Leg ulcer is a leading cause of morbidity among older subjects, especially women in the Western world. About 400 years BC, Hippocrates wrote, "In case of an ulcer, it is not expedient to stand, especially if the ulcer be situated on the leg". Hippocrates himself had a leg ulcer. The best treatment of any leg ulcer depends upon the accurate diagnosis and the underlying aetiology. The majority of leg ulcers are due to venous disease and/or arterial disease, but the treatment of the underlying cause is far more important than the choice of dressing. The aetiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and the future trends in the management of the leg ulcers are discussed in this review.? PMID:11060140
Sarkar, P; Ballantyne, S
Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers must be the first step of treatment, even if we know that veinous disease is often present. We can build a clinical decisional diagram, which helps us to understand and not forget the other causes of chronic wounds and choose some basic examination, like ultrasound and histological findings. This diagnosis helps to choose the right treatment in order to cure even the oldest venous ulcers. Educational programs should be improved to prevent recurrence. PMID:21033496
We report a case of a squamous cell carcinoma arising from a chronic leg ulcer initially diagnosed as venous ulcer. Usually, further diagnostic assessment of chronic ulcers is initiated with considerable delay only in cases when appropriate treatment fails to effect cure. PMID:19538196
Erfurt-Berge, Cornelia; Schuler, Gerold; Bauerschmitz, Juergen
A group of 30 consecutive patients from a leg ulcer clinic were compared with age- and sex-matched controls in respect of 11 indices which may reflect nutritional deficiency. Twenty-one controls and 23 patients showed a total of 92 abnormalities, of which 48 were classified as severe. Mean indices were not significantly different in the two groups apart from a lower haemoglobin in patients and raised serum ferritin in controls. PMID:3968670
Schraibman, I G; Stratton, F J
A 54-year-old man of Persian origin presented to our department with a 1-year history of ulcers on the right leg that had been unresponsive to numerous topical treatments, accompanied by lymphedema of the right leg. Medical history included hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which had not been further investigated. He was treated for 20 years with testosterone IM once monthly, which he stopped a year before the current hospitalization for unclear reasons. The patient reported no congenital lymphedema. Physical examination revealed two deep skin ulcers (Figure 1) on the right leg measuring 10 cm in diameter with raised irregular inflammatory borders and a boggy, necrotic base discharging a purulent hemorrhagic exudate. Bilateral leg pitting edema and right lymphangitis with lymphadenitis were noted. He had low head hair implantment, sparse hair on the body and head, hyperpigmentation on both legs, onychodystrophia of the toenails (mainly the large toe and less prominent on the other toes), which was atrophic lichen-planus-like in appearance and needed no trimming (Figure 2), normal hand nails, oral thrush, and angular cheilitis. Other physical findings were gynecomastia, pectus excavatum, small and firm testicles, long extremities, asymmetrical goiter, systolic murmur 2/6 in left sternal border, and slow and inappropriate behavior. The patient's temperature on admission was 39 degrees C. Blood cultures were negative for bacterial growth. Results of laboratory investigations included hemoglobin (11.2 g/dL), hematocrit (26.8%), normal mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin volume, and red blood cell distribution width (16%). Blood smear showed spherocytes, slight hypochromia, anisocytosis, macrocytosis, and microcytosis. Blood chemistry values were taken for iron (4 micro g/dL [normal range 40-150 micro g/dL]), transferrin (193 mg/dL [normal range 220-400 mg/dL]), ferritin (1128 ng/mL [normal range 14-160 ng/mL]), transferrin saturation (1.5% [normal range 20%-55%]), serum folate (within normal limits), and vitamin B12 (within normal limits). Direct Coombs' test equaled positive 2 + IgG. All these values indicated anemia of chronic diseases combined with hemolytic anemia. Further blood work-up tested antinuclear antibody (positive <1:80 homogeneous pattern), rheumatoid factors (143 IU/mL [positive >8.5 IU/mL]), C-reactive protein (286 mg/L [normal range 0-5 mg/L]), anticardiolipin IgM antibody (9.0 monophosphoryl lipid U/mL [normal range 0-7.00 MPL U/mL]) and antithrombin III activity (135% [normal range 74%-114%]). Results of other blood tests were within normal limits or negative, including lupus anticoagulant, beta2 glycoprotein, anticardiolipin IgG Ab, anti-ss DNA Ab, C3, C4, anti-RO, anti-LA, anti-SC-70, anti-SM Ab, P-ANCA, C-ANCA, TSH, FT4, anti-T microsomal, antithyroglobulin, protein C activity, protein S free, cryoglobulins, serum immunoelectrophoresis, VDRL, hepatitis C antibodies, hepatitis B antigen, and human immunodeficiency virus. Endocrinological work-up examined luteinizing hormone (22.9 mIU/mL [normal range for adult men 0.8-6 mIU/mL]), follicle stimulating hormone (49.7 mIU/mL [normal range for adult men 1-11 mIU/mL]), testosterone (0.24 ng/mL [normal range for adult men 2.5-8.0 ng/mL]), bioavailable testosterone (0.02 ng/mL [normal range for adult men >0.6 ng/mL]), and percent bioavailable test (8.1% [normal value >20%]). These results indicate hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was 6 U (normal value 5-20 U/mL). Karyotyping performed by G-banding technique revealed a 47 XXY karyotype, which is diagnostic of Klinefelter's syndrome. Doppler ultrasound of the leg ulcers disclosed partial thrombus in the distal right femoral vein. X-rays and bone scan displayed osteomyelitis along the right tibia. Histological examination of a 4-mm punch biopsy from the ulcer border revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hypergranulosis, and mixed inflammatory infiltrate containing eosinophils compatible with chronic ulcer. Multiple vessels were seen, compatible with a h
