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Treatment of leg ulcers  

PubMed Central

A system of treatment of venous leg ulcers by leg elevation, dry gauze dressings and inelastic bandage boots is compared with regimens in which a series of elastic bandage boots are applied to squeeze oedema from swollen ulcerated legs.

Bourne, I H J



Venous leg ulcers.  


Venous ulcers are the most common form of leg ulcers and their incidence is increasing as the population ages. The diagnosis should be confirmed with tests for venous insufficiency and an assessment of arterial disease determined by a Doppler Ankle-Brachial ratio. The most important component of venous ulcer treatment is the use of high compression bandages for pitting edema. Non-healing ulcers may require a skin biopsy of the edge to confirm the diagnosis, medical treatment for woody fibrosis, adjustment of compression therapy, or use of a skin substitute or biological preparation. PMID:9866605

Sibbald, R G



Venous leg ulcers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri-ulcer injection of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, self-help (advice to elevate leg, to keep leg active, to modify diet, to stop smoking, to reduce weight), short-stretch bandages, single-layer non-elastic system, skin grafting, superficial vein surgery, systemic mesoglycan, therapeutic ultrasound, and topical treatments (antimicrobial agents, autologous platelet lysate, calcitonin gene-related peptide plus vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, freeze-dried keratinocyte lysate, mesoglycan, negative pressure, recombinant keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor).



Venous leg ulcers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri-ulcer injection of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, short-stretch bandages, single-layer non-elastic system, skin grafting, superficial vein surgery, systemic mesoglycan, therapeutic ultrasound, self-help (advice to elevate leg, advice to keep leg active, advice to modify diet, advice to stop smoking, advice to reduce weight), and topical treatments (antimicrobial agents, autologous platelet lysate, calcitonin gene-related peptide plus vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, freeze-dried keratinocyte lysate, mesoglycan, negative-pressure recombinant keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor).



[List of diagnostic tests and procedures in leg ulcer].  


Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of leg ulcer. Most patients have venous leg ulcer due to chronic venous insufficiency. Less often, patients have arterial leg ulcer resulting from peripheral arterial occlusive disease, the most common cause of which is arteriosclerosis. Leg ulcer may be of a mixed arteriovenous origin. In diabetic patients, distal symmetric neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are probably the most important etiologic factors in the development of diabetic leg ulcer. Other causes of chronic leg ulcers are hematologic diseases, autoimmune diseases, genetic defects, infectious diseases, primary skin diseases, cutaneous malignant diseases, use of some medications and therapeutic procedures, and numerous exogenous factors. Diagnosis of leg ulcer is based on medical history, inspection, palpation of skin temperature, palpation of arteries, fascia holes, presence and degree of edema, firm painful cords, and functional testing to assess peripheral occlusive arterial disease or identify superficial and deep venous reflux of the legs. Knowledge of differential diagnosis is essential for ensuring treatment success in patients with leg ulcer. There are many possible etiologic factors of leg ulcers and sometimes, clinical findings are similar. Additional testing should be performed, e.g., serologic testing such as blood count, C-reactive protein, HBA1c, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, differential blood count, total proteins, electrolytes, coagulation parameters, circulating immune complex, cryoglobulins, homocysteins, AT, PAI-1, APC resistance, proteins C and S, paraproteins, ANA, ENA, ANCA, dsDNA, antiphospholipid antibodies, urea, creatinine, blood lipids, vitamins and trace elements. Also, biopsy of the lesion for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence, bacteriology and mycology should be included. Other tests are Raynaud (cold stimulation) test and pathergy test. Device-based diagnostic testing should be performed for future clarification. Ankle brachial pressure index, color duplex sonography, plethysmography, MSCT and MR angiography, digital subtraction angiography, phlebography, angiography, x-ray, and capillaroscopy in lupus erythematosus are indicated. Except for bacteriologic analyses of wound biopsies, there is no test to provide specific information on the wound condition. PMID:24371972

Spoljar, Sanja



Chronic ulcer of the leg: clinical history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hundred patients with chronic leg ulcers were studied by detailed history and examination as part of a population survey. In 22% ulceration began before the age of 40, and in this group the sex incidence was equal. Over age 40 there was an increasing preponderance of women. Ulcers were significantly more common in the left leg in women but

M J Callam; D R Harper; J J Dale; C V Ruckley



Changes in patient's quality of life comparing conservative and surgical treatment of venous leg ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Leg ulcers of different etiology disable up to 1% of total population, and up to 15% individuals over 70 years old. It is an old disease, which troubles the patients and medical personnel and is hard to cure. It might take several years to cure the ulcer fully. Most of the patients with leg ulcers are being treated at

Rytis Rimdeika


Cocaine-induced leg ulceration.  


A 48-year-old woman presented with a red, pruritic and painful skin rash on her legs bilaterally after she snorted cocaine. This was associated with fever and cough. Physical examination showed large violaceous plaques and large flaccid bullae, involving bilateral lower extremities. Blood work showed neutropoenia with absolute neutrophil count of 0.64×10(9) cells/L. Antinuclear antibody, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and anti-double-stranded DNA were positive. Biopsy showed thrombogenic vasculopathy which is consistent mainly with levamisole ingestion that was reported with levamisole ingestion. The patient was counselled to stop cocaine misuse and treated with skin emollients and antibiotics for the pneumonia that was discovered on the chest X-ray. Skin ulcers improved and she was discharged in stable condition. Ten days after discharge, she was readmitted with new lesions and worsening necrotic ulcers from the old lesions. The patient admitted to snorting cocaine again a few days after being discharged. PMID:23997085

Shawwa, Khaled; Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Eisa, Naseem; Alraies, M Chadi



["Difficult" venous ulcers of the legs].  


The aim of the study was to analyze the diagnostic and surgical criteria in cases of "critical" venous leg ulcers. This report describes the management of 200 patients with trophic lesions of the lower limbs. Patients with venous leg ulcers were identified with the aid of ultrasonography and echocolor Doppler. Among these patients, according to the chronic evolution of the lesions, we identified all those with critical venous leg ulcers. The management of the lesions involved both medical and fairly aggressive surgical treatment with the use of general anaesthesia and deep surgical toilette of the ulcer. In the cases with poor epithelialisation we adopted oxygen therapy and skin grafts using the "mesh graft" technique. Critical venous leg ulcers were identified in 23 patients (19%). After surgical treatment, we observed complete epithelialisation of the lesion only in 5 cases (21.7%). In 13 patients (56.6%) the use of oxygen therapy was necessary and epithelialisation occurred on postoperative day 12. Skin grafts were used in 5 cases (21.7%). Only one recurrence was observed one year after operation in an area adjacent to the site of the graft. The "golden goal" of critical venous leg ulcer management is to establish a correct aetiological diagnosis, distinguishing between venous leg ulcers and other trophic lesions of the lower limbs. The medical and surgical treatment described in this report reduce healing time and the social costs of the disease, without any significant complications for the patient. PMID:11396072

Mordente, S; Pacca, G; Guarino, A; Benincasa, M; Leo, E



Leg ulceration in venous disease.  

PubMed Central

We have given a brief summary of the scale of the problem caused by venous ulceration in the UK, and have then reviewed the various theories of causation, including a historical survey, and presented the evidence for and against the two main current theories of fibrin cuffs and white cell trapping. We also outline previous hypotheses of the aetiology of venous ulceration, including arteriovenous microanastomoses, stasis and oedema. The contribution of superficial venous incompetence in the pathogenesis of ulceration is also examined.

Shami, S. K.; Shields, D. A.; Scurr, J. H.; Smith, P. D.



[Physical treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers].  


An increasing numbers of physical treatment options are available for chronic leg ulcer. In this review article, compression therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, negative pressure therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, electrostimulation therapy, electromagnetic therapy, photodynamic therapy, water-filtered infrared-A-radiation and hydrotherapy are discussed in terms of their practical applications and the underlying evidence. With the exception of compression therapy for most of these treatments, good scientific data are not available. However this is a widespread problem in the treatment of chronic wounds. Nevertheless, several of the described methods such as negative pressure therapy represent one of the gold standards in practical treatment of patients with chronic leg ulcers. Although the use of physical treatment modalities may improve healing in patients with chronic leg ulcers, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying causes are essential for long-lasting success. PMID:20376423

Dissemond, J



Skin perfusion pressure in leg ulcers assessed by photoplethysmography.  


The aetiology of lower limb ulcers is often the result of intricate vascular pathology and the quality of the peri-ulcer microcirculation is a major factor in the prognosis of the disease. We measured the skin perfusion pressure (S.P.P.) using an infra-red photoplethysmograph of the PPG type (ESM, Mauguio, France). The study included 30 healthy subjects, 25 patients with leg ulcers of varied etiology (venous: 14, arterial: 11), and 15 patients with uncomplicated varicose veins. Measurements were undertaken in dorsal decubitus position after a 15 minute rest. The S.P.P. was expressed as the percentage of humeral blood pressure. The results showed an important decrease of S.P.P. in patients with arterial ulcers when compared to patients with healthy legs (39.9 +/- 16.4% and 82.8 +/- 10.0% respectively). The S.P.P. values were intermediate (54.4 +/- 19.3%) in patients with venous ulcers while they were normal in the patients with uncomplicated varicose veins (87.3 +/- 12.3%). Among this population, 18 patients (11 with uncomplicated varicose veins and 7 with venous ulcers) were investigated before and after a one month treatment with a flavonoid (Daflon 500 mg, 2 tablets per day). An increase of S.P.P. to normal values after treatment was found in patients with venous ulcers though not in patients with varicose veins. This non invasive procedure appreciating the microcirculation status in peri-ulcerous skin could be of predictive value for the healing potential. It could be a good method to assess the efficacy of vasculotropic agents. PMID:3183454

Guillot, B; Dandurand, M; Guilhou, J J



Venous Leg Ulcerations: A Treatment Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Selecting the appropriate treatment for venous leg ulcerations is essential for optimal wound healing and patient quality\\u000a of life. Compression therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for these wounds. Compression methods should be carefully selected\\u000a and tailored for compatibility with patients’ daily life. Pain management should not be neglected. When response to compression\\u000a therapy is limited, adjuvant therapy such

Ronda S. Farah; Mark D. P. Davis



Leg Ulcers and Hydroxyurea: Forty-one Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

plete recovery from the ulcerations occurred quickly after withdrawal of treatment in 33 (80%) of the cases. Conclusions: This longest-reported series of patients confirms the role of hydroxyurea therapy in the onset of leg ulcerations. Healing or improvement requires cessa- tion of treatment. Cutaneous atrophy and impaired wound healing may explain the relationship between hydroxyurea and leg ulcers. In addition,

Marie-Emmanuelle Sirieix; C. Debure; N. Baudot; L. Dubertret; M.-E. Roux; P. Morel; C. Frances; S. Loubeyres; C. Beylot; D. Lambert; P. Humbert; O. Gauthier; M. Dandurand; B. Guillot; L. Vaillant; G. Lorette; J.-M. Bonnetblanc; C. Lok; J.-P. Denoeux



Efficacy of modern dressings in the treatment of leg ulcers: a systematic review.  


Healing of leg ulcers constitutes a major clinical problem. Local methods for accelerating the healing process include modern wound dressings, but it is unclear what impact these dressings have on ulcer healing. This study examines the collective evidence on the effectiveness of modern dressings in the treatment of leg ulcers. To this end, a meta-analysis was conducted covering randomized clinical trials identified following a systematic review of the literature in different databases. Estimates of effect were calculated according to the fixed effects model. Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (26 on ulcers of venous etiology, 5 on ulcers of mixed or poorly differentiated etiology). We found no study that exclusively addressed arterial ulcers. Although studies displayed considerable methodological limitations, analysis showed no significant differences in terms of the proportion of healed ulcers or reduction in wound size for both modern and conventional dressings. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between the different modern dressings compared in the studies. Thus, the current medical literature is poor in supporting the use of modern dressings to improve the healing rate of leg ulcers. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether the choice of any specific dressing type affects the healing course of these ulcers. Well-conducted trials are warranted to reliably address this question. PMID:15953039

Bouza, Carmen; Muñoz, Ana; Amate, José María



Leg ulcers: a review of their impact on daily life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Current nursing care for leg ulcer patients often focuses on wound care and providing compression therapy. Nurses perceive leg ulcer patients as 'under-served' with regard to problems patients experience in daily life. An overview of patient problems is a first and essential step in the development of comprehensive nursing care. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To gather information about the impact

Anke Persoon; Maud M. Heinen; Carien J. M. van der Vleuten; Michette J. de Rooij; Theo van Achterberg



Optimal management of chronic leg ulcers in the elderly.  


Chronic leg ulceration is a very common clinical problem in the elderly. Good management depends entirely on making an accurate diagnosis, and planning treatment after considering all aspects of patient well-being. All elderly patients with leg ulcers benefit from an assessment of their vascular status, since the effects of gravity influence treatment and healing irrespective of the diagnosis. The most common causes of ulceration are venous and arterial disease. Diabetes mellitus, pressure, vasculitis, metabolic abnormalities and skin cancer are all unusual causes of leg ulceration, but must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Almost all patients with ulcerated legs benefit from the use of compression bandaging at a level appropriate to their vascular status. In patients with venous ulcers, this can be achieved with a number of bandaging techniques; however, multilayer bandaging appears to be the most cost-effective means available, particularly when combined with community-based leg ulcer clinics. The effects of oral drug therapy for venous and arterial disease have been disappointing. Local dressings are important in ulcers that are not suitable for compression therapy. The choice of dressing depends on the nature of the ulcer and the tolerability of the dressing for the patient. PMID:9143855

Goodfield, M



Large leg ulcers due to autoimmune diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Large leg ulcers (LLU) may complicate autoimmune diseases. They pose a therapeutic challenge and are often resistant to treatment. To report three cases of autoimmune diseases complicated with LLU. Case Report Case 1. A 55-year old woman presented with long-standing painful LLU due to mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Biopsy from the ulcer edge showed small vessel vasculitis. IV methylprednisolone (MethP) 1 G/day, prednisolone (PR) 1mg/kg, monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CYC), cyclosporine (CyA) 100mg/day, IVIG 125G, ciprofloxacin+IV Iloprost+enoxaparin+aspirin (AAVAA), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HO), maggot debridement and autologous skin transplantation were performed and the LLU healed. Case 2. A 45-year old women with MCTD developed multiple LLU’s with non-specific inflammation by biopsy. MethP, PR, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azathioprine (AZA), CYC, IVIG, AAVAA failed. Treatment for underlying the LLU tibial osteomyelitis and addition of CyA was followed by the LLU healing. Case 3. A 20-year-old man with history of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) developed painful LLU’s due to small vessel vasculitis (biopsy). MethP, PR 1 mg/kg, CYC, CyA 100 mg/d, AAVAA failed. MRSA sepsis and relapse of systemic PAN developed. IV vancomycin, followed by ciprofloxacin, monthly IVIG (150 g/for 5 days) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) were instituted and the LLU’s healed. Conclusions LLU are extremely resistant to therapy. Combined use of multiple medications and services are needed for healing of LLU due to autoimmune diseases.

Rozin, Alexander P.; Egozi, Dana; Ramon, Yehuda; Toledano, Kohava; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Markovits, Doron; Schapira, Daniel; Bergman, Reuven; Melamed, Yehuda; Ullman, Yehuda; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra



Community clinics for leg ulcers and impact on healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the effectiveness of community clinics for leg ulcers. DESIGN--All patients with leg ulceration were invited to community clinics that offered treatment developed in a hospital research clinic. Patients without serious arterial disease (Doppler ankle\\/brachial index > 0.8) were treated with a high compression bandage of four layers. SETTING--Six community clinics held in health centres in Riverside District Health

C. J. Moffatt; P. J. Franks; M. Oldroyd; N. Bosanquet; P. Brown; R. M. Greenhalgh; C. N. McCollum



[Lower leg ulcers and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate blood level].  


In a study on 30 patients suffering from arterio-venous leg ulcers, we found an increased blood level of 2,3biphosphoglycerate (10.33 mumol/ml; control group: 5.16 mumol/ml). This difference, which is statistically significant (p less than 0.001), shows that the blood oxygen pressure is lower both in the tissue of the leg ulcer (literary communication) and in the whole body. PMID:2080656

Buchtová, L; Arenberger, P; Záruba, F



Evaluation of clinical and laboratory correlates of sickle leg ulcers.  


The exact mechanism for the occurrence of sickle leg ulcers (SLUs) has not been fully explained, although, popular opinion supports a multifactorial etio-pathogenetic process. Leg ulceration in sickle cell is a chronic and debilitating condition which is difficult to treat and may worsen the psychosocial impact of this illness. This study aims to evaluate the laboratory and clinical correlates of SLUs. One hundred sixty-seven patients who had been diagnosed with sickle cell anemia (homozygous S) had their steady-state hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit, white cell count, platelet count, serum bilirubin, and aspartate transaminase (AST) as well as frequency of crisis per annum evaluated with respect to their relationship to the occurrence of leg ulcers. They were aged 6-53 years (mean age 24.3 years), and prevalence of leg ulcer was found to be 2.75 per 1000 (2.54 per 1000 in females and 2.83 per 1000 in males). The independent sample t-test showed a significant difference in the serum AST levels in those with SLU (p = 0.029), though a positive correlation did not exist. Other predictors of disease severity found to have positive relationship with each other were the AST and total serum bilirubin 0.207 (p = 0.012); Hb and age 0.130 (p = 0.035); Hb and white cell count -0.159 (p = 0.010), white cell count and age -0.113 (p = 0.018). SLUs do not occur in patients with severe disease in sickle cell. The clinical and laboratory indicators of severe sickle cell disease do not correlate positively with the occurrence of SLU. Serum AST may have a relationship with leg ulceration in these patients. Environmental factors most likely play a major part in the etiopathogenesis of leg ulcer and this may require further studies in different sociocultural settings. PMID:24134724

Madu, Anazoeze Jude; Ubesie, Agozie; Madu, Kenechi Anthony; Okwor, Bismarck; Anigbo, Chukwudi



A Team Approach to the Management of Intractable Leg Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The management of intractable leg ulcers requires a team approach which includes vascular surgeons and plastic surgeons. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the management of intractable leg ulcers by plastic surgeons. Patients and Methods: A total of 73 patients with intractable leg ulcers, (79 limbs) were treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery at our institution. Skin perfusion pressure (SPP) around the ulcer on the limb was measured before and after arterial reconstructive procedures. Local ulcer management involved intra-wound continuous negative pressure and irrigation therapy or negative pressure wound therapy. We examined the rates of wound healing and associated prognostic factors. Results: There were 21 limbs without ischemia (non-peripheral arterial disease [Non-PAD] group) and 58 limbs with ischemia (PAD group). The healing rates were 66% in the PAD group and 81% in the Non-PAD group, but the difference between the groups was not significant. A total of 41 limbs in the PAD group underwent revascularization, which involved bypass surgery in 18 limbs and endovascular therapy in 23 limbs. The salvage rate of the revascularized limbs was 83% at 1 year. The primary patency rates at 1 year were 87% for bypass surgery and 58% for endovascular therapy. The healing rate of the revascularized limbs was 66%, and the presence of concomitant hemodialysis, infected ulcers, and limbs without improved SPP were shown to be poor prognostic factors. Limbs treated with bypass surgery had a better healing rate than limbs treated with endovascular therapy, but the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Good ulcer-healing rates were achieved by effective revascularization and aggressive local management. These results suggest that a team approach is useful for the management of intractable leg ulcers. (English translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2011; 20: 913-920)

Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Akaiwa, Keiichi; Ishida, Masaru; Furuyama, Tadashi; Onohara, Toshihiro



Leg ulcers in sickle cell disease: current patterns and practices.  


Leg ulcers are a debilitating complication of patients with sickle cell disease, and their frequency in North America was reported to be 2.5% by the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease more than 20 years ago. We sought to determine if the frequency of leg ulcers in sickle cell patients in the United States had declined and to assess which treatments providers use most commonly. We sent an e-mail survey to health professionals belonging to the national Sickle Cell Adult Provider Network. Responses were obtained from 31 of them (26.0%). Most of them (96.0%) reported having some patients with leg ulcers. Providers reported a total of 185 patients with active leg ulcers and 224 in the previous 5 years, for a total of 409 patients. Hb SS (homozygous sickle cell anemia) was the most common genotype of affected individuals, followed by Hb SC (double heterozygote for Hb S [?6(A3)Glu?Val, GAG>GTG; HBB: c.20A>T] and Hb C [?6(A3)Glu?Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.19G>A]). Males showed a 2:1 predominance. Two-thirds of patients were treated with either hydroxyurea (HU) or transfusion therapy and most used compression stockings and topical therapies as directed by wound care services. We conclude that leg ulcers continue to be a debilitating complication of young adults with sickle cell disease, despite improved supportive care and the widespread use of disease modifying agents such HU and transfusion. While some providers offer office-based ulcer care, the majority prefer specialty consultation including podiatry, plastic surgery and dermatology. Despite their frequency, there is no clear consensus among providers as to the best treatment. PMID:23600469

Delaney, Kara-Marie H; Axelrod, Karen C; Buscetta, Ashley; Hassell, Kathryn L; Adams-Graves, Patricia E; Seamon, Catherine; Kato, Gregory J; Minniti, Caterina P



Leg ulcers associated with long-term hydroxyurea therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyurea is commonly used in the treatment of various hematologic disorders, e.g., chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), polycythemia vera, and occasionally, at lower doses, for severe psoriasis vulgaris. Cutaneous side effects such as alopecia, diffuse hyperpigmentation, poikiloderma, atrophy of the skin, or nail changes occur, especially with long-term treatment. Painful leg ulcers in association with hydroxyurea have only rarely been reported.

Georg Weinlich; Gerold Schuler; Richard Greil; Heinz Kofler; Peter Fritsch



Cost-of-illness of leg ulcers in the community.  


Leg ulcer management is complex, time-consuming and of high socio-economic importance. Data on cost-of-illness in leg ulcer care are sparse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-of-illness in leg ulcer treatment in the metropolitan area of Hamburg. About 147 institutions involved in wound care participated in a cross-sectional study. Patients consecutively recruited underwent a standardised interview and clinical examination. Main economic outcomes were direct, indirect and intangible costs from a societal perspective. Five hundred and two patients with a mean age of 71 years and mean wound duration of 9 years were enrolled. Annual total costs summed up to a mean of 9060€ /patient/year (8288€ direct, 772€ indirect costs). Direct costs carried by statutory health insurances amounted to 7680€ , patients themselves paid on average 607€. Leg ulcer is associated with high costs for health insurances, patients and the society. Exploratory predictor analyses suggest that early, interprofessional disease-management could lower treatment costs. PMID:23020710

Augustin, Matthias; Brocatti, Leyla K; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Schäfer, Ines; Herberger, Katharina



Insufficient Tetanus Vaccination Status in Patients with Chronic Leg Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tetanus disease is caused by Clostridium tetani and is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Despite international recommendations for patients with a chronic leg ulcer, there has been a distinctive lack of protection provided by vaccination for these patients in the past decades. Methods: Within the context of our prospective clinical investigation we consecutively determined the concentrations

A. Körber; N. Graue; J. Rietkötter; E. Kreuzfelder; S. Grabbe; J. Dissemond



Wound Teleconsultation in Patients with Chronic Leg Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The treatment of chronic leg ulcers requires frequent assessments of local wound status and adjustment of therapy. The availability of reasonably priced photographic equipment and quick electronic transfer of high-quality digital images should make it possible that the assessment of wound status can be made by remote experts. Objective: This study examines the feasibility of using teledermatology for wound

Wolfgang Salmhofer; Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof; Gerald Gabler; Karin Rieger-Engelbogen; Dieter Gunegger; Barbara Binder; Thomas Kern; Helmut Kerl; H. Peter Soyer



Topical Treatment of Nonhealing Venous Leg Ulcer with Propolis Ointment  

PubMed Central

An investigation of effectiveness of topical treatment of nonhealing chronic venous leg ulcers with propolis ointment was conducted. 56 patients were included in the study and randomized into two groups. In group 1, there were 28 patients (ulceration area: 6.9–9.78?cm2) treated by means of topical propolis ointment application and short stretch bandage compression. In group 2, there were 29 patients (ulceration area: 7.2–9.4?cm2) treated by means of Unna boot leg compression without topical propolis treatment. In the study, the efficacy of both treatment methods in patients with resistive venous leg ulcers was compared. The ulceration of patients from group 1 healed completely after 6 weeks of therapy in all cases. In all patients from group 2, the process of healing was longer but successfully completed after 16 weeks of the therapy. We found that an adjunctive propolis ointment treatment increases the efficacy of the short stretch bandage compression stocking, and this combined treatment is more effective than Unna's boot compression alone.

Kucharzewski, M.; Kozka, M.; Urbanek, T.



Topical treatment of nonhealing venous leg ulcer with propolis ointment.  


An investigation of effectiveness of topical treatment of nonhealing chronic venous leg ulcers with propolis ointment was conducted. 56 patients were included in the study and randomized into two groups. In group 1, there were 28 patients (ulceration area: 6.9-9.78?cm(2)) treated by means of topical propolis ointment application and short stretch bandage compression. In group 2, there were 29 patients (ulceration area: 7.2-9.4?cm(2)) treated by means of Unna boot leg compression without topical propolis treatment. In the study, the efficacy of both treatment methods in patients with resistive venous leg ulcers was compared. The ulceration of patients from group 1 healed completely after 6 weeks of therapy in all cases. In all patients from group 2, the process of healing was longer but successfully completed after 16 weeks of the therapy. We found that an adjunctive propolis ointment treatment increases the efficacy of the short stretch bandage compression stocking, and this combined treatment is more effective than Unna's boot compression alone. PMID:23662121

Kucharzewski, M; Kózka, M; Urbanek, T



Leg ulcer plastic surgery descent by laser therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low energy laser therapy (LELT) was used to treat chronic leg ulcers. Seven patients, aged 59 to 96 years, with 11 leg ulcers were referred for laser therapy by plastic surgeons. They had a history of ulceration of 3 - 50 years and five of the patients had breakdown of previous skin grafts. Laser treatments were administered with a microprocessor-controlled device. A 22 red ((lambda) equals 660 nm) laser head was utilized to provide a dose of (4 - 6) J/cm2 and 7 infrared ((lambda) equals 880 nm) head to provide a dose of (4 - 8) J/cm2. The patients were treated three to five times per week, 25 - 30 treatments per course. Three patients underwent two courses of laser therapy with three weeks interval between them. All patients, after 5 - 10 laser treatments, have gotten relief of pain and decreased the amount of analgesics used. All ulcers in six patients were completely healed and two ulcers in the seventh patient decreased in size by 75%. One may conclude the developed laser methodology might be used as a preventative measure to avoid plastic surgery or improve its success.

Telfer, Jacqui; Filonenko, Natalia; Salansky, Norman M.



A systematic review on the impact of leg ulceration on patients' quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A systematic review was conducted to analyse journal articles that describe or measure the impact of leg ulceration on patients' quality of life (QoL) in order to improve the content of an educational programme that aims to enhance self-care agency in leg ulcer patients. METHOD: Original articles published in English and German between 1990 and 2006 were included if

Oliver R Herber; Wilfried Schnepp; Monika A Rieger



Larval therapy for leg ulcers (VenUS II): randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of larval therapy with a standard debridement technique (hydrogel) for sloughy or necrotic leg ulcers.Design Pragmatic, three armed randomised controlled trial.Setting Community nurse led services, hospital wards, and hospital outpatient leg ulcer clinics in urban and rural settings, United Kingdom.Participants 267 patients with at least one venous or mixed venous and arterial ulcer with

Jo C Dumville; Gill Worthy; J Martin Bland; Nicky Cullum; Christopher Dowson; Cynthia Iglesias; Joanne L Mitchell; E Andrea Nelson; Marta O Soares; David J Torgerson



[Efficacy of dermoplasty and the dermal equivalent in treatment of vast leg ulcers of mixed genesis].  


The most frequent causes of leg ulcers (90-95%) are chronic venous insufficiency (45-60%), obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries (10-20%), diabetes mellitus (15-25%) and their combinations (10-15%). The leg ulcers, specified as pyoderma gangrenosum, are the rare and severe pathology, which is very often misdiagnosed. The case history of a 58-year old female patient with vast leg ulcers of the both shanks is analyzed. The leg ulcers were caused by pyoderma gangrenosum and chronic venous insufficiency due to the varicose disease. Complete epithelization of both ulcers was achieved by means of dermoplasty combined using the dermal equivalent against the background of system immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:23808240

Andreev, D Iu; Abramova, N V; Blinova, M I; Pinaev, G P



An uncommon case of chronic leg ulcers in an 80-year-old woman.  


Ulcers of the lower extremities, particularly in individuals older than 65, are a common cause for visits to the dermatologist, primary-care physician, or vascular surgeon. There are many different causes of leg ulcers, among which vascular causes are the most frequent. Less commonly, other pathological processes result in leg ulcers. Unfortunately some of them are malignant. Large B-cell lymphoma, leg type, is a malignant lymphoma of intermediate behavior, occurring mostly on the legs in elderly patients. Usually it presents as erythematous or bluish-red nodules or tumors, but ulcerations are not uncommon. When faced with unusual and non-healing ulcers, the physician should also have in mind rarer but more lethal causes. PMID:20372769

Stopajnik, N; Zgavec, B; Luzar, B; Kecelj Leskovec, N



Health-related quality of life and chronic venous leg ulceration: part 1.  


Leg ulceration is a debilitating condition characterized by long periods of ulceration and a high incidence of recurrence. The quality of life of sufferers is compromised by many issues including pain and social isolation. Day-to-day care focuses predominantly on the provision of wound care, often with limited attention to the wide-ranging effects that the ulceration poses to the life of the sufferer. Part 1 of this two-part series provides a review of qualitative studies that explore the health-related quality of life of patients with chronic venous leg ulceration. Part 2 will be published in the June 2010 Wound Care Alliance supplement. PMID:20216504

Green, Julie; Jester, Rebecca



Randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial of pentoxifylline in the treatment of venous leg ulcers  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether pentoxifylline 400 mg (Trental 400) taken orally three times daily, in addition to ambulatory compression bandages and dressings, improves the healing rate of pure venous ulcers. Design Randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial, parallel group study of factorial design, permitting the simultaneous evaluation of alternative pharmaceutical, bandaging, and dressings materials. Setting Leg ulcer clinics of a teaching and a district general hospital in southern Scotland. Participants 200 patients with confirmed venous ulcers and in whom other major causal factors were excluded. Interventions Pentoxifylline 400 mg three times daily or placebo. Main outcome measure Complete healing (full epithelialisation) of all ulcers on the trial leg. Results Complete healing occurred in 65 of the 101 (64%) patients receiving pentoxifylline and 52 of the 99 (53%) patients receiving placebo. Conclusions The difference in the healing rates between patients taking pentoxifylline and those taking placebo did not reach statistical significance. Key messagesLeg ulcers cost the NHS around £400 million per annum50%-75% of venous leg ulcers can be succesfully treated with dressings and compression bandages but take many months to healA drug that reduced the healing time of venous ulcers would be useful, although no agent has been proved to be effective to dateTrials with pentoxifylline, a vasoactive drug used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, as an adjunct to the treatment of venous ulcers have been inconclusiveAt the 5% level, pentoxifylline had a non-significant effect on healing rates of pure venous ulcers

Dale, J J; Ruckley, C V; Harper, D R; Gibson, B; Nelson, E A; Prescott, R J



Management of non-healing leg ulcers in Unani system of medicine.  


Non-healing leg ulcers are becoming a major public health problem. The high prevalence of leg ulcer directly affects patients' quality of life because it produces psychological (anxiety, depression), social and physical (amputation) handicap. Most leg ulcers become unsightly and they hardly if ever, yield to conventional treatment. Healing of an amputated part may pose a problem, hence amputation cannot be recommended without extensive pre-operative investigations. Prevalence is high among the poor, for whom expenses of surgery are not affordable. Few surgeons try skin graft but unfavourable local condition of the ulcer leads to rejection and all efforts prove futile. Keeping all these factors in mind, we have tested a Unani formulation for its ulcer healing properties; early results were surprising and in some cases unbelievable. PMID:23116214

Zulkifle, Mohd; Ansari, Abdul H; Shakir, Mohd; Kamal, Zahid; Alam, Md Tanwir



Nonlinear modeling of venous leg ulcer healing rates  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this manuscript was to determine whether the change in wound surface area over time could be described through nonlinear mathematics. Methods We studied 3,588 serial wound tracings of 338 venous leg ulcers (VLUs) that had been followed during a controlled, prospective, randomized trial of two topical wound treatments. Results A majority (72%) of VLUs exhibited surface area reduction via an exponential decay model, particularly during the early stages of healing. These results were consistent with the mechanics of wound contraction and epithelial cell proliferation, supported by the higher frequency at which exponential surface area reduction associated with full wound closure (35% of wounds that fit the exponential model healed vs. 21% of wounds that did not fit the exponential model completely healed during the study period, p = 0.018). Goodness-of-fit statistics suggested that much of the individual variation in healing could be described as nonlinear variation from the exponential model. Conclusion We believe that parameter estimates from a mathematical model may provide a more accurate quantification of wound healing rates, and that similar models may someday reach routine use in comparing the efficacy of various treatments in routine practice and in product registration trials.

Cardinal, Matthew; Phillips, Tania; Eisenbud, David E; Harding, Keith; Mansbridge, Jonathan; Armstrong, David G



Collaborative working to improve leg ulcer outcomes for injecting drug users.  


This case study features a 37-year-old drug user with a chronic leg ulcer caused by injecting Heroin into his leg veins. The case study demonstrates collaborative working between two specialist services based in Leicester. This joint working and knowledge sharing has allowed for appropriate leg ulcer management in this erratic and vulnerable group of mainly young people. Many factors need to be taken into account when prescribing a dressing regimen for this group, and the successes and complications encountered are described. PMID:17551426

Wheatley, Carolyn


Evaluation of vascular and metabolic deficiency in patients with large leg ulcers.  

PubMed Central

A consecutive series of 50 patients with large leg ulcers (surface area > 100 cm2) were investigated for evidence of arterial, venous and nutritional problems. Arterial insufficiency was found in 34%, venous reflux in 50%. A group of eight patients had no arterial or venous problem but had serious deficiencies of vitamin C and zinc. Arterial bypass was performed successfully in 15 of the 17 patients with arterial disease. All patients had a mesh split-skin graft. The 25 with venous incompetence had compression bandaging; in these patients the ulcer had healed on discharge but 10 had recurrent ulceration within 6 months. The leg ulcers in patients with corrected arterial insufficiency healed significantly more rapidly than those with venous incompetence. The ulcers in those with nutritional deficiency healed promptly after skin grafting and correction of the deficiency. It is important to be aware of arterial insufficiency and nutritional deficiency in patients with leg ulcers, as such deficiencies may contribute to the non-healing of an apparently straightforward leg ulcer.

Balaji, P.; Mosley, J. G.



Chronic leg ulcers as a rare cause for the first diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica.  


Chronic leg ulcers occur most frequently in the elderly population as a result of an underlying vascular disease especially chronic venous insufficiency. But it also occurs less commonly in younger people due to other aetiologies, for example, infections, vasculitis, neoplasia or genetic diseases. The following case report presents chronic leg ulcers as a rare cause for the first diagnosis of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. We report about a 21-year-old man with painful chronic leg ulcers resistant to different wound treatments for 4 months. After exclusion of the more common vascular aetiologies and reviewing the patient's family history, we considered an epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica which could be confirmed by genetic analyses. We treated the patient with debridement, modified negative pressure therapy with non-adhesive foil and skin grafting. The chronic leg ulcers healed completely. This case report demonstrates that the family history and genetic diseases should be considered as rare causes for therapy-refractory chronic leg ulcers, especially in young patients. PMID:22974048

Bafaraj, Mazin G; Cesko, Elvir; Weindorf, Maren; Dissemond, Joachim



Venous leg ulcers: a prognostic index to predict time to healing.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the prognostic factors in uncomplicated venous leg ulcer healing. DESIGN--Randomised parallel group controlled trial with subjects stratified by initial ulcer diameter and four months' maximum duration of follow up. SETTING--Assessment at Northwick Park Hospital vascular unit with community based treatment. PATIENTS--200 patients with clinical and objective evidence of uncomplicated venous leg ulceration and an initial ulcer diameter > 2 cm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Time to complete healing of the ulcer. RESULTS--In the presence of graduated compression healing occurred more rapidly in patients with a smaller initial ulcer area (relative risk of healing 1.92 associated with halving of ulcer area (95% confidence interval 1.58 to 2.33)), shorter duration of ulceration (relative risk 1.35 associated with halving duration (1.17 to 1.56)), younger age (relative risk 1.34 associated with 10 year decrease (1.12 to 1.59)), and no deep vein involvement (relative risk 1.8 (1.19 to 2.78)). CONCLUSION--These prognostic factors used in a simple scoring system predict time to healing.

Skene, A. I.; Smith, J. M.; Dore, C. J.; Charlett, A.; Lewis, J. D.



The effect of amelogenins (Xelma) on hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers.  


With an aging population venous ulceration is likely to become an increasing problem. Despite improvements in care and the widespread introduction of compression bandaging, the mainstay of current management, a significant proportion of venous leg ulcers remain hard to heal. Therefore, a single-blinded, randomized multicenter study was performed to compare wound size reduction using amelogenin proteins (Xelma) formulated into a solution which forms a temporary extracellular matrix on contact with the wound bed. Propylene glycol alginate 7% served as a control. Patients were randomized to receive either amelogenin protein or control treatment. The investigational products were applied weekly under soft silicone secondary dressings for up to a maximum of 12 weeks. Compression therapy was maintained throughout the investigation. Wound size reduction was measured by tracing and all wounds were photographed. In total 123 patients were recruited, 62 patients in the amelogenin group, and 61 in the control group, respectively. Subgroup analyses were performed for ulcers with a size>10 cm2 at baseline and for ulcers of duration of >12 months. The wound size reduction was greatest in the group treated with amelogenin (33.8 vs. 25.6%, n=117), this difference being greatest for larger ulcers (25 vs. 7.9% for ulcers>10 cm(2), n=61) and those of long duration (29.3 vs. 10.9% for ulcers>12-month duration, n=61). We conclude that this product may be clinically useful in the treatment of these venous leg ulcers. PMID:16808801

Vowden, Peter; Romanelli, Marco; Peter, Ralf; Boström, Asa; Josefsson, Anna; Stege, Helger



Can leg ulcer fibroblasts phenotype be influenced by human amniotic membrane extract?  


Prevalence of leg ulcer in general population is important and new efficient treatments are now needed, especially for chronic leg ulcers. Human amniotic membrane (HAM) can be used as an alternative treatment for recalcitrant leg ulcers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a HAM extract on normal fibroblasts (NF) and ulcer fibroblasts (UF). NF and UF were obtained from biopsies by explants technique. HAM extract was used at 10 ?g of total proteins per ml. Single patient-matched NF and UF were compared, without or with HAM extract. Studied parameters were proliferation rate, retraction of free-floating lattices, alpha smooth muscle actin expression by flow cytometry, and synthesis of elastin, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), pro-collagen I, MMP-1 and TIMP-1. Our results show that UF had a specific phenotype compared to NF: low proliferation, high expression of alpha-SM actin and high synthesis of MMP-1, TIMP-1 and elastin. HAM extract significantly increased the synthesis of GAGs, pro-collagen I and MMP-1 in NF and decreased retraction of free lattices. HAM extract transiently increased UF proliferation, slowed down lattices retraction and decreased elastin synthesis. In conclusion, HAM extract has little effect on UF for the parameters studied and NF are more responsive than UF. However, clinical beneficial effect of HAM application on leg ulcers was previously observed and might rather be related to an action on keratinocytes and/or a modulation of the highly inflammatory environment of these chronic wounds. PMID:24515295

Tauzin, H; Robin, S; Humbert, P; Viennet, C; Saas, P; Courderot-Masuyer, C; Muret, P



Novel Wound Healing Powder Formulation for the Treatment of Venous Leg Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Chronic venous disorders are common in the Western world. The current treatment of venous leg ulcers is unsatisfactory despite the availability of well-documented standards of care. Patients today are interested in alternative approaches to modern medicine. We have developed a wound-healing powder containing natural ingredients with absorptive, aromatic, antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory synergistic properties. This report describes 3 cases that were successfully treated with the powder, demonstrating the potential of herbal remedies in the clinical treatment of venous leg ulcers.

Ghatnekar, Angela V.; Elstrom, Tuan; Ghatnekar, Gautam S.; Kelechi, Teresa



Analytical studies on volume determination of leg ulcer using laser triangulation and structured light data acquisition techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging is defined as the process of obtaining geometric images, either in two or three dimensions by digitizing an existing object. In this research, 3D information of the human skin surface is retrieved and analysed to determine volume of leg ulcers for medical purposes. Volume determination is an important criterion in clinical assessment of leg ulcer as it will indicate

K. K. Chong; A. M. Abdul-Rani; M. H. Ahmad Fadzil; Y. B. Yap; A. Jamil



Cross-contamination: Comparison of Nasal and Chronic Leg Ulcer Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from the Same Patient.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of bacterial cross-contamination between the nasal cavity and leg ulcers. Sixteen patients were included in the study. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the leg ulcer of 13 patients and 6 of these patients also harboured S. aureus in the nasal cavity. Klebsiella oxytoca was found in the ulcer and the nasal cavity of one patient. PFGE analysis revealed that patients harbouring S. aureus both in the nasal cavity and the leg ulcer had the same bacterial type at both sites. None of the S. aureus isolates were methicillin resistant. PMID:23459213

Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Skindersoe, Mette Elena; Skov, Robert Leo; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki



A systematic review on the impact of leg ulceration on patients' quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background A systematic review was conducted to analyse journal articles that describe or measure the impact of leg ulceration on patients' quality of life (QoL) in order to improve the content of an educational programme that aims to enhance self-care agency in leg ulcer patients. Method Original articles published in English and German between 1990 and 2006 were included if the findings were analysed at the level of patients. Articles were excluded if (1) they investigated the impact of specific treatments or settings on QoL or (2) focused mainly on arterial ulcers or diabetic foot ulcers. Results Twenty-four original research articles met the inclusion criteria; 11 studies used a quantitative, 11 studies a qualitative, and 2 used a mixed method approach. The findings were collapsed into 5 core domains. Quantitative studies commonly investigated the parameters of pain, sleep, social isolation, and physical mobility. Patients had significantly more pain, more restrictions regarding social functioning, less vitality, and limitations with respect to emotional roles compared to the respective controls. Other problem areas identified were restrictions in work capacity, recreation, social interaction, psychological well-being, as well as problems caused by treatment regimes. Inconclusive results were obtained regarding pain intensity, physical restrictions, and gender effects. Limitations Numerous original studies neither undertook a differentiation of participants by ulcer aetiology nor did they analyse the results according to gender differences. Conclusion As leg ulceration has an impact on QoL, national guidelines on the treatment of leg ulceration need to more specifically address these far-ranging effects identified in this review.

Herber, Oliver R; Schnepp, Wilfried; Rieger, Monika A



The Application of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Venous Leg Ulceration: Authors Experience  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to use negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with chronic venous leg ulceration. The authors present their experience in treatment of 15 patients whose average ulceration surface area was 62.6?cm2. In 10 patients, the ulcers healed within 6 weeks and in the remaining patients within 20 weeks. Based on the results obtained, the authors imply that NPWT is an effective method in the treatment of chronic venous leg.

Mieszczanski, Pawel; Wilemska-Kucharzewska, Katarzyna; Taradaj, Jakub; Kuropatnicki, Andrzej; Sliwinski, Zbigniew



The application of negative pressure wound therapy in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulceration: authors experience.  


The aim of the study was to use negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with chronic venous leg ulceration. The authors present their experience in treatment of 15 patients whose average ulceration surface area was 62.6 cm(2). In 10 patients, the ulcers healed within 6 weeks and in the remaining patients within 20 weeks. Based on the results obtained, the authors imply that NPWT is an effective method in the treatment of chronic venous leg. PMID:24696847

Kucharzewski, Marek; Mieszcza?ski, Pawe?; Wilemska-Kucharzewska, Katarzyna; Taradaj, Jakub; Kuropatnicki, Andrzej; Sliwi?ski, Zbigniew



From skin disorders to venous leg ulcers: pathophysiology and efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in ulcer healing.  


The standard treatments for venous diseases of the lower limb include compression bandaging and stockings as well as surgical removal of varicose veins. There are a number of conditions in which these conventional treatments are ineffective, particularly in the management of leg ulceration. Drug treatments for healing venous leg ulcers have yet to be developed to the stage of good clinical efficacy, but these may assist in the management of patients. Flavonoid drugs have been widely used in the management of the symptoms of venous disease for many years and have recently been studied in some detail to assess their effects on the microcirculation. Work in animal models of ischemia-reperfusion show that MPFF (micronized purified flavonoid fraction) modulates leukocyte adhesion and prevents endothelial damage. Similar biochemical effects have been observed in patients with venous disease and may explain the efficacy of this drug in the management of edema and other symptoms of venous disease. There is clinical evidence that MPFF modifies venous leg ulcer healing. PMID:12934756

Coleridge Smith, Philip D



Use of weekly, low dose, high frequency ultrasound for hard to heal venous leg ulcers: the VenUS III randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the clinical effectiveness of weekly delivery of low dose, high frequency therapeutic ultrasound in conjunction with standard care for hard to heal venous leg ulcers.Design Multicentre, pragmatic, two arm randomised controlled trial.Setting Community and district nurse led services, community leg ulcer clinics, and hospital outpatient leg ulcer clinics in 12 urban and rural settings (11 in the

Judith M Watson; Arthur R Kang’ombe; Marta O Soares; Ling-Hsiang Chuang; Gill Worthy; J Martin Bland; Cynthia Iglesias; Nicky Cullum; David Torgerson; E Andrea Nelson



Travel-related chronic hemorrhagic leg ulcer infection by Shewanella algae.  


Shewanella algae is an emerging seawater-associated bacterium. In immunocompromised patients, infections may result in bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. Our patient, suffering from autoimmune vasculitis and myasthenia gravis, developed typical hemorrhagic bullae and leg ulcers because of S algae. She was treated efficiently with a combination of ciprofloxacin and piperacillin. PMID:23809079

Wagner, Nicola; Otto, Lisa; Podda, Maurizio; Schmitt, York; Tappe, Dennis



Wound Fluid from Chronic Leg Ulcers Contains Elevated Levels of Metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to determine if metalloproteinase levels were elevated in human chronic wound fluid. Samples of blood and wound fluid from acute (mastectomy) and chronic (leg ulcer) wounds were collected, and metalloproteinase profiles of the samples were determined by gelatin zymography. Compared to serum, acute wound fluid (mastectomy fluid) contained markedly increased levels (five- to

Annette B. Wysocki; Lisa Staiano-Coico; Frederick Grinnell



Chronic ulceration of the leg: extent of the problem and provision of care  

Microsoft Academic Search

A postal survey in two health board areas in Scotland, encompassing a population of about one million, identified 1477 patients with chronic ulcers of the leg. Women outnumbered men by a ratio of 2.8:1. The median age of the women was 74 and of the men 67. Seventy two (5%) were hospital inpatients, 174 (12%) were managed jointly by the

M J Callam; C V Ruckley; D R Harper; J J Dale



Physical activity in patients with venous leg ulcer - between engagement and avoidance. A patient perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify and describe the qualitative variations in how physical activity is perceived and understood by individuals with current or previous venous leg ulcer. Design: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Method: Twenty-two individuals aged 60–85 years were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by three researchers using a phenomenographic research approach. A set of categories of descriptions and their internal relationships were constructed based on the essential features of the variation in patients’ perceptions of physical activity. Results: Four categories of descriptions were identified: (i) ‘self-management’, (ii) ‘instructions and support’, (iii) ‘fear of injury’ and (iv) ‘a wish to stay normal’. The categories could be interpreted by a two-dimensional construct: (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. Chronicity and behaviour combined together formed a 2?×?2 square housing the four qualitatively different categories. Irrespective of category, the participants reported that information given by caregivers regarding leg ulcer and physical activity was insufficient or contradictory. Written information or exercise programmes were not obtained regularly and not at all in primary care. Conclusion: A dichotomous view emerged from participants’ experiences of physical activity based on (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity.

Biguet, Gabriele; Elfving, Britt



A comparative clinical study on five types of compression therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers.  


The aim of this study was to compare five types of compression therapy in venous leg ulcers (intermittent pneumatic vs. stockings vs. multi layer vs. two layer short stretch bandages vs. Unna boots). Primary study endpoints were analysis of changes of the total ulcer surface area, volume and linear dimensions inside observed groups. The secondary end points were comparisons between all groups the number of completely healed wounds (ulcer healing rates), Gilman index and percentage change of ulcer surface area. In total, 147 patients with unilateral venous leg ulcers were included to this study. Participants were randomly allocated to the groups: A, B, C, D and E. After two months the healing rate was the highest in group A (intermittent pneumatic compression) - 57.14%, 16/28 patients, B (ulcer stocking system) - 56.66%, 17/30 patients and C (multi layer short stretch bandage) - 58.62%, 17/29 patients. Significantly much worse rate found in group D (two layer short stretch bandages) - only 16.66%, 5/30 patients and E (Unna boots) - 20%, 6/30 patients. The analysis of changes of the percentage of Gilman index and wound total surface area confirmed that intermittent pneumatic compression, stockings and multi layer bandages are the most efficient. The two layer short - stretch bandages and Unna boots appeared again much less effective. PMID:24396284

Dolibog, Pawel; Franek, Andrzej; Taradaj, Jakub; Dolibog, Patrycja; Blaszczak, Edward; Polak, Anna; Brzezinska-Wcislo, Ligia; Hrycek, Antoni; Urbanek, Tomasz; Ziaja, Jacek; Kolanko, Magdalena



Pentazocine-induced leg ulcers and fibrous papules.  


We herein describe a case of 55-year-old farmer, who presented with chronic non-healing ulcers over both shins of 4 years duration. Intravenous drug abuse was suspected due to inability to find any venous access and all peripheral veins being found thickened and fibrosed. There were multiple atrophic scars in linear distribution in all limbs as well as in both groins. In addition there were multiple discrete fibrous papules in linear distribution on both hands, which were more obvious on the left side. The patient denied abusing intravenous drugs. However, his relatives confirmed that he abused pentazocine for almost one year before his chronic pain in abdomen was treated by appendicectomy. With subsequent counseling, it was found that he continued to abuse pentazocine at times even after surgery leading to the non-healing of ulcers. PMID:17456919

De, Dipankar; Dogra, Sunil; Kanwar, Amrinder J



Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as a chronic leg ulcer: the importance of repeat tissue biopsy.  


Ulceration of the leg is often associated with significant consequences for both the individual and society. The diagnosis of chronic leg ulcer is not appropriate. Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCLBCL), leg type, is a distinct clinicopathological entity. Chemotherapy in the form of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin and prednisolone) is considered to be the first line of treatment for these lymphomas. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic leg ulcer with a first negative biopsy and a diagnosis of PCLBCL, leg type, verified on the subsequent biopsy. This case report emphasises the importance of differential diagnosis of lymphoma in non-healing ulcers and also the value of repeat tissue biopsy in cases with a negative initial result but strong clinical suspicion. PMID:21944785

Khan, Junaid Alam; Usman, Farooq; Abbasi, Shaista; Shoab, Syed Sulaiman



Overview of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of venous leg ulcers: a US perspective  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive care of chronic venous insufficiency and associated ulcers requires a multipronged and interprofessional approach to care. A comprehensive treatment approach includes exercise, nutritional assessment, compression therapy, vascular reconstruction, and advanced treatment modalities. National guidelines, meta-analyses, and original research studies provide evidence for the inclusion of these approaches in the patient plan of care. The purpose of this paper is to review present guidelines for prevention and treatment of venous leg ulcers as followed in the US. The paper further explores evidence-based yet pragmatic tools for the interprofessional team to use in the management of this complex disorder.

White-Chu, E Foy; Conner-Kerr, Teresa A



Radiation processed amniotic membranes in the treatment of non-healing ulcers of different etiologies.  


The amniotic membranes were collected from the placentae of selected and screened donors. Processing was done by washing the fresh amniotic membrane successively in sterile saline, 0.05% sodium hypochlorite solution and sterile distilled water until it was completely cleared of blood particles. The membranes were sterilized by gamma irradiation at 25 kGy. The processed amniotic membranes were applied to 50 open wounds comprising of 42 full thickness defects and eight partial thickness defects. These included leprotic, diabetic, traumatic, gravitational ulcers and superficial burn in the form of scald and corrosive burn. The radiation processed amniotic membranes favoured healing of unresponsive and non-healing ulcers of different etiologies. Ulcers with duration of minimum 3 weeks to maximum 12 months were found to heal in 2-6 weeks by the application of amniotic membranes. PMID:15241010

Singh, Rita; Chouhan, U S; Purohit, Sumita; Gupta, Pallavi; Kumar, Pawan; Kumar, Ashok; Chacharkar, M P; Kachhawa, Dilip; Ghiya, B C



Grafting of Venous Leg Ulcers: An Ultra-Individual Comparison between Cultured Skin Equivalents and Full Thickness Skin Punches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Skin equivalents, consisting of a non-contracted collagen gel populated with allogeneic fibroblasts and covered with autologous cultured keratinocytes were used for grafting of venous leg ulcers. The results were compared in the same patient with those ob...

M. A. E. Mol B. P. Nanninga J. P. van Eendenburg W. Westerhof C. J. W. van Ginkel



Educational challenges and requirements for managing leg ulcers in the community.  


The significant impact of leg ulcers upon quality of life and disease burden cannot be overemphasised, with the financial and economic impact from an individual, local and national perspective being widely acknowledged. This article attempts to highlight issues relating to education in leg ulcer management while identifying some current and emerging challenges faced in this area by professionals. With regard to education, formal training and perception of professionals, the provision of more specialised and focused training, increased use of patient-related outcome measures and the concept of knowledge brokering have been identified as important aspects in the planning and further development of education. Issues in the domains of community nursing, technology, pain management, nursing diagnosis, availability of research and recurrence were also highlighted. PMID:24912833

Martin, Fiona



The Use of Biatain Ag in Hard-to-Heal Venous Leg Ulcers: Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Venous leg ulcers are common, troublesome, and their failure to heal is often related to a heavy bio-burden. Ionized silver has both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The ulcer healing properties of the silver releasing foam dressing Biatain Ag has been examined in 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Aim To evaluate ulcer healing through a meta-analytic approach after treatment with either Biatain Ag or a non-active dressing. Patients and Methods 685 subjects with pure or mixed hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers were included in the meta-analysis. Results Biatain Ag showed a significant treatment effect (p<0.0001), responder rate (p<0.001), and healing rate (p?=?0.002). Conclusion The meta-analysis of the 4 RCTs provided statistical significant evidence to support the use of Biatain Ag dressing in treatment of hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers.

Leaper, David; Munter, Christian; Meaume, Sylvie; Scalise, Alessandro; Mompo, Nacho Blanes; Jakobsen, Birte Petersen; Gottrup, Finn



Larval therapy for leg ulcers (VenUS II): randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of larval therapy with a standard debridement technique (hydrogel) for sloughy or necrotic leg ulcers. Design Pragmatic, three armed randomised controlled trial. Setting Community nurse led services, hospital wards, and hospital outpatient leg ulcer clinics in urban and rural settings, United Kingdom. Participants 267 patients with at least one venous or mixed venous and arterial ulcer with at least 25% coverage of slough or necrotic tissue, and an ankle brachial pressure index of 0.6 or more. Interventions Loose larvae, bagged larvae, and hydrogel. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was time to healing of the largest eligible ulcer. Secondary outcomes were time to debridement, health related quality of life (SF-12), bacterial load, presence of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, adverse events, and ulcer related pain (visual analogue scale, from 0 mm for no pain to 150 mm for worst pain imaginable). Results Time to healing was not significantly different between the loose or bagged larvae group and the hydrogel group (hazard ratio for healing using larvae v hydrogel 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.68; P=0.54). Larval therapy significantly reduced the time to debridement (2.31, 1.65 to 3.2; P<0.001). Health related quality of life and change in bacterial load over time were not significantly different between the groups. 6.7% of participants had MRSA at baseline. No difference was found between larval therapy and hydrogel in their ability to eradicate MRSA by the end of the debridement phase (75% (9/12) v 50% (3/6); P=0.34), although this comparison was underpowered. Mean ulcer related pain scores were higher in either larvae group compared with hydrogel (mean difference in pain score: loose larvae v hydrogel 46.74 (95% confidence interval 32.44 to 61.04), P<0.001; bagged larvae v hydrogel 38.58 (23.46 to 53.70), P<0.001). Conclusions Larval therapy did not improve the rate of healing of sloughy or necrotic leg ulcers or reduce bacterial load compared with hydrogel but did significantly reduce the time to debridement and increase ulcer pain. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN55114812 and National Research Register N0484123692.



Role of lymphoscintigraphy in diagnosis and management of patients with leg swelling of unclear etiology  

PubMed Central

Background: To study the utility of lymphoscintigraphy in detection of lymphatic obstruction in patients with leg swelling of unclear etiology, selection of site for nodo venous shunt procedure, and follow-up lymphoscintigraphic documentation of improved lymph flow in surgically treated limb. Materials and Methods: Twenty four consecutive patients with leg swelling, 10 male, 14 female with mean age 47 years, range from 13 years to 74 years underwent lymphoscintigraphy. All patients were referred from Department of Plastic Surgery, after initial work-up, and routine investigations to rule out the other causes of leg swelling. Both clinical and scintigraphic staging performed for all patients. All clinically and scintigraphically positive patients treated with decongestive lymphatic therapy (DLT). In addition to the DLT, those patients positive for unilateral or bilateral lymphedema, consented for surgical intervention, nodo venous shunt (NVS) in their only affected or one of the two affected lower limbs. Follow-up lymphoscintigraphy performed in operated cases after 3 months to 6 months of surgery, lymphoscintigraphy images of each patient in pre and post-surgery compared. Results: In 20/24 cases (83%) of clinically positive leg swelling were found to be positive for lymphedema on lymphoscintigraphy and remaining, 4/24 were scintigraphically normal. Based on the clinical and lymphoscintigraphy staging, 03/20 cases (15%) had Grade I lymphedema, 01/20 (5%) Grade II lymphedema, 06/20 (30%) Grade III and remaining 10/20 (50%) had Grade IV lymphedema. 11/20 cases of Lymphedema (55%) were managed conservatively by only DLT and in remaining 09/20 cases (45%), who were case of Grade IV, lymphedema (five patients with unilateral and four patients with bilateral disease) initially treated with DLT, and on completion of DLT, undergone for NVS procedure, in their unilaterally affected lower limb or one of the two diseased lower limbs. All nine patients showed remarkable clinical improvement in leg swelling and their follow-up lymphoscintigraphy showed normal visualization of lymphatic channels. No patient developed any recurrence. Conclusion: Pre-operative functional evaluation of lymphatic channels using lymphoscintigraphy, is a widely available, simple imaging test and highly useful for documentation of lymphedema in patients with leg swelling of unclear etiology and also for exact localization of inguinal lymph nodes to perform the NVS procedure. Further, it can play important role for follow-up of patients receiving DLT or DLT with surgical intervention that provides early relief from clinical symptoms.

Kalawat, Tek Chand; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Reddy, Praveen Kumar; Suneetha, Batchu; Narayan, Ravishwar; Ravi, Parthsarthi



Efficacy of subfascial endoscopy in eradicating perforating veins of the lower leg and its relation with venous ulcer healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of subfascial endoscopy by use of a mediastinoscope in the identification and ligation of incompetent perforating veins in patients with venous ulceration of the lower leg.Methods: All patients who underwent subfascial endoscopy for venous ulceration between Jan. 1, 1994, and Mar. 1, 1995, at the Sint Franciscus Gasthuis in

E. G. J. M. Pierik; H. van Urk; C. H. A. Wittens



Daflon 500 mg and venous leg ulcer: new results from a meta-analysis.  


The objective of this study was to assess the effect of oral treatment with Daflon 500 mg (micronized purified flavonoid fraction [MPFF]) on leg ulcer healing. This study was conducted as a meta-analysis of randomized prospective studies using Daflon 500 mg as an adjunct to conventional treatment. Medical literature databases and the manufacturer's records were searched for relevant clinical trials. Five prospective, randomized, controlled studies in which 723 patients with venous ulcers were treated between 1996 and 2001 were identified. Conventional treatment (compression and local care) in addition to Daflon 500 mg 2 tablets daily was compared with conventional treatment plus placebo in two studies (n = 309), or with conventional treatment alone in three studies (n = 414). The primary end point was complete ulcer healing at 6 months. The results are expressed as a reduction in the relative risk (RRR) of healing with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Since, in the present case, the desired treatment effect is increased ulcer healing, RRR should be positive to indicate a benefit of adjunctive Daflon 500 mg over conventional therapy alone. Type 1 error was set at 5%. At 6 months, the chance of ulcer healing was 32% better in patients treated with adjunctive Daflon 500 mg than in those managed by conventional therapy alone (RRR, 32%; 95% CI, 3% to 70%). This difference was present from month 2 (RRR, 44%; 95% CI, 7% to 94%), and was associated with a shorter time to healing (16 weeks vs 21 weeks; p = 0.0034). The benefit of Daflon 500 mg was found in the subgroup of ulcers between 5 and 10 cm2 in area (RRR, 40%; 95% CI, 6% to 87%), as well as in patients with ulcers of 6 to 12 months' duration (RRR, 44%; 95% CI, 6% to 97%). These results confirm that venous ulcer healing is accelerated by Daflon 500 mg treatment. Daflon 500 mg might be a useful adjunct to conventional therapy in large and longstanding ulcers that might be expected to heal slowly. PMID:16193225

Smith, Philip Coleridge



Evaluation of the use of prognostic information for the care of individuals with venous leg ulcers or diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers.  


This is a randomized factorial design clinical trial that investigates the efficacy and feasibility of providing prognostic information on wound healing. Prognostic information was provided based on baseline or 4-week wound characteristics. Healing rates were then determined at 24 weeks for venous leg ulcers and 20 weeks for diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. Centers that had access to baseline information for venous leg ulcer prognosis had an odds ratio (OR) of healing of 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03, 1.95) while centers that had access to information at 4 weeks had an OR of healing of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.95) compared with controls. Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcer patients treated in centers that had been randomized to receive only 4-week prognostic information were more likely to heal than individuals seen in centers randomized to receive no intervention (OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.14). Our study found that it is feasible and efficacious to provide prognostic information on venous leg ulcers and diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers in a wound care setting using an existing administrative database. This intervention was easy to administer and likely had low associated costs. This method of dispersing prognostic information to healthcare providers should be expanded to include recently published treatment algorithms. PMID:19660039

Kurd, Shanu K; Hoffstad, Ole J; Bilker, Warren B; Margolis, David J



Use of amniotic membrane transplantation in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.  


Amniotic membrane (AM), the most internal placental membrane, has unique properties including antiadhesive effects, bacteriostatic, wound protection and pain-reduction properties, as well as epithelialization initialization capacities. Furthermore, AM is widely available and less costly than other bioengineered skin substitutes. In a prospective pilot study, we evaluated the safety, feasibility, and the effects on healing of AM graft in 15 patients with chronic venous leg ulcers. AM grafts were prepared from placentas harvested during cesarean section. All grafted AM had adhered to the wound bed 7 days after being applied with a 100% engraftment rate. The percentage of granulation tissue increased significantly (from 17% on day 0 to 69% on day 14, p<0.0001), along with a significant decrease of fibrinous slough (from 36% at day 0 to 16% at day 14, p<0.001). A significant clinical response occurred in 12 patients (80%) including complete healing (20%) in three during the 3-month follow-up period. The ulcer surface area decreased significantly from a mean value (+/- standard deviation) of 4.59 +/- 2.49 cm(2) at baseline to 2.91+/-2.01 cm(2) on day 30 (p<0.001). All patients experienced a significant reduction of ulcer-related pain rapidly after AM transplantation. No adverse events were recorded. AM transplantation seems to function as a safe substrate, promoting proper epithelialization while suppressing excessive fibrosis. Further advantages of biotherapy with AM are its easy and low-cost production, and that it can be applied as an ambulatory treatment without immobilization. AM transplantation may thus be considered to be an alternative method for treating chronic leg ulcers. PMID:17650088

Mermet, Isabelle; Pottier, Nathalie; Sainthillier, Jean Marie; Malugani, Carole; Cairey-Remonnay, Sandrive; Maddens, Stéphane; Riethmuller, Didier; Tiberghien, Pierre; Humbert, Philippe; Aubin, François



Iatrogenic Arteriovenous Fistula as a Cause for Leg Ulcers: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

An 80-year-old man presented with painful leg ulceration due to steal phenomenon from a groin arteriovenous fistula (AVF) 10 years following a coronary angiogram. The diagnosis of the AVF was confirmed by duplex examination of the groin vessels which demonstrated characteristic flow pattern in the femoral arterial and venous system. Angiography further confirmed the site of the fistulous communication and this was managed by a covered stent graft. We discuss the incidence of AVF, risk factors for its development, relevant diagnostic investigations and management options along with strategies to reduce the incidence of AVF following percutaneous punctures.

Mylankal, Kurian J; Johnson, Brian; Ettles, Duncan F




PubMed Central

Background: Therapeutic low-frequency ultrasound (US) has been used for many years to improve wound healing in chronic wounds like venous leg ulcers. No human data are available for the possible effects of single US applications on microcirculation and their frequency-dependency. Aims: To investigated the role of therapeutic low-frequency US on microcirculation of venous leg ulcers in vivo. Patients and Methods: This is a pilot study on an inpatient basis. We use a newly developed low-frequency continuous-wave US-equipment composed of a US transducer based on piezo-fiber composites that allow the change of frequency. In this study, we apply US of 34 kHz, 53.5 kHz, and 75 kHz respectively. Twelve patients with chronic venous leg ulcers are analyzed. As an adjunct to good ulcer care, therapeutic US is applied, non-contacting, once a day, in a subaqual position for 10 minutes. Microcirculation is assessed in the ulcers adjacent to skin before US-therapy, immediately after the treatment and 30 minutes later. We use a micro-light guide spectrophotometer (O2C, LEA Medizintechnik GmbH, Gie?en, Germany) for calculation of blood flow velocity, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SCO2) and relative hemoglobin concentration (rHb) in 2 and 8 mm depth. Contact-free remission spectroscopy (SkinREM3, Color Control Chemnitz GmbH, Chemnitz, Germany) allows contact free measurements in the VIS-NIR range of the spectrum (400 ± 1600 nm). Results: It is seen that therapeutic US is well tolerated. One patient dropped out from a treatment series since he developed erysipelas responding to standard antibiotic. Effects were seen at 34 kHz only. The SO2 values increased after single US application. The values for rHb were higher in the superficial layer of the wound bed (depth 2 mm) compared to deeper parts (8 mm depth). US treatment did not result in significant changes of rHb and blood cell velocity. The data obtained by remission spectroscopy disclose an increase of oxygenized hemoglobin. Conclusions: The major findings are that continuous-wave low-frequency US of 34 kHz, but not, 53.5 kHz or 75 kHz, has a temporary stimulatory effect on microcirculation mainly due to an improved oxygenation. Further studies with treatment series are necessary.

Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit; Naumann, Gunther; Scheibe, Armin; Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Neugebauer, Reimund



Patients' perceptions and experiences of venous leg ulceration and their attitudes to larval therapy: an in-depth qualitative study.  


BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers are a common and distressing condition that can impair quality of life. Larval therapy has been widely promoted for the treatment of different types of chronic wounds, yet little is known about its acceptability to patients. OBJECTIVES: To explore patients' experiences of venous leg ulceration and of the acceptability of larval therapy as a treatment. DESIGN: Qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews alongside a randomized controlled trial. Interview data were transcribed and analysed for thematic content. Data were collected from April 2007 to July 2007. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen people (12 men, 6 women), aged between 29 and 93 years (median age 64 years), with at least one venous leg ulcer, took part in the study. Fourteen people were recruited from two vascular clinics (one attached to a hospital and the other located in a community setting). A further four people were recruited through referral from a team of community nurses. FINDINGS: Participants portrayed lives blighted by the presence of one or more leg ulcers. The majority were willing to try 'maggots' (larvae) and able to overcome feelings of squeamishness because of their strong desire to heal their ulcers. Five people treated with larvae were included in the study. Initial improvements in the condition of their ulcers were not sustained, and two participants experienced severe pain. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Patients may hold unrealistic expectations that larval therapy will effect a longed-for cure for their leg ulcer(s) but an absence of healing may lead to feelings of disappointment or despair. PMID:23409783

McCaughan, Dorothy; Cullum, Nicky; Dumville, Joanne



Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease in a Sexually Transmitted Infection Reference Center in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the etiology and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) among patients presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil; and to compare a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of GUD with standard methods. Methods Ulcer swabs were collected and used for Tzanck test and processed in an M-PCR to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2), Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), and Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi). Sera were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Multivariable analysis was used to measure the association between clinical aspects and GUD. M-PCR results were compared with syphilis serology and Tzanck tests. Results Overall, 434 GUD samples were evaluated, 84.8% from men. DNA from HSV-2 was detected in 55.3% of GUD samples, T. pallidum in 8.3%, HSV-1 in 3.2%, and 32.5% of GUD specimens were negative for the DNA of all three pathogens. No cases of H. ducreyi were identified. HIV serology among GUD patients was 3.2%. Treponemal antibodies and Tzanck test positivity for genital herpes was detected in 25 (5.8%) and in 125 (30.3%) of GUD patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis genital herpes etiology by M-PCR was associated with the vesicular, multiple and recurrent lesions whereas T. pallidum with non-vesicular, non-recurrent lesions. Compared to M-PCR, syphilis serology was 27.8% sensitive and 96.2% specific whereas Tzanck test was 43.8% sensitive and 88.9% specific. Conclusions The predominance of genital herpes etiology suggests a revision of existing national syndromic treatment guidelines in Brazil to include antiherpetic treatment for all GUD patients. The use of M-PCR can significantly improve the diagnosis of GUD and provide a greater sensitivity than standard diagnostics.

Gomes Naveca, Felipe; Sabido, Meritxell; Amaral Pires de Almeida, Tatiana; Araujo Veras, Elaine; Contreras Mejia, Matilde del Carmen; Galban, Enrique; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz



[Lack of effect of oral zinc sulfate on wound healing in leg ulcer].  


The effect of oral zinc on the healing of chronic venous leg ulcers has been investigated in 91 hospitalized patients aged approximately 70 years. The patients were divided into three groups: group A consisted of patients with serum zinc concentrations in the upper normal range (Zn greater than or equal to 1.0 mg/l) who received no zinc therapy. Groups B and C consisted of patients with serum zinc concentrations in the lower normal range (Zn less than 1.0 mg/l) who received either 3 daily doses of 220 mg zinc sulphate (group B) or placebo (group C). In group B, a marked increase in serum zinc concentration occured within one month (from 0.9 to 1.25 mg/L). In group A, serum zinc levels decreased slightly during the observation period of three months (from 1.1 to 1.0 mg/l) while a slight rise was seen in group C (from 0.9 to 1.0 mg/l). The healing rate of the ulcers in group A was not superior to that in group C. Zinc substitution in the low zinc group B did not improve healing as compared to placebo-treated low zinc group C. A favourable effect of oral zinc on wound healing in patients with initially low serum zinc concentrations could not be demonstrated. Initial ulcer areas were significantly smaller in patients with higher serum zinc levels than in patients with lower serum zinc levels. Low serum zinc levels appear to be a consequence of insufficient nutrition, an observation which may indicate a correlation between nutritional deficiency and ulcer area. The healing rate did not depend significantly upon age, sex, weight or cause. It was, however, accelerated in the case of larger ulcers. PMID:7423160

Floersheim, G L; Lais, E



Evaluation of the use of prognostic information for the care of individuals with venous leg ulcers or diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers  

PubMed Central

This is a randomized factorial design clinical trial which investigates the efficacy and feasibility of providing prognostic information on wound healing. Prognostic information was provided based on baseline or four-week wound characteristics. Healing rates were then determined at 24 weeks for venous leg ulcers and 20 weeks for diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. Centers that had access to baseline information for venous leg ulcer prognosis had an OR of healing of 1.42 (95%CI: 1.03, 1.95) while centers that had access to information at four weeks had an OR of healing of 1.43 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.95) compared to controls. Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcer patients treated in centers that had been randomized to receive only four-week prognostic information were more likely to heal than individuals seen in centers randomized to receive no intervention (OR 1.50, 95%CI: 1.05, 2.14). Our study found that it is feasible and efficacious to provide prognostic information on venous leg and diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers in a wound care setting using an existing administrative database. This intervention was easy to administer and likely had low associated costs. This method of dispersing prognostic information to healthcare providers should be expanded to include recently published treatment algorithms.

Kurd, Shanu K.; Hoffstad, Ole J.; Bilker, Warren B.; Margolis, David J.



Therapeutic effectiveness of a Mimosa tenuiflora cortex extract in venous leg ulceration treatment.  


The cortex of Mimosa tenuiflora is a popular remedy utilized in Mexico for the treatment of skin lesions. Modern studies support the existence in this cortex of compounds with cicatrizing properties. In the present study the therapeutic effectiveness of an extract elaborated with this bark in the treatment of venous leg ulceration disease was explored. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with ambulatory patients distributed into two groups, one receiving a hydrogel containing 5% of a crude extract standardized in its tannin concentration (1.8%), while the control group, was administered the same hydrogel but without addition of the extract. In both aseptic washings were performed initially followed by topical application of the corresponding hydrogel and dressing. Follow-up lasted 13 weeks and ulcer healing was determined through measurement of the lesion area by digital-photographic parameters. Therapeutic effectiveness occurred in all patients of the extract group; after the 8th treatment week, ulcer size was reduced by 92% as mean value in this group, whereas therapeutic effectiveness was observed only in one patient of the control group (chi(2), p=0.0001). No side effects were observed in any patient in either group. PMID:17088036

Rivera-Arce, Erika; Chávez-Soto, Marco Antonio; Herrera-Arellano, Armando; Arzate, Silvia; Agüero, Juan; Feria-Romero, Iris Angélica; Cruz-Guzmán, Angélica; Lozoya, Xavier



US skin disease assessment: ulcer and wound care.  


Chronic ulcers are a growing cause of patient morbidity and contribute significantly to the cost of health care in the United States. The most common etiologies of chronic ulcers include venous leg ulcers (VLUs), pressure ulcers (PrUs), diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers (DFUs), and leg ulcers of arterial insufficiency. Chronic wounds account for an estimated $6 to $15 billion annually in US health care costs; however, it is difficult to get accurate measurements on this, because these patients are often seen in a variety of settings or simply fail to access the health care system. PMID:22117872

Markova, Alina; Mostow, Eliot N



Involvement of IL-1 and oncostatin M in acanthosis associated with hypertensive leg ulcer.  


Hypertensive leg ulcer (HLU) is an inflammatory disease characterized by intense pain, alteration of vascularization, and skin necrosis. The optimal treatment relies on surgical removal of necrotic tissues covered by a split-skin graft. We studied the histomorphology of the lesions and investigated the involvement of inflammatory cells and cytokines to further define the physiopathology of HLU. We report epidermis acanthosis and a preferential occlusion of the precapillary arterioles with infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages, and T lymphocytes in the dermis. OSM, IL-1?, and IL-6 were overexpressed in the ulcer, whereas the Th17-derived cytokines were not. In vitro, the addition of IL-1? and OSM promoted acanthosis and destructuring of reconstructed epidermis. Exogenous IL-1? and OSM synergistically induced epidermal acanthosis in mice. These data show that OSM and IL-1? are not only a biological characteristic signature of HLU, but these cytokines reflect a specific inflammatory state, directly involved in the pathogenesis. We suggest that anti-cytokine biotherapies could be an alternative strategy to surgery to treat HLU. PMID:23313749

Giot, Jean-Philippe; Paris, Isabelle; Levillain, Pierre; Huguier, Vincent; Charreau, Sandrine; Delwail, Adrianna; Garcia, Martine; Garnier, Julien; Bernard, François-Xavier; Dagregorio, Guy; Guillet, Gérard; Morel, Franck; Lecron, Jean-Claude; Favot, Laure



The effect of lymphatico-venous anastomosis for an intractable ulcer at the lower leg in a marked obese patient.  


Secondary lymphedema occurs after trauma, cancer surgery, or obesity, and wounds in lymphedema can easily become intractable. We report positive results using lymphatico-venous anastomosis (LVA) to treat a post-traumatic lymph fistula and an intractable ulcer in a severely obese patient. A 41-year-old male (BMI 51.8), one year prior, had a traffic injury, and had an 18-cm contusion in his right leg. Six months later, lymph leakage in a 14 cm?×?8 cm region and a 5 cm?×?3 cm skin ulcer occurred in the center of the wound. We made a diagnosis of lymphedema resulting from obesity, accompanied with lymphorrhea and intractable ulcer. He was unable to reach his legs owing to obesity, making complex physical therapy impossible. We performed LVA under local anesthesia. The lymphorrhea healed 2 weeks after the operation and had not recurred 3 months after the operation. The leg lymphedema improved after the surgery without the compression therapy. In cases of intractable ulcers, suspected of being caused by lymphostasis, treatments indicated for lymphedema, for example LVA, may possibly allow satisfactory wound healing. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:64-67, 2014. PMID:24038321

Mihara, Makoto; Hara, Hisako; Todokoro, Takeshi; Seki, Yukio; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao; Murai, Noriyuki





An ulcer is a crater-like sore on the skin or mucous membrane . Ulcers form when the top layers of skin or ... Ulcers can be caused by inflammation or infection. Some ulcers may be caused by a cancer.


A review of a bi-layered living cell treatment (Apligraf ®) in the treatment of venous leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers  

PubMed Central

Apligraf® (Organogenesis, Canton, MA) is a bi-layered bioengineered skin substitute and was the first engineered skin US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved to promote the healing of ulcers that have failed standard wound care. Constructed by culturing human foreskin-derived neonatal fibroblasts in a bovine type I collagen matrix over which human foreskin-derived neonatal epidermal keratinocytes are then cultured and allowed to stratify, Apligraf provides both cells and matrix for the nonhealing wound. Its exact mechanism of action is not known, but it is known to produce cytokines and growth factors similar to healthy human skin. Initially approved by the FDA in 1998 for the treatment of venous ulcers greater than one-month duration that have not adequately responded to conventional therapy, Apligraf later received approval in 2000 for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers of greater than three weeks duration. Herein, we review the use of Apligraf in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers. Our goal is to provide a working understanding of appropriate patient selection and proper use of the product for any physician treating this segment of the aging population.

Zaulyanov, Larissa; Kirsner, Robert S



Water vapour transmission rates in burns and chronic leg ulcers: influence of wound dressings and comparison with in vitro evaluation.  


One of the main functions of wound dressings is to control water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) from wounded skin. In this paper, the influence of hydrocolloid, knitted viscose and gauze dressings was evaluated through in vivo measurement of WVTR in burns and chronic leg ulcers utilizing an evaporimeter. The results suggest that the evaporative water vapour loss from exposed skin wounds depends mainly on the wound depth, and that chronic leg ulcers have the same level of the WVTR as full thickness burns. Compared with the knitted viscose and gauze dressings, hydrocolloid dressing has a greater effect on reducing evaporative water loss, with WVTR being 20-30% of that of exposed wounds under the conditions used in this study. This result is in agreement with that obtained in an in vitro evaluation. PMID:8830962

Wu, P; Nelson, E A; Reid, W H; Ruckley, C V; Gaylor, J D



An adolescent with sickle cell anaemia experiencing disease-related complications: priapism and leg ulcer - a management challenge  

PubMed Central

Sickle-cell anaemia (SCA) is a multi-system disease, associated with episodes of acute illness and progressive organ damage. Disease severity shows substantial variation and it is often a burden for adolescents. Complications such as leg ulcer and priapism have a significant impact on quality of life. There are still no definitive treatment guidelines available. Considering the embarrassing nature of priapism and the dire consequences for erectile dysfunction, it is important to inform patients, parents and providers about the relationship of SCA to prolonged painful erections. This article will review the pathophysiology and treatment options of SCA focusing the complications of leg ulcers, priapism, cholelithiasis and retinopathy. The case study of a 14-year-old boy is used to present a management challenge of multiple SCA-related complications.

Vasconcelos, Alexandra; Prior, Ana Rita; Ferrao, Anabela; Morais, Anabela



Oxidant and Antioxidant Status of Patients with Chronic Leg Ulcer Before and After Low Intensity Laser Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Low level (intensity) Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been shown to have biostimulatory effects on wounds however, the precise mechanism\\u000a remains unclear. Recently antioxidants have been reported to play a significant role in the wound healing process. Twenty\\u000a two patients suffering from chronic leg ulcers were exposed to three sessions per week of 632.8 nm He–Ne laser irradiation\\u000a at energy density

M. E. E. Batanouny; S. Korraa; A. Kamali


State-of-the-art treatment of chronic leg ulcers: a randomized controlled trial comparing vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C.) with modern wound dressings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers are time consuming, expensive, and only moderately successful. Recent data suggest that creating a subatmospheric pressure by vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C., KCI Concepts, San Antonio, Texas) therapy supports the wound healing process. Methods: The efficacy of vacuum-assisted closure in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers was prospectively studied in a randomized controlled trial

Jeroen D. D. Vuerstaek; Tryfon Vainas; Jan Wuite; Patty Nelemans; Martino H. A. Neumann; Joep C. J. M. Veraart


Neutrophil activity in chronic venous leg ulcers--A target for therapy?  

PubMed Central

Chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) affect approximately 600,000 people annually in the United States and accrue yearly treatment costs of US$2.5–5 billion. As the population ages, demands on health care resources for CVLU treatments are predicted to drastically increase because the incidence of CVLUs is highest in those ?65 years of age. Furthermore, regardless of current standards of care, healing complications and high recurrence rates prevail. Thus, it is critical that factors leading to or exacerbating CVLUs be discerned and more effective, adjuvant, evidence-based treatment strategies be utilized. Previous studies have suggested that CVLUs’ pathogenesis is related to the prolonged presence of high numbers of activated neutrophils secreting proteases in the wound bed that destroy growth factors, receptors, and the extracellular matrix that are essential for healing. These events are believed to contribute to a chronically inflamed wound that fails to heal. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to review studies from the past 15 years (1996–2011) that characterized neutrophil activity in the microenvironment of human CVLUs for new evidence that could explicate the proposed relationship between excessive, sustained neutrophil activity and CVLUs. We also appraised the strength of evidence for current and potential therapeutics that target excessive neutrophil activity.

McDaniel, Jodi C.; Roy, Sashwati; Wilgus, Traci A.



Economic Evaluation of the Treatment of Chronic Wounds: Hydroactive Wound Dressings in Combination with Enzymatic Ointment Versus Gauze Dressings in Patients with Pressure Ulcer and Venous Leg Ulcer in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The treatment costs for pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers were estimated based on the hospital administrator's perspective in Germany. Design: A spreadsheet model using input data from various hospitals in Germany was developed. Interventions: Five currently used treatment strategies were analysed: gauze, impregnated gauze, calcium alginate and hydroactive wound dressing with enzymatic ointment. Participants: All cases used for

Rito Bergemann; Karl W. Lauterbach; Wolfgang Vanscheidt; Klaus-Dieter Neander; Reinhard Engst



Factors influencing the implementation of a lifestyle counseling program in patients with venous leg ulcers: a multiple case study  

PubMed Central

Background Implementation of lifestyle interventions in patient care is a major challenge. Understanding factors that influence implementation is a first step in programs to enhance uptake of these interventions. A lifestyle-counseling intervention, Lively Legs, delivered by trained nurses, can effectively improve the lifestyle in patients with venous leg ulcers. The aim of this study was to identify factors that hindered or facilitated implementation of this intervention in outpatient dermatology clinics and in home care. Methods A mixed-methods multiple case study in five purposefully selected healthcare settings in the Netherlands was conducted. Measurements to identify influencing factors before and after implementation of Lively Legs included interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and nurses’ registration. Analyses focused on qualitative data as the main data source. All data were compared across multiple cases to draw conclusions from the study as a whole. Results A total of 53 patients enrolled in the Lively Legs program, which was delivered by 12 trained nurses. Barriers for implementation were mainly organizational. It was difficult to effectively organize reaching and recruiting patients for the program, especially in home care. Main barriers were a lack of a standardized healthcare delivery process, insufficient nursing time, and a lack of motivated nurses to deliver the program. Facilitating factors were nurse-driven coordination of care and a standardized care process to tie Lively Legs into, as this resulted in better patient recruitment and better program implementation. Conclusions This study identified a range of factors influencing the implementation of a lifestyle-counseling program, mainly related to the organization of healthcare. Using a case study method proved valuable in obtaining insight into influencing factors for implementation. This study also shed light on a more general issue, which is that leg ulcer care is often fragmented, indicating that quality improvement is needed.



Factors that influence healing of chronic venous leg ulcers: a retrospective cohort*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Venous ulcers have a significant impact on patient quality of life, and constitute a worldwide public health problem. Treatment is complex, with high failure rates. OBJECTIVES To identify clinical and therapeutic factors that influence healing of venous ulcers. METHODS Retrospective cohort study of patients with venous ulcers. Ulcer area was measured at the first visit (T0) and after 6 months (T6) and 1 year (T12). A reduction in ulcer area of 50% or more at T6 and T12 was the outcome of interest, weighted by clinical, demographic and treatment aspects. RESULTS Ninety-four patients were included (137 ulcers). A reduction in ulcer area of 50% or more was seen in 40.1% of patients (95%CI 31.9 to 48.4%) at T6 and 49.6% (95%CI 41.2 to 58.1%) at T12. Complete healing occurred in 16.8% (95%CI 10.5 to 23.1%) at T6 and 27% (95%CI 19.5 to 39.5%) at T12. The lowest ulcer area reductions at T6 were associated with longstanding ulcer (RR=0.95; 95%CI 0.91 to 0.98), poor adherence to compression therapy (RR=4.04; 95%CI 1.31 to 12.41), and infection episodes (RR= 0.42; 95%CI 0.23 to 0.76). At T12, lower reductions were associated with longstanding ulcer (RR=0.95; 95%CI 0.92 to 0.98), longer topical antibiotic use (RR=0.93; 95%CI 0.87 to 0.99), and systemic antibiotic use (RR=0.63; 95%CI 0.40 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS Longstanding ulcer, infection, poor adherence to compression therapy, and longer topical and systemic antibiotic use were independently correlated with worse healing rates.

Scotton, Marilia Formentini; Miot, Helio Amante; Abbade, Luciana Patricia Fernandes



Effectiveness and safety of a novel gel dressing in the management of neuropathic leg ulcers in diabetic patients: a prospective double-blind randomized trial.  


Neuropathic leg ulcers (NLUs) affect more than 10% of diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and represent the most common cause of ulceration of the leg in these patients. Though their pathogenesis is well known, related to the chronic neuropathic edema, the management of NLUs, mainly based on elastocompression, is still controversial, with lower healing rates than nondiabetic venous leg ulcers. The authors tested if a novel gel formulation, containing amino acids and hyaluronic acid (Vulnamin)gel; Errekappa, Milan, Italy), will improve the outcomes of NLUs when used together with elastocompression. Thirty patients affected by NLU were randomized into 2 groups, both treated with 4-layer elastocompressive bandaging: patients in group A were topically treated with the application of Vulnamin) gel, whereas patients in group B received only the inert gel vehicle. The healing rate at 3 months was evaluated as the primary endpoint, whereas the secondary endpoints were healing time, reduction in ulcer area and ulceration score in 4 weeks, number of infective complications, and overall satisfaction of patients. Healing rate was significantly (P < .05) higher in patients in group A when compared with those in group B; healing time, patients' satisfaction, and reduction in ulcer area and ulceration score in 4 weeks were also higher in patients in group A. However, no significant differences were found in the prevalence of infections and other adverse events. The use of Vulnamin) gel with elastocompression is safe and effective in the management of NLUs of diabetic patients. PMID:19703948

Abbruzzese, L; Rizzo, L; Fanelli, G; Tedeschi, A; Scatena, A; Goretti, C; Macchiarini, S; Piaggesi, A



Cost-Effective Use of Silver Dressings for the Treatment of Hard-to-Heal Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Aim To estimate the cost-effectiveness of silver dressings using a health economic model based on time-to-wound-healing in hard-to-heal chronic venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Background Chronic venous ulceration affects 1–3% of the adult population and typically has a protracted course of healing, resulting in considerable costs to the healthcare system. The pathogenesis of VLUs includes excessive and prolonged inflammation which is often related to critical colonisation and early infection. The use of silver dressings to control this bioburden and improve wound healing rates remains controversial. Methods A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatment with silver compared with non-silver dressings for four weeks in a primary care setting. The outcomes: ‘Healed ulcer’, ‘Healing ulcer’ or ‘No improvement’ were developed, reflecting the relative reduction in ulcer area from baseline to four weeks of treatment. A data set from a recent meta-analysis, based on four RCTs, was applied to the model. Results Treatment with silver dressings for an initial four weeks was found to give a total cost saving (£141.57) compared with treatment with non-silver dressings. In addition, patients treated with silver dressings had a faster wound closure compared with those who had been treated with non-silver dressings. Conclusion The use of silver dressings improves healing time and can lead to overall cost savings. These results can be used to guide healthcare decision makers in evaluating the economic aspects of treatment with silver dressings in hard-to-heal chronic VLUs.

Jemec, Gregor B. E.; Kerihuel, Jean Charles; Ousey, Karen; Lauem?ller, Sanne Lise; Leaper, David John



Empowering patients to take control of leg ulcer treatment through individualised management.  


Leg Clubs have been established to empower patients to become stakeholders in their own treatment. This case report describes how attendance at a Leg Club resulted in healing in a patient who previously was non-concordant with treatment. PMID:15909442

Hampton, S; Lindsay, E



Stasis Ulcer  


... ulcer is greater if you: Are overweight. Have varicose veins. Have had blood clots in your legs. Had ... area on the lower leg may be affected. Varicose veins may be present. Sometimes there are hard, tender ...


/sup 201/Tl perfusion study of ''ischemic'' ulcers of the leg: prognostic ability compared with Doppler ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

Thallium 201 perfusion analysis was compared with Doppler ultrasound as a means of determining the healing potential of an ischemic ulcer of the leg in 27 patients. The degree of hyperemia was determined by comparative point counting of the 201Tl distribution in and about the ulcer. Using established Doppler criteria and a hyperemia ratio greater than 1.5:1, ultrasound alone correctly predicted healing in 15 out of 23 cases and 201Tl in 20 out of 23. Ultrasound correctly predicted non-healing in 3 out of 6 cases, compared with 5 out of 6 for 201Tl. The positive predictive value of the 201Tl study was 63%, versus 27% for ultrasound, and the negative predictive value was 95% for 201Tl and 83% for ultrasound. The accuracy of 201Tl and ultrasound was 86% and 62%, respectively. This limited study suggests that 201Tl perfusion scanning is a useful noninvasive test of ulcer healing potential and may be more sensitive than Doppler ultrasound.

Siegel, M.E.; Stewart, C.A.; Kwong, P.; Sakimura, I.



Ulcerative Sarcoidosis Successfully Treated with Apligraf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of a 73-year-old female patient is reported with a 25-year-long history of widespread cutaneous sarcoidosis without any known extracutaneous manifestations. The skin manifestations started with erythematous and plaque-like lesions that had ulcerated on the legs for the last half-year. A relevant venous insufficiency or other etiology of the ulcers could not be found. Histology from lesions of the

M. Streit; L. M. Böhlen; L. R. Braathen



Wound healing of chronic leg ulcers under the influence of erysipelas.  


We report four patients with long-lasting therapy-resistant ulcus cruris, on which a new erysipelas was superimposed. In one case there was a total closure of the ulcers under the erysipelas. In three patients a reduction in size occurred. All ulcers became flatter. Other stimuli of wound healing were excluded. Because of the long-lasting existence and well known therapy resistance in each case, these changes suggest a positive effect of the erysipelas on the healing of the ulcers. We assume that serum cytokines could offer a possible explanation for this. The concentrations of the IL-6 and IL-2-receptor were initially raised and then later decreased in three of the four cases. Because of the complex stimulation and regulation mechanisms in the cytokine network which are triggered by inflammation, systemic and local effects of keratinocytes, monocytes/macrophages, fibroblasts and endothelium cells could also be assumed to support wound healing. PMID:14965798

Trebing, Dietrich; Göring, Hans-Dieter



Success Rate of Split-Thickness Skin Grafting of Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers Depends on the Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Retrospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last years of research have proposed that bacteria might be involved in and contribute to the lack of healing of chronic wounds. Especially it seems that Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a crucial role in the healing. At Copenhagen Wound Healing Centre it was for many years clinical suspected that once chronic venous leg ulcers were colonized (weeks or months preoperatively)

Trine Høgsberg; Thomas Bjarnsholt; Jens Schiersing Thomsen; Klaus Kirketerp-Møller; Markus M. Heimesaat



Targeting Cx43 and N-Cadherin, Which Are Abnormally Upregulated in Venous Leg Ulcers, Influences Migration, Adhesion and Activation of Rho GTPases  

PubMed Central

Background Venous leg ulcers can be very hard to heal and represent a significant medical need with no effective therapeutic treatment currently available. Principal Findings In wound edge biopsies from human venous leg ulcers we found a striking upregulation of dermal N-cadherin, Zonula Occludens-1 and the gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43) compared to intact skin, and in stark contrast to the down-regulation of Cx43 expression seen in acute, healing wounds. We targeted the expression of these proteins in 3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate their role in venous leg ulcers healing. Knockdown of Cx43 and N-cadherin, but not Zonula Occludens-1, accelerated cell migration in a scratch wound-healing assay. Reducing Cx43 increased Golgi reorientation, whilst decreasing cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, Connexin43 and N-cadherin knockdown led to profound effects on fibroblast cytoskeletal dynamics after scratch-wounding. The cells exhibited longer lamelipodial protrusions lacking the F-actin belt seen at the leading edge in wounded control cells. This phenotype was accompanied by augmented activation of Rac-1 and RhoA GTPases, as revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and pull down experiments. Conclusions Cx43 and N-cadherin are potential therapeutic targets in the promotion of healing of venous leg ulcers, by acting at least in part through distinct contributions of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and cytoskeletal dynamics.

Mendoza-Naranjo, Ariadna; Cormie, Peter; Serrano, Antonio E.; Hu, Rebecca; O'Neill, Shay; Wang, Chiuhui Mary; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Power, Kieran T.; White, Alexis; Serena, Thomas; Phillips, Anthony R. J.; Becker, David L.



Systematic review of economic evaluations of human cell-derived wound care products for the treatment of venous leg and diabetic foot ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering is an emerging field. Novel bioengineered skin substitutes and genetically derived growth factors offer innovative approaches to reduce the burden of diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers for both patients and health care systems. However, they frequently are very costly. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this study assesses the cost-effectiveness of these growth factors

Astrid Langer; Wolf Rogowski



Leg ulcer as a complication of a posttraumatic tibial arteriovenous fistula treated by endovascular approach with stent-graft placement.  


Endovascular treatment of posttraumatic arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) in the lower extremities by means of covered stent-grafts is widely accepted, and many cases have been reported in the iliac-femoral region. However, few reports exist on the treatment of infrapopliteal AVFs, with or without a pseudoaneurysm, using this method. The authors present this case report dealing with a patient who had undergone a tibial and peroneal open fracture in his left limb 34 years ago. He developed a leg ulcer as a consequence of AVF between the tibialis posterior artery and vein, which resulted in venous insufficiency, which was treated by the endovascular approach with the placement of a stent-graft. Total healing was achieved over a period of 3 months. Angio-CT was performed, showing stent-graft patency 6 months after the endovascular procedure. PMID:22843636

Rabellino, Martín; Shinzato, Sergio; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Peralta, Oscar; Marenchino, Ricardo; García-Mónaco, Ricardo



[Endoscopic subfascial dissection of venous perforants in treatment of venous trophic ulcers of the legs].  


Endoscopic subfascial dissection was performed in patients with chronic venous insufficiency of CEAP class 4-6. 76 surgeries were performed in 68 patients. Mean age of the patients was 56 years. The causes of chronic venous insufficiency were varicose (37) and postthrombotic diseases. Trophic ulcers were in 46 patients. Thirty patients underwent earlier various phlebectomies, including Linton's surgery (6 patients). In 33 patients endoscopic subfascial dissection of venous perforants was combined with various phlebectomy, in 37 patients -- with excision of ulcer with following autodermoplasty few days after surgery. Endoscopic subfascial dissection was carried out with special surgical R.Wolf endoscope with 6 mm instrumental canal, and also standard laparoscopic optical devices "Olympus". Complications during surgery were seen in 2 patients: bleeding in subfascial space (1.3%) and perforation of tissues in ulcer zone (1.3%). In postoperative period long (up to 14 days) lymphorrhea and suppuration of surgical wound were in 2 (2.6%) patients. It is concluded that endoscopic approach is optimal for elimination of pathological reflux through venous perforants in complicated forms of chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities, including trophic ulcers resistant to treatment. PMID:16007017

Shishin, K V; Strekalovski?, V P; Starkov, Iu G; Svetukhin, A M; Askerov, N G; Sapelkin, S V



Stasis dermatitis and ulcers  


Bacterial skin infections Chronic leg ulcers Infection of bone Permanent scar ... Call your health care provider if you develop leg swelling or symptoms ... that looks like pus Open skin sores (ulcers) Pain Redness


A budget impact analysis comparing a Hydrofiber(®) ; dressing to an alginate dressing in managing exuding venous leg ulcers in France.  


An Excel model was developed to compare total costs (including primary and secondary dressings only) of Hydrofiber(®) ; dressing (2010 branded price) versus an alginate dressing (generic or branded price) in managing exuding venous leg ulcers considering mean wear time and mean duration of exudate management phase, from the French Social Security perspective over 5 years (2011-2015). Budget impact (based on prevalence of venous leg ulcers in France) was estimated as the difference between scenario 1 (Hydrofiber(®) ; versus alginate dressing usage proportion increasing slightly per year) and Scenario2 (proportion remaining at 2010 levels). Annual costs and net savings per patient for the dressings were calculated in analyses 1 and 2. Analysis 1 (28-day mean exudate management phase for both Hydrofiber(®) ; and alginate dressing groups): total costs 66·82€ Hydrofiber(®) ;, 70·08€ generic alginate, 77·0€ branded alginate; net savings 3·26€ and 10·18€ for Hydrofiber(®) ; versus generic and branded alginate. Analysis 2 (mean exudate management phase of 22·2 versus 28 days for Hydrofiber(®) ; versus alginate): total costs 52·92€, 70·08€ and 77·0€, and net savings 17·10€ and 24·02€, accordingly. Total cost savings (budget impact scenario 1 minus scenario 2): Analysis 1 - 223 107€ and 696 304€ for Hydrofiber(®) ; versus generic and branded alginate dressings, respectively; Analysis 2 - 1 169 845€ and 1 643 042€ accordingly. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results are reliable. This conservative analysis shows that effective exudate management using Hydrofiber(®) ; dressing can produce sizeable cost savings. PMID:23020759

Yan, Songkai; Colin, Xavier; Coudray-Omnès, Carole; Guido-Morin, Pascale; Kommala, Dheerendra R





... and cause ulcers. Anti-inflammatory drugs include aspirin, ibuprofen (one brand name: Motrin), naproxen (brand name: Aleve), ... Avoid anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Avoid caffeine and alcohol (or have them only ...


[A case of mycoplasma hominis infection on chronic refractory lower leg ulceration caused by livedo vasculopathy].  


Mycoplasma hominis is a common inhabitant of the human urogenital tract and most frequently causes diseases of the genitourinary tract. Extragenital M. hominis infections are uncommon, with almost all occurring in immunosuppressed persons or those predisposed due to surgery or trauma. We report a case of non surgical, non-traumatic wound infection caused by M. hominis. A 28-year-old immunocompetent woman with livedo vasculopathy had an open wound on dorsum of her right foot with signs and symptoms of infection. However, gram staining of the wound swab demonstrated no microorganisms, and initial bacterial cultures did not reveal any microbial growth. After 2 days of culture, minute translucent colonies were appeared and subsequently identified as M. hominis. She was successfully treated with levofloxacin(LVFX). For the patient's being immune-competent, this infection seems to need a substantial bacterial transfer from the inhabitant organ. The transfer is likely mediated by the fluid's drop, for anatomical locations of vagina and the infection site on leg. Namely, the hinder leg infection is suspected to be caused by continual and heavy bacterial exposure originated from the vaginal M. hominis. This clinical case suggests that infections may occur even in normal immunological status if the site is close to, and lacks anatomical barrier from, the M. hominis inhabitant organ. Especially in infection at chronic refractory lower leg ulceraion, M. hominis should be considered as a causative organism. PMID:23383571

Yamakami, Shinji; Mikami, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kazuko; Saya, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Chie; Eto, Hikaru; Takeda, Kyoko



A prospective, randomized trial of Unna's boot versus Duoderm CGF hydroactive dressing plus compression in the management of venous leg ulcers.  


Leg ulcers caused by chronic venous insufficiency plague an estimated 500,000 Americans, but there have been few improvements in conservative treatment in this century, and Unna's boot continues to be a mainstay of therapy. A recent report suggests that Duoderm CGF dressing provides greater patient comfort and enhanced compliance, but Duoderm alone (without compression) resulted in slower healing compared with Unna's boot. We enrolled 30 patients (30 ulcers) in a clinical trial to compare Duoderm CGF plus compression (Coban wrap) to Unna's boot. No significant difference was observed between the two groups with respect to age, sex, initial ulcer area, ulcer duration, or extent of venous insufficiency by duplex scan. Eight of 16 ulcers (50%) in the Duoderm group healed completely versus 6 of 14 ulcers (43%) in the Unna's boot group (p = 0.18). Healing rates (square centimeters per week) correlated significantly with initial ulcer area and initial ulcer perimeter for both groups but best correlated with initial ulcer perimeter (r = 0.88 with Duoderm, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.80 with Unna's boot, p less than 0.002). After adjusting for differences in initial ulcer perimeter, healing rates were significantly faster for patients on Duoderm than patients on Unna's boot during the first 4 weeks of therapy (0.384 +/- 0.059 cm2/wk/cm perimeter for Duoderm versus 0.135 +/- 0.043 cm2/wk/cm perimeter for Unna's boot; p = 0.002). At 12 weeks patients on Duoderm again appeared to heal faster than those on Unna's boot, although the result did not reach statistical significance (0.049 +/- 0.007 cm2/wk/cm perimeter for Duoderm versus 0.020 +/- 0.017 for Unna's boot, p = 0.11).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1538504

Cordts, P R; Hanrahan, L M; Rodriguez, A A; Woodson, J; LaMorte, W W; Menzoian, J O



Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in venous leg ulcer healing: a double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo trial in 107 patients.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Daflon 500 mg (Dios)* in venous ulcers. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo (Plac) trial was conducted, with stratification according to the size of ulcer (< or = 10 cm and > 10 cm). The protocol called for a two-month treatment with Dios (one tablet = 450 mg micronized purified Diosmin) or a placebo, two tablets/day, in addition to compression therapy. Evaluations were performed every fifteen days, from D0 to D60. The primary endpoint, in accordance with Alexander House group requirements were: percentage of patients with complete ulcer healing, ie, comparison between Dios and Plac group at D60, and comparison of survival curves in each group between D0 and D60 (log rank test). Secondary endpoints included ulcer surface area assessed by computerized planimetric measurements, qualitative evaluation of ulcers, and symptoms. The patients were 105 men and women ranging in age from eighteen to eighty-five years, with standard compression stocking, who were undergoing standardized local care of ulcer and had no significant arterial disease (ankle/arm systolic pressure index > 0.8). Fifty-three patients received Dios, and 52 received Plac. The 2 groups were well matched for age (m +/- 1 SD = seventy-one +/- eleven years), gender, ulcer size, and associated disorders. Among patients with ulcer size < or = 10 cm (Dios = 44, Plac = 47) a significantly larger number of patients had a complete ulcer healing at two months in the Dios group (n = 14) in comparison with the Plac group (n = 6) (32% vs 13%, P = 0.028) with a significantly shorter time duration of healing (P = 0.037). No difference was shown for the secondary criteria, except for sensation of heavy legs (P = 0.039) and a less atonic aspect of ulcer (P = 0.030) in favor of Dios. Among the 14 patients with ulcer size > 10 cm (Dios = 9, Plac = 5), subjected to a descriptive analysis only, no ulcer healed. This study showed that a two-month course of Daflon 500 mg at a daily dose of two tablets, in addition to conventional treatment, is of benefit in patients with venous ulcer < or = 10 cm by accelerating complete healing. PMID:8995348

Guilhou, J J; Dereure, O; Marzin, L; Ouvry, P; Zuccarelli, F; Debure, C; Van Landuyt, H; Gillet-Terver, M N; Guillot, B; Levesque, H; Mignot, J; Pillion, G; Février, B; Dubeaux, D



Tolerability and efficacy of N-chlorotaurine in comparison with chloramine T for the treatment of chronic leg ulcers with a purulent coating: a randomized phase II study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background The well-known active chlorine compound chloramine T (CAT) with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity is in common therapeutic use for leg ulcers with purulent coatings; however, this treatment is painful. The tolerability of the less aggressive N-chlorotaurine (NCT), an endogenous compound also produced in vivo by stimulated human granulocytes, could be superior. Objectives To assess the tolerability and efficacy of

M. Nagl; V. A. Nguyen; W. Gottardi; H. Ulmer; R. Hopfl



Pain and quality of life for patients with venous leg ulcers: proof of concept of the efficacy of BiatainR-Ibu, a new pain reducing wound dressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wound pain is a serious problem for elderly patients suffering from chronic leg ulcers, and it may lead to reduced wound healing rates and reduced quality of life. Biatains-Ibu Non-adhesive (Coloplast A\\/S), a new pain-reducing moist wound healing dressing containing ibuprofen was tested for pain reduction, safety, and efficacy on 1012 patients in a single-blinded crossover study against Biatain Non-adhesive

Bo Jorgensen; Gitte Juel Friis; Finn Gottrup



Leg ulcers in the antiphospholipid syndrome may be considered as a form of pyoderma gangrenosum and they respond favorably to treatment with immunosuppression and anticoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leg ulcers are a manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), and characteristically respond poorly to treatment. Because\\u000a the similar findings both clinical and pathological to pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), we treated these patients with a combination\\u000a of immunosuppression (steroids, azathioprine or cyclosporine), acetylsalicylic acid and anticoagulation. We evaluated the\\u000a response to the combined treatment with steroids, immunosuppression, acetylsalicylic acid, anticoagulation and local

Carlos A. Cañas; Carlos E. Durán; Juan C. Bravo; Dora E. Castaño; Gabriel J. Tobón



Amelogenin, an extracellular matrix protein, in the treatment of venous leg ulcers and other hard-to-heal wounds: Experimental and clinical evidence  

PubMed Central

Amelogenins are extracellular matrix proteins that, under physiological conditions, self-assemble into globular aggregates up to micron-sizes. Studies with periodontal fibroblasts indicate that attachment to these structures increases the endogenous secretion of multiple growth factors and cell proliferation. Pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that cutaneous wounds benefit from treatment with amelogenins. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving patients with hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers (VLUs) (ie, ulcers with a surface area ?10 cm2 and duration of ?6 months) showed that the application of amelogenin (Xelma®, Molnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg, Sweden) as an adjunct treatment to compression results in significant reduction in ulcer size, improvement in the state of ulcers, reduced pain, and a larger proportion of ulcers with low levels of exudate, compared with treatment with compression alone. Amelogenin therapy was also shown to be safe to use in that there were no significant differences in adverse events noted between patients treated with amelogenin plus compression and those treated with compression alone. Case study evaluations indicate that the benefits of amelogenin therapy demonstrated in the RCT are being repeated in “real life” situations and that amelogenin therapy may also have a role to play in the treatment of other wound types such as diabetic foot ulcers.

Romanelli, Marco; Dini, Valentina; Vowden, Peter; Agren, Magnus S



Amelogenin, an extracellular matrix protein, in the treatment of venous leg ulcers and other hard-to-heal wounds: experimental and clinical evidence.  


Amelogenins are extracellular matrix proteins that, under physiological conditions, self-assemble into globular aggregates up to micron-sizes. Studies with periodontal fibroblasts indicate that attachment to these structures increases the endogenous secretion of multiple growth factors and cell proliferation. Pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that cutaneous wounds benefit from treatment with amelogenins. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving patients with hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers (VLUs) (ie, ulcers with a surface > or = area 10 cm2 and duration of > or = 6 months) showed that the application of amelogenin (Xelma, Molnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg, Sweden) as an adjunct treatment to compression results in significant reduction in ulcer size, improvement in the state of ulcers, reduced pain, and a larger proportion of ulcers with low levels of exudate, compared with treatment with compression alone. Amelogenin therapy was also shown to be safe to use in that there were no significant differences in adverse events noted between patients treated with amelogenin plus compression and those treated with compression alone. Case study evaluations indicate that the benefits of amelogenin therapy demonstrated in the RCT are being repeated in "real life" situations and that amelogenin therapy may also have a role to play in the treatment of other wound types such as diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:18686749

Romanelli, Marco; Dini, Valentina; Vowden, Peter; Agren, Magnus S



Success rate of split-thickness skin grafting of chronic venous leg ulcers depends on the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a retrospective study.  


The last years of research have proposed that bacteria might be involved in and contribute to the lack of healing of chronic wounds. Especially it seems that Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a crucial role in the healing. At Copenhagen Wound Healing Centre it was for many years clinical suspected that once chronic venous leg ulcers were colonized (weeks or months preoperatively) by P. aeruginosa, the success rate of skin grafting deteriorated despite aggressive treatment. To investigate this, a retrospective study was performed on the clinical outcome of 82 consecutive patients with chronic venous leg ulcers on 91 extremities, from the 1(st) of March 2005 until the 31(st) of August 2006. This was achieved by analysing the microbiology, demographic data, smoking and drinking habits, diabetes, renal impairment, co-morbidities, approximated size and age of the wounds, immunosuppressive treatment and complicating factors on the clinical outcome of each patient. The results were evaluated using a Student T-test for continuous parameters, chi-square test for categorical parameters and a logistic regression analysis to predict healing after 12 weeks. The analysis revealed that only 33,3% of ulcers with P. aeruginosa, isolated at least once from 12 weeks prior, to or during surgery, were healed (98% or more) by week 12 follow-up, while 73,1% of ulcers without P. aeruginosa were so by the same time (p?=?0.001). Smoking also significantly suppressed the outcome at the 12-week follow-up. Subsequently, a logistic regression analysis was carried out leaving P. aeruginosa as the only predictor left in the model (p?=?0.001). This study supports our hypothesis that P. aeruginosa in chronic venous leg ulcers, despite treatment, has considerable impact on partial take or rejection of split-thickness skin grafts. PMID:21655269

Høgsberg, Trine; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Thomsen, Jens Schiersing; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus



Success Rate of Split-Thickness Skin Grafting of Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers Depends on the Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

The last years of research have proposed that bacteria might be involved in and contribute to the lack of healing of chronic wounds. Especially it seems that Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a crucial role in the healing. At Copenhagen Wound Healing Centre it was for many years clinical suspected that once chronic venous leg ulcers were colonized (weeks or months preoperatively) by P. aeruginosa, the success rate of skin grafting deteriorated despite aggressive treatment. To investigate this, a retrospective study was performed on the clinical outcome of 82 consecutive patients with chronic venous leg ulcers on 91 extremities, from the 1st of March 2005 until the 31st of August 2006. This was achieved by analysing the microbiology, demographic data, smoking and drinking habits, diabetes, renal impairment, co-morbidities, approximated size and age of the wounds, immunosuppressive treatment and complicating factors on the clinical outcome of each patient. The results were evaluated using a Student T-test for continuous parameters, chi-square test for categorical parameters and a logistic regression analysis to predict healing after 12 weeks. The analysis revealed that only 33,3% of ulcers with P. aeruginosa, isolated at least once from 12 weeks prior, to or during surgery, were healed (98% or more) by week 12 follow-up, while 73,1% of ulcers without P. aeruginosa were so by the same time (p?=?0,001). Smoking also significantly suppressed the outcome at the 12-week follow-up. Subsequently, a logistic regression analysis was carried out leaving P. aeruginosa as the only predictor left in the model (p?=?0,001). This study supports our hypothesis that P. aeruginosa in chronic venous leg ulcers, despite treatment, has considerable impact on partial take or rejection of split-thickness skin grafts.

H?gsberg, Trine; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Thomsen, Jens Schiersing; Kirketerp-M?ller, Klaus



A prospective, open, multicentre study to evaluate a new gelling fibre dressing containing silver in the management of venous leg ulcers.  


This study investigated the performance of a new gelling fibre dressing containing silver (DURAFIBER™ Ag; Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK) in moderate to highly exuding venous leg ulcers with one or more clinical signs of infection. Fourteen patients with venous leg ulceration of median ulcer duration 12·5?weeks, recruited from three centres in South Africa, received treatment with the new dressing for a maximum of 8?weeks. Multilayer compression bandaging was used for all patients, at the majority of assessments. The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical acceptability of the dressing in terms of the following characteristics: antimicrobial properties, the progress of the wound towards healing, wear time, exudate management, conformability, patient comfort, pain on application, pain on removal and dressing integrity. The new dressing was rated as clinically acceptable for all characteristics, for all 14 patients (100%). It was easy to apply and remove; in 96·8% of removals, the dressing stayed intact on removal and could be removed in one piece. Fifty per cent of the wounds healed within the 8-week study duration; between baseline and final assessment, the median percentage reduction in wound area was 98·2% and the median percentage reduction in devitalised tissue was 78%. Exudate levels and wound pain were significantly improved at final assessment compared to baseline assessment, and an increase in the number of patients with healthy peri-wound skin between baseline and final assessment was observed. A reduction in bioburden and signs of clinical infection and an improvement in quality of life were observed over the 8-week period. The average wear time was 6·4?days. This study supports the use of new dressing in the management of moderately to highly exuding venous leg ulcers with clinical signs of infection. PMID:24602074

Forlee, Martin; Rossington, Alan; Searle, Richard



Topical morphine gel in the treatment of painful leg ulcers, a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial: a pilot study.  


Chronic painful wounds, a major health problem, have a detrimental impact on the quality of life due to associated pain. Some clinical reports have suggested that local administration of morphine could be beneficial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of topically applied morphine on chronic painful leg ulcers. Twenty-one patients were randomly assigned to receive either morphine or placebo in a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study. Each patient was treated four times in total. Pain was measured by the visual analogue score (VAS) before application of gel, directly after and after 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Although an overall, clinically relevant, reduction of pain was observed upon treatment with morphine, the difference was not statistically significant. Morphine reduced pain scores more than placebo on treatment occasions 1 and 2. The difference was statistically significant only 2 hours after dressing on the first treatment occasion. Thus, our study did not demonstrate a consistent and globally significant difference in nociception in patients treated with morphine. However, the relatively small number of patients included in our study and other methodological limitations makes it difficult for us to draw general conclusions regarding efficacy of topically applied morphine as an effective treatment for some painful ulcers. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the value of topically applied morphine in the treatment of patients with chronic painful leg ulcers. PMID:22151619

Bastami, Salumeh; Frödin, Thomas; Ahlner, Johan; Uppugunduri, Srinivas



Effectiveness and tissue compatibility of a 12-week treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers with an octenidine based antiseptic--a randomized, double-blind controlled study.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of octenidine dihydrochloride/phenoxyethanol (OHP) found in vitro by conducting a randomized, double-blind controlled clinical study focusing on its safe and effective use in chronic venous leg ulcers. In total, 126 male and female patients were treated with either OHP (n = 60) or Ringer solution (n = 66). The treatment lasted over a period of maximum 12 weeks. For the assessment of the wound-healing process, clinical outcome parameters were employed, that is, time span until 100% epithelization, wound status and the wound surface area were analysed. Side effects were recorded during the study period. The median time to complete ulcer healing was comparable between the OHP and Ringer solution groups (92 versus 87 days; P = 0·952), without being influenced by wound size or duration of the target ulcer (P-values: 0·947/0·978). In patients treated with OHP, fewer adverse events (AEs) were observed compared with the Ringer group (17% versus 29% of patients reported 20 versus 38 AEs). OHP is well suitable for the treatment of chronic wounds without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, OHP does not impair the wound healing in chronic venous ulcers. PMID:22074592

Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Harding, Keith; Téot, Luc; Siebert, Jörg



Techniques used to evaluate the cutaneous microcirculation: application of photoplethysmography to the assessment of a phlebotropic agent in the treatment of leg ulcers.  


Over recent years, a number of functional investigations have been developed that allow a better evaluation of the physiology of the cutaneous microcirculation than that provided by the morphologic method. These investigations are also useful in pharmacologic studies. Following a review of the anatomy and physiology of the cutaneous microcirculation, the author presents the principal techniques of investigation and the results obtained with Daflon 500 mg* on the cutaneous microcirculation evaluated by photoplethysmography of the skin in patients with venous insufficiency and leg ulcers. PMID:8203785

Guillot, B



Systematic review of economic evaluations of human cell-derived wound care products for the treatment of venous leg and diabetic foot ulcers  

PubMed Central

Background Tissue engineering is an emerging field. Novel bioengineered skin substitutes and genetically derived growth factors offer innovative approaches to reduce the burden of diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers for both patients and health care systems. However, they frequently are very costly. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this study assesses the cost-effectiveness of these growth factors and tissue-engineered artificial skin for treating chronic wounds. Methods On the basis of an extensive explorative search, an appropriate algorithm for a systematic database search was developed. The following databases were searched: BIOSIS Previews, CRD databases, Cochrane Library, EconLit, Embase, Medline, and Web of Science. Only completed and published trial- or model-based studies which contained a full economic evaluation of growth factors and bioengineered skin substitutes for the treatment of chronic wounds were included. Two reviewers independently undertook the assessment of study quality. The relevant studies were assessed by a modified version of the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC) list and a published checklist for evaluating model-based economic evaluations. Results Eleven health economic evaluations were included. Three biotechnology products were identified for which topical growth factors or bioengineered skin substitutes for the treatment of chronic leg ulceration were economically assessed: (1) Apligraf®, a bilayered living human skin equivalent indicated for the treatment of diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers (five studies); (2) Dermagraft®, a human fibroblast-derived dermal substitute, which is indicated only for use in the treatment of full-thickness diabetic foot ulcers (one study); (3) REGRANEX® Gel, a human platelet-derived growth factor for the treatment of deep neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers (five studies). The studies considered in this review were of varying and partly low methodological quality. They calculated that due to shorter treatment periods, fewer complications and fewer inpatient episodes the initial cost of the novel biotechnology products may be offset, making the treatment cost-effective or even cost-saving. The results of most studies were sensitive to initial costs of the products and the evidence of effectiveness. Conclusion The study results suggest that some growth factors and tissue-engineered artificial skin products feature favourable cost-effectiveness ratios in selected patient groups with chronic wounds. Despite the limitations of the studies considered, it is evident that health care providers and coverage decision makers should take not only the high cost of the biotechnology product but the total cost of care into account when deciding about the appropriate allocation of their financial resources. However, not only the cost-effectiveness but first of all the effectiveness of these novel biotechnology products deserve further research.

Langer, Astrid; Rogowski, Wolf



Comparative effectiveness of a bilayered living cellular construct and a porcine collagen wound dressing in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.  


Using data from a national wound-specific electronic medical record (WoundExpert, Net Health, Pittsburgh, PA), we compared the effectiveness of a bilayered living cellular construct (BLCC) and an acellular porcine small intestine submucosa collagen dressing (SIS) for the treatment of venous leg ulcer. Data from 1,489 patients with 1,801 refractory venous leg ulcers (as defined by failure to have >40% reduction in size in the 4 weeks prior to treatment) with surface areas between 1 and 150?cm(2) in size, treated between July 2009 and July 2012 at 158 wound care facilities across the US were analyzed. Patient baseline demographics and wound characteristics were comparable between groups. Kaplan-Meier-derived estimates of wound closure for BLCC (1,451 wounds) was significantly greater (p?=?0.01, log-rank test) by weeks 12 (31% vs. 26%), 24 (50% vs. 41%), and 36 (61% vs. 46%), respectively, compared with SIS (350 wounds). BLCC treatment reduced the median time to wound closure by 44%, achieving healing 19 weeks sooner (24 vs. 43 weeks, p?=?0.01, log-rank test). Treatment with BLCC increased the probability of healing by 29% compared with porcine SIS dressing (hazard ratio?=?1.29 [95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.56], p?=?0.01). PMID:24628712

Marston, William A; Sabolinski, Michael L; Parsons, Nathan B; Kirsner, Robert S



Randomized standard-of-care-controlled trial of a silica gel fibre matrix in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers.  


Background: Chronic venous leg ulcers (CVU) are a common, unresolved medical problem. Silica gel fibre (SGF) is a novel biodegradable inorganic material developed to serve as a carrier substrate for the local release of pharmaceutical agents facilitating tissue repair. Objectives: To assess the performance and safety of SGF in subjects with CVU. Methods: Open, randomized, standard-of-care-controlled, multi-centre trial. Subjects (ITT 120 patients) received either SGF in addition to standard treatment or standard-of-care treatment (S-o-C) alone. The primary performance variable was the time to healing of the target ulcer until the end of a 12 week treatment period. Results: SGF was well tolerated. Mean time to healing up to week 12 was 85.62 days for the SGF group (SE ± 1.5) and 79.66 days for the S-o-C group (SE ± 1.77) (p-value = 0.217). There was no statistically relevant difference regarding the incidence of complete healing of the target ulcers by weeks 12 and 24 between the SGF and the S-o-C groups (p-value >0.05). Conclusion: SGF is well tolerated and offers a promising perspective as a carrier substrate for the local release of active pharmaceutical agents into the wound site to promote tissue repair. PMID:24839984

Brown, Anneke; Augustin, Matthias; Jünger, Michael; Zutt, Markus; Dissemond, Joachim; Rabe, Eberhard; Kaufmann, Roland; Simon, Margrit; Stücker, Markus; Karrer, Sigrid; Koenen, Wolfgang; Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Scharfetter-Kochanek, Karin; Wollina, Uwe; Krieg, Thomas; Eming, Sabine A



Leg discomfort: beyond the joints.  


Leg pain is common, and patients may have more than one cause. Although simple questionnaires or descriptors (eg, cramps, aching) are inadequate to distinguish between etiologies, history plays a key role in diagnosis. Timing and triggers of symptoms as well as lateralization can narrow the differential. Nocturnal symptoms are likely to be cramps, RLS, or DSP. Exertional symptoms suggest PAD, whereas symptoms caused by standing may be LSS or venous insufficiency. DVT and radiculopathy are usually unilateral, whereas DSP, RLS, and statin myalgia tend to be bilateral. Fortunately, few of the diagnoses discussed constitute medical emergencies. DVT, acute compartment syndrome, pyomyositis, and malignancy all require prompt diagnosis and treatment. However, PAD (without rest pain, ulceration, or gangrene) is unlikely to progress rapidly, and routine radiculopathy and spinal stenosis (with no cauda equina syndrome or rapidly progressive neurologic deficit) can safely be managed conservatively. That said, accurate diagnosis of leg discomfort can afford patients a prognosis and, in some cases, effective therapy. PMID:24758955

Berger, Douglas



Randomized trial and local biological effect of autologous platelets used as adjuvant therapy for chronic venous leg ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesPlatelet products have been proposed as adjuvant therapy for wound healing. We undertook this study to determine the healing effect of topically applied frozen autologous platelets (FAP) on chronic venous ulcers, compared with effect of placebo, and whether use of topical FAP modifies local expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and tissue

Patricia Senet; François-Xavier Bon; Marc Benbunan; Annette Bussel; Richard Traineau; Fabien Calvo; Louis Dubertret; Christine Dosquet



Effects of silver-based wound dressings on the bacterial flora in chronic leg ulcers and its susceptibility in vitro to silver.  


Silver-based dressings have been used extensively in wound management in recent years, but data on their antimicrobial activity in the clinical setting are limited. In order to explore their effects on chronic leg ulcer flora, 14 ulcers were cultured after at least 3 weeks treatment with Aquacel Ag(®) or Acticoat(®). Phenotypic and genetic silver resistance were investigated in a total of 56 isolates. Silver-based dressings had a limited effect on primary wound pathogens, which were present in 79% of the cultures before, and 71% after, treatment. One silver-resistant Enterobacter cloacae strain was identified (silver nitrate minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)?>?512 mg/l, positive for silE, silS and silP). Further studies in vitro showed that inducible silver-resistance was more frequent in Enterobacteriaceae with cephalosporin-resistance and that silver nitrate had mainly a bacteriostatic effect on Staphylococcus aureus. Monitoring of silver resistance should be considered in areas where silver is used extensively. PMID:22215013

Sütterlin, Susanne; Tano, Eva; Bergsten, Agneta; Tallberg, Anna-Britta; Melhus, Asa



The direct inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by an enzyme alginogel: a possible mechanism of healing support for venous leg ulcers.  


Flaminal Forte is an enzyme alginogel,whose activity depends on the absorption and binding of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are known to play a crucial role in delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of Flaminal on MMP-2/-9 activity in ulcer exudate, ex vivo. Eight patients with bilateral venous leg ulcers were treated for 4 weeks with Flaminal Forte covered by hydrocolloid ('F' wounds), or with hydrocolloid alone ('H' wounds) as a reference control. Clinical assessment did not reveal any differences between F and H wounds regarding surface reduction and general wound condition. Nevertheless, although non-significant, there was a visible difference in peri-wound skin appearance in F wounds, as compared to H wounds. The wound exudate contained high MMP-2/-9 levels, which gradually decreased as wounds healed. The attenuation of MMPs was stronger in F than in H exudate, however, in standard zymography this difference appeared non-significant. Real-time zymography revealed that Flaminal mediated a powerful direct inhibition of gelatinolytic activity of wound exudate and of recombinant MMP-2/-9 in vitro. PMID:24810313

Grzela, T; Niderla-Bielinska, J; Litwiniuk, M; White, R



The effectiveness of a four-layer compression bandage system in comparison with Class 3 compression hosiery on healing and quality of life in patients with venous leg ulcers: a randomised controlled trial.  


An increasing number of compression systems available for treatment of venous leg ulcers and limited evidence on the relative effectiveness of these systems are available. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomised controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of a four-layer compression bandage system and Class 3 compression hosiery on healing and quality of life (QL) in patients with venous leg ulcers. Data were collected from 103 participants on demographics, health, ulcer status, treatments, pain, depression and QL for 24 weeks. After 24 weeks, 86% of the four-layer bandage group and 77% of the hosiery group were healed (P = 0·24). Median time to healing for the bandage group was 10 weeks, in comparison with 14 weeks for the hosiery group (P = 0·018). The Cox proportional hazards regression found participants in the four-layer system were 2·1 times (95% CI 1·2-3·5) more likely to heal than those in hosiery, while longer ulcer duration, larger ulcer area and higher depression scores significantly delayed healing. No differences between groups were found in QL or pain measures. Findings indicate that these systems were equally effective in healing patients by 24 weeks; however, a four-layer system may produce a more rapid response. PMID:22716129

Finlayson, Kathleen J; Courtney, Mary D; Gibb, Michelle A; O'Brien, Jane A; Parker, Christina N; Edwards, Helen E



Effectiveness of acupuncture, special dressings and simple, low-adherence dressings for healing venous leg ulcers in primary healthcare: study protocol for a cluster-randomized open-labeled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Venous leg ulcers constitute a chronic recurring complaint that affects 1.0–1.3% of the adult population at some time in life, and which corresponds to approximately 75% of all chronic ulcers of the leg. Multilayer compression bandaging is, at present, the only treatment that has been proved to be effective in treating this type of ulcer. There is no consensus, however, about the dressings that may be applied, beneath the compression, to promote the healing of this type of ulcer, as there does not seem to be any added benefit from using special dressings rather than simple, low-adherence ones. As well as analgesia, acupuncture provokes peripheral vasodilation, in skin and muscles – which has been demonstrated both experimentally and in clinical practice – probably due to the axon reflex, among other mechanisms. The aim of the present study is to measure the effectiveness and cost of compression treatment for venous leg ulcers combined with special dressings, in comparison with low-adherence ones and acupuncture. Methods/design Cluster-randomized open-labeled trial, at 15 primary healthcare clinics in the Sevilla-Sur Healthcare District, with a control group treated with compression bandaging and low-adherence dressings; the experiment will consist, on the one hand, of the compression treatment applied in combination with special dressings (Treatment 1), and on the other, the compression treatment applied in association with low-adherence dressings, together with acupuncture (Treatment 2). Discussion The results will be measured and recorded in terms of the median time elapsed until complete healing of the ulcer, and the rate of complete healing at 3 months after beginning the treatment. An economic analysis will also be made. This study, carried out in the context of real clinical practice, will provide information for decision-taking concerning the effectiveness of special dressings. Moreover, for the first time a high-quality study will evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the process of healing venous leg ulcers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN26438275.

Vas, Jorge; Modesto, Manuela; Mendez, Camila; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Aguilar, Inmaculada; Carrasco-Lozano, Jesus Manuel; Faus, Vicente; Martos, Francisco



Encouraging patients to self-care - the preliminary development and validation of the VeLUSET©, a self-efficacy tool for venous leg ulcer patients, aged 60?years and over.  


Venous leg ulceration has a high recurrence rate. Patients with healed or frequently recurring venous ulceration are required to perform self-care behaviours to prevent recurrence or promote healing, but evidence suggests that many find these difficult to perform. Bandura's self-efficacy theory is a widely used and robust behaviour change model and underpins many interventions designed to promote self-care in a variety of chronic conditions. By identifying areas where patients may experience difficulty in performing self-care, interventions can be developed to strengthen their self-efficacy beliefs in performing these activities successfully. There are currently a variety of self-efficacy scales available to measure self-efficacy in a variety of conditions; but not a disease-specific scale for use with venous ulcer patients. The aim of this study, therefore, was to develop and validate a disease-specific, patient-focused self-efficacy scale for patients with healed venous leg ulceration. This scale will need further validation studies; however, it is ready for use in clinical practice and will enable practitioners to identify those patients who may need additional support in performing self-care activities to prevent recurrence. PMID:24373556

Brown, Annemarie; Kendall, Sally; Flanagan, Madeleine; Cottee, Michaela



A retrospective clinical study of 188 consecutive patients to examine the effectiveness of a biologically active cryopreserved human skin allograft (TheraSkin®) on the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers.  


A biologically active human skin allograft, currently distributed under the brand name TheraSkin(®), was examined for safety and efficacy in the treatment of venous leg ulcers (VLUs) and diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). The objective was to determine if TheraSkin could serve as a safe and effective alternative to bioengineered skin substitutes such as Apligraf(®) and Dermagraft(®). The authors conducted a retrospective study of 214 consecutive patients seen at the Inova Wound Center (Mt Vernon, Virginia), with either a DFU or a VLU. After excluding patients who did not meet the study criteria, the final eligible cohort consisted of 188 subjects, with 134 VLUs and 54 DFUs. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline wound size and the proportion of healed wounds after 12 and 20 weeks from initial allograft application. The authors found that by the 12th week, DFUs closed 60.38% of the time and VLUs closed 60.77% of the time. After 20 weeks, the number of closed DFUs increased to 74.1% and the number of VLUs increased to 74.6%. The mean wound size in the DFU group was 6.2 cm(2) (±11.8) and 11.8 cm(2) (±22.5) in the VLU group. The mean number of TheraSkin allografts required ranged from 1 to 8, with an average of 2.03 (±1.47) at the 12-week point and an average of 3.23 (±2.77) at the 20-week point. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of wound healing by week 12 and week 20 in each group. The authors also analyzed adverse events and found TheraSkin to be noncontributory to any adverse events, verifying the safety of TheraSkin in this study population. In this study, TheraSkin has been shown to be highly effective for the treatment of both VLUs and DFUs with an acceptable safety profile. PMID:21135263

Landsman, Adam Scott; Cook, Jeremy; Cook, Emily; Landsman, Arnold Robert; Garrett, Philip; Yoon, Joonhyun; Kirkwood, Alfred; Desman, Eric



A randomised comparative trial on the use of a hydrogel with tepescohuite extract (Mimosa tenuiflora cortex extract-2G) in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.  


Tepescohuite is an extract obtained from the bark of the Mimosa tenuiflora tree and is used as an empirical treatment in wounds for its healing and antiseptic properties. Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are a common health care problem in most countries with a high rate of morbidity. The standard of care is moist interactive healing and compression; however, the ideal topical treatment is yet to be established. This study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of M. tenuiflora cortex extract (MTC-2G) in the treatment of VLUs in an Interdisciplinary Wound and Ostomy Care Center (IWOCC). A randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial was conducted to compare the use of a hydrogel containing MTC-2G with the hydrogel alone in VLUs. The study included all patients with venous ulcers referred to the IWOCC. Laboratory tests and tissue biopsies were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. The patients were instructed to daily cleansing followed by topical application of the hydrogel and compression. Forty-one patients were included, 22 patients received the MTC-2G and 19 patients received the hydrogel only. Of the 41 patients, 32 completed the study, 18 in the experimental arm and 14 in the control group, 19 were women and 13 men. The mean age of the subjects was 60 years. The mean time from presentation was 38 months. The mean surface reduction was 6·29 cm(2) [confidence interval (IC) 95%: 3·28-9·29] (P = 0·0001) in the MTC-2G group and 5·85 cm(2) (95% CI: 3·58-8·12) (P = 0·001) in the hydrogel group. There was no significant difference between the groups (P = 0·815). No changes in the laboratory parameters were noted. In the histology, there were not any differences between groups either. A hydrogel containing MTC-2G was not superior to a hydrogel alone in the treatment of VLUs. PMID:22128789

Lammoglia-Ordiales, Lorena; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Herrera-Arellano, Armando; Rivera-Arce, Erika; Agüero, Juan; Vargas-Martinez, Felipe; Contreras-Ruiz, José



Ulcerative colitis.  


Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. The etiology is unknown. Risk factors include a history of recent infection with Salmonella or Campylobacter, living in Western industrialized nations and at higher latitudes, and a family history of the disease. The incidence peaks in early adulthood, but patients can develop the disorder from early childhood through adulthood. Ulcerative colitis often presents with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hematochezia. It is important to exclude infectious etiologies. Anemia and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein level may suggest inflammatory bowel disease, but the absence of laboratory abnormalities does not rule out ulcerative colitis. The diagnosis is suspected clinically and confirmed through endoscopic biopsy. First-line treatment is therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid. Corticosteroids may be added if 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy is ineffective. Infliximab can be added to induce and sustain remission. Patients with severe or nonresponsive ulcerative colitis should be hospitalized, and intravenous corticosteroids should be given. If medical management has been ineffective, surgical intervention is indicated for severe disease. Patients with ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of colon cancer and should have periodic colonoscopy beginning eight to 10 years after diagnosis. PMID:23939448

Adams, Stephen M; Bornemann, Paul H



Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in Venous Leg Ulcer Healing: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Versus Placebo Trial in 107 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Daflon® 500 mg (Dios)* in venous ulcers. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo (Plac) trial was conducted, with stratification according to the size of ulcer (? 10 cm and > 10 cm). The protocol called for a two-month treatment with Dios (one tablet = 450 mg micronized purified

Jean-Jacques Guilhou; Olivier Dereure; Loïc Marzin; Pierre Ouvry; François Zuccarelli; Clélia Debure; Hervé Van Landuyt; Marie-Noëlle Gillet-Terver; Bernard Guillot; Hervé Levesque; Jean Mignot; Gérard Pillion; Benoit Février; Dominique Dubeaux



Improvement of wound healing by water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) in patients with chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs including evaluation using infrared thermography  

PubMed Central

Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue-penetration and with a low thermal burden to the surface of the skin. wIRA is able to improve essential and energetically meaningful factors of wound healing by thermal and non-thermal effects. Aim of the study: prospective study (primarily planned randomised, controlled, blinded, de facto with one exception only one cohort possible) using wIRA in the treatment of patients with recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs with thermographic follow-up. Methods: 10 patients (5 males, 5 females, median age 62 years) with 11 recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs were treated with water-filtered infrared-A and visible light irradiation (wIRA(+VIS), Hydrosun® radiator type 501, 10 mm water cuvette, water-filtered spectrum 550–1400 nm) or visible light irradiation (VIS; only possible in one patient). The uncovered wounds of the patients were irradiated two to five times per week for 30 minutes at a standard distance of 25 cm (approximately 140 mW/cm2 wIRA and approximately 45 mW/cm2 VIS). Treatment continued for a period of up to 2 months (typically until closure or nearly closure of the ulcer). The main variable of interest was “percent change of ulcer size over time” including complete wound closure. Additional variables of interest were thermographic image analysis, patient’s feeling of pain in the wound, amount of pain medication, assessment of the effect of the irradiation (by patient and by clinical investigator), assessment of feeling of the wound area (by patient), assessment of wound healing (by clinical investigator) and assessment of the cosmetic state (by patient and by clinical investigator). For these assessments visual analogue scales (VAS) were used. Results: The study showed a complete or nearly complete healing of lower leg ulcers in 7 patients and a clear reduction of ulcer size in another 2 of 10 patients, a clear reduction of pain and pain medication consumption (e.g. from 15 to 0 pain tablets per day), and a normalization of the thermographic image (before the beginning of the therapy typically hyperthermic rim of the ulcer with relative hypothermic ulcer base, up to 4.5°C temperature difference). In one patient the therapy of an ulcer of one leg was performed with the fully active radiator (wIRA(+VIS)), while the therapy of an ulcer of the other leg was made with a control group radiator (only VIS without wIRA), showing a clear difference in favour of the wIRA treatment. All mentioned VAS ratings improved remarkably during the period of irradiation treatment, representing an increased quality of life. Failures of complete or nearly complete wound healing were seen only in patients with arterial insufficiency, in smokers or in patients who did not have venous compression garment therapy. Discussion and conclusions: wIRA can alleviate pain considerably (with an impressive decrease of the consumption of analgesics) and accelerate wound healing or improve a stagnating wound healing process and diminish an elevated wound exudation and inflammation both in acute and in chronic wounds (in this study shown in chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs) and in problem wounds including infected wounds. In chronic recalcitrant wounds complete healing is achieved, which was not reached before. Other studies have shown that even without a disturbance of wound healing an acute wound healing process can be improved (e.g. reduced pain) by wIRA. wIRA is a contact-free, easily used and pleasantly felt procedure without consumption of material with a good penetration effect, which is similar to solar heat radiation on the surface of the earth in moderate climatic zones. Wound healing and infection defence (e.g. granulocyte function including antibacterial oxygen radical formation of the granulocytes) are critically dependent on a sufficient energy supply (and on sufficient oxygen). The good clinical effect of wIRA on wounds and also on problem woun

Mercer, James B.; Nielsen, Stig Pors; Hoffmann, Gerd



Mouth ulcers  


Oral ulcer; Stomatitis - ulcerative; Ulcer - mouth ... Mouth ulcers are caused by many disorders. These include: Canker sores Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer ...


Surgical Treatments Equally Effective for Women with Poor Leg Circulation  


... more severe problems related to PAD, such as leg pain, ulcers and amputations, according to a news release from the University of Michigan. However, women were less likely to report leg discomfort, fatigue or cramping during activity. "The reasons ...


Up-regulation of elastase in acute wounds of healthy aged humans and chronic venous leg ulcers are associated with matrix degradation.  


Chronic wound healing states are often associated with aging, and despite the increased number of aged patients with nonhealing wounds, controversy still exists concerning the effects of age on wound repair. Our previous work showed that in both venous ulcers in humans and acute wounds in aged animals, fibronectin, an early component in granulation tissue, is deficient compared to normal skin and acute wounds in healthy young animals, respectively. In the present study, we have determined the protease responsible for fibronectin degradation by analyzing tissue taken from the margins of chronic venous ulcers and standardized acute cutaneous wounds collected from a large cohort of "Health status"-defined aged human subjects (screened as per the SENIEUR protocol). When tissue samples were subjected to fibronectin zymography, the main protease involved in the breakdown of fibronectin in both venous ulcers and acute wounds of elderly subjects was found to be a serine protease with a molecular weight of approximately 30 kd. This protease was identified as neutrophil elastase by immunoblotting. In tissue biopsies, elastase was localized to granulocytes by immunocytochemical techniques and shown to be present in greater quantities in venous ulcers and Day-7 and -14 healing acute wounds of healthy aged subjects relative to those of young subjects. The highest quantities were found in acute wounds of elderly women. Our results suggest that the process of aging in healthy human subjects is associated with an up-regulation of elastase during acute wound healing and that an abnormality in down-regulation of this protease could be partially responsible for the transition to chronic wound healing states in the aged. PMID:9314951

Herrick, S; Ashcroft, G; Ireland, G; Horan, M; McCollum, C; Ferguson, M



A randomized, controlled clinical pilot study comparing three types of compression therapy to treat venous leg ulcers in patients with superficial and/or segmental deep venous reflux ?.  


Compression therapy--including inelastic, elastic, and intermittent pneumatic compression--is the standard of care for venous ulcers (VLUs) and chronic venous insufficiency, but there is no consensus in the literature regarding the most effective type of compression therapy. A prospective, randomized, clinical pilot study was conducted among 70 patients with unilateral VLUs treated in a hospital dermatology department in Poland to compare three types of compression therapy (intermittent pneumatic compression, stockings, and short-stretch bandages) in persons with superficial deep venous reflux alone or combined with the segmental variety. Study endpoints were change in ulcer dimensions and proportions healed. Patients with superficial or combined superficial and deep vein insufficiency were randomly allocated to receive one of the three therapies (one of each vein type for each treatment option, six groups total). All patients received saline-soaked gauze dressings along with micronized purified flavonoid fraction, diosmin, hesperidin, and Daflon 500 once daily. Compression treatments were changed or pneumatic compression provided daily for 15 days. Wound size reduction and percentage of wounds healed were significantly higher in groups receiving intermittent pneumatic compression or stockings than in groups using short-stretch bandages (for percentage change of ulcer surface area, P = 0.02; for healing rates P = 0.01). These results warrant additional randomized controlled clinical studies with a larger sample size and longer patient follow-up. PMID:23934375

Dolibog, Pawel; Franek, Andrzej; Taradaj, Jakub; Polak, Anna; Dolibog, Patrycja; Blaszczak, Edward; Wcislo, Ligia; Hrycek, Antoni; Urbanek, Tomasz; Ziaja, Jacek; Kolanko, Magdalena



Leg clubs: a runaway success.  


The Barnstaple Leg Club has been running for almost two years in north Devon providing treatment and support to older people with leg ulcers on a weekly basis. This article examines the concept of leg clubs and describes how the community nursing team that leads the club offers holistic care to local people. The nurses are able to see more patients than they would by carrying out home visits, healing their wounds and boosting their self-esteem and confidence, while at the same time reducing social isolation. PMID:24673324

Dean, Erin



A novel, non-invasive diagnostic clinical procedure for the determination of an oxygenation status of chronic lower leg ulcers using peri-ulceral transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure measurements: Results of its application in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)  

PubMed Central

The basis for the new procedure is the simultaneous transcutaneous measurement of the peri-ulceral oxygen partial pressure (tcPO2), using a minimum of 4 electrodes which are placed as close to the wound margin as possible, additionally, as a challenge the patient inhales pure oxygen for approximately 15 minutes. In order to evaluate the measurement data and to characterise the wounds, two new oxygen parameters were defined: (1) the oxygen characteristic (K-PO2), and (2) the oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO2) of a chronic wound. The first of these is the arithmetic mean of the two lowest tcPO2 measurement values, and the second is the variation coefficient of the four measurement values. Using the K-PO2 parameter, a grading of wound hypoxia can be obtained. To begin with, the physiologically regulated (and still compensated) hypoxia with K-PO2 values of between 35 and 40 mmHg is distinguished from the pathological decompensated hypoxia with K-PO2 values of between 0 and 35 mmHg; the first of these still stimulates self-healing (within the limits of the oxygen balance). The decompensated hypoxia can be (arbitrarily) divided into “simple” hypoxia (Grade I), intense hypoxia (Grade II) and extreme hypoxia (Grade III), with the possibility of intermediate grades (I/II and II/III). Measurements were carried out using the new procedure on the skin of the right inner ankle of 21 healthy volunteers of various ages, and in 17 CVI (chronic venous insufficiency) wounds. Sixteen of the 17 CVI wounds (i.e., 94%) were found to be pathologically hypoxic, a state which was not found in any of the healthy volunteers. The oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO2) of the individual chronic wounds increased exponentially as a function of the hypoxia grading (K-PO2), with a 10-fold increase with extreme hypoxia in contrast to a constant value of approximately 14% in the healthy volunteers. This pronounced oxygen inhomogeneity explains inhomogeneous wound healings, resulting in the so-called mosaic wounds. The hypoxia grades found in all of the chronic wounds was seen to be evenly distributed with values ranging from 0 to 40 mmHg, and therefore extremely inhomogeneous. In terms of oxygenation, chronic wounds are therefore inhomogeneous in two respects: (1) within the wound itself (intra-individual wound inhomogeneity) and (2) between different wounds (inter-individual wound inhomogeneity). Due to the extreme oxygen inhomogeneity, single measurements are not diagnostically useful. In healthy individuals the oxygen inhalation challenge (see above) results in synchronised tcPO2 oscillations occurring at minute rhythms, which are not seen in CVI wounds. These oscillations can be interpreted as a sign of a functioning arterial vasomotor system. The new procedure is suitable for the routine characterisation of chronic wounds in terms of their oxygen status, and correspondingly, their metabolically determining (and limiting) potential for healing and regeneration. The oxygen characteristic K-PO2 can furthermore be used as a warning of impending ulceration, since the oxygen provision worsens over time prior to the demise of the ulcerated tissue, thus making a controlled prophylaxis possible.

Barnikol, Wolfgang K. R.; Potzschke, Harald



Hunner's Ulcers  


Hunner's Ulcers Hunner's ulcers, also called "Hunner’s lesions" or "Hunner's patches," are a subtype of interstitial cystitis (also called IC) and are not ulcers in the usual sense. They are distinctive areas ...


Diabetic Ulcer (Neurogenic Ulcer)  


... that you can see down to the bone. Diabetic foot ulcers commonly occur on the pressure points of ... that your doctor may prescribe. Trusted Links MedlinePlus: Diabetic Foot References Levin ME: Pathogenesis and general management of ...


Causes of venous ulceration: a new hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous hypotheses about the causes of venous ulceration are inconsistent with recently published data. In patients with chronic venous insufficiency the number of functioning capillary loops visible in the skin on microscopy fell after the legs had been dependent for 30 minutes. Another study had shown that leucocytes became trapped in the circulation in dependent legs. A new hypothesis linking

P D Coleridge Smith; P Thomas; J H Scurr; J A Dormandy



Marjolin's Ulcer of the Scalp: a Reconstructive Challenge  

PubMed Central

Summary In the year 1828 Jean-Nicolas Marjolin described the formation of ulcers specifically in chronic burn scars, and in 1903 De Costa coined the term "Marjolin's ulcer", applying it to tumours arising in simple leg ulcers. The causes of this condition are described, as also treatment protocols, and a case report is presented.

Atiyeh, B.S.; Hayek, S.N.; Kodeih, M.G.



Venous ulcers--an evidence-based update.  


Leg ulceration can be defined as any chronic ulcer of the lower leg excluding those on the forefoot or toes (Lees & Lambert, 1992). Venous or stasis ulcers account for 80%-85% of all leg ulcers with an overall prevalence of approximately 1% in the United States (Collins & Seraj, 2010; O'Meara, Al-Kurdi, & Ovington, 2008). Venous ulcers are more common in women and the older population (Abbade & Lastoria, 2005; Bergqvist, Lindholm, & Nelzen, 1999). Venous ulcers are often recurrent and chronic and can persist from weeks to even years. Severe complications include cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and malignant changes (Collins & Seraj, 2010). This column discusses the pathophysiology of venous insufficiency and ulcerations, presentation, diagnosis, and current treatment. PMID:23188154

Spear, Marcia



Pterygotus legs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eurypterids have a pair of paddle-like swimming legs located at the back edge of the head. These legs are connected to the body by toothplates or "gnathobases." The toothplates border a slit-like mouth and are lined by teeth. The large slab pictured above (also from Passage Gulf, NY) contains a complete swimming leg (center) connected to a partial toothplate (upper right) and another partial toothplate (lower center) with a series of thorn-like teeth (left side).



Pyoderma gangrenosum: skin grafting and hyperbaric oxygen as adjuvants in the treatment of a deep and extensive ulcer*  

PubMed Central

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare dermatosis of unknown etiology and variable clinical presentation. The disease is challenging for the medical staff, from the frequent diagnostic difficulties to the lack of scientific evidence with a good level to support the management of extensive and refractory cases. Our patient is a 50 year-old man with an extensive and deep ulcer on the left leg, which exemplifies the therapeutic difficulties inherent to the disease and who, fortunately, has progressed with excellent result after association of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and skin grafting to the immunosuppression therapy initially proposed.

Araujo, Fernanda Mendes; Kondo, Rogerio Nabor; Minelli, Lorivaldo



Venogram - leg  


... the leg. X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation like light, but of higher energy, so ... provider if you are pregnant, if you have allergies to any medication, which medications you are taking ( ...


Genome-wide association identifies multiple ulcerative colitis susceptibility loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract with a complex genetic and environmental etiology. In an effort to identify genetic variation underlying ulcerative colitis risk, we present two distinct genome-wide association studies of ulcerative colitis and their joint analysis with a previously published scan, comprising, in aggregate, 2,693 individuals with ulcerative colitis and 6,791 control

Agnès Gardet; Leif Törkvist; Philippe Goyette; Jonah Essers; Kent D Taylor; Benjamin M Neale; Rick T H Ong; Caroline Lagacé; Chun Li; Todd Green; Christine R Stevens; Claudine Beauchamp; Phillip R Fleshner; Marie Carlson; Mauro D'Amato; Jonas Halfvarson; Martin L Hibberd; Mikael Lördal; Leonid Padyukov; Angelo Andriulli; Elisabetta Colombo; Anna Latiano; Orazio Palmieri; Edmond-Jean Bernard; Colette Deslandres; Daan W Hommes; Dirk J de Jong; Pieter C Stokkers; Rinse K Weersma; Yashoda Sharma; Mark S Silverberg; Judy H Cho; Jing Wu; Kathryn Roeder; Steven R Brant; L Phillip Schumm; Richard H Duerr; Marla C Dubinsky; Nicole L Glazer; Talin Haritunians; Andy Ippoliti; Gil Y Melmed; David S Siscovick; Eric A Vasiliauskas; Stephan R Targan; Vito Annese; Cisca Wijmenga; Sven Pettersson; Jerome I Rotter; Ramnik J Xavier; Mark J Daly; Dermot P B McGovern; John D Rioux; Mark Seielstad



[Leg swelling].  


Leg swelling is an extremely frequent symptom with a broad variety of largely differing causes. The most important mechanisms behind the symptom include venous and lymphatic pathology, volume overload, increased capillary permeability, and lowered oncotic pressure. Therefore, the most frequent diseases associated with leg swelling are deep vein thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency, primary or secondary lymphedema, cardiac failure, hypoproteinemia due to liver or renal failure, idiopathic cyclic edema, and drug-induced edema. Lipedema as a misnomer represents an important differential diagnosis. History and physical examination, when based on a sound knowledge of the diseases of interest, enable a conclusive diagnosis in most cases. Additional test are required in only a minority of patients. The present review discusses pathophysiology and clinical features of the most prevalent types of leg swelling. Finally, a brief guide to differential diagnosis is given. PMID:24264570

Schellong, S M; Wollina, U; Unger, L; Machetanz, J; Stelzner, C



Pressure ulcer prevention.  


The purpose of this collective review is to outline the predisposing factors in the development of pressure ulcers and to identify a pressure ulcer prevention program. The most frequent sites for pressure ulcers are areas of skin overlying bony prominences. There are four critical factors contributing to the development of pressure ulcers: pressure, shearing forces, friction, and moisture. Pressure is now viewed as the single most important etiologic factor in pressure ulcer formation. Prolonged immobilization, sensory deficit, circulatory disturbances, and poor nutrition have been identified as important risk factors in the development of pressure ulcer formation. Among the clinical assessment scales available, only two, the Braden Scale and Norton Scale, have been tested extensively for reliability and/or validity. The most commonly used risk assessment tools for pressure ulcer formation are computerized pressure monitoring and measurement of laser Doppler skin blood flow. Pressure ulcers can predispose the patient to a variety of complications that include bacteremia, osteomyelitis, squamous cell carcinoma, and sinus tracts. The three components of pressure ulcer prevention that must be considered in any patient include management of incontinence, nutritional support, and pressure relief. The pressure relief program must be individualized for non-weight-bearing individuals as well as those that can bear weight. For those that can not bear weight and passively stand, the RENAISSANCE Mattress Replacement System is recommended for the immobile patient who lies supine on the bed, the stretcher, or operating room table. This alternating pressure system is unique because it has three separate cells that are not interconnected. It is specifically designed so that deflation of each individual cell will reach a ZERO PRESSURE during each alternating pressure cycle. The superiority of this system has been documented by comprehensive clinical studies in which this system has been compared to the standard hospital bed as well as to two other commercially available pressure relief mattresses. The most recent advance in pressure ulcer prevention is the development of the ALTERN8* seating system. This seating system provides regular periods of pressure relief and stimulation of blood flow to skin areas while users are seated. By offering the combination of pressure relief therapy and an increase in blood flow, the ALTERN8* reportedly creates an optimum pressure ulcer healing environment. Foam is the most commonly used material for pressure reduction and pressure ulcer prevention and treatment for the mobile individual. For those immobilized individuals who can achieve a passive standing position, a powered wheelchair that allows the individual to achieve a passive standing position is recommended. The beneficial effects of passive standing have been documented by comprehensive scientific studies. These benefits include reduction of seating pressure, decreased bone demineralization, increased blander pressure, enhanced orthostatic circulatory regulation, reduction in muscular tone, decrease in upper extremity muscle stress, and enhanced functional status in general. In the absence of these dynamic alternating pressure seating systems and mattresses, there are enormous medicolegal implications to the healthcare facility. Because there is not sufficient staff to provide pressure relief to rotate the patient every 2 hours in a hospital setting, with the exception of the intensive care unit, the immobile patient is prone to develop pressure ulcers. The cost of caring for these preventable pressure ulcers may now be as high as 60,000 dollars per patient. The occupational physical strain sustained by nursing personnel in rotating their patients has led to occupational back pain in nurses, a major source of morbidity in the healthcare environment. PMID:15447627

Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Woodard, Charles R; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Long, William B; Gebhart, Jocelynn H; Ma, Eva K



[Treatment of chronic ulcers].  


Chronic ulcers are a challenge in dermatological therapy. It is essential to establish their etiology in order to treat them, but on many occasions local therapy is of great interest. Treatment of chronic ulcers is currently based on so-called moist wound healing, and it takes two aspects into consideration: the underlying pathology and local treatment. Local treatment is always necessary and includes: cleaning, debridement, the control of any infection, and the application of different topical agents, both medication and dressings. Recently, new therapeutic strategies are being established, some of which are still being assessed, and which include: skin replacement using biological skin substitutes, growth factors, laser, hyperbaric oxygen, electrical stimulation and negative pressure dressings. In this work, we review the therapeutic advances in this pathology, without neglecting the validity of classic treatments. PMID:16476354

Moreno-Giménez, José C; Galán-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Jiménez-Puya, Rafael



Management of venous ulcers.  


Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) results from venous hypertension secondary to superficial or deep venous valvular reflux, as well as venous obstruction. The most severe clinical manifestation of CVI is venous leg ulceration that can result in significant morbidity, including venous gangrene and amputation, albeit rare. Treatment modalities are aimed at reducing venous hypertension. Diuretic therapy, although widely used, only provides short-term improvement of the edema but provides no long-term benefit. Compression therapy is the cornerstone in the management of CVI. Compression can be achieved using compression bandaging, compression pumps, or graduated compression stockings. Topical steroid creams may reduce inflammation, venous eczema, and pain in the short term, but they can be detrimental in the long run. Apligraf (a living, bilayered, cell-based product) in conjunction with compression therapy was noted to be more effective in healing venous leg ulcerations, when compared with treatment with compression therapy and zinc paste. Endovascular and surgical techniques that minimize valvular reflux and relieve venous obstruction improve venous hemodynamics, promoting wound healing. PMID:24840970

Kolluri, Raghu



Leg Injuries and Disorders  


... can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to leg ...


Stomach ulcer  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the small intestine. It produces acid and various enzymes that break down food into simple substances. The ... the stomach is protected from the acid and enzymes by a mucous lining. Ulcers are caused when ...


Peptic Ulcer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explains that the ulcer is a disease of modern man. Dr. Dennis McCarthy, Specialist with the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases, discusses the reasons for its prevalence. He analyzes the differences between gastric and duo...



Fusarium solani: An Emerging Fungus in Chronic Diabetic Ulcer  

PubMed Central

Fusarium species, a mold which causes disease mainly in plants has emerged as pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Fusarium is known to cause keratitis, onychomycosis, and endophthalmitis. Fusarium solani, is the most common isolate from clinical specimen. Here is a case, a 65-year-old male with type II diabetes mellitus since 10 years presented with a large ulcer on the left leg since 8 months following trauma. The fungal culture of the escar of the ulcer isolated a mold, Fusarium solani. The patient's leg was amputated and was treated with amphotericin B. The patient was discharged on healing of the stump. This case gives emphasis on fungal culture in chronic diabetic ulcer.

Pai, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Shreevidya, K; Shenoy, Divakar



Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis: Microbial and Immunologic Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report on a research project aimed at obtaining new information as to the microbial etiology and immunopathology of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG). Thirty five patients have been studied; 54% were male and 46% female, 18 ...

W. A. Falkler



Collagen types I and III propeptides as markers of healing in chronic leg ulcers. A noninvasive method for the determination of procollagen propeptides in wound fluid--influence of growth hormone.  

PubMed Central

A noninvasive method allowing measurements of the propeptides of collagen type III (PIIINP) and type I (PICP) in ulcer washings was developed. The response to topical human growth hormone was examined. Fourteen patients with venous ulcers were treated sequentially with human growth hormone (0.1, 0.25, and 1 IU/cm2/day), each dose for 1 week, followed by 1 week washout. On alternate days, three and two times during treatment and washout periods, respectively, the ulcers were washed and incubated for 30 minutes with sterile water. No changes in healing rates in relation to growth hormone application were observed. In contrast, PIIINP increased significantly to 168% (154% to 184%) (mean, 95% confidence interval) and 195% (179% to 218%) 5 and 9 days, respectively, after start of treatment, (p < 0.01). Propeptides of collagen type I reached a significant increase, to 196% (172% to 232%), in the fourth week, (p < 0.01). The areas under the curves of PICP and PIIINP correlated significantly with the healing rates (r = 0.57, p = 0.04; and r = 0.64, p = 0.01, respectively). The authors conclude that propeptide measurements may be useful markers of healing in clinical studies. Images FIG. 1.

Rasmussen, L H; Jensen, L T; Avnstorp, C; Karlsmark, T; Peters, K; H?rslev-Petersen, K



Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Recent clinical and functional imaging data suggest impaired central dopaminergic transmission in restless legs syndrome (RLS). As RLS responds to dopaminergic medications, an etiologic link between RLS and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been proposed. However, few studies have examined this association. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of RLS amongst PD outpatient population. Method: The prevalence of RLS was determined

E. K. Tan; S. Y. Lum; M. C. Wong



Si Legs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated several kinds of uni-leg thermoelectric (TE) modules using Sb-doped n-type Mg2Si. In order to evaluate the influence of the structure of the modules on their durability with respect to heat-cycling, modules of two different types were evaluated. One was a conventional-structured module, in which the upper and lower surfaces of the legs were each fixed to a ceramic substrate. The other was a `half skeleton' module, in which the `cold-side' substrate was removed and a thermal-conductive sheet was used instead of a ceramic plate for the cold-side insulator. From the result of this evaluation, it was confirmed that, although some variation in the output power was observed for the `half-skeleton' module, the power variation was markedly less than for the conventional-structured module. Additionally, to improve the output power of the module, we replaced the Al2O3 substrate with Si3N4, which has a higher thermal conductivity than the Al2O3 substrate. The observed output power of a module (25 mm × 24 mm × 8.3 mm) fabricated using the Si3N4 substrate was 1,293 mW at ?T = 500 K. The output value of the module using the Si3N4 plate was improved by 29 % compared with the output value of the module using the Al2O3 substrate. Moreover, based on the structures of these modules, a 36 mm × 41 mm × 8.3 mm module was fabricated. The expected value of the output power of the module was 1.9 W at ?T = 500 K.

Nemoto, Takashi; Iida, Tsutomu; Sato, Junichi; Suda, Hiroshi; Takanashi, Yoshifumi



Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease: Implications for College Health Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews clinical patterns of inflammatory bowel disorders, establishes a perspective for recognizing ulcerative colitis, ulcerative proctitis, and Crohn's disease in relation to other bowel inflammations, and suggests some epidemiologic strategies for studying etiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of the diseases. (MJB)

Gelphi, A. P.



Ulcerative colitis.  


Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the rectum and colon. Results from many studies in people and animals of intestinal inflammation suggest that ulcerative colitis results from environmental factors triggering a loss of tolerance for normal intestinal flora in genetically susceptible individuals. Although progress has been made in the overall management of the disease, no innovative treatment has been developed. By contrast with Crohn's disease, there are few clinical data on biological agents. Probiotics seem the most promising of several experimental and traditional agents that have been investigated in controlled clinical trials. PMID:11830216

Farrell, Richard J; Peppercorn, Mark A



Restless Legs Syndrome  


NINDS Restless Legs Syndrome Information Page Condensed from Restless Legs Syndrome Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Restless Legs Syndrome? Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder ...


Venous ulcer healing: effect of socioeconomic factors in London.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine which social and clinical factors are associated with healing in patients with venous ulceration. DESIGN--Patients were questioned about social factors at their first visit to a community ulcer clinic. They were treated by high compression bandage system and were interviewed again after 12 weeks. SETTING--Community leg ulcer clinics held in health centres throughout Riverside Health Authority in London. PATIENTS--All patients referred to five community leg ulcer clinics with venous ulceration over a six month period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--These were factors significantly associated with healing within 12 weeks of beginning treatment, measured by odds ratio (OR) given by logistic regression analysis. MAIN RESULTS--Of 168 patients with venous ulceration, 87 (52%) healed after 12 weeks of treatment. Univariate analysis showed that low social class (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.17, 10.14), lack of central heating (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.18, 4.18), and being single (OR = 2.77, 95% CI 1.15, 6.69) were all significantly associated with delayed healing. After adjustment for the known risk factors of ulcer size, ulcer duration, and general mobility only lack of central heating was still significant (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.11, 4.55). The remaining factors failing to achieve statistical significance because of their inter-relationship with the known risk factors. CONCLUSIONS--Clinical features of the ulcer seem to determine the progress of healing in patients with leg ulceration. Although there were associations between socio-economic factors and poor healing, adjustment for clinical risk factors generally led to lower non-significant associations. Only lack of central heating retained its association and may play a part in prolonging healing of venous ulceration.

Franks, P J; Bosanquet, N; Connolly, M; Oldroyd, M I; Moffatt, C J; Greenhalgh, R M; McCollum, C N



Depression in patients with chronic venous ulceration.  


As leg ulcer research has generally focused on aspects of treatment, the psychosocial impact of leg ulceration remains understudied. This article reports the findings of a study exploring the prevalence of anxiety and depression in 190 patients with chronic venous ulceration across 9 Trusts in the northwest of England. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was used to screen patients for the presence of anxiety and depression using a cut-off point of 9 for level of "caseness". A total of 52 (27%) people scored as depressed while 50 (26%) scored as anxious. The two symptoms which appeared to be associated with anxiety and depression were pain and odour, while there was no association found between living alone, mobility and exudate. These findings suggest that the focus of care needs to be redirected for many patients for whom cure is not an option, but who are left to live with a chronic wound. Furthermore, psychological factors, including depression, should be a focus in assessment and ongoing review of patients with leg ulceration. PMID:16835511

Jones, June; Barr, Wally; Robinson, Jude; Carlisle, Caroline


Etiologies of Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines some of the evidence to date for the various etiologies of obesity. Table 1 provides an outline of the\\u000a chapter and the major factors thought to contribute to the etiology of obesity.

Richard L. Atkinson


Getting Your Sea Legs  

PubMed Central

Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning.

Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoit G.



Venous ulcer review  

PubMed Central

Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers? Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recurrence. Implementation: Potential pitfalls to avoid are: Failure to exclude underlying arterial disease before application of compression.Unusual-looking ulcers or those slow to heal should be biopsied to exclude malignant transformation.

Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan



Leg MRI scan  


... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...


Impact of PSCA Variation on Gastric Ulcer Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Peptic ulcer is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders with complex etiology. Recently we conducted the genome wide association study for duodenal ulcer and identified disease susceptibility variations at two genetic loci corresponding to the Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene and the ABO blood group (ABO) gene. Here we investigated the association of these variations with gastric ulcer in two Japanese case-control sample sets, a total of 4,291 gastric ulcer cases and 22,665 controls. As a result, a C-allele of rs2294008 at PSCA increased the risk of gastric ulcer with odds ratio (OR) of 1.13 (P value of 5.85×10?7) in an additive model. On the other hand, SNP rs505922 on ABO exhibited inconsistent result between two cohorts. Our finding implies presence of the common genetic variant in the pathogenesis of gastric and duodenal ulcers.

Tanikawa, Chizu; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kubo, Michiaki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ito, Hidemi; Tanaka, Hideo; Yatabe, Yasushi; Yamao, Kenji; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Tajima, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuda, Koichi



Restless Legs Syndrome  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Restless Legs Syndrome? Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong ... and to find better treatments. Rate This Content: Restless Legs Syndrome Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...


Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis.  


In patients with no known systemic disease or immune dysfunction, necrotizing periodontitis (NUP) appears to share many of the clinical and etiologic characteristics of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) except that patients with NUP demonstrate loss of clinical attachment and alveolar bone at affected sites. In these patients, NUP may be a sequela of a single or multiple episodes of NUG or may be the result of the occurrence of necrotizing disease at a previously periodontitis-affected site. The existence of immune dysfunction may predispose patients to NUG and NUP, especially when associated with an infection of microorganisms frequently associated with periodontal disease such as Treponema and Selenomonas species, Fuscobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The role of immune dysfunction is exemplified by the occasionally aggressive nature of necrotic forms of periodontal disease seen in patients with HIV infection or malnutrition, both of which may impact host defenses. Clinical studies of HIV-infected patients have shown that patients with NUP are 20.8 times more likely to have CD4+ cell counts below 200 cells/mm3. However, these same studies have demonstrated that most patients with CD4+ cell counts below 200 cells/mm do not have NUP, suggesting that other factors, in addition to immunocompromisation, are involved. Further studies are needed to define the complex interactions between the microbial, or viral, etiology of necrotic lesions and the immunocompromised host. It is, therefore, recommended that NUG and NUP be classified together under the grouping of necrotizing periodontal diseases based on their clinical characteristics. PMID:10863377

Novak, M J



Exhibitionism: Etiology and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature on exhibitionism yields no empirical support for any particular etiological theory, although the behavioral approach is potentially the most useful. Descriptive studies of exhibitionists suggest characteristics that could provide the basis for further etiological research. In regard to treatment, essentially all the methodologically sound studies are behavioral, and they show that covert sensitization has a

C. David Blair; Richard I. Lanyon



Cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis: a review of the literature.  


Cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis (CMUSE) is an extremely rare illness characterised by chronic or relapsing subileus status resulting from multiple small intestinal fibrous strictures and multiple shallow ulcers of the small bowel. The etiology is unknown and pathogenesis is not fully understood. Therapy with systemic glucocorticosteroids is the treatment of choice. However, most patients develop corticosteroid dependence. Deep enteroscopy enables precise diagnostic work, possible endoscopic treatment of stenoses; may obviate the need for surgery and prevent excessive small bowel resections. PMID:24369459

Kohoutová, Darina; Bártová, Jolana; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Repák, Rudolf; Kopá?ová, Marcela; Bureš, Jan



Ulcerative Colitis: A Challenge to Surgeons  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease that specifically affects the mucosa of the rectum and colon. Although the etiology of this recurring inflammatory disorder remains essentially unknown, there have been significant advances in identifying the likely genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. The clinical course of the disease typically manifests with remissions and exacerbations characterized by rectal bleeding and diarrhea. Since ulcerative colitis most commonly affects patients in their youth or early middle age, the disease can have serious long-term local and systemic consequences. There is no specific medical therapy that is curative. Although medical therapy can ameliorate the inflammatory process and control most symptomatic flares, it provides no definitive treatment for the disease. Proctocolectomy or total removal of the colon and rectum provides the only complete cure; however, innovative surgical alternatives have eliminated the need for a permanent ileostomy. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed account of the surgical management of ulcerative colitis.

Parray, Fazl Q; Wani, Mohd L; Malik, Ajaz A; Wani, Shadab N; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan



Skin zinc concentrations in patients with varicose ulcers  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of zinc in the skin has been determined noninvasively in patients with varicose vein ulcers. The examinations were performed with the use of diagnostic x-ray spectrometry, a method based on x-ray fluorescence for in vivo noninvasive evaluation of trace elements. Four skin foci were examined: at the periphery of the ulcer and control areas in a nonulcerated area in the diseased leg, in the noninvolved leg, and in the proximal inner surface of the arm. Zinc levels around the ulcer (mean +/- SD, 9.8 +/- 4.0 micrograms of zinc in 1 g of wet tissue) were higher than those in the nonulcerated skin in the diseased leg (6.9 +/- 3.0 micrograms/g, p greater than 0.05) and those in the noninvolved leg (5.4 +/- 2.0 micrograms/g, p less than 0.01). The concentration of zinc in the inner proximal surface of the arm (9.8 +/- 2.8 micrograms/g) was significantly higher than those of a control group (5.3 +/- 1.9 micrograms/g, p less than 0.01). These results suggest a defect of zinc distribution in patients with varicose vein ulcers.

Ackerman, Z.; Loewenthal, E.; Seidenbaum, M.; Rubinow, A.; Gorodetsky, R. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel))



JAMA Patient Page: Pressure Ulcers  


... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Pressure Ulcers A pressure ulcer is an injury to the skin as a ... call 203/259-8724. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF PRESSURE ULCERS Prevention of pressure ulcers is key because treatment ...


Leg Length Inequality  

PubMed Central

Leg length inequality, a common abnormality, can cause musculoskeletal pain, scoliosis, and osteoarthritis of the hip. Seven percent of the asymptomatic population has a leg length inequality greater than 12 mm; the incidence is considerably higher (13%-22%) in individuals complaining of low back pain. Correction can usually be accomplished by shoe modification, and can result in dramatic relief of pain. Leg length inequality of more than half an inch is considered clinically significant. Leg length measurement should be routine in all patients complaining of low back pain, hip pain, and atypical flank and lower quadrant pain. Correction might prove very cost-effective.

Sharpe, Colin R.



A Case of Small Bowel Ulcer Associated with Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

The etiology of peptic ulcer disease in children may be primary, associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, or secondary, relied on underlying disease. Ulcerative lesions by H. pylori are mainly distributed in the duodenal bulb and they are rare below the ampulla of Vater because H. pylori growth is inhibited by bile juice. In this reason, there are only some restrictive reports presented small bowel ulcer associated H. pylori. We found multiple small bowel ulcerative lesions associated with H. pylori in an 11-year-old girl without any systemic disease while performing esophagogastroenteroscopy to the level of the proximal jejunum for differentiating bezoar. The abdominal pain improved after the patient was administered H. pylori eradication therapy. Because a small bowel ulcer associated with H. pylori has rarely been reported, we report it here with literature review.

Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Woo, Saet Byul; Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Kon Hee; Shin, Su Rin



Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of genital ulcer disease.  


In Africa, establishment of an accurate clinical diagnosis in cases of genital ulcer disease is difficult owing to atypical presentation of ulcerations and mixed infections. This is compounded by the frequent lack of suitable laboratory facilities. In 240 cases of genital ulcer disease among mineworkers in Carletonville, South Africa, this study endeavored to correlate the clinical diagnosis with laboratory findings. Clinical accuracy and positive and negative predictive values were determined for each type of genital ulcer disease encountered. Overall, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 68% for single infections, 80% for chancroid, 55% for primary syphilis, 27% for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and 22% for genital herpes. Adequate laboratory facilities are indispensible for the establishment of an accurate etiologic diagnosis of genital ulcer disease and thus the institution of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:2175951

Dangor, Y; Ballard, R C; da L Exposto, F; Fehler, G; Miller, S D; Koornhof, H J



The swollen leg.  


Systemic causes of leg edema include idiopathic cyclic edema, heart failure, cirrhosis, nephrosis and other hypoproteinemic states. Lymphedema may be primary, or secondary to neoplasm, lymphangitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis and, rarely (in the U.S.), filariasis. Thrombophlebitis and chronic venous insufficiency are not uncommon causes. Finally, infection, ischemia, lipedema, vascular anomalies, tumors and trauma can be responsible for the swollen leg. PMID:188330

Young, J R



Degradation of antiproteinases, complement and fibronectin in chronic leg ulcers.  


It has been proposed that excessive and uncontrolled proteolytic activity is an important pathogenetic factor for chronic wounds. Identification of molecules that either control or reflect proteolysis in wounds may prove to be useful in determining wound healing activity. In this study wound fluid was sampled under a polyurethane dressing or on hydrophilic glass filters. Multiple chronic wound fluid components were identified; viz. the previously described alpha2-macroglobulin, alpha1-antitrypsin and fibronectin, as well as "novel" wound fluid molecules such as complement factor C3, inter-alpha-inhibitor, kininogen, IgG, IgA, C-reactive protein, tetranectin, orosomucoid and ceruloplasmin. There appeared to be a highly variable degradation of alpha1-antitrypsin in the wounds; furthermore, the activation of C3 appeared to correlate with the appearance of fibronectin breakdown products. In wound fluid, inter-alpha-inhibitor was degraded. The influence of the sampling procedures was studied. It was shown that contact phase activation must be taken into account in the study of molecules (such as kininogens) activated by hydrophilic charged surfaces. PMID:10954207

Schmidtchen, A



Juxta CURES: compression for healing venous leg ulcers.  


Clinicians are expected to show improved healing rates, reduction in recurrence rates and to demonstrate greater patient satisfaction. All patients should rightly expect a high standard of holistic care that supports both their physical and emotional needs. Keeping the patient engaged in the "healing process" has many beneficial outcomes, not least to their emotional wellbeing. Managing to heal the wounds within a realistic timeframe is the required outcome for all parties. This article demonstrates how a new compression device, Juxta CURES, has a positive impact on patients' quality of life, also benefiting the clinician while maintaining cost-saving efficiencies. PMID:24575602

Nugent, Lisa



Restless leg syndrome  


... discomfort. Most patients have rhythmic leg movements during sleep hours, called periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). All of these symptoms often disturb sleep. Symptoms can make it difficult to sit during ...


The etiology of thrombocytopenia.  


Hemostasis depends on an adequate number of well-functioning platelets in the circulating blood; decreasing platelet levels raise the risk for bleeding. Thrombocytopenia is a laboratory finding, not a diagnosis, and once identified, a detailed history, physical examination, and further laboratory tests are used to establish an etiology. This article reviews the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of thrombocytopenia. PMID:22076454

Horrell, C J; Rothman, J



The Etiology of Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many theories of giftedness either explicitly or implicitly acknowledge the role of genetic influences; yet, empirical work has not been able to establish the impact that genes have specifically on gifted behavior. In contrast, a great deal of research has been targeted at understanding the etiology of individual differences in general and…

Thompson, Lee Anne; Oehlert, Jeremy



Science Nation: Ulcer Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every year, nearly four million people in the United States are afflicted with stomach ulcers. The explanation of how you contract an ulcer has evolved from what seemed like an educated guess 50 years ago to something based more in scientific fact today. In 1982, two Australian scientists were able to link a specific bacteria to most stomach ulcers. They eventually went on to win the 2005 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their work.


Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.  


Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The histopathologic exam is not a diagnostic tool in the majority of cases and should not be considered the gold standard test, being of little value in cases of NSTD and STD ulcers. PMID:17625773

Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira



Management of patients with ulcer bleeding.  


This guideline presents recommendations for the step-wise management of patients with overt upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Hemodynamic status is first assessed, and resuscitation initiated as needed. Patients are risk-stratified based on features such as hemodynamic status, comorbidities, age, and laboratory tests. Pre-endoscopic erythromycin is considered to increase diagnostic yield at first endoscopy. Pre-endoscopic proton pump inhibitor (PPI) may be considered to decrease the need for endoscopic therapy but does not improve clinical outcomes. Upper endoscopy is generally performed within 24h. The endoscopic features of ulcers direct further management. Patients with active bleeding or non-bleeding visible vessels receive endoscopic therapy (e.g., bipolar electrocoagulation, heater probe, sclerosant, clips) and those with an adherent clot may receive endoscopic therapy; these patients then receive intravenous PPI with a bolus followed by continuous infusion. Patients with flat spots or clean-based ulcers do not require endoscopic therapy or intensive PPI therapy. Recurrent bleeding after endoscopic therapy is treated with a second endoscopic treatment; if bleeding persists or recurs, treatment with surgery or interventional radiology is undertaken. Prevention of recurrent bleeding is based on the etiology of the bleeding ulcer. H. pylori is eradicated and after cure is documented anti-ulcer therapy is generally not given. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are stopped; if they must be resumed low-dose COX-2-selective NSAID plus PPI is used. Patients with established cardiovascular disease who require aspirin should start PPI and generally re-institute aspirin soon after bleeding ceases (within 7 days and ideally 1-3 days). Patients with idiopathic ulcers receive long-term anti-ulcer therapy. PMID:22310222

Laine, Loren; Jensen, Dennis M



Major ozonated autohemotherapy in chronic limb ischemia with ulcerations.  


This paper reports the beneficial effects of ozone autohemotherapy (OHT) in 2 patients afflicted with painful, intractable leg ulcers. One patient had diabetes mellitus type II (DM), the other had vasculitis. Both patients had seen multiple specialists, including a dermatologist, an internist, and a vascular surgeon, but their clinical course continued to worsen. When the pain became intolerable, the patients came to our pain clinic. Chemical lumbar sympathectomy as well as epidural blockade with bupivacaine and morphine were moderately effective in reducing their pain but had no effect on the ulcers. Only after OHT treatments were performed for several months was satisfactory healing observed. PMID:15865505

de Monte, Amato; van der Zee, Hoyte; Bocci, Velio



Gastroduodenal ulceration in foals.  


Gastroduodenal ulceration is becoming recognised as an important disease in foals during the first few months of life. Aetiopathogenesis is presumed to be similar to peptic disease in humans associated with back diffusion of hydrogen ions into the mucosa. Many factors have been incriminated as predisposing foals to ulceration but few have been proven. To date, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents has been the only documented cause of gastroduodenal ulceration in foals. The clustering of affected foals on certain farms suggests an infectious aetiology but attempts to identify a causative organism have been unsuccessful. Four clinical syndromes defined for foals with gastroduodenal ulceration include: silent ulcers, which occur most often in the non-glandular stomach along the margo plicatus and are identified as incidental findings at necropsy; active ulcers which are often manifested by abdominal pain, excessive salivation and bruxism; perforating ulcers which usually result in a severe, diffuse peritonitis; and pyloric or duodenal obstruction from a healing ulcer. General approaches to therapy of a foal with active ulceration consist of reduction of gastric acidity and enhancement of mucosal protection. Antacids and type 2 histamine receptor antagonists are used most often to neutralise or decrease acid secretion, respectively. Sucralfate, a locally active sulphated sucrose preparation, is commonly used as a cytoprotective agent. The efficacy and safety of many products used have not been evaluated adequately in foals. Perforating ulcers are usually associated with death or humane destruction of the foal because of fulminating peritonitis. Surgical intervention and bypass procedures are indicated in foals that develop pyloric or duodenal obstructions from healing ulcers. PMID:3758011

Becht, J L; Byars, T D



Ulcers and nonvariceal bleeding.  


Peptic ulcer remains the commonest and most significant cause of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The incidence of peptic ulcer bleeding is rising in elderly patients, particularly for duodenal ulcer. Patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who have low Rockall scores are at low risk of rebleeding and death. These patients currently utilize considerable health-care resources, but could safely be managed at home. The Rockall score can be used to predict the risk of rebleeding and death following variceal bleeding, but for patients with ulcer bleeding, its ability to predict death is questioned. Acid suppression is effective in preventing rebleeding from peptic ulcer. Standard doses of intravenous omeprazole may be as effective as high-dose regimens. Oral omeprazole also reduces rebleeding following endoscopic therapy for peptic ulcer. Mallory-Weiss tears result in significant bleeding in 23 % of cases. Endoscopic therapy may only be required in cases in which active bleeding is present. Endoscopic therapy is effective and safe in patients with major peptic ulcer bleeding who are over 80 years old. For peptic ulcer, injection of larger volumes of epinephrine (adrenaline; mean 16.5 ml) are more effective than small volumes (mean 8 ml). Injection of normal saline alone is less effective than bipolar electrocoagulation. The addition of fibrin glue to epinephrine injection does not confer an additional benefit over epinephrine alone. Argon plasma coagulation can be used to treat a range of lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. It is also effective for treatment of bleeding ulcer, but is no better than established methods. Haemoclips may be useful in bleeding Mallory-Weiss tears, but their use is difficult in patients bleeding from peptic ulcer. The presence of a large ulcer and active bleeding at the time of endoscopy are independent predictors of failure of endoscopic therapy. PMID:12510222

Church, N I; Palmer, K R



Idiopathic granulomatous gastritis with multiple aphthoid ulcers.  


A 47-year-old woman had idiopathic granulomatous gastritis characterized by serpiginous aphthoid ulcer with satellite aphthous ulcers at the antrum to angulus with noncaseating epithelioid granulomas including giant cells in the gastric mucosa. No definite etiologic factors could be detected; systemic sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, infections (tuberculosis, syphilis and fungus), neoplasm, and foreign body reaction were excluded by additional investigations. However, the patient was found to be infected with H. pylori. Despite the success of H. pylori-eradication, the granulomatous lesion took a long time to heal for at least 17 months or more. The relation between granulomatous gastritis and H. pylori was discussed. There was no apparent evidence of granuloma in the other organs during clinical and follow-up studies for over three years. PMID:12924493

Koyama, Shohei; Nagashima, Fumio



Etiology of chronic diarrhea.  


With worldwide use of oral rehydration solutions, the treatment of acute diarrhea does not pose much of a problem. However, chronic diarrhea is still harmful, especially for the growth and development status of the children. Between January 1993 to December 1996, patients who suffered from chronic diarrhea for more than one month duration and admitted to Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital were evaluated for epidemiological and etiologic factors. Seventy consecutive patients were evaluated. The mean age was 40.8 months and 52% were males. Malnutrition was detected in 80% of cases. Etiologic factors included celiac disease 30%, cow milk allergy 17%, bacterial and parasitic factors 26%, cystic fibrosis 10% and postinfectious gastroenteritis 10%. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, chronic nonspecific diarrhea, pseudo-obstruction, neurofibromatosis and inflammatory bowel disease were rarely detected. Celiac disease and cow milk allergy were implicated as the most common causes of chronic diarrhea. The vicious cycle of faulty nutrition, malnutrition and infection and postinfectious enteropathy were also significant factors in the etiology of chronic diarrhea. It may be considered that cow milk protein prick test, sweat test, immunologic tests and mucosal biopsies should be performed for the definite diagnosis of chronic diarrhea. PMID:10798125

Altunta?, B; Gül, H; Yarali, N; Ertan, U



On the etiology of Crohn disease.  

PubMed Central

Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic, panenteric intestinal inflammatory disease. Its etiology is unknown. Analogous to the tuberculoid and lepromatous forms of leprosy, CD may have two clinical manifestations. One is aggressive and fistulizing (perforating), and the other is contained, indolent, and obstructive (nonperforating) [Gi]-berts, E. C. A. M., Greenstein, A. J., Katsel, P., Harpaz, N. & Greenstein, R. J. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 12721-127241. The etiology, if infections, may be due to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. We employed reverse transcription PCR using M. paratuberculosis subspecies-specific primers (IS 900) on total RNA from 12 ileal mucosal specimens (CD, n = 8; controls, n = 4, 2 with ulcerative colitis and 2 with colonic cancer). As a negative control, we used Myobacterium avium DNA, originally cultured from the drinking water of a major city in the United States. cDNA sequence analysis shows that all eight cases of Crohn's disease and both samples from the patients with ulcerative colitis contained M. paratuberculosis RNA. Additionally, the M. avium control has the DNA sequence of M. paratuberculosis. We demonstrate the DNA sequence of M. paratuberculosis from mucosal specimens from humans with CD. The potable water supply may be a reservoir of infection. Although M. paratuberculosis signal in CD has been previously reported, a cause and effect relationship has not been established. In part, this is due to conflicting data from studies with empirical antimycobacterial therapy. We conclude that clinical trials with anti-M. paratuberculosis therapy are indicated in patients with CD who have been stratified into the aggressive (perforating) and contained (nonperforating) forms. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3

Mishina, D; Katsel, P; Brown, S T; Gilberts, E C; Greenstein, R J



[Treatment of trophic ulsers of different etiology].  


The research included 40 patients with chronic trophic ulcers of lower extremities of different etiology (arterial insufficiency - 14 patients, venous insufficiency - 20 patients, diabetic foot syndrome - 6 people). According to the data of prime bacteriological inoculation, the main pathogens were: gram-positive coccus (Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus - 75%, Staphylococcus epidermidis - 7,5%) and yeast-like fungi (Candida albicans - 7,5%). Microbial semination in plentiful quantity (more than 106 KOE) was detected at first inoculation in 85% of the patients. The ointment was applied for the patients. After 20 days, the lack of growth and the decrease of contamination level (lower than critical (less than 102 KOE) were noted. A visual analog scale estimated an intensity of pain in patients and it consisted of 39,8% before the treatment, 27,1% - after 10 days, 14,6% - after 20 days. The "Oflomelid" application allowed the reduction of the terms of wound cleansing from nonviable tissues in majority of patients and gained the fast transition from the granulation to epithelization phase. The principle of wound management with the application of ointment "Oflomelid" should be followed in a moist environment. A modern wound dressing must be used after the ointment. This shortened the terms of separate-phase wound repair and decreased the terms of the whole period of trophic ulcers repair in patients with vascular and endocrine pathology. PMID:24640746

Bogomolov, M S; Slobodianiuk, V V



Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents recent progress in exploring active balance for dynamic legged systems. Balance in 3D can be achieved with a very simple control system. The control system has three separate parts, one that controls forward running velocity, one tha...

M. H. Raibert H. B. Brown M. Chepponis E. Hastings J. Koechling



Pseudofolliculitis of the legs.  


A 19-year-old Iraqi girl had pseudofolliculitis of the legs. Plucking the hair was the initiating factor, and its discontinuation was followed by great improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this entity at this site. PMID:1267455

Dilaimy, M



Other Causes of Leg Pain  


... Past Issues Special Section Other Causes of Leg Pain Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... a crowd of people walking. Photo: iStock Leg pain can come from a variety of causes. Your ...


Solitary ulcer of the rectum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary ulcer of the rectum is usually a disease of young adults of either sex which has a characteristic appearance on sigmoidoscopy. Distinctive changes may also be seen in biopsies taken from mucosa adjacent to the ulcer.The name `solitary ulcer' is misleading because more than one ulcer may be present. Moreover, there is a preulcerative phase which is clinically and

M. R. Madigan; B. C. Morson



Capsaicin and gastric ulcers.  


In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation. The prevalent notion among sections of population in this country and perhaps in others is that "red pepper" popularly known as "Chilli," a common spice consumed in excessive amounts leads to "gastric ulcers" in view of its irritant and likely acid secreting nature. Persons with ulcers are advised either to limit or avoid its use. However, investigations carried out in recent years have revealed that chilli or its active principle "capsaicin" is not the cause for ulcer formation but a "benefactor." Capsaicin does not stimulate but inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali, mucus secretions and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which help in prevention and healing of ulcers. Capsaicin acts by stimulating afferent neurons in the stomach and signals for protection against injury causing agents. Epidemiologic surveys in Singapore have shown that gastric ulcers are three times more common in the "Chinese" than among Malaysians and Indians who are in the habit of consuming more chillis. Ulcers are common among people who are in the habit of taking NSAIDS and are infected with the organism "Helicobacter Pylori," responsible for excessive acid secretion and erosion of the mucosal layer. Eradication of the bacteria by antibiotic treatment and avoiding the NSAIDS eliminates ulcers and restores normal acid secretion. PMID:16621751

Satyanarayana, M N



[LCT (lipocolloid technology) in lesions of venous etiology].  


This article reports on a spanish study to evaluate the effectiveness of dressings using a Technology Lipido-Colloid to treat skin lesions with "Urgotul". Has been included 18 of this 60 lesions were leg ulcers. We have decided to focus our analysis in these difficult to treat chronic wounds. This study noted better results in relation to the evolution of these lesions and in the quality of life for these patients who suffered these lesions in terms of pain control, skin deterioration or lesions in the same spot related to changing dressings, and an improvement in the skin nearby the lesion. PMID:15816222

López, Justo Rueda; Bueno, Ana Maria Muñoz; Perejamo, Montserrat Arboix; Fornells, Manuel Gago; González, R Fernando García; Gómez, Teresa Segovia; Palmero, Albert Guerrero; Sauvadet, Anne



Nonspecific genital ulcers.  


Recent intervention of nonspecific genital ulcers has added refreshing dimensions to genital ulcer disease. It was considered pertinent to dwell on diverse clinical presentation and diagnostic strategies. It seems to possess spectrum. It includes infective causes, Epstein Bar Virus, tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, HIV/AIDS related ulcers and amoebiasis. Noninfective causes are immunobullous disorders, aphthosis, Behcet's disease (BD), inflammatory bowel disease, lichen planus and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, drug reactions, premalignant and malignant conditions, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa. The diagnostic features and treatment option of each disorder are succinctly outlined for ready reference. PMID:24559562

Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta



Trigeminal Neurotrophic Ulceration  

PubMed Central

A 74 year-old female developed a trigeminal neurotrophic ulcer (TNU) 20 years following surgical ablation of the trigeminal nerve. The diagnosis of this unusual disorder is suggested when an ulcerative lesion develops. In the ala nasi in a patient with trigeminal sensory loss. A history of self-induced trauma to that area and some form of mental impairment further support the diagnosis. Exclusion of basal cell carcinoma and other causes of facial ulceration is mandatory before the diagnosis of TNU is established. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

El-Daly, Ahmed; Snyderman, Carl H.



Lower Limb (Well Leg) Compartment Syndrome After Urological Pelvic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWell leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is being seen more frequently as the complexity and duration of pelvic urological surgery increases, ie reconstruction\\/radical cancer surgery. The etiology of WLCS is multifactorial and prevention should form the mainstay of treatment. With significant morbidity and mortality, in particular lower limb morbidity secondary to fasciotomy wounds and long-term neurological sequelae, all urologists should be




Actuator Device for Artificial Leg.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An actuator device is provided for moving an artificial leg of a person having a prosthesis replacing an entire leg and hip joint. The device includes an articulated hip joint assembly carried by the natural leg and a second articulated hip joint assembly...

J. L. Burch



Epidemiological Characteristics of Corneal Ulcers in South Sharqiya Region  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand the epidemiology, predisposing factors, etiology and the outcome of management of corneal ulcers in South Sharqiya Region of Oman. Methods 188 patients who presented to us in eye Ophthalmology Department of Sur regional hospital with corneal ulcers were analyzed retrospectively. The historical aspects including the systemic and local predisposing factors, clinical picture of the ulcer which was noted on slit lamp at the time of presentation, results of culture for which material was taken by scraping of the ulcer, and its sensitivity pattern, type of management, and its outcome, were noted and the results were interpreted. Results 60.83% were males above the age of 60 years. Severe ulcers were seen in 36.17% of cases. 43.18% of cases showed positive culture of which 88.2% were bacteria and rest were fungal isolates. Of the bacteria 53.84% were pseudomonas, and 20% staphylococcus. 83.5% were put on fortified gentamycin and 68.61% were on cefuroxime in the initial dual therapy. 37.23% were on ciprofloxacin one time or another during the course of the ulcer. 69.14% of cases recovered fully and 9.57% improved. 54.25% needed hospitalization for less than 1 week and 34% for less than 2 weeks. 58.76% of cases recovered in less than 3 weeks. As local predisposing factors 45 cases (24%) were post surgery, and 29 cases (15.4%) were having CDK (climatic droplet keratopathy). Diabetes was seen in 8.5% of cases. Conclusion Corneal ulcer was seen predominantly in males above the age of 60 years, pseudomonas being the main etiological organism. Dual therapy was the commonest empirical therapy. No major systemic risk factor was identified. Post surgical and CDK were the predominant local risk factors.



Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms  


Restless Legs Syndrome - Causes & Symptoms Causes What causes of restless legs syndrome varies from person to person. In some cases ... with brain cell communication that can lead to restless legs syndrome. If you think you have restless legs syndrome ...


Ulcer healing time and antibiotic treatment before and after the introduction of the Registry of Ulcer Treatment: an improvement project in a national quality registry in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate changes in ulcer healing time and antibiotic treatment in Sweden following the introduction of the Registry of Ulcer Treatment (RUT), a national quality registry, in 2009. Design A statistical analysis of RUT data concerning the healing time and antibiotic treatment for patients with hard-to-heal ulcers in Sweden between 2009 and 2012. Setting RUT is a national web-based quality registry used to capture areas of improvement in ulcer care and to structure wound management by registering patients with hard-to-heal leg, foot and pressure ulcers. Registration includes variables such as gender, age, diagnosis, healing time, antibiotic treatment, and ulcer duration and size. Population Every patient with a hard-to-heal ulcer registered with RUT between 2009 and 2012 (n=1417) was included. Main outcome measures Statistical analyses were performed using Stata V.12.1. Healing time was assessed with the Kaplan-Meier analysis and adjustment was made for ulcer size. A log-rank test was used for equality of survivor functions. Results According to the adjusted registry in December 2012, patients’ median age was 80?years (mean 77.5?years, range 11–103?years). The median healing time for all ulcers, adjusted for ulcer size, was 146?days (21?weeks) in 2009 and 63?days (9?weeks) in 2012 (p=0.001). Considering all years between 2009 and 2012, antibiotic treatment for patients with hard-to-heal ulcers was reduced from 71% before registration to 29% after registration of ulcer healing (p=0.001). Conclusions Healing time and antibiotic treatment decreased significantly during 3?years after launch of RUT.

Oien, Rut F; Forssell, Henrik W



Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis  


... drugs that suppress the immune system, such as cyclophosphamide Some Trade Names LYOPHILIZED CYTOXAN taken by mouth ... Book Mobile Versions VIEW STUDENT STORIES Pronunciations arthritis cyclophosphamide keratitis peripheral ulcerative keratitis Back to Top Previous: ...


Cervicitis of unknown etiology.  


Cervicitis has been described by some as the female counterpart of urethritis in men. Over the years a number of clinical and microscopy-based definitions have been suggested in the literature. Clinical manifestations include mucopurulent discharge from the cervix, cervical friability (easy bleeding from the cervix with passage of a swab) and cervical ectopy. Microscopic definitions involving the use of Gram stain of cervical secretions have included either more than 10 white blood cells (WBCs) or more than 30 WBCs per high-power field. Combinations of these clinical and microscopic findings have been used in attempts to increase the accuracy of cervicitis diagnosis. When cervicitis was initially recognized as a clinical entity, several investigators reported the primary pathogens causing cervicitis as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. It is now well established that most cases of cervicitis are not caused by these two organisms. Most cases of cervicitis are of unknown etiology. PMID:24859465

Taylor, Stephanie N



[Restless legs syndrome epidemiology].  


The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic sensori-motor disorder characterized by a complaint of an irresistible urge to move the legs. This urge can often be accompanied by pain or other unpleasant sensations, it either occurs or worsens with rest, particularly at night, and temporarily improves with activity. Prevalence estimates vary between 7.2% and 11.5% of the Caucasian adult population. RLS prevalence increases with age, and women are more frequently affected than men. In France, a prevalence rate of 8.5% was estimated. Although RLS is mainly idiopathic, several clinical conditions have been associated with it, mainly pregnancy, iron deficiency with or without anemia, end-stage renal disease and peripheral neuropathy. RLS is often underdiagnosed and there is a clear need for complementary education to improve the accurate diagnosis of RLS. Indeed, a better knowledge of this syndrome is a prerequisite to prompt an appropriate therapeutic management. PMID:20334990

Ghorayeb, Imad; Tison, François




NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

Myers, William Neil (Inventor)



The mangled lower leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surgeon faced with a patient presenting with an open tibial\\/fibular fracture in combination with severe damage of the surrounding soft tissues, has to make the difficult decision whether to attempt salvage or to perform an immediate amputation of the leg.\\u000a\\u000aUntil late in the nineteenth century the mortality from open fractures was high - mainly due to sepsis after

Jochem Maarten Hoogendoorn



Pairs of Legs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem students practice counting by twos as they explore the natural phenomenon that legs on creatures always come in pairs, laying the foundation for doubling and halving. A set of cards can be downloaded (pdf) and matched. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, an expanded set of cards (pdf), and links to related activities (Noah and Number Tracks, both cataloged separately).



Lower Leg Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lower leg pain rarely occurs from the usual activities of daily living of children and adolescents. Nonacute, repetitive microtraumatic\\u000a injuries are typically related to running and jumping associated with sports. Pain in the tibia or fibula not caused by acute\\u000a trauma is most often associated with recurrent impact loading. Training errors and inappropriate equipment are often causative\\u000a factors. In addition,

Angela D. Smith


Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma in Chronic Venous Ulcers: Study of 17 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Venous ulcers are wounds that are thought to occur due to improper functioning of venous valves, usually of the legs. They are the major cause of chronic wounds, occurring in 70% to 90% of chronic wound cases. The treatment of venous ulcers also entails substantial costs. Autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a simple office based procedure which helps in enhancing the wound healing by releasing many growth factors like platelet derived growth factors, fibroblast derived growth factors and epidermal growth factors. Aim: To study the efficacy of autologous platelet rich plasma in the management of chronic venous ulcer. Methodology: 12 patients with 17 venous ulcers were treated with PRP and treatment outcome was measured by percentage of improvement in area and volume of the ulcer. Results: 12 patients with 17 ulcers were treated with PRP. The mean age of the patients was 33.5 years (SD 9.82). 10 were males and 2 were females. The mean duration of the healing of the ulcers was in 5.1 weeks (SD 3.1). The mean percentage improvement in the area and volume of the ulcer was 94.7% (SD 11.12) and 95.6% (SD 10.19) respectively. Conclusions: PRP is safe, simple and effective procedure in treating chronic venous ulcers

Sarvajnamurthy, Sacchidanand; Suryanarayan, Shwetha; Budamakuntala, Leelavathy; Suresh, Deepak Hurkudli



[Etiological diagnosis of villous atrophy].  


Villous atrophy may have various etiologies. The diagnosis of villous atrophy relies on an intestinal biopsy which necessitates a perfect histological technique to assert the villous atrophy and its degree. The most frequent etiology is coeliac disease. Villous atrophy regresses with gluten free diet. The failure of a strict gluten free diet implies to exclude a refractory sprue thought to be the earliest form of enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma. The other etiologies of villous atrophy are unusual and could be observed in alpha chain disease, inflammatory and infectious diseases, immune disorders, and primitive ileal villous atrophy. Other etiologies characterize villous atrophy in children as cow milk allergy and epithelial abnormalities. PMID:11685130

Patey-Mariaud De Serre, N; Verkarre, V; Cellier, C; Cerf-Bensussan, N; Schmitz, J; Brousse, N



Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul



Clinical and genetic heterogeneity in Mexican patients with ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Genetic factors implied on its onset and severity may include genes located within the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles with the clinical disease patterns of UC in Mexican Mestizo patients. High-resolution

Jesús K Yamamoto-Furusho; Luis F Uscanga; Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón; Jorge A Ruiz-Morales; Lorena Higuera; Teresa Cutiño; José Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez; Cynthia Villarreal-Garza; Julio Granados



Genetic diversity of bovine ulcerative mammary dermatitis-associated Treponema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of bovine ulcerative mammary dermatitis (UMD) is poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to genetically analyze spirochetes present in UMD lesions. DNA prepared from UMD lesion biopsies and from spirochetes cultured from the corresponding lesion biopsies was PCR amplified using primers for the 16S rDNA-tRNA(ile) intergenic spacer region (ISR) of Treponema 16S-23S rDNA. Analysis of cloned

L. V. Stamm; R. L. Walker; D. H. Read



Quality of ulcer healing in gastrointestinal tract: Its pathophysiology and clinical relevance  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we review the concept of quality of ulcer healing (QOUH) in the gastrointestinal tract and its role in the ulcer recurrence. In the past, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been a chronic disease with a cycle of repeated healing/remission and recurrence. The main etiological factor of PUD is Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which is also the cause of ulcer recurrence. However, H. pylori-negative ulcers are present in 12%-20% of patients; they also recur and are on occasion intractable. QOUH focuses on the fact that mucosal and submucosal structures within ulcer scars are incompletely regenerated. Within the scars of healed ulcers, regenerated tissue is immature and with distorted architecture, suggesting poor QOUH. The abnormalities in mucosal regeneration can be the basis for ulcer recurrence. Our studies have shown that persistence of macrophages in the regenerated area plays a key role in ulcer recurrence. Our studies in a rat model of ulcer recurrence have indicated that proinflammatory cytokines trigger activation of macrophages, which in turn produce increased amounts of cytokines and chemokines, which attract neutrophils to the regenerated area. Neutrophils release proteolytic enzymes that destroy the tissue, resulting in ulcer recurrence. Another important factor in poor QOUH can be deficiency of endogenous prostaglandins and a deficiency and/or an imbalance of endogenous growth factors. Topically active mucosal protective and antiulcer drugs promote high QOUH and reduce inflammatory cell infiltration in the ulcer scar. In addition to PUD, the concept of QOUH is likely applicable to inflammatory bowel diseases including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Arakawa, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Toshio; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Ken'ichi



A Pilot Study of the Prevalence of Leg Pain Among Women with Endometriosis  

PubMed Central

Radiating leg pain is a common symptom presenting in manual therapy practices. Although this symptom has been reported as a complication of endometriosis, its prevalence and characteristics have not been studied. We surveyed members of a national endometriosis support group with endometriosis using a self-administered, mailed questionnaire. The main outcome measures were the prevalence and characteristics of leg pain. Of 94 respondents, leg pain was reported by 48 women (51%), and was bilateral in 59% of these symptomatic women. The likelihood of experiencing leg pain was related to weight gain since age 18, age, and height. The most common treatments tried included exercise, over-the-counter medications, and massage therapy, all with variable results. These data support leg pain as a prevalent complication of endometriosis, and that the disease may affect multiple peripheral nerves. Manual therapists should remain aware to this possible etiology for radiating pain.

Missmer, Stacey A.; Bove, Geoffrey M.



Venous ulcers of the lower limb: Where do we stand?  


Venous ulcers are the most common ulcers of the lower limb. It has a high morbidity and results in economic strain both at a personal and at a state level. Chronic venous hypertension either due to primary or secondary venous disease with perforator paucity, destruction or incompetence resulting in reflux is the underlying pathology, but inflammatory reactions mediated through leucocytes, platelet adhesion, formation of pericapillary fibrin cuff, growth factors and macromolecules trapped in tissue result in tissue hypoxia, cell death and ulceration. Duplex scan with colour flow is the most useful investigation for venous disease supplying information about patency, reflux, effects of proximal and distal compression, Valsalva maneuver and effects of muscle contraction. Most venous disease can be managed conservatively by leg elevation and compression bandaging. Drugs of proven benefit in venous disease are pentoxifylline and aspirin, but they work best in conjunction with compression therapy. Once ulceration is chronic or the patient does not respond to or cannot maintain conservative regime, surgical intervention treating the underlying venous hypertension and cover for the ulcer is necessary. The different modalities like sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping of superficial varicose veins, endoscopic subfascial perforator ligation, endovenous laser or radiofrequency ablation have similar long-term results, although short-term recovery is best with radiofrequency and foam sclerotherapy. For deep venous reflux, surgical modalities include repair of incompetent venous valves or transplant or transposition of a competent vein segment with normal valves to replace a post-thrombotic destroyed portion of the deep vein. PMID:23162226

Chatterjee, Sasanka S



Etiology of cerebral palsy.  


Cerebral palsy has a complex and multifactorial etiology. Approximately 5%-10% of cases can be ascribed to perinatal hypoxia, but the vast majority of cases are caused by the interplay of several risk factors and antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal events. The strongest risk factors include prematurity and low birth weight. The prevalence of cerebral palsy has remained constant despite improvements in obstetric and neonatal care. For a long time, the only causal factors explored to account for risk for cerebral palsy were complications of labor and delivery. As other periods have been investigated, new associations have come to light. The current understanding of contributors to the risk for cerebral palsy is still incomplete. Multiple causes may interact by way of excitotoxic, oxidative, or other converging pathophysiologic pathways. A single factor, unless present to an overwhelming degree, often may be insufficient to produce cerebral damage, whereas two or three interacting pathogenic assaults may overwhelm natural defenses and produce irreversible brain injury. The low prevalence of cerebral palsy makes the formal testing of preventative strategies difficult. There is a need for such strategies to be carefully assessed in well designed, multicenter, randomized, controlled trials before becoming part of clinical practice, however, so that the balance between harm and benefit is known in advance. PMID:14596546

Lawson, Richard D; Badawi, Nadia



Treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.  


Diabetic foot ulcers are a major health care problem. Complications of foot ulcers are a leading cause of hospitalization and amputation in diabetic patients. Diabetic ulcers result from neuropathy or ischemia. Neuropathy is characterized by loss of protective sensation and biomechanical abnormalities. Lack of protective sensation allows ulceration in areas of high pressure. Autonomic neuropathy causes dryness of the skin by decreased sweating and therefore vulnerability of the skin to break down. Ischemia is caused by peripheral arterial disease, not by microangiopathy. Poor arterial inflow decreases blood supply to ulcer area and is associated with reduced oxygenation, nutrition and ulcer healing. Necrotic tissue is laden with bacteria apt to grow in such an environment, which also impairs general defence mechanisms against infection. Infections often complicate existing ulcers, but are seldom the cause for ulcers. Protective footwear helps to reduce ulceration in diabetic feet at risk. Relieving pressure on the ulcer area is necessary to allow healing. Blood supply needs to be improved by revascularisation whenever compromised. Systemic antibiotics are helpful in treating acute foot infections, but not uninfected ulcers. Osteomyelitis may underlie a diabetic ulcer and is often treated by resection of the infected bone and always by antibiotics, the mode and length of treatment depending on the adequacy of the debridement. The aim of ulcer bed preparation is to convert the molecular and cellular environment of the chronic ulcer to that of an acute healing wound by debridement, irrigating and cleaning. Moist dressings maintain wound environment favorable for healing. All attempts should be done to prevent diabetic foot ulceration and treat existing ulcers by multidisciplinary teams in order to decrease amputations. Indeed, improvement in ulcer healing has been observed with primary healing rates of 65-85% in mixed series. Even when healed, diabetic foot should be regarded as a life-long condition and treated accordingly to prevent recurrence. Long-term efforts have reduced amputation 37-75% in different European countries over 10-15 years. PMID:19543189

Vuorisalo, S; Venermo, M; Lepäntalo, M



Etiology and Early Marker Studies

The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) is a component of the PLCO Trial. By collecting biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before the diagnosis of disease, PLCO EEMS adds substantial value to the trial, providing a resource for cancer research, focused, in particular, on cancer etiology and early markers.


Treatment of Chronic Posttraumatic Leg Injury Using Autologous Fat Graft  

PubMed Central

We present the results obtained in a case of a 20-year-old Caucasian woman with a posttraumatic injury “hard-to-heal” of the left leg treated using autologous fat graft. Considering our experience in treatment of chronic posttraumatic ulcers by autologous fat graft, we decided to use this surgical technique to induce a regenerative effect in this young patient. We have had complete wound closure with only a single surgical procedure after 1 month; after the second intervention of autologous fat graft we observed an improvement in the quality of the scar tissue. The patient satisfaction was excellent. The results were long lasting and remained virtually unchanged after 1 year.

Caviggioli, Fabio; Klinger, Francesco Maria; Vinci, Valeriano; Cornegliani, Guido; Klinger, Marco



Wooden Legs Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Suzanne Alejandre's Math Forum blog has links to nine short videos (5 minutes or less) of Ms. Alejandre implementing the "Wooden Legs" Problem of the Week with a fifth grade class. The "Notice/Wonder" strategy is used to introduce the problem, and additional materials describe other problem solving strategies. The blogpost describes the goals of the lesson and also includes links to the teacher materials including the problem, solution, sample student answers, a scoring rubric, and teaching suggestions. Suggested browsers are Chrome, Firefox, or Safari. (It's been reported to us that when using IE9 (PC) the videos do not display.)

Alejandre, Suzanne



Spiders Have 8 Legs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-day (or three-part) math lesson, learners represent the number eight in writing and with a variety of manipulatives related to spiders. Learners construct sets of eight by cutting eight strips of paper and counting eight pretzel sticks that represent spider legs. Learners also use eight plastic spiders to show eight with a ten frame and count on from a given number to make eight. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions. Note: The snack activity involves peanut butter, but any other creamy food can be used instead.

Golden, Deeanna D.



Omics profiles in chronic venous ulcer wound fluid: innovative applications for translational medicine.  


Chronic venous disease represents a healthcare problem due to high prevalence and recurrence rates. Studies on chronic venous ulcer wound fluid (CVUWF) have demonstrated increased inflammation and proteolysis which can cause tissue destruction and delayed healing. This review discusses: nearly all known metabolites discovered in the past 25 years in CVUWF studies; the omics approaches characterizing the microenvironment of human venous leg ulcers; and the use of biocompounds as prognostic biomarkers and as possible targets for therapeutic approaches. A biomarker is a biological compound that can be functional or non-functional, specific or non-specific in the diagnosis/prognosis to a disease state and may be quantified to determine progression or regression of disease. Omics studies in CVUWF provide the impetus for future identification of biomarkers within the intricate network in chronic venous disease and set the basis for determining the appropriate combination of molecules that are expressed with the healing status of venous leg ulcers. PMID:24918119

Mannello, Ferdinando; Ligi, Daniela; Canale, Matteo; Raffetto, Joseph D



A randomized controlled trial of solcoseryl and duoderm in chronic sickle-cell ulcers.  


A randomized controlled trial of Solcoseryl, DuoDerm and conventional conservative therapy with Eusol has been performed in 32 patients with homozygous sickle-cell (SS) disease. After 12 weeks' baseline observation, patients were randomized to one of three therapies and monitored for a further 12 weeks. Of 44 ulcerated legs, 20 received control treatment, 12 Solcoseryl and 12 DuoDerm. DuoDerm was generally unacceptable, and two-thirds of the patients defaulted from this treatment. Solcoseryl increased ulcer healing compared to the controls but the difference was not significant. Solcoseryl was well tolerated and may have a role in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers of sickle-cell disease. PMID:8273321

La Grenade, L; Thomas, P W; Serjeant, G R



Pathogenesis of skin ulcers: lessons from the Mycobacterium ulcerans and Leishmania spp. pathogens.  


Skin ulcers are most commonly due to circulatory or metabolic disorders and are a major public health concern. In developed countries, chronic wounds affect more than 1 % of the population and their incidence is expected to follow those observed for diabetes and obesity. In tropical and subtropical countries, an additional issue is the occurrence of ulcers of infectious origins with diverse etiologies. While the severity of cutaneous Leishmaniasis correlates with protective immune responses, Buruli ulcers caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans develop in the absence of major inflammation. Based on these two examples, this review aims to demonstrate how studies on microorganism-provoked wounds can provide insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling skin integrity. We highlight the potential interest of a mouse model of non-inflammatory skin ulceration caused by intradermal injection of mycolactone, an original lipid toxin with ulcerative and immunosuppressive properties produced by M. ulcerans. PMID:24445815

Guenin-Macé, Laure; Oldenburg, Reid; Chrétien, Fabrice; Demangel, Caroline



Ulcer disease of trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer of 1933, lesions of a disease were noted among some fingerling brook, rainbow, blackspotted, and lake trout at the Cortland (New York) trout hatchery. Although these lesions bore a marked superficial resemblance to those of furunculosis, they were sufficiently atypical to warrant further investigation. A more detailed examination of the lesions proved them to be of a distinct disease, which for lack of a better name is herein called "ulcer disease," for the lesions closely resemble those described by Calkins (1899) under this name. Because of the marked resemblance to furunculosis, ulcer disease has not been generally recognized by trout culturists, and any ulcer appearing on fish has been ascribed by them to furunculosis without further question.

Fish, F. F.



Necrolytic migratory ulceration  

PubMed Central

Endocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic system associated with specific skin manifestations are rare. We report a 53-year-old female who presented with migratory annular and arcuate ulcers on her limbs. Histopathology was similar to necrolytic erythema family which includes necrolytic migratory erythema (NME). Though initial CT scans were normal, follow up scans revealed multiple mass lesions in the tail of pancreas. Her skin lesions responded to oral zinc sulphate and monthly injections of octreotide. Prior to planned FNAC from the mass lesion, patient developed altered sensorium and succumbed to the disease. This case report seems to differ from NME clinically, due to unique finding of deep migrating ulcers which heal with scarring. ‘Necrolytic migratory ulceration’ thus appears to be a new paraneoplastic manifestation, secondary to pancreatic malignancy.

Pakran, Jaheersha; Riyaz, Najeeba



Genetics Home Reference: Ulcerative colitis  


... a family member with ulcerative colitis increases the risk of developing the condition. Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of ulcerative colitis? These resources address the diagnosis ...


Professional liability. Etiology.  


Once again, I find Mr. Cooper quote-worthy for his statement, "It is incumbent upon the trial bar not to support the status quo merely because it is in our economic interest. Change is in the wind, and our tort system will be blown away on the winds of change for change's sake unless we participate in correcting deficiencies in the tort system and civil jury trial process." I suggest that we cannot ask for change for our own economic interest, nor can we lay blame exclusively to the other etiologic elements. We must improve those elements within our purview. The prayer of serenity may serve us well: God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference. In the game of professional liability litigation as played by the rules extant there are clearly winners and losers. The winners are the legal profession, both plaintiff and defense, and the insurers, who in the face of adversity simply increase premiums or withdraw from the market. The losers are the medical profession, the patients for whom they care and, in the broadest sense, our society as a whole. So as not to close on a note of gloom, one last quote. Lawrence H. Cooke, former Chief Judge of New York State, in remarks to the April 1986 National Symposium on Civil Justice Issues stated, "Our justice systems are beset with very real problems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3359717

White, K C



Pressure ulcer prevention knowledge among Jordanian nurses: a cross- sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Pressure ulcer remains a significant problem in the healthcare system. In addition to the suffering it causes patients, it bears a growing financial burden. Although pressure ulcer prevention and care have improved in recent years, pressure ulcer still exists and occurs in both hospital and community settings. In Jordan, there are a handful of studies on pressure ulcer. This study aims to explore levels of knowledge and knowledge sources about pressure ulcer prevention, as well as barriers to implementing pressure ulcer prevention guidelines among Jordanian nurses. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design and a self-administered questionnaire, data was collected from 194 baccalaureate and master’s level staff nurses working in eight Jordanian hospitals. From September to October of 2011, their knowledge levels about pressure ulcer prevention and the sources of this knowledge were assessed, along with the barriers which reduce successful pressure ulcer care and prevention. ANOVA and t-test analysis were used to test the differences in nurses’ knowledge according to participants’ characteristics. Means, standard deviation, and frequencies were used to describe nurses’ knowledge levels, knowledge sources, and barriers to pressure ulcer prevention. Results The majority (73%, n = 141) of nurses had inadequate knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention. The mean scores of the test for all participants was 10.84 out of 26 (SD = 2.3, range = 5–17), with the lowest score in themes related to PU etiology, preventive measures to reduce amount of pressure/shear, and risk assessment. In-service training was the second source of education on pressure ulcer, coming after university training. Shortage of staff and lack of time were the most frequently cited barriers to carrying out pressure ulcer risk assessment, documentation, and prevention. Conclusions This study highlights concerns about Jordanian nurses’ knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention. The results of the current study showed inadequate knowledge among Jordanian nurses about pressure ulcer prevention based on National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel guidelines. Also, the low level of nurses’ pressure ulcer knowledge suggests poor dissemination of pressure ulcer knowledge in Jordan, a suggestion supported by the lack of relationship between years of experience and pressure ulcer knowledge.



[Restless legs syndrome].  


About 7% of the population are affected by the restless legs syndrome (RLS). The most invalidating subjective complaints are dysesthesia / pain / an urge to move the legs (46%), an alteration of sleep (38%), and difficulties in performing activities of daily life (7%). The onset of the disease is variable, ranging from childhood (often unrecognised) to old age. The clinical course is generally chronic with phases of spontaneous remission. The cause of RLS is probably mainly genetic with a dysfunction of iron and dopamine metabolism accentuated by peripheral factors (neuropathy, radiculopathy, and temperature). There are secondary forms of RLS, such as iron deficiency (under debate), side effects of drugs (that can be stopped), renal insufficiency, radiculopathy, and neuropathy. RLS can come up during pregnancy, in particular in the last trimenon. Treatment of aggravating factors and sleep hygiene are general measures. Drug treatment of the RLS comprises levodopa, dopaminergic drugs, opioids, and antiepileptic drugs; however, drug treatment is only necessary in about a third of the affected. PMID:17953080

Droste, Dirk W; Diederich, Nico



Social Cost of Peptic Ulcer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Deaths due to peptic ulcer; Prevalence of peptic ulcer; Economic costs of peptic ulcer: the concept; loss due to disability; loss due to death; costs of medical care; the total economic cost; Some results from recent studies on the economic cost...

I. S. Blumenthal



Evaluation of technetium-99m phosphate imaging for predicting skin ulcer healing  

SciTech Connect

We have developed criteria for radionuclide angiography to assess skin ulcer perfusion as an indicator of healing capacity. Twenty-six studies were performed on 21 consecutive patients with nonhealing ulcers of the lower leg; 20 mCi of technetium-99m phosphate was injected intravenously with immediate sequential scintillation camera imaging of the ulcer and surrounding area at 2 second intervals, followed by blood pool and delayed static images. Two radiologists without clinical bias graded the perfusion to the ulcer on the images as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite limb. Patients were either followed as outpatients for more than 10 days, as inpatients for at least 10 days, or both to determine whether ulcers showed clinical evidence of wound healing with optimal outpatient and in-hospital care. Of the 17 patients whose ulcers healed, imaging with technetium-99m phosphate predicted the outcome in 16. In nine patients the ulcers did not heal. This was correctly predicted by technetium-99m phosphate in eight of the patients. Overall, the sensitivity was 94 percent and the specificity was 89 percent. This technique appears to be a simple, reliable way to predict the microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing.

Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.; Disbro, M.A.; Alazraki, N.



Differentiating nocturnal leg cramps and restless legs syndrome.  


Leg pain and discomfort are common complaints in any primary physician's clinic. Two common causes of pain or discomfort in legs are nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) and restless leg syndrome (RLS). NLC present as painful and sudden contractions mostly in part of the calf. Diagnosis of NLC is mainly clinical and sometimes involves investigations to rule out other mimics. RLS is a condition characterized by the discomfort or urge to move the lower limbs, which occurs at rest or in the evening/night. The similarity of RLS and leg cramps poses the issue of errors in diagnosing and differentiating the two. In this paper we review the pathopysiology of each entity and their diagnosis as well as treatment. The two conditions are then compared to appreciate the differences and similarities. Finally, suggestions are recommended for complete assessment. PMID:24931546

Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Fatima; Mosabbir, Abdullah; Ondo, William



Inclined leg jack-up platform with flexible leg guides  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an offshore platform assembly. It comprises a floatable hull having wells extending vertically therethrough; a plurality of inclined supporting legs secured to the hull and movable between a first, retracted position and a second, hull supporting position; flexible guide means for absorbing bending moments and forces acting on a leg chord of a corresponding leg which moves through a flexible guide means during elevation of the hull, each of the guide means being positioned in a corresponding well of the hull; means for elevating the hull with respect to the supporting legs; and wherein each of the flexible guide means is movable to a limited degree along a horizontal plane to absorb bending moments and forces acting on a corresponding leg while the hull is being elevated to an operating level.

Goldman, J.; Bennett, R.M.



[Restless-legs syndrome].  


Restless-legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movements and is exacerbated or occurs at night and in the evening. RLS sufferers represent 2 to 3% of the general population in Western countries. Supportive criteria include a family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. The RLS phenotypes include an early onset form, usually idiopathic with a familial history and a late onset form, usually secondary to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, an atypical RLS phenotype without PLM and l-DOPA resistant has been characterized. RLS can occur in childhood and should be distinguished from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, growing pains and sleep complaints in childhood. RLS should be included in the diagnosis of all patients consulting for sleep complaints or discomfort in the lower limbs. It should be differentiated from akathisia, that is, an urge to move the whole body without uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test can detect PLM. Furthermore, an l-DOPA challenge has recently been validated to support the diagnosis of RLS. RLS may cause severe-sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In most cases, RLS is idiopathic. It may also be secondary to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drugs, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. The small-fiber neuropathy can mimic RLS or even trigger it. RLS is associated with many neurological and sleep disorders including Parkinson's disease, but does not predispose to these diseases. The pathophysiology of RLS includes an altered brain-iron metabolism, a dopaminergic dysfunction, a probable role of pain control systems and a genetic susceptibility with nine loci and three polymorphisms in genes serving developmental functions. RLS treatment begins with the elimination of triggering factors and iron supplementation when deficient. Mild or intermittent RLS is usually treated with low doses of l-DOPA or codeine; the first-line treatment for moderate to severe RLS is dopaminergic agonists (pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine). In severe, refractory or neuropathy-associated RLS, antiepileptic (gabapentin, pregabalin) or opioid (oxycodone, tramadol) drugs can be used. PMID:18656214

Karroum, E; Konofal, E; Arnulf, I



Maneuvers during legged locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the horizontal plane. Changes in the horizontal projection of leg length were linearly related to changes in horizontal-plane leg forces. Consequently, the passive dynamic stabilization associated with spring-mass behavior may contribute to stability during maneuvers in bipeds. Understanding the mechanics of maneuverability will be important for understanding the motor control of maneuvers and also potentially be useful for understanding stability.

Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu



[Ultrasound determination of leg length].  


A diagnostic method is presented for measuring the leg length and the difference in leg lengths with ultrasound. A special device for holding and moving the ultrasound transducer was constructed. The measuring points on the hip, knee, and upper ankle can be visualized with a 5- or 7.5-MHz linear scanner. The measuring device gives the distance of the points in centimeters so that the difference corresponds to the real length of the leg, femur, and tibia. Tests conducted on corpses and clinical examples show that ultrasound in combination with our special device is an ideal method for determining the exact length of the leg. Ultrasound measurement of the leg length offers a reliable, noninvasive, and easily performed method. Because ultrasound is not limited by radiation hazards, our technique can be used for clinical screening. PMID:12017860

Konermann, W; Gruber, G



Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance.  


Leg compliance is "causally related with greater susceptibility" to orthostatic stress. Since peak O2 uptake (peak VO2) and muscle strength may be related to leg compliance, we examined the relationships between leg compliance and factors related to muscle size and physical fitness. Ten healthy men, 25-52 yr, underwent tests for determination of vascular compliance of the calf (Whitney mercury strain gauge), peak VO2 (Bruce treadmill), calf muscle strength (Cybex isokinetic dynamometer), body composition (densitometry), and anthropometric measurements of the calf. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of muscle, fat, and bone in the calf were determined by computed tomography scans. Leg compliance was not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (peak VO2, calf strength, age, body weight, or composition). Leg compliance correlated with calf CSA (r = -0.72, P less than 0.02) and calculated calf volume (r = -0.67, P less than 0.03). The most dominant contributing factor to the determination of leg compliance was CSA of calf muscle (r = -0.60, P less than 0.06), whereas fat and bone were poor predictors (r = -0.11 and 0.07, respectively). We suggest that leg compliance is less when there is a large muscle mass providing structural support to limit expansion of the veins. This relationship is independent of aerobic and/or strength fitness level of the individual. PMID:3366725

Convertino, V A; Doerr, D F; Flores, J F; Hoffler, G W; Buchanan, P



Impact of Mycobacterium ulcerans Biofilm on Transmissibility to Ecological Niches and Buruli Ulcer Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of biofilms in the pathogenesis of mycobacterial diseases remains largely unknown. Mycobacterium ulcerans, the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer, a disfiguring disease in humans, adopts a biofilm-like structure in vitro and in vivo, displaying an abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) that harbors vesicles. The composition and structure of the ECM differs from that of the classical matrix found in

Laurent Marsollier; Priscille Brodin; Mary Jackson; Jana Korduláková; Petra Tafelmeyer; Etienne Carbonnelle; Jacques Aubry; Geneviève Milon; Pierre Legras; Jean-Paul Saint André; Céline Leroy; Jane Cottin; Marie Laure Joly Guillou; Gilles Reysset; Stewart T Cole



Is Helicobacter pylori Infection the Primary Cause of Duodenal Ulceration or a Secondary Factor? A Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has a role in the multifactorial etiology of peptic ulcer disease. A link between H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease is now established. Other contributing factors and their interaction with the organism may initiate the ulcerative process. The fact that eradication of H. pylori infection leads to a long-term cure in the majority of duodenal ulcer patients and the fact that the prevalence of infection is higher in ulcer patients than in the normal population are cogent arguments in favor of it being the primary cause of the ulceration. Against this concept there are issues that need explanation such as the reason why only a minority of infected persons develop duodenal ulceration when infection with H. pylori is widespread. There is evidence that H. pylori infection has been prevalent for several centuries, yet duodenal ulceration became common at the beginning of the twentieth century. The prevalence of duodenal ulceration is not higher in countries with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. This paper debate puts forth the point of view of two groups of workers in this field whether H. pylori infection is the primary cause of duodenal ulcer disease or a secondary factor.

Ananthakrishnan, N.; Tovey, Frank I.



Management of Chronic Pressure Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions? Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? Background A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by as much as 400%, to increase the frequency and duration of hospitalization, and to decrease the quality of life of affected patients. The cost of treating pressure ulcers has been estimated at approximately $9,000 (Cdn) per patient per month in the community setting. Considering the high prevalence of pressure ulcers in the Ontario health care system, the total cost of treating pressure ulcers is substantial. Technology Wounds normally heal in 3 phases (inflammatory phase, a proliferative phase of new tissue and matrix formation, and a remodelling phase). However, pressure ulcers often fail to progress past the inflammatory stage. Current practice for treating pressure ulcers includes treating the underlying causes, debridement to remove necrotic tissues and contaminated tissues, dressings to provide a moist wound environment and to manage exudates, devices and frequent turning of patients to provide pressure relief, topical applications of biologic agents, and nutritional support to correct nutritional deficiencies. A variety of adjunctive physical therapies are also in use. Method Health technology assessment databases and medical databases were searched from 1996 (Medline), 1980 (EMBASE), and 1982 (CINAHL) systematically up to March 2008 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the following treatments of pressure ulcers: cleansing, debridement, dressings, biological therapies, pressure-relieving devices, physical therapies, nutritional therapies, and multidisciplinary wound care teams. Full literature search strategies are reported in appendix 1. English-language studies in previous systematic reviews and studies published since the last systematic review were included if they had more than 10 subjects, were randomized, and provided objective outcome measures on the healing of pressure ulcers. In the absence of RCTs, studies of the highest level of evidence available were included. Studies on wounds other than pressure ulcers and on surgical treatment of pressure ulcers were excluded. A total of 18 systematic reviews, 104 RCTs, and 4 observational



Inflammation, acid and ulcers.  

PubMed Central

Chronic active type B gastritis is invariably the result of Helicobacter pylori infection and is an important factor in duodenal ulcer disease. The actions of mediators produced (a protein factor, a lipid soluble "pore-forming factor" and urease) or induced (immune/inflammatory cell mediators) by this bacterium on the control of gastric acid secretion are currently being investigated. These studies are reviewed in light of our current knowledge of the physiological control of gastric acid secretion.

Muller, M. J.; Hunt, R. H.



Ulcerative Colitis: Surgical Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a diffuse inflammatory disease of the mucosal lining of the colon and rectum that manifests clinically\\u000a as diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, and rectal bleeding. Since removal of the affected organ is curative, surgery\\u000a has assumed a pivotal position in the management of these patients. Although removal of the entire colon and rectum with a

Zuri Murrell; Phillip Fleshner


Oral Lichen Planus: Clinical Features, Etiology, Treatment and Management; A Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. Mucosal lesions are classified into six clinical forms and there is malignant potential for two forms of OLP; therefore, follow-up should be considered. There are many un-established etiological factors for OLP and some different treatment modalities are based on etiology. The aims of current OLP therapy are to eliminate mucosal erythema and ulceration, alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk of oral cancer. We have used review papers, case reports, cohort studies, and case-and-control studies published from 1985 to 2010 to prepare this review of literature.

Boorghani, Marzieh; Gholizadeh, Narges; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Vatankhah, Mehdi; Mehdipour, Masoumeh



Management of radiation ulcers  

SciTech Connect

Despite more efficient and safer technics of radiation therapy, the problem of radiation-induced injury to the skin and soft tissue persists. The problem of adequate coverage of these painful, ischemic, and fibrotic ulcers remains challenging. Split-thickness skin grafts are seldom sufficient coverage, as the graft almost always has areas that do not take. Although these areas may eventually heal by epithelialization, the result is never ideal. Most often flap coverage is required, but elevation of local flaps is jeopardized because the tissue surrounding the ulcer crater frequently has been sufficiently compromised to cause loss of at least part of the flap. In the past, this necessitated use of pedicled flaps, tubed and transposed from a distance. With the development of axial-pattern musculocutaneous and muscle flaps, as well as microvascular free flaps, the difficulty in dealing with these ulcers has been decreased. Surgeons can now recommend earlier use of adequate debridement, many times of the entire irradiated area, and immediate coverage with a well vascularized axial-pattern musculocutaneous flap or revascularized free flap.

Shack, R.B.



An Etiological Model of Perfectionism  

PubMed Central

Objective Perfectionism has been recognized as a transdiagnostic factor that is relevant to anxiety disorders, eating disorders and depression. Despite the importance of perfectionism in psychopathology to date there has been no empirical test of an etiological model of perfectionism. Method The present study aimed to address the paucity of research on the etiology of perfectionism by developing and testing an etiological model using a sample of 311 clients seeking treatment. Results Structural equation modeling showed a direct relationship between high Parental Expectations and Criticism, and Perfectionism. There was also an indirect relationship between Parental Bonding and Perfectionism that was mediated by core schemas of disconnection and rejection. Finally, it was found that Neuroticism had both an indirect relationship, which was mediated by core schemas, and a direct relationship with perfectionism. Conclusions The study provided the first direct test of an etiological model of perfectionism to date. Clinical implications include investigating whether the inclusion of etiological factors in the understanding and treatment of perfectionism is effective.

Maloney, Gayle K.; Egan, Sarah J.; Kane, Robert T.; Rees, Clare S.



Differentiation of etiologic agents of bacterial keratitis from presentation characteristics  

PubMed Central

Presenting characteristics of bacterial corneal ulcers may suggest particular causative organisms, helping to guide treatment decisions before cultures become available. In this study, we analyze the association between presentation demographic and clinical characteristics, using data collected as part of a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Data for this study were collected as part of the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked trial. All patients had a culture-proven bacterial corneal ulcer. Patient history, clinical examination, and photography were performed in a standardized fashion at enrollment. Analysis of variance or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare characteristics by organism. Univariate logistic regression was used to analyze predictors of the most common organisms. Five hundred patients were enrolled in the trial, of whom 488 were included in this analysis. The most common organism was Streptococcus pneumoniae (N = 248, 51 %) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (N = 110, 23 %). Compared to other organisms, P. aeruginosa was significantly associated with a larger baseline infiltrate/scar size [odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.8] and deeper infiltrate (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.5–3.8). S. pneumoniae was significantly associated with a smaller baseline infiltrate/scar size (OR 0.8, 95 % CI 0.7–0.9) and dacryocystitis (OR 7.3, 95 % CI 4.1–13.3). Nocardia spp. were significantly associated with longer duration of symptoms prior to presentation (OR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.2–1.6), more shallow infiltrate (OR 0.3, 95 % CI 0.2–0.5), and better baseline visual acuity (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.2–0.65). Staphylococcus spp. were less likely to be central in location (OR 0.16, 95 % CI 0.08–0.3). Baseline characteristics of bacterial ulcers may suggest the likely etiology and guide early management.

Mascarenhas, Jeena; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Chen, Michael; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Glidden, David V.; Costanza, Stephanie; Lietman, Thomas M.



Restless Legs Syndrome.  


With suitable pharmacotherapy, patients with any degree of restless legs syndrome (RLS) should be able to obtain substantial relief of symptoms. The best therapeutic success is attained when the physician tailors therapy to the patient's specific symptoms and can flexibly try a variety of agents, if needed. Therapy should be reserved for those in whom RLS cannot be managed with just sleep hygiene and related practices. It should not be withheld, however, if a patient reasonably believes that his or her quality of life is being impaired by RLS. The optimal initial approach to RLS in the general patient is usually the use of a dopaminergic agent: low-dose levodopa in milder cases, a dopamine agonist in more severe ones. Patients whose problems are primarily sleep related can initially be treated with a benzodiazepine. Patients who have symptoms primarily while awake can initially be treated with a dopaminergic agent or an opioid. Patients whose RLS discomfort is truly painful can initially be treated with gabapentin. Combination therapy with two or three agents from different classes can be useful as well. Determination of iron status is the most important initial laboratory evaluation in patients with RLS. Iron supplementation should be used as indicated. In the future, delivery modes other than oral administration of medications may be of significant benefit, especially in more severe cases. PMID:11096718




A patient with foot ulcer and severe metabolic alkalosis.  


We report a case of triple acid-base disorder with metabolic alkalosis as the primary disorder in a 65-year-old man due to ingestion and application to leg ulcers of baking soda (calcium bicarbonate). The blood pH was 7.65 with hypochloremia, hypokalemia, and prerenal azotemia. He was treated with isotonic saline with K replacement, and the patient improved without any adverse clinical consequences. We discuss the causes, mechanisms, and management of Cl-responsive (depletion) metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21185672

John, Ruby Samuel; Simoes, Sonia; Reddi, Alluru S



[Treatment of skin ulcer using oil of mosqueta rose].  


Oil rose of mosqueta (Rosa aff. Rubiginosa L.) is a concentrated solution in linoleic (41%) and linolenic acid (39%), that offers benefit therapeutic effects in the wound healing. Ten patients affected of leg ulcers and post-surgical wounds were treated by 26% oil concentrated rose of mosqueta with very notable improvement on its healing compared with the control group. Due to the lack of side effects, we believe rose of mosqueta oil is very usefull to these conditions. Mechanism of actions and others indications are discussed. PMID:2214931

Moreno Gimenez, J C; Bueno, J; Navas, J; Camacho, F



Who determines the treatment for pressure ulcers in the elderly?  


The issue of professional responsibility for the treatment and care of the patient with pressure ulcers (PU) is crucial as it impacts on mortality, financial costs and the patient's quality of life. Pressure ulcers in the elderly present a complicated health problem with multifactorial etiologies. Since the pressure ulcer is the final common pathway of multiple underlying factors and medical conditions, the approach when dealing with the elderly is not only local wound management but systemic--i.e., it relates to the patient's overall condition, comorbidities, nutritional status, and disabilities. With the increase in longevity and disability, the prevalence of PU is higher and has concomitant severity and complications. For treatment to be effective it must be comprehensive and multidisciplinary. The traditional, and pivotal, role of the nurse in coordinating treatment has expanded and now includes more active collaboration with the physician and the multidisciplinary team regarding the development and course of the wound. Physicians are required to be knowledgeable, actively involved, and alert to reversible multifactorial etiologies, in order to determine the goal and level of aggressive treatment during the course of PU. PMID:24340845

Jaul, Efraim



A new protocol for the treatment of the chronic venous ulcers of the lower limb.  


Venous leg ulcer is a pathological condition afflicting prevalently elderly patients, which has been found to have a major impact on individuals' health and social aspects of quality of life. Actually, the best practice treatment is recommended to include wound dressing and multilayer compression therapy. In this study, we have tested the effectiveness and safety of Vulnamin(®), a novel dressing in the form of a metal cellulose gel containing the amino acids glycine, L: -lysine, L: -proline, L: -leucine, and hyaluronic acid, and elastic compressive bandages in the treatment of chronic venous ulcers of the lower limbs. The study has been conducted in two groups of patients, one treated with Vulnamin(®) plus Ca-alginate (ulcer duration = 25.4 ± 6.2 weeks; mean baseline ulcer area = 13.9 ± 4.5 cm(2)) and a control group treated with Ca-alginate alone (ulcer duration = 23.4 ± 4.2 weeks; mean baseline ulcer area = 15.1 ± 4.7 cm(2)). Results have shown that after 70 days of treatment patients significantly ameliorate their pathological condition if they are treated with Vulnamin(®), as compared with patients treated with Ca-alginate alone. In fact, at the end of the treatment, complete healing closure was 61% in the group treated with Vulnamin(®) and, respectively, 27% in the control group. Moreover, ulcer areas showed a significant reduction in patients treated with Vulnamin(®) (mean ulcer area = 3.04 ± 0.8 cm(2)), as compared with controls (mean ulcer area = 10.96 ± 3.8 cm(2)). Overall, the results of this study indicate that Vulnamin(®) together with elastocompression is safe and more effective than standard dressing together with elastocompression in inducing a faster healing in chronic venous ulcers of the lower limb. PMID:21559987

Maggio, Giulio; Armenio, Andrea; Ruccia, Francesca; Giglietto, Domenico; Pascone, Michele; Ribatti, Domenico



38 CFR 4.110 - Ulcers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ulcers. 4.110 Section 4.110 Pensions...Ratings The Digestive System § 4.110 Ulcers. Experience has shown that the term “peptic ulcer” is not sufficiently specific for...



38 CFR 4.110 - Ulcers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ulcers. 4.110 Section 4.110 Pensions...Ratings The Digestive System § 4.110 Ulcers. Experience has shown that the term “peptic ulcer” is not sufficiently specific for...



38 CFR 4.110 - Ulcers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ulcers. 4.110 Section 4.110 Pensions...Ratings The Digestive System § 4.110 Ulcers. Experience has shown that the term “peptic ulcer” is not sufficiently specific for...



Meniere's disease of syphilitic etiology.  


Congenital or acquired syphilis is the cause of Meniere's disease in six percent of all cases. The pathogenesis is endolymphatic hydrops and osteitis of the otic capsule which produces the characteristic fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus and ear pressure associated with episodic spells of vertigo. The ear symptoms are, at first, typical of Meniere's disease of other etiologies. Failure to establish the specific etiologic diagnosis can result in unnecessary surgical treatment or inappropriate medical therapy. In some cases, if a steroid, the specific treatment, is not given promptly, hearing can be quickly and permanently lost. The etiology is confirmed by obtaining a reactive fluorescent treponema antibody absorption (FTA-abs) test. The clinical features and natural history of Meniere's disease of syphilitic etiology are unique. Ear symptoms often begin in the fifth decade of life, first in one ear and, after a few years, involving the second ear. Reduced or absent caloric responses are characteristic. When hearing loss is severe and sudden, this condition represents a true medical emergency and should be treated with prompt administration of steroids. An endolymphatic subarachnoid shunt operation is occasionally necessary as adjunctive management. An analysis of 34 cases shows that long-term use of steroids can maintain effective hearing for more than 20 years. PMID:9282459

Pulec, J L



Etiologic Studies of Radiosensitive Tumors

Ionizing radiation is perhaps the most clearly understood of all carcinogens. However, tumors known to be radiosensitive also have other possible causal or modifying factors. This page describes DCEG research into the general etiology of a number of specific radiation-related cancers.


Genetic correlations between claw health and feet and leg conformation in Norwegian Red cows.  


The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits in Norwegian Red cows. A total of 188,928 cows with claw health status recorded at claw trimming from 2004 to September 2013 and 210,789 first-lactation cows with feet and leg conformation scores from 2001 to September 2013 were included in the analyses. Traits describing claw health were corkscrew claw, infectious claw disorders (dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital phlegmon), and laminitis-related claw disorders (sole ulcer, white line disorder, and hemorrhage of sole and white line). The feet and leg conformation traits were rear leg rear view (new and old definition), rear leg side view, foot angle, and hoof quality. Feet and leg conformation traits were scored linearly from 1 to 9, with optimum scores depending on the trait. Claw disorders were defined as binary (0/1) traits for each lactation. Threshold sire models were used to model claw disorders, whereas the feet and leg conformation traits were described by linear sire models. Three multivariate analyses were performed, each including the 5 feet and leg conformation traits and 1 of the 3 claw disorders at a time. Posterior means of heritability of liability of claw disorders ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 and heritabilities of feet and leg conformation traits ranged from 0.04 to 0.11. Posterior standard deviation of heritability was ?0.01 for all traits. Genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits were all low or moderate, except between corkscrew claw and hoof quality (-0.86), which are supposed to measure the same trait. The genetic correlations between rear leg rear view (new) and infectious claw disorders (-0.20) and laminitis-related claw disorders (0.26), and between hoof quality and laminitis-related claw disorders (-0.33) were moderate. Eight of the 15 genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits had 0 included in the 95% highest posterior density interval. These results imply that selection for feet and leg conformation is not an efficient approach to genetically improve claw health in Norwegian Red cattle. PMID:24767887

Odegård, C; Svendsen, M; Heringstad, B



Etiologic role of infectious agents.  


A consensus statement found in most peer-reviewed literature on sarcoidosis is that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown. It is timely to review whether this statement should be revised. Many infectious agents meet the basic requirements of inducing granulomatous inflammation and immunologic responses consistent with sarcoidosis including oligoclonal expansion of CD4+ T cells, polarized Th1 and possibly Th17 responses, and dysregulated regulatory T-cell function. Studies over the past decade provide increasing and complementary data to implicate a role for infectious agents in sarcoidosis etiology. These studies used different methodologies such as polymerase chain reaction and mass spectrometry to document microbial nucleic acids and proteins in sarcoidosis tissues. Multiple studies report antigen-specific immune responses to specific microbial proteins in sarcoidosis. In aggregate, these studies provide compelling evidence that mycobacteria play a major etiologic role in sarcoidosis in the United States and Europe. Studies from Japan support a role for Propionibacteria as a major etiologic agent in the country. There is controversy over how these (or other) infectious agents cause sarcoidosis. The hypothesis that chronic sarcoidosis is caused by a viable, replicating mycobacterial or other infection has no direct pathologic, microbiologic, or clinical evidence. A novel hypothesis links microbial triggers to a sarcoidosis outcome from the accumulation of aggregated proinflammatory serum amyloid A within granulomas, providing a mechanism for chronic disease in the absence of any viable tissue infection. Further studies are needed to provide more definitive evidence for these competing hypotheses before the statement that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown becomes obsolete. PMID:25007081

Chen, Edward S; Moller, David R



Pipe crawler with extendable legs  


A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)



Pipe crawler with extendable legs  


A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

Zollinger, W.T.



Duodenal Ulcer in Children  

PubMed Central

Forty-nine cases of duodenal ulcer in children are presented. Strict radiological and clinical criteria were observed in making this diagnosis. The children came from a population of approximately 100,000 children over a 10-year period. Upper abdominal pain was the commonest presenting symptom, and exacerbations and remissions of the disease were observed to be shorter than is expected in the adult. Haemorrhage occurred as a complication in 24% and there were no cases of perforation or stenosis. A family history of duodenal ulcer was found to be highly significant, and it was found that in 55% of patients there was an important element of stress. Treatment was conservative in all but 2 cases, in both of which a vagotomy and pyloroplasty were performed. These operations were judged to have been successful. 6 cases had appendicectomy in the hope of relieving undiagnosed abdominal pain, in which it was unsuccessful. A plea is made for keeping this diagnosis in mind when dealing with abdominal pain in children.

Robb, J. D. A.; Thomas, P. S.; Orszulok, J.; Odling-Smee, G. W.



[The role of cytokines in pathogenesis of nonspecific ulcerative colitis].  


Etiology of nonspecific ulcerous colitis (NSUC) as well as its pathogenetic mechanisms remain obscure. Cytokines are presently shown to play an essential role in development of inflammation. Cytokines are produced by the cells in the inflammatory infiltrate in NSUC, therefore, changes of their level in the blood and biopsies from colon mucosa is naturally determined. Current investigations register various changes in the levels of both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines. Further studies of unknown mechanisms of cytokines action may contribute to design of new methods of NSUC management. PMID:11855309

Maev, I V; Grigorian, S S; Ovchinnikova, N I



Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.



Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo



Establishing the etiology of thrombocytopenia.  


Hemostasis is dependent on an adequate number of well-functioning platelets in the circulating blood. As the number of circulating platelets decreases, the chance of bleeding increases. Thrombocytopenia, a platelet count of less than 150,000 per microliter, is a laboratory finding and not a diagnosis. Therefore, once thrombocytopenia is identified, a detailed history, physical examination, and further laboratory tests are used to establish an etiology. This article reviews the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of thrombocytopenia. PMID:10884997

Horrell, C J; Rothman, J



Health related quality of life in patients with venous ulceration: Use of the Nottingham health profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The Nottingham health profile (NHP) has been used in several studies of patients being treated for chronic venous leg ulceration,\\u000a though there is a paucity of information on the validity of the NHP in this patient group. This study was carried out to determine\\u000a this validity and to compare and contrast the results with a previous study that had

P. J. Franks; C. J. Moffatt



Rotigotine for restless legs syndrome.  


Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder related to abnormal and unpleasant sensations and movements in the legs. It usually occurs at nighttime and thus has a detrimental impact on the ability to sleep, leading to poor patient quality of life. UCB has been developing rotigotine transdermal patch system (Neupro; SPM-962) as a treatment for RLS. This system is designed to replace levels of dopamine in the body via once-daily application of the patch, in a bid to restore proper motor functioning. The rotigotine patch has been authorized for the treatment of RLS since August 2008. PMID:19956807

Davies, Shelley



[Differential diagnosis of leg edema].  


Both generalized and localized edema needs to be submitted to a differential diagnostic investigation. In the case of edema affecting the lower extremities, in particular the Stemmer sign which is the inability to tent the skin at the dorsum of the toes is a useful distinguishing aid. If there is acute unilateral swelling of a leg, other processes with diffuse space-consuming processes need to be distinguished from deep venous thrombosis and secondary lymphedema. Chronic bilateral leg edema is usually due to a venous flowoff obstruction (stasis edema). Less commonly, lipedema or a primary lymphedema may be responsible for the swelling. PMID:15222499

Fries, R




PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection among women of childbearing age. This condition is notorious for causing severe complications related to the reproductive health of women. Five decades of intense research established many risk factors for acquisition of BV, however due to the complexity of BV and due to lack of a reliable animal model for this condition, its exact etiology remains elusive. In this manuscript we use a historical perspective to critically review the development of major theories on the etiology of BV, ultimately implicating BV-related pathogens, healthy vaginal microbiota, bacteriophages and the immune response of the host. None of these theories on their own can reliably explain the epidemiological data. Instead, BV is caused by a complex interaction of multiple factors, which include the numerous components of the vaginal microbial ecosystem and their human host. Many of these factors are yet to be characterized because a clear understanding of their relative contribution to the etiology of BV is pivotal to formulation of an effective treatment for and prophylaxis of this condition.

Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Noll, Katia Sutyak; Chikindas, Michael L.



Diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of leg pain in athletes.  


The causes of leg pain in the athlete are diverse. Pain can relate to more common etiologies, such as musculotendinous injury to the hamstrings and Achilles tendon as well as stress injury to bone, with tibial stress injuries comprising the most common cause for lower leg pain in athletes. Less-common causes include chronic exertional compartment syndrome and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, both of which cause pain as a result of muscle ischemia. Radiologic evaluation plays an important role in differentiating among the many possible causes of leg pain and is often essential in determining degree of injury as well as in documenting healing before patient return to athletic activity. With PAES and hamstring and Achilles injuries, imaging may be helpful in surgical planning as well as in determining an underlying anatomic cause for injury. Several of these conditions can be evaluated with multiple different imaging modalities. The imaging modality of choice should be selected based on the sensitivity and specificity of the imaging examination but should also be tailored to each individual patient after determining comorbidities that may preclude certain types of imaging as well as assessing the patient's ability to undergo such testing. PMID:22341013

Bresler, Michael; Mar, Winnie; Toman, Jordan



Sucralfate enema in ulcerative rectosigmoid lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy of sucralfate enemas in distal colonic ulcerative lesions, 22 patients with radiation proctitis (n=8), idiopathic ulcerative proctitis (n=5), and solitary rectal ulcer (n=5) unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, and those with ulcerated and bleeding rectal polyps awaiting polypectomy (n=4) were studied. Enemas of sucralfate suspension (2 gm in 20 ml water) were administered twice daily for

R. Kochhar; S. K. Mehta; R. Aggarwal; A. Dhar; F. Patel



Medical management of chronic gastric ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of medical treatment in 113 patients with chronic ulceration of the angulus and vertical part of the stomach are reported. The ulcers failed to heal in 38% and healed but recurred in 22%. The ulcers healed and, except for minor recurrences in a few, remained healed for five years in 40%. The prognosis for patients with ulcers with

David Ferriman



Pancreatic polypeptide release in gastric ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pancreatic polypeptide (PP) response to a protein-rich meal has been studied in similarly aged patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and controls. The response of the gastric ulcer patients was significantly lower at all points than that of the duodenal ulcer patients or controls, which were similar to one another. Vagal stimulation is probably the single most important factor

Anthony I. Stern; Jack Hansky



[Pre- and postoperative treatment of trophic ulcers in a controlled germ-free environment].  


Pre- and postoperative treatment was conducted in 140 patients with trophic ulcers in a controlled abacterial medium in the period from 1985 to 1988. The etiological factor of the development of the trophic ulcer was primary varicosity in 86 (61.4%) and the post-thrombophlebitic syndrome in 54 (38.5%) patients. Venous hemodynamics improved both on the healthy and on the affected extremity. Besides, there was a tendency towards a decrease of the blood proteolytic activity near the focus of affection and an increase of that in the peripheral blood. PMID:2292860

Lipnitski?, E M; Ka?tukov, V Ch; Nastenko, V F; Ialysheva, N I; Vazilo, N I



Why Dont Whales Have Legs?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students are given a variety of materials and are asked to design a heat loss experiment that will result in a reasonable explanation of why whales do not have legs. Students will learn that natural selection favors a body design that is energy efficient.

Bedell, S.


Oxandrolone Treatment for Pressure Ulcers  


... the 21 May 2013 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine (volume 158, pages 718-726). The authors are ... help to keep the ulcers healed. Annals of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients I-20© 2013 American College ...


Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology  

SciTech Connect

Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

Weller, R.E.



[Therapy and etiology of sebopsoriasis].  


9 patients suffering from psoriasis vulgaris associated with sebopsoriasis lesions as well as 21 patients showing sebopsoriasis only were treated with 1% bifonazole cream and gel. We found good and excellent results in 86% of the sebopsoriatic, but only in 40% of the psoriasis vulgaris lesions. These results were achieved independently of the galenic preparation. In some of the sebopsoriasis patients, typical lesions were brought about by intracutaneous injection of bacterial antigens like steptococcus viridans and staphylococcus albus; my be, this is a hint on the etiology. PMID:2937215

Döring, H F



Restless Legs Syndrome: scoring criteria for leg movements recorded during the suggested immobilization test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of leg movements experienced by patients with the restless legs syndrome (RLS) during wakefulness using the suggested immobilization test (SIT).Methods: Forty patients with primary RLS who showed an index of leg movements greater than 40 during the SIT were selected for these analyses.Results: In general, Coleman's criteria for scoring PLMS were appropriate for scoring leg

Martin Michaud; Gaétan Poirier; Gilles Lavigne; Jacques Montplaisir



A Leg (or Three) to Stand On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The three "legs" on which science instruction rests are the content of science, process of science, and the nature of science. Each leg performs its own function and need not be competitive with the others. This article uses the metaphor of a three-legged stool to remind teachers that good science instruction must have a balance that is both stable and engaging.

Weinburgh, Molly



How Is Restless Legs Syndrome Treated?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Restless Legs Syndrome Treated? Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has no cure. If a condition or ... to prevent these side effects. Rate This Content: Restless Legs Syndrome Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...


Laparoscopic Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic techniques have become increasingly used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: in experienced hands, they are safe and feasible. Recovery advantages have not been consistently demonstrated and functional results have been comparable to open surgery. Other possible benefits and costs issues have also been inconsistent. Further investigation on the role of laparoscopic surgery for ulcerative colitis with larger populations and longer follow-up with a focus on recovery parameters, quality of life, and costs are needed.

Stocchi, Luca



Gimbals in the insect leg.  


We studied the common kinematic features of the coxa and trochanter in cursorial and raptorial legs, which are the short size of the podomers, predominantly monoaxial joints, and the approximate orthogonality of adjacent joint axes. The chain coxa-trochanter with its short elements and serial orthogonality of joint axes resembles the gimbals which combine versatility and tolerance to external perturbations. The geometry of legs was studied in 23 insect species of 12 orders. Insects with monoaxial joints were selected. The joint between the trochanter and the femur (TFJ) is defined either by two vestigial condyles or by a straight anterior hinge. Direction of the joint axes in the two basal podomers was assessed by 3D measurements or by goniometry in two planes. Length of the coxa is <15% (mostly <8%) of the total length of the cursorial leg, that of the trochanter <10%. Angles between the proximal and distal joint axes in the middle coxa range from 124 to 84 degrees (mean 97+/-14 degrees ), in the trochanter (in all legs studied) from 125 to 72 degrees (mean 90+/-13 degrees ). Vectors of the distal axis in the coxa are concentrated about the normal to the plane defined by the proximal axis and the midpoint between the distal condyles. These vectors in the trochanter lie at various angles to the normal; angles are correlated with the direction of the TFJ relative to the femur. Range of reduction about the TFJ is over 60 degrees in the foreleg of Ranatra linearis, Mantispa lobata and the hind leg in Carabus coriaceus (confirming observations of previous authors), 40-60 degrees in the foreleg of Vespa crabro and in the middle one in Ammophila campestris, 10-30 degrees in other studied specimens. The special role of the trochanter in autotomy and in active propulsion in some insect groups is discussed. The majority of insects possess small trochanters and slightly movable TFJs with the joint axis laying in the femur-tibia plane. We pose the hypothesis that the TFJ damps external forces, the vectors of which lie off the femur-tibia plane, the reductor muscle acting as a spring. Thus the TFJ contributes to dynamic stability of legged locomotion. PMID:18765299

Frantsevich, Leonid; Wang, Weiying



[The potential for endoscopic dissection of the leg perforating veins].  


This paper describes the results of endoscopic dissection of the leg perforating veins in patients suffering from different forms of chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Varicosity was present in 54 (88.4%) and postthrombophlebitis in 7 (11.6%) patients. Before operation the patients were provided ultrasound Doppler and duplex scanning. Microcirculation was examined by laser Doppler flowmetry. The study evidences decreased perfusion of the superficial skin layers during the growth of arteriolo-venular blood shunting that occurs because of phlebohypertension. For endoscopic dissection of the leg perforating veins an original titanium nickelide clips was employed, which allowed ligation of the veins measuring over 5 mm via a standard endoscopic canal. The use of the given technique made it possible to minimize the time of operation, to decrease traumatic injury of intervention due to the exclusion of incisions in the area of trophic disorders. The mean time required for ulcerous defect healing accounted for 32.3+/-1.7 days. Regulation of lower limb microcirculation was restored 3 months after surgical treatment. PMID:17053763

Zherlov, G K; Plotnikov, E V; Chirkov, D N



Infantile factors in two cases of ulcer colitis.  


In a third investigation of psychological factors in the etiology of ulcerative colitis the author again utilizes selected cases in which the variables preceding illness are limited. A first and second investigation had utilized patients who were afflicted with partial deafness and organic brain damage respectively in addition to ulcerative colitis. All patients displayed a marked trend to ojbectlessness in the prodromal period. The patients with organic brain damage displayed an intense rage reaction as well. The present investigation focuses upon two patients with ulcerative colitis who had been traumatically separated from their mother at age six months. The prodromal period of illness in both cases was initiated by an event which possessed a strong associative link with the primal loss. During the prodromal period both patients displayed an intense rage reaction and a trend to objectlessness which were similar to the reactions of the patients with organic brain damage. This particular emotional configuration appears to represent the revival of the emotional configuration which had prevailed following the loss in infancy. Some tentative ideas regarding the role played by the revival of the archaic emotional configuration in the production of physical changes are discussed. PMID:631999

Levitan, H L


Isolated colonic ulcers: diagnosis and management.  


Isolated ulcers of the large intestine are not associated with an underlying colitis and may be an incidental finding on screening colonoscopy or present with abdominal pain, hematochezia, chronic gastrointestinal bleeding, and rarely, perforation. A common cause of isolated colonic ulcers is the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with ulcers in the cecum and right colon. Isolated rectal ulcers are caused by ischemia, solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS), radiation, or fecal impaction. Stercoral ulceration and nonspecific ulcers of the colon are rare but can cause colonic perforation. Infectious causes include tuberculosis and amebiasis. Histology is important to rule out malignancy but is not helpful for diagnosis except in SRUS and certain infections. The approach to isolated colonic ulceration includes biopsy of the ulcer and surrounding tissue, cessation of any NSAIDs, management of constipation, and recognition of the patient with SRUS. Inflammatory bowel disease should be ruled out in appropriate patients. PMID:17991345

Nagar, Anil B



Randomised controlled trial comparing European standard class 1 to class 2 compression stockings for ulcer recurrence and patient compliance.  


The aim of this study was to determine the rate of venous ulcer recurrence and the level of compliance in patients wearing European class 1 or class 2 compression stockings. A total of 100 patients with healed venous leg ulcers were recruited, and were randomised to either class 1 (n = 50) or class 2 (n = 50) compression stockings. Follow-up was at 1 week, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months to monitor ulcer recurrence and compliance. Patients had a duplex scan to identify the source of venous incompetence. The rate of ulcer recurrence after 12 months was 16·1%, and the difference in recurrence rate between classes was not statistically significant (P = 0·287) although greater numbers in class 1 developed a recurrence. Participants (88·9%) were compliant; non-compliant patients were at a significantly greater risk of recurrence (P? 0·0001). Thirteen patients had both superficial and deep incompetence; those randomised to class 1 stockings (n = 4) developed ulcer recurrence. Patients with a history of multiple episodes of ulceration were more likely to develop a recurrence (P = 0·001). The lowest venous ulcer recurrence rates were seen in patients who were compliant with hosiery regardless of the compression level. Patients with both superficial and deep incompetence had a lower rate of recurrence with class 2 compression. PMID:23078587

Clarke-Moloney, Mary; Keane, Niamh; O'Connor, Veronica; Ryan, Mary Anna; Meagher, Helen; Grace, Pierce A; Kavanagh, Eamon; Walsh, Stewart R; Burke, Paul E



Progressive leg pain and weakness.  


A 54-year-old man presented with progressive asymmetric leg pain and weakness. He had a history of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that was fully treated 2 years earlier. His leg symptoms progressed relentlessly during several months. Imaging studies demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina and leptomeninges of the lower spinal cord. Initial cerebrospinal fluid examination showed an elevated protein concentration and lymphocytic pleocytosis with no malignant cells on cytological analysis. There was short-term improvement in symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities with intravenous steroids. Two additional cerebrospinal fluid studies showed normal cytological findings, elevated IgG synthesis, and elevated antibody titers to varicella-zoster virus. Over time, the patient worsened, developed cranial neuropathies, and ultimately died. The pathological diagnosis and the approach to the clinical data are discussed. PMID:23440264

Navalkele, Digvijaya D; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Burns, Dennis K; Greenberg, Tasha; Vernino, Steven



Restless legs syndrome in the elderly.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and significance of restless legs syndrome was assessed in 307 patients presenting to an acute-care geriatric medical service. Fifteen patients (5%) had restless legs syndrome; 13 (87%) of these patients had insomnia and 10 (67%) reported troublesome or frequent leg symptoms. Of 147 patients with current insomnia, iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 18 ng/ml) was present in 4/13 (31%) patients with restless legs and 8/134 (6%) patients without restless legs (P < 0.025). Improvement in symptoms of restless legs was noted with iron repletion. These findings suggest that restless legs syndrome is relatively common in the elderly and causes significant discomfort and sleep disturbance. Iron deficiency is a common and treatable cause.

O'Keeffe, S. T.; Noel, J.; Lavan, J. N.



Propeller flaps for leg reconstruction.  


Leg soft tissue defects with bone or tendon exposure need to be covered with a flap. Various local and free flaps with more or less consistent donor site defects have been described in the past. After the introduction of the perforator-based flap concept, new flaps have also been described for the leg. An evolution and simplification of the perforator flap concept, together with the 'free style' flap harvesting method, are the propeller flaps, i.e. local flaps, based on a perforator vessel, which becomes the pivot point for the skin island that can, therefore, be rotated up to 180 degrees . In this prospective study, six consecutive patients, having post-traumatic soft tissue defects of the leg or knee prosthesis infection, with bone or tendon exposure, were treated with propeller flaps. Complete and stable coverage of the soft tissue losses was obtained in all cases with an inconspicuous, only cosmetic, donor site defect. No flap necrosis was observed, with the exception of a small superficial necrosis of the tip of one flap, due to the inclusion in the design of scarred tissue. In two cases, transient venous congestion was observed and resolved spontaneously. Mean operative time was 2 h (ranging from 60 min to 6 h when an orthopaedic procedure was also needed) and mean hospital stay after surgery was 10 days. Propeller flaps allow the coverage of wide defects, can be raised with a relatively simple surgical technique, have a high success rate and good cosmetic results without functional impairment. In the light of this they can be considered among the first surgical choices to resurface complex soft tissue defects of the leg. PMID:18450531

Pignatti, Marco; Pasqualini, Monica; Governa, Maurizio; Bruti, Massimiliano; Rigotti, Gino



The LEGS data acquisition facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data acquisition facility for the LEGS medium energy photonuclear beam line is composed of an auxiliary crate controller (ACC) acting as a front-end processor, loosely coupled to a time-sharing host computer based on a UNIX-like environment. The ACC services all real-time demands in the CAMAC crate: it responds to LAMs generated by data acquisition modules, to keyboard commands, and

M. J. LeVine



Towards Legged Amphibious Mobile Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—New areas of research ,focus on bridging the gap between mobile robotics on land and atsea. This paper describes the evolution of RHex, a power-autonomous legged land-based robot, into one capable of both sea and land-based locomotion. In working towards an amphibious robot, three versions ofRHex with increasing levels of aquatic capability were created. While all three platforms share the

Chris Prahacs; Aaron Saunders; Matthew K. Smith; Dave McMordie; Martin Buehler


Thick legs - not always lipedema.  


Due to its increased presence in the press and on television, the diagnosis of lipedema is on the way to becoming a trendy diagnosis for those with thick legs. Despite this, one must recognize that lipedema is a very rare disease. It is characterized by disproportional obesity of the extremities, especially in the region of the hip and the legs, hematoma development after minimal trauma, and increased pressure-induced or spontaneous pain. Aids for making the correct diagnosis are (duplex) sonography, the waist-hip index or the waist-height index and lymphoscintigraphy. Important differential diagnoses are constitutional variability of the legs, lipohypertrophy in obesity, edema in immobility, edema in chronic venous insufficiency and rheumatic diseases. The symptom-based therapy of lipedema consists of conservative (compression, manual lymphatic drainage, exercise) and surgical treatments (liposuction). Until now there is no curative therapy. Obesity is an important risk factor for the severity and prognosis of lipedema. Further studies for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of lipedema and in the end possible curative treatments are urgently needed. PMID:23231593

Reich-Schupke, Stefanie; Altmeyer, Peter; Stücker, Markus



Biomechanical abnormalities and ulcers of the great toe in patients with diabetes.  


A prospective analysis was conducted to identify structural and biomechanical first ray abnormalities in consecutive diabetic patients presenting with their first great toe ulcer. Twenty-six patients (33 feet) met the inclusion criteria, with seven patients having bilateral hallux ulcers. There was no other history of ulcer, trauma, or surgery on the respective limb. Data were obtained during the patients' initial presentation with a great toe ulcer and included verbal history, standardized weight bearing radiographs, and standardized objective clinical measurements. Four patients (four feet) with subungual ulcers were included because of mechanical etiology. Twenty-four of the remaining 29 involved limbs exhibited gastrocnemius/soleus equinus and two other limbs had gastrocnemius equinus. Twenty-eight of 29 had structural hallux limitus. Twenty-four had hallux interphalangeal abductus. Twenty of the 33 ulcers were located plantar-medially at the interphalangeal joint area. Other frequent findings were first ray elevatus or dorsiflexion deformity (18 of 29), functional hallux limitus (14 of 29), interphalangeal joint sesamoid bone (13 of 29), hyperextended interphalangeal joint (13 of 29), and a prominent plantar-medial condyle of the proximalaspect of the distalphalanx (7 of 29). Halluxmalleus was less common (4 of 29), but consistently associated with plantar-distal tip ulceration. Metatarsus primus adductus was also infrequent (6 of 29). This study identifies and illustrates the importance of several biomechanical and structural factors present on initial presentation of great toe ulcers. Addressing these factors may improve the success of treatment and lessen the occurrence of this common and complex problem. PMID:12500786

Boffeli, Troy J; Bean, Jeffrey K; Natwick, James R



Profound spatial clustering of simultaneous peptic ulcers.  

PubMed Central

In an endoscopic study of 90 consecutive patients with more than one peptic ulcer, the ulcers in an individual were profoundly spatially clustered. Clustering of ulcer locations was shown using a non-parametric test of clustering (Kruskal-Wallis statistic with 89 degrees of freedom = 151.31, probability of observing this extreme statistic with no clustering less than 0.0005) and a parametric test of clustering (F test statistic with 89 and 124 degrees of freedom = 5.41, probability of observing this extreme statistic with no clustering less than 0.0005). Patients having their largest ulcer in any given region had a much greater likelihood than other patients of having other ulcers in that same site. For example, the 26 patients with their largest ulcer in the proximal duodenal bulb had 20 of 33, or 61% (9) (standard error), of their other ulcers in the proximal duodenal bulb. In contrast, the 18 patients with their largest ulcer in the proximal stomach had four of 23, or 17% (8), of their other ulcers in the proximal duodenal bulb. Of the 59 patients who had two simultaneous ulcers, 28 patients had adjacent ulcers (distance between ulcers less than 4% of the distance from the gastric cardia to the apex of the duodenal bulb). These findings suggest that local factors may be important in the pathogenesis of simultaneous peptic ulcers, including infection caused by Campylobacter pylori or other microorganisms, ischaemia and mucosal barrier disruption.

Cappell, M S



Refractory restless legs syndrome likely caused by olanzapine.  


We report a case of severe restless legs syndrome (RLS) that occurred as a side effect of olanzapine therapy. It was refractory to treatment with 2 mg of clonazepam and 3 mg ropinirole. There was partial relief with propoxyphene, however, it was stopped because of side effects. The symptoms disappeared once olanzapine was switched to another antipsychotic medication. Only two prior published reports associate olanzapine usage with development of RLS. In one report, low-dose benzodiazepines and ropinirole were associated with resolution of RLS symptoms stating dopamine depletion as the likely etiology. In our patient, however, RLS due to olanzapine was refractory to the trial of both high-dose benzodiazepine and ropinirole. This suggests that RLS occurring as a side effect of olanzapine therapy may have additional causative mechanisms beyond simple dopamine depletion as postulated before. High-dose narcotics, if tolerated, may be an alternative in such refractory cases. PMID:19317385

Khalid, Imran; Rana, Lopa; Khalid, Tabindeh J; Roehrs, Timothy



Ulcerative Lichen Planus in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous condition which is relatively common in adults but rarely affects children. The present study is a report on an unusual case of ulcerative oral LP involving the dorsum of tongue in a 12-year-old boy. Patient complained of painful oral lesion on the tongue which was burning in nature and obstructing talking and eating spicy foods. On intraoral examination, a white ulcerative lesion on the dorsum of tongue was observed. Diagnosis was made based on clinical examination and histopathological features. We instituted local treatment and patient responded well to the treatment. Although rarely reported in childhood, lichen planus should be considered in a differential diagnosis of hyperkeratotic, reticular, and ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa in children.

Padmini, Chiyadu; Bai, K. Yellamma; Chaitanya, Vinil; Reddy, M. Shilpa



Review of Duodenal and Gastric Ulcer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Duodenal and gastric ulcer are chronic often recurring conditions that in the past were grouped together as peptic ulcer. Many diverse environmental and genetic factors, which create an imbalance between secretion of acid and pepsin by by the stomach and ...

F. C. Garland E. D. Gorham



Diabetes: foot ulcers and amputations  

PubMed Central

Introduction Diabetic foot ulceration is full-thickness penetration of the dermis of the foot in a person with diabetes. Severity is classified using the Wagner system, which grades it from 1 to 5. The annual incidence of ulcers among people with diabetes is 2.5% to 10.7% in resource-rich countries, and the annual incidence of amputation for any reason is 0.25% to 1.8%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent foot ulcers and amputations in people with diabetes? What are the effects of treatments in people with diabetes with foot ulceration? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 50 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: debridement, human cultured dermis, human skin equivalent, patient education, pressure off-loading with felted foam or pressure-relief half-shoe, pressure off-loading with total-contact or non-removable casts, screening and referral to foot-care clinics, systemic hyperbaric oxygen for non-infected ulcers, systemic hyperbaric oxygen in infected ulcers, therapeutic footwear, topical growth factors, and wound dressings.



Nurses' knowledge of pressure ulcer risk assessment.  


Pressure ulcers are a largely avoidable, but serious health problem in the UK. Nurses should be knowledgeable of the signs and symptoms of pressure ulcers, and preventive strategies to reduce their incidence. This article explores the literature on nurses' understanding and use of risk assessment tools to identify patients at increased risk of developing pressure ulcers and how, if at all, this contributes to fewer pressure ulcers in the healthcare setting. PMID:23705257

Joseph, Jamuna; Clifton, Sian Davies


Raynaud, digital ulcers and calcinosis in scleroderma.  


Raynaud, digital ulcers and calcinosis are frequent manifestations of patients with systemic sclerosis. Digital ulcers are seen in more than half of the patients with scleroderma. Hospitalizations, ischemic complications and impairment of hand function are frequently observed in patients with digital ulcers, especially if treatment is delayed. Rapid and intensive treatment escalation in patients with scleroderma and refractory Raynaud's phenomenon is one of the most effective preventive action available in order to avoid the development of digital ulcers and tissue loss. PMID:22835924

Nitsche, Alejandro



A fundamental mechanism of legged locomotion with hip torque and leg damping.  


New models and theories of legged locomotion are needed to better explain and predict the robustly stable legged locomotion of animals and some bio-inspired robots. In this paper we observe that a hip-torque and leg-damping mechanism is fundamental to many legged robots and some animals and determine its affect on locomotion dynamics. We discuss why this hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism is not so easily understood. We investigate how hip-torque and leg-damping affect the stability and robustness of locomotion using a mathematical model: First, we extend the canonical spring-loaded-inverted-pendulum model to include constant hip torque and leg damping proportional to leg length speed. Then, we calculate the stability and robustness of locomotion as a function of increasing levels of torque and damping, starting from zero-the energy conserving and marginally stable special case-to high levels of torque and damping. We find that the stabilizing effects of hip-torque and leg-damping occur in the context of the piecewise-continuous dynamics of legged locomotion, and so linear intuition does not apply. We discover that adding hip torque and leg damping changes the stability of legged locomotion in an unexpected way. When a small amount of torque and damping are added, legged locomotion is initially destabilized. As more torque and damping are added, legged locomotion turns stable and becomes increasingly more stable and more robust the more torque and damping are added. Also, stable locomotion becomes more probable over the biologically-relevant region of the parameter space, indicating greater prediction and explanatory capabilities of the model. These results provide a more clear understanding of the hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism of legged locomotion, and extend existing theory of legged locomotion towards a greater understanding of robustly stable locomotion. PMID:22989956

Shen, Z H; Seipel, J E



Practice Recommendations for Preventing Heel Pressure Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heels are the second most common anatomical location for pressure ulcers. A combination of risk factors, including pressure, may cause ulceration. Heel pressure ulcers are a particular concern for surgical patients. A review of the literature, including poster presentations, shows that controlled clinical studies to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of available interventions are not available. Case series (with or

Evonne Fowler; Suzy Scott-Williams; James B. McGuire


Gastric ulceration in an equine neonate.  


A 24-hour-old colt presented with clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration. Treatment was initiated with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist and clinical signs resolved. Gastroscopy at 16 d confirmed the presence of a gastric ulcer. Although gastric ulceration is common in foals, it is rarely reported in foals this young. PMID:12757136

Lewis, Susan



Etiology and Outcome of Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Iran:A Review Article  

PubMed Central

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding that results from lesions located above the ligament of Treitz and is a common cause for emergency hospital admissions in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. UGIB also increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients already hospitalized for other reasons. According to epidemiological surveys of acute UGIB in Iran, peptic ulcer is the most common endoscopic diagnosis. Gastric and duodenal erosion accounts for 16.4%-25% of etiologies. Other relatively common causes of UGIB are variceal hemorrhage, Mallory-Weiss tears, and arterial and venous malformations. However, in 9%-13.3% of patients, the endoscopy is normal.

Masoodi, Mohsen; Saberifiroozi, Mehdi



Early diagnosis is vital in the management of squamous cell carcinomas associated with chronic non healing ulcers: a case series and review of the literature.  


The association between chronic ulcers and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) is well established. Their clinical presentations, however, are varied, ranging from innocously appearing lesions to overtly exophytic growths. We present a series of cases with heterogeneous clinical presentations and different treatment outcomes. Case series - patient 1 was a 69-year-old man with an 18-month history of static non healing venous leg ulcer, but no sinister features, biopsy was performed to rule out Marjolin's transformation, histology revealed SCC and treatment was simple excision and skin grafting; patient 2 was a 73-year-old lady with an 18-month history of non healing ulcer (innocuous appearance) over distal interphalangeal joint of index finger, histology revealed SCC with deeper extension and treatment was amputation of distal half of finger; patient 3 was a 73-year-old lady with a 12-month history of non healing fungating leg ulcer with irregular borders and everted edges, histology revealed SCC (tumour eroding tibia and distant metastasis) and treatment was above-knee amputation, radiotherapy and palliation. Whilst SCC is amenable to simple excision in the early stages, delay in diagnosis could result in loss of the affected digit or limb; an SCC which has metastasised is also life threatening. Therefore, a low threshold to biopsy static non healing ulcers or ulcers in unusual sites should be adopted even in those not manifesting any evidence of malignancy. PMID:16722875

Enoch, Stuart; Miller, David R; Price, Patricia E; Harding, Keith G



An exploratory clinical trial for combination wound therapy with a novel medical matrix and fibroblast growth factor in patients with chronic skin ulcers: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic skin ulcers such as diabetic ulcers and venous leg ulcers are increasing and are a costly problem in health care. We have developed a novel artificial dermis, collagen/gelatin sponge (CGS), that is capable of the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for more than 10 days. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CGS impregnated with bFGF in the treatment of chronic skin ulcers. Methods/ Design Seventeen patients (? 20 years of age) with chronic skin ulcers that have not healed by conventional therapy for at least 4 weeks are being recruited. Patients will be applied with CGS impregnated with bFGF of 7 ?g/cm2 or 14 ?g/cm2 after debridement, and the wound bed improvement will be assessed 14 days after application. “Wound bed improvement” is defined as a granulated and epithelialized area on Day 14 in proportion to the baseline wound area after debridement of 50% or higher. Patients will be followed up until 28 days after application to observe the adverse events related to the application of CGS. Conclusion This study has been designed to address the safety and efficacy of CGS impregnated with bFGF. If successful, this intervention may be an alternative to bioengineered skin substitutes and lead to substantial and important changes in the management of chronic skin ulcers such as diabetic ulcers and venous ulcers.

Morimoto, Naoki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Niimi, Miyuki; Ito, Tatsuya; Tada, Harue; Teramukai, Satoshi; Murayama, Toshinori; Toyooka, Chikako; Takemoto, Satoru; Kawai, Katsuya; Yokode, Masayuki; Shimizu, Akira; Suzuki, Shigehiko



Analysis of lymphatic drainage in various forms of leg edema using two compartment lymphoscintigraphy.  


The anatomical and functional status of the epifascial and subfascial lymphatic compartments was analyzed using two compartment lymphoscintigraphy in five groups of patients (total 55) with various forms of edema of the lower extremities. Digital whole body scintigraphy enabled semiquantitative estimation of radiotracer transport with comparison of lymphatic drainage between those individuals without (normal) and those with leg edema by calculating the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical transported to regional lymph nodes. A visual assessment of the lymphatic drainage pathways of the legs was also performed. In patients with cyclic idiopathic edema, an accelerated rate of lymphatic transport was detected (high lymph volume overload or dynamic insufficiency). In those with venous (phlebo) edemas, high volume lymphatic overload (dynamic insufficiency) of the epifascial compartment was scintigraphically detected by increased tracer uptake in regional nodes. In patients with deep femoral venous occlusion (post-thrombotic syndrome). subfascial lymphatic transport was uniformly markedly reduced (safety valve lymphatic insufficiency). On the other hand, in the epifascial compartment, lymph transport was accelerated. In those patients with recurrent or extensive skin ulceration, lymph transport was reduced. Patients with lipedema (obesity) scintigraphically showed no alteration in lymphatic transport. This study demonstrates that lymphatic drainage is notably affected (except in obesity termed lipedema) in various edemas of the leg. Lymphatic drainage varied depending on the specific compartment and the pathophysiologic mechanism accounting for the edema. Two compartment lymphoscintigraphy is a valuable diagnostic tool for accurate assessment of leg edema of known and unknown origin. PMID:9664268

Bräutigam, P; Földi, E; Schaiper, I; Krause, T; Vanscheidt, W; Moser, E



Leg automaticity is stronger than arm automaticity during simultaneous arm and leg cycling.  


Recent studies indicate that human locomotion is quadrupedal in nature. An automatic rhythm-generating system is thought to play a crucial role in controlling arm and leg movements. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate differences between intrinsic arm and leg automaticity by investigating cadence variability during simultaneous arm and leg (AL) cycling. Participants performed AL cycling with visual feedback of arm or leg cadence. Participants were asked to focus their attention to match the predetermined cadence; this affects the automaticity of the rhythm-generating system. Leg cadence variability was only mildly affected when the participants intended to precisely adjust either their arm or leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. In contrast, arm cadence variability significantly increased when the participants adjusted their leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms underlie the automaticities of arm and leg cycling and that the latter is stronger than the former during AL cycling. PMID:24548625

Sakamoto, Masanori; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Endoh, Takashi; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi



The etiology and treatment of tennis elbow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary etiological factor in tennis elbow is a mechanical predisposition of the human elbow associated with force overload Additional etiological factors in clude lack of forearm strength and endur ance, age, and a tendency toward mus culo-tendinous inflammatory abnormali tiesTreatment includes relief of inflamma tion, improvement of tissue quality by exercise, decrease in the moments of force to which

Robert P. Nirschl



Larval therapy applied to a large arterial ulcer: an effective outcome.  


This article is a review of larval therapy and includes a case study that uses larval therapy in the treatment of complex leg ulcer wounds. Complex wounds require careful management from the multidisciplinary team and present clinicians with intricate challenges to save the limb. Wound-bed preparation and debridement needs to be as effective and non-traumatic as possible for the patient. Larval therapy removes the devitalised tissue effectively with minimal tissue trauma. This case study reports on a patient with a non-progressing, full-thickness wound with exposed tendon following reconstructive surgery at a local vascular unit. The patient was left with very limited treatment options, as traditional dressings for the arterial ulcer nearly resulted in amputation due to the deterioration in the wound. As part of the patient's management, she was treated with larval therapy in an attempt to salvage her limb. This article follows the progress of complex leg ulcer wounds employing BioFoam® dressing (BioMonde, Bridgend) for larvae debridement therapy over a 4-week period and incorporating five applications of three BioFoam dressing bags. This care pathway ensured the patient's safety by promoting effective wound healing with the larval therapy leading to excellent clinical patient outcomes. PMID:23587971

Rafter, Linda


Respiratory distress and chest pain: a perforated peptic ulcer with an unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

Background Dyspnea and chest pain are common presenting complaints to the ED, and coupled together can present a challenging diagnostic dilemma in patients in extremis. A thoughtful evaluation is required, giving due diligence to the immediate life threats as well as multiple etiologies which can cause serious morbidity. A perforated peptic ulcer is one such possibility and requires rapid diagnosis and prompt intervention to avoid the associated high risk of morbidity and mortality. Method We present a case report of a 54 year old man with respiratory distress and chest pain as the initial Emergency Department presentation of a perforated duodenal ulcer. Results We discuss an unusual presentation of a perforated duodenal ulcer that was recognized in the emergency department and treated promptly. The patient was surgically treated immediately, had a prolonged and complicated post-operative course, but is ultimately doing well. We also provide a brief literature review of the risk factors, imaging choices, and management decision required to treat a perforated ulcer. Conclusions Perforated ulcers can have highly varied presentations and are occasionally difficult to diagnose in a complicated patient. Knowledge of the risk factors and a thorough history and physical can point to the diagnosis, but timely and appropriate imaging is often required because delays in diagnosis and treatment lead to poor outcomes. Early administration of antibiotics and immediate surgical repair are necessary to limit morbidity and mortality.



Treatment of restless legs syndrome.  


Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder diagnosed by the clinical characteristics of restlessness in the legs associated often with abnormal sensations that start at rest and are improved by activity, occurring with a diurnal pattern of worsened symptoms at night and improvement in the morning. RLS is the cause of impaired quality of life in those more severely afflicted. Treatment of RLS has undergone considerable change over the last few years. Several classes of medications have demonstrated efficacy, including the dopaminergic agents and the alpha-2-delta ligands. Levodopa was the first dopaminergic agent found to be successful. However, chronic use of levodopa is frequently associated with augmentation that is defined as an earlier occurrence of symptoms frequently associated with worsening severity and sometimes spread to other body areas. The direct dopamine agonists, including ropinirole, pramipexole, and rotigotine patch, are also effective, although side effects, including daytime sleepiness, impulse control disorders, and augmentation, may limit usefulness. The alpha-2-delta ligands, including gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, and pregabalin, are effective for RLS without known occurrence of augmentation or impulse control disorders, although sedation and dizziness can occur. Other agents, including the opioids and clonazepam do not have sufficient evidence to recommend them as treatment for RLS, although in an individual patient, they may provide benefit. PMID:24363103

Comella, Cynthia L



Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.


Tuberculous ulcer of the penis  

PubMed Central

Two cases of tuberculosis of the penis are presented because of the rarity of the disease. Stress is laid on the histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis of all penile ulcers before contemplating the line of treatment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2

Venkataramaiah, N. R.; van Raalte, J. A.; Dutta, S. N.



Treatment of chronic ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A treatment of Chronic Ulcerative Colitis in which diet, rest and treatment with Anayodin (iodoxyquinoline sulfonic acid)\\u000a has been described. Anayodin was administered orally and by enema with good results.\\u000a \\u000a Three case histories, one acute, one chronic and one recurrent have been related.

Charles J. Drueck



10 Nutrition and ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of diet in the aetiology and pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) remains uncertain. Impaired utilization by colonocytes of butyrate, a product of bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates escaping digestion, may be important. Sulphur-fermenting bacteria may be involved in this impaired utilization. Oxidative stress probably mediates tissue injury but is probably not of causative importance. Patients with UC are

John L. Rombeau; Gary R. Lichtenstein



Eosinophilic ulcers of the tongue.  


A case of eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue is presented. Although the entity is rarely described, the distinctive histopathologic pattern featuring the remarkable presence of eosinophils in the superficial corium and in between muscle bundles, together with the benign clinical course, make a diagnosis possible. PMID:6491010

Borroni, G; Pericoli, R; Gabba, P; Rosso, R; Rabbiosi, G



Pressure ulcer prevention in the community setting.  


Pressure ulcers are associated with reduced quality of life, affecting individuals physically, socially and emotionally. The financial cost to the NHS of preventing and treating such ulcers is substantial. Although largely preventable, pressure ulcers are still common. The Department of Health is committed to eliminating all avoidable pressure ulcers in NHS-provided care. This article explores methods of preventing pressure ulcers, with particular focus on risk assessment, skin inspection, pressure-relieving measures, nutrition and hydration, and patient and carer education. PMID:24044860

Jones, Donna


The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.


An analytical estimation of the energy cost for legged locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legged locomotion requires the determination of a number of parameters such as stride period, stride length, order of leg movements, leg trajectory, etc. How are these parameters determined? It has been reported that the locomotor patterns of many legged animals exhibit common characteristics, which suggests that there exists a basic strategy for legged locomotion. In this study we derive an

Jun Nishii



Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease.  

PubMed Central

Medical therapy for duodenal or gastric ulcer disease has traditionally involved gastric acid antisecretory therapy for 4 to 8 weeks to promote initial healing and indefinitely to prevent recurrences of ulcer. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori in most patients with peptic ulcer disease has led to a change in this approach. Therapy designed to eradicate H pylori may facilitate ulcer healing with acid antisecretory agents and, more important, may greatly reduce the incidence of ulcer recurrence, obviating the need for maintenance antisecretory therapy. Regimens designed to eradicate H pylori are difficult to comply with, however, and are associated with adverse effects in some patients. In this article we review the diagnosis and treatment of H pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer disease and make recommendations regarding the use of conventional ulcer therapies and therapies designed to eradicate H pylori.

Feldman, M; Peterson, W L



Etiologic profile of spastic quadriplegia in children.  


The etiologic profile and possible predictors of etiology in children with spastic quadriplegia were assessed in a consecutive cohort of children with this motor impairment. Medical records from a single pediatric neurology practice over a 14-year interval were retrospectively and systematically reviewed. Variables comprised possible demographic, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors. Of the 99 patients included in the study, 39 were premature (<37 weeks gestation). The overall etiologic yield was 83%. The top three diagnoses were hypoxic-ischemic perinatal asphyxia (33%), periventricular leukomalacia (15%), and central nervous system infections (11%). In premature children, the most common diagnoses were periventricular leukomalacia (33%), perinatal asphyxia (26%), and central nervous system infections (15%). In term-born children, the most frequent diagnoses were perinatal asphyxia (37%), metabolic disease (12%), and structural malformation or infection (9% each). Factors predicting the identification of an etiology included male sex (P = 0.05), low birth weight (P = 0.003), prematurity (P = 0.01), perinatal complications (P = 0.002), and neonatal encephalopathy (P = 0.006). The etiologic yield in patients with spastic quadriplegia was 83%, with differing underlying etiologies depending on gestational age. These results should help guide physicians in investigating possible underlying etiologies in patients with spastic quadriplegia. PMID:17765809

Venkateswaran, Sunita; Shevell, Michael I



Foundation analysis for tension leg platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tension leg platforms are being developed for offshore oil production in water depths of up to 6000 ft. The foundations for tension leg platforms will be pile groups with loadings that are continuously tensile an cyclic. A review of ultimate static capacity of piles in tension and performance of piles under cyclic loading was made. Special attention was given to




Dynamic legged robots for rough terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Only about half the Earth's landmass is accessible to wheeled and tracked vehicles, yet people and animals can go almost everywhere on foot. Our goal is to harness the power of legs to create robot vehicles that can go where legged animals and people can go. These systems combine dynamic control systems, actuated mechanisms and a

M. Raibert



Restless Legs Syndrome in Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating neurodegenerative inflammatory autoimmune disease. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized as a strong urge to move the legs to stop abnormal sensations there. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether or not the increased RLS frequency seen in MS could be associated with depression and fatigue. Methods: The study involved 98 patients

Gülay Aydar; Semiha Kurt; Hatice Karaer Unaldi; Unal Erkorkmaz



Sleep Laboratory Diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysomnographic recordings and the Suggested Immobilization Test (SIT) are frequently used to support the clinical diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS). The present study evaluated the discriminant power of 5 different parameters: (1) index of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), (2) index of PLMS with an associated microarousal (PLMS-arousal), (3) index of PLM during nocturnal wakefulness (PLMW), (4) SIT

Martin Michaud; Jean Paquet; Gilles Lavigne; Alex Desautels; Jacques Montplaisir



Ropinirole treatment for restless legs syndrome.  


In this paper we discuss therapy with ropinirole (known as adartrel in the United Kingdom) in patients with restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs, uncomfortable sensations in the legs and worsening of these symptoms during rest with at least temporary relief brought on by activity. Current recommendations suggest dopaminergic therapy (levodopa or dopamine receptor agonists like ropinirole) as the first-line treatment for restless legs syndrome. Based on the results of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials, we conclude that ropinirole is effective in reducing symptoms of restless legs syndrome in the general population. Ropinirole has no serious or common side effects that would limit its use significantly. Rebound and augmentation problems are relatively rarely seen with ropinirole, although properly designed comparative trials are still needed to address this question. It must be noted, however, that most published studies with ropinirole compare this drug with placebo. Very few studies have compared ropinirole with other drugs (L-dopa, gabapentin, opioids, benzodiazepines, other dopaminergic agents and selegiline hydrochloride). No cost-effectiveness trial has been published yet. Treatment of restless legs syndrome with ropinirole shows it to be effective, well-tolerated and safe and it can be used in restless legs syndrome in general. PMID:17028668

Molnar, Miklos Zsolt; Fornadi, Katalin; Shapiro, Colin M



Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: genetic aspects of etiology  

PubMed Central

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS; recurrent aphthous ulcers – RAU; canker sores) is a chronic inflammatory, ulcerative condition of the oral mucosa. Its prevalence in the general population ranges between 5% and 20%, depending on the method and group studied. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is considered to be multifactorial, but remains still not fully understood. In patients with RAS, an enhanced immunologic response occurs to some trigger factors that may include: mechanical injury, stress or bacterial and viral antigens. Higher prevalence of aphthae in relatives may also indicate the genetic background of the condition. The inheritance of some specific gene polymorphisms, especially those encoding proinflammatory cytokines, which play a role in the formation of aphthous ulcer, may predispose family members to RAS. The purpose of this paper was to present the main clinical features of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, epidemiologic data and crucial etiopathogenetic factors with a special emphasis on genetic background of the condition.

Szponar, Elzbieta; Kowalska, Anna



The effects of sulodexide on both clinical and molecular parameters in patients with mixed arterial and venous ulcers of lower limbs  

PubMed Central

Background Mixed venous and arterial ulcers account for approximately 15%–30% of all venous leg ulcerations. Several studies have shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) play a central role in the pathophysiology of venous and arterial diseases. Some studies have shown the efficacy of glycosaminoglycans, such as sulodexide (SDX), in treating patients with leg ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical effects of SDX and its correlation with MMPs and NGAL expression in patients with mixed arterial and venous leg ulcers. Methods Patients eligible for this study were of both sexes, older than 20 years, and with a clinical and instrumental diagnosis of mixed ulcer. Results Fifty-three patients of both sexes were enrolled and divided into two groups by means of randomization tables. Group A (treated group) comprised 18 females and ten males (median age: 68.7 years) treated with standard treatment (compression therapy and surgery) + SDX (600 lipoprotein lipase-releasing units/day intramuscularly) for 15 days followed by SDX 250 lipase-releasing units every 12 hours day orally for 6 months as adjunctive treatment. Group B (control group) comprised 17 females and eight males (median age: 64.2 years) treated with standard treatment only (compression therapy and surgery). The type of surgery was chosen according to anatomical level of vein incompetence: superficial venous open surgery and/or subfascial endoscopic perforating surgery. In all enrolled patients, blood samples were collected in order to evaluate the plasma levels of MMPs and NGAL through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results were compared to another control group (Group C) of healthy individuals. Moreover, biopsies of ulcers were taken to evaluate the tissue expression of MMPs and NGAL through Western blot analysis. Our results revealed that SDX treatment is able to reduce both plasma levels and tissue expression of MMPs improving the clinical conditions in patients with mixed ulcers. Conclusion Inhibition of MMPs could represent a possible therapeutic intervention to limit the progression of leg ulceration. In particular, our findings demonstrate the efficacy of SDX in patients with mixed arterial and venous chronic ulcers of the lower limbs.

Serra, Raffaele; Gallelli, Luca; Conti, Angela; De Caridi, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; Spinelli, Francesco; Buffone, Gianluca; Calio, Francesco Giuseppe; Amato, Bruno; Ceglia, Simona; Spaziano, Giuseppe; Scaramuzzino, Luca; Ferrarese, Alessia Giovanna; Grande, Raffaele; de Franciscis, Stefano



Pediatric ulcerative colitis: a practical guide to management.  


Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology that frequently presents in the pediatric population. The evaluation of pediatric UC involves excluding infection, and a colonoscopy that documents the clinical and histologic features of chronic colitis. Initial management of mild UC is typically with mesalamine therapy for induction and maintenance. Moderate UC is often initially treated with oral prednisone. Depending on disease severity and response to prednisone, maintenance options include mesalamine, mercaptopurine, azathioprine, infliximab, or adalimumab. Severe UC is typically treated with intravenous corticosteroids. Corticosteroid nonresponders should either undergo a colectomy or be treated with second-line medical rescue therapy (infliximab or calcineurin inhibitors). The severe UC patients who respond to medical rescue therapy can be maintained on infliximab or thiopurine, but 1-year remission rates for such patients are under 50 %. These medications are discussed in detail along with the initial work-up and a treatment algorithm. PMID:24723200

Regan, Brian P; Bousvaros, Athos



A functional methylome map of ulcerative colitis.  


The etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases is only partially explained by the current genetic risk map. It is hypothesized that environmental factors modulate the epigenetic landscape and thus contribute to disease susceptibility, manifestation, and progression. To test this, we analyzed DNA methylation (DNAm), a fundamental mechanism of epigenetic long-term modulation of gene expression. We report a three-layer epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) using intestinal biopsies from 10 monozygotic twin pairs (n = 20 individuals) discordant for manifestation of ulcerative colitis (UC). Genome-wide expression scans were generated using Affymetrix UG 133 Plus 2.0 arrays (layer 1). Genome-wide DNAm scans were carried out using Illumina 27k Infinium Bead Arrays to identify methylation variable positions (MVPs, layer 2), and MeDIP-chip on Nimblegen custom 385k Tiling Arrays to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs, layer 3). Identified MVPs and DMRs were validated in two independent patient populations by quantitative real-time PCR and bisulfite-pyrosequencing (n = 185). The EWAS identified 61 disease-associated loci harboring differential DNAm in cis of a differentially expressed transcript. All constitute novel candidate risk loci for UC not previously identified by GWAS. Among them are several that have been functionally implicated in inflammatory processes, e.g., complement factor CFI, the serine protease inhibitor SPINK4, and the adhesion molecule THY1 (also known as CD90). Our study design excludes nondisease inflammation as a cause of the identified changes in DNAm. This study represents the first replicated EWAS of UC integrated with transcriptional signatures in the affected tissue and demonstrates the power of EWAS to uncover unexplained disease risk and molecular events of disease manifestation. PMID:22826509

Häsler, Robert; Feng, Zhe; Bäckdahl, Liselotte; Spehlmann, Martina E; Franke, Andre; Teschendorff, Andrew; Rakyan, Vardhman K; Down, Thomas A; Wilson, Gareth A; Feber, Andrew; Beck, Stephan; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip



A functional methylome map of ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

The etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases is only partially explained by the current genetic risk map. It is hypothesized that environmental factors modulate the epigenetic landscape and thus contribute to disease susceptibility, manifestation, and progression. To test this, we analyzed DNA methylation (DNAm), a fundamental mechanism of epigenetic long-term modulation of gene expression. We report a three-layer epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) using intestinal biopsies from 10 monozygotic twin pairs (n = 20 individuals) discordant for manifestation of ulcerative colitis (UC). Genome-wide expression scans were generated using Affymetrix UG 133 Plus 2.0 arrays (layer 1). Genome-wide DNAm scans were carried out using Illumina 27k Infinium Bead Arrays to identify methylation variable positions (MVPs, layer 2), and MeDIP-chip on Nimblegen custom 385k Tiling Arrays to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs, layer 3). Identified MVPs and DMRs were validated in two independent patient populations by quantitative real-time PCR and bisulfite-pyrosequencing (n = 185). The EWAS identified 61 disease-associated loci harboring differential DNAm in cis of a differentially expressed transcript. All constitute novel candidate risk loci for UC not previously identified by GWAS. Among them are several that have been functionally implicated in inflammatory processes, e.g., complement factor CFI, the serine protease inhibitor SPINK4, and the adhesion molecule THY1 (also known as CD90). Our study design excludes nondisease inflammation as a cause of the identified changes in DNAm. This study represents the first replicated EWAS of UC integrated with transcriptional signatures in the affected tissue and demonstrates the power of EWAS to uncover unexplained disease risk and molecular events of disease manifestation.

Hasler, Robert; Feng, Zhe; Backdahl, Liselotte; Spehlmann, Martina E.; Franke, Andre; Teschendorff, Andrew; Rakyan, Vardhman K.; Down, Thomas A.; Wilson, Gareth A.; Feber, Andrew; Beck, Stephan; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip



Population-level evidence for an autoimmune etiology of epilepsy.  


IMPORTANCE Epilepsy is a debilitating condition, often with neither a known etiology nor an effective treatment. Autoimmune mechanisms have been increasingly identified. OBJECTIVE To conduct a population-level study investigating the relationship between epilepsy and several common autoimmune diseases. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective population-based study using claims from a nationwide employer-provided health insurance plan in the United States. Participants were beneficiaries enrolled between 1999 and 2006 (N?=?2?518?034). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We examined the relationship between epilepsy and 12 autoimmune diseases: type 1 diabetes mellitus, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, Sjögren syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and celiac disease. RESULTS The risk of epilepsy was significantly heightened among patients with autoimmune diseases (odds ratio, 3.8; 95% CI, 3.6-4.0; P?

Ong, Mei-Sing; Kohane, Isaac S; Cai, Tianxi; Gorman, Mark P; Mandl, Kenneth D



Chronic ringworm infestation and Marjolin's ulcer, an association unknown in the literature.  


We report here a case of Marjolin's ulcer developing in a long-standing, inadequately treated, chronic ringworm infestation of the lower limb. A 35-year-old female patient with a ten-year history of a chronic ringworm infestation had developed a nonhealing ulcer in an area of infestation on the right leg. A biopsy revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma associated with the ringworm infection. A below-knee amputation by an inguinal block dissection was performed. We conclude that proper and timely treatment of fungal infections of the skin is needed to allow for healing of dermal infections and thus the prevention of the disastrous consequences that recurrent mechanical trauma from scratching of the affected area, leading to occult malignancy, which may occur in a small number of patients. PMID:21139833

Ashraf, Mohammad; Biswas, Jaydip



Are Chromosomal Changes Related to Etiologic Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hypothesis that specific chromosomal abnormalities in human tumors are related to particular etiologic agents is discussed. The following lines of evidence are considered; nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities in leukemia, lymphomas, meningiomas, and ot...

J. D. Rowley



Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that indicates the amount by which the spool has been turned. When the robot is ready to hop, the electromagnetic clutch disengages the motor from the spool, thus releasing the cable restraints on the springs and allowing the springs to extend all six legs simultaneously.

Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand




PubMed Central

Background: In 1769, William Cullen introduced the word “urticaria” (transient edematous papules, plaque with itching). Urticaria affects 15-25% of people at least once in their life time. It is a clinical reaction pattern triggered by many factors causing the liberation of vasoactive substances such as histamine, prostaglandins and kinins. Urticaria is classified according to its duration into acute (< 6 weeks duration) and chronic (>6 weeks duration). Various clinical investigations may be initiated to diagnosis the cause. Aims: To evaluate the types of chronic urticaria with reference to etiology from history and investigations. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 patients with chronic urticaria of more than six weeks were studied. Autologous serum skin test (ASST) was performed after physical urticarias were excluded. Standard batteries of tests were performed after ASST in all patients; and other specific investigations were done where necessary. Skin prick test was done in idiopathic urticaria. Results: The study sample consisted of 62 male and 88 female patients with a mean age of 21-40 years. About 50% of patients showed an ASST positive reaction, 3.9% were positive for antinuclear antibody (ANA), IgE titer was elevated in 37%, H. pylori antibodies was positive in 26.7%. Thyroid antibodies were positive in 6.2%. Giardia and entamoeba histolytica was reported in 3.3% on routine stool examination and on urinalysis 8% had elevated WBC counts; 12% showed para nasal sinusitis, with maxillary sinusitis of 7.3%. Random blood sugar was high in 5.3%. Four patients had ASOM, two had positive KOH mount for dermatophytes, abdominal USG showed cholecystitis in two patients. Recurrent tonsillitis was noted in two patients. Urticaria following intake of NSAIDs was observed in four patients and with oral contraceptive pills in one patient. Contact urticaria to condom (latex) was seen in one patient. Cholinergic (4.7%) and dermographic (4.7%) urticaria were the predominant physical urticarias. Prick test was performed in idiopathic urticaria with maximum reactions to food antigens (25%) where brinjal was the commonest, 9% to dust in which spider web was the most common, 8% to pollen where parthenium and amaranthus were the commonest, followed by A. flavus in fungi, pigeon in epithelia and cockroach in insects. Conclusion: Nearly half of the patients had chronic autoimmune urticaria on the basis of ASST. A significant number of them had serological makers of autoimmune activity. ASST provides an easy, inexpensive investigation in CU and helps direct attention to underlying systemic auto immune diseases. The presence of these auto antibodies was significantly associated with more frequent and longer lasting urticarial attacks. Exhaustive work ups with extensive laboratory diagnostics, challenge tests, and prick testing should be reserved for individual cases following detailed history.

Krupa Shankar, D S; Ramnane, Mukesh; Rajouria, Eliz Aryal



Rhinomaxillary mucormycosis: A palatal ulcer  

PubMed Central

Rhinocerebral mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungus. It involves several areas of the body, but the rhinocerebral form is most relevant to health care providers. Zygomycosis is associated with medically compromised patients. Our case reports an unhealed ulcer present over the palate of 15 days duration associated with swelling over the maxillary sinus region. This case is a blend of clinical, radiological, and histological manifestations of mucormycosis in a patient.

Garg, Ranjana; Gupta, Vivek Vijay; Ashok, L.



Tracking quality over time: what do pressure ulcer data show?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To compare the prevalence of pressure ulcers and prevention before and after a quality improvement program; determine whether patient characteristics differed for those who did and did not develop pressure ulcers; identify pressure ulcer prevention implemented at admission and whether prevention and risk factors varied by pressure ulcer severity. Design. Descriptive comparative study based on two cross-sectional pressure ulcer




Expansion Compression Contacts for Thermoelectric Legs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a proposed alternative to previous approaches to making hot-shoe contacts to the legs of thermoelectric devices, one relies on differential thermal expansion to increase contact pressures for the purpose of reducing the electrical resistances of contacts as temperatures increase. The proposed approach is particularly applicable to thermoelectric devices containing p-type (positive-charge-carrier) legs made of a Zintl compound (specifically, Yb14MnSb11) and n-type (negative charge-carrier) legs made of SiGe. This combination of thermoelectric materials has been selected for further development, primarily on the basis of projected thermoelectric performance. However, it is problematic to integrate, into a practical thermoelectric device, legs made of these materials along with a metal or semiconductor hot shoe that is required to be in thermal and electrical contact with the legs. This is partly because of the thermal-expansion mismatch of these materials: The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SiGe is 4.5 x 10(exp -6) C (exp -1), while the CTE of Yb14MnSb11 is 20 x 10(exp -6) C(exp -1). Simply joining a Yb14MnSb11 and a SiGe leg to a common hot shoe could be expected to result in significant thermal stresses in either or both legs during operation. Heretofore, such thermal stresses have been regarded as disadvantageous. In the proposed approach, stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch would be turned to advantage.

Sakamoto, Jeffrey



Iron for restless legs syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic syndrome and is associated with iron deficiency in many patients. It is unclear whether iron therapy is effective treatment for RLS. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of iron supplementation (oral or intravenous) for patients with RLS. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Jan 1995 to April 2011); EMBASE (Jan 1995 to April 2011); PsycINFO (Jan 1995 to April 2011); and CINAHL (Jan 1995 to April 2011). Corresponding authors of included trials and additional members of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group were contacted to locate additional published or unpublished trials. Selection criteria Controlled trials comparing any formulation of iron with placebo, other medications, or no treatment in adults diagnosed with RLS according to expert clinical interview or explicit diagnostic criteria. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted data and at least two authors assessed trial quality. We contacted trial authors for missing data. Main results Six studies (192 total subjects) were identified and included in this analysis. The quality of trials was variable. Our primary outcome was restlessness or uncomfortable leg sensations, which was quantified using the IRLS severity scale in four trials and another RLS symptom scale in a fifth trial. Combining data from the four trials using the IRLS severity scale, there was no clear benefit from iron therapy (mean difference in IRLS severity scores of -3.79, 95% CI: -7.68 to 0.10, p = 0.06). However, the fifth trial did find iron therapy to be beneficial (median decrease of 3 points in the iron group and no change in the placebo group on a 10 point scale of RLS symptoms, p = 0.01). Quality of life was improved in the iron group relative to placebo in some studies but not others. Changes in periodic limb movements were not different between groups (measured in two studies). Objective sleep quality, subjective sleep quality and daytime functioning were not different between treatment groups in the studies that assessed them. The single study of subjects with end stage renal disease did show a benefit of therapy. Most trials did not require subjects to have co-morbid iron deficiency and several excluded patients with severe anemia. The single study that was limited to iron deficient subjects did not show clear benefit of iron supplementation on RLS symptoms. There was no clear superiority of oral or intravenous delivery of iron. Iron therapy did not result in significantly more side effects than placebo (RR 1.39, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.27). Authors' conclusions There is insufficient evidence to determine whether iron therapy is beneficial for the treatment of RLS. Further research to determine whether some or all types of RLS patients may benefit from iron therapy, as well as the best route of iron administration, is needed.

Trotti, Lynn M; Bhadriraju, Srinivas; Becker, Lorne A



Idiopathic chronic ulcerative enteritis with perforation and recurrent bleeding: A case report  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic chronic ulcerative enteritis (ICUE) is a distinct entity without a defined etiology and is rarely seen in the clinic. Patients with ICUE mainly present with insidious abdominal symptoms such as chronic abdominal pain and intermittent gastrointestinal hemorrhage and symptoms of malnourishment in the early stages of the disease. ICUE is always difficult to diagnose. However, as the disease progresses, patients have a variety of acute abdominal complications such as hemorrhage, perforation, or ileus. Surgical intervention is always needed, and the condition can recur and require repeat laparotomy. When diffuse ulceration of the small bowel is present in the absence of recognizable causes, it is classified as nonspecific or idiopathic. The histological examination always demonstrates an acute, chronic inflammatory infiltration without giant cells, granulomas, or villous atrophy. The etiology of ICUE has not been identified, and its pathogenesis is poorly understood; therefore, radical surgical resection is considered the best available treatment. Here, we report a case of ICUE characterized by nonspecific, multiple, small intestinal ulcers resulting in perforation and recurrent bleeding. The differential diagnosis and the treatment are also discussed.

Gao, Xia; Wang, Zhen-Jun



Three Treatment Schemes with Colloidal Bismuth Subcitrate (Q-ULCER) in Peptic Ulcer with Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSince the discovery, several decades ago, of the infection of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter pylori and its association with chronic antral gastritis and peptic ulcer, the treatment of ulcer illness has recently been revolutionized.

Marcia Samada Suárez; Juan González Cansino; Cira Velasco Ilizalde; Carlos Alfonso Sabatier; Juan Castillo Hernández



Blount disease. A review of etiological factors in 110 patients.  


The infantile form of Blount disease is common in the African Negro population of South Africa, although it is very rare in other groups in this country. A series of 110 affected children, investigated in an attempt to elucidate the pathogenesis of this condition, demonstrates an approximately equal sex incidence while geographic distribution is patchy. Bowing of the legs, which is symmetrical in 82% is usually the presenting feature and develops at the onset of ambulation. There is no preceding illness, either local or systemic, and no dietary inadequacy. The children do not differ from their peers in age of walking, weight or range of joint movements. There are no biochemical or hematological abnormalities and no radiographic evidence of involvement of joints other than the knees. Twenty-two of the patients had never been carried in the traditional "pick-a-back" position and it is therefore unlikely that this posture is a significant causative factor. The children had a total of 231 siblings, of whom 10 had bowlegs, while 16 parents had been similarly affected during their own infancy. On this basis, Mendelian dominant or recessive inheritance is unlikely although it is possible that Blount disease is multifactorial in etiology. PMID:709942

Bathfield, C A; Beighton, P H



Pressure ulcer prevention in the emergency department.  


Emergency nurses rescue patients from emergencies everyday through expert prioritization in a rapidly changing environment. After stabilization, the emergency nurse can focus attention on other risk factors that predispose the patient to unnecessary health care events. The demographics of patients visiting the emergency department have changed over the past 5 years, and the length of time spent in an emergency department has increased. A pressure ulcer can develop in several hours, depending upon risk factors and use of pressure ulcer prevention activities. The emergency nurse holds a key position in pressure ulcer prevention. However, the emergency nurse's role in preventing the development of a pressure ulcer warrants further delineation. This focused literature review intends to summarize and analyze pressure ulcer research pertinent to the emergency nurse as a starting point for developing emergency nurse pressure ulcer prevention guidelines. PMID:21543911

Naccarato, Mary Kathryn; Kelechi, Teresa



Intravenous Iron Given prior to Pregnancy for Restless Legs Syndrome is Associated with Remission of Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is more common during pregnancy than in the general population, occurring at a 2-3 times higher prevalence. While iron, genetics, and central nervous system dopamine have been shown to play major roles in RLS unrelated to pregnancy, the etiology and treatment of RLS during pregnancy have not been adequately delineated. We describe a novel approach where a 23-year-old female was given intravenous iron prior to pregnancy, with complete remission of RLS symptoms until five months postpartum. Factors other than iron status that may have influenced the course of remission and relapse were oral contraceptive use, antidepressant use, and a strong family history of RLS. Citation: Picchietti DL; Wang VC; Picchietti MA. Intravenous iron given prior to pregnancy for restless legs syndrome is associated with remission of symptoms. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):585-586.

Picchietti, Daniel L.; Wang, Victor C.; Picchietti, Matthew A.



Hemodynamic studies of the legs under weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant among the medical findings following prolonged space flight are reduced orthostatic tolerance and ergometric work capacity. Changes in hemodynamics of the legs with increased blood pooling and reduction in cardiac output must be considered one of the most probable causes of these effects. Concern for the above plus the observed marked tissue changes occurring in the legs during flight prompted the addition of several procedures to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the leg; resting arterial blood flow, venous compliance and muscle pumping were investigated. In so far as possible, the initial reaction to pressure in the smallest possible vein segment was examined.

Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.



[How I explore....a pressure ulcer].  


Pressure ulcers represent a major health problem causing both considerable morbidity and a high financial burden for the healthcare system. The geriatric segment of the population at risk of pressure ulcer is progressively increasing. This condition occurs at home, in old people's homes and in hospitals as well. The severity, duration and orientation of forces applied to the skin represent the most important factors responsible for pressure ulcers. Prevention measures are essential to reduce the prevalence of the disease. PMID:19911669

Devillers, C; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Giet-Lesuisse, M; Piérard, G E



Management of Bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Peptic ulcers are defects in the gastrointestinal mucosa that extend through the muscularis mucosae. They persist as a function\\u000a of the acid or peptic activity in gastric juice. The natural history of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) ranges from resolution\\u000a without intervention to the development of complications with potential for significant morbidity and mortality, such as bleeding\\u000a and perforation. Peptic ulcer

James C. Padussis; Theodore N. Pappas


Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.



Current Medical Management of Peptic Ulcer Disease  

PubMed Central

Peptic ulceration occurs when the digestive action of gastric secretions overcomes gastroduodenal mucosal defences. The therapeutic strategy used to correct this imbalance uses drugs that either reduce gastric secretion or increase mucosal resistance. Traditional therapies of dietary manipulation and antacid administration no longer play major roles in peptic ulcer therapy. Uncomplicated peptic ulcers respond quite well to drug treatment, although recurrences are common and may require long-term maintenance therapy. Drug-induced gastric ulcers have represented a challenging problem, for which effective therapy is now available.

Lukie, Bryan E.



Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues  

SciTech Connect

With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

V. Munne



Pharmacotherapy for restless legs syndrome.  


Introduction: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition characterized by paresthesia and an urge to move. Predominantly, symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity. RLS prevalence in the general population has been estimated to be approximately 5%. Areas covered: This review presents all options for the treatment of RLS. Expert opinion: Pharmacological treatment should be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS, that is, when symptoms impair the patient's quality of life, daytime functioning, social functioning or sleep. Treatment on demand is a clinical need in some RLS patients, and medications include carbidopa/levodopa, pramipexole, ropinirole, oxycodone, methadone, codeine and tramadol. Chronic RLS should be treated with either a nonergot dopamine agonist or an ?-2-? calcium channel ligand. A dopamine agonist is a more appropriate choice in the presence of depression and overweight. As ?-2-? ligands can alleviate chronic pain and may be helpful in treating anxiety and insomnia, the presence of any of these comorbidities may favor their use. For RLS present through much of the day and night, the use of long-acting agents, such as the rotigotine patch or gabapentin enacarbil should be considered. In refractory RLS, oral prolonged release oxycodone-naloxone should be considered. PMID:24745717

Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Marelli, Sara



[Management of restless legs syndrome].  


The first step in the management of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is to identify, and if possible to treat any condition which might cause or worsen RLS, such as iron deficiency or some drug treatments. The patients suffering from RLS should be prompted to keep a healthy sleep schedule. Drug treatment should be restricted to patients with a clear clinical diagnosis, decided on an individual basis, when the clinical impact is serious. Four drug classes are central to the treatment of RLS: dopaminergic agents, some antiepileptics, opioids, and benzodiazepines. Dopaminergic agonists are the treatment of choice, especially when daily treatment is indicated, or if the symptoms are severe. Two dopaminergic agonists are licensed in France for the treatment of RLS: ropinirole (Adartrel) and pramipexole (Sifrol). After initiation of treatment, the patients should benefit from a regular follow-up in order to evaluate the efficacy of treatment and to identify possible side-effects. Special care should be given to the detection of augmentation, a phenomenon characterized by a paradoxical worsening of the symptoms with treatment. Some particular conditions, such as RLS comorbid with renal insufficiency, during pregnancy, and in the child are discussed. PMID:20303704

Haba-Rubio, José; Krieger, Jean



Serum pepsinogen I concentrations in peptic ulcer patients in relation to ulcer location and stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relation of the serum group I pepsinogen (PG I) concentration to the location of gastric ulcers and chronicity of peptic ulcers, ulcer patients (n = 322) were compared with endoscopically normal subjects (n = 174). The mean PG I concentration was significantly higher in male control subjects (n = 90) than in female control subjects (n =

Y Tanaka; K Mine; Y Nakai; N Mishima; T Nakagawa



Evaluation of pressure ulcer prevalence rates for hospice patients post-implementation of pressure ulcer protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospice patients may be particularly at risk for pressure ulcer development due to several factors. Identifying populations at risk for pressure ulcer development, such as hospice patients, and providing prevention and risk protocols for these populations can substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers. However, are hospice patients prone for skin break-down despite prevention and treatment efforts? This

Darlene S. Hanson; Diane Langemo; Bette Olson; Susan Hunter; Christine Burd



Necrotic ulcer: a manifestation of leukemia cutis.  


A 71-year-old man presented to our dermatological clinic with a 3-month history of a wound on his leg. He complained of weakness for the past few months. On his dermatological examination he had a 3x3-cm necrotic ulcer on his left tibia (Figure 1). On physical examination, there was 1 x 1-cm axillary lymphadenopathy. There was no other lymph node enlargement, hepatosplenomegaly, or gingival hypertrophy. Peripheral blood results showed 2.4x103/mm3 leukocytes (normal range 4-11 x 103/mm3) with 66% neutrophils. The hemoglobin value was 10.1 g/dL (13-18 g/dL), and the platelet count was 63x103/mm3 (150-440 x 103/mm3). No blasts were detected in a peripheral blood smear. His lactate dehydrogenase level was 567 U/L (240-480 U/L). All other results of blood chemistry were within normal limits. Punch biopsy of the skin lesion showed ulceration and dense dermal acute and chronic inflammation. There was a superficial and deep perivascular and periadnexal infiltrate of neoplastic cells composed of relatively abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei with blastic chromatin and occasional small nucleoli (Figure 2). Mitotic figures were prominent. Immunohistochemical stains were performed, and the neoplastic cells were CD3, CD20, CD138, and S100 protein negative. Myeloperoxidase and CD68 were positive. The histopathological findings were consistent with leukemic infiltration. Examination of bone marrow biopsy revealed that the blastic cells constituted more than 20% of the bone marrow cellularity. Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow aspiration with fluorescence in situ hybridization was negative for inversion 16, t(8;21) and t(15;7). Histochemical stains for myeloperoxidase, sudan black, periodic acid-Schiff, and alpha naphthyl acetate were also negative. Blastic cells were DR, CD13, CD117, and CD34 positive and CD5, CD7, CD10, CD14, CD19, CD20, CD33, CD41, CD56, CD64, and CD79 negative according to flow cytometry immunophenotyping. Blastic cells were 35% in the bone marrow. Based on the findings of bone marrow examination, the patient was diagnosed as having acute myeloblastic leukeamia (AML) with minimal differentiation (subtype MO) according to French-American-British and World Health Organization classification. The examination of abdominal ultrasonography and thorocic and abominal computed tomography revealed no metastases. The patient was treated with chemotherapy that consisted of cytarabin and daunorubicin. After chemotherapy, the lesion regressed. One month after chemotherapy, the patient presented to the hospital with a complaint of fever. He was diagnosed with febrile neutropenia. He died of cardiac failure 12 months after appearance of skin infiltration. PMID:22545328

Aksu, Ayse Esra Koku; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Sabuncu, Ilham; Ciftci, Evrim; Gulbas, Zafer; Isiksoy, Serap



Treating restless legs syndrome with rotigotine.  


Restless legs syndrome has attracted increasing interest as a clinically significant, common and treatable disorder. Good evidence suggests that dopaminergic drugs are the most effective first-line agents when symptoms are severe. PMID:20393432

Reading, Paul



Silicoflagellates and Ebridians from Leg 31.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Only a few works have been carried out from the western Pacific submarine deposits on the subject of silicoflagellates and ebridians. Therefore, Leg 31 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project provided a unique opportunity to examine their abundance and biostrati...

H. Y. Ling



Is restless legs syndrome underrecognized? Current management.  


Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a poorly understood sensory-motor neurological disorder whose prevalence in Caucasian populations ranges from 10% to 15%. The patient reports unpleasant sensations in the lower limbs with dysesthesia resulting in an urge to move the legs. The symptoms occur during periods of inactivity, increasing in the evening and at night. Moving the legs provides relief. In 80% of cases, polysomnography shows periodic leg movements during sleep. Patients with idiopathic RLS often report similar symptoms in family members. Secondary RLS may be due to medications, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, iron deficiency, neurological disorders, or rheumatoid arthritis. In secondary RLS, the management rests on treatment of the cause. Symptomatic treatment is warranted in patients with moderate-to-severe symptoms that adversely affect the quality of life. Dopaminergic agents are tried first. When they fail or induce adverse effects, weak opioids, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants or, if needed, strong opioids, may be used. PMID:16213771

Vergne-Salle, Pascale; Coyral, Damien; Dufauret, Karine; Bonnet, Christine; Bertin, Philippe; Trèves, Richard



Autonomous Legged Hill and Stairwell Ascent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper documents near-autonomous negotiation of synthetic and natural climbing terrain by a rugged legged robot,achieved through sequential composition of appropriate perceptually triggered locomotion primitives. The first, simple composition achieves...

A. M. Johnson D. E. Koditschek G. C. Haynes M. T. Hale



Pitfalls in the diagnosis of leg pain.  

PubMed Central

Problems may confront the practitioner in the diagnosis of leg pain related to exercise. The diagnostic features of the history and the physical examination that will help to elucidate the various causes of leg pain are outlined in this article, and the necessity for re-examination of the patient after a period of exercise is stressed. In most patients the diagnosis can most easily be made by means of clinical methods, without recourse to special investigations.

Provan, J L; Moreau, P; MacNab, I



Restless legs syndrome augmentation and pramipexole treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate in an open-label clinical series the occurrence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) augmentation in 60 consecutive RLS patients treated with pramipexole (PPX) for at least 6 months.Background: In patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS), augmentation is most commonly seen with long-term use of levodopa and pergolide.Method: Open-label clinical series in 60 consecutive RLS patients treated with PPX

L Ferini-Strambi



Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian



Help-Seeking for Pre-Ulcer and Ulcer Conditions of Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease (Buruli Ulcer) in Ghana  

PubMed Central

This study examined sociocultural features of help-seeking for Buruli ulcer–affected persons with pre-ulcers and ulcers in a disease-endemic area in Ghana. A sample of 181 respondents were purposively selected. Fisher's exact test was used to compare help-seeking variables for pre-ulcers and ulcers. Qualitative phenomenologic analysis of narratives clarified the meaning and content of selected quantitative help-seeking variables. For pre-ulcers, herbal dressings were used to expose necrotic tissues and subsequently applied as dressings for ulcers. Analgesics and left-over antibiotics were used to ease pain and reduce inflammation. Choices for outside-help were influenced by the perceived effectiveness of the treatment, the closeness of the provider to residences, and family and friends. Health education is required to emphasize the risk of self-medication with antibiotics and the importance of medical treatment for pre-ulcers, and to caution against the use of herbs to expose necrotic tissues, which could lead to co-infections.

Ackumey, Mercy M.; Gyapong, Margaret; Pappoe, Matilda; Weiss, Mitchell G.



Skin ulceration due to cement.  


Despite legislation that requires manufacturers to inform the public about the dangers of contact with cement, severe ulceration from cement contact still occurs. We present a retrospective study of seven patients presenting to this department over a 2-year period. All were male and employed in the building trade, their injuries being sustained whilst at work. The injuries were to the lower limb, often multiple and required a median of seven visits before healing was complete. One required hospital admission and skin grafting. PMID:1449582

Robinson, S M; Tachakra, S S



Toxic Dilatation of the Colon in the Course of Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Toxic dilatation of the colon has been observed in a patient suffering from ulcerative colitis during an acute relapse of the disease. This uncommon and serious complication was suspected because there was a gradual worsening of the patient's condition, accompanied by toxic phenomena. The diagnosis was confirmed by a flat plate of the abdomen which disclosed considerable dilatation of the colon. The etiology of toxic dilatation is not known but the use of opiates and anticholinergic agents has been suggested as a possible factor. These therapeutic agents should be avoided in the acute stage. Barium enema examination during acute relapses of ulcerative colitis may also precipitate the onset of this complication. It is recommended that, during the acute stage of the disease, the barium enema be replaced as often as possible by flat films of the abdomen which also enable diagnosis of this complication. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6aFig. 6b

Glay, A.



Laser Therapy of Recurrent Aphthous Ulcer in Patient with HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

The recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is a pathological change found in the oral mucosa, characterized by painful single or multiple ulcers. The etiologic aspect of RAU is not well understood; however it is known that due to lower CD4 cell counts patients had higher prevalence of these oral lesions, and immunosuppressed patients with HIV are predisposed. Patient FC is African descent, 26 years old, male, HIV?+?CD4 67 cells/mm3, with minor RAU in the upper and lower right side lip, measuring about 4?mm, and major RAU in tongue and the tonsillar pillar measuring 2?cm. The patient was treated with laser therapy with the objective to help reverse the damage and decrease the symptoms. After one week there was remission of the lesions. The laser showed to be an important alternative therapy that promoted analgesic, healing effects and improving the quality of life of patients.

Caputo, Bruno Vieira; Noro Filho, Gilberto Araujo; dos Santos, Camila Correia; Okida, Yugo; Giovani, Elcio Magdalena



Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita with skin ulcerations in a new born.  


Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC) is a rare congenital disorder with persistent cutis marmorata, telengiectasia, and phlebectesia, which may be associated with cutaneaus atrophy and ulceration of the involved skin. We herewith report a full-term newborn female baby with CMTC at birth with ulceration over the extensor aspects of both the knee joints and right elbow joint. CMTC is a benign vascular anomaly representing dilatation of capillaries and veins of dermis and is apparent at birth. The baby had a reticulated bluish purple skin changes all over the body including the face and limb. Although it resembled physiological cutis marmorata, it was strikingly pronounced and definitely was unvarying and permanent. A variety of vascular malformation has been described along with this disorder. Etiology is not very clear and may be multifactorial, teratogens and genes are also been suggested. Prognoses in uncomplicated cases are good. PMID:20101343

Chatterjee, Rita; Dey, Subhendu




PubMed Central

Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC) is a rare congenital disorder with persistent cutis marmorata, telengiectasia, and phlebectesia, which may be associated with cutaneaus atrophy and ulceration of the involved skin. We herewith report a full-term newborn female baby with CMTC at birth with ulceration over the extensor aspects of both the knee joints and right elbow joint. CMTC is a benign vascular anomaly representing dilatation of capillaries and veins of dermis and is apparent at birth. The baby had a reticulated bluish purple skin changes all over the body including the face and limb. Although it resembled physiological cutis marmorata, it was strikingly pronounced and definitely was unvarying and permanent. A variety of vascular malformation has been described along with this disorder. Etiology is not very clear and may be multifactorial, teratogens and genes are also been suggested. Prognoses in uncomplicated cases are good.

Chatterjee, Rita; Dey, Subhendu



Antioxidant properties of natural compounds used in popular medicine for gastric ulcers.  


There is evidence concerning the participation of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and physiopathology of human diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, viral infections, autoimmune pathologies, and digestive system disorders such as gastrointestinal inflammation and gastric ulcer. The role of these reactive oxygen species in several diseases and the potential antioxidant protective effect of natural compounds on affected tissues are topics of high current interest. To consider a natural compound or a drug as an antioxidant substance it is necessary to investigate its antioxidant properties in vitro and then to evaluate its antioxidant functions in biological systems. In this review article, we shall consider the role of natural antioxidants derived from popular plants to reduce or prevent the oxidative stress in gastric ulcer induced by ethanol. PMID:12011936

Repetto, M G; Llesuy, S F



The Most Common Detected Risk and Etiologic Factors of Pulmonary Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is the most serious manifestation of thromboembolic disease. Objective: To determine the most common risk and etiologic factors of pulmonary tromboembolism in patients treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year- period from 2008. to 2010. Material and methods: We retrospectively analysed patients with PTE treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period from 2008. to 2010. PTE was diagnosed by high resolute computed tomography, in most of them ventilatory /perfusion scintigraphy (V/P SPECT) was made, with proper laboratory analyses (D-dimmer, platelets , fibrinogen, and if it was needed protein C, S and AT III factor were examined). In all of them echosonography of abdomen and pelvis was done, also the examination by angiologist, and in patients with indications echosonography of the heart and Color Doppler of leg veins was made. We analysed risk and etiologic factors for PTE in each patient. Results: In 222 treated patients with PTE risk factors were found in 124 or 55.86% patients, etiologic factors were found in 31 or 13.96%, and both risk and etiologic factors in one patient were found in 18 or 8.11% patients. Conclusion: PTE is very serious disease that very often has fatal prognosis, and can develop with previously entirely healthy people, and as soon as we become suspicious of its presence we have to made appropriate diagnostic procedures and include appropriate therapy. We can after look for risk and etiologic factors and try to influence them.

Cukic, Vesna; Baljic, Rusmir



Sucralfate retention enemas in solitary rectal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservative treatment of solitary rectal ulcer is generally unsatisfactory. Six patients, aged 27–54 years, with recurrent solitary rectal ulcer were treated with topical administration of sucralfate in a daily dose of 2 g twice a day for 6 weeks. Four patients experienced complete relief of symptoms and the remaining two patients had marked improvement. Although macroscopic healing of the

Showkat Ali Zargar; Mohammad Sultan Khuroo; Rakesh Mahajan



Stump ulcers and continued prosthetic limb use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stump ulcers are common problems in amputees. Temporary discontinuation of prosthetic limb use is frequently employed to facilitate healing. Inevitably, this limits activity and may, for instance, prevent an amputee from going to work. A survey of clinical practice was carried out based on the premise that controlled continued prosthetic limb use in patients with stump ulcers will not adversely




Corneal ulceration following measles in Nigerian children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute corneal ulceration in malnourished children is the commonest cause of childhood blindness in Northern Nigeria and usually develops after measles. Other severe diseases in malnourished children rarely precipitate corneal ulceration. A survey in a school for blind children showed that 69% of the children were blind from corneal disease, and a survey of children with corneal scars showed that

J H Sandford-Smith; H C Whittle



Lymphogranuloma venereum causing a persistent genital ulcer.  


Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy and proctocolitis. We report a patient with a persistent genital ulcer due to LGV (serovar L2b), an unusual presentation among US men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum should be considered when evaluating persistent genital ulcers, and LGV-specific testing should be sought. PMID:24622642

Marcotte, Terrence; Lee, Yer; Pandori, Mark; Jain, Vivek; Cohen, Stephanie Elise



Prevention, Assessment and Treatment Of Decubitus Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Decubitus ulcers are not uncommon in chronically ill and disabled people who are bedridden. Prevention is better than cure, but the chief ingredient in both is avoidance of excess pressure on the tissues, especially over bony prominences. If an ulcer does occur, it requires scrutiny, appropriate therapy with the agents listed and repeated re-examination.

Morden, Patricia; Bayne, Ronald



Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: A radiologic diagnosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is an uncommon condition in which a solitary area of discrete ulceration is typically found on the anterior wall of the rectum. Between 1981 and 1983, we collected 8 pathologically proven cases of SRUS in which barium enema examinations had been performed (7 double-contrast, 1 single-contrast). Seven patients had rectal bleeding. On the original

Marc S. Levine; Marcelle L. Piccolello; Linda C. Sollenberger; Igor Laufer; Scott H. Saul



Micropenis: etiology, diagnosis and treatment approaches.  


Micropenis is a medical diagnosis based on correct measurement of length. If stretched penile length is below the value corresponding to - 2.5 standard deviation of the mean in a patient with normal internal and external male genitalia, a diagnosis of micropenis is considered. Micropenis can be caused by a variety of factors including structural or hormonal defects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It can also be a component of a number of congenital syndromes. For the etiological evaluation, endocrinologic tests are important. This article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and management of micropenis. PMID:24379029

Hatipo?lu, Nihal; Kurto?lu, Selim



Nineteen cases of Buruli ulcer diagnosed in Japan from 1980 to 2010.  


The etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of 19 sporadic cases of Buruli ulcer (BU) in Japan are described. The cases originated in different regions of Honshu Island, with no evidence of patient contact with an aquatic environment. The majority (73.7%) of cases occurred in females, with an average age of 39.1 years for females and 56.8 years for males. All patients developed ulcers on exposed areas of the skin (e.g., face, extremities). Most ulcers were <5 cm in diameter (category I), except in one severe progressive case (category II). Pain was absent in 10 of the 19 cases. Fourteen ulcers were surgically excised, and nine patients needed skin grafting. All cases were treated with various antibiotic regimens, with no reported recurrences as of March 2011. Mycobacterium ulcerans-specific IS2404 was detected in all cases. Ten isolates had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, which were similar to those of M. ulcerans. However, the rpoB gene showed a closer resemblance to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii. PCR identified pMUM001 in all isolates but failed to detect one marker. DNA-DNA hybridization misidentified all isolates as M. marinum. The drug susceptibility profile of the isolates also differed from that of M. ulcerans. Sequence analysis revealed "Mycobacterium ulcerans subsp. shinshuense" as the etiologic agent of BU in Japan. Clinical manifestations were comparable to those of M. ulcerans but differed as follows: (i) cases were not concentrated in a particular area; (ii) there was no suspected connection to an aquatic environment; (iii) drug susceptibility was different; and (iv) bacteriological features were different. PMID:21880966

Nakanaga, Kazue; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Yotsu, Rie Roselyne; Makino, Masahiko; Ishii, Norihisa



Biologics in oral medicine: ulcerative disorders.  


Inflammatory ulcerative diseases of the oral mucosa are wide ranging but include especially aphthous and aphthous-like ulceration, vesiculobullous disorders and erosive lichen planus (LP). While most patients with these conditions respond to conventional topical and/or systemic immunosuppressive agents, treatment-resistant cases remain challenging. In these, the use of biologics such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors or rituximab may be of benefit. This article reviews the use of biologics in ulcerative oral conditions, highlighting potential benefits, adverse effects and principles of use and future developments. TNF-? inhibitors such as infliximab can be effective in inducing resolution in oral aphthous and aphthous-like ulcers and may be an appropriate therapy in those patients in which disease is severe and refractory to, or patients are intolerant of, traditional immunomodulatory regimens. There would also seem support and rationale for use of biologics (mainly rituximab) in pemphigus but not in oral LP or other oral ulcerative conditions. PMID:22471882

O'Neill, I D; Scully, C



Pyoderma gangrenosum associated with ulcerative colitis.  


We report the case of a 45-year old man with non-healing ulcers located on his chest, lumbal, sacral, retroauricular areas and forehead. Both clinical and histopathological examinations suggested pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). For six months the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis was established. PG in our patient was presented as a rapidly enlarging, painful ulcer with purple, undermined edges and a necrotic, haemorrhagic base. Initially, he was treated with a high dosage of peroral glucocorticosteroid, sulfasalazine, and systemic antibiotics, together with daily wound care. Ulceration partially regressed. Total colonoscopy showed pancolitis. When the dose of glucocorticosteroids was tapered down to 35 mg, new ulcerations on his right thigh and abdomen were formed. He also developed E. coli sepsis and flare up of bowel disease. Azathioprine, together with two pulse doses of glucocorticosteroids and antibiotics, were administered. He was scheduled for a total colectomy. The management of PG continues to be a therapeutic challenge. PMID:16603100

Ljubojevi?, Suzana; Milavec-Pureti?, Visnja; Sredoja-Tisma, Vesna; Rados, Jaka; Kalauz, Mirjana; Hrsti?, Irena



Rosiglitazone for Active Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Background Thiazolidinedione ligands for the gamma subtype of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR?), widely used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, have been proposed as novel therapies for ulcerative colitis. Methods This multicenter randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial compared the efficacy of rosiglitazone (Avandia™) 4 mg orally twice daily versus placebo twice daily for 12 weeks in 105 patients with mild to moderately active UC. Disease activity was measured with the Mayo Score. The primary endpoint was clinical response (? 2 point reduction) at week 12. Clinical remission (Mayo Score ?2), endoscopic remission, and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Results After 12 weeks of therapy, 23 patients (44%) treated with rosiglitazone and 12 patients (23%) treated with placebo achieved clinical response (p=0.04). Remission was achieved in 9 patients (17%) treated with rosiglitazone and 1 patient (2%) treated with placebo (p=0.01). Endoscopic remission was uncommon in either treatment arm (8% rosiglitazone vs. 2% placebo, p=0.34). Clinical improvement was evident as early as 4 weeks (p=0.049). Quality of life was significantly improved at week 8 (p=0.01) but not at week 4 (p=0.48) or 12 (p=0.14). Serious adverse events were rare. Conclusions Rosiglitazone was efficacious in the treatment of mild to moderately active ulcerative colitis.

Lewis, James D.; Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Deren, Julius J; Sands, Bruce E.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Katz, Jeffry A.; Lashner, Bret; Present, Daniel H.; Chuai, Shaokun; Ellenberg, Jonas H.; Nessel, Lisa; Wu, Gary D.



Fecal lactate and ulcerative colitis.  


Impaired metabolism of short-chain fatty acids, as well as a modified fecal ionogram, have been reported in ulcerative colitis. Fecal water samples from 62 patients with ulcerative colitis were analyzed in the present investigation to evaluate changes in SCFAs and lactic acid in relation to activity and severity of disease. Short-chain fatty acid levels were high in quiescent and mild disease (162.6 +/- 63.6 and 147.8 +/- 63.2 mM/L, respectively), but significantly decreased in the severe form (64.7 +/- 46.9 mM/L). Lactate showed a progressive increase from mild colitis (3.0 +/- 1.8 mM/L) to severe colitis (21.4 +/- 18.6 mM/L). It thus appears that mild colitis displayed a fecal pattern characterized by normal pH and bicarbonate, slightly impaired electrolyte handling, high short-chain fatty acid values, and only moderately increased lactate. Severe colitis, on the other hand, was characterized by low fecal pH, bicarbonate, and potassium, high sodium and chloride, low short-chain fatty acid levels, and very high lactate levels. A critical lowering of intraluminal pH, which shifts bacterial metabolism from short-chain fatty acid to lactate production, may be responsible for the intraluminal pooling of lactate. PMID:3181680

Vernia, P; Caprilli, R; Latella, G; Barbetti, F; Magliocca, F M; Cittadini, M



Full-thickness pressure ulcers: patient and wound healing characteristics.  


To investigate the patient and healing characteristics related to full-thickness pressure ulcers, 119 consecutive patients admitted with ulcers in three acute care, four longterm care, and one rehabilitation agency were studied. Of the 119 patients with 153 pressure ulcers, only 48 (40%) had full-thickness ulcers. Compared to patients with partial-thickness ulcers, patients with full-thickness ulcers were more likely to have multiple ulcers, occasional incontinence of urine and feces, a compromised overall skin condition, and a less than optimal nutritional status at baseline. Full-thickness ulcers treated with a hydrocolloid dressing (DuoDERM Hydroactive) did not develop adverse reactions; clinicians perceived the dressing to be efficacious. Ulcers that healed during the study decreased 47% in area in two weeks. This distinguished ulcers that healed from those that did not heal. The findings suggest that ulcers that do not decrease in size within two weeks should be reevaluated for additional or alternate treatments. PMID:8427640

van Rijswijk, L



[Current status of therapy for gastroduodenal ulcer].  


Over the last 25 years there has been a considerable decrease in the prevalence of peptic ulcer worldwide. Since the introduction of potent anti-ulcer drugs the number of elective operations for peptic ulcer (PU) has decreased considerably, whereas the number of emergency operations has remained largely unchanged. The current incidence of PU perforation is 4-10 per 100,000 population. Perforation accounts for 40-50% of emergency operations for PU. Currently one third to over one half of patients presenting with PU perforation are aged over 65, with an increasing percentage of female patients and gastric ulcer perforations. There appears to be a correlation between PU perforation and ingestion of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), especially in women over the age of 65. About 50% of patients presenting with perforation of PU do not report a previous history of ulcer dyspepsia or treatment with anti-ulcer drugs. Many authors think the lack of a PU history reported by many patients is unreliable and may lead to erroneous conclusions in about half of patients. Mortality of PU perforation is currently 10-20% in most series, with a higher mortality of 10-40% for perforated gastric ulcer (GU) compared to duodenal ulcer (DU), for which mortality rates of 0-10% are currently reported. A number of centers report an increase in PU perforation mortality: this is due to an increased number of elderly patients in whom ulcer perforation mortality is enhanced by preexistent or concomitant diseases of other organs and systems. In the treatment of PU perforation the discussion centers around the choice between simple closure of the perforation and definitive ulcer surgery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1970909

Aeberhard, P; Lichtenhahn, P; Villiger, P



Takayasu arteritis associated with ulcerative colitis and optic neuritis: first case in Korea  

PubMed Central

Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic vasculitis that affects the aortic arch and its primary branches. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Patients diagnosed with both TA and UC have rarely been reported. The pathogenesis of TA and UC is uncertain, but cell-mediated mechanisms play an important role in both diseases, and a genetic factor is thought to have an effect on the coincidence of these two diseases. We herein report a 38-year-old female with TA who had a history of UC with optic neuritis. We believe that this is the first case of the coexistence of TA and UC in Korea.

Pyo, Jung Yoon; Park, Jin Su; Song, Chang Ho; Lee, Sang Won; Park, Yong Beom



Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Leg Movements in Sleep: The Primary Role of Dopaminergic Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the possible effect of opiates on a patient exhibiting particularly severe restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movemets in sleep (PLMS). This patient was investigated in the sleep laboratory under three conditions, namely, unmedicated (baseline), medicated with codeine sulfate, and medicated with both codeine sulfate and pimozide. Codeine sulfate dramatically improved abnormal motor behavior in this

Jacques Montplaisir; Dominique Lorrain; Roger Godbout



Disability and depression: Some etiological considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the literature on this subject is fraught with ambiguity, it appears that there is a higher incidence of depression in people with disabilities than in the general population. The etiology of the disorder is by no means clear but several of the explanations which exist for depression in general, appear particularly suited when considering the disabled population. In this

Judith Friedland; MaryAnn McColl



[Hyperemesis gravidarum--etiology and treatment].  


Hyperemesis gravidarum is a common pathology encountered by the obstetrician in 0.1-2% of all pregnancies. The purpose of our review, along with other literature, is to report general outline of the syndrome, with etiology, complications and some guidelines about conventional and newer therapy. PMID:14994923

Imperato, F; Canova, I; Basili, R; Iuele, T; Mossa, B



Etiology and management of fecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal incontinence is a challenging condition of diverse etiology and devastating psychosocial impact. Multiple mechanisms may be involved in its pathophysiology, such as altered stool consistency and delivery of contents to the rectum, abnormal rectal capacity or compliance, decreased anorectal sensation, and pelvic floor or anal sphincter dysfunction. A detailed clinical history and physical examination are essential. Anorectal manometry, pudendal

J. Marcio N. Jorge; Steven D. Wexner



Pes cavus: the deformity and its etiology.  


Pes cavus is present when the forefoot is in a plantarflexed position in relation to the rearfoot. In the majority of patients, the deformity is caused by a neurologic disorder; however, the condition may also result from infection or trauma. It is necessary to determine the etiology in order to plan effective treatment. PMID:7276455

Yale, A C; Hugar, D W



The Etiology Mystery in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis remains largely unknown despite numerous lines of evidence that have been recently proposed or supported. Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease for which an autoimmune pathogenesis is widely accepted, mostly based on the presence of autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells. Cumulatively, association and twin studies suggest that both a susceptible genetic

Carlo Selmi; M. Eric Gershwin



The etiology of specific phobias: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article summarizes theory and data about symptomatology, epidemiology, and etiology of specific phobias. Additionally, the cognitive mechanisms involved in specific phobias are briefly discussed. By and large, the general pattern behind the development of specific phobias can be summarized as follows. Specific fears are highly prevalent among young children. In most children, these fears represent transitory phenomena. However,

Harald Merckelbach; Peter J. de Jong; Peter Muris; Marcel A. van Den Hout



Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

Nigg, Joel T.



Attention Deficit Disorder: Diagnosis, Etiology and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides most recent information on attention deficit disorder including: (1) diagnostic considerations according to the latest behavioral criteria and breakthroughs using neurometric EEG assessment; (2) prevalence; (3) etiologies; (4) neurological basis; and (5) treatments. Evaluates alternatives to medication, behavior modification, cognitive…

Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed



The etiology of phobias: a nonassociative account  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of the origin and maintenance of fears and phobias have had a profound influence on the kinds of treatments employed in the phobic disorders. In view of this influence, the present review considers the considerable controversy surrounding the major etiological models. First, the various forms of the associative learning account are examined. It is argued that each of these

J. Christopher Clarke



Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact

Joel T. Nigg



Chronic pancreatitis: etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims. This review discusses current concepts regarding the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Results. Treatment of patients suffering from complications of chronic pancreatitis remains a major challenge. Continuous alcohol consumption, a disease with enormous personal and social impact, is still the leading factor in the development of chronic pancreatitis. The most distressing symptom for the

T. Strate; W. T. Knoefel; E. Yekebas; J. R. Izbicki



Skin ulcers in estuarine fishes: a comparative pathological evaluation of wild and laboratory-exposed fish.  

PubMed Central

The toxic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder has recently been implicated as the etiologic agent of acute mass mortalities and skin ulcers in menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, and other fishes from mid-Atlantic U.S. estuaries. However, evidence for this association is largely circumstantial and controversial. We exposed tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) to Pfiesteria shumwayae Glasgow & Burkholder (identification based on scanning electron microscopy and molecular analyses) and compared the resulting pathology to the so-called Pfiesteria-specific lesions occurring in wild menhaden. The tilapia challenged by high concentrations (2,000-12,000 cells/mL) of P. shumwayaeexhibited loss of mucus coat and scales plus mild petecchial hemorrhage, but no deeply penetrating chronic ulcers like those in wild menhaden. Histologically, fish exhibited epidermal erosion with bacterial colonization but minimal associated inflammation. In moribund fish, loss of epidermis was widespread over large portions of the body. Similar erosion occurred in the mucosa lining the oral and branchial cavities. Gills exhibited epithelial lifting, loss of secondary lamellar structure, and infiltration by lymphoid cells. Epithelial lining of the lateral line canal (LLC) and olfactory organs exhibited severe necrosis. Visceral organs, kidney, and neural tissues (brain, spinal cord, ganglia, peripheral nerves) were histologically normal. An unexpected finding was the numerous P. shumwayae cells adhering to damaged skin, skin folds, scale pockets, LLC, and olfactory tissues. In contrast, histologic evaluation of skin ulcers in over 200 wild menhaden from Virginia and Maryland portions of the Chesapeake Bay and the Pamlico Estuary, North Carolina, revealed that all ulcers harbored a deeply invasive, highly pathogenic fungus now known to be Aphanomyces invadans. In menhaden the infection always elicited severe myonecrosis and intense granulomatous myositis. The consistent occurrence of this fungus and the nature and severity of the resulting inflammatory response indicate that these ulcers are chronic (age >1 week) and of an infectious etiology, not the direct result of an acute toxicosis initiated by Pfiesteria toxin(s) as recently hypothesized. The disease therefore is best called ulcerative mycosis (UM). This study indicates that the pathology of Pfiesteria laboratory exposure is fundamentally different from that of UM in menhaden; however, we cannot rule out Pfiesteria as one of many possible early initiators predisposing wild fishes to fungal infection in some circumstances.

Vogelbein, W K; Shields, J D; Haas, L W; Reece, K S; Zwerner, D E



Anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of Musa sapientum peel extract in the laboratory rodents  

PubMed Central

Background: This study investigated the anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of the methanol extract of Musa sapientum peel in the laboratory rats. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract of the peels on Musa sapientum (MEMS) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer using alcohol-induced, aspirin-induced, and pyloric ligation-induced models, and for its ulcer healing employing acetic acid-induced ulcer models in rats. Results: The findings from this experiment showed that MEMS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) anti-ulcer and ulcer healing activity (P ? 0.05) is dose-dependent. Also, MEMS exhibited healing of the ulcer base in all the treated groups when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The outcomes of this experiment revealed that the anti-ulcer effect of MEMS may be due to its anti-secretory and cyto-protective activity. The healing of the ulcer base might not be unconnected with basic fibroblast growth factors responsible for epithelial regeneration.

Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Emikpe, Benjamin Obukowho; Ajah, Austin Azubuike; Elufioye, Taiwo Olayemi



Strategies for the treatment of restless legs syndrome.  


Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder of unknown etiology that is managed by therapy directed at relieving its symptoms. Treatment of patients with milder symptoms that occur intermittently may be treated with nonpharmacological therapy but when not successful, drug therapy should be chosen based on the timing of the symptoms and the needs of the patient. Patients with moderate to severe RLS typically require daily medication to control their symptoms. Although the dopamine agonists, ropinirole and pramipexole have been the drugs of choice for patients with moderate to severe RLS, drug emergent problems like augmentation may limit their use for long term therapy. Keeping the dopamine agonist dose as low as possible, using longer acting dopamine agonists such as the rotigotine patch and maintaining a high serum ferritin level may help prevent the development of augmentation. The ?2? anticonvulsants may now also be considered as drugs of choice for moderate to severe RLS patients. Opioids should be considered for RLS patients, especially for those who have failed other therapies since they are very effective for severe cases. When monitored appropriately, they can be very safe and durable for long term therapy. They should also be strongly considered for treating patients with augmentation as they are very effective for relieving the worsening symptoms that occur when decreasing or eliminating dopamine agonists. PMID:22923001

Buchfuhrer, Mark J



Leg-length discrepancy measured by ultrasonography.  


Leg-length discrepancy was determined by real-time ultrasonography (ultrasound) in 45 patients, and the measurements were compared with those of erect-posture radiography. A special device for holding and moving the ultrasound transducer was constructed, and the leg length was measured as the highest level of the femoral head in the standing position. The correlation coefficient r between ultrasound and radiography was 0.94, the mean difference was -1.9 mm, and the limits of agreement (mean +/- 2 SD) were -9.1 to 5.3 mm. The mean difference between examiners 1 and 2 was 1.7 mm, and the 95 percent confidence interval was +/- 7 mm. We conclude that leg-length discrepancy can be reliably determined by ultrasound, although the accuracy is less than that obtained by radiographic methods. Because ultrasound is not limited by radiation hazards, our technique can be used for clinical screening. PMID:2014720

Terjesen, T; Benum, P; Rossvoll, I; Svenningsen, S; Fløystad Isern, A E; Nordbø, T



Dipoles on a two-leg ladder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study polar molecules with long-range dipole-dipole interactions confined to move on a two-leg ladder for different orientations of the molecular dipole moments with respect to the ladder. Matrix product states are employed to calculate the many-body ground state of the system as a function of lattice filling fractions, perpendicular hopping between the legs, and dipole interaction strength. We show that the system exhibits zigzag ordering when the dipolar interactions are predominantly repulsive. As a function of dipole moment orientation with respect to the ladder, we find that there is a critical angle at which ordering disappears. This angle is slightly larger than the angle at which the dipoles are noninteracting along a single leg. This behavior should be observable using current experimental techniques.

Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas



Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

Ray, C. A.



Leg Spasticity and Ambulation in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal) and 4 (contracted). Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6?MW), timed 25 foot walk (T25FW), and timed up-and-go (TUG), and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6?MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc.) for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n = 44) of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6?MW (P = 0.0001, d = ?0.86), T25FW (P = 0.003, d = 0.72), TUG (P = 0.001, d = 0.84), MSWS-12 (P = 0.0001, d = 1.09), O2 cost of walking (P = 0.001, d = 0.75), average steps/day (P < 0.05, d = ?0.45), and walking velocity (P < 0.05, d = ?0.53) and cadence (P < 0.05, d = ?0.46). Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking.

Balantrapu, Swathi; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Pula, John H.; Sandroff, Brian M.; Motl, Robert W.



Peripheral ulcerative keratitis in association with sarcoidosis.  


Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) is a sight-threatening condition characterized by an epithelial defect, crescent-shaped stromal inflammation, and progressive stromal thinning. Peripheral ulcerative keratitis as a purely inflammatory entity is most commonly associated with collagen vascular diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener granulomatosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and relapsing polychondritis. PUK can also be associated with infectious and inflammatory conditions such as hepatitis, syphilis, herpes simplex keratitis, fungal keratitis, Mooren ulcer, and marginal keratitis. We describe a case report of PUK associated with the inflammatory condition of sarcoidosis. PMID:23993305

Harthan, Jennifer S; Reeder, Renée E



[Genetic and immunological basis for ulcerative colitis].  


Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the rectum and colon. Results from many studies in people and animals of intestinal inflammation suggest that ulcerative colitis results from environmental factors triggering a loss of tolerance for normal intestinal flora in genetically susceptible individuals. Although progress has been made in the overall management of the disease, there are few clinical data on biological agents in contrast to Crohn' s disease. Here, we discuss the genetic and immunological basis of ulcerative colitis including the recent findings. PMID:15881168

Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Watanabe, Mamoru



Recurring pressure ulcers: identifying the definitions. A National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel white paper.  


Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding the accepted terminology pertaining to the pressure ulcer healing progression and recidivism. This lack of uniformity can negatively impact initiation of treatment pathways, completion of appropriate interventions, clinical documentation, medical coding, patient education, discharge planning and healthcare revenue through out the healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a standard nomenclature as it pertains to pressure ulcer healing progression and any recidivism that may occur. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel has formulated a framework of terms regarding pressure ulcer progression. We also developed a clearer nomenclature for lack of progress and recidivism of pressure ulcers. This document should serve as a starting point for the discussion of the pressure ulcer care, research, and terminology. PMID:24844329

Tew, Cindy; Hettrick, Heather; Holden-Mount, Sarah; Grigsby, Rebekah; Rhodovi, Julie; Moore, Lyn; Ghaznavi, Amir M; Siddiqui, Aamir



Nocturnal leg cramps in older people  

PubMed Central

Nocturnal leg cramps are common in older people. Such cramps are associated with many common diseases and medications. Physiological methods may be useful for preventing cramps in some people, but there have been no controlled trials of these approaches. Quinine is moderately effective in preventing nocturnal leg cramps. However, there are concerns about the risk/benefit ratio with this drug. In patients with severe symptoms, a trial of 4–6 weeks' treatment with quinine is probably still justified, but the efficacy of treatment should be monitored, for example using a sleep and cramp diary.

Butler, J; Mulkerrin, E; O'Keeffe, S



Nocturnal leg cramps in older people.  


Nocturnal leg cramps are common in older people. Such cramps are associated with many common diseases and medications. Physiological methods may be useful for preventing cramps in some people, but there have been no controlled trials of these approaches. Quinine is moderately effective in preventing nocturnal leg cramps. However, there are concerns about the risk/benefit ratio with this drug. In patients with severe symptoms, a trial of 4-6 weeks' treatment with quinine is probably still justified, but the efficacy of treatment should be monitored, for example using a sleep and cramp diary. PMID:12415081

Butler, J V; Mulkerrin, E C; O'Keeffe, S T



Insomnia and limb pain in hemodialysis patients: what is the share of restless leg syndrome?  


Insomnia and limb pain are common problems in dialysis patients. In addition, restless leg syndrome (RLS) as a specific cause of insomnia and limb pain has been reported in many studies. The purpose of this study was to estimate incidence of insomnia and RLS as a cause of insomnia in these patients. Twenty-six patients undergoing hemodialysis were investigated for insomnia, limb pain and RLS as per the defined criteria. They were evaluated for dialysis quality, dialysis duration, hemoglobin, serum phosphorous, ionized calcium, iron and ferritin levels. These variables between patients with insomnia and those with normal sleep were evaluated by independent "t" test. Without considering the etiology or pathogenes