcers of the leg: prognostic ability compared with Doppler ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

Thallium 201 perfusion analysis was compared with Doppler ultrasound as a means of determining the healing potential of an ischemic ulcer of the leg in 27 patients. The degree of hyperemia was determined by comparative point counting of the 201Tl distribution in and about the ulcer. Using established Doppler criteria and a hyperemia ratio greater than 1.5:1, ultrasound alone correctly predicted healing in 15 out of 23 cases and 201Tl in 20 out of 23. Ultrasound correctly predicted non-healing in 3 out of 6 cases, compared with 5 out of 6 for 201Tl. The positive predictive value of the 201Tl study was 63%, versus 27% for ultrasound, and the negative predictive value was 95% for 201Tl and 83% for ultrasound. The accuracy of 201Tl and ultrasound was 86% and 62%, respectively. This limited study suggests that 201Tl perfusion scanning is a useful noninvasive test of ulcer healing potential and may be more sensitive than Doppler ultrasound.

Siegel, M.E.; Stewart, C.A.; Kwong, P.; Sakimura, I.



Strategies and approaches towards evidence-based practice in the management of chronic leg ulcers by nurses working in the community in Kronoberg County, Sweden and the East Riding & Hull, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This paper reports one aspect of a study concerning management of chronic leg ulcers by nurses working in the community in Kronoberg County, Sweden (KC) and the East Riding & Hull, UK (ER). Our study focus was to describe reported evidence-based practice in leg ulcer care in two samples of nurses from two countries. The paper describes the overall

Britt-Lousie Anderson



Etiology and pathogenesis of skin ulcers in menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannis: does Pfiesteria piscicida play a role?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, is widely blamed for adverse human health effects, acute fish kills and skin lesion events in fishes, particularly menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannis, inhabiting coastal waters from Delaware to North Carolina, USA. In response, we initiated studies to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of presumed ‘Pfiesteria-specific’ menhaden skin lesions. Histopathologically, all lesions (>150 fish examined) were associated

V. Blazer; W. K. Vogelbein; C. Densmore; H. Kator; D. Zwerner; J. Lilley



Diagnosis and treatment of venous ulcers.  


Venous ulcer, also known as stasis ulcer, is the most common etiology of lower extremity ulceration, affecting approximately 1 percent of the U.S. population. Possible causes of venous ulcers include inflammatory processes resulting in leukocyte activation, endothelial damage, platelet aggregation, and intracellular edema. The primary risk factors for venous ulcer development are older age, obesity, previous leg injuries, deep venous thrombosis, and phlebitis. On physical examination, venous ulcers are generally irregular, shallow, and located over bony prominences. Granulation tissue and fibrin are typically present in the ulcer base. Associated findings include lower extremity varicosities, edema, venous dermatitis, and lipodermatosclerosis. Venous ulcers are usually recurrent, and an open ulcer can persist for weeks to many years. Severe complications include cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and malignant change. Poor prognostic factors include large ulcer size and prolonged duration. Evidence-based treatment options for venous ulcers include leg elevation, compression therapy, dressings, pentoxifylline, and aspirin therapy. Surgical management may be considered for ulcers that are large in size, of prolonged duration, or refractory to conservative measures. PMID:20387775

Collins, Lauren; Seraj, Samina



Systematic review of economic evaluations of human cell-derived wound care products for the treatment of venous leg and diabetic foot ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering is an emerging field. Novel bioengineered skin substitutes and genetically derived growth factors offer innovative approaches to reduce the burden of diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers for both patients and health care systems. However, they frequently are very costly. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this study assesses the cost-effectiveness of these growth factors

Astrid Langer; Wolf Rogowski



Targeting Cx43 and N-Cadherin, Which Are Abnormally Upregulated in Venous Leg Ulcers, Influences Migration, Adhesion and Activation of Rho GTPases  

PubMed Central

Background Venous leg ulcers can be very hard to heal and represent a significant medical need with no effective therapeutic treatment currently available. Principal Findings In wound edge biopsies from human venous leg ulcers we found a striking upregulation of dermal N-cadherin, Zonula Occludens-1 and the gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43) compared to intact skin, and in stark contrast to the down-regulation of Cx43 expression seen in acute, healing wounds. We targeted the expression of these proteins in 3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate their role in venous leg ulcers healing. Knockdown of Cx43 and N-cadherin, but not Zonula Occludens-1, accelerated cell migration in a scratch wound-healing assay. Reducing Cx43 increased Golgi reorientation, whilst decreasing cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, Connexin43 and N-cadherin knockdown led to profound effects on fibroblast cytoskeletal dynamics after scratch-wounding. The cells exhibited longer lamelipodial protrusions lacking the F-actin belt seen at the leading edge in wounded control cells. This phenotype was accompanied by augmented activation of Rac-1 and RhoA GTPases, as revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and pull down experiments. Conclusions Cx43 and N-cadherin are potential therapeutic targets in the promotion of healing of venous leg ulcers, by acting at least in part through distinct contributions of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and cytoskeletal dynamics.

Mendoza-Naranjo, Ariadna; Cormie, Peter; Serrano, Antonio E.; Hu, Rebecca; O'Neill, Shay; Wang, Chiuhui Mary; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Power, Kieran T.; White, Alexis; Serena, Thomas; Phillips, Anthony R. J.; Becker, David L.



Recruitment rates and reasons for community physicians' non-participation in an interdisciplinary intervention study on leg ulceration  

PubMed Central

Background This article describes the challenges a research team experienced recruiting physicians within a randomised controlled trial about leg ulcer care that seeks to foster the cooperation between the medical and nursing professions. Community-based physicians in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were recruited for an interdisciplinary intervention designed to enhance leg ulcer patients' self-care agency. The aim of this article is to investigate the success of different recruitment strategies employed and reasons for physicians' non-participation. Methods The first recruitment phase stressed the recruitment of GPs, the second the recruitment of specialists. Throughout the recruitment process data were collected through phone conversations with GP practices who indicated reasons for non-participation. Results Despite great efforts to recruit physicians, the recruitment rate reached only 26 out of 1549 contacted practices (1.7%) and 12 out of 273 (4.4%) practices during the first and second recruitment phase respectively. The overall recruitment rate over the 16-month recruitment period was 2%. With a target recruitment rate of n = 300, only 45 patients were enrolled in the study, not meeting study projections. Various reasons for community physicians' non-participation are presented as stated spontaneously during phone conversations that might explain low recruitment rates. The recruitment strategy utilised is discussed against the background of factors associated with high participation rates from the international literature. Conclusion Time, money, and effort needed during the planning and recruitment phase of a study must not be underestimated to avoid higher than usual rates of refusal and lack of initial contact. Pilot studies prior to a study start-up may provide some evidence on whether the target recruitment rate is feasible. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN42122226.



The Causes of Skin Damage and Leg Ulceration in Chronic Venous Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic venous disease with skin changes of the leg is a common condition affecting up to 1 in 20 people in westernized countries. The causes of this problem are not fully understood, although research in recent years has revealed a number of important mechanisms that contribute to the disease process. Patients with chronic venous disease suffer persistently raised pressures in

Philip Coleridge Smith



A home-based progressive resistance exercise programme for patients with venous leg ulcers: a feasibility study.  


This study aimed to assess the feasibility of a home-based exercise programme and examine the effects on the healing rates of venous leg ulcers. A 12-week randomised controlled trial was conducted investigating the effects of an exercise intervention compared to a usual care group. Participants in both groups (n = 13) had active venous ulceration and were treated in a metropolitan hospital outpatients clinic in Australia. Data were collected on recruitment from medical records, clinical assessment and questionnaires. Follow-up data on progress in healing and treatments were collected fortnightly for 12 weeks. Calf muscle pump function data were collected at baseline and 12 weeks from recruitment. Range of ankle motion data were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks from recruitment. This pilot study indicated that the intervention was feasible. Clinical significance was observed in the intervention group with a 32% greater decrease in ulcer size (P = 0·34) than the usual care group, and a 10% (P = 0·74) improvement in the number of participants healed in the intervention group compared to the usual care group. Significant differences between groups over time were observed in calf muscle pump function parameters [ejection fraction (P = 0·05), residual volume fraction (P = 0·04)] and range of ankle motion (P = 0·01). This pilot study is one of the first to examine and measure clinical healing rates for participants involved in a home-based progressive resistance exercise programme. Further research is warranted with a larger multi-site study. PMID:22697811

O'Brien, Jane; Edwards, Helen; Stewart, Ian; Gibbs, Harry



Fibroblast Dysfunction Is a Key Factor in the Non-Healing of Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic age-related degenerative disorders, including the formation of chronic leg wounds, may occur due to aging of the stromal tissues and ensuing dysfunctional cellular responses. This study investigated the impact of environmental-driven cellular aging on wound healing by conducting a comprehensive analysis of chronic wound fibroblast (CWF) behavior in comparison with patient-matched healthy skin normal fibroblasts (NF). The dysfunctional wound

Ivan B Wall; Ryan Moseley; Duncan M Baird; David Kipling; Peter Giles; Iraj Laffafian; Patricia E Price; David W Thomas; Phil Stephens



Electrical stimulation as adjuvant treatment for chronic leg ulcers of different aetiology: an RCT.  


Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of an innovative electrical stimulation (ES) therapy as adjuvant treatment for chronic wounds of various aetiology, in terms of pain and ulcer healing. Method: Patients with chronic limb ulcers were enrolled for the study and randomised into the intervention or control group. The intervention group received conventional treatment plus ES therapy (FREMS; Lorenz Lifetech) while the control group received only conventional treatment. Each ES treatment cycle consisted of 12 sessions performed in 4 weeks (three sessions/week). All patients were treated until full wound healing occurred, or for a maximum of 9 ES cycles, with a 2-week rest between each cycle. Results: A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the study and randomised into the two groups: the intervention group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). During follow-up, some patients terminated the protocol because they reached the ulcer closure before the maximum of 9 cycles. The analysis of the effect of ES on pain and ulcer healing was performed on all patients who underwent at least two consecutive clinical evaluations (two cycles), in order to reach a compatible sample size with the primary objective (one patient withdrew). In both groups, there was a significant reduction of pain compared with baseline (p < 0.05), starting from T6 visit in the first cycle. In particular, there was a significant reduction of pain in the intervention group compared with the control group after 14 days, and this reduction continued until the end of the second cycle. Similarly, there was a significant reduction of PUSH tool score in the intervention group compared with the control group after 14 days, and this reduction continued until the end of the second cycle. Conclusion: Data collected in this study support data in the literature. Analysis of longitudinal data analysed by simple models and complex models suggest that the ES therapy had a positive and significant effect on pain reduction (VAS) and on the improvement of ulcer healing process in terms of the PUSH tool total index compared with conventional treatment, and may have induced a significant acceleration of the wound-healing process. Declaration of interest: There were no external sources of funding for this trial. The authors have no financial, commercial or social conflicts of interest to declare regarding the article or its content. PMID:24142074

Magnoni, C; Rossi, E; Fiorentini, C; Baggio, A; Ferrari, B; Alberto, G



The Canadian Bandaging Trial: Evidence-informed leg ulcer care and the effectiveness of two compression technologies  

PubMed Central

Background Objective: To determine the relative effectiveness of evidence-informed practice using two high compression systems: four-layer (4LB) and short-stretch bandaging (SSB) in community care of venous leg ulcers. Design and Setting: Pragmatic, multi-centre, parallel-group, open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted in 10 centres. Cognitively intact adults (?18 years) referred for community care (home or clinic) with a venous ulceration measuring ?0.7cm and present for ?1 week, with an ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) ?0.8, without medication-controlled Diabetes Mellitus or a previous failure to improve with either system, were eligible to participate. Methods Consenting individuals were randomly allocated (computer-generated blocked randomization schedule) to receive either 4LB or SSB following an evidence-informed protocol. Primary endpoint: time-to- healing of the reference ulcer. Secondary outcomes: recurrence rates, health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain, and expenditures. Results 424 individuals were randomized (4LB n = 215; SSB n = 209) and followed until their reference ulcer was healed (or maximum 30 months). An intent-to-treat analysis was conducted on all participants. Median time to ulcer healing in the 4LB group was 62 days [95% confidence interval (CI) 51 to 73], compared with 77 days (95% CI 63 to 91) in the SSB group. The unadjusted Kaplan-Meier curves revealed the difference in the distribution of cumulative healing times was not significantly different between group (log rank ?2 = 0.001, P = 0.98) nor ulcers recurrence (4LB, 10.1%; SSB, 13.3%; p = 0.345). Multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard Modeling also showed no significant between-bandage differences in healing time after controlling for significant covariates (p = 0.77). At 3-months post-baseline there were no differences in pain (no pain: 4LB, 22.7%; SSB, 26.7%; p = 0.335), or HRQL (SF-12 Mental Component Score: 4LB, 55.1; SSB, 55.8; p = 0.615; SF-12 Physical Component Score: 4LB, 39.0; SSB, 39.6; p = 0.675). The most common adverse events experienced by both groups included infection, skin breakdown and ulcer deterioration. Conclusions The Canadian Bandaging Trial revealed that in the practice context of trained RNs using an evidence-informed protocol, the choice of bandage system (4LB and SSB) does not materially affect healing times, recurrence rates, HRQL, or pain. From a community practice perspective, this is positive news for patient-centred care allowing individual/family and practitioner choice in selecting compression technologies based on circumstances and context. Trial registration Identifier: NCT00202267



Efficacy and safety of a gauze pad containing hyaluronic acid in treatment of leg ulcers of venous or mixed origin: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.  


Topical hyaluronic acid (HA) is routinely used in the local treatment of chronic wounds, but few data have been reported to date. A 60-day double-blind, randomised, controlled superiority trial was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a gauze pad containing HA in local treatment of venous leg ulcers, compared with its neutral vehicle. The primary endpoint was the percentage of wound size reduction after 45 days. Totally 89 patients were included. At day 45, the percentage of ulcer surface reduction was significantly greater in the HA group (73 ± 4·6%) versus neutral vehicle group (46 ± 9·6%) (P = 0·011). The number of healed ulcers was significantly higher in the HA group at day 45 (31·1% versus 9·3% respectively) and day 60 (37·8% versus 16·3% respectively; P < 0·05). At day 30, pain intensity based on visual analogue scale was significantly lower in the HA group (12·4 mm ± 2·6 versus 22·8 mm ± 3·8; P = 0·026). Tolerance of both treatments was comparable in the two groups. HA gauze pad, in local treatment of venous leg ulcers, was significantly more effective than the neutral vehicle on wound size reduction, healed ulcers rate and pain management with a good safety profile. PMID:22405094

Humbert, Philippe; Mikosinki, Jacek; Benchikhi, Hakima; Allaert, François-André



Success Rate of Split-Thickness Skin Grafting of Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers Depends on the Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

The last years of research have proposed that bacteria might be involved in and contribute to the lack of healing of chronic wounds. Especially it seems that Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a crucial role in the healing. At Copenhagen Wound Healing Centre it was for many years clinical suspected that once chronic venous leg ulcers were colonized (weeks or months preoperatively) by P. aeruginosa, the success rate of skin grafting deteriorated despite aggressive treatment. To investigate this, a retrospective study was performed on the clinical outcome of 82 consecutive patients with chronic venous leg ulcers on 91 extremities, from the 1st of March 2005 until the 31st of August 2006. This was achieved by analysing the microbiology, demographic data, smoking and drinking habits, diabetes, renal impairment, co-morbidities, approximated size and age of the wounds, immunosuppressive treatment and complicating factors on the clinical outcome of each patient. The results were evaluated using a Student T-test for continuous parameters, chi-square test for categorical parameters and a logistic regression analysis to predict healing after 12 weeks. The analysis revealed that only 33,3% of ulcers with P. aeruginosa, isolated at least once from 12 weeks prior, to or during surgery, were healed (98% or more) by week 12 follow-up, while 73,1% of ulcers without P. aeruginosa were so by the same time (p?=?0,001). Smoking also significantly suppressed the outcome at the 12-week follow-up. Subsequently, a logistic regression analysis was carried out leaving P. aeruginosa as the only predictor left in the model (p?=?0,001). This study supports our hypothesis that P. aeruginosa in chronic venous leg ulcers, despite treatment, has considerable impact on partial take or rejection of split-thickness skin grafts.

H?gsberg, Trine; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Thomsen, Jens Schiersing; Kirketerp-M?ller, Klaus



Amelogenin, an extracellular matrix protein, in the treatment of venous leg ulcers and other hard-to-heal wounds: Experimental and clinical evidence  

PubMed Central

Amelogenins are extracellular matrix proteins that, under physiological conditions, self-assemble into globular aggregates up to micron-sizes. Studies with periodontal fibroblasts indicate that attachment to these structures increases the endogenous secretion of multiple growth factors and cell proliferation. Pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that cutaneous wounds benefit from treatment with amelogenins. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving patients with hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers (VLUs) (ie, ulcers with a surface area ?10 cm2 and duration of ?6 months) showed that the application of amelogenin (Xelma®, Molnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg, Sweden) as an adjunct treatment to compression results in significant reduction in ulcer size, improvement in the state of ulcers, reduced pain, and a larger proportion of ulcers with low levels of exudate, compared with treatment with compression alone. Amelogenin therapy was also shown to be safe to use in that there were no significant differences in adverse events noted between patients treated with amelogenin plus compression and those treated with compression alone. Case study evaluations indicate that the benefits of amelogenin therapy demonstrated in the RCT are being repeated in “real life” situations and that amelogenin therapy may also have a role to play in the treatment of other wound types such as diabetic foot ulcers.

Romanelli, Marco; Dini, Valentina; Vowden, Peter; Agren, Magnus S



["And there are always enough 'promo leaflets'". A qualitative study on the situation of leg ulcer patients and their needs in regard to patient education].  


Chronic leg ulcers influence the daily lives of patients. Besides the burden of therapy, research results in the field of quality of life indicate constraints in the psychological, physiological, occupational and social parts of life. In order to take an active role in coping with the chronic disease, patients need knowledge and information that account for individual needs. Therefore our study had the objective to describe the lived experience of patients with leg ulcer and their corresponding needs for patient education. We used a qualitative study design. In a first step we made five narrative interviews. In a second step we made seven interviews using an interview guide that was based on results of the narrative interviews. Participants were recruited in two regions in Germany via two specialist practices and a hospital. We used a purposeful sampling strategy in order to account for the heterogenity of the patient group. Data was analysed using the content analysis approach by Mayring. Our analysis identified 4 interconnected main categories: living with the illness, experiences of wound care, being an expert, and educational needs. Patients are trying to integrate their illness into daily life and maximize their independence. They prefer individual counselling during regulartreatment to group counselling or meetings with other leg ulcer patients. Overall the described problems and solutions illustrate the complexities of the disease and its care. PMID:23951685

Schneider, Iris; Keller, Anita; Fleischer, Steffen; Berg, Almuth



Recruitment Strategy Effectiveness for a Cryotherapy Intervention for a Venous Leg Ulcer Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To describe the strategies and costs associated with recruiting African American and white adults into a randomized controlled pilot trial. DESIGN “Cryotherapy for Venous Disorders: A Pilot Study” is a randomized controlled trial designed to determine the effects of a cool gel wrap and leg elevation intervention versus a leg elevation alone intervention on skin temperature, skin microcirculation, quality of life, and pain in adults with stages 4 and 5 chronic venous disorders. We sought to recruit 60 participants (21 African Americans, 37 whites, and 2 Hispanic or Latino) to complete the study. These enrollment targets reflect the demographic distribution of the community in which the study was conducted (33% African American, 66% white, and 2% Latino). Proactive and reactive recruitment strategies were implemented to recruit subjects. RESULTS Seventy-three individuals (9 African American men, 29 African American women, 11 white men, 22 white women, 1 Asian woman, and 1 Hispanic woman) were screened, and of those, 67 were randomized (9 African American men, 25 African American women, 9 white men, 22 white women, 1 Asian woman, and 1 Hispanic women). Fifty-eight completed the study, yielding an overall 11% attrition rate. An additional 8 subjects canceled or did not show up for a first appointment. Reactive recruitment strategies were most successful for recruiting men, women, African American, and white participants. The 3 most successful reactive strategies were referrals from providers/clinics (34%), flyers posted in the hospital elevators (22%), and targeted mailings from a business (16%). Of the healthcare provider referrals (19), wound care nurses referred 12 completed participants. The amount budgeted for advertisement was $5,000 (2% of the total grant award). The amount spent on recruitment including labor was $5,978, which averaged $103 per participant who completed the study (N = 58). Reactive strategies per participant completer proved more cost-efficient than proactive strategies ($83 vs $215). However, the time spent by the principal investigator (approximately 100 hours or 2.5 hours per week × 40 weeks) on recruitment, particularly maintaining frequent face-to-face contact with providers, increased success in the area of healthcare provider referrals. CONCLUSION A variety of recruitment strategies are needed to ensure a diverse participant response to clinical research studies. As nurses become more involved in research activities, and particularly in recruitment, it is important to understand the most effective types of strategies and costs associated with these activities.

Kelechi, Teresa J.; Watts, Ashlee; Wiseman, Jan





... kissing may be one way. They also may be spread through food, water, or contact with vomit (puke) that has been infected with the bacteria. The best advice in ulcer prevention is to always wash your hands after you use the bathroom and before ...


Effectiveness and tissue compatibility of a 12-week treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers with an octenidine based antiseptic--a randomized, double-blind controlled study.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of octenidine dihydrochloride/phenoxyethanol (OHP) found in vitro by conducting a randomized, double-blind controlled clinical study focusing on its safe and effective use in chronic venous leg ulcers. In total, 126 male and female patients were treated with either OHP (n = 60) or Ringer solution (n = 66). The treatment lasted over a period of maximum 12 weeks. For the assessment of the wound-healing process, clinical outcome parameters were employed, that is, time span until 100% epithelization, wound status and the wound surface area were analysed. Side effects were recorded during the study period. The median time to complete ulcer healing was comparable between the OHP and Ringer solution groups (92 versus 87 days; P = 0·952), without being influenced by wound size or duration of the target ulcer (P-values: 0·947/0·978). In patients treated with OHP, fewer adverse events (AEs) were observed compared with the Ringer group (17% versus 29% of patients reported 20 versus 38 AEs). OHP is well suitable for the treatment of chronic wounds without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, OHP does not impair the wound healing in chronic venous ulcers. PMID:22074592

Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Harding, Keith; Téot, Luc; Siebert, Jörg



Venous leg ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1837, Piorry, a French professor of medicine stated, “It is rather difficult to understand why the investigation of veins has been passed over almost in silence, while such a great diagnostic value has been attached to the investigation of arteries.” Even today, our understanding of venous disease pales in comparison to our understanding of arterial disease. This is despite

Carin F. Gonsalves



Expression of natural antimicrobial peptide ?-defensin-2 and Langerhans cell accumulation in epidermis from human non-healing leg ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wounds like venous calf and diabetic foot ulcers are frequently contaminated and colonized by bacteria and it remains unclear whether there is sufficient expression of defensins and recruitment of epidermal Langerhans cells in the margin of ulcer compared to normal skin. The aim of this study was to examine immunohistochemically the expression of ?-defensin-2 (hBD2), GM-CSF, VEGF growth factors

Hanna Galkowska; Waldemar L. Olszewski; Urszula Wojewodzka



Interleukin-8 production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with chronic infected leg ulcers treated with Lactobacillus plantarum.  


Bacterial infection impairs the healing process, promoting the chronicity of inflammation and wounds. Because antibiotics fail to eradicate bacteria, especially in biofilm form, new therapeutic modalities may be required. In the present study, the effectiveness of bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus plantarum on infected chronic venous ulcers was investigated and its effects on interleukin (IL)-8 production by cells from the ulcer bed and neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood that were previously challenged in vitro with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and L. plantarum were studied. Topical application of L. plantarum culture to lesions (25-60 cm(2)) of 14 diabetic and 20 non-diabetic patients induced debridement, granulation tissue formation and total healing after 30 days in 43% diabetics and in 50% non-diabetics. No significant differences between the groups were observed. The cells from ulcer beds collected after treatment with L. plantarum for 10 days showed a decrease in the percentage of polymorphonuclear, apoptotic and necrotic cells and an enhancement of IL-8 production. IL-8 production by isolated neutrophils from these patients was compared with that in diabetics without ulcers, as well as normal subjects under basal conditions, and after infection of polymorphonuclear cells with P. aeruginosa preincubated either with or without L. plantarum. The basal values in diabetic and ulcer patients were higher than normal (p <0.001) and were increased by P. aeruginosa infection in normal, diabetics (p <0.001) and non-diabetics with ulcers (p <0.01). Preincubation with L. plantarum decreased IL-8 production in patients with ulcers non-diabetic and diabetic (p <0.001). Lactobacillus plantarum treatment reduced wound bacterial load, neutrophils, apoptotic and necrotic cells, modified IL-8 production and induced wound healing. PMID:19519855

Peral, M C; Rachid, M M; Gobbato, N M; Huaman Martinez, M A; Valdez, J C



Evaluation of the bacterial diversity among and within individual venous leg ulcers using bacterial tag-encoded FLX and Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing and metagenomic approaches  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 1 out of every 100 individuals has some form of venous insufficiency, which can lead to chronic venous disease and Venous Leg Ulcer (VLU). There are known underlying pathologies which contribute to the chronic nature of VLU including biofilm phenotype infections. Results Using pyrosequencing based approaches we evaluated VLU to characterize their microbial ecology. Results show that VLU infections are polymicrobial with no single bacterium colonizing the wounds. The most ubiquitous and predominant organisms include a previously uncharacterized bacteroidales, various anaerobes, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Serratia. Topological analysis of VLU show some notable differences in bacterial populations across the surface of the wounds highlighting the importance of sampling techniques during diagnostics. Metagenomics provide a preliminary indication that there may be protozoa, fungi and possibly an undescribed virus associated with these wounds. Conclusion The polymicrobial nature of VLU and previous research on diabetic foot ulcers and surgical site infections suggest that the future of therapy for such wounds lies in the core of the logical and proven multiple concurrent strategy approach, which has been termed "biofilm-based wound care" and the use of individualized therapeutics rather than in a single treatment modality.



Effects of silver-based wound dressings on the bacterial flora in chronic leg ulcers and its susceptibility in vitro to silver.  


Silver-based dressings have been used extensively in wound management in recent years, but data on their antimicrobial activity in the clinical setting are limited. In order to explore their effects on chronic leg ulcer flora, 14 ulcers were cultured after at least 3 weeks treatment with Aquacel Ag(®) or Acticoat(®). Phenotypic and genetic silver resistance were investigated in a total of 56 isolates. Silver-based dressings had a limited effect on primary wound pathogens, which were present in 79% of the cultures before, and 71% after, treatment. One silver-resistant Enterobacter cloacae strain was identified (silver nitrate minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)?>?512 mg/l, positive for silE, silS and silP). Further studies in vitro showed that inducible silver-resistance was more frequent in Enterobacteriaceae with cephalosporin-resistance and that silver nitrate had mainly a bacteriostatic effect on Staphylococcus aureus. Monitoring of silver resistance should be considered in areas where silver is used extensively. PMID:22215013

Sütterlin, Susanne; Tano, Eva; Bergsten, Agneta; Tallberg, Anna-Britta; Melhus, Asa



Pressure Ulcers and Nutritional Implications. (Video).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This satellite broadcast will define pressure ulcers, describe the etiology of pressure ulcers, identify the effective prevention measures, and explain the rational for comprehensive nutrition intervention.



Pain and quality of life for patients with venous leg ulcers: proof of concept of the efficacy of Biatain-Ibu, a new pain reducing wound dressing.  


Wound pain is a serious problem for elderly patients suffering from chronic leg ulcers, and it may lead to reduced wound healing rates and reduced quality of life. Biatain-Ibu Non-adhesive (Coloplast A/S), a new pain-reducing moist wound healing dressing containing ibuprofen was tested for pain reduction, safety, and efficacy on 10+2 patients in a single-blinded crossover study against Biatain Non-adhesive (Coloplast A/S). Pain was measured with a Numeric Box Scale before, during, and after dressing change. Quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index. Dressing moist wound healing properties such as absorption capacity and leakage were tested together with assessment of wound exudate and blood plasma content of ibuprofen. Use of the Biatain-Ibu foam dressing correlated with a decrease in pain intensity scores from 7 in the run-in period to approximately 2.5 in the Biatain-Ibu treatment phase. Quality of life measures were improved which together with the reduced pain could contribute to faster wound healing. The moist wound healing properties of Biatain-Ibu were similar to that of the Biatain Non-adhesive and ulcer size was reduced by 24% during the treatment period. Neither side effects nor systemic plasma concentrations of ibuprofen were observed. These data indicate that Biatain-Ibu could reduce persistent and temporary wound pain, increase Quality of life, was found safe to use, and had excellent moist wound healing properties. PMID:16808800

Jørgensen, Bo; Friis, Gitte Juel; Gottrup, Finn



PubMed Central

Foot and leg cramps are among the most frequent complaints presented by patients of both sexes, especially older persons. Similar cramping may occur in the thighs or in other skeletal muscles of the extremities and trunk. Foot and leg cramps usually occur after unusual exertion or during sleep. “Nocturnal leg cramps” may be of sufficient intensity to prevent sleep. “Pregnancy cramps” are particularly distressing. Effective treatment of foot and leg cramps requires an understanding of the etiology, pathophysiology and diagnostic techniques. Weight reduction and improved diet are essential. Among the useful supplementary medications are calcium lactate or gluconate, vitamin-mineral supplements, sympathetic blocking agents, vasodilators, ataraxics, muscle relaxants, quinine, hydrochloride, antihistamines, and nonmercurial diuretics. Improved foot care and correction of foot imbalance is usually required. Edema and venous insufficiency are improved by elastic support, by repeated foot elevation for massages, by manipulations and exercises and by the use of diuretics. There may be need for operations on the veins and for sclerotherapy. Patients with arterial insufficiency are often benefited by lumbar sympathetic blocks with long-acting anesthetics and intra-arterial injections with relaxants, vasodilators, thrombolytic enzymes and anticoagulants. Sympathectomy, angiography and reconstructive arterial operations are indicated in only a small proportion of patients with foot and leg cramps.

Fields, Albert



A randomised comparative trial on the use of a hydrogel with tepescohuite extract (Mimosa tenuiflora cortex extract-2G) in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.  


Tepescohuite is an extract obtained from the bark of the Mimosa tenuiflora tree and is used as an empirical treatment in wounds for its healing and antiseptic properties. Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are a common health care problem in most countries with a high rate of morbidity. The standard of care is moist interactive healing and compression; however, the ideal topical treatment is yet to be established. This study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of M. tenuiflora cortex extract (MTC-2G) in the treatment of VLUs in an Interdisciplinary Wound and Ostomy Care Center (IWOCC). A randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial was conducted to compare the use of a hydrogel containing MTC-2G with the hydrogel alone in VLUs. The study included all patients with venous ulcers referred to the IWOCC. Laboratory tests and tissue biopsies were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. The patients were instructed to daily cleansing followed by topical application of the hydrogel and compression. Forty-one patients were included, 22 patients received the MTC-2G and 19 patients received the hydrogel only. Of the 41 patients, 32 completed the study, 18 in the experimental arm and 14 in the control group, 19 were women and 13 men. The mean age of the subjects was 60 years. The mean time from presentation was 38 months. The mean surface reduction was 6·29 cm(2) [confidence interval (IC) 95%: 3·28-9·29] (P = 0·0001) in the MTC-2G group and 5·85 cm(2) (95% CI: 3·58-8·12) (P = 0·001) in the hydrogel group. There was no significant difference between the groups (P = 0·815). No changes in the laboratory parameters were noted. In the histology, there were not any differences between groups either. A hydrogel containing MTC-2G was not superior to a hydrogel alone in the treatment of VLUs. PMID:22128789

Lammoglia-Ordiales, Lorena; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Herrera-Arellano, Armando; Rivera-Arce, Erika; Agüero, Juan; Vargas-Martinez, Felipe; Contreras-Ruiz, José



Cost-effective faster wound healing with a sustained silver-releasing foam dressing in delayed healing leg ulcers--a health-economic analysis.  


The aim of this analysis was to examine the cost-effectiveness of Contreet Foam (A) in comparison with three other commonly used venous leg ulcer treatment protocols: Aquacel Ag (B), Actisorb Silver (C) and Iodoflex (D). A health-economic analysis reflecting the UK treatment practice and cost structure was performed. The analysis was set up to assess the cost of relative wound area reduction over a 4-week treatment period. The model was validated by a UK expert panel consisting of four wound care specialists. To assure that the 4-week model had a realistic link to cost-effectiveness of complete wound healing, a Markov analysis was also performed. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to ensure validity. Protocol A and C proved to be the most effective treatments. The mean relative reduction in wound area after 4 weeks of treatment was 50.2% (protocol A), 23.9% (protocol B), 44.6% (protocol C) and 36.0% (protocol D). Cost-effectiveness ratios showed that protocol A proved to be the most cost-effective treatment, and protocol B the least. The cost per percentage reduction in wound area was 9.50 UK pounds for protocol A, compared to 16.50-17.60 UK pounds for the other treatment options. The cost-effectiveness of complete healing (Markov analysis) and sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. Using Contreet Foam instead of the other dressing alternatives may imply savings of 2.2-4.4 million UK pounds per year to the National Health Service. PMID:16722864

Scanlon, Elizabeth; Karlsmark, Tonny; Leaper, David J; Carter, Kate; Poulsen, Peter B; Hart-Hansen, Kristian; Hahn, Tina W




PubMed Central

Synopsis Skin ulceration is a major source of morbidity and is often difficult to manage. Ulcers due to an inflammatory etiology or microvascular occlusion are particularly challenging in terms of diagnosis and treatment. The management of such ulcers requires careful assessment of associated systemic conditions and a thorough analysis of the ulcer's clinical and histologic findings. In this report, we discuss several examples of inflammatory ulcers and the approach to their diagnosis and treatment.

Panuncialman, Jaymie; Falanga, Vincent



Molecular Detection of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans as the Etiological Agent of a Chronic Tongue Ulcer in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient  

PubMed Central

Ulcerations appeared on the tongue of a 48-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man. Histological findings of the biopsy specimen and the fact that the patient had resided in Louisiana led us to suspect “American histoplasmosis.” A new ulcer appeared while the patient was being treated with itraconazole, and the gene for 16S rRNA of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans was amplified. The lesions healed during treatment with oral penicillin and azithromycin.

Heym, Beate; Gehanno, Pierre; Friocourt, Veronique; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Le Moal, Michele; Husson, Corinne; Leibowitch, Jacques; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Helene



Managing venous stasis disease and ulcers.  


Venous leg ulcers are arguably the most common type of venous ulcers seen in clinical practice. Compression therapy is the essential intervention in venous leg ulcer treatment, but coexisting arterial vascular insufficiency must be excluded before compression is initiated. No single topical dressing has been shown to be superior for all wounds. Venous leg ulcers are chronic and often difficult to heal, with only 40% to 70% healing after 6 months of treatment. Surgical procedures to reduce venous hypertension do not accelerate healing of a chronic ulcer, but trials suggest a decreased rate of future recurrence after surgery. PMID:23571036

Thomas, David R



Lipschütz [corrected] ulcers--four cases.  


A distinctive clinical entity of acute genital ulcers occurring in adolescents, with nonvenereal infectious etiology was described by Lipschütz in 1913. We describe four puberal virgin girls who developed fever and painful genital ulcers. The main causes infectious and noninfectious of ulceration were rejected. Although the etiology is unknown, recent cases related with Epstein-Barr virus acute infection have been reported. PMID:18577045

Hernández-Núñez, Almudena; Córdoba, Susana; Romero-Maté, Alberto; Miñano, Román; Sanz, Tatiana; Borbujo, Jesús


Mouth ulcers  


Oral ulcer; Stomatitis - ulcerative; Ulcer - mouth ... Mouth ulcers are caused by many disorders. These include: Canker sores Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer ...


A prospective, multi-centre, randomised, open label, parallel, comparative study to evaluate effects of AQUACEL® Ag and Urgotul® Silver dressing on healing of chronic venous leg ulcers.  


This study compared wound healing efficacy of two silver dressings, AQUACEL(®) Ag and Urgotul(®) Silver, against venous ulcers at risk of infection, over 8 weeks of treatment. The primary objective was to show non inferiority of AQUACEL(®) Ag to Urgotul(®) Silver. Patients (281) were randomised into two groups. The AQUACEL(®) Ag group had 145 patients treated with AQUACEL(®) Ag for 4 weeks followed by AQUACEL for another 4 weeks. TheUrgotul(®) Silver group had 136 patients treated with Urgotul(®) Silver for 4 weeks followed by Urgotul(®) for another 4 weeks. In both groups, ulcer size and depth, safety events and ulcer healing were compared. After 8 weeks of treatment, the AQUACEL(®) Ag group had a relative wound size reduction (49·65% ± 52·53%) compared with the Urgotul(®) Silver group (42·81% ± 60·0%). The non inferiority of the AQUACEL(®) Ag group to the Urgotul(®) Silver group was established based on the difference between them (6·84% ± 56·3%, 95% confidence interval -6·56 to 20·2) and the pre-defined non inferiority margin (-15%). Composite wound healing analysis showed that the AQUACEL(®) Ag group had statistically higher percentage of subjects with better wound progression (66·9% versus 51·9%, P = 0·0108). In general, both dressings were effective at promoting healing of venous ulcers. PMID:22066961

Harding, Keith; Gottrup, Finn; Jawie?, Arkadiusz; Mikosi?ski, Jacek; Twardowska-Saucha, Krystyna; Kaczmarek, S?awomir; Sopata, Maciej; Shearman, Cliff; Pieronne, Alaine; Kommala, Dheerendra



Ugh! Ulcers  


... real story? Let's find out. What Is an Ulcer? An ulcer (say: ul -sur) is a sore, ... people will eventually get an ulcer. What Causes Ulcers? For almost 100 years, doctors believed that ulcers ...


Ulcerated Necrobiosis Lipoidica: A Combined Treatment Approach with Dermatosurgery and PUVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulcerated necrobiosis lipoidica is one of the differential diagnoses in leg ulcers. The diagnosis is confirmed by histopathology. The authors report on a 68-year-old female patient with a history of chronic venous insufficiency who developed a chronic leg ulcer that did not respond to good ulcer care and compression bandaging. Skin biopsies revealed necrobiosis lipoidica. The patient was recently discovered

Erich Köstler; Uwe Wollina



Peptic Ulcers  


... age — even children — can develop ulcers. About Peptic Ulcers An ulcer is a sore, which means it's ... people can be cured. Continue Causes of Peptic Ulcers in Kids Although stress and certain foods may ...


A novel, non-invasive diagnostic clinical procedure for the determination of an oxygenation status of chronic lower leg ulcers using peri-ulceral transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure measurements: results of its application in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI).  


The basis for the new procedure is the simultaneous transcutaneous measurement of the peri-ulceral oxygen partial pressure (tcPO(2)), using a minimum of 4 electrodes which are placed as close to the wound margin as possible, additionally, as a challenge the patient inhales pure oxygen for approximately 15 minutes. In order to evaluate the measurement data and to characterise the wounds, two new oxygen parameters were defined: (1) the oxygen characteristic (K-PO(2)), and (2) the oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO(2)) of a chronic wound. The first of these is the arithmetic mean of the two lowest tcPO(2) measurement values, and the second is the variation coefficient of the four measurement values. Using the K-PO(2) parameter, a grading of wound hypoxia can be obtained. To begin with, the physiologically regulated (and still compensated) hypoxia with K-PO(2) values of between 35 and 40 mmHg is distinguished from the pathological decompensated hypoxia with K-PO(2) values of between 0 and 35 mmHg; the first of these still stimulates self-healing (within the limits of the oxygen balance). The decompensated hypoxia can be (arbitrarily) divided into "simple" hypoxia (Grade I), intense hypoxia (Grade II) and extreme hypoxia (Grade III), with the possibility of intermediate grades (I/II and II/III).Measurements were carried out using the new procedure on the skin of the right inner ankle of 21 healthy volunteers of various ages, and in 17 CVI (chronic venous insufficiency) wounds. Sixteen of the 17 CVI wounds (i.e., 94%) were found to be pathologically hypoxic, a state which was not found in any of the healthy volunteers. The oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO(2)) of the individual chronic wounds increased exponentially as a function of the hypoxia grading (K-PO(2)), with a 10-fold increase with extreme hypoxia in contrast to a constant value of approximately 14% in the healthy volunteers. This pronounced oxygen inhomogeneity explains inhomogeneous wound healing, resulting in the so-called mosaic wounds. The hypoxia grades found in all of the chronic wounds was seen to be evenly distributed with values ranging from 0 to 40 mmHg, and therefore extremely inhomogeneous. In terms of oxygenation, chronic wounds are therefore inhomogeneous in two respects: (1) within the wound itself (intra-individual wound inhomogeneity) and (2) between different wounds (inter-individual wound inhomogeneity). Due to the extreme oxygen inhomogeneity, single measurements are not diagnostically useful. In healthy individuals the oxygen inhalation challenge (see above) results in synchronised tcPO(2) oscillations occurring at minute rhythms, which are not seen in CVI wounds. These oscillations can be interpreted as a sign of a functioning arterial vasomotor system.The new procedure is suitable for the routine characterisation of chronic wounds in terms of their oxygen status, and correspondingly, their metabolically determining (and limiting) potential for healing and regeneration. The oxygen characteristic K-PO(2) can furthermore be used as a warning of impending ulceration, since the oxygen provision worsens over time prior to the demise of the ulcerated tissue, thus making a controlled prophylaxis possible. PMID:22737104

Barnikol, Wolfgang K R; Pötzschke, Harald



Pterygotus legs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eurypterids have a pair of paddle-like swimming legs located at the back edge of the head. These legs are connected to the body by toothplates or "gnathobases." The toothplates border a slit-like mouth and are lined by teeth. The large slab pictured above (also from Passage Gulf, NY) contains a complete swimming leg (center) connected to a partial toothplate (upper right) and another partial toothplate (lower center) with a series of thorn-like teeth (left side).



Hunner's Ulcers  


Hunner's Ulcers Hunner's ulcers, also called "Hunner’s lesions" or "Hunner's patches," are a subtype of interstitial cystitis (also called IC) and are not ulcers in the usual sense. They are distinctive areas ...


Benefit of a 2Month Treatment with a Micronized, Purified Flavonoidic Fraction on Venous Ulcer Healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the efficacy of a micronized purified flavonoid fraction (Daflon 500 mg = Dios) in venous leg ulcer healing, in addition to compression therapy and standardized local care. Design: Double-blind, multicentre, randomized, parallel groups, controlled versus placebo trial; stratification according to ulcer size. Subjects: 107 patients, with venous ulcer of the leg for at least 3 months, and

J.-J. Guilhou; F. Février; C. Debure; D. Dubeaux; M.-N. Gillet-Terver; B. Guillot; H. Levesque; L. Marzin; J. Mignot; P. Ouvry; G. Pillion; H. Van Landuyt; F. Zuccarelli; A. N. Nicolaïdes



Remote wound monitoring of chronic ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wounds or ulcers are wounds that do not heal in the usual manner. This type of wound is most common in the elderly and in paraplegic patients with an estimated 1% of the population suffering from leg ulcers and the costs adding up to 4% of the annual National Health Service budget in the U.K. There is an identified

Sonja A. Weber; Niall Watermann; Jacques Jossinet; J. Anthony Byrne; Jonquille Chantrey; Shabana Alam; Karen So; Jim Bush; Sharon O'Kane; Eric T. McAdams



Causes of venous ulceration: a new hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous hypotheses about the causes of venous ulceration are inconsistent with recently published data. In patients with chronic venous insufficiency the number of functioning capillary loops visible in the skin on microscopy fell after the legs had been dependent for 30 minutes. Another study had shown that leucocytes became trapped in the circulation in dependent legs. A new hypothesis linking

P D Coleridge Smith; P Thomas; J H Scurr; J A Dormandy



Surgical Treatment of the Ulcerated Foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foot ulceration with infection is one of the leading causes of hospitalization for patients with diabetes mellitus. Although\\u000a solid data on the true incidence and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcerations do not exist, it is believed that approx 15%\\u000a of patients with diabetes will develop a foot or leg ulceration in their lifetime (1). The rate of recidivism is also

John M. Giurini


Venogram - leg  


... failure, especially in the elderly or persons with diabetes who take the medicines Glucophage or metformin Worsening of a clot in the leg vein There is low radiation exposure; however, most experts feel that the risk ...


Leg muscles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many areas of the body, the legs contain bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. All of these are needed for movement. Muscles contract and lengthen as movement occurs. Muscles become shorter when they contract.

Uwe Gille (None;)



Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Pathogenesis and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foot ulcers are a significant complication of diabetes mellitus and often precede lower- extremity amputation. The most frequent underlying etiologies are neuropathy, trauma, deformity, high plantar pressures, and peripheral arterial disease. Thorough and systematic evaluation and categorization of foot ulcers help guide appropriate treatment. The Wagner and University of Texas systems are the ones most frequently used for classification of




Stress ulcer disease in the burned patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress-induced ulcers of the stomach and duodenum in massively burned patients, otherwise known as Curling's ulcers, result from a defect in the mucosal barrier to secreted acid. The etiology of this defect is related, at least in part, to mucosal ischemia, which is aggravated by hypotension, sepsis, and hypoxia. Early prophylactic administration of antacids and cimetidine, either singly or in

Basil A. Pruitt; Cleon W. Goodwin



Peptic Ulcer  


A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of your stomach or your duodenum, the first part of your small ... and goes for several days or weeks Peptic ulcers happen when the acids that help you digest ...


Novel Surgical Treatment for Refractory Heel Ulcers in Werner's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Patients with Werner's syndrome frequently develop chronic leg ulcers that heal poorly. We present a patient who suffered from this rare syndrome and developed typical heel ulcers. Treatment of the ulcer is challenging, as flap options are limited over the lower third of the leg and skin grafting is not easy as there is a lack of healthy granulations. We successfully treated the ulcer with osteomyelitis by drilling the bone and applying an ultrathin split thickness skin graft with the thigh skin as the donor site.

Oe, Keisuke; Miwa, Masahiko; Kurosaka, Masahiro



Marjolin's Ulcer in a Patient With Chronic Venous Stasis.  


Marjolin's ulcer is an aggressive form of squamous cell carcinoma that develops over time from chronic wounds and scars, including burns and chronic venous stasis ulcers. The incidence of malignant transformation is low, resulting in a delay in diagnosis and increased morbidity and mortality in these patients. We report a case of Marjolin's ulcer that was incidentally found after limb amputation for chronic venous stasis ulcer along with a comprehensive literature review on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. PMID:23972640

Eliassen, Anna; Vandy, Frank; McHugh, Jonathan; Henke, Peter K



Ulcerative sarcoidosis.  


Sarcoidosis is a multi-system, granulomatous disease, which affects the skin in approximately 20 to 30 percent of cases. Recognition of cutaneous sarcoidosis can be challenging because of the wide range of skin lesion morphologies. Ulcerative sarcoidosis is uncommon. We present a 35-year-old woman with pretibial ulcerative sarcoidosis, indurated tattoos, and hilar lymphadenopathy. PMID:23286819

Hunt, Raegan D; Gonzalez, Mercedes E; Robinson, Maria; Meehan, Shane A; Franks, Andrew G



Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Recent clinical and functional imaging data suggest impaired central dopaminergic transmission in restless legs syndrome (RLS). As RLS responds to dopaminergic medications, an etiologic link between RLS and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been proposed. However, few studies have examined this association. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of RLS amongst PD outpatient population. Method: The prevalence of RLS was determined

E. K. Tan; S. Y. Lum; M. C. Wong



Novel posterior splinting technique to avoid heel ulcers.  


Heel ulcers are a costly and preventable complication of lower-extremity immobilization, but they still occur with some regularity. A technique using a short leg posterior splint that suspends the heel away from the splint is described. This modification completely removes pressure the heel to prevent decubitus ulcer formation. This technique is simple, inexpensive, and effective. PMID:23276331

Hsu, Raymond Y; Lareau, Craig R; Born, Christopher T



Operations Resumes, LEG 45 through LEG 54.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Report tells about operational and engineering procedures used aboard D/V Glomar Challenger from Leg 45 through Leg 54. This Technical Report, the first covering some of the International Phase of Ocean Drilling (IPOD) cruises, gives performance achi...

T. Wiley



Peptic Ulcer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explains that the ulcer is a disease of modern man. Dr. Dennis McCarthy, Specialist with the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases, discusses the reasons for its prevalence. He analyzes the differences between gastric and duo...



Fecal hydrogen sulfide production in ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Sulfide, a product of sulfate-reducing bacteria, has been proposed to play an etiologic role in ulcerative colitis. Ulcerative colitis feces have increased numbers and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, but only modestly increased sulfide. However, fecal sulfide exists largely in the volatile, highly toxic H2S form that moves rapidly from feces to surrounding gas. Our aim was to quantify the

Jimmy Levine; Carol J. Ellis; Julie K. Furne; John Springfield; Michael D. Levitt



Restless Legs Syndrome  


NINDS Restless Legs Syndrome Information Page Condensed from Restless Legs Syndrome Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Restless Legs Syndrome? Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder ...


Etiologies of Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines some of the evidence to date for the various etiologies of obesity. Table 1 provides an outline of the\\u000a chapter and the major factors thought to contribute to the etiology of obesity.

Richard L. Atkinson


Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease: Implications for College Health Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author reviews clinical patterns of inflammatory bowel disorders, establishes a perspective for recognizing ulcerative colitis, ulcerative proctitis, and Crohn's disease in relation to other bowel inflammations, and suggests some epidemiologic strategies for studying etiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of the diseases. (MJB)|

Gelphi, A. P.



Getting Your Sea Legs  

PubMed Central

Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning.

Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoit G.



Leukocyte activity in the microcirculation of the leg in patients with chronic venous disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: It has been suggested that leukocyte trapping and activation in the microcirculation of the leg skin causes lipodermatosclerosis and ulceration in patients with chronic venous disease. Ambulatory venous hypertension is accepted as the physiologic factor that leads to ulceration. We investigated leukocyte endothelial adhesion in patients who were subjected to short-term venous hypertension.Methods: Two groups of patients with venous

Mrinal Saharay; David A. Shields; John B. Porter; John H. Scurr; Philip D. Coleridge Smith



Leg lengthening - series (image)  


... the leg, the tibia and the femur. Surgical treatment may be recommended for severe unequal leg lengths caused by: poliomyelitis and cerebral palsy small, weak (atrophied) muscles or short, tight (spastic) ...


Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Though vehicles that use legs for locomotion promise superior mobility and versatility, very little is known about their design and control. Balance, resonance, and dynamic control are key issues underlying high performance legged systems, both man-made a...

M. H. Raibert H. B. Brown M. Chepponis E. Hastings S. E. Shreve



Restless Legs Syndrome  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Restless Legs Syndrome? Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong ... and to find better treatments. Rate This Content: Restless Legs Syndrome Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...


Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Humans and animals use their legs to locomote with great mobility, but we do not yet have a full understanding of how they do so. One sign of our ignorance is the lack man-made vehicles that use legs to obtain high mobility. A legged vehicle might someday...

M. H. Raibert H. B. Brown M. Chepponis E. Hastings S. S. Murthy



Ulcerative colitis.  


Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic, chronic inflammatory disorder of the colonic mucosa, which starts in the rectum and generally extends proximally in a continuous manner through part of, or the entire, colon; however, some patients with proctitis or left-sided colitis might have a caecal patch of inflammation. Bloody diarrhoea is the characteristic symptom of the disease. The clinical course is unpredictable, marked by alternating periods of exacerbation and remission. In this Seminar we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, natural history, medical and surgical management, and main disease-related complications of ulcerative colitis, and briefly outline novel treatment options. Enhanced understanding of how the interaction between environmental factors, genetics, and the immune system results in mucosal inflammation has increased knowledge of disease pathophysiology. We provide practical therapeutic algorithms that are easily applicable in daily clinical practice, emphasising present controversies in treatment management and novel therapies. PMID:22914296

Ordás, Ingrid; Eckmann, Lars; Talamini, Mark; Baumgart, Daniel C; Sandborn, William J



Nocturnal leg cramps.  


Up to 60 percent of adults report that they have had nocturnal leg cramps. The recurrent, painful tightening usually occurs in the calf muscles and can cause severe insomnia. The exact mechanism is unknown, but the cramps are probably caused by muscle fatigue and nerve dysfunction rather than electrolyte or other abnormalities. Nocturnal leg cramps are associated with vascular disease, lumbar canal stenosis, cirrhosis, hemodialysis, pregnancy, and other medical conditions. Medications that are strongly associated with leg cramps include intravenous iron sucrose, conjugated estrogens, raloxifene, naproxen, and teriparatide. A history and physical examination are usually sufficient to differentiate nocturnal leg cramps from other conditions, such as restless legs syndrome, claudication, myositis, and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory evaluation and specialized testing usually are unnecessary to confirm the diagnosis. Limited evidence supports treating nocturnal leg cramps with exercise and stretching, or with medications such as magnesium, calcium channel blockers, carisoprodol, or vitamin B(12). Quinine is no longer recommended to treat leg cramps. PMID:22963024

Allen, Richard E; Kirby, Karl A



[Ulcerative colitis].  


Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent inflammatory bowel disease of the colonic mucosa affecting approximately 20,000-25,000 Danes. Apart from subgroups with early onset, extensive and long-standing inflammation, or primary sclerosing cholangitis the risk of developing colorectal cancer is of the same magnitude as in the background population. The symptoms are usually diarrhoea including bloody stools, rectal tenesmi, anaemia, and fatigue. This review is an update on diagnostics and treatment strategies of relevance for clinicians, and as UC often affects patients during their peak reproductive years, emphasis is additionally put on the management of pregnant patients with UC. PMID:23663396

Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Jess, Tine; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Seidelin, Jakob B



Distally based sural flap in treatment of chronic venous ulcers.  


The treatment of venous ulcers of the leg often fails to heal because venous ulcers are mostly associated with severe lipodermatosclerosis. These complicated ulcers may require correction of local hemodynamics, excision of ulcer with surrounding lipodermatosclerotic skin, and replacement of the defect with healthy tissue. We present our experience with the use of the distally based sural flaps for the reconstruction of soft-tissue defects of the distal region of the lower limb in patients with chronic venous ulcer. Between 2001 and 2003, 12 patients with venous ulceration were treated with distally based sural flaps. At operation, the ulcer and its surrounding lipodermatosclerotic skin were excised. The defects after excision ranged from 3 x 3 to 11 x 17 cm. The distally based sural artery flap was inset within the defect. In all patients, the flap survived completely, and in only 1 patient, distal venous congestion was seen and was treated successfully with leeches. There was donor site skin graft loss in 2 patients. Two flaps had minor local complications that healed with local wound care. No recurrent ulcers were identified after average 19.7 months. In conclusion, the distally based sural flaps can be used reliably for treatment of venous ulcers. Our approach in treatment of chronic venous ulcers improves venous hemodynamics and provides local flap alternative that should be considered prior to a free-flap transfer for closure of the defect. PMID:16034246

Top, Husamettin; Benlier, Erol; Aygit, A Cemal; Kiyak, Medeni



Impact of PSCA Variation on Gastric Ulcer Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Peptic ulcer is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders with complex etiology. Recently we conducted the genome wide association study for duodenal ulcer and identified disease susceptibility variations at two genetic loci corresponding to the Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene and the ABO blood group (ABO) gene. Here we investigated the association of these variations with gastric ulcer in two Japanese case-control sample sets, a total of 4,291 gastric ulcer cases and 22,665 controls. As a result, a C-allele of rs2294008 at PSCA increased the risk of gastric ulcer with odds ratio (OR) of 1.13 (P value of 5.85×10?7) in an additive model. On the other hand, SNP rs505922 on ABO exhibited inconsistent result between two cohorts. Our finding implies presence of the common genetic variant in the pathogenesis of gastric and duodenal ulcers.

Tanikawa, Chizu; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kubo, Michiaki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ito, Hidemi; Tanaka, Hideo; Yatabe, Yasushi; Yamao, Kenji; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Tajima, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuda, Koichi



A simplified method of total contact casting for diabetic foot ulcers.  


A simplified method of total contact casting for diabetic plantar ulcerations is described in which a standard, well-molded short-leg walking cast is applied. Weekly cast changes are performed initially, followed by longer cast change intervals. Either fiberglass or plaster casting tape appears equally efficacious. Healing of all ulcers was demonstrated in 12 patients treated with this technique. PMID:10148327

Huband, M S; Carr, J B



Evidence-based management of common chronic lower extremity ulcers.  


Chronic lower extremity ulcers are a significant burden on patients and health care systems worldwide. Although relatively common, these wounds can be difficult to treat and present a challenge to physicians. Treatment has often been based on anecdotal accounts; however, there is a growing emphasis on using evidence-based conclusions to guide clinical decisions. In this review article, the standard of care and adjuvant therapies of venous leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers are presented from an evidence-based perspective. PMID:23742279

Richmond, Nicholas A; Maderal, Andrea D; Vivas, Alejandra C


Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents our progress over the past three years in exploring active balance for dynamic legged systems. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to...

H. B. Brown J. Hodgins J. Koechling M. Chepponis M. H. Raibert



Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents our study of active balance in dynamic legged systems. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of animal locomo...

H. B. Brown J. Koechling J. K. Hodgins M. Chepponis M. H. Raibert



Epithelioma cuniculatum developing in a neuropathic ulcer of leprous etiology.  


Epithelioma cuniculatum is a distinctive tumor of the sole of the foot with characteristics of a low-grade carcinoma. A case is presented, the pertinent literature reviewed and its possibly frequent development in leprous patients discussed. PMID:496595

Ochsner, P E; Hausman, R; Olsthoorn, P G



Nonhealing ulcer secondary to factor V Leiden mutation and cryofibrinogenemia.  


Factor V Leiden is the most common genetic thrombophilia in people of European descent, and is important to recognize as it can have significant implications in dermatology. We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented for evaluation and treatment of a chronic ulceration on the site of his stump following a below the knee amputation which had been performed for non-healing ulcerations. Despite a variety of treatments, his ulcer persisted. He was referred to a dermatologist who performed a biopsy that was interpreted ass non-specific, and treatment was started for pyoderma gangrenosum. Further investigation revealed a homozygous factor V Leiden mutation and cryofibrinogenemia. He was tapered off of the methylprednisolone and was improving on stanozolol. He healed well after surgery and no new ulcerations have developed. This case highlights the importance of considering this mutation in a non-healing leg ulcer. PMID:15577768

Barrio, Victoria R; Sanfilippo, Angela M; Malone, Janine C; Callen, Jeffrey P



[Two wooden legs.  


The physical aids of a one-legged male farmhand, a cane, a crutch and two wooden legs, are preserved at the local history museum Hnjótur in the West Fjords of Iceland, along with a number of his everyday possessions. The older wooden leg was made by a farmer in the year 1910 and the younger by a machinist in 1935. There is no proof that either of the builders had any special knowledge or a model to follow but comparison with similar wooden legs in use on the Continent indicates some foreign influence on the construction of the Icelandic wooden legs. Each leg was used for at least 25 years, one after the other. The older leg shows signs of much wear but the younger one is in good shape. Most important for the life-time of an artificial leg is that the body weight should rest in balance over the centre of the wooden peg and that the weight does not fall outside the longitudinal axis of the peg. The medical history of the patient concerned was investigated, and compared with the tale which circulated locally, which claimed that wearing fisherman's boots which were too tight had caused the injury to his foot. The medical records of the hospital reveal, however, that the ankle was infected with tuberculosis. An attempt was made to treat this by resecting the ankle joint, which is likely to have been only the second time that such an operation was performed in Iceland. Gangrene developed in the surgical area and the leg had to be amputated. PMID:20065443

Olason, Atli Thor



Ulcerative Colitis: A Challenge to Surgeons  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease that specifically affects the mucosa of the rectum and colon. Although the etiology of this recurring inflammatory disorder remains essentially unknown, there have been significant advances in identifying the likely genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. The clinical course of the disease typically manifests with remissions and exacerbations characterized by rectal bleeding and diarrhea. Since ulcerative colitis most commonly affects patients in their youth or early middle age, the disease can have serious long-term local and systemic consequences. There is no specific medical therapy that is curative. Although medical therapy can ameliorate the inflammatory process and control most symptomatic flares, it provides no definitive treatment for the disease. Proctocolectomy or total removal of the colon and rectum provides the only complete cure; however, innovative surgical alternatives have eliminated the need for a permanent ileostomy. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed account of the surgical management of ulcerative colitis.

Parray, Fazl Q; Wani, Mohd L; Malik, Ajaz A; Wani, Shadab N; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan



Yellow Legged Frog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists found this adult mountain yellow-legged frog on June 10 in Tahquitz Creek, a rediscovered population of the endangered frog in the San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino National Forest, California....



Night Leg Cramps  


... leg cramps are likely to be related to muscle fatigue and nerve problems. The risk of having night ... lowering drugs (statins) Dialysis Other conditions Dehydration Diarrhea Muscle fatigue Nerve damage, as from cancer treatments Osteoarthritis Parkinson's ...


Stable walking with asymmetric legs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of

Andreas Merker; Juergen Rummel; Andre Seyfarth



Endovenous Laser and Radiofrequency Treatment of Leg Veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Superficial varicosity is a common medical condition that is symptomatic in 20-30% of the US population. Classic symptoms\\u000a of venous insufficiency are ankle edema, leg fatigue, aching, discomfort, and muscle cramps. Some patients develop associated\\u000a complications, including stasis dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis, skin atrophy, superficial thrombophlebitis, and venous ulcers.\\u000a The treatment of varicose veins reduces symptoms and complications of chronic venous insufficiency

Marisa Pongprutthipan; Jeffrey T. S. Hsu


A Case of Small Bowel Ulcer Associated with Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

The etiology of peptic ulcer disease in children may be primary, associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, or secondary, relied on underlying disease. Ulcerative lesions by H. pylori are mainly distributed in the duodenal bulb and they are rare below the ampulla of Vater because H. pylori growth is inhibited by bile juice. In this reason, there are only some restrictive reports presented small bowel ulcer associated H. pylori. We found multiple small bowel ulcerative lesions associated with H. pylori in an 11-year-old girl without any systemic disease while performing esophagogastroenteroscopy to the level of the proximal jejunum for differentiating bezoar. The abdominal pain improved after the patient was administered H. pylori eradication therapy. Because a small bowel ulcer associated with H. pylori has rarely been reported, we report it here with literature review.

Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Woo, Saet Byul; Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Kon Hee; Shin, Su Rin



Corneoscleral graft in Mooren's ulcer: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mooren's ulcer is a rare disorder of unknown etiology that is refractory to treatment. It can affect not just the cornea but also the scleral tissue and can involve both eyes. Case presentation We report a case of a 74-year-old man with a history of bilateral and malignant Mooren's ulcer. The patient had undergone an exenteratio bulbi of the left eye because of the perforation of a Mooren's corneal ulcer. The perforated Mooren's corneal ulcer also presented in the right eye and involved the adjacent scleral tissue. It was decided to perform a corneal-scleral graft to preserve the anatomical integrity of the eye. Conclusion This report highlights how a corneal-scleral graft followed by systemic and local immunosuppressive treatment should be considered in monocular patients with malignant Mooren's ulcer where there is serious damage to the corneal and scleral tissue.



Venous stasis ulcers due to primary, isolated deep venous insufficiency in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: report of a case.  


Primary, isolated deep venous incompetence is rare, difficult to diagnose, and can lead to the development of venous stasis ulcers. We herein report a case demonstrating chronic venous stasis ulcers due to primary, isolated deep venous incompetence, which was misdiagnosed as vasculitis ulcers associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although primary, isolated deep venous incompetence is rare, it is important to bear this possibility in mind when a patient presents with leg ulcers. PMID:12376799

Nishibe, Toshiya; Kudo, Fabio; Flores, Jorge; Imai, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Keiko; Yasuda, Keishu



Hemodynamic and clinical improvement after superficial vein ablation in primary combined venous insufficiency with ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine the degree of clinical and hemodynamic improvement after surgical ablation of incompetent superficial and perforator veins in limbs with combined deep and superficial venous incompetence manifested by chronic dermal ulceration.Methods: Eleven limbs in 10 patients with class 5 or 6 venous insufficiency (ulceration) were assessed by CEAP (clinical, etiologic, anatomic, pathophysiologic) clinical scores,

Frank T. Padberg; Peter J. Pappas; Clifford T. Araki; Thomas L. Back; Robert W. Hobson



Molecular Assays for Detecting Aphanomyces invadans in Ulcerative Mycotic Fish Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is the primary etiological agent in ulcerative mycosis, an ulcerative skin disease caused by a fungus-like agent of wild and cultured fish. We developed sensitive PCR and fluorescent peptide nucleic acid in situ hybridization (FISH) assays to detect A. invadans. Laboratory-chal- lenged killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were first tested to optimize and validate the assays. Skin

Mark W. Vandersea; R. Wayne Litaker; Bryan Yonnish; Emilio Sosa; Jan H. Landsberg; Chris Pullinger; Paula Moon-Butzin; Jason Green; James A. Morris; Howard Kator; Edward J. Noga; Patricia A. Tester



Preventing pressure ulcers  


Decubitus ulcer prevention; Bedsore prevention; Pressure sores prevention ... care protocol: Skin safety protocol: Risk assessment and prevention of pressure ulcers . Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. 2nd ed. 2007 ...


Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome  


Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome Basics Multimedia Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http:// ...


Etiology of rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Definite genetic associations with immunological cooperative HLA-D(R) antigens have been demonstrated for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Microbial etiology has not been proven, but some hope for the supporters of this view is still given by small viruses, plasmids of enteric bacteria or perhaps oncogen-like DNA-sequences. Yet, electrophoretical analysis of membrane proteins or surface glycoproteins of RA synovial cells does not

T. Kouri




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH CROSSED BRACE BLOCK, GROUND WIRES AND GUIDE WIRE. - Hat Point Fire Lookout Tower, Forest Service Road #4340, 24 miles from Imnaha, Imnaha, Wallowa County, OR


Marjolin Ulcer: Clinical Experience with 34 Patients over 15 Years.  


Background:Malignancies that arise from scars are referred to as Marjolin ulcers. The association between chronic ulcers and squamous cell carcinomas is well established. There are many case reports in the literature regarding Marjolin ulcer; however, randomized controlled clinical series that describe a thorough evaluation of these patients are rarely encountered.Objective:We present our clinic's 15 years of experience with 34 Marjolin ulcer patients and their treatment modalities.Methods:A retrospective analysis of 302 squamous cell carcinoma patients who were treated in the plastic surgery department between 1997 and 2011 was performed. Thirty-four (10.3%) histopathologically confirmed Marjolin ulcer patients were further analyzed.Results:Although burn scars represented 77% of the patients in the present study, unstable scars that formed following traffic accidents and fistula tracts are also among the commonly encountered etiologies. Based on our observations, squamous cell carcinoma, in addition to malignant melanoma and verrucous carcinoma, is frequently observed in cases of Marjolin ulcers.Conclusion:If the goal is to eradicate this clinical entity, all of the chronic ulcers that fail to heal require biopsies at regular intervals. Large excisional margins, lymphadenectomies in cases of palpable lymph nodes, and a well-defined oncology protocol are all essential in treating Marjolin ulcer. PMID:24138977

Karasoy Yesilada, Aysin; Zeynep Sevim, Kamuran; Ozgur Sucu, Deniz; Akçal, Arzu; Kar?ida?, Semra; Kilinc, Leyla; Orhan Kizilkaya, Hazim


Athletes' leg pains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes,

S. Orava; J. Puranen



Restless legs syndrome.  


Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological sensory-motor disorder that is characterized by intense restlessness and unpleasant creeping sensations deep inside the lower legs. Symptoms appear when the legs are at rest and are worst in the evening and at night. They force patients to keep moving their legs, and often to get out of bed and wander about. Periodic limb movements (PLMS) are also common during sleep amongst those suffering from RLS, and sleep efficiency is severely reduced. There are idiopathic as well as symptomatic forms of RLS, the latter being associated with e.g. pregnancy, iron deficiency and chronic renal failure. A family history of RLS is very common and pedigrees in these cases suggest an autosomal-dominant transmission with high penetrance. Genetic investigations have been performed in order to identify genes associated with RLS. Several loci have been found (on chromosomes 12q, 14q, 9p, 2q, 20p and 16p). Pathophysiology of RLS remains incompletely understood. However, advanced brain imaging studies and positive results of dopaminergic treatment suggest that RLS may be generated by dopamine dysfunction locally within the central nervous system. At present, there is a wide range of treatment options including levodopa, dopamine agonists, opioids, benzodiazepines, antiepileptic drugs and iron supplements. PMID:19817966

Ekbom, Karl; Ulfberg, J



Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents recent progress in exploring active balance for dynamic legged systems. Balance in 3D can be achieved with a very simple control system. The control system has three separate parts, one that controls forward running velocity, one tha...

M. H. Raibert H. B. Brown M. Chepponis E. Hastings J. Koechling



Other Causes of Leg Pain  


... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Other Causes of Leg Pain Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of ... A.D. Other non-P.A.D. common causes of leg pain may include: A muscle cramp (also ...


Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms  


Restless Legs Syndrome - Causes & Symptoms Causes What causes of restless legs syndrome varies from person to person. In some cases ... with brain cell communication that can lead to restless legs syndrome. If you think you have restless legs syndrome ...


Giant duodenal ulcer  

PubMed Central

Twenty-five cases of benign giant duodenal ulcer have been studied. In every case a barium meal examination showed an ulcer crater with a radiographic diameter of at least 2 centimetres. Abdominal pain was the commonest symptom but less than half of the patients had had pain characteristic of chronic peptic ulcer. Haemorrhage from the ulcer occurred in a large majority of them. The radiological appearances are described, and it has been shown that the giant ulcer may be missed through being mistaken for the duodenal cap or else misdiagnosed. It appears that the death rate in this condition has been falling but it is still high. The management of patients with giant ulcers is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6

Lumsden, K.; MacLarnon, J. C.; Dawson, J.



Ileocolonic ulcer treated by endoscopic application of collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone  

PubMed Central

Ulceration is a complication that may occur after an ileocolonic anastomosis. Most of the etiologies remain speculative. The case of a 33-year-old woman with eosinophilic colitis is reported, in whom a colectomy with an ileocolonic anastomosis was performed. After four months, the patient presented with a stenosis in the ileocolonic anastomosis, necessitating surgical restoration. Four weeks later, the patient presented with rectal bleeding, and a colonoscopy showed an ulcer in the anastomosis. Collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone was applied into and on the surface of the ulcer, and five days later the procedure was repeated. Follow-up endoscopies at seven days and three months showed complete healing of the ulcer and the patient remained without bleeding throughout a further four weeks of follow-up tests. It was concluded that this biological product could be an excellent treatment for these lesions.

de Hoyos Garza, Andres; Aguilar, Edgar A Esparza; Checa Richards, Griselda



Leg symptoms in outpatient veterans.  

PubMed Central

In a survey of outpatients at the Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center for common leg symptoms--515 questionnaires returned in a 3-week period--56% reported nocturnal leg cramps, 29% reported the restless leg syndrome, and 49% reported symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Only 33% of patients had no symptoms relating to their legs. Patients often did not report these symptoms to their physician but were more likely to do so if the symptoms were frequent. Conditions especially related to leg symptoms were hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, kidney disease, and hypokalemia. Most patients did not receive effective therapy for these symptoms.

Oboler, S. K.; Prochazka, A. V.; Meyer, T. J.



Unilateral lower leg purpura.  


We present a case of an extensive, purpuric eruption on the lower leg with peculiar clinical findings in 55-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis. The purpuric lesions were present unilaterally on the left lower leg, where prominent varices and telangiectasia were noted. Histological examination revealed a perivascular infiltration of lymphocytic cells and eosinophils and extravasation of erythrocytes in the upper and middle dermis. There was no evidence of vasculitis. The eruption responded well to treatment with hemostatic agents and elastic stockings. Based on the clinical and histological findings, we concluded that the main pathophysiology of the purpuric eruption is an extravasation of erythrocytes related to increased venous pressure secondary to venous stasis. PMID:23374958

Ogawa, Satoshi; Oka, Masahiro; Kunisada, Makoto; Nishigori, Chikako



[Restless legs syndrome epidemiology].  


The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic sensori-motor disorder characterized by a complaint of an irresistible urge to move the legs. This urge can often be accompanied by pain or other unpleasant sensations, it either occurs or worsens with rest, particularly at night, and temporarily improves with activity. Prevalence estimates vary between 7.2% and 11.5% of the Caucasian adult population. RLS prevalence increases with age, and women are more frequently affected than men. In France, a prevalence rate of 8.5% was estimated. Although RLS is mainly idiopathic, several clinical conditions have been associated with it, mainly pregnancy, iron deficiency with or without anemia, end-stage renal disease and peripheral neuropathy. RLS is often underdiagnosed and there is a clear need for complementary education to improve the accurate diagnosis of RLS. Indeed, a better knowledge of this syndrome is a prerequisite to prompt an appropriate therapeutic management. PMID:20334990

Ghorayeb, Imad; Tison, François



Pairs of Legs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem students practice counting by twos as they explore the natural phenomenon that legs on creatures always come in pairs, laying the foundation for doubling and halving. A set of cards can be downloaded (pdf) and matched. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, an expanded set of cards (pdf), and links to related activities (Noah and Number Tracks, both cataloged separately).



The mangled lower leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surgeon faced with a patient presenting with an open tibial\\/fibular fracture in combination with severe damage of the surrounding soft tissues, has to make the difficult decision whether to attempt salvage or to perform an immediate amputation of the leg.\\u000a\\u000aUntil late in the nineteenth century the mortality from open fractures was high - mainly due to sepsis after

Jochem Maarten Hoogendoorn



Diabetic foot ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of diabetic foot ulceration, and its effect on patients and society. The condition deserves more attention, both from those who provide care and those who fund research. Epidemiology Incidence and prevalence Although accurate figures are difficult to obtain for the prevalence or incidence of foot ulcers, the results of cross-

William J Jeffcoate; Keith G Harding



Perforated marginal ulcers after laparoscopic gastric bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Perforated marginal ulcer (PMU) after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is a serious complication, but its incidence\\u000a and etiology have rarely been investigated. Therefore, a retrospective review of all patients undergoing LRYGB at the authors’\\u000a center was conducted to determine the incidence of PMU and whether any causative factors were present.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A prospectively kept database of all patients at the

Edward L. Felix; John Kettelle; Elijah Mobley; Daniel Swartz



Etiology and Early Marker Studies

The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) is a component of the PLCO Trial. By collecting biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before the diagnosis of disease, PLCO EEMS adds substantial value to the trial, providing a resource for cancer research, focused, in particular, on cancer etiology and early markers.


A Pilot Study of the Prevalence of Leg Pain Among Women with Endometriosis  

PubMed Central

Radiating leg pain is a common symptom presenting in manual therapy practices. Although this symptom has been reported as a complication of endometriosis, its prevalence and characteristics have not been studied. We surveyed members of a national endometriosis support group with endometriosis using a self-administered, mailed questionnaire. The main outcome measures were the prevalence and characteristics of leg pain. Of 94 respondents, leg pain was reported by 48 women (51%), and was bilateral in 59% of these symptomatic women. The likelihood of experiencing leg pain was related to weight gain since age 18, age, and height. The most common treatments tried included exercise, over-the-counter medications, and massage therapy, all with variable results. These data support leg pain as a prevalent complication of endometriosis, and that the disease may affect multiple peripheral nerves. Manual therapists should remain aware to this possible etiology for radiating pain.

Missmer, Stacey A.; Bove, Geoffrey M.



Pericapillary fibrin deposits and skin hypoxia precede the changes of lipodermatosclerosis in limbs at increased risk of developing a venous ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the possibility that pericapillary fibrin deposition, found in the calf skin of patients with venous ulceration and lipodermatosclerosis, might already be present in the dermis of the gaiter area of apparently healthy limbs before any skin changes were visible. The apparently healthy limbs of 19 consecutive patients with a healed venous ulcer on one leg and no

M. C Stacey; K. G Burnand; B. S Bhogal; M. M Black



Textiloma in the leg  

PubMed Central

Textiloma is defined as a tumor formed due to retained gauze. It is rarely reported in the musculoskeletal system. We are presenting a case with a soft tissue swelling over the lateral aspect of the lower third of the leg, come for implant removal of the distal tibia and fibular fracture. We removed the soft tissue mass enbloc thinking it to be a benign tumor. On cutting the mass on the operation table, a gauze piece encased by fibrous tissue was found. Textiloma can present as tumoral forms and can mimic as a pseudo-tumor.

Patel, Amol C; Kulkarni, Govind S; Kulkarni, Sunil G



Solitary ulcer of the rectum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary ulcer of the rectum is usually a disease of young adults of either sex which has a characteristic appearance on sigmoidoscopy. Distinctive changes may also be seen in biopsies taken from mucosa adjacent to the ulcer.The name `solitary ulcer' is misleading because more than one ulcer may be present. Moreover, there is a preulcerative phase which is clinically and

M. R. Madigan; B. C. Morson



Capsaicin and gastric ulcers.  


In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation. The prevalent notion among sections of population in this country and perhaps in others is that "red pepper" popularly known as "Chilli," a common spice consumed in excessive amounts leads to "gastric ulcers" in view of its irritant and likely acid secreting nature. Persons with ulcers are advised either to limit or avoid its use. However, investigations carried out in recent years have revealed that chilli or its active principle "capsaicin" is not the cause for ulcer formation but a "benefactor." Capsaicin does not stimulate but inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali, mucus secretions and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which help in prevention and healing of ulcers. Capsaicin acts by stimulating afferent neurons in the stomach and signals for protection against injury causing agents. Epidemiologic surveys in Singapore have shown that gastric ulcers are three times more common in the "Chinese" than among Malaysians and Indians who are in the habit of consuming more chillis. Ulcers are common among people who are in the habit of taking NSAIDS and are infected with the organism "Helicobacter Pylori," responsible for excessive acid secretion and erosion of the mucosal layer. Eradication of the bacteria by antibiotic treatment and avoiding the NSAIDS eliminates ulcers and restores normal acid secretion. PMID:16621751

Satyanarayana, M N



Treatment of Chronic Posttraumatic Leg Injury Using Autologous Fat Graft  

PubMed Central

We present the results obtained in a case of a 20-year-old Caucasian woman with a posttraumatic injury “hard-to-heal” of the left leg treated using autologous fat graft. Considering our experience in treatment of chronic posttraumatic ulcers by autologous fat graft, we decided to use this surgical technique to induce a regenerative effect in this young patient. We have had complete wound closure with only a single surgical procedure after 1 month; after the second intervention of autologous fat graft we observed an improvement in the quality of the scar tissue. The patient satisfaction was excellent. The results were long lasting and remained virtually unchanged after 1 year.

Caviggioli, Fabio; Klinger, Francesco Maria; Vinci, Valeriano; Cornegliani, Guido; Klinger, Marco



Operations Resumes, LEG 34 through LEG 44A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book tells about the operational and engineering procedures used aboard D/V Glomar Challenger beginning with Leg 34 and continuing through Leg 44A. Other DSDP Technical Reports dealing with Operation Resumes were TR no. 1, published in October of 197...

T. Wiley



Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energyx ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.METHODSSequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49

R Y T Sung; P Lau; C W Yu; P K W Lam; E A S Nelson



Vascular ulcers in scleroderma.  


Seven patients with scleroderma and either livedo reticularis or atrophie blanche lesions had ulcers of the lower extremity. Livedoid vasculitis, periarteritis nodosa, or endarteritis obliterans lesions were associated with the ulcers. Five patients had livedoid vasculitis, one patient had associated lupus panniculitis, and one patient had rheumatoid arthritis. Four patients had elevated ESRs, four had positive antinuclear antibody tests, and two had positive tests for rheumatoid factor. Patients with scleroderma and livedoid vasculitis or livedo reticularis and ulcers should be examined to rule out underlying vascular disease or endarteritis obliterans. PMID:6137196

Thomas, J R; Winkelmann, R K



Biomechanical risk factors associated with neuropathic ulceration of the hallux in people with diabetes mellitus.  


In this study of people with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy, it was found that the feet of patients with a history of hallux ulceration were more pronated and less able to complete a single-leg heel rise compared with the feet of patients with a history of ulceration elsewhere on the foot. The range of active first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion was found to be significantly lower in the affected foot. Ankle dorsiflexion, subtalar joint range of motion, and angle of gait differed from normal values but were similar to those found in other studies involving diabetic subjects and were not important factors in the occurrence of hallux ulceration. These data indicate that a more pronated foot type is associated with hallux ulceration in diabetic feet. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of footwear and orthoses in altering foot posture to manage hallux ulceration. PMID:16707629

Nubé, Vanessa L; Molyneaux, Lynda; Yue, Dennis K


Peptic ulcer at the end of the 20th century: biological and psychological risk factors.  


The prevailing concept of peptic ulcer etiology has swung over entirely in just a few years from the psychological to the infectious, yet the rich literature documenting an association between psychosocial factors and ulcer is not invalidated by the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. Physical and psychological stressors interact to induce ulcers in animal models, concrete life difficulties and subjective distress predict the development of ulcers in prospective cohorts, shared catastrophes such as war and earthquakes lead to surges in hospitalizations for complicated ulcers, and stress or anxiety can worsen ulcer course. Many known ulcer risk factors, including smoking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, heavy drinking, loss of sleep and skipping breakfast, can increase under stress; the association of low socioeconomic status with ulcer is also accounted for in part by psychosocial factors. Among possible physiological mechanisms, stress may induce gastric hypersecretion, reduce acid buffering in the stomach and the duodenum, impair gastroduodenal blood flow, and affect healing or inflammation through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Psychosocial factors seem to be particularly prominent among idiopathic or complicated ulcers, but they are probably operative in run of the mill H pylori disease as well, either through additive effects or by facilitating the spread of the organism across the pylorus, while gastrointestinal damage by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be potentiated by stress. Although the clinical importance of peptic ulcer is fading along with the millennium, due to secular trends and new therapies, it remains worthy of study as a splendid example of the biopsychosocial model. PMID:10633828

Levenstein, S



Maneuvers during legged locomotion.  


Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the horizontal plane. Changes in the horizontal projection of leg length were linearly related to changes in horizontal-plane leg forces. Consequently, the passive dynamic stabilization associated with spring-mass behavior may contribute to stability during maneuvers in bipeds. Understanding the mechanics of maneuverability will be important for understanding the motor control of maneuvers and also potentially be useful for understanding stability. PMID:19566265

Jindrich, Devin L; Qiao, Mu



[Restless-legs syndrome].  


Restless-legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movements and is exacerbated or occurs at night and in the evening. RLS sufferers represent 2 to 3% of the general population in Western countries. Supportive criteria include a family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. The RLS phenotypes include an early onset form, usually idiopathic with a familial history and a late onset form, usually secondary to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, an atypical RLS phenotype without PLM and l-DOPA resistant has been characterized. RLS can occur in childhood and should be distinguished from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, growing pains and sleep complaints in childhood. RLS should be included in the diagnosis of all patients consulting for sleep complaints or discomfort in the lower limbs. It should be differentiated from akathisia, that is, an urge to move the whole body without uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test can detect PLM. Furthermore, an l-DOPA challenge has recently been validated to support the diagnosis of RLS. RLS may cause severe-sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In most cases, RLS is idiopathic. It may also be secondary to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drugs, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. The small-fiber neuropathy can mimic RLS or even trigger it. RLS is associated with many neurological and sleep disorders including Parkinson's disease, but does not predispose to these diseases. The pathophysiology of RLS includes an altered brain-iron metabolism, a dopaminergic dysfunction, a probable role of pain control systems and a genetic susceptibility with nine loci and three polymorphisms in genes serving developmental functions. RLS treatment begins with the elimination of triggering factors and iron supplementation when deficient. Mild or intermittent RLS is usually treated with low doses of l-DOPA or codeine; the first-line treatment for moderate to severe RLS is dopaminergic agonists (pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine). In severe, refractory or neuropathy-associated RLS, antiepileptic (gabapentin, pregabalin) or opioid (oxycodone, tramadol) drugs can be used. PMID:18656214

Karroum, E; Konofal, E; Arnulf, I



Maneuvers during legged locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the horizontal plane. Changes in the horizontal projection of leg length were linearly related to changes in horizontal-plane leg forces. Consequently, the passive dynamic stabilization associated with spring-mass behavior may contribute to stability during maneuvers in bipeds. Understanding the mechanics of maneuverability will be important for understanding the motor control of maneuvers and also potentially be useful for understanding stability.

Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu



Canker Sore (Aphthous Ulcer)  


... or aphthae, are the most common cause of periodic (recurring) ulcers inside the mouth and genital linings ( ... Dec 2008 Information for other ages: Child Teen Table of Contents: Overview Who's At Risk Signs and ...


Peptic Ulcer Disease  


... therapy will use acid suppression therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) along with antibiotic therapy and ... all peptic ulcers will be treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). PPIs are powerful acid blocking ...


[Preventing pressure ulcers].  


Preventing the occurrence of pressure ulcers requires multi-disciplinary care of the patient. Firstly, it is necessary to identify patients predisposed to developing pressure ulcers thanks to awareness of the risk factors and using where necessary adapted assessment scales. Preventative measures then comprise the suitable positioning of the patient, regularly changing their position, the use of special support equipment, nursing care and the treatment of undernutrition. PMID:23785858

Néouze, Angèle


Capsaicin and Gastric Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation.The

M. N. Satyanarayana



Ulcerative colitis: a challenge to surgeons.  


Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease that specifically affects the mucosa of the rectum and colon. Although the etiology of this recurring inflammatory disorder remains essentially unknown, there have been significant advances in identifying the likely genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. The clinical course of the disease typically manifests with remissions and exacerbations characterized by rectal bleeding and diarrhea. Since ulcerative colitis most commonly affects patients in their youth or early middle age, the disease can have serious long-term local and systemic consequences. There is no specific medical therapy that is curative. Although medical therapy can ameliorate the inflammatory process and control most symptomatic flares, it provides no definitive treatment for the disease. Proctocolectomy or total removal of the colon and rectum provides the only complete cure; however, innovative surgical alternatives have eliminated the need for a permanent ileostomy. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed account of the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. PMID:23189226

Parray, Fazl Q; Wani, Mohd L; Malik, Ajaz A; Wani, Shadab N; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan



Venous ulcers of the lower limb: Where do we stand?  

PubMed Central

Venous ulcers are the most common ulcers of the lower limb. It has a high morbidity and results in economic strain both at a personal and at a state level. Chronic venous hypertension either due to primary or secondary venous disease with perforator paucity, destruction or incompetence resulting in reflux is the underlying pathology, but inflammatory reactions mediated through leucocytes, platelet adhesion, formation of pericapillary fibrin cuff, growth factors and macromolecules trapped in tissue result in tissue hypoxia, cell death and ulceration. Duplex scan with colour flow is the most useful investigation for venous disease supplying information about patency, reflux, effects of proximal and distal compression, Valsalva maneuver and effects of muscle contraction. Most venous disease can be managed conservatively by leg elevation and compression bandaging. Drugs of proven benefit in venous disease are pentoxifylline and aspirin, but they work best in conjunction with compression therapy. Once ulceration is chronic or the patient does not respond to or cannot maintain conservative regime, surgical intervention treating the underlying venous hypertension and cover for the ulcer is necessary. The different modalities like sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping of superficial varicose veins, endoscopic subfascial perforator ligation, endovenous laser or radiofrequency ablation have similar long-term results, although short-term recovery is best with radiofrequency and foam sclerotherapy. For deep venous reflux, surgical modalities include repair of incompetent venous valves or transplant or transposition of a competent vein segment with normal valves to replace a post-thrombotic destroyed portion of the deep vein.

Chatterjee, Sasanka S.



APF, HB-EGF, and EGF biomarkers in patients with ulcerative vs. non-ulcerative interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder disorder, with symptoms including pelvic and or perineal pain, urinary frequency, and urgency. The etiology of IC is unknown, but sensitive and specific biomarkers have been described, including antiproliferative factor (APF), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). However, the relative sensitivity of these biomarkers in ulcerative

Chen-Ou Zhang; Ze-Liang Li; Chui-Ze Kong



Ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis: a rare association--case report.  


Ulcerative colitis is an autoimmune disorder of unknown etiology. Although the large intestine is the major focus of autoimmunity, resulting in chronic diarrhea, that is actually a systemic disease, with numerous extraintestinal manifestations, such as articular involvement. The frequent association of a number of autoimmune diseases in the same patient has been described. However, the coexistence of ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis is rare. The authors report a case of ulcerative colitis associated with rheumatoid arthritis, in which colitis occurred 12 years before the onset of inflammatory arthropathy. PMID:22885429

Cruz, Vitor Alves; Yamaguchi, Lúcio; Ribeiro, Carolina Nazeozeno; Magalhães, Vanessa de Oliveira; Rego, Jozelia; Silva, Nilzio Antonio da



Functional Long Leg Brace Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research (February 1969-January 1970) indicated the practical use of the functional long leg brace with patients requiring external support for a flaccid knee. A biomechanical analysis of the brace demonstrated that the brace is mechanically stable du...

C. M. Scott



Ulcer disease of trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer of 1933, lesions of a disease were noted among some fingerling brook, rainbow, blackspotted, and lake trout at the Cortland (New York) trout hatchery. Although these lesions bore a marked superficial resemblance to those of furunculosis, they were sufficiently atypical to warrant further investigation. A more detailed examination of the lesions proved them to be of a distinct disease, which for lack of a better name is herein called "ulcer disease," for the lesions closely resemble those described by Calkins (1899) under this name. Because of the marked resemblance to furunculosis, ulcer disease has not been generally recognized by trout culturists, and any ulcer appearing on fish has been ascribed by them to furunculosis without further question.

Fish, F. F.



Necrolytic migratory ulceration  

PubMed Central

Endocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic system associated with specific skin manifestations are rare. We report a 53-year-old female who presented with migratory annular and arcuate ulcers on her limbs. Histopathology was similar to necrolytic erythema family which includes necrolytic migratory erythema (NME). Though initial CT scans were normal, follow up scans revealed multiple mass lesions in the tail of pancreas. Her skin lesions responded to oral zinc sulphate and monthly injections of octreotide. Prior to planned FNAC from the mass lesion, patient developed altered sensorium and succumbed to the disease. This case report seems to differ from NME clinically, due to unique finding of deep migrating ulcers which heal with scarring. ‘Necrolytic migratory ulceration’ thus appears to be a new paraneoplastic manifestation, secondary to pancreatic malignancy.

Pakran, Jaheersha; Riyaz, Najeeba



Chest neoplasms with infectious etiologies  

PubMed Central

A wide spectrum of thoracic tumors have known or suspected viral etiologies. Oncogenic viruses can be classified by the type of genomic material they contain. Neoplastic conditions found to have viral etiologies include post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, lymphoid granulomatosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma, Castleman’s disease, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma, leukemia and lymphomas. Viruses involved in these conditions include Epstein-Barr virus, human herpes virus 8, human papillomavirus, Simian virus 40, human immunodeficiency virus, and Human T-lymphotropic virus. Imaging findings, epidemiology and mechanism of transmission for these diseases are reviewed in detail to gain a more thorough appreciation of disease pathophysiology for the chest radiologist.

Restrepo, Carlos S; Chen, Melissa M; Martinez-Jimenez, Santiago; Carrillo, Jorge; Restrepo, Catalina



Prognostic indicators in venous ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Venous ulcers can be difficult to heal, and prognostic factors for healing have not been fully elucidated. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the results of a large multicenter venous ulcer trial to retrospectively establish prognostic factors for venous ulcer healing. Methods: This study examined data from a previously published prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial of an

Tania J. Phillips; Fidelis Machado; Richard Trout; John Porter; Jeffrey Olin; Vincent Falanga



Childhood Obesity: A Multifaceted Etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a multifaceted etiology of childhood obesity regarding energy consumption, energy expenditure, behavioral factors, and psychosocial factors related to the disorder. Recommendations are presented for health educators to approach this problem from a holistic perspective involving assistance from parents and teachers and assisting children in making lifestyle changes. Also, challenges and future directions for research are given.

Kristine Stouffer; Steve M. Dorman


Etiology of Depression in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is experienced by a significant proportion of youth today, occurring at an earlier age than found in previous generations. Major Depressive Disorder can produce long-lasting detrimental effects on a child's life, which raises the question of etiology. Three areas were examined for evidence identifying specific…

Watts, Shirley J.; Markham, Ramona A.



Love Addiction: Definition, Etiology, Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I review the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of love addiction. First, I provide an introduction to the concept and information on a literature search I conducted. Using seven search terms and three search engines, I was able to locate only 40 data-based articles on love addiction. Next I provide a description of this concept, particularly its

Steve Sussman



The etiology of rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of rheumatiod arthritis has been elusive, but it finally seems to be explained by a combination of three factors: (i) a relatively mild deficiency of cortisol, the normal adrenocortical hormone that is essential for normal immunity but which has achieved a bad reputation because of the use of excessive dosages of it or its stronger derivatives, (ii) a

W. Mc K. Jefferies



Leg recirculation in horizontal plane locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol prescribing leg motion during the swing phase is developed for the planar lateral leg spring model of locomotion.\\u000a Inspired by experimental observations regarding insect leg function when running over rough terrain, the protocol prescribes\\u000a the angular velocity of the swing-leg relative to the body in a feedforward manner, yielding natural variations in the leg\\u000a touch-down angle in response

A. Wickramasuriya; J. Schmitt



Endocrinology of duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several gastrointestinal peptides with proven or suggested endocrine or paracrine functions influence gastric acid secretion, gastrointestinal motility, and mucosal blood flow. Increased or decreased release of such factors could participate in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer disease by inducing increased gastric acid concentration in the duodenal bulb. To date, increased stimulation of parietal cells by gastrin has been demonstrated only

W. Creutzfeldt; R. Arnold



Aphthous ulcers (recurrent)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most people with recurrent aphthous ulcers develop a few ulcers less than 1 cm in diameter, that heal after 5 to 14 days without scarring. The causes are unknown, but risks of recurrence may decrease if the person gives up smoking. Local physical trauma may trigger ulcers in susceptible people. In 10% of sufferers, lesions are more than 1 cm in diameter, and can cause scarring. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for recurrent aphthous ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 18 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics (local), carbenoxolone mouthwash, chlorhexidine (and similar agents), corticosteroids (topical), and tetracycline antibiotic mouthwash.



[Managing perilesional pressure ulcers].  


The skin of elderly patients is very fragile and dry which impairs its function as a barrier and renders it more exposed to external attacks, perilesional complications around pressure ulcers are often linked to several interrelated mechanisms. These complications require, from the teams, in-depth knowledge of the care protocols. PMID:23785860

Perceau, Géraldine


Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (NUG)  


... swollen gums that are painful even if no pressure is placed on them Gums that bleed easily Bad breath or a bad taste in the mouth A gray film on the gums Sores (ulcers) on the gums Sore throat Fever (not often) ...


Giant duodenal ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant duodenal ulcers (GDU) have been associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality unless early operative intervention is undertaken. There are few published reports of successful medical management of GDU. Therefore, we reviewed 14 consecutive patients with GDU at our institution. Excluding the following cases: Two patients who had elective surgery, two patients who died from unrelated causes,

Richard Jaszewski; Steven A. Crane; Arturo A. Cid



Chronic idiopathic ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many frequently cited studies of the interaction of chronic idiopathic ulcerative colitis (CIUC) and pregnancy were performed in the 1950s before pharmacotherapy for this disease was common. We retrospectively reviewed obstetrical records at a large maternity facility to determine the effects of CIUC on pregnancy and on fetal outcome. We observed that the prevalence of CIUC in pregnant women was

Robert R. Schade; David H. Van Thiel; Judith S. Gavaler



Genetic parameters for claw health and feet and leg conformation traits in Finnish Ayrshire cows.  


Genetic parameters for different claw disorders, overall claw health and feet and leg conformation traits were estimated for Finnish Ayrshire cows. The merged data set with records of claw health and feet and leg conformation traits consisted of 105,000 observations from 52,598 Finnish Ayrshire cows between 2000 and 2010. The binary claw health data and the linearly scored conformation data were analysed using an animal model and restricted maximum likelihood method by applying the statistical package ASReml. Binomial logistic models with mixed effects were used to estimate genetic parameters for sole haemorrhages, chronic laminitis, white-line separation, sole ulcer, interdigital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, digital dermatitis, corkscrew claw and overall claw health. Estimated heritabilities for different claw disorders using a binomial logistic model ranged from 0.01 to 0.20. Estimated heritability for overall claw health using a binomial logistic model was 0.08. Estimated heritabilities for feet and leg conformation traits ranged from 0.07 to 0.39. The genetic correlations between claw health and feet and leg conformation traits ranged from -0.40 to 0.42. All phenotypic correlations were close to zero. The moderate genetic correlation, together with higher heritability of feet and leg conformation traits, showed that RLSV (rear leg side view) is a useful indicator trait to be used together with claw trimming information to increase the accuracy of breeding values for claw health in genetic evaluation. PMID:23496009

Häggman, J; Juga, J; Sillanpää, M J; Thompson, R



Pipe crawler with extendable legs  


A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

Zollinger, W.T.



A murine model of ulcerative colitis: induced with sinusitis-derived superantigen and food allergen  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The etiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) is to be understood. The basic pathological feature of UC is intestinal chronic inflammation. Superantigen, such as Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB), is reported to compromise intestinal barrier function by increasing epithelial permeability and initiate inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Inasmuch as anatomic position of the sinus, chronic sinusitis-derived SEB may follow the secretion

Ping-Chang Yang; Chang-Sheng Wang; Zi-Yuan An



Aquaporin8 expression is reduced in ileum and induced in colon of patients with ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study susceptibility genes which may play a potential role in the pathogenesis and etiology of infl ammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: To identify potential susceptibility genes we performed global gene expression profiling in patients with IBD and control specimens. For determination of an intrinsic gene expression profi le in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) compared to

Alexandra Zahn; Christoph Moehle; Thomas Langmann; Robert Ehehalt; Frank Autschbach; Wolfgang Stremmel; Gerd Schmitz



Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements of sleep.  


Women are more commonly affected than men by restless legs syndrome, and prevalence is highest amongst those of northern European heritage. The motor manifestations include nonvolitional myoclonus (periodic leg movements). Disinhibition of spinal sensorimotor circuits may underlie these primary features and can be affected by peripheral as well as supraspinal networks. Insufficient mobilizable iron stores increase expressivity in some individuals. The sensorimotor features are relieved by dopamine, especially dopamine agonists, gabapentin and its derivatives, and opioids. A diagnosis relies on recognition of key primary and supportive features, and treatments are generally well tolerated, efficacious, and life-changing. PMID:23099132

Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn Marie



Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo



Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

Gribik, Anastasia M.; Dilorenzo, Peter A.



Prenatal etiologies of West syndrome.  


We investigated the etiology of West syndrome (WS) with special reference to prenatal factors in 180 cases. Prenatal cause was the most frequent diagnosis (77 cases, 42.8%), followed by perinatal (25 cases, 13.9%) and postnatal factors (12 cases, 6.7%); 48 cases (26.7%) were of uncertain etiology; eighteen cases (10.0%) were idiopathic. Of the three forms of age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, prenatal cause was present in 12 of 15 cases (80.0%) of early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-burst, 77 of 180 cases (42.8%) of WS, and 31 of 123 cases (25.2%) of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Prenatal factors of WS included tuberous sclerosis (23), chromosome abnormalities (10), cerebral dysgenesis (10), porencephaly (7), hydrocephalus (5), Aicardi syndrome (3), Aicardi syndrome associated with chromosome abnormality (1), and other causes (18). Chromosome abnormalities with WS consisted of 6 cases with 21 trisomy and one case each with 18q duplication, t(1;y) translocation, 7q duplication, and partial 2p trisomy. One patient with Aicardi syndrome also had a t(12;21) translocation. No significant difference was observed in the age of onset of WS among the five etiologic groups. The evolution from WS to LGS was not influenced by etiology, except for the idiopathic group. In patients followed for over 3 years, seizure remission occurred in 46.8% (22 of 47 cases) of the prenatal group. This was lower than the other four groups. Intellectual prognosis was also relatively poor in those with prenatal onset. Pyridoxal phosphate (PAL-P) treatment was effective in 9 of 70 (12.9%) prenatal cases and 5 of 18 (27.8%) idiopathic cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8330583

Ohtahara, S; Ohtsuka, Y; Yamatogi, Y; Oka, E; Yoshinaga, H; Sato, M


Hyponatraemia: etiology, management and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the etiology of hyponatraemia, the treatment instituted and the outcome of treatment in a tertiary care hospital setting.STUDY DESIGN: Case series.PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between January and June 2004.METHODOLOGY: Case records of 220 patients admitted to the medical service were identified through computerized hospital patients' data. All patients (3) 15

Aasima Yawar; Abdul Jabbar; Naeem Ul Haque; Lubna M Zuberi; Najmul Islam; Jaweed Akhtar



Emerging evidence for neuroischemic diabetic foot ulcers: model of care and how to adapt practice.  


Although neuropathic ulceration remains the commonest type of foot ulcers among patients with diabetes, recent data suggest that ischemic (and therefore, neuroischemic) ulcers are on the rise. The high prevalence and incidence of diabetes and its attendant foot complications, coupled with the current trend where increasingly diabetes care is being provided by general practitioners (primary care physicians) would mean that primary care practices are expected to see greater numbers of diabetic foot ulcer patients. Unfortunately, these settings are frequently ill-equipped to appropriately manage diabetic foot ulcers either due to lack of adequately trained personnel and access to multidisciplinary foot care teams. Whereas neuropathic foot ulceration may appear to be less challenging, neuroischemic or ischemic ulcers portend a higher risk of adverse outcomes, including non-healing, infection, amputation, and death. The last 2 decades have witnessed a paradigm shift from neuropathy as the main etiological factor in diabetic foot disease to an ever-increasing preponderance of ischemic and/or neuroischemic ulceration. Available literature does not always consider the limited access primary care practices have to specialized multidisciplinary foot care teams. Additionally, in the case of neuroischemic and/or ischemic ulcers, existing guidelines on their diagnosis and management are varied and unclear. This review aimed at providing a simple understanding to the complex evidence base for diagnosing and treating neuroischemic and/or ischemic ulcers in a primary care setting. It emphasizes the need for urgent vascular review in all patients with ischemic/ neuroischemic ulcers and advocates effective participation of vascular specialists in diabetic foot clinics and combined ward rounds. PMID:19443897

Ndip, Agbor; Jude, Edward B



Epidemiology and etiology of meningioma  

PubMed Central

Although most meningiomas are encapsulated and benign tumors with limited numbers of genetic aberrations, their intracranial location often leads to serious and potentially lethal consequences. They are the most frequently diagnosed primary brain tumor accounting for 33.8% of all primary brain and central nervous system tumors reported in the United States between 2002 and 2006. Inherited susceptibility to meningioma is suggested both by family history and candidate gene studies in DNA repair genes. People with certain mutations in the neurofibromatosis gene (NF2) have a very substantial increased risk for meningioma. High dose ionizing radiation exposure is an established risk factor for meningioma, and lower doses may also increase risk, but which types and doses are controversial or understudied. Because women are twice as likely as men to develop meningiomas and these tumors harbor hormone receptors, an etiologic role for hormones (both endogenous and exogenous) has been hypothesized. The extent to which immunologic factors influence meningioma etiology has been largely unexplored. Growing emphasis on brain tumor research coupled with the advent of new genetic and molecular epidemiologic tools in genetic and molecular epidemiology promise hope for advancing knowledge about the causes of intra-cranial meningioma. In this review, we highlight current knowledge about meningioma epidemiology and etiology and suggest future research directions.

Wrensch, Margaret; Claus, Elizabeth B.




PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection among women of childbearing age. This condition is notorious for causing severe complications related to the reproductive health of women. Five decades of intense research established many risk factors for acquisition of BV, however due to the complexity of BV and due to lack of a reliable animal model for this condition, its exact etiology remains elusive. In this manuscript we use a historical perspective to critically review the development of major theories on the etiology of BV, ultimately implicating BV-related pathogens, healthy vaginal microbiota, bacteriophages and the immune response of the host. None of these theories on their own can reliably explain the epidemiological data. Instead, BV is caused by a complex interaction of multiple factors, which include the numerous components of the vaginal microbial ecosystem and their human host. Many of these factors are yet to be characterized because a clear understanding of their relative contribution to the etiology of BV is pivotal to formulation of an effective treatment for and prophylaxis of this condition.

Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Noll, Katia Sutyak; Chikindas, Michael L.



Rotigotine for restless legs syndrome.  


Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder related to abnormal and unpleasant sensations and movements in the legs. It usually occurs at nighttime and thus has a detrimental impact on the ability to sleep, leading to poor patient quality of life. UCB has been developing rotigotine transdermal patch system (Neupro; SPM-962) as a treatment for RLS. This system is designed to replace levels of dopamine in the body via once-daily application of the patch, in a bid to restore proper motor functioning. The rotigotine patch has been authorized for the treatment of RLS since August 2008. PMID:19956807

Davies, Shelley



[A case of aseptic osteomyelitis with heel ulcer improved by steroid application].  


A 43-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital because of left heel pain and fever. He had had swelling of the left ankle joint and pain 4 years prior to this, and 4 years later, he was admitted to another hospital when left heel ulcer and fever developed. The ulcer was diagnosed and treated as a diabetic ulcer because of hyperglycemia. In spite of good control of blood sugar, the ulcer became enlarged and the pain deteriorated, so he was transferred to orthopedics. Antibiotics produced no response, and culture from a specimen of the ulcer was negative. However, severe inflammatory response was seen in blood examination. MRI and scintigram of his left foot showed disseminated low intensity areas and accumulation in the tarsal bone area, so osteomyelitis was suspected. A biopsy of the ulcer showed infiltration of inflammatory cells into the dermis. We considered amputation of the left lower leg at first. However the biopsy result suggested an autoimmune mechanism, so prednisolone was administered. As a result, the ulcer and pain both diminished. This case was similar to pyoderma gangenosum, however this diagnosis cannot explain osteomyelitis or all its symptoms. We expect that there must be other case report with the same symptoms. PMID:10917019

Idogawa, M; Takahashi, H; Soma, T; Mihara, M; Mizukoshi, T; Murakami, R; Sugaya, T; Makiguchi, Y; Imai, K



Budesonide for ulcerative colitis.  


In this review, we examined studies published on oral and topical formulations of budesonide (Entocort and Budenofalk, in Spain: Entocord and Intestifalk) for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. This glycocorticosteroid has a potent local action and an important first-pass liver metabolism. It has proven successful over the last years as a controlled-release formulation. It obtained results similar to prednisolone, without the latter s significant suppression of plasma cortisol. Many publications exist on the effects of oral budesonide for the treatment of Crohn s disease (CD). These have led to the registration of this drug for the treatment of CD. Studies on oral formulations of budesonide for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) are scarce. After reviewing published evidence, we suggest the conduction of controlled trials for the treatment of UC to obtain evidence-based efficacy and safety results in order to benefit patients with this form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:16944997

Marín-Jiménez, I; Peña, A S



Another 'Cushing ulcer'  

PubMed Central

The authors describe the case of a 39-year-old man who presented to our hospital with easy fatigability and malaise. On physical examination, hypertension was noted without any cushingoid appearance. Laboratory testing revealed normochromic-normocytic anaemia with positive results of occult blood in the stool, hyperglycaemia and hypokalemia. Upper endoscopy revealed active gastric ulcer with Helicobacter pylori infection, likely causing gastrointestinal bleeding. Endocrine examinations showed that both serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol were elevated with loss of diurnal variation. A diagnosis of Cushing’s disease secondary to pituitary adenoma was made as results of brain MRI and blood sampling from inferior petrosal sinus. In a patient with peptic ulcer disease, physician should be alert to the possible endocrine background.

Hoshino, Chisho; Satoh, Noriyuki; Narita, Masashi; Kikuchi, Akio; Inoue, Minoru



Mortality from Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in England-Wales and the U.S. from 1950 to 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease remains unknown, studies of its time trends may provide clues to understanding\\u000a the underlying mechanisms. This study examines mortality from Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in England and Wales\\u000a and the U.S. during the period 1950 to 1983. Mortality from Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis changed in both countries\\u000a similarly. The death rates

Amnon Sonnenberg



Low long-term risk of foot ulcer recurrence after nerve decompression in a diabetes neuropathy cohort.  


Background: Use of nerve decompression in diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a controversial treatment characterized as being of unknown scientific effectiveness owing to lack of level I scientific studies. Methods: Herein, long-term follow-up data have been assembled on 65 diabetic patients with 75 legs having previous neuropathic foot ulcer and subsequent operative decompression of the common peroneal and tibial nerve branches in the anatomical fibro-osseous tunnels. Results: The cohort's previously reported low recurrence risk of less than 5% annually at a mean of 2.49 years of follow-up has persisted for an additional 3 years, and cumulative risk is now 2.6% per patient-year. Nine of 75 operated legs (12%) have developed an ulcer in 4,218 months (351 patient-years) of follow-up. Of the 53 contralateral legs without decompression, 16 (30%) have ulcerated, of which three have undergone an amputation. Fifty-nine percent of patients are known to be alive with intact feet a mean of 60 months after decompression. Conclusions: The prospective, objective, statistically significant finding of a large, long-term diminution of diabetic foot ulcer recurrence risk after operative nerve decompression compares very favorably with the historical literature and the contralateral legs of this cohort, which had no decompression. This finding invites prospective randomized controlled studies for validation testing and reconsideration of the frequency and contribution of unrecognized nerve entrapments in diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy and diabetic foot complications. PMID:24072366

Nickerson, D Scott; Rader, Andrew J


Management of Chronic Pressure Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions? Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? Background A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by as much as 400%, to increase the frequency and duration of hospitalization, and to decrease the quality of life of affected patients. The cost of treating pressure ulcers has been estimated at approximately $9,000 (Cdn) per patient per month in the community setting. Considering the high prevalence of pressure ulcers in the Ontario health care system, the total cost of treating pressure ulcers is substantial. Technology Wounds normally heal in 3 phases (inflammatory phase, a proliferative phase of new tissue and matrix formation, and a remodelling phase). However, pressure ulcers often fail to progress past the inflammatory stage. Current practice for treating pressure ulcers includes treating the underlying causes, debridement to remove necrotic tissues and contaminated tissues, dressings to provide a moist wound environment and to manage exudates, devices and frequent turning of patients to provide pressure relief, topical applications of biologic agents, and nutritional support to correct nutritional deficiencies. A variety of adjunctive physical therapies are also in use. Method Health technology assessment databases and medical databases were searched from 1996 (Medline), 1980 (EMBASE), and 1982 (CINAHL) systematically up to March 2008 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the following treatments of pressure ulcers: cleansing, debridement, dressings, biological therapies, pressure-relieving devices, physical therapies, nutritional therapies, and multidisciplinary wound care teams. Full literature search strategies are reported in appendix 1. English-language studies in previous systematic reviews and studies published since the last systematic review were included if they had more than 10 subjects, were randomized, and provided objective outcome measures on the healing of pressure ulcers. In the absence of RCTs, studies of the highest level of evidence available were included. Studies on wounds other than pressure ulcers and on surgical treatment of pressure ulcers were excluded. A total of 18 systematic reviews, 104 RCTs, and 4 observational



Diabetic Foot Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wagner system describes the diabetic foot ulcer as a full thickness wound extending to tendons or deeper subcutaneous\\u000a tissue but without bony involvement or osteomyelitis [1]. The university of Texas system refers to levels of ischemia [2]\\u000a and infection while the SAD system [3] attends to size, area, depth, arteriopathy and any neuropathic involvement. The breadth\\u000a of classification system

Andrew Boulton; Frank Bowling


Stress ulcer bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Although upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) in critically ill patients is common,\\u000a significant bleeding with hemodynamic instability is not. Risk factor assessment can assist in identifying patients with a\\u000a greater likelihood of developing significant SRMD. Prophylaxis against stress ulcer bleeding with luminal agents (eg, antacids\\u000a and sucralfate) or drugs that inhibit acid secretion (eg, histamine

Richard F. Harty; Hari B. Ancha



Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although the clinicopathologic features of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) are well documented, the heterogeneous endoscopic appearance of lesions that the syndrome produces and its rare incidence may make for clinical confusion.Methods  Together with a literature review, we describe the variety of lesions experienced in our hospital with a series of endoscopic and histological illustrations and emphasize the diagnostic dilemma both

Jy-Ming Chiang; Chung-Rong Changchien; Jim-Ray Chen



Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot  

PubMed Central

In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification.

Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios



Management of radiation ulcers  

SciTech Connect

Despite more efficient and safer technics of radiation therapy, the problem of radiation-induced injury to the skin and soft tissue persists. The problem of adequate coverage of these painful, ischemic, and fibrotic ulcers remains challenging. Split-thickness skin grafts are seldom sufficient coverage, as the graft almost always has areas that do not take. Although these areas may eventually heal by epithelialization, the result is never ideal. Most often flap coverage is required, but elevation of local flaps is jeopardized because the tissue surrounding the ulcer crater frequently has been sufficiently compromised to cause loss of at least part of the flap. In the past, this necessitated use of pedicled flaps, tubed and transposed from a distance. With the development of axial-pattern musculocutaneous and muscle flaps, as well as microvascular free flaps, the difficulty in dealing with these ulcers has been decreased. Surgeons can now recommend earlier use of adequate debridement, many times of the entire irradiated area, and immediate coverage with a well vascularized axial-pattern musculocutaneous flap or revascularized free flap.

Shack, R.B.



Persistent nicorandil induced oral ulceration  

PubMed Central

Four patients with nicorandil induced ulceration are described, and the literature on the subject is reviewed. Nicorandil induced ulcers are very painful and distressing for patients. Clinically they appear as large, deep, persistent ulcers that have punched out edges. They are poorly responsive to topical steroids and usually require alteration of nicorandil treatment. The ulceration tends to occur at high doses of nicorandil and all four cases reported here were on doses of 40 mg per day or greater. In these situations reduction of nicorandil dose may be sufficient to promote ulcer healing and prevent further recurrence. However, nicorandil induced ulcers have been reported at doses as low as 10 mg daily and complete cessation of nicorandil may be required.

Healy, C M; Smyth, Y; Flint, S R



Acute lower leg compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute compartment syndromes in the lower leg are well recognized following major trauma. However, although rare, they may occur following seemingly minor sporting injury. A case of acute compartment syndrome, following a football game and affecting the peroneal or lateral compartment, is described, in which prompt diagnosis and treatment led to a satisfactory outcome. The diagnosis and surgical management of

R A Power; P Greengross



Treatment of chronic posttraumatic leg injury using autologous fat graft.  


We present the results obtained in a case of a 20-year-old Caucasian woman with a posttraumatic injury "hard-to-heal" of the left leg treated using autologous fat graft. Considering our experience in treatment of chronic posttraumatic ulcers by autologous fat graft, we decided to use this surgical technique to induce a regenerative effect in this young patient. We have had complete wound closure with only a single surgical procedure after 1 month; after the second intervention of autologous fat graft we observed an improvement in the quality of the scar tissue. The patient satisfaction was excellent. The results were long lasting and remained virtually unchanged after 1 year. PMID:23319957

Caviggioli, Fabio; Klinger, Francesco Maria; Vinci, Valeriano; Cornegliani, Guido; Klinger, Marco



Environmental factors in the etiology of endemic elephantiasis of the lower legs in tropical Africa.  


The environmental factors including geography, geology and soil have been reviewed in areas of high prevalence of non-filariasis endemic elephantiasis surveyed in tropical Africa. These areas occur at altitudes above 1000 m where rainfall is seasonal and exceeds 1000 mm annually. The soil is a red clay, very slippery when wet and very adhesive if allowed to dry on the skin. These are also areas of past or present alkalic volcanism, the prevalence being highest in proximity to the volcanoes. The derived soils are notable for the high proportion of alumino-silicate particles of colloid size in the clays. The significance of these findings suggests that the number and small size of the clays. The significance of these findings suggests that the number and small size of the particles facilitates entry through the skin into the lymphatic tissues, where they exert the known irritant and fibrosing effects of silica and alumina. PMID:6328708

Price, E W; Bailey, D



Restless Legs Syndrome: scoring criteria for leg movements recorded during the suggested immobilization test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of leg movements experienced by patients with the restless legs syndrome (RLS) during wakefulness using the suggested immobilization test (SIT).Methods: Forty patients with primary RLS who showed an index of leg movements greater than 40 during the SIT were selected for these analyses.Results: In general, Coleman's criteria for scoring PLMS were appropriate for scoring leg

Martin Michaud; Gaétan Poirier; Gilles Lavigne; Jacques Montplaisir



How Is Restless Legs Syndrome Treated?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Restless Legs Syndrome Treated? Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has no cure. If a condition or ... to prevent these side effects. Rate This Content: Restless Legs Syndrome Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...


Leg Stiffness and Expertise in Men Jumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

LAFFAYE, G., B. G. BARDY, and A. DUREY. Leg Stiffness and Expertise in Men Jumping. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 536-543, 2005. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to investigate: a) the leg spring behavior in the one-leg vertical jump, b) the contribution of impulse parameters to this behavior, and c) the effect of




Integrated system for single leg walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carnegie Mellon University Planetary Rover project is developing a six-legged walking robot capable of autonomously navigating, exploring, and acquiring samples in rugged, unknown environments. This report describes an integrated software system capable of navigating a single leg of the robot over rugged terrain. The leg, based on an early design of the Ambler Planetary Rover, is suspended below a

Reid Simmons; Eric Krotkov; Gerry Roston



Pediatric ulcerative colitis: current treatment approaches including role of infliximab  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can lead to derangements in the growth, nutritional status, and psychosocial development of affected children. There are several medical options for the induction and maintenance of disease remission, but the benefits of these medications need to be carefully weighed against the risks, especially in the pediatric population. As the etiology of the disease has become increasingly understood, newer therapeutic alternatives have arisen in the form of biologic therapies, which are monoclonal antibodies targeted to a specific protein or receptor. This review will discuss the classical treatments for children with ulcerative colitis, including 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, thiopurine immunomodulators, and calcineurin inhibitors, with a particular focus on the newer class of anti-tumor necrosis factor-? agents.

Bradley, Gia M; Oliva-Hemker, Maria



[Pedophilia: etiology, diagnostics and therapy].  


Child sexual abuse is one of the most destructive events for healthy child development. Following psychiatric classification systems, pedophilia must be distinguished from child sexual abuse. Approximately only one half of all child abusers fulfill the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia which is defined as a persistent or dominating sexual preference for prepubescent children characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal or behavior. This article describes the diagnostic criteria and potential differential diagnoses as well as epidemiological and etiological findings. From an etiological point of view multifactorial mechanisms are currently considered to be responsible especially genetic factors, learning theoretical and neurobiological factors. Psychotherapeutic and pharmaceutical treatment options will be discussed. According to the current state of knowledge cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is the method of choice in the treatment of pedophilia and has demonstrated positive treatment effects in meta-analyses regarding relapse prevention. Medicinal treatment of pedophilia is only indicated for severe forms of pedophilia. Important aspects of risk management in the treatment of pedophilia and aspects which must be considered in the forensic psychiatric assessment are presented. PMID:23793393

Fromberger, P; Jordan, K; Müller, J L



Evidence for the complementary and synergistic effects of the three-alkaloid combination regimen containing berberine, hypaconitine and skimmianine on the ulcerative colitis rats induced by trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulcerative colitis involves complicated etiology and presents diverse symptoms including intestine inflammation, bowel pain and diarrhea. Anti-inflammatory drugs are the mainstay in patient care, accompanied with antidiarrhea and analgesic agents used as symptomatic treatment. A classic traditional Chinese medicine formula, Fructus Mume pill (FMP), showed remarkable therapeutic efficacy in treating ulcerative colitis. However, since it contains many herbs and countless

Min Zhang; Yin Long; Yang Sun; Yukun Wang; Qian Li; Huanjie Wu; Zhenjun Guo; Yuhua Li; Yinbo Niu; Chen Li; Li Liu; Qibing Mei



Progressive leg pain and weakness.  


A 54-year-old man presented with progressive asymmetric leg pain and weakness. He had a history of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that was fully treated 2 years earlier. His leg symptoms progressed relentlessly during several months. Imaging studies demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina and leptomeninges of the lower spinal cord. Initial cerebrospinal fluid examination showed an elevated protein concentration and lymphocytic pleocytosis with no malignant cells on cytological analysis. There was short-term improvement in symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities with intravenous steroids. Two additional cerebrospinal fluid studies showed normal cytological findings, elevated IgG synthesis, and elevated antibody titers to varicella-zoster virus. Over time, the patient worsened, developed cranial neuropathies, and ultimately died. The pathological diagnosis and the approach to the clinical data are discussed. PMID:23440264

Navalkele, Digvijaya D; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Burns, Dennis K; Greenberg, Tasha; Vernino, Steven



Fibromyxoid sarcoma of the leg  

PubMed Central

A 48-year-old female with an atypical plaque-like lesion of the lower leg is presented in this article. Histologic investigation revealed a rare low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (pT1a cN0 cM0; stage Ia) of suprafascial localization. Staging of the patient did not reveal metastatic spread. The tumor was surgically removed with wide safety margins. The defect was closed using a mesh graft transplant and vacuum-assisted closure. Healing was complete. Regular follow-up for at least 5 years is recommended. Besides the rareness of this tumor, this case is also remarkable because of the localization on the lower leg and the suprafascial soft tissue.

Wollina, Uwe; Runge, Juliane; Schonlebe, Jaqueline



Assessing Children's Legs and Feet  

PubMed Central

Shoes are necessary for protection and warmth. Normal children do not require shoes for support. There is no scientific evidence that shoes—‘orthopedic’ or otherwise—influence or alter the growth or shape of the normal child's foot except, perhaps, adversely if they fit poorly. Family physicians must understand common variations of normal foot and leg development if they are to effectively advise and reassure parents about appropriate footwear. Flat feet, knock knees, bow legs, in-toeing, and out-toeing in otherwise normal children can easily be distinguished from similar but more serious deformities associated with disease or congenital anomaly. ImagesFig. 1AFig. 1BFig. 2AFig. 2B

Wedge, John H.



Persistent ulcer of the knee.  


A 15-year-old female suffered from a persistent ulcer which developed in her knee. At the ninth operation, intraarticular knee arthrodesis was performed but the ulcer recurred. The most effective treatment was neither thorough debridement nor a free musculocutaneous flap covering, but the application of a plaster cast. The condition is thought to have been Munchausen syndrome. PMID:8012256

Nishijima, N; Yamamuro, T; Seto, Y



Current concepts of peptic ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

These observations support the theory that peptic ulceration results from failure of adequate local repair to mucosal injury. The resultant ulcer may be acute or chronic depending upon the duration of the stress or the mucosal contact of the irritative substance and on the ability of the local tissue to achieve cellular homeostasis. The role of acid and pepsin secretion

S. P. Bralow




Microsoft Academic Search

We report a prospective study of the causes and treatment of 26 long-standing neuropathic ulcers of the foot in 21 patients. The most important causal factor, well illustrated by pressure studies, was the presence of a dynamic or static deformity leading to local areas of peak pressure on insensitive skin. All but one of the 26 ulcers had healed after



Surgical Management of Ulcer Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of management of ulcer disease is one of the great stories in the history of general surgery. The surgeons who have helped elucidate the anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and operative management of patients who have ulcers have earned their place in the historical ranks of our discipline. One is hard-pressed to find a vein of surgical thought with such

Ronald F. Martin


Acute lower leg compartment syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Acute compartment syndromes in the lower leg are well recognized following major trauma. However, although rare, they may occur following seemingly minor sporting injury. A case of acute compartment syndrome, following a football game and affecting the peroneal or lateral compartment, is described, in which prompt diagnosis and treatment led to a satisfactory outcome. The diagnosis and surgical management of acute compartment syndromes are discussed. Early recognition and treatment are important in the prevention of long-term disability. Images Figure 1

Power, R A; Greengross, P



Acute lower leg compartment syndrome.  


Acute compartment syndromes in the lower leg are well recognized following major trauma. However, although rare, they may occur following seemingly minor sporting injury. A case of acute compartment syndrome, following a football game and affecting the peroneal or lateral compartment, is described, in which prompt diagnosis and treatment led to a satisfactory outcome. The diagnosis and surgical management of acute compartment syndromes are discussed. Early recognition and treatment are important in the prevention of long-term disability. PMID:1810617

Power, R A; Greengross, P



Propeller flaps for leg reconstruction.  


Leg soft tissue defects with bone or tendon exposure need to be covered with a flap. Various local and free flaps with more or less consistent donor site defects have been described in the past. After the introduction of the perforator-based flap concept, new flaps have also been described for the leg. An evolution and simplification of the perforator flap concept, together with the 'free style' flap harvesting method, are the propeller flaps, i.e. local flaps, based on a perforator vessel, which becomes the pivot point for the skin island that can, therefore, be rotated up to 180 degrees . In this prospective study, six consecutive patients, having post-traumatic soft tissue defects of the leg or knee prosthesis infection, with bone or tendon exposure, were treated with propeller flaps. Complete and stable coverage of the soft tissue losses was obtained in all cases with an inconspicuous, only cosmetic, donor site defect. No flap necrosis was observed, with the exception of a small superficial necrosis of the tip of one flap, due to the inclusion in the design of scarred tissue. In two cases, transient venous congestion was observed and resolved spontaneously. Mean operative time was 2 h (ranging from 60 min to 6 h when an orthopaedic procedure was also needed) and mean hospital stay after surgery was 10 days. Propeller flaps allow the coverage of wide defects, can be raised with a relatively simple surgical technique, have a high success rate and good cosmetic results without functional impairment. In the light of this they can be considered among the first surgical choices to resurface complex soft tissue defects of the leg. PMID:18450531

Pignatti, Marco; Pasqualini, Monica; Governa, Maurizio; Bruti, Massimiliano; Rigotti, Gino



Aetiopathogenesis of restless legs syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is not yet completely understood. However, recent research addressed the\\u000a hypothesis that dopaminergic pathways are involved in the mechanisms responsible for the syndrome both for sensory and motor\\u000a symptoms. Different aspects of RLS physiopathogenesis are discussed: the genetic components indicating different chromosomes\\u000a are responsible for the heterogeneity in the phenotypic expression of the

M. Zucconi; M. Manconi; L. Ferini Strambi



Malignant Degeneration of Gastric Ulcer  

PubMed Central

Malignant degeneration is the most serious complication of gastric ulcer. Its recognition is difficult both in the early stage and in advanced cases in which only the evidence of a previous ulcer-cavity, and the radiating folds of the mucous membrane indicate progressive development of carcinoma from an original ulcer. It is impossible to say how often gastric ulcer becomes malignant; one can only state the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma, found in gastric resections. One hundred and forty-one personal cases of ulcer-carcinoma are recorded, and are divided into three groups. Group I: 41 which were diagnosed clinically and at operation as cases of ulcer, but in which histological examination showed incipient cancer. Group II: 55 diagnosed clinically as cases of ulcer, but in which a diagnosis of ulcer-carcinoma was made during operation and afterwards histologically confirmed. Group III: 45 diagnosed both clinically and macroscopically (from the typical folding of the mucous membrane) as cases of ulcer-cancer, in which the cancer had entirely overgrown the ulcer. Therefore in the series of 532 resections for gastric ulcer the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma was 20.9%, or 15.2% if the third group is omitted. In a series of 718 resections for gastric cancer, the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma was 19.6% (or 14.2% if the third group is omitted). The mortality in simple two-third resection of the stomach is low (four deaths in 99 cases = 4%). When the pancreas, liver, colon, or œsophagus, is involved, the resection mortality is high (14 deaths in 42 cases = 33.3%), but even in these cases the operation is justifiable because permanent cures were achieved in a number of cases. The prognosis in cases of ulcer-cancer is very grave. In many cases, judging from the author's own experience, patients suffering from incipient ulcer-cancer—only histologically diagnosed as cancer—die from liver metastases, in spite of radical resection. It will thus be seen that the end-results of resection for ulcer-carcinoma are actually worse than those of resection for primary carcinoma. A. Ulcer-cancer: In Group I, 35 cases were operated on before 1933, and in 18 of these (51.4%) the patients have been free from symptoms for more than five years; in Group II, 27 cases were operated on before 1933, and in four of these (14.8%) the patients are still symptom-free. In Group III, out of 37 cases operated on, only two patients (5.4%) have been symptom-free for the same period. B. Primary cancer: Out of 260 cases of resection for primary cancer before 1933, 77 patients (29.6%) are permanently cured. If the ulcer-cancer is so far advanced that the diagnosis can be made clinically, or during operation, the prognosis is extremely bad (permanent cures having been only 9.3% in the series). In cases of gastric ulcer the best plan is to carry out resection before malignant degeneration begins. The result would then be that not merely 51% but at least 90% of the patients would be alive and well after five years. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2

Finsterer, H.



Thick legs - not always lipedema.  


Due to its increased presence in the press and on television, the diagnosis of lipedema is on the way to becoming a trendy diagnosis for those with thick legs. Despite this, one must recognize that lipedema is a very rare disease. It is characterized by disproportional obesity of the extremities, especially in the region of the hip and the legs, hematoma development after minimal trauma, and increased pressure-induced or spontaneous pain. Aids for making the correct diagnosis are (duplex) sonography, the waist-hip index or the waist-height index and lymphoscintigraphy. Important differential diagnoses are constitutional variability of the legs, lipohypertrophy in obesity, edema in immobility, edema in chronic venous insufficiency and rheumatic diseases. The symptom-based therapy of lipedema consists of conservative (compression, manual lymphatic drainage, exercise) and surgical treatments (liposuction). Until now there is no curative therapy. Obesity is an important risk factor for the severity and prognosis of lipedema. Further studies for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of lipedema and in the end possible curative treatments are urgently needed. PMID:23231593

Reich-Schupke, Stefanie; Altmeyer, Peter; Stücker, Markus



Postoperative Pneumoperitoneum: An Unusual Etiology  

PubMed Central

Although postoperative pneumoperitoneum is a common finding, it is particularly disturbing when there is an increase in the amount of postoperative pneumoperitoneum or when the radiographic finding of pneumoperitoneum is accompanied by such physical findings as increased abdominal tenderness, peritoneal signs or paralytic ileus. Four patients operated upon at the Mount Sinai Hospital are presented. All patients underwent abdominal surgery for treatment of some form of inflammatory bowel disease and all were receiving systemic corticosteroids in the postoperative period. Abdominal findings of tenderness, ileus and peritoneal irritation developed shortly after the removal of Penrose drains in the postoperative period. Pneumoperitoneum was confirmed by abdominal roentgenographs. The first patient in this group underwent a laparotomy with essentially negative findings other than a freely open drain tract. The subsequent three patients were managed by close observation and frequent abdominal radiographs. These three patients had contrast roentgenographic studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract to rule out perforation of a peptic ulcer, and in the patient upon whom reservoir ileostomy had been performed, a contrast study of the reservoir was performed. All patients recovered fully with this management and there were no sequelae. The mechanism for the appearance of pneumoperitoneum after removal of drains, particularly when the patient is receiving systemic corticosteroids, is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the need to consider and rule out perforation of a hollow viscus in this situation before accepting drain removal as the sole cause of post-operative pneumoperitoneum. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.

Tenembaum, Moises; Bauer, Joel J.; Gelernt, Irwin M.; Kreel, Isadore; Aufses, Arthur H.



Gastric Acid Secretion and Fasting Serum Gastrin in Patients with Duodenal Ulcer, Prepyloric Ulcer or Gastric Ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate whether prepyloric ulcer (PPU) could be classified as an intermediate ulcer type between duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric ulcer (GU), fasting serum gastrin as well as basal and pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion were studied. The fasting serum gastrin values in the three groups were not significantly different. Patients with PPU and DU showed a higher basal acid

H. Stødkilde-Jørgensen; N. A. Løvgreen; J. Ørnsholt; E. Amdrup



Static one-legged balance in soccer players during use of a lifted leg.  


The goal was to describe static one-legged balance during use of a lifted leg and to compare balance between the dominant and nondominant legs of soccer players. Participants were 17 male soccer players and 17 untrained male students (control). Balance ability was evaluated with four sway measures: sway velocity, anterior-posterior sway, medial-lateral sway, and high-frequency sway. Soccer players had smaller magnitude mean anterior-posterior and medial-lateral sway than untrained students. Although mean sway velocity and anterior-posterior sway were higher with the dominant leg than in the nondominant leg of the control group, there was no significant difference on any sway factor between the two legs of the soccer group. In conclusion, the soccer players were observed to have superior static one-legged balance during use of a lifted leg, and there is no difference in balance for the two legs in the soccer group. PMID:21058597

Matsuda, Shigeki; Demura, Shinichi; Nagasawa, Yoshinori



The pathophysiology of stress ulcer disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress ulcers are superficial mucosal lesions located predominantly in the fundus of the stomach. They occur mainly in the victims of severe trauma and sepsis and are to be clearly distinguished from Cushing's ulcers, ulcers induced by drugs and from activation of a preexistent ulcer. It is generally agreed that mucosal ischemia is the major inciting event in the pathogenesis

William Silen; Aryeh Merhav; Jay N. L. Simson



Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all peptic ulcers are caused by either Helicobacter pylori infection or non-steroidal inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, including aspirin. As H. pylori infection is becoming less prevalent in developed countries, NSAIDs are an increasingly important cause of ulceration, particularly ulcers complicated by bleeding. Only about 15% of H. pylori-infected people develop an ulcer in their lifetime; virulence of the H.

Debabrata Majumdar; James Bebb; John Atherton



A clinical microbiological study of corneal ulcer patients at western Gujarat, India.  


Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40%) patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26%) corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14%) corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%)), followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%)), and blunt trauma (3, (11%)). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%)), followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%)). Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy. PMID:23852845

Somabhai Katara, Rajesh; Dhanjibhai Patel, Nilesh; Sinha, Mala



Ulcerative Colitis: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic ulcerative colitis primarily affects young adults. Colonic symptoms are the most annoying. In severe colitis, systemic and extraintestinal inflammatory manifestations can be disabling. Proximal extension of colitis is demonstrated by double-contrast barium enema and total colonoscopy. Bacterial and parasitic colitis must be excluded by appropriate microbiological studies. Colonoscopy is recommended to screen for high-grade dysplasia or neoplasia in cases of chronic diffuse colitis (after seven years). Severe colitis can benefit from hospitalization, parenteral nutritional support, and high doses of corticosteroids that are progressively tapered. Mild or moderate cases or severe cases in remission respond well to rest, low-irritant diets, mild symptomatic medication, oral sulfasalazine, or more recent 5-acetylsalicylic derivatives. Long-term maintenance with reduced dosages will control more than 80% of cases.

Archambault, Andre



Stress ulcer bleeding.  


Although upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) in critically ill patients is common, significant bleeding with hemodynamic instability is not. Risk factor assessment can assist in identifying patients with a greater likelihood of developing significant SRMD. Prophylaxis against stress ulcer bleeding with luminal agents (eg, antacids and sucralfate) or drugs that inhibit acid secretion (eg, histamine 2-receptor antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors) can reduce major bleeding but has little or no effect on mortality. Currently, the mainstays of prophylactic therapy for SRMD are intravenously administered H2RAs and PPIs. Wider usage of PPIs reflects their enhanced efficacy in suppressing acid secretion as well as lack of tolerance for H2RAs. Guidelines for the prophylactic use of H2RAs or PPIs in treatment of SRMD will require large, randomized studies that also examine cost effectiveness of individual strategies. PMID:16539876

Harty, Richard F; Ancha, Hari B



Induction of Skin Ulcers in Atlantic Menhaden by Injection and Aqueous Exposure to the Zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infectivity and role of Aphanomyces invadansin the etiology of skin ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus were investigated with two laboratory challenges. In the first experiment, Atlantic menhaden received subcutaneous injections with secondary zoospores from one of three cultures of Aphanomyces: WIC (an endemic isolate of A. invadans in Atlantic menhaden from the Wicomico River, Maryland), PA7 (an isolate

Yasunari Kiryu; Jeffrey D. Shields; Wolfgang K. Vogelbein; David E. Zwerner; Howard Kator; Vicki S. Blazer



Induction of Skin Ulcers in Atlantic Menhaden by Injection and Aqueous Exposure to the Zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infectivity and role of Aphanomyces invadans in the etiology of skin ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus were investigated with two laboratory challenges. In the first experiment, Atlantic menhaden received subcutaneous injections with secondary zoospores from one of three cultures of Aphanomyces: WIC (an endemic isolate of A. invadans in Atlantic menhaden from the Wicomico River, Maryland), PA7 (an

Yasunari Kiryu; Jeffrey D. Shields; Wolfgang K. Vogelbein; David E. Zwerner; Howard Kator; Vicki S. Blazer



[Gastroduodenal peptic ulcer and height].  


763 patients from the "Honorio Delgado" Regional Hospital of Arequipa city (2300 mts ht) are studied, all suffering of gastroduodenal peptic ulcer disease. A comparison between the principal clinical feactures of patients coming from the Coast and the Hights, is done. It is concluded that in patients from the Hights ulcer disease has an earlier beginning (third decade), clinical features are atypical; the incidence of complications are higher (59%) mainly hemorrhagic ones (53%); the occurrence of gastric ulcer is also higher (DU/GU = 2.5/1 against 5/1 seen in patients from the Coast) and mortality rate is greater (2.0%). PMID:2131004

Estremadoyro, O; Portugal, A; Estremadoyro, L



Clinical management of pressure ulcers.  


Pressure ulcers are chronic and difficult to heal. Pressure-reducing devices are clearly superior to a standard hospital mattress in preventing pressure ulcers, but only limited evidence and clinical intuition supports pressure-reducing devices in improving the healing rate of pressure ulcers. Local wound treatment should aim at maintaining a moist wound environment. The choice of a particular dressing depends on wound characteristics, such as the amount of exudate, dead space, or wound location. Nutritional status should be addressed as a process of good care. Debridement may improve time to a clean wound bed, but no clearly superior approach has been demonstrated. PMID:23571035

Thomas, David R



Treatment of refractory venous stasis ulcers with autologous platelet-rich plasma and light-emitting diodes: a pilot study.  


Background: Stasis dermatitis with secondary ulcer formation is not only therapeutically challenging but also significantly decreases the quality of life for affected individuals. Recently, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has entered the therapeutic regimen for leg ulcers, while light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now used to accelerate wound healing. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of autologous PRP with concomitant LED therapy for the treatment of venous stasis dermatitis with secondary ulceration. Methods and materials: In total, 16 Korean patients with ulcers secondary to venous stasis dermatitis were enrolled in this study. Each lesion was treated with autologous PRP weakly, and LED therapy three times per week. Treatments continued for 6 weeks or until the ulcer completely reepithelialized without evidence of drainage. Not only were subjects objectively evaluated by a study investigator, their own subjective satisfaction was also assessed. Results: The combined autologous PRP and LED therapy was well tolerated and safe. A statistically significant improvement was observed post-therapeutically in the clinical parameters of pain, itching, heaviness, paresthesia, cramps, and leg swelling. There was also a significant decrease in ulcer size. None of the patients showed worsening of their venous stasis ulcer. Regarding subject satisfaction with the regimen, 75.0% of participants reported being 'satisfied or very satisfied' with their overall improvement after treatment. No significant adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: Combined autologous PRP and LED therapy is a promising conservative combination regimen for treating recalcitrant ulcerating stasis dermatitis. Additional studies comparing combined autologous PRP and LED therapy directly with autologous PRP or LED monotherapies are needed to confirm the results reported here. PMID:23738854

Park, Kui Young; Kim, In Su; Yeo, In Kwon; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam



A fundamental mechanism of legged locomotion with hip torque and leg damping.  


New models and theories of legged locomotion are needed to better explain and predict the robustly stable legged locomotion of animals and some bio-inspired robots. In this paper we observe that a hip-torque and leg-damping mechanism is fundamental to many legged robots and some animals and determine its affect on locomotion dynamics. We discuss why this hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism is not so easily understood. We investigate how hip-torque and leg-damping affect the stability and robustness of locomotion using a mathematical model: First, we extend the canonical spring-loaded-inverted-pendulum model to include constant hip torque and leg damping proportional to leg length speed. Then, we calculate the stability and robustness of locomotion as a function of increasing levels of torque and damping, starting from zero-the energy conserving and marginally stable special case-to high levels of torque and damping. We find that the stabilizing effects of hip-torque and leg-damping occur in the context of the piecewise-continuous dynamics of legged locomotion, and so linear intuition does not apply. We discover that adding hip torque and leg damping changes the stability of legged locomotion in an unexpected way. When a small amount of torque and damping are added, legged locomotion is initially destabilized. As more torque and damping are added, legged locomotion turns stable and becomes increasingly more stable and more robust the more torque and damping are added. Also, stable locomotion becomes more probable over the biologically-relevant region of the parameter space, indicating greater prediction and explanatory capabilities of the model. These results provide a more clear understanding of the hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism of legged locomotion, and extend existing theory of legged locomotion towards a greater understanding of robustly stable locomotion. PMID:22989956

Shen, Z H; Seipel, J E



Total colectomy, mucosal proctectomy, and an ileal reservoir to an anal anastomosis. A comparison of short and long efferent legs.  


In a consecutive series of 46 possible candidates for total colectomy, mucosal proctectomy, and ileal reservoir to an anal anastomosis, we have compared the clinical outcome of group I, with a long efferent leg (12 cm), and group II, with a short efferent leg (3-5 cm). The surgical procedure was done in three steps: first, a total colectomy; second, mucosal proctectomy and construction of an 'S-shaped' ileal reservoir with a temporary loop ileostomy; and, third, closing of the ileostomy. Nine patients with a long efferent leg and eight patients with a short leg were observed for 2-51 months with a functioning ileal reservoir. The overall mortality was zero. The results showed that the short efferent leg was important for low fecal urgency, spontaneous evacuation of stools, minimal soiling, independence of reservoir catheterization, and use of antidiarrheal drugs. The length of the efferent leg did not influence the function of the anal sphincter itself. The postoperative sexual life was unchanged, and all patients in group II had a better resocialization than those in group I. The selection of candidates for ileal reservoir operations from among patients with ulcerative colitis or familiar polyposis is most important because of a relatively long postoperative course and high incidence of surgical complications. PMID:4089520

Hansen, L K; Olsen, P R; Simonsen, L



Spike: A Six Legged Cube Style Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a six legged cube based robot named ‘Spike’, which uses three axes of symmetry with a collinear pair\\u000a of legs mounted on each axis. Spike is designed to implement a novel form of locomotion which uses a tilting and falling motion\\u000a as a result of leg movements to form its gait. Due to the triangular symmetry inherent

Christopher Coyte; Mark Beckerleg; John Collins



Chemical etiology of nucleic acid structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of potentially natural nucleic acid alternatives and comparison of some of their chemical properties with those of RNA and DNA have led to findings that we consider to be relevant in the context of a chemical etiology of nucleic acid structure. Chemical etiology of nucleic acid structure refers to systematic experimental studies aimed at narrowing the diversity of

A. Eschenmoser; R. Krishnamurthy



Etiology and Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relevant studies on the etiology and pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been reviewed. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection and food aflatoxin B1 contamination have been identified as the major and possibly synergistic risk factors for HCC in endemic areas. Chronic hepatitis C virus is also an important risk factor. Cirrhosis of any etiology, particularly viral and alcoholic, is an

Sun-Lung Tsai; Yun-Fan Liaw



Etiology and diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing a biliary etiology in acute pancreatitis is clinically important because of the potential need for invasive treatment, such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The etiology of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is multifactorial and complex. Passage of small gallbladder stones or biliary sludge through the ampulla of Vater seems to be important in the pathogenesis of ABP. Other factors, such as

Donald L. van der Peet; Pranav Bhagirath; Chris J. J. Mulder; Marco J. Bruno; Erwin J. M. van Geenen



Uvular ulceration following transoesophageal echocardiography  

PubMed Central

This report describes two episodes of significant uvular and oropharyngeal ulceration occurring during routine transoesophageal echocardiographic examination of the heart while intubated under general anaesthesia. Both patients were young and healthy and underwent anaesthesia without compromise, but experienced significant morbidity as a result of the ulceration. Uvular and oropharyngeal ulceration has been described following endoscopy and intubation, but there are few reports of ulceration following transoesophageal echocardiography. Operator skill is often a factor. Physical trauma and local ischaemia may play a role in aetiology. Patients experiencing sore throat following the procedure should be examined and observed in case of potentially fatal complications of airway compromise or uvular necrosis and infection. Particular care is required in patients undergoing day case procedures, as early discharge may lead to complications while the patient is at home.

Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Crean, Andrew; Li, Wei; Swan, Lorna



[Nursing care of pressure ulcers].  


The definition of a pressure ulcer remains very academic. It results from tissue necrosis following ischemia through prolonged arteriolar constriction between two hard surfaces progressing in stages. The nursing care and the use of dressings are therefore adapted to each stage. Today, the treatment of pressure ulcers is complex due to the large number of categories of dressings available. Moreover, the choice of the dressing must take into account the specificities of elderly patients. However, certain basic principles remain essential. PMID:23785859

Hautin, Pascale


The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.


Prediction of lamb carcass leg and loin weights using leg score and width measures.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lamb carcass leg score (LS; 1 = low cull to 15 = high prime) is a subjective indicator of carcass muscling. Our objective for this study was to compare LS, live leg width (LL), and carcass leg width (LW) as single predictors, and in combination with live (LWT) or carcass weight (CWT), of harvested ...


Time course of arousal response during periodic leg movements in patients with periodic leg movements and restless legs syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The temporal evolution of periodic leg movements (PLM) and the relationship of their arousing effect on sleep episode has not been extensively investigated. We studied the nocturnal evolution of PLM associated or not with microarousal (MA) and associated with slow wave activity (PLM with slow wave activity) in 23 patients with PLM and\\/or restless legs syndrome (RLS).Methods: All subjects

Emilia Sforza; Christophe Jouny; Vincent Ibanez



Running on four legs as though they were one  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple locomotion algorithms provide balance for machines that run on one leg. The generalization of these one-leg algorithms for control of machines with several legs is explored. The generalization is quite simple when muitilegged systems run with gaits that use the support legs one at a time. For these gaits the one-leg algorithms can be used to control multilegged running.

M. H. Raibert; M. Chepponis



Fulminant ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Fulminant ulcerative colitis necessitates immediate hospitalization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Supportive therapy such as aggressive rehydration, restriction of oral intake, and consideration of parenteral nutrition should\\u000a be initiated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a High-dose intravenous steroids should be started in almost all cases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Antibiotics and cyclosporine should be considered, especially in disease refractory to steroid therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Indications for surgery should always be

Clarence K. W. Wong; B. R. Yacyshyn



A case of toxic megacolon in ulcerative colitis associated with cytomegalovirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, which has been shown to complicate the course of ulcerative colitis (UC), has been implicated\\u000a as a possible etiologic factor in the exacerbation of UC, especially in toxic megacolon. However, CMV infection in patients\\u000a with UC accompanied by toxic megacolon has rarely been reported. Here we report a case of CMV infection of the colon accompanied\\u000a by

Hitoshi Kotanagi; Takemi Fukuoka; Yutaka Shibata; Toshiaki Yoshioka; Osamu Aizawa; Yuri Saito; Kenji Koyama; Michiro Otaka; Mitsuro Chiba; Masahiro Saito



Radiation Processed Amniotic Membranes in the Treatment of Non-Healing Ulcers of Different Etiologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amniotic membranes were collected from the placentae of selected and screened donors. Processing was done by washing the fresh amniotic membrane successively in sterile saline, 0.05% sodium hypochlorite solution and sterile distilled water until it was completely cleared of blood particles. The membranes were sterilized by gamma irradiation at 25 kGy. The processed amniotic membranes were applied to 50

Rita Singh; Sumita Purohit; Pallavi Gupta; Pawan Kumar; Ashok Kumar; M. P. Chacharkar; Dilip Kachhawa; B. C. Ghiya



Dynamic legged robots for rough terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Only about half the Earth's landmass is accessible to wheeled and tracked vehicles, yet people and animals can go almost everywhere on foot. Our goal is to harness the power of legs to create robot vehicles that can go where legged animals and people can go. These systems combine dynamic control systems, actuated mechanisms and a

M. Raibert



A new articulated leg for mobile robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to present a new mechanical scheme for a leg to be included in legged vehicles that simplifies the control actuations along the stride. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The scheme includes three four-bar links grouped in two mechanisms. The first one decouples the vertical and horizontal foot movements. The second one produces a constant horizontal foot velocity when

Antonio Gonzalez Rodriguez; Angel Gonzalez Rodriguez; Pierluigi Rea



Understanding Possible "Mimics" of Restless Legs Syndrome  


... diagnostic test to ensure a patient truly has restless legs syndrome (RLS). Primarily, diagnosis is based on patient reports. ... and Manage Your RLS Understanding Possible “Mimics” of Restless Legs Syndrome 16 NightWalkers Akathisia Akathisia is ...


Sleep Laboratory Diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysomnographic recordings and the Suggested Immobilization Test (SIT) are frequently used to support the clinical diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS). The present study evaluated the discriminant power of 5 different parameters: (1) index of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), (2) index of PLMS with an associated microarousal (PLMS-arousal), (3) index of PLM during nocturnal wakefulness (PLMW), (4) SIT

Martin Michaud; Jean Paquet; Gilles Lavigne; Alex Desautels; Jacques Montplaisir



Dynamic Legged Locomotion in Robots and Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better unders...

M. Raibert R. Playter R. Ringrose D. Bailey K. Leeser



The Reflex Mechanism of the Insect Leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Variations in the frequency of the motor discharges to the leg muscles of Periplaneta americana are followed in the intact animal under different types of sensory stimulation by electrical recording from the muscles.2. Two main reflexes are described: the depressor reflex, evoked by stimulation of the campaniform sensilla on the legs, and a levator response to touch on the

J. W. S. Pringle



Posture Control of 6Leg Walking Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a walking method and inclination control experiments of the new omni-directional walking robot, which has six legs and can move in any direction. The mechanism consists of a parallel link mechanism connecting the two frames with three linear actuators. Legs are attached to each frame. The relative position and angle of the two frames are selected arbitrarily

Toshio Fukuda; Yuji Adachi; Haruo Hoshino; Kazuhiro Kosuge; Isao Matsunaga; Fumihito Arai



Evidence-based management of ulcerative colitis.  


Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, the exact etiology of which remains unknown. The prevalence in the general population is around 0.25%, and the condition represents a considerable financial burden to the health service. The natural history of the condition is one of periods of remission, punctuated by relapses of disease activity. Medical therapy aims to minimise the frequency of these relapses, as well as the need for glucocorticosteroids, which have potentially deleterious effects. In those with acute severe disease, however, glucocorticosteroids are probably effective, as are infliximab and cyclosporine. In those with a mild to moderate flare of disease activity, oral or topical 5-ASAs, or in combination, are more effective than placebo for induction of remission. Doses of oral 5-ASAs in excess of 2g/day appear to lead to higher likelihood of successful remission. Once remission has been achieved, there is evidence to support the use of oral or topical 5-ASAs, and azathioprine to prevent relapse of disease activity. Again, doses of 5-ASA in excess of 2g/day are associated with a lower risk of relapse. Individuals with chronic relapsing and remitting disease activity are difficult to manage, and may require colectomy with ileal pouch anal anastamosis. Granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis could be of benefit in this setting, but most trials have been conducted in the Far East, so the efficacy in Western UC patients is unclear. PMID:22643593

Gracie, D J; Ford, A C



Multiple tendon ruptures of unknown etiology.  


Tendon ruptures are common findings in foot and ankle practice. The etiology of tendon ruptures tends to be multifactorial-usually due to a combination of trauma, effects of systemic diseases, adverse effects of medications, and obesity. We present an unusual case of right Achilles tendinitis, left Achilles tendon rupture, bilateral peroneus longus tendon rupture, and left peroneus brevis tendon rupture of unknown etiology. This case report highlights the need for research for other possible, lesser known etiologies of tendon pathology. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic, Level IV, Case Study. PMID:23966259

Axibal, Derek P; Anderson, John G



In vitro inhibition of Citrobacter freundii, a red-leg syndrome associated pathogen in raniculture, by indigenous Lactococcus lactis CRL 1584  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-leg syndrome (RLS) is one of the main infectious diseases that cause economic losses in Lithobates catesbeianus hatcheries, Citrobacter freundii being an etiological agent. Treatment or prevention with therapeutics or chemicals results in modifications of the indigenous microbiota, development of antibiotic resistance, presence of their residues in food and enhancement of production costs. Thus, probiotics could be used as an

Sergio E. Pasteris; Marcos G. Guidoli; María C. Otero; Marta I. Bühler; María E. Nader-Macías



Ketamine-Induced Stress Ulcers in the Rat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Restraint of rats in wire mesh for four hours produces ulcers histologically similar to human stress ulcers. Ketamine, alone, was incapable of producing ulcers. However, when given to rats prior to restraint, ketamine increased the incidence of ulcers fro...

D. H. Cheney S. Stogoff G. W. Allen



Healing of ulcers due to cryofibrinogenemia with colchicine and high-dose pentoxifylline.  


Cryofibrinogenemia is due to the presence of reversibly cold-precipitating plasma proteins and material, consisting mostly of fibrinogen, fibronectin, and fibrin. This condition can be idiopathic or secondary to infection, thromboembolic states, neoplasm, or connective tissue disease. The characteristic lesions of cryofibrinogenemia include purpura and ulcerations. Histologically, the lesions of cryofibrinogenemia demonstrate fibrin thrombi within vessels, with no evidence of vasculitis. Treatment of cryofibrinogenemia should be directed at the underlying disease process, if one can be found. Other treatments have included the anabolic steroid stanozolol, which is presently unavailable, anticoagulants, immunosuppressive agents, plasmapheresis, and the combination of streptokinase and streptodornase. We report a case of a 61-year-old male smoker with a 10-year history of intermittent ulcerations of both legs and feet. Two separate biopsies showed epidermal ulceration and thrombi within superficial dermal vessels without evidence of vasculitis. These findings, together with the presence of elevated plasma cryofibrinogen, led to the diagnosis of cryofibrinogenemia. The patient continued to have ulcerations despite efforts to control his high blood pressure, cold avoidance, local wound care, and treatment with pentoxifylline 800 mg three times daily. However, when colchicine 0.6 mg twice daily was added to the patient's care, this led to rapid healing of his ulcerations. He has remained ulcer free for 2 years taking the combination of colchicine and high-dose pentoxifylline. Efforts to reduce the dose of these agents have repeatedly led to recurrences, and remission has promptly followed re-establishment of the combination. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting use of the combination of colchicine and high-dose pentoxifylline to successfully treat ulcers due to cryofibrinogenemia. PMID:19170411

Chartier, Molly; Falanga, Vincent



Gait Planning Research for Biped Robot with Heterogeneous Legs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biped Robot with Heterogeneous Legs (BRHL) is a novel robot model, which consists of an artificial leg and an intelligent\\u000a bionic leg. The artificial leg is used to simulate the amputee’s healthy leg and the intelligent bionic leg works as the intelligent\\u000a artificial limb. This paper discusses how a BRHL robot imitates a person’s walking from the points of gait

Jun Xiao; Xing Song; Jie Su; Xinhe Xu



Genetics of ulcerative colitis.  


Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are related polygenic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), with distinct and overlapping susceptibility loci. Recently, hypothesis-free genome-wide association (GWA) studies have revolutionized the field of complex disease genetics. Substantial advances have been achieved in defining the genetic architecture of IBD. To date, over 60 published IBD susceptibility loci have been discovered and replicated, of which approximately a third are associated with both UC and CD, although 21 are specific to UC and 23 to CD. In CD, the breakthrough identification of NOD2 as a susceptibility gene was followed by a rapid phase of gene discovery from GWA studies between 2006 and 2008. Progress in UC was slower; however, by initially testing hits for CD in UC, and later scanning larger UC cohorts, significant new loci for UC have been discovered, with exciting novel insights into disease pathogenesis. Notably, genes implicated in mucosal barrier function (ECM1, CDH1, HNF4?, and laminin B1) confer risk of UC; furthermore, E-cadherin is the first genetic correlation between colorectal cancer and UC. Impaired IL10 signaling has reemerged as a key pathway in intestinal inflammation, and is perhaps the most amenable to therapeutic intervention in UC. Collaborative international efforts with large meta-analyses of GWA studies and replication will yield many new UC genes. Furthermore, a large effort is required to characterize the loci found. Fine-mapping, deep resequencing, and functional studies will be critical to translating these gene discoveries into pathogenic insights, and ultimately into clinical insights and novel therapeutics. PMID:21319274

Thompson, Alexandra I; Lees, Charlie W



Modelling of oedemous limbs and venous ulcers using partial differential equations  

PubMed Central

Background Oedema, commonly known as tissue swelling, occurs mainly on the leg and the arm. The condition may be associated with a range of causes such as venous diseases, trauma, infection, joint disease and orthopaedic surgery. Oedema is caused by both lymphatic and chronic venous insufficiency, which leads to pooling of blood and fluid in the extremities. This results in swelling, mild redness and scaling of the skin, all of which can culminate in ulceration. Methods We present a method to model a wide variety of geometries of limbs affected by oedema and venous ulcers. The shape modelling is based on the PDE method where a set of boundary curves are extracted from 3D scan data and are utilised as boundary conditions to solve a PDE, which provides the geometry of an affected limb. For this work we utilise a mixture of fourth order and sixth order PDEs, the solutions of which enable us to obtain a good representative shape of the limb and associated ulcers in question. Results A series of examples are discussed demonstrating the capability of the method to produce good representative shapes of limbs by utilising a series of curves extracted from the scan data. In particular we show how the method could be used to model the shape of an arm and a leg with an associated ulcer. Conclusion We show how PDE based shape modelling techniques can be utilised to generate a variety of limb shapes and associated ulcers by means of a series of curves extracted from scan data. We also discuss how the method could be used to manipulate a generic shape of a limb and an associated wound so that the model could be fine-tuned for a particular patient.

Ugail, Hassan; Wilson, Michael J



Neutral endopeptidase activity is increased in the skin of subjects with diabetic ulcers.  


Cutaneous sensory nerves mediate inflammation and wound healing by releasing neuropeptides, such as substance P, which stimulates pro-inflammatory responses by keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. The cell surface enzyme, neutral endopeptidase, degrades substance P, thereby regulating its biologic actions. We hypothesized that neutral endopeptidase enzymatic activity is increased in chronic wounds and skin from subjects with diabetes. We compared cutaneous neutral endopeptidase expression and enzymatic activity between normal controls and diabetic subjects with neuropathy and chronic wounds. Skin samples from subjects with diabetes were taken at the time of amputation for nonhealing ulcers. Skin taken from the ulcer margin, 1 cm from the ulcer (adjacent), and from the most proximal region of the amputated leg were studied. Skin biopsies from the leg of healthy control subjects were also studied. Neutral endopeptidase was localized by immunohistochemistry in all tissue sections. Neutral endopeptidase activity was measured using a fluorimetric assay. The median neutral endopeptidase activity of the ulcer margin was 1.21 x higher (p>0.2) than adjacent skin, 5.26 (p<0.001) than proximal skin, and 15.22 x higher (p<0.001) than control skin. Adjacent skin had a median neutral endopeptidase activity 4.34 x higher (p<0.001) than proximal skin and 12.58 x higher (p<0.001) than control skin. The median neutral endopeptidase activity of proximal skin was 2.90 x higher (p<0.001) than control skin. This elevated neutral endopeptidase activity in the skin and chronic ulcers of subjects with diabetes combined with peripheral neuropathy may contribute to deficient neuroinflammatory signaling and may impair wound healing in subjects with diabetes. PMID:12485446

Antezana, MarcosA; Sullivan, Stephen R; Usui, MarciaL; Gibran, NicoleS; Spenny, MichelleL; Larsen, JerrieA; Ansel, JohnC; Bunnett, NigelW; Olerud, JohnE



The Etiology of the Oral Character.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the etiology of the oral character, the link between oral personality traits and orality by means of two personality tests. Subjects were 275 men and 340 women of mean age 20 years. (CM)|

Kline, Paul; Storey, Ron



Update on Clubfoot: Etiology and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although clubfoot is one of the most common congenital abnormalities affecting the lower limb, it remains a challenge not\\u000a only to understand its genetic origins but also to provide effective long-term treatment. This review provides an update on\\u000a the etiology of clubfoot as well as current treatment strategies. Understanding the exact genetic etiology of clubfoot may\\u000a eventually be helpful in

Matthew B. Dobbs; Christina A. Gurnett



Early diagnosis is vital in the management of squamous cell carcinomas associated with chronic non healing ulcers: a case series and review of the literature.  


The association between chronic ulcers and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) is well established. Their clinical presentations, however, are varied, ranging from innocously appearing lesions to overtly exophytic growths. We present a series of cases with heterogeneous clinical presentations and different treatment outcomes. Case series - patient 1 was a 69-year-old man with an 18-month history of static non healing venous leg ulcer, but no sinister features, biopsy was performed to rule out Marjolin's transformation, histology revealed SCC and treatment was simple excision and skin grafting; patient 2 was a 73-year-old lady with an 18-month history of non healing ulcer (innocuous appearance) over distal interphalangeal joint of index finger, histology revealed SCC with deeper extension and treatment was amputation of distal half of finger; patient 3 was a 73-year-old lady with a 12-month history of non healing fungating leg ulcer with irregular borders and everted edges, histology revealed SCC (tumour eroding tibia and distant metastasis) and treatment was above-knee amputation, radiotherapy and palliation. Whilst SCC is amenable to simple excision in the early stages, delay in diagnosis could result in loss of the affected digit or limb; an SCC which has metastasised is also life threatening. Therefore, a low threshold to biopsy static non healing ulcers or ulcers in unusual sites should be adopted even in those not manifesting any evidence of malignancy. PMID:16722875

Enoch, Stuart; Miller, David R; Price, Patricia E; Harding, Keith G



Review of Duodenal and Gastric Ulcer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Duodenal and gastric ulcer are chronic often recurring conditions that in the past were grouped together as peptic ulcer. Many diverse environmental and genetic factors, which create an imbalance between secretion of acid and pepsin by by the stomach and ...

F. C. Garland E. D. Gorham



Pressure ulcers - what to ask your doctor  


Pressure ulcers are also called bedsores, or pressure sores. They can form when your skin and soft tissue press ... damaged or die. When this happens, a pressure ulcer may form. Below are some questions you may ...


Ulcer disease after gastric bypass surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe mechanism of marginal ulceration after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery is poorly understood. We reviewed the incidence, presentation, and outcome of ulcer disease in consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.

Ramsey M. Dallal; Linda A. Bailey



[Acute and chronic anal ulcers].  


Classic types of anal ulcers are acute and chronic anal fissure. Characteristic symptoms of chronic fissures are severe pain during defecation accompanied by the triad of ulceration, hypertrophic anal papilla and external skin tag. If the symptoms deviate other causes of ulceration must be considered. Primarily, malignancies should be excluded. The special setting in the anal fold, especially with concurrent immunosuppression, could lead to nonspecific manifestations of different proctological, dermatological and infectious diseases, which can only be clarified by further diagnostic workup and histopathology. Only the correct diagnosis will lead to causal and effective therapy. Successfully treated inflammatory dermatoses and precancerous lesions require regular follow-up because a recurrent or persistent course of the disease may result in malignant transformation. PMID:19997893

Weyandt, G H



Nonhealing Ulcer: Acroangiodermatitis of Mali  

PubMed Central

An 18-year-old male presented with a nonhealing wound on left lower limb, pain and swelling over multiple joints, weight loss, and yellowish discoloration of eyes and urine for the past 4 years. On examination, the patient had pallor, icterus, and generalized lymphadenopathy with a nonhealing unhealthy ulcer over left medial malleolus. He had deformed joints with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. His laboratory investigations were positive for antinuclear antibody (ANA) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACLA). Synovial fluid analysis showed inflammatory findings. Biopsy of margin of the ulcer showed findings consistent with Acroangiodermatitis of Mali. The patient was treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and aspirin for juvenile idiopathic arthritis and secondary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), respectively. The ulcer was managed conservatively with systemic antibiotics and topical steroids along with limb elevation and compression elastic stockings. The patient's symptoms improved significantly, and he is in our followup.

Varyani, Neeraj; Thukral, Anubhav; Kumar, Nilesh; Gupta, Kailash Kumar; Tandon, Ravi; Tripathi, Kamlakar



Inhibition of angiogenesis in lipodermatosclerosis: implication for venous ulcer formation.  


Lipodermatosclerosis refers to skin induration of the lower extremities characterized by tortuous, hyperpermeable vessels preceding venous leg ulcerations. Protein ligands and receptor tyrosine kinases that specifically regulate endothelial cell function are mainly involved in physiological as well as in disease-related angiogenesis. These ligand/receptor systems include the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the angiopoietin (Ang) families and their receptor the tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like domains (Tie-2) as well as the VEGF receptor family (VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2). In the present study, the contribution of these endothelium-specific ligand/receptor systems in tissue samples of lipodermatosclerosis was evaluated. Our results provide evidence, that the mRNA-transcripts of VEGF (p<0.01), Ang-1 (p<0.1), Ang-2 (p<0.1) and VEGF-R1 (p<0.01) were significantly upregulated in all samples of lipodermatosclerosis in comparison with healthy skin by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. On protein level VEGF (p<0.01), Ang-1 (p<0.1), Ang-2 (p<0.1) and VEGF-R1 (p<0.01) were significantly elevated as well. Solely for Tie-2 and for VEGF-R2 no statistical difference could be detected on mRNA and protein level in patients with lipodermatosclerosis in comparison with healthy skin. By immunohistochemistry we confirmed upregulated protein expression for VEGF, Ang-1, Ang-2 and VEGF-R1 compared with healthy skin. Our findings strongly suggest that an imbalance between these ligand/receptor systems might contribute to the pathophysiology of advanced stages of chronic venous insufficiency. Inhibition of angiogenesis could significantly impact the tissue breakdown in lipodermatosclerosis and could hereby enable the formation of venous leg ulcerations. PMID:19787198

Herouy, Yared; Kreis, Sebastian; Mueller, Tobias; Duerk, Thorsten; Martiny-Baron, Georg; Reusch, Petra; May, Florian; Idzko, Marco; Norgauer, Yohannes



Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all peptic ulcers are caused by either Helicobacter pylori infection or non-steroidal inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, including aspirin. As H. pylori infection is becoming less prevalent in developed countries, NSAIDs are an increasingly important cause of ulceration, particularly ulcers complicated by bleeding. Only about 15% of H. pylori-infected people develop an ulcer in their lifetime; virulence of the H. pylori

Debabrata Majumdar; James Bebb; John Atherton



Larval therapy applied to a large arterial ulcer: an effective outcome.  


This article is a review of larval therapy and includes a case study that uses larval therapy in the treatment of complex leg ulcer wounds. Complex wounds require careful management from the multidisciplinary team and present clinicians with intricate challenges to save the limb. Wound-bed preparation and debridement needs to be as effective and non-traumatic as possible for the patient. Larval therapy removes the devitalised tissue effectively with minimal tissue trauma. This case study reports on a patient with a non-progressing, full-thickness wound with exposed tendon following reconstructive surgery at a local vascular unit. The patient was left with very limited treatment options, as traditional dressings for the arterial ulcer nearly resulted in amputation due to the deterioration in the wound. As part of the patient's management, she was treated with larval therapy in an attempt to salvage her limb. This article follows the progress of complex leg ulcer wounds employing BioFoam® dressing (BioMonde, Bridgend) for larvae debridement therapy over a 4-week period and incorporating five applications of three BioFoam dressing bags. This care pathway ensured the patient's safety by promoting effective wound healing with the larval therapy leading to excellent clinical patient outcomes. PMID:23587971

Rafter, Linda


[Development of the "Whittener Activity Catalog of Self-Care in Venous Ulcer"].  


Poor rates of healing and high rates of re-ulceration are characteristic of venous leg ulcer. The performing of special health-deviation self-care is important for the successful treatment and prevention of this chronic disease. This study aimed to validate a newly designed instrument for the measurement of specific self-care. The "Wittener Aktivitätenkatalog der Selbstpflege bei venös bedingten offenen Beinen" (WAS-VOB) (a catalogue containing self-care activities for venous leg ulcer) was conceptualized on the basis of Orem's theory and on pathophysiological processes. The items were created by using patient interviews (n = 20) and a literature review. An analysis of the reliability was used to reduce the raw scale. The quality of the WAS-VOB was assessed for face-validity (n = 6), feasibility (n = 8), test-retest-reliability (n = 60) and the internal consistency (n = 234). The involvement of patients was based on an informed consent. The WAS-VOB is a self-describing instrument, includes 59 self-care activities and describes those in eight scales which deal with "general compression", "wearing compression bandages", "wearing compression hosiery", "mobility", "temperature", "overload of the venous system", "prevention of skin damage" and "wound healing". The WAS-VOB is practicable and has good psycho-metric characteristics. The test-retest-coefficient (Kendall's tau b) is 0.58, Cronbach's alpha 0.72. The instrument WAS-VOB is suitable for the assessment of self-care deficits. PMID:15040244

Panfil, Eva-Maria; Mayer, Herbert; Evers, Georges C



Intravenous Iron Given prior to Pregnancy for Restless Legs Syndrome is Associated with Remission of Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is more common during pregnancy than in the general population, occurring at a 2-3 times higher prevalence. While iron, genetics, and central nervous system dopamine have been shown to play major roles in RLS unrelated to pregnancy, the etiology and treatment of RLS during pregnancy have not been adequately delineated. We describe a novel approach where a 23-year-old female was given intravenous iron prior to pregnancy, with complete remission of RLS symptoms until five months postpartum. Factors other than iron status that may have influenced the course of remission and relapse were oral contraceptive use, antidepressant use, and a strong family history of RLS. Citation: Picchietti DL; Wang VC; Picchietti MA. Intravenous iron given prior to pregnancy for restless legs syndrome is associated with remission of symptoms. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):585-586.

Picchietti, Daniel L.; Wang, Victor C.; Picchietti, Matthew A.



Computed tomographic findings in penetrating peptic ulcer  

SciTech Connect

Four cases of peptic ulcer penetrating the head of the pancreas were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). Findings common to 3 cases included (a) an ulcer crater, (b) a sinus tract, and (c) enlargement of the head of the pancreas. Unlike other modalities, the inherent spatial resolution of CT allows a convenient diagnosis of this important complication of peptic ulcer disease.

Madrazo, B.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.



How effective is pressure ulcer prevention?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: How do we know when an intervention has altered the natural history of a developing pressure ulcer? Objectives: To determine the fate of 2574 pressure-ulcer free subjects admitted to hospitals in the UK and US. Method: Prospective observation of a cohort of hospital patients. Results: 108 subjects developed pressure ulcers. The incidence (among the high to very-high risk group),

Michael Clark


Preventing Decubitus Ulcers with Cotton Sheeting Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decubitus pressure ulcers are a worldwide health crisis and their prevention and treatment has become a national priority. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Board estimates that as many as three million people in the United States have pressure ulcers. The causes of the ailment include both extr...


Approach to skin ulcers in older patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with an approach to managing skin ulcers in older patients. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Clinical practice guidelines and best practice guidelines were summarized to describe an evidence-based approach. MAIN MESSAGE Preventing ulcers is important in frail older patients. Using guidelines can help prevent ulcers in institutions. Clarifying the cause and contributing factors is the fi rst

Christopher Frank



Practice Recommendations for Preventing Heel Pressure Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heels are the second most common anatomical location for pressure ulcers. A combination of risk factors, including pressure, may cause ulceration. Heel pressure ulcers are a particular concern for surgical patients. A review of the literature, including poster presentations, shows that controlled clinical studies to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of available interventions are not available. Case series (with or

Evonne Fowler; Suzy Scott-Williams; James B. McGuire


Gastric ulceration in an equine neonate.  


A 24-hour-old colt presented with clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration. Treatment was initiated with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist and clinical signs resolved. Gastroscopy at 16 d confirmed the presence of a gastric ulcer. Although gastric ulceration is common in foals, it is rarely reported in foals this young. PMID:12757136

Lewis, Susan



Evaluation of Pressure Ulcer Risk Variables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of patients admitted to an acute care facility with a pressure ulcer and to determine whether the Braden Scale accurately identifies patients with pressure ulcers as at-risk for ulcer development. T...

D. F. Williams



Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues  

SciTech Connect

With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

V. Munne



Molecular Assays for Detecting Aphanomyces invadans in Ulcerative Mycotic Fish Lesions  

PubMed Central

The pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is the primary etiological agent in ulcerative mycosis, an ulcerative skin disease caused by a fungus-like agent of wild and cultured fish. We developed sensitive PCR and fluorescent peptide nucleic acid in situ hybridization (FISH) assays to detect A. invadans. Laboratory-challenged killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were first tested to optimize and validate the assays. Skin ulcers of Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) from populations found in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries in North Carolina were then surveyed. Results from both assays indicated that all of the lesioned menhaden (n = 50) collected in September 2004 were positive for A. invadans. Neither the FISH assay nor the PCR assay cross-reacted with other closely related oomycetes. These results provided strong evidence that A. invadans is the primary oomycete pathogen in ulcerative mycosis and demonstrated the utility of the assays. The FISH assay is the first molecular assay to provide unambiguous visual confirmation that hyphae in the ulcerated lesions were exclusively A. invadans.

Vandersea, Mark W.; Litaker, R. Wayne; Yonnish, Bryan; Sosa, Emilio; Landsberg, Jan H.; Pullinger, Chris; Moon-Butzin, Paula; Green, Jason; Morris, James A.; Kator, Howard; Noga, Edward J.; Tester, Patricia A.



Postural stability during one-leg stance on an unstable moving platform and its relationship with each leg.  


This study examined the laterality of the supporting leg in postural stability during a one-leg stance test on an unstable moving platform and its practice effect. 30 male university students were evaluated using the omnidirection stability index (OSI) during a one-leg stance test on an unstable moving platform (three trials). The leg used when kicking a ball was defined as the manipulation leg (ML) and the supporting leg was defined as the non-manipulation leg (NML). According to the two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA; trials x legs), a statistically significant difference was observed only on the leg factor, and OSI values of the second and third trials were less for the ML than the NML. The correlation between both legs was statistically significant but not high. The ML was superior to NML with regard to stability, and no practice effect with trials was evident in either leg. PMID:24032330

Noguchi, Takanori; Demura, Shin-Ichi; Nakagawa, Tomoharu



Autonomous Legged Hill and Stairwell Ascent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper documents near-autonomous negotiation of synthetic and natural climbing terrain by a rugged legged robot,achieved through sequential composition of appropriate perceptually triggered locomotion primitives. The first, simple composition achieves...

A. M. Johnson D. E. Koditschek G. C. Haynes M. T. Hale



Treating restless legs syndrome with rotigotine.  


Restless legs syndrome has attracted increasing interest as a clinically significant, common and treatable disorder. Good evidence suggests that dopaminergic drugs are the most effective first-line agents when symptoms are severe. PMID:20393432

Reading, Paul



Poison ivy on the leg (image)  


This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...



PubMed Central

Forward propulsion is a central task of walking that depends on the generation of appropriate anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (AP GRFs). The AP impulse (i.e., time integral of the AP GRF) generated by the paretic relative to non-paretic leg is a quantitative measure of the paretic leg’s contribution to forward propulsion and is variable across hemiparetic subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of propulsion generation in hemiparetic walking by identifying the biomechanical predictors of AP impulses. Three-dimensional kinematics and GRFs were recorded from 51 hemiparetic and 21 age-matched control subjects walking at similar speeds on an instrumented treadmill. Hierarchical regression models were generated for each leg to predict the AP impulse from independent biomechanical variables. Leg extension was a significant predictor and positively related to the propulsive impulse in the paretic, non-paretic and control legs. Secondarily, the hip flexor impulse was negatively related to the propulsive impulse. Also, the relationship of paretic and non-paretic ankle moments with the propulsive impulse depended on the paretic step ratio, suggesting the plantar flexor contribution to the propulsive impulse depends on leg angle. These results suggest that increasing paretic leg extension will increase propulsion. Increasing paretic leg plantar flexor output and decreasing paretic leg hip flexor output could also increase paretic leg propulsion. While increased pre-swing hip flexor output has been suggested to compensate for decreased plantar flexor output, such output may further impair propulsion by the paretic leg if it occurs too soon in the gait cycle.

Peterson, Carrie L.; Cheng, Jing; Kautz, Steven A.; Neptune, Richard R.



Treatment by athermal laser of the diabetic leg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work shows the result obtained in the medical clinic of the `Dr. I. Cantacuzino Hospital' on a lot of 43 diabetic patients using the `LASSIS' devices composed of a He-Ne laser and 4 semiconductor lasers. The 43 patients showed various clinic pictures of a diabetic leg (diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy) 16 of the lot showed an arteriopathy with claudication and a decrease of pulses oscillometrically measurements, 15 had ulceration and a beginning of gangrene and the other 12 showed a plantary boring ill. There has been achieved an amelioration of the oscillometric index of the claudication while walking the amelioration of local circulation, together with the limitation of the necrosis. For the boring ill, there has been achieved the acceleration of the granulating and epithelization process avoiding surgeries, suppuration and cutaneous plasties. The response to the laser treatment was compared to the response to the classic treatment (vasodilatation surgery unstrapping, antibiotherapy) on a proving lot. We appreciated that the cicatrization and local vasodilatation with athermal laser treatment should be a hope for the treatment of patients suffering of diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy.

Ignat, P.; Suteanu, S.; Brojbeanu, Gabriela; Vasiliu, Virgil



Standard Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic, chronic inflammation of the colon which may present with a range of mild to severe symptoms. The disease may be localized to the rectum or can be more extensive and involve the left side of the colon or the whole colon. Treatment in UC is directed towards inducing and maintaining remission of symptoms and

Paolo Gionchetti; Fernando Rizzello; Flavio Habal; Claudia Morselli; Cristina Amadini; Rossella Romagnoli; Massimo Campieri



Reaginic hypersensitivity in ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaginic hypersensitivity in ulcerative colitis has been investigated in respect of a hypersensitivity to the cow's milk proteins and the frequency of atopic asthma, hay fever, and eczema. Intradermal tests were frequently positive, especially to casein, but the results did not differ from those found in healthy individuals and in groups of patients with Crohn's disease, hypolactasia, and the irritable

D. P. Jewell; S. C. Truelove



Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Repositioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repositioning is an effective way to prevent pressure ulcers, but it must be combined with sitting and lying positions in\\u000a which the pressure is as low as possible. There are many opinions but little actual research on the frequency of position\\u000a changes.

Tom Defloor; Katrien Vanderwee; Doris Wilborn; Theo Dassen


Restless legs syndrome augmentation and pramipexole treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate in an open-label clinical series the occurrence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) augmentation in 60 consecutive RLS patients treated with pramipexole (PPX) for at least 6 months.Background: In patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS), augmentation is most commonly seen with long-term use of levodopa and pergolide.Method: Open-label clinical series in 60 consecutive RLS patients treated with PPX

L Ferini-Strambi



Experimental ulcerative disease of the colon.  


The oral administration to guinea-pigs of an aqueous solution of carrageenan derived from the red seaweed, Eucheuma spinosum, provides a useful, readily available experimental model for the study of ulcerative disease of the colon. Two types of ulcerative disease can be produced within a 4-6 week period, viz., ulceration localised mainly to the caecum by using 1% undegraded carrageenan in the drinking fluid, and extensive ulceration involving caecum, colon, and rectum by using 5% degraded carrageenan. Ulceration is probably due to the local action of carrageenan in the bowel. PMID:1202321

Watt, J; Marcus, R



Pressure ulcer prevention in the community setting.  


Pressure ulcers are associated with reduced quality of life, affecting individuals physically, socially and emotionally. The financial cost to the NHS of preventing and treating such ulcers is substantial. Although largely preventable, pressure ulcers are still common. The Department of Health is committed to eliminating all avoidable pressure ulcers in NHS-provided care. This article explores methods of preventing pressure ulcers, with particular focus on risk assessment, skin inspection, pressure-relieving measures, nutrition and hydration, and patient and carer education. PMID:24044860

Jones, Donna



EBV+ cutaneous B-cell lymphoproliferation of the leg in an elderly patient with mycosis fungoides and methotrexate treatment.  


A 77-year-old man with a 5-year history of mycosis fungoides (MF) who had received several lines of therapy, including intravenous courses of Methotrexate (MTX) for the past 2 years, went on to develop several ulcerated cutaneous nodules on the left leg. Biopsy revealed diffuse sheets of EBV-positive large B cells (CD20+ CD30 ± IgM Lambda), with an angiocentric distribution and a monoclonal IGH gene rearrangement. Although the pathological features were diagnostic for an EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), several possibilities could be considered for assignment to a specific entity: EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly, methotrexate-induced lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD), lymphomatoid granulomatosis, or the more recently described EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer. The development of EBV+ lymphoproliferations has been reported in two other patients with MF under MTX, and occurred as skin lesions of the leg in one of these and in the current case, which may question the relatedness to primary cutaneous DLCBL, leg-type. PMID:23031074

Rausch, Thierry; Cairoli, Anne; Benhattar, Jean; Spring, Philipp; Hohl, Daniel; de Leval, Laurence



Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.  

SciTech Connect

The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

Hayward, David R.



Pathogenicity studies with the fungi Aphanomyces invadans, Achlya bisexualis, and Phialemonium dimorphosporum: induction of skin ulcers in striped mullet.  


Based on isolations from naturally infected fish in Florida, we investigated the role of the fungi Aphanomyces invadans, Achlya bisexualis, and Phialemonium dimorphosporum in the etiology of ulcerative mycosis (UM) in striped mullet Mugil cephalus. We injected healthy striped mullet subcutaneously with secondary zoospores of four oomycete isolates: two concentrations (50 and 115 zoospores/mL) of SJR (an endemic isolate of Aphanomyces invadans in American shad Alosa sapidissima from the St. Johns River); two concentrations each of CAL (25 and 65 zoospores/mL) and ACH (1,400 and 2,000 zoospores/mL; endemic isolates of Aphanomyces invadans and Achlyva bisexualis, respectively, in striped mullet from the Caloosahatchee River); and two concentrations of the ascomycete culture MTZ (2,500 and 3,500 zoospores/mL; endemic isolate of P. dimorphosporum from whirligig mullet M. gyrans in the Matanzas Inlet). All fish injected with either concentration of SJR developed granulomatous ulcers after 8 d and died within 21 d. Eighty percent (8/10) of fish injected with the high dose of CAL developed ulcers after 13 d and died within 28 d, but only 30% (3/10) of fish injected with the low dose of CAL developed ulcers. Four of the ulcerated fish died within 28 d, and the remaining fish were terminated after 32 d. Fish injected with zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans developed ulcers that were grossly and histologically similar to those observed in naturally infected striped mullet with UM from several estuaries or rivers in Florida. These hemorrhagic skin ulcers were characterized by myonecrosis and the presence of mycotic granulomas. None of the fish injected with ACH, MTZ, or sterile water developed ulcers. This study fulfilled Koch's postulates and demonstrated that ulcers could be experimentally induced in striped mullet after exposure via injection to secondary zoospores of an endemic Florida strain of Aphanomyces invadans. PMID:18236631

Sosa, Emilio R; Landsberg, Jan H; Kiryu, Yasunari; Stephenson, Christy M; Cody, Theresa T; Dukeman, Angela K; Wolfe, Heather P; Vandersea, Mark W; Litaker, R Wayne




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) (Clupeidae), observed along the USA East Coast have been attributed to diverse etiologies including bacterial, fungal, and recently, harmful algal blooms. To understand the early pathogenesis of these lesions, we examined juvenile Atlantic m...


Etiology of hypertension in children and adolescents.  


While most hypertension in children has been previously considered secondary to renal, cardiovascular or endocrine etiology, a substantial number of children aged 6 to 20 years are now diagnosed with primary or essential hypertension. Hypertension in children and adolescents seems to be increasing over the past two decades. This is attributed at least in part to an increased prevalence of overweight in this population. Essential hypertension in childhood is a diagnosis arrived at by excluding the known causes of secondary hypertension. This paper will discuss the etiology of hypertension in children and adolescents. PMID:21462842

Sanjad, Sami A


Cloverleaf skulls: etiologic heterogeneity and pathogenetic variability.  


Cloverleaf skulls (Kleeblattschädel-Syndromen, trilobular skulls) have different modes of development (pathogenetic variability). Synostosis may involve various sutures in different types of cloverleaf skulls. Their facial features, radiographic findings, and CNS anomalies are also reviewed. Different causes of cloverleaf skulls have been identified (etiologic heterogeneity). One table lists 26 different conditions with trilobular skulls identified under various etiologic headings: monogenic, chromosomal, disruptive, iatrogenic, and distinctive conditions of unknown cause. Discussed in detail are type 2 thanatophoric dysplasia, type 2 Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, amniotic bands, Say-Poznanski syndrome, and COH syndrome. Another table summarizes the relative frequencies of the cloverleaf skull syndromes. PMID:19293681

Cohen, M Michael



[An uncommon etiology of anemia: copper deficiency].  


A 58-year-old patient, without any notable medical history, except for alcoholism and treated hypertension, developed anemia and leukopenia with macrocytosis. Folate deficiency was diagnosed and subsequently treated. Despite folate supplementation, the hematological parameters did not normalize. Further diagnosis investigations were led to search for uncommon etiologies of anemia and leukoneutropenia. We diagnosed severe copper deficiency on the basis of decreased plasma levels of copper and ceruloplasmin. Copper supplementation improved blood counts within three months. This case illustrates hematological disorders due to copper deficiency, initially masked by an associated folate deficiency. The copper deficiency etiology was not identified in this case. PMID:23906580

Kouamou, Edwige; Stépanian, Alain; Khadra, Fadi; de Prost, Dominique; Teillet, France


Marathon pancreatitis: is the etiology repetitive trauma?  


Abdominal pain frequently occurs after long-distance running. The cause of the pain may be due to dehydration, diaphragmatic ischemia, muscular spasm, or myonecrosis. However, data regarding the frequency of these purported causes are currently lacking. Pancreatitis can also occur after long-distance running, but few cases have been reported, and the etiology is controversial. We report a case of pancreatitis in a thin, muscular marathon runner. We suggest the etiology in this case may be traumatic as the pancreas may have suffered repetitive injury against the posterior abdominal wall and spine. PMID:15212417

Stewart, David; Waxman, Kenneth



A functional methylome map of ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

The etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases is only partially explained by the current genetic risk map. It is hypothesized that environmental factors modulate the epigenetic landscape and thus contribute to disease susceptibility, manifestation, and progression. To test this, we analyzed DNA methylation (DNAm), a fundamental mechanism of epigenetic long-term modulation of gene expression. We report a three-layer epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) using intestinal biopsies from 10 monozygotic twin pairs (n = 20 individuals) discordant for manifestation of ulcerative colitis (UC). Genome-wide expression scans were generated using Affymetrix UG 133 Plus 2.0 arrays (layer 1). Genome-wide DNAm scans were carried out using Illumina 27k Infinium Bead Arrays to identify methylation variable positions (MVPs, layer 2), and MeDIP-chip on Nimblegen custom 385k Tiling Arrays to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs, layer 3). Identified MVPs and DMRs were validated in two independent patient populations by quantitative real-time PCR and bisulfite-pyrosequencing (n = 185). The EWAS identified 61 disease-associated loci harboring differential DNAm in cis of a differentially expressed transcript. All constitute novel candidate risk loci for UC not previously identified by GWAS. Among them are several that have been functionally implicated in inflammatory processes, e.g., complement factor CFI, the serine protease inhibitor SPINK4, and the adhesion molecule THY1 (also known as CD90). Our study design excludes nondisease inflammation as a cause of the identified changes in DNAm. This study represents the first replicated EWAS of UC integrated with transcriptional signatures in the affected tissue and demonstrates the power of EWAS to uncover unexplained disease risk and molecular events of disease manifestation.

Hasler, Robert; Feng, Zhe; Backdahl, Liselotte; Spehlmann, Martina E.; Franke, Andre; Teschendorff, Andrew; Rakyan, Vardhman K.; Down, Thomas A.; Wilson, Gareth A.; Feber, Andrew; Beck, Stephan; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip



Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Leg Movements in Sleep: The Primary Role of Dopaminergic Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the possible effect of opiates on a patient exhibiting particularly severe restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movemets in sleep (PLMS). This patient was investigated in the sleep laboratory under three conditions, namely, unmedicated (baseline), medicated with codeine sulfate, and medicated with both codeine sulfate and pimozide. Codeine sulfate dramatically improved abnormal motor behavior in this

Jacques Montplaisir; Dominique Lorrain; Roger Godbout



Effect of one-legged exercise on the strength, power and endurance of the contralateral leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of one-legged exercise on the strength, power and endurance of the contralateral leg. The performance of the knee extensor and flexor muscle of 20 healthy young adults (10 men and 10 women) was first tested by Cybex II+ and 340 dynamometers. Then 10 subjects were chosen at random to train

P. Kannus; D. Alosa; L. Cook; R. J. Johnson; P. Renström; M. Pope; B. Beynnon; K. Yasuda; C. Nichols; M. Kaplan



Etiological patterns of child abuse and neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the various etiological possibilities for child abuse and neglect, designed to offer an additional and different possibility. Consideration is first given to problems, namely the lack of universal definition, heterogeneous effects, and retrospective research. The probability of multifactor models is noted, and sexual abuse is given separate consideration, followed by an exploration of the existing models termed

William G. Herron; Rafael Art Javier; Jeffrey Cicone



Towards a Balanced Account of Autism Etiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drash and Tudor describe six sets of reinforcement contingencies which may be present in the environments of some children eventually diagnosed with autism and suggest that these contingencies account for the etiology of "autistic" behaviors. Nevertheless, merely observing such contingencies in the environments of these children is insufficient…

Hall, Genae A.



The Etiology Mystery in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis remains largely unknown despite numerous lines of evidence that have been recently proposed or supported. Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease for which an autoimmune pathogenesis is widely accepted, mostly based on the presence of autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells. Cumulatively, association and twin studies suggest that both a susceptible genetic

Carlo Selmi; M. Eric Gershwin



The etiology and management of premature ejaculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Normative data suggest that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time of less than 1 min have 'definite' premature ejaculation, while men with intravaginal ejaculatory latency times of between 1 and 1.5 min have 'probable' premature ejaculation. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is

Chris G McMahon



Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

Nigg, Joel T.



Etiology and Management of Seborrheic Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common dermatological disorder that varies greatly in severity between individuals and with time. The etiology of this disease is poorly understood. Early investigators focused on the role of Malassezia (previously Pityrosporum) yeasts in the development of SD. Some researchers have hypothesized that there is an immunological component to SD and that this disease is caused

Aditya K. Gupta; S. E. Madzia; Roma Batra



Etiology and treatment of homosexuality: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major causal theories of and treatment approaches to male and female homosexuality are critically reviewed. Neither biological, psychoanalytic, nor learning and social-learning theories are found to provide convincing evidence for the etiology of homosexuality. All of these accounts, however, are viewed as providing mixed empirical support for their predictions, with social-learning research presenting the most consistent evidence. It is

Frank X. Acosta



Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact

Joel T. Nigg



Attention Deficit Disorder: Diagnosis, Etiology and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides most recent information on attention deficit disorder including: (1) diagnostic considerations according to the latest behavioral criteria and breakthroughs using neurometric EEG assessment; (2) prevalence; (3) etiologies; (4) neurological basis; and (5) treatments. Evaluates alternatives to medication, behavior modification, cognitive…

Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed



Problems of etiology in femoral neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

29 cases of femoral mononeuropathy are reported. While the clinical features of the femoral neuropathy are easily identified, the etiology is often hard to establish. The cases reported tend to fall into three general categories: 1) cases without major diagnostic difficulties (e.g. diabetic neuropathy); 2) those in which the definite diagnosis results from combined evidence of laboratory and instrumental data

L. Compagnoni; A. Lanzetti; A. Laterza; A. Nappo



The etiology of phobias: a nonassociative account  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of the origin and maintenance of fears and phobias have had a profound influence on the kinds of treatments employed in the phobic disorders. In view of this influence, the present review considers the considerable controversy surrounding the major etiological models. First, the various forms of the associative learning account are examined. It is argued that each of these

J. Christopher Clarke



Etiology, symptomatology, and diagnosis of uterine myomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the currently available literature regarding the biology, etiology, symptoms, and diagnosis of uterine myomas. Design: Literature review of 220 articles pertaining to uterine myomas. Result(s): Although uterine myomas presently are not well understood, many advances have been made in the un- derstanding of the hormonal factors, genetic factors, growth factors, and molecular biology of these benign tumors.

William H. Parker



Infections in diabetic foot ulcerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic foot complications are the largest nontraumatic cause of lower extremity amputations, accounting for almost 90,000\\u000a amputations per year. Most of these amputations are the result of infections caused by ulcerations of the foot that are not\\u000a recognized or treated in an appropriate and timely fashion. Often, cultures are taken when not warranted and antibiotics are\\u000a administered when no infection

Warren S. Joseph; James S. Tan



Infections in diabetic foot ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foot ulcers and infections are common in diabetic patients. A 30-month-long descriptive study was conducted in our hospital in which we analyzed microbiological isolates of all patients admitted with diabetic foot infections. The predominant flora identified were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, followed by Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and enterobacteriaceaes. In 27 positive cultures (42%) polymicrobial flora were found. There

F. J. Candel González; M. Alramadan; M. Matesanz; A. Diaz; F. González-Romo; I. Candel; A. Calle; J. J. Picazo



Perforated Peptic Ulcer: new insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written on perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) during the last hundred years.\\u000aIn 1500, when necropsies were first allowed, often a small hole was found in the\\u000aanterior wall of the stomach, giving an explanation for symptoms of acute abdominal\\u000apain, nausea, vomiting which often led to death within a few hours or days.\\u000aLaparoscopic surgery, also called

M. J. O. E. Bertloff



Medical Management of Ulcerative Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and relapsing inflammation limited to the colonic mucosa and always involving the rectum with variable extension towards the cecum. The aim of medical treatment is to induce and maintain clinical remission. In contrast to Crohn’s disease for which a ‘top-down’ or ‘early aggressive’ therapy is discussed, in UC the concept of a step-up treatment

Gerhard Rogler



EPUAP classification system for pressure ulcers: European reliability study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: This paper is a report of a study of the inter-observer reliability of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel pressure ulcer classification system and of the differential diagnosis between moisture lesions and pressure ulcers. BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcer classification is a valuable tool to provide a common description of ulcer severity for the purposes of clinical practice, audit and research.

Dimitri Beeckman; Lisette Schoonhoven; Jacqui Fletcher; Kátia Furtado; Lena Gunningberg; Hilde Heyman; Christina Lindholm; Louis Paquay; J. Verdu; Tom Defloor



Tracking quality over time: what do pressure ulcer data show?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To compare the prevalence of pressure ulcers and prevention before and after a quality improvement program; determine whether patient characteristics differed for those who did and did not develop pressure ulcers; identify pressure ulcer prevention implemented at admission and whether prevention and risk factors varied by pressure ulcer severity. Design. Descriptive comparative study based on two cross-sectional pressure ulcer




Approach to infected skin ulcers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To review the diagnosis and management of infected chronic skin ulcers. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Cochrane database, MEDLINE, and Google were searched for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for wound care. Most recommendations found in the CPGs had level II or III evidence. Expert and consensus opinion from the Canadian Chronic Wound Advisory Board and the International Wound Bed Preparation Advisory Board were also used. MAIN MESSAGE Bacteria in skin ulcers act along a continuum from contamination through colonization and critical colonization to infection. Critical colonization is not always associated with overt signs of infection but can result in failure to heal, poor-quality granulation tissue, increased wound friability, and increased drainage. Good-quality swab samples should be an adjunct to clinical acumen, not a primary strategy for diagnosis. Iodine and silver-based dressings, topical antibiotics, and systemic antibiotics can be helpful. CONCLUSION Diagnosis of chronic wound infection is based on clinical signs and a holistic approach to patients. More research into assessment and treatment of skin ulcer infection is needed.

Frank, Christopher; Bayoumi, Imaan; Westendorp, Claire



Pressure ulcer staging revisited: superficial skin changes & Deep Pressure Ulcer Framework©.  


Deficiencies in the current pressure ulcer classification system create the impetus for the current discourse on the clinical, legal, and economic implications of staging and considering shifting the paradigm in pressure ulcer description and assessment. PMID:22101483

Sibbald, R Gary; Krasner, Diane L; Woo, Kevin Y



Strategies for the treatment of restless legs syndrome.  


Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder of unknown etiology that is managed by therapy directed at relieving its symptoms. Treatment of patients with milder symptoms that occur intermittently may be treated with nonpharmacological therapy but when not successful, drug therapy should be chosen based on the timing of the symptoms and the needs of the patient. Patients with moderate to severe RLS typically require daily medication to control their symptoms. Although the dopamine agonists, ropinirole and pramipexole have been the drugs of choice for patients with moderate to severe RLS, drug emergent problems like augmentation may limit their use for long term therapy. Keeping the dopamine agonist dose as low as possible, using longer acting dopamine agonists such as the rotigotine patch and maintaining a high serum ferritin level may help prevent the development of augmentation. The ?2? anticonvulsants may now also be considered as drugs of choice for moderate to severe RLS patients. Opioids should be considered for RLS patients, especially for those who have failed other therapies since they are very effective for severe cases. When monitored appropriately, they can be very safe and durable for long term therapy. They should also be strongly considered for treating patients with augmentation as they are very effective for relieving the worsening symptoms that occur when decreasing or eliminating dopamine agonists. PMID:22923001

Buchfuhrer, Mark J



Reducing avoidable harm caused by pressure ulcers.  


This article reports on the successful work undertaken within one NHS trust to reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers. The tissue viability nursing team at Medway NHS Foundation Trust devised, implemented and evaluated a strategy to reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers. This involved devising a comprehensive database, intensive monitoring using root cause analysis, writing action plans using high-impact actions (HIAs) and innovative thinking to address and reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers and staff training in the use of the SKIN acronym. This work identified pressure ulcers on the ears of patients receiving oxygen therapy as a particular problem. An evidence-based and multiprofessional strategy was devised to deal with this particular problem, which resulted in no further incidence of pressure ulcers on the ears of patients receiving oxygen therapy. The entire pressure ulcer reduction strategy was positively evaluated and proved to be sustainable. PMID:23587976

Harrison, Tarnia; Kindred, Jane; Marks-Maran, Di


Approach to skin ulcers in older patients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with an approach to managing skin ulcers in older patients. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Clinical practice guidelines and best practice guidelines were summarized to describe an evidence-based approach. MAIN MESSAGE; Preventing ulcers is important in frail older patients. Using guidelines can help prevent ulcers in institutions. Clarifying the cause and contributing factors is the first step in management. Pressure and venous ulcers are common in elderly people. Poor nutrition, edema, arterial insufficiency, and anemia often impair wound healing. Adequate debridement is important to decrease risk of infection and to promote healing. There are guidelines for cleaning ulcers. Choice of dressings depends on the circumstances of each wound, but dressings should provide a moist environment. Options for dressings are summarized. CONCLUSION: Family physicians can manage skin ulcers effectively by applying basic principles and using readily available guidelines.

Frank, Christopher



Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?  

PubMed Central

Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan



Management of Bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Peptic ulcers are defects in the gastrointestinal mucosa that extend through the muscularis mucosae. They persist as a function\\u000a of the acid or peptic activity in gastric juice. The natural history of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) ranges from resolution\\u000a without intervention to the development of complications with potential for significant morbidity and mortality, such as bleeding\\u000a and perforation. Peptic ulcer

James C. Padussis; Theodore N. Pappas


Excessive neutrophils characterize chronic pressure ulcers.  


Although it is well recognized that pressure-induced ischemia initiates the formation of pressure ulcers, the many complex mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of these ulcers remain poorly understood. It has been reported that chronic ulcers contain an elevated level of proteolytic enzymes, especially neutrophil-derived matrix metalloproteinase-8 and elastase. This evidence suggests that neutrophils are a major component in the pathogenesis of chronic pressure ulcers. Therefore, this study characterized the cellular components of chronic pressure ulcers. Three-millimeter biopsies (6 mm deep) from granulation tissue in pressure ulcers were obtained from 11 patients. A total of 14 biopsies were obtained from these 11 patients for analysis. A portion of each specimen was fixed in formalin for routine histology. Other portions of biopsies were frozen for analysis of myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, cells on the surfaces of the ulcers were collected by lavage for histologic characterization. Routine histologic analysis of all 14 biopsies of the pressure ulcers showed regions near the surface of each that contained dense neutrophil infiltration associated with edema and apparent marked matrix dissociation. In the deeper regions there was an increased density of blood vessels, and many contained rounded endothelial cells surrounded by migrating neutrophils. Cells collected by lavage from the ulcer surface were prepared by Cytospin and found to be greater than 95% neutrophils with occasional large macrophages actively phagocytosing depleted neutrophils. In addition, there was a significant correlation of myeloperoxidase activity with actual neutrophil counts in the ulcer biopsies further confirming the dense presence of neutrophils. These studies directly show that there is extensive neutrophil infiltration in chronic pressure ulcer granulation tissue. Furthermore, the persistence of neutrophils and their destructive enzymes appears responsible for the extensive matrix dissociation and thus contributes to the chronicity of these ulcers. PMID:14617291

Diegelmann, Robert F


Antacids and peptic ulcer--a reappraisal.  

PubMed Central

Antacids can reduce gastroduodenal acidity for long periods if taken in substantial quantities after food. Their healing effect on gastric ulcer is minimal, if present at all, and easily overwhelmed by the benefit obtained from admission to hospital. Intensive antacid therapy appears effective in healing duodenal ulcer and preventing haemorrhage from stress ulcer, and is comparable in these respects with cimetidine but with a higher incidence of side-effects. Clinical impression strongly suggests that antacids relieve pain in peptic ulcer but objective confirmation is lacking.

Morris, T; Rhodes, J



Ulcer Size as a Novel Indicator Marker Is Correlated with Prognosis of Ulcerative Gastric Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the significance of ulcer size for the survival of gastric cancer patients. Methods: A total of 260 patients with ulcerative gastric cancer who had undergone curative resection were reviewed. The diameter of the malignant ulcer was measured. Patients were divided into group U1 (?3 cm) and group U2 (>3 cm) according

C. Y. Xu; J. G. Shen; J. Y. Shen; W. J. Chen; L. B. Wang



Evaluation of pressure ulcer prevalence rates for hospice patients post-implementation of pressure ulcer protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospice patients may be particularly at risk for pressure ulcer development due to several factors. Identifying populations at risk for pressure ulcer development, such as hospice patients, and providing prevention and risk protocols for these populations can substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers. However, are hospice patients prone for skin break-down despite prevention and treatment efforts? This

Darlene S. Hanson; Diane Langemo; Bette Olson; Susan Hunter; Christine Burd



Epidemiology and Etiology of Young Stroke  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Stroke in people under 45 years of age is less frequent than in older populations but has a major impact on the individual and society. In this article we provide an overview of the epidemiology and etiology of young stroke. Methods. This paper is based on a review of population-based studies on stroke incidence that have included subgroup analyses for patients under 45 years of age, as well as smaller community-based studies and case-series specifically examining the incidence of stroke in the young. Trends are discussed along with the relative frequencies of various etiologies. Discussion. Stroke in the young requires a different approach to investigation and management than stroke in the elderly given differences in the relative frequencies of possible underlying causes. It remains the case, however, that atherosclerosis contributes to a large proportion of stroke in young patients, thus, conventional risk factors must be targeted aggressively.

Griffiths, Dayna; Sturm, Jonathan



Restless legs symptoms in a patient with above knee amputations: a case of phantom restless legs.  


We describe a 78-year-old gentleman who, following bilateral above-knee amputations, developed symptoms of restless legs syndrome in the absent portions of his lower extremities. These symptoms improved with dopamine agonist therapy. In addition, he later developed parkinsonism with prominent rest tremor on metoclopramide. This suggests that this individual had a dopamine-deficient state which predisposed him to both restless legs syndrome and drug-induced or drug-exacerbated parkinsonism. We propose expanding the spectrum of phantom limb phenomena to include phantom restless legs. PMID:15252270

Hanna, Philip A; Kumar, Sanjeev; Walters, Arthur S


Etiology and treatment of postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of postpartum depression. Postpartum depression\\u000a is common and occurs in up to 18% of newly delivered mothers. Though the hormonal changes occurring after childbirth are believed\\u000a to play a role in postpartum depression, no hormonal etiology has been identified. Estrogen appears somewhat helpful for postpartum\\u000a depression, but its use is

Deborah Lynne Flores; Victoria C. Hendrick



Etiology and outcome of pediatric burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year retrospective review of burn victims hospitalized at a major burn center was conducted to determine the etiology and outcome of pediatric burns. Four hundred forty-nine patients under age 16 years were identified and stratified by age, sex, burn size, presence or absence of inhalation injury, cause of burn, and county of residence. The mean patient age was 4.3

Stephen E Morrow; David L Smith; Bruce A Cairns; Partrick D Howell; Don K Nakayama; H. D Peterson



Equine recurrent uveitis: classification, etiology, and pathogenesis.  


Equine recurrent uveitis is a cyclical disease that affects the eye and often leads to high management costs and unfavorable results, such as blindness. Research has improved understanding of the roles of various etiologies, especially leptospirosis, in initiating and perpetuating the pathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis. Research has also led to the discovery that specific breeds and horses with specific coat color patterns may be predisposed to developing recurrent uveitis. PMID:21870351

Curling, Amanda



Cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology: Barth syndrome unrecognized.  


This is a report of a child who died at 20 months from what was clinically thought to be cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology. Barth syndrome, an X-linked mitochondrial cardioskeletal myopathy, was diagnosed by genetic testing at autopsy. Barth syndrome presents in infancy or childhood with cardiomyopathy, hypotonia, growth delays, and cyclic neutropenia. Other associated laboratory findings can include hypocholesterolemia, relative monocytosis, low prealbumin, low plasma carnitine, and lactic acidosis. The classic echocardiogram finding is left ventricular noncompaction, although not always present. Until recently, the most reliable biochemical finding has been 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. However, quantitative analysis must be specifically requested for results to be reliable. Recently, a confirmatory tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin high-pressure liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectrometry blood test has become available. Genetic testing is also confirmatory and details the underlying mutation. Diagnosis is often missed or delayed and early diagnosis improves survival. The purpose of this case report is to encourage physicians to include Barth syndrome in the differential for cardiomyopathy of uncertain etiology in males, especially in the presence of growth delays, hypotonia, neutropenia, and/or family history of pediatric male death of unknown etiology. PMID:19037987

Sweeney, Robert T; Davis, Gregory J; Noonan, Jacqueline A


Interstitial cystitis. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis, with special emphasis on management of this condition by family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified through MEDLINE and review of abstracts presented at Urology and Interstitial Cystitis meetings during the last decade. Recent reviews were further searched for additional studies and trials. Data were summarized from large epidemiologic studies. Etiologic theories were extracted from current concepts and reviews of scientific studies. Diagnostic criteria described in this review are based on clinical interpretation of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research guidelines, interpretation of data from the NIH Interstitial Cystitis Cohort Study, and recent evidence on use of the potassium sensitivity test. Treatment suggestions are based on six randomized placebo-controlled clinical treatment trials and best available clinical data. MAIN MESSAGE: Interstitial cystitis affects about 0.01% to 0.5% of women. Its etiology is unknown, but might involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and other yet undefined agents. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, or hydroxyzine; and intravesical treatments with heparinlike medications, dimethyl sulfoxide, or BCG vaccine could benefit some patients. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should have an understanding of interstitial cystitis and be able to make a diagnosis and formulate an evidence-based treatment strategy for their patients.

Nickel, J. C.



How diet and lifestyle affect duodenal ulcers. Review of the evidence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the role of diet in reducing or aggravating risk of duodenal ulcer (DU). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2001 for articles on the relationship between diet and lifestyle and DU using the key words duodenal ulcer and diet, fibre, or lifestyle. Evidence that these factors are associated with DU arose mainly from three case-control and three prospective studies (level II evidence) and from expert opinion (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE: A high-fibre diet appears to reduce risk of DU; soluble fibre might be associated with reduced risk also. Vitamin A intake is associated with lower risk of DU. Little evidence indicates that fat, type of fat, protein intake, or consumption of alcohol or caffeine affect the etiology of DU. CONCLUSION: A high-fibre diet, particularly if the fibre comes from fruit and vegetables, could reduce risk of DU; vitamin A might also be beneficial.

Ryan-Harshman, Milly; Aldoori, Walid



Predicting Chemically Induced Duodenal Ulcer and Adrenal Necrosis with Classification Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary tree-structured statistical classification algorithms and properties of 56 model alkyl nucleophiles were brought to bear on two problems of experimental pharmacology and toxicology. Each rat of a learning sample of 745 was administered one compound and autopsied to determine the presence of duodenal ulcer or adrenal hemorrhagic necrosis. The cited statistical classification schemes were then applied to these outcomes and 67 features of the compounds to ascertain those characteristics that are associated with biologic activity. For predicting duodenal ulceration, dipole moment, melting point, and solubility in octanol are particularly important, while for predicting adrenal necrosis, important features include the number of sulfhydryl groups and double bonds. These methods may constitute inexpensive but powerful ways to screen untested compounds for possible organ-specific toxicity. Mechanisms for the etiology and pathogenesis of the duodenal and adrenal lesions are suggested, as are additional avenues for drug design.

Giampaolo, Casimiro; Gray, Andrew T.; Olshen, Richard A.; Szabo, Sandor



Help-Seeking for Pre-Ulcer and Ulcer Conditions of Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease (Buruli Ulcer) in Ghana  

PubMed Central

This study examined sociocultural features of help-seeking for Buruli ulcer–affected persons with pre-ulcers and ulcers in a disease-endemic area in Ghana. A sample of 181 respondents were purposively selected. Fisher's exact test was used to compare help-seeking variables for pre-ulcers and ulcers. Qualitative phenomenologic analysis of narratives clarified the meaning and content of selected quantitative help-seeking variables. For pre-ulcers, herbal dressings were used to expose necrotic tissues and subsequently applied as dressings for ulcers. Analgesics and left-over antibiotics were used to ease pain and reduce inflammation. Choices for outside-help were influenced by the perceived effectiveness of the treatment, the closeness of the provider to residences, and family and friends. Health education is required to emphasize the risk of self-medication with antibiotics and the importance of medical treatment for pre-ulcers, and to caution against the use of herbs to expose necrotic tissues, which could lead to co-infections.

Ackumey, Mercy M.; Gyapong, Margaret; Pappoe, Matilda; Weiss, Mitchell G.



Leg mechanisms for hydraulically actuated robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of highly dynamic robotic machines is directly associated with both the actuation means and the specific mechanical properties\\/configuration of the system. Hydraulic actuation demonstrates significant competitive advantages when minimum weight and volume, large forces and wide range of speeds are required and this makes it very suitable for systems such as legged robots. The geometry and design of

Yousheng Yang; Claudio Semini; Nikolaos G. Tsagarakis; Emanuele Guglielmino; Darwin G. Caldwell



Functional neuroimaging studies in restless legs syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional neuroimaging studies may contribute to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms of the restless legs syndrome (RLS) which still remain unclear. Studies in patients with RLS have been performed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and, more recently, positron emission tomography (PET). SPECT and PET studies revealed some controversial results of the pre- and postsynaptic dopaminergic

Thomas C Wetter; Ilonka Eisensehr; Claudia Trenkwalder



Three Uses for Springs in Legged Locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Running animals and robots can save energy and reduce unwanted heat production by bouncing along on springs, using the principle of the pogo stick. (The principal springs in animals are tendons.) They can make further energy savings by using return springs to halt the legs at the end of each foward or backward swing and start them swinging the other

R. Mcn. Alexander



Haptic terrain classification for legged robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we are presenting a method to estimate terrain properties (such as small-scale geometry or surface friction) to improve the assessment of stability and the guiding of foot placement of legged robots in rough terrain. Haptic feedback, expressed through joint motor currents and ground contact force measurements that arises when prescribing a predefined motion was collected for a

Mark A. Hoepflinger; C. David Remy; Marco Hutter; Luciano Spinello; Roland Siegwart



Testing Static Equilibrium for Legged Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a legged robot at fixed foot placements. Where can the robot move its center of mass (CM) while remaining in static equilibrium? If the terrain is flat, the CM must lie above the convex hull of the robot's feet. If the terrain is not flat, this often-used approximation can be arbitrarily bad. Instead, the CM must lie above the

Timothy Bretl; Sanjay Lall



Learning adaptive leg cycles using fitness biasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of fitness biasing to alter the control of a seven-microprocessor robot as it shifts from one environment to another. The robot was initially using a gait evolved to work on a smooth surface (tile). When tested on a rough surface (carpet) the learned gait was found to be inappropriate because the legs were causing drag

Gary B. Parker



Restless legs syndrome: an historical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article briefly summarizes the milestones leading to current knowledge and the possibility of treating one of the most widespread and perhaps least known diseases, restless legs syndrome (RLS). Until the mid-twentieth century, the syndrome first described by Willis (1685), was sporadically reported in medical literature and in most cases deemed a bizzare condition. It was only with Ekbom’s detailed

Giorgio Coccagna; Roberto Vetrugno; Carolina Lombardi; Federica Provini



A Leg Exoskeleton Utilizing a Magnetorheological Actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exoskeleton systems that can enhance people's performance or assist disabled people have been investigated in recent years. However, most exoskeletons utilize DC motors with batteries as the driving source. While the motors require a lot of power, the working time of the exoskeletons is a limiting factor for the implementation of mobile exoskeletons. This paper proposes a new leg exoskeleton

Jinzhou Chen; Wei-hsin Liao



The role of hemodynamic measurements in the management of venous and ischemic ulcers.  


There is a need for quantitative investigations in the vascular laboratory to manage lower extremity ulcers. The majority of leg ulcers are of venous (45%-60%) or arterial origin (10%-20%). Despite the increasing complexity of new devices used in vascular surgical practice, the anklebrachial pressure index (ABPI) remains the cornerstone for the differential diagnosis of ischemic ulcers. The toe-brachial pressure index and the pole test represent attractive alternative tests especially in patients with diabetes. Color flow Doppler imaging (CFDI) is advantageous over ABPI in cases in which wounds and ulcers prevent the use of a cuff by virtue of their size or location; additionally CFDI technology can detect nonflow limiting lesions, lesions to nonaxial arteries such as the deep femoral artery, or lesions limited to a single tibial artery. Continued improvements in the accuracy of CFDI have prompted some vascular surgeons to replace contrast arteriography in distal bypass procedures. Transcutaneous partial oxygen tension measurement (TcPO(2)) is another noninvasive method that is reliable to select the level of amputation and recommended to determine tissue viability in critically ischemic limbs and in the management of the diabetic foot. CFDI has revolutionized the diagnostic approach to venous disorders and it is considered the gold standard for the assessment of the venous system of the lower limb, causes minimal inconvenience to patients, and is easily repeatable, but it is considered highly operator dependent. Various plethysmography techniques are of limited application in ulcer investigations, because of their difficulty to calibrate signal, unless time measurements such as the postexercise refilling time are used. PMID:18048871

Lazarides, M K; Giannoukas, A D



Periodic Limb Movement Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome  


Sections Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Chapters Sleep Disorders Periodic Limb Movement Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome ... leg movement disorder is common among people with narcolepsy and rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder. Both ...


Adaptive Dynamic Balance of Two and Four Legged Walking Robots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two legged and four legged walking are the most versatile forms of land locomotion in the sense of maneuverability and the ability to traverse irregular terrain. Unfortunately, the problem of practical bipedal walking with dynamic balance has so far elude...

W. T. Miller



Update on necrobiosis lipoidica: A review of etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options.  


Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare chronic granulomatous disease that has historically been associated with diabetes mellitus. Debate exists regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of NL with a widely accepted theory that microangiopathy plays a significant role. NL typically presents clinically as erythematous papules on the front of the lower extremities that can coalesce to form atrophic telangiectatic plaques. NL is usually a clinical diagnosis, but if the clinical suspicion is uncertain, skin biopsy specimen can help differentiate it from sarcoidosis, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, and granuloma annulare. NL is a difficult disease to manage despite a large armamentarium of treatment options that include topical and intralesional corticosteroids, immunomodulators, biologics, platelet inhibitors, phototherapy, and surgery. Randomized control trials are lacking to evaluate the many treatment methods and establish a standard regimen of care. Disease complications such as ulceration are common, and lesions should also be monitored for transition to squamous cell carcinoma, a less common sequelae. PMID:23969033

Reid, Sophia D; Ladizinski, Barry; Lee, Kachiu; Baibergenova, Akerke; Alavi, Afsaneh



38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial asthma and urticaria, may not be disposed of routinely for compensation purposes as constitutional or developmental...



Individual Differences in the Biobehavioral Etiology of Drug Abuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Introduction: Individual Differences in the Biobehavioral Etiology of Drug Abuse; Genetic Factors in Drug Abuse and Dependece; Genotype-Environment Correlations and Interactions in the Etiology of Substance Abuse and Related Behaviors; A...

H. W. Gordon M. D. Glantz



Are Nonrandom Karyotypic Changes Related to Etiologic Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hypothesis that specific chromosome abnormalities are related to particular etiologic agents is considered. Three areas are considered: evidence for nonrandom changes, evidence in animals relating nonrandom changes to specific etiologic agents, and hu...

J. D. Rowley



The Motor System and Narcolepsy: Periodic Leg Movements and Restless Legs Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder with the cardinal symptoms consisting of an urge to move the legs\\u000a because of unpleasant sensations, appearing during rest or inactivity, worsening at evening or during the night, which are\\u000a partially or totally recovered by movement [1]. Depending on the severity and frequency of the symptoms, RLS is often associated\\u000a with insomnia

Luigi Ferini-Strambi


Protocol for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, 82,000 limb amputations are performed in patients with diabetes mellitus. The majority of these amputations could be avoided by following strict protocols. The collective experience treating patients with neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers of 4 major diabetic foot programs in the United States and Europe were analyzed. The following protocol has been developed for patients with diabetic foot ulcers:

Harold Brem; Peter Sheehan; Andrew J. M Boulton



The burden of diabetic foot ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower extremity ulcers represent a major concern for patients with diabetes and for those who treat them, from both a quality of life and an economic standpoint. Studies to evaluate quality of life have shown that patients with foot ulcers have decreased physical, emotional, and social function. Analyses of economic impact have shown (1) the majority of costs occur in

GayleE Reiber; BenjaminA Lipsky; GaryW Gibbons



JAMA Patient Page: Diabetic Foot Ulcers  


... and increases the risk of infection and amputation. PREVENTION • Diabetic foot ulcers can often be prevented by careful control of ... sign of a foot problem. • Avoid putting any pressure on the foot wound. • Keep the ulcer clean and change the dressings regularly, as instructed ...


Peptic ulcers and oral health status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Helicobacter pylori infection plays a crucial role in pathogenesis of peptic ulcers; however, among infected individuals only a small percentage will develop peptic ulcers at any time during their life. This low virulence suggests that many additional factors beside H. pylori are implicated in patho- genesis of the disease. The aim of the study was to determine whether there

Namiot DB; Namiot Z; Kemona A; J. Gastroenterology


Management of Plantar Ulcers in Hansen's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plantar ulcers occur in patients with Hansen's disease not because of the disease but because of its neuropathic effects on the skin over the feet. This enhances the risk of trauma to patients' feet, leading to the development of ulcers. This short article reviews the current management of leprosy on the basis of World Health Organization guidelines and the complexities

V. S. Chauhan; S. S. Pandey; V. K. Shukla



Vesicular, ulcerative, and necrotic dermatitis of reptiles.  


Vesicular, ulcerative, and necrotic dermatologic conditions are common in captive reptiles. Although these conditions have distinct differences histologically, they are commonly sequelae to each other. This article examines the anatomy and physiology of reptile skin; discusses reported causes of vesicular, ulcerative, and necrotic dermatologic conditions; and reviews various management options. PMID:24018035

Maas, Adolf K



Stump ulcers and continued prosthetic limb use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stump ulcers are common problems in amputees. Temporary discontinuation of prosthetic limb use is frequently employed to facilitate healing. Inevitably, this limits activity and may, for instance, prevent an amputee from going to work. A survey of clinical practice was carried out based on the premise that controlled continued prosthetic limb use in patients with stump ulcers will not adversely




Periodic leg movements during sleep in narcoleptic patients with or without restless legs syndrome.  


We compared periodic and non-periodic leg movements during sleep and polysomnography in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) with or without restless legs syndrome (RLS) with matched idiopathic RLS (iRLS) and control subjects. We enrolled 100 patients with NC: 17 having RLS were compared with 34 sex- and age-matched patients without RLS and with 17 normal controls and 17 iRLS subjects. Periodic leg movements were highest in iRLS and lowest in controls, with those in NC with RLS very close to iRLS, but higher than those in NC without RLS. The periodicity indexes showed the highest value in iRLS followed by NC with or without RLS and, finally, by controls. The inter-leg movement intervals peaked between 10 and 50?s in NC with RLS and in iRLS, the former did not display the nocturnal gradual decrease of periodic leg movements typical of iRLS. Periodic leg movements during sleep and polysomnography displayed specific features in RLS and NC, respectively, with NC with RLS showing an intermediate pattern. Even if RLS is only detected by targeted interview in NC, its frequency and impact on night-time sleep architecture and continuity suggest that this condition should be routinely searched for in NC. PMID:21827556

Plazzi, Giuseppe; Ferri, Raffaele; Franceschini, Christian; Vandi, Stefano; Detto, Stefania; Pizza, Fabio; Poli, Francesca; De Cock, Valérie C; Bayard, Sophie; Dauvilliers, Yves



Takayasu arteritis associated with ulcerative colitis and optic neuritis: first case in Korea  

PubMed Central

Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic vasculitis that affects the aortic arch and its primary branches. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Patients diagnosed with both TA and UC have rarely been reported. The pathogenesis of TA and UC is uncertain, but cell-mediated mechanisms play an important role in both diseases, and a genetic factor is thought to have an effect on the coincidence of these two diseases. We herein report a 38-year-old female with TA who had a history of UC with optic neuritis. We believe that this is the first case of the coexistence of TA and UC in Korea.

Pyo, Jung Yoon; Park, Jin Su; Song, Chang Ho; Lee, Sang Won; Park, Yong Beom



[Genetic aspects of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Empirical risk of recurrence and case presentation].  


During the last decades Morbus Crohn and ulcerative Colitis, both chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, show increasing incidence rates. The etiology of the diseases remains unclear. The well known familial occurrence of these diseases will create an increasing demand for medical, psychological and genetic counselling in face of the increasing incidence. The recurrence risks for close relatives will be presented and discussed. An example of Crohn's disease in two twin-siblings illustrates the familial occurrence and underlines the usefulness of being aware of possible recurrence in close relatives. PMID:8445853

Haverkamp, F; Zerres, K


Restless legs syndrome: diagnostic criteria, special considerations, and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Restless legs syndrome is a common yet frequently undiagnosed sensorimotor disorder. In 1995, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group developed standardized criteria for the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome. Since that time, additional scientific scrutiny and clinical experience have led to a better understanding of the condition. Modification of the criteria is now necessary to better reflect that

Richard P Allen; Daniel Picchietti; Wayne A Hening; Claudia Trenkwalder; Arthur S Walters; Jacques Montplaisi



Spider diffraction: a comparison of curved and straight legs  

SciTech Connect

It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders.

Richter, J.L.



Aphthous ulcers as a multifactorial problem.  


Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a disorder characterized by recurrent ulcerations limited to the oral mucosa. Many specialists and researchers in the domain of oral medicine and other fields do not recognize a single disease in RAS, but several pathologic states with similar clinical characteristics. Even though the real cause is unknown, there are some predisposing factors such as anemia caused by the lack of iron, folic acid and vitamin B, neutropenia, local trauma, emotional stress, metabolic disorders, hormonal disorders and chronic diseases, which cause immunodeficiency. This disease can appear in three clinical forms: small aphthous ulcers, large aphthous ulcers and herpetiform aphthous ulcers. The treatment of this type of disorder involves local or systemic use of corticosteroids, immunostimulants and vitamin therapy. Due to the association of aphthous ulcers with various other diseases, cooperation among multiple fields of medicine and a multidisciplinary approach are necessary. PMID:24053082

Ujevi?, Ana; Lugovi?-Mihi?, Liborija; Situm, Mirna; Ljubesi?, Luka; Mihi?, Josip; Troskot, Nina



Validation of a leg-to-leg bioimpedance analysis system in assessing body composition in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity of a leg-to-leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) system in predicting body composition as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body fat mass (FM), %Fat and fat free mass (FFM) were measured in 124 postmenopausal women (age: 51–63 y, body mass index (BMI): 17–38 kg\\/m2) first by the leg-to-leg BIA system, and

X Xie; N Kolthoff; O Bärenholt; SP Nielsen



[Problem of the etiology of undifferentiated oligophrenia].  


On the basis of examination of 150 families with clinically and etiologically undifferentiated oligophrenias the authors have studied a possible contribution of genetic and psychosocial factors to the formation of mental retardation. The examined families present a high and approximately equal frequency of mild forms of oligophrenia among parents and siblings which confirms a polygenic model of heredity. Familial and psychological factors appear to be involved in the formation of mental retardation. The data obtained may be used for predicting the status of the progeny and for developing therapeutic and corrective measures in cases of oligophrenia. PMID:2968032

Daniélov, M B; Utin, A V



Exercise addiction: symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology, and etiology.  


Regular physical activity plays a crucial role in health maintenance and disease prevention. However, excessive exercise has the potential to have adverse effects on both physical and mental health. The scholastic and empirical discussion of excessive physical activity focuses on obsessive and compulsive exercising, and uses several labels. However, in this review, we argue that the most appropriate term for this phenomenon is exercise addiction, emphasizing that excessive physical exercise fits the typical and most common characteristics of behavioral addictions. The aim of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on symptomology, diagnosis, epidemiology, and etiology of exercise addiction. PMID:22216780

Berczik, Krisztina; Szabó, Attila; Griffiths, Mark D; Kurimay, Tamás; Kun, Bernadette; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt



Etiology and treatment of hypogonadism in adolescents.  


Adequate functioning at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is necessary for normal gonadal development and subsequent sex steroid production. Deficiencies at any level of the axis can lead to a hypogonadal state. The causes of hypogonadism are heterogeneous and may involve any level of the reproductive system. This review discusses various causes of hypogonadism, describes the evaluation of hypogonadal states, and outlines treatment options for the induction of puberty in affected adolescents. Whereas some conditions are clearly delineated, the exact etiology and underlying pathogenesis of many disorders is unknown. PMID:21981955

Viswanathan, Vidhya; Eugster, Erica A



Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer.  


In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is frequently performed for treatment of early gastric cancers. This procedure inevitably leads to ulcers and bleeding. Bleeding control is the major concern in endoscopic mucosectomy, and some endoscopic hemostatic agents are currently under clinical and preclinical studies. MRU was developed as a model for these induced ulcers and the evaluation of the healing process. The clinical relevancy of those models was compared with that of rat models. Progressive healing was observed for 7 days based on histology. Rabbit models demonstrate round, deep ulcers with clear margins and well-defined healing stages that were difficult to define in rat models. PMID:23825482

Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun



Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is frequently performed for treatment of early gastric cancers. This procedure inevitably leads to ulcers and bleeding. Bleeding control is the major concern in endoscopic mucosectomy, and some endoscopic hemostatic agents are currently under clinical and preclinical studies. MRU was developed as a model for these induced ulcers and the evaluation of the healing process. The clinical relevancy of those models was compared with that of rat models. Progressive healing was observed for 7 days based on histology. Rabbit models demonstrate round, deep ulcers with clear margins and well-defined healing stages that were difficult to define in rat models.

Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye



Walking on a 'peg leg': extensor muscle activities and sensory feedback after distal leg denervation in cockroaches.  


Previous studies in insects demonstrated that leg coordination changes following complete ablation of distal limb segments. However, normal coordination was restored when small 'peg leg' prostheses were attached to leg stumps to permit substrate contact. We have adapted this paradigm to preserve appropriate leg mass and inertia by severing all nerves and muscle tendons in the femur of the cockroach hind leg and converting the animal's own limb into a peg leg. Recordings of muscle activities and leg movements before and after denervation showed that: (1) the 'peg leg' is actively used in walking and regular bursts occur in motoneurons to leg extensor muscles; (2) driving of motoneuron activity is sufficient to produce 'fictive' bursting in a muscle whose tendon (apodeme) is cut in the ablation; and (3) similar motoneuron activities are found in walking on an oiled glass surface, when the effects of body weight and mechanical coupling are minimized. When distal segments were completely severed in these preparations, leg use and muscle bursting were disrupted but could be restored if the stumps were pressed against the substrate. These results support the hypothesis that feedback from receptors in proximal leg segments indicating forces allows for active leg use in walking. PMID:14727135

Noah, J A; Quimby, L; Frazier, S F; Zill, S N



Development of Control System in a Biped Robot with Heterogeneous Legs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how a biped robot with heterogeneous legs imitates a person's walking from gait design, gait planning and gait control. A biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL) robot consists of an artificial leg and an intelligent bionic leg. The purpose of this robot's design is to make the intelligent bionic leg follow the artificial leg's movement, which provides

Jun Xiao; Pengyu Jia; Xinhe Xu; Jindong Tan



[The painful leg and moving toe syndrome].  


The paper reports a case of painful-legs-and-moving-toes syndrome in a 75-year-old woman who developed it after a paralytic ischias attack at the age of 70. The syndrome was characterized by persistent pains in distal parts of the legs and feet and constant involuntary flexion-extension wave-like toe movements. SSEP studies revealed a defect of conduction in high-speed myelinated fibers of the lumbo-sacral radices of both sides. A cortical motor potential corresponding to the toe hyperkinetic movement was present. It the base of the hyperkinesis a reflectory mechanism may underlie initiated from radiculo-spinal nociceptive systems disinhibited in consequence of the deficiency of inhibitory control from high speed rear column afferents. Neurophysiological data suggest participation of cerebral mechanisms in realization of the hyperkinesis. PMID:8122474

Aver'ianov, Iu N; Zenkov, L R; Golubev, V L; Toropina, G G



Pathology Case Study: Leg Weakness and Numbness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study, a 48 year-old man is admitted to the hospital with âÂÂa three week history of back pain, progressive right leg weakness and bilateral lower leg numbness.â A detailed patient history and account of the attending doctorâÂÂs examination is provided in the âÂÂPatient Historyâ section. MRI and CT images of the patient, as well as gross and microscopic descriptions of the condition are included as well. Clicking on the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

Lavi, Ehud; Mourelatos, Zissimos; Goldberg, Herbert; Sinson, Grant; Quan, Dianna



Complications of ascending phlebography of the leg.  

PubMed Central

Forty patients were studied prospectively for complications of ascending phlebography. The commonest immediate complication was pain at the site of injection and the commonest delayed complication pain in the foot or calf. Out of 30 patients with pain in the foot and calf, 15 had venous thrombosis. Review of 200 case notes disclosed only one recorded complication--namely, necrosis of the dorsal skin of the foot. Complications of the procedure reported by referring clinicians over 10 years comprised four cases of necrosis of the dorsum of the foot and two of gangrene of the foot, in one of which the gangrene spread to the leg. Major complications of ascending phlebography are rare, though when they occur may cause serious morbidity. If a scrupulous technique is used contrast phlebography remains the most accurate method of diagnosing venous disease of the leg.

Thomas, M L; MacDonald, L M



[Etiology and clinic of status epilepticus].  


In the presented study we examined 110 patients who suffered from status epilepticus. Total 148 status were analysed with regard to etiology, releasing factors, course and treatment. Causes stressed were head injury with brain damage and intracranial space occupying, especially in the frontal region. Head injury with opened dura mater showed more tendency for development of status than closed ones. In a quarter of all cases origin couldn't be found. All these, with exception of one case, developed intercurrently. Isolated or initial always was consequence of brain lesion, the origin of which was or has been detected. No trend with reference to distribution of age in the particular forms of status were found out. In a third part of all a releasing factor could be discovered. Most the question in these cases was failure in medicamental treatment. We couldn't draw one's interferences about pathogenesis from etiology, age of patient, place in course and form of status. About in a quarter of all status we found defective neurological sequels, in 12% also psychical disturbances. 16 patients died during the period of observation, but only 2 within 24 hours, all together 8 in the first 14 days in deap coma. Immediately cause of death were above all complications of the heart, circulation of blood and respiration tract. In the most cases the treatment consisted in a mixture of anticonvulsive medicaments. The predominant rate of status epilepticus could be inhibited within 24 hours, only 20 lasted a longer time. PMID:981984

Meier, H R; Ketz, E



[Calcifications from cardiac etiology in chest radiography  


OBJECTIVE: Children s chest X-ray calcification images can be related to pulmonary, mediastinal and rarely cardiac parenchymatous pathology. This report describes cases of cardio thoracic calcifications. We emphasize the importance of chest X-ray to track thoracic calcifications. In spite of the fact that it is rare, the cardiac etiology must be considered due to the possibility of surgical treatment.METHODS: Regarding the period from 1988 to 1997 the authors reviewed the chest X-rays of 2108 patients. In 3 of them thoracic calcifications of cardiac etiology were observed.RESULTS: Of these three patients, two were 7 years old and the third was 3 years old. Case 1 presented a calcification in the right atrium topography caused by a heart tumor of Fibroma type. In case 2 the calcification was in the pulmonary trunk, presenting as a calcified aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus. In case 3 the child had pulmonary stenosis and the chest X-ray showed a calcified image on the left cardiac boards caused by a thrombo in the right ventricle wall.CONCLUSION: The authors emphasize the importance of chest X-ray in the diagnosis of thoracic calcifications, and comment that in spite of the being rare, the cardiac causes should be considered due to the possibility of surgical treatment. PMID:14647677

Lucas, E; Ramos, S; Serra, A; Chamie, F; Valenzuela, N; Teldeschi, A; Sbaffi, F


Multifactorial Etiology of Cervical Cancer: A Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Cancer of the cervix is the second most common life-threatening cancer among women worldwide, with incidence rates ranging from 4.8 per 100,000 women per year in the Middle East to 44.3 per 100,000 in East Africa. Epidemiologic and clinical data demonstrate that human papillomaviruses (HPV), especially HPV-16 and HPV-18, play at least a major if not a necessary role in the etiology of cervical cancer. However, many investigators acknowledge that HPV is not sufficient to induce cervical cancer and that a multifactorial etiology is likely. HPV can be found in a growing proportion of patients with cervical cancer, approaching 100%, but is not yet found in every patient with disease. Other factors, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 infections, cigarette smoking, vaginal douching, nutrition, and use of oral contraceptives, have been proposed as contributing factors. In the first half of the 20th century, Peyton Rous and colleagues demonstrated the joint action of tars and Shope papillomavirus to consistently induce squamous cell carcinomas in rabbits. Using the Rous model as a prototype, one might hypothesize that some cases of cervical cancer arise from an interaction between oncogenic viruses and cervical tar exposures. Cervical tar exposures include cigarette smoking, use of tar-based vaginal douches, and long years of inhaling smoke from wood- and coal-burning stoves in poorly ventilated kitchens.

Haverkos, Harry W.



The epidemiology and etiology of azoospermia  

PubMed Central

The misconception that infertility is typically associated with the female is commonly faced in the management of infertile men. It is uncommon for a patient to present for an infertility evaluation with an abnormal semen analysis report before an extensive female partner workup has been performed. Additionally, a man is usually considered fertile based only on seminal parameters without a physical exam. This behavior may lead to a delay in both the exact diagnosis and in possible specific infertility treatment. Moreover, male factor infertility can result from an underlying medical condition that is often treatable but could possibly be life-threatening. The responsibility of male factor in couple's infertility has been exponentially rising in recent years due to a comprehensive evaluation of reproductive male function and improved diagnostic tools. Despite this improvement in diagnosis, azoospermia is always the most challenging topic associated with infertility treatment. Several conditions that interfere with spermatogenesis and reduce sperm production and quality can lead to azoospermia. Azoospermia may also occur because of a reproductive tract obstruction. Optimal management of patients with azoospermia requires a full understanding of the disease etiology. This review will discuss in detail the epidemiology and etiology of azoospermia. A thorough literature survey was performed using the Medline, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and Cochrane databases. We restricted the survey to clinical publications that were relevant to male infertility and azoospermia. Many of the recommendations included are not based on controlled studies.

Cocuzza, Marcello; Alvarenga, Conrado; Pagani, Rodrigo



Convergent mechanisms in etiologically-diverse dystonias  

PubMed Central

Introduction Dystonia is a neurological disorder associated with twisting motions and abnormal postures, which compromise normal movements and can be both painful and debilitating. It can affect a single body part (focal), several contiguous regions (segmental), or the entire body (generalized), and can arise as a result of numerous causes, both genetic and acquired. Despite the diversity of causes and manifestations, shared clinical features suggest that common mechanisms of pathogenesis may underlie many dystonias. Areas Covered This review identifies shared themes in etiologically-diverse dystonias on several biological levels. At the cellular level, abnormalities in the dopaminergic system, mitochondrial function, and calcium regulation are discussed. At the anatomical level, the roles of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum in dystonia are described. Global central nervous system dysfunction, with regard to aberrant neuronal plasticity, inhibition, and sensorimotor integration is also discussed. Using clinical data and data from animal models, this article seeks to highlight shared pathways that may be critical in understanding mechanisms and identifying novel therapeutic strategies in dystonia. Expert Opinion Identifying shared features of pathogenesis can provide insight into the biological processes that underlie etiologically-diverse dystonias, and can suggest novel targets for therapeutic intervention that may be effective in a broad group of affected individuals.

Thompson, Valerie B.; Jinnah, H. A.



Evolutionary etiology of high-grade astrocytomas.  


Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common brain malignancy, remains fatal with no effective treatment. Analyses of common aberrations in GBM suggest major regulatory pathways associated with disease etiology. However, 90% of GBMs are diagnosed at an advanced stage (primary GBMs), providing no access to early disease stages for assessing disease progression events. As such, both understanding of disease mechanisms and the development of biomarkers and therapeutics for effective disease management are limited. Here, we describe an adult-inducible astrocyte-specific system in genetically engineered mice that queries causation in disease evolution of regulatory networks perturbed in human GBM. Events yielding disease, both engineered and spontaneous, indicate ordered grade-specific perturbations that yield high-grade astrocytomas (anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs). Impaired retinoblastoma protein RB tumor suppression yields grade II histopathology. Additional activation of v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) network drives progression to grade III disease, and further inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) yields GBM. Spontaneous missense mutation of tumor suppressor Trp53 arises subsequent to KRAS activation, but before grade III progression. The stochastic appearance of mutations identical to those observed in humans, particularly the same spectrum of p53 amino acid changes, supports the validity of engineered lesions and the ensuing interpretations of etiology. Absence of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, asymptomatic low grade disease, and rapid emergence of GBM combined with a mesenchymal transcriptome signature reflect characteristics of primary GBM and provide insight into causal relationships. PMID:24114272

Song, Yurong; Zhang, Qian; Kutlu, Burak; Difilippantonio, Simone; Bash, Ryan; Gilbert, Debra; Yin, Chaoying; O'Sullivan, T Norene; Yang, Chunyu; Kozlov, Serguei; Bullitt, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Ken D; Kafri, Tal; Louis, David N; Miller, C Ryan; Hood, Leroy; Van Dyke, Terry



Facial dysostoses: Etiology, pathogenesis and management.  


Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24123981

Trainor, Paul A; Andrews, Brian T



Northern border eastern leg construction now underway  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the 4800-mile Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System (ANGTS), the 823-mile eastern US leg will stretch from Morgan, Montana, to Ventura, La., and eventually will extend another 308 miles to Dwight, Illinois. Northern Border Pipeline Co. has employed five contractors to lay the 42-in-diam, 1435-psig line, which is scheduled for fall 1982 completion. Nine construction spreads comprise the




Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl



A Brief History of Legged Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research in the area of legged robotic systems has spanned almost the entire history of modern robotics. IFToMM has played\\u000a a crucial role in this history by providing a channel of communication between East and West during the cold war period, and\\u000a via its Technical Committee on Robotics in more recent years. In this chapter we have attempted an ov