De Morentin, Helena Martinez; Dodiuk-Gad, Roni P; Brenner, Sarah
Summary Background Large leg ulcers (LLU) may complicate autoimmune diseases. They pose a therapeutic challenge and are often resistant to treatment. To report three cases of autoimmune diseases complicated with LLU. Case Report Case 1. A 55-year old woman presented with long-standing painful LLU due to mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Biopsy from the ulcer edge showed small vessel vasculitis. IV methylprednisolone (MethP) 1 G/day, prednisolone (PR) 1mg/kg, monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CYC), cyclosporine (CyA) 100mg/day, IVIG 125G, ciprofloxacin+IV Iloprost+enoxaparin+aspirin (AAVAA), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HO), maggot debridement and autologous skin transplantation were performed and the LLU healed. Case 2. A 45-year old women with MCTD developed multiple LLU’s with non-specific inflammation by biopsy. MethP, PR, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azathioprine (AZA), CYC, IVIG, AAVAA failed. Treatment for underlying the LLU tibial osteomyelitis and addition of CyA was followed by the LLU healing. Case 3. A 20-year-old man with history of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) developed painful LLU’s due to small vessel vasculitis (biopsy). MethP, PR 1 mg/kg, CYC, CyA 100 mg/d, AAVAA failed. MRSA sepsis and relapse of systemic PAN developed. IV vancomycin, followed by ciprofloxacin, monthly IVIG (150 g/for 5 days) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) were instituted and the LLU’s healed. Conclusions LLU are extremely resistant to therapy. Combined use of multiple medications and services are needed for healing of LLU due to autoimmune diseases. PMID:21169912
Rozin, Alexander P.; Egozi, Dana; Ramon, Yehuda; Toledano, Kohava; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Markovits, Doron; Schapira, Daniel; Bergman, Reuven; Melamed, Yehuda; Ullman, Yehuda; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra
BACKGROUND: Having a leg ulcer has a major impact on daily life. Lifestyle is mentioned in most leg ulcer guidelines but mostly without much emphasis on the subject. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence for the effect of nutrition, leg elevation and exercise on the healing of leg ulcers was reconsidered. Furthermore, the evidence for effective pain-related interventions was investigated. DESIGN: Systematic
Maud M. Heinen; Theo van Achterberg; Wilma Scholte op Reimer; H. E. W. de Laat
: Vascular leg ulcers remain a challenge for the modern health care, and a systematic pathological study on this kind of lesions has not been reported so far. A total of 293 consecutive white patients with chronic leg ulcers (present for a minimum of 6 months and up to several years) referred to the Wound Care Unit (Dermatology, University of Bologna) between March 2008 and June 2011. Thirty-four patients affected by other than vascular ulcers, neoplastic or inflammatory conditions, were excluded. The remaining 259 patients affected by vascular leg ulcers were enrolled in this study. Assessment of the patients general health, skin biopsy, and vascular Doppler of the lower limbs were performed to determine the etiology and to formulate an appropriate management plan, whereas 2 punch biopsies of 3 mm were performed on the border and on the bed of each ulcer. Doppler evaluation showed the presence of vascular hemodynamic impairment in 259 patients. Of these, 181 (69.9%) patients were affected by venous insufficiency, 58 (22.4%) by venous and arterial insufficiency, and 20 (7.7%) by arterial insufficiency. Histopathologic features revealed significant differences, thus, reflecting the clinicopathologic correlation with the underlying hemodynamic impairments. In conclusion, histopathologic and hemodynamic data correlation could provide the basis for future analysis of leg ulcers pathogenesis and may improve treatment protocols. We should underline that this observational study represents a single-institute experience and that larger series are needed to confirm our observations. PMID:25072681
Misciali, Cosimo; Dika, Emi; Baraldi, Carlotta; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Mirelli, Michele; Stella, Andrea; Bertoncelli, Marco; Patrizi, Annalisa
The authors have compared the healing time and the cost of leg ulcers of venous origin according to whether they were treated on an out-patient basis or by admission to hospital. The healing times were extremely similar, but the cost of cure by hospital admission was twenty times as great. Although one cannot claim to cure all leg ulcers on an out-patient basis, it is clear that significant public economies could be achieved by avoiding or shortening some costly hospital admissions. PMID:545357
Cottenot, F; Carton, F X; Tessler, L; Lamoure, B; Denoeux, J P; Ceccaldi, F; Kerner, S
Compared to today, ulceration of the legs was much more common in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and occurred in much younger people. The evidence for this, based mainly on the records of the hospitals, the dispensaries and medical records of the navy and army, is discussed. It is likely that the underlying pathology was much more varied in the past, with the possibility that ascorbic acid deficiency played a significant part in the high frequency of leg ulcers. Imagesp265-a PMID:7031237
Loudon, I. S. L.
Leg ulcers are a debilitating complication of patients with sickle cell disease, and their frequency in North America was reported to be 2.5% by the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease more than 20 years ago. We sought to determine if the frequency of leg ulcers in sickle cell patients in the United States had declined and to assess which treatments providers use most commonly. We sent an e-mail survey to health professionals belonging to the national Sickle Cell Adult Provider Network. Responses were obtained from 31 of them (26.0%). Most of them (96.0%) reported having some patients with leg ulcers. Providers reported a total of 185 patients with active leg ulcers and 224 in the previous 5 years, for a total of 409 patients. Hb SS (homozygous sickle cell anemia) was the most common genotype of affected individuals, followed by Hb SC (double heterozygote for Hb S [?6(A3)Glu?Val, GAG>GTG; HBB: c.20A>T] and Hb C [?6(A3)Glu?Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.19G>A]). Males showed a 2:1 predominance. Two-thirds of patients were treated with either hydroxyurea (HU) or transfusion therapy and most used compression stockings and topical therapies as directed by wound care services. We conclude that leg ulcers continue to be a debilitating complication of young adults with sickle cell disease, despite improved supportive care and the widespread use of disease modifying agents such HU and transfusion. While some providers offer office-based ulcer care, the majority prefer specialty consultation including podiatry, plastic surgery and dermatology. Despite their frequency, there is no clear consensus among providers as to the best treatment. PMID:23600469
Delaney, Kara-Marie H.; Axelrod, Karen C.; Buscetta, Ashley; Hassell, Kathryn L.; Adams-Graves, Patricia E.; Seamon, Catherine; Kato, Gregory J.; Minniti, Caterina P.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to (1) determine how congruent community-provided leg ulcer care was with best practice for venous leg ulcers and (2) identify organizational and clinical factors associated with the provision of best practice for venous leg ulcers. Design: The practice variation study group was an audit of nursing agency client records to determine the provision
Karen R. Lorimer; Margaret B. Harrison; Ian D. Graham; Elaine Friedberg; Barbara Davies
Background: The treatment of chronic leg ulcers requires frequent assessments of local wound status and adjustment of therapy. The availability of reasonably priced photographic equipment and quick electronic transfer of high-quality digital images should make it possible that the assessment of wound status can be made by remote experts. Objective: This study examines the feasibility of using teledermatology for wound
Wolfgang Salmhofer; Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof; Gerald Gabler; Karin Rieger-Engelbogen; Dieter Gunegger; Barbara Binder; Thomas Kern; Helmut Kerl; H. Peter Soyer
Hydroxyurea is commonly used in the treatment of various hematologic disorders, e.g., chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), polycythemia vera, and occasionally, at lower doses, for severe psoriasis vulgaris. Cutaneous side effects such as alopecia, diffuse hyperpigmentation, poikiloderma, atrophy of the skin, or nail changes occur, especially with long-term treatment. Painful leg ulcers in association with hydroxyurea have only rarely been reported.
Georg Weinlich; Gerold Schuler; Richard Greil; Heinz Kofler; Peter Fritsch
An investigation of effectiveness of topical treatment of nonhealing chronic venous leg ulcers with propolis ointment was conducted. 56 patients were included in the study and randomized into two groups. In group 1, there were 28 patients (ulceration area: 6.9–9.78?cm2) treated by means of topical propolis ointment application and short stretch bandage compression. In group 2, there were 29 patients (ulceration area: 7.2–9.4?cm2) treated by means of Unna boot leg compression without topical propolis treatment. In the study, the efficacy of both treatment methods in patients with resistive venous leg ulcers was compared. The ulceration of patients from group 1 healed completely after 6 weeks of therapy in all cases. In all patients from group 2, the process of healing was longer but successfully completed after 16 weeks of the therapy. We found that an adjunctive propolis ointment treatment increases the efficacy of the short stretch bandage compression stocking, and this combined treatment is more effective than Unna's boot compression alone. PMID:23662121
Kucharzewski, M.; Kózka, M.; Urbanek, T.
Hydroxyurea is an antineoplasic agent usually used in myeloproliferative syndromes, but also in other benign pathological circumstances. Several dermatological manifestations have been recognized as being secondary to its prolonged use, of which the leg ulcer. We report an observation. Mrs. L.D, 47 years, were hospitalized on July 14, 2004 for an ulcer of left ankle in a feverish context. She was followed since 2001 for a chronic myelogenous leukaemia, and took hydroxyurea at a rate of 1500 mg per day, with a good clinical and hematologic answer. She presented a painful ulcer compared to the left external malleolus, with purulent bottom, without signs of vascular attack. The hemogram showed a hyperleucocytosis with 24.000 white elements/mm3 with neutrophilic polynucleosis. Pus sample on the ulcer showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the blood culture was negative. The cure was obtained two months after stopping hydroxyurea. The ulcer of leg related to hydroxyurea is a seldom described pathology. Its occurrence imposes the final stop of the treatment. PMID:17632983
Gning, S B; Debonne, J M; Diagne-Guèye, N M; Ndiaye, B; Fall, F; Mbaye, P S
Objective. To study the imaging features of patients with chronic ulcers of the leg that were associated with malignancy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and patients. All patients who on biopsy were proven to have malignancy – the majority of which were squamous cell carcinoma – were included\\u000a in a prospective study. Ulcers limited to the foot were excluded but ulcers of the leg
Julius Smith; Luiz Felipe B. Mello; Norberto C. Nogueira Neto; Walter Meohas; Luciana W. Pinto; Viviane A. Campos; Maysa G. Barcellos; Nelson Jabour Fiod; José Francisco Neto Rezende; Carlos Eduardo L. Cabral
Gethin G, Cowman S. Case series of use of Manuka honey in leg ulceration. Abstract The historical and current literature reports the successful use of honey to manage a diversity of wound aetiologies. However, only in the last 40 years is research on its mode of action and contribution to wound healing being investigated. The challenge of managing chronic non healing wounds generated interest in researching non standard therapies. The aims of the study were to gain insight into the practical use of Manuka honey in wound management. The objective was to test the feasibility of further rigorous research into the use of honey in the management of chronic wounds. Instrumental case series were used to examine the use of Manuka honey in eight cases of leg ulceration. To collect the necessary data, photographs, acetate tracings, data monitoring and patient comments and observations were used to add greater reliability and validity to the findings. The wounds were dressed weekly with Manuka honey. The results obtained showed three males and five females with ulceration of different aetiologies were studied. A mean initial wound size for all wounds of 5.62 cm(2) was obtained. At the end of four-week treatment period, the mean size was 2.25 cm(2). Odour was eliminated and pain reduced. The conclusions drawn were that the use of Manuka honey was associated with a positive wound-healing outcome in these eight cases. Arterial wounds showed minimal improvement only. PMID:16722850
Gethin, Georgina; Cowman, Seamus
BACKGROUND: A systematic review was conducted to analyse journal articles that describe or measure the impact of leg ulceration on patients' quality of life (QoL) in order to improve the content of an educational programme that aims to enhance self-care agency in leg ulcer patients. METHOD: Original articles published in English and German between 1990 and 2006 were included if
Oliver R Herber; Wilfried Schnepp; Monika A Rieger
Objectives: To examine the feasibility and acceptance of teledermatology for wound management for patients with leg ulcers by home care nurses and evaluate the re- duction of costs and the acceptance of teledermatology by patients and home care nurses. Design: Case series of telemonitored patients with leg ulcers including cost-effectiveness analysis. Setting: Home monitoring by home care nurses. Patients: Sixteen
Barbara Binder; Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof; Wolfgang Salmhofer; Aslihan Okcu; Helmut Kerl; H. Peter Soyer
We report here two cases of men, aged 46 and 23 years, with refractory chronic venous leg ulcers in association with sex chromosome aberrations: one with a 47,XXY/48,XXXY karyotype (Klinefelter syndrome) and the other with a 47,XYY karyotype (Jacob syndrome). In both patients, the occurrence of leg ulcers was the reason for seeking medical care; their medical history was other-wise unremarkable. Chromosomal analyses were performed due to the unusually young age for development of venous leg ulcers. The pathophysiology behind the occurrence of venous leg ulcers in patients with numerical aberrations of the sex chromosomes is incompletely understood. Involvement of elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in the pathogenesis of venous leg ulcers has been reported in patients with Klinefelter syndrome. Notably, our patient with 47,XXY/48,XXXY presented with androgen deficiency but normal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity. PMID:21057745
Gattringer, Cornelia; Scheurecker, Christine; Höpfl, Reinhard; Müller, Hansgeorg
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an assessment tool—the Leg Ulcer Measurement Tool (LUMT)—that would be able to detect changes in the appearance of lower extremity ulcers. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two subjects with chronic leg ulcers of various etiologies (arterial, venous, diabetes) partici- pated in the validation study. DESIGN: An interdisciplinary panel consisting of 9 local wound care specialists confirmed content validity. Concurrent
M. Gail Woodbury; Pamela E. Houghton; Karen E. Campbell; David H. Keast
The success of compression therapy and emphasis on healing rates of venous ulcers in studies has shifted the emphasis from prevention to cure. Venous insufficiency is, in the majority of cases, a chronic condition. From a patient's perspective, unless they are suitable for corrective surgery, he/she will never be rewarded with a cure. Patients often need to make permanent life-style changes to reduce the risk of ulceration or re-ulceration and may require differing levels of support to achieve this. The implementation of a designated clinic for patients with healed leg ulcers in a primary care trust in the east end of London is the first step in promoting a collaborative approach to prevention of leg ulcer recurrence. PMID:16144072
The success of compression therapy and emphasis on healing rates of venous ulcers in studies has shifted the emphasis from prevention to cure. Venous insufficiency is, in the majority of cases, a chronic condition. From a patient's perspective, unless they are suitable for corrective surgery, he/she will never be rewarded with a cure. Patients often need to make permanent life-style changes to reduce the risk of ulceration or reulceration and may require differing levels of support to achieve this. The implementation of a designated clinic for patients with healed leg ulcers in a primary care trust in the east end of London is the first step in promoting a collaborative approach to prevention of leg ulcer recurrence. PMID:16116413
In a prospective 6 weeks study, done in 3 phlebology practices on 107 patients presenting an acute leg ulcer, we compared the efficacy of a combination of compression and HR (O-(Beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides with compression alone, based on objective and subjective parameters. These objective and subjective parameters are improved in both groups. A statistically significant superiority of the therapeutic combination is demonstrated in the cure of ulcers. PMID:3554278
Stegmann, W; Hubner, K; Deichmann, B; Muller, B
We present a case report of intractable multifactorial leg ulcer that was treated successfully with multiple approaches including hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) to prepare for skin grafting. A 66-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and Felty's syndrome presented with a non-healing ulcer on her left leg that was caused by a trauma. She failed multiple treatment options including debridement, different wound dressings, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and vein closure procedure. She finally healed with skin graft following HBOT that prepared the wound bed before the procedure. PMID:25289650
Skeik, N; Kia, F; Klosterman, D
Chronic venous disorders are common in the Western world. The current treatment of venous leg ulcers is unsatisfactory despite the availability of well-documented standards of care. Patients today are interested in alternative approaches to modern medicine. We have developed a wound-healing powder containing natural ingredients with absorptive, aromatic, antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory synergistic properties. This report describes 3 cases that were successfully treated with the powder, demonstrating the potential of herbal remedies in the clinical treatment of venous leg ulcers. PMID:24527167
Ghatnekar, Angela V.; Elstrom, Tuan; Ghatnekar, Gautam S.; Kelechi, Teresa
Chronic leg ulcers are frequent and debilitating complications of sickle cell anemia. Inadequate blood supply has been postulated to be an important factor in their occurrence and delayed healing. Little is known about their microcirculatory and histopathological changes. We evaluated the microcirculation of lower extremity ulcers with laser speckle contrast imaging and infrared thermography and obtained clinical and laboratory characteristics in 18 adults with sickle cell anemia and chronic leg ulcers. Skin biopsies were obtained in four subjects. Subjects had markers of severe disease, anemia, high degree of hemolysis, inflammation, and thrombophilia. The highest blood flow was present in the ulcer bed, progressively less in the immediate periwound area, and an unaffected control skin area in the same extremity. Microscopic examination showed evidence of venostasis, inflammation, and vasculopathy. Blood vessels were increased in number, had activated endothelium and evidence of thrombosis/recanalization. High blood flow may be due to chronic inflammation, cutaneous vasodilatation, venostasis, and in situ thrombosis. These changes in skin microcirculation are similar to chronic venous ulcers in the non-sickle cell disease (SCD) population, thus suggesting that leg ulcers may be another end-organ complication with endothelial dysfunction that appears in patients with SCD at a younger age and with higher frequency than in the general population. PMID:23963836
Minniti, Caterina P.; Delaney, Kara-Marie H.; Gorbach, Alexander M.; Xu, Dihua; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Malik, Nitin; Koroulakis, Antony; Antalek, Matthew; Maivelett, Jordan; Peters-Lawrence, Marlene; Novelli, Enrico M.; Lanzkron, Sophie M.; Axelrod, Karen C.; Kato, Gregory J.
Chronic ulcers of the leg are common in Brazil, perhaps more common than in the developed world. We report a case of a chronic\\u000a ulcer of the leg following extensive scarring due to a bite by a venomous snake, which eventually led to a squamous cell carcinoma.
L. F. B. Mello; M. G. Barcelos; W. Meohas; L. W. Pinto; P. A. Melo; N. C. Nogueira Neto; J. Smith
Venous leg ulcers represent a significant public health problem that will increase as the population ages. The elderly, the most likely to be afflicted by this condition, present the clinician with special challenges. The diagnosis of venous leg ulcers involves taking a careful history, paying attention to the existence of factors that predispose individuals to the development of chronic venous insufficiency. Clinical features of venous insufficiency are important because their recognition allows clinicians to distinguish venous from other chronic ulcers. An essential part of the assessment of all patients with chronic wounds is an evaluation of intercurrent diseases, common in the elderly, which may impact on the wound healing process. Thus, in addition to managing venous insufficiency and the wound bed, all other factors, systemic and local, that may impede healing need to be investigated and corrected if necessary. Social and psychological issues common to all chronic illnesses need to be addressed as well. This holistic approach should be standard practice and is applicable to the assessment and management of all chronic leg ulcers. This often requires coordinating a multidisciplinary team of wound healing caregivers. More work needs to be done to clarify a few issues because areas of controversy persist. Although a great deal is known about the effects of vitamin deficiency on acute wounds, less is known about chronic ulcers. Similarly, the role of vitamin supplementation in managing chronic ulcers needs further study. Guidelines are needed to determine indications for wound culturing. In addition, more study is required to establish the most effective means of obtaining quantitative cultures. However, the relationship between bacteria and chronic wound healing goes beyond simple quantitation and other factors such as bacterial virulence and host resistance. These controversial issues will be reviewed. Treatment and prevention of venous leg ulcers will be discussed in a subsequent article. PMID:11889721
Kunimoto, B T
The aim of the study was to use negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with chronic venous leg ulceration. The authors present their experience in treatment of 15 patients whose average ulceration surface area was 62.6 cm(2). In 10 patients, the ulcers healed within 6 weeks and in the remaining patients within 20 weeks. Based on the results obtained, the authors imply that NPWT is an effective method in the treatment of chronic venous leg. PMID:24696847
Kucharzewski, Marek; Mieszcza?ski, Pawe?; Wilemska-Kucharzewska, Katarzyna; Taradaj, Jakub; Kuropatnicki, Andrzej; Sliwi?ski, Zbigniew
Chronic leg ulcers in patients with rheumatological diseases can cause significant morbidity. We performed a retrospective case review to describe the epidemiology, clinical features and outcome of chronic leg ulcers in this group of patients. Twenty-nine patients with underlying rheumatological conditions, such as, rheumatoid arthritis (15 patients), systemic lupus erythematosus (8 patients), overlap syndromes (3 patients), systemic sclerosis (1 patient) and ankylosing spondylitis (1 patient) were included. The ulcers were mostly located around the ankle (55·2%) and calves (37·9%). The predominant aetiology of the ulcers, in decreasing order of frequency, was venous disease, multifactorial, vasculitis or vasculopathy, infective, pyoderma gangrenosum, ischaemic microangiopathy and iatrogenic. Treatment modalities included aggressive wound bed preparation, compression therapy (17 patients), changes in immunosuppressive therapy (15 patients), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (4 patients) and cellular skin grafting (2 patients). Management of chronic leg ulcers in rheumatological patients is challenging and the importance of careful clinicopathological correlation and treatment of the underlying cause cannot be overemphasised. PMID:23237056
Chia, Hui Y; Tang, Mark By
In the treatment of this 56-year-old male, the aim was to attend to his multiple pathologies, reducing his venous-lymphatic oedema on both legs, closing the extended ulcers and improving his quality of life. The patient received treatment in a community-based wound healing clinic. After various local therapies were not successful, the wounds were cleansed with saline and covered with a biocellulose dressing (BWD) and polyhexanide (PHMB), after which a short-stretch bandage system was applied. Compression was then switched to a tubular compression system. At day 0, both lower legs had significant oedema and circumferential venous-lymphatic ulcers, and the left leg showed signs of inflammation. However, at day 8, inflammation, oedema and ulcer area had reduced. After 2 months, the ulcers were almost closed and the oedema had reduced to a level where the tubular compression system could be applied. Treatment using BWD and compression and good adherence to this regimen led to ulcer closure. This improved the patients' quality of life significantly. PMID:22874827
Silva, José António; Filipe, Rosário; Esteves Cardoso, Manuel; Andriessen, Anneke
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a recently described organism which was mainly reported either in nosocomial setup, or in immunosuppresed individuals. This was rarely reported as cutaneous pathogenic organism causing cellulitis-like lesion, paronychia, mucocutaneous ulcers and ecthyma gangrenosum in immunocompromised individuals. Here we describe a case of leg ulcer caused by S. maltophilia in an immuno-competent patient. The infection was possibly community acquired as the patient had no exposure to hospital environment. The bacillus was sensitive to cotrimoxazole and levofloxacin, and the patient was successfully treated with cotrimoxazole. Our case is unique not only because it is probably the first ever case of leg ulcer caused by S. maltophilia, but also because of its unusual occurrence in immunocompetent patient. PMID:22289105
Nag, Falguni; De, Abhishek; Banerjee, Kokila; Chatterjee, Gobinda
Extracorporeal shock waves are defined as a sequence of sonic pulses characterized by high peak pressure over 100 MPa, fast pressure rise, and short lifecycle. In the 1980s extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was first used for the treatment of urolithiasis. Orthopedic surgeons use extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) to treat non-union fractures, tendinopathies and osteonecrosis. The first application of ESWT in dermatology was for recalcitrant skin ulcers. Several studies in the last 10 years have shown that ESWT promotes angiogenesis, increases perfusion in ischemic tissues, decreases inflammation, enhances cell differentiation and accelerates wound healing. We successfully treated a non-healing chronic venous leg ulcer with ESWT. Furthermore we observed an improvement of the lymphatic drainage after application of ESWT. We are confident that ESWT is a non-invasive, practical, safe and efficient physical treatment modality for recalcitrant leg ulcers. PMID:23322179
Stieger, M; Schmid, J-P; Bajrami, S; Hunziker, T
The aim of this study was to compare five types of compression therapy in venous leg ulcers (intermittent pneumatic vs. stockings vs. multi layer vs. two layer short stretch bandages vs. Unna boots). Primary study endpoints were analysis of changes of the total ulcer surface area, volume and linear dimensions inside observed groups. The secondary end points were comparisons between all groups the number of completely healed wounds (ulcer healing rates), Gilman index and percentage change of ulcer surface area. In total, 147 patients with unilateral venous leg ulcers were included to this study. Participants were randomly allocated to the groups: A, B, C, D and E. After two months the healing rate was the highest in group A (intermittent pneumatic compression) - 57.14%, 16/28 patients, B (ulcer stocking system) - 56.66%, 17/30 patients and C (multi layer short stretch bandage) - 58.62%, 17/29 patients. Significantly much worse rate found in group D (two layer short stretch bandages) - only 16.66%, 5/30 patients and E (Unna boots) - 20%, 6/30 patients. The analysis of changes of the percentage of Gilman index and wound total surface area confirmed that intermittent pneumatic compression, stockings and multi layer bandages are the most efficient. The two layer short - stretch bandages and Unna boots appeared again much less effective. PMID:24396284
Dolibog, Pawel; Franek, Andrzej; Taradaj, Jakub; Dolibog, Patrycja; Blaszczak, Edward; Polak, Anna; Brzezinska-Wcislo, Ligia; Hrycek, Antoni; Urbanek, Tomasz; Ziaja, Jacek; Kolanko, Magdalena
BackgroundLeg ulcers and diabetes-related foot ulcers are frequent and costly complications of their underlying diseases and thus represent a critical issue for public health. Since the population is aging, the prevalence of these conditions will probably increase considerably and require more resources. Treatment of leg and foot ulcers often demands frequent contact with the health care system, may pose great burden on the patient, and involves follow-up in both primary and specialist care. Telemedicine provides potential for more effective care management of leg and foot ulcers. The objective of this systematic review of the literature was to assess the effect of telemedicine follow-up care on clinical, behavioral or organizational outcomes among patients with leg and foot ulcers.MethodsWe searched Ovid MEDLINE (1980¿), Ovid EMBASE (1980¿), Clinical Trials in the Cochrane Library (via Wiley), Ebsco CINAHL with Fulltext (1981¿) and SveMed¿+¿(1977¿) up to May 2014 for relevant articles. We considered randomized controlled trials, non-randomized trials, controlled before-after studies and prospective cohort studies for inclusion and selected studies according to predefined criteria. Three reviewers independently assessed the included studies using the Cochrane Collaboration risk-of-bias tool. We performed a narrative synthesis of results and assessed the strength of evidence for each outcome using GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluation).ResultsOnly one non-randomized study was included. The study (n =140) measured the effect of real-time interactive video consultation compared with face-to-face follow-up on healing time, adjusted healing ratio and the number of ulcers at 12 weeks among patients with neuropathic forefoot ulcerations. There were no statistically significant differences in results of the different outcomes between patients receiving telemedicine and traditional follow-up. We assessed the study to have a high risk of bias.ConclusionsThere is insufficient evidence available to unambiguously determine whether telemedicine consultation of leg and foot ulcers is as effective as traditional follow-up. PMID:25373875
Nordheim, Lena; Haavind, Marianne; Iversen, Marjolein M
Leg ulcers of different etiology disable up to 1% of total population, and up to 15% individuals over 70 years old. It is an old disease, which troubles the patients and medical personnel and is hard to cure. It might take several years to cure the ulcer fully. Most of the patients with leg ulcers are being treated at home, not in the outpatient departments or hospitals; therefore there is not much information on how the ulcer affects the patient's everyday life and its quality. The researchers often analyze only the financial part of this disorder forgetting its human part: pain, social isolation, and decreased mobility. There are many questionnaires and methods to analyze the quality of life of the patients with leg ulceration. It is often unclear if we should treat the ulcer conservatively for a long time or if part of resources should be used for operation (skin grafting) and the time of treatment should be shortened. To see the advantage of both methods and the influence of the ulcer treatment to the quality of life we decided to estimate the functionality of surgical and conservative treatment. We have analyzed the case histories and the data of special questionnaires of 44 patients, which were treated in Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns of Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital in the period of 2001 January-2004 February and had large trophic leg ulcers (m=254 cm2) for 6 months or more. Ten patients were treated conservatively and 34 patients were treated by skin grafting. All of them were interviewed after 3-6 months. We found that the pain in the place of the ulcers has decreased for the patients, who were treated surgically. By making the differences of the pain more exact we found out, that the patients have been feeling pain before the operation and when interviewing them the second time they told that they felt discomfort, not pain. The intensity of pain remained the same for the patients treated conservatively. The regression of pain also proves the decreased usage of painkillers in the group of the patients with the surgical treatment. All the patients (n=44) have had sleep disorders because of the ulcers. In the group of surgically treated patients, ulcers did not disturb the sleep after more than 3 months, and in the group, treated conservatively, the problem remained. We also found that after surgical treatment the patients were more optimistic and cried less. That shows the recovery of their emotional status. We have also found that the patients knew from the surgeon first than from the family doctor or other medical personnel about this disorder. We have made conclusions, that with the reduction of the ulcer area the pain is also reduced. Surgical treatment of ulcers (autodermoplasty) reveals a statistically reliable positive effect on patient life quality (sleep and emotions), but even 50% of patients are unaware of the real leg ulceration causes. PMID:15299989
Jank?nas, Vytautas; Rimdeika, Rytis; Jasenas, Marius; Samsanavicius, Donatas
Current methods of topical treatment of leg ulcers are reviewed. Leg ulcers are chronic wounds in a trophically altered tissue that affects the healing capacity. Complete healing requires prolonged and rather expensive treatment and the patient is often disabled during this period. The conventional methods of treatment of leg ulcers, including various compresses, ointments, pastes and other topical drugs, that may possess a considerable sensitizing potential, are to an increasing extent replaced by updated therapy consisting in the use of a new generation of dressings. The latter include a number of materials that have been developed on the basis of recent knowledge of wound healing, such as hydrogels, hydrocolloids, xerogels, hydropolymer dressings, polyurethane foam sheets, alginate dressings, and non-adherent, non-woven cloth impregnated with silver and activated charcoal. The selection of the available materials must depend on the character and stage of the healing process. Each group of dressings exerts specific effects and none of them can recommended generally for the treatment of any types of ulceration. A brief survey of indications is given for each group to avoid their abuse. PMID:9650353
Chronic venous disease affects millions of people around the world. Venous valvular incompetencies and venous reflux, often a result of outflow obstruction are important contributors to venous disease. The prevalence of thrombophilia is increased in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The recognition of underlying thrombophilia particularly in young patients opens new avenues in the management and prevention plan. We emphasize on the consideration of workup for coagulopathy, especially factor VIII deficiency in young patients with venous disease. We report 3 patients with chronic leg ulcers and high levels of FVIII:C activity in plasma and other associated thrombophilic factors. We highlight the need to get a workup done for thrombophilia in young patients with recurrent and chronic leg ulcers related to venous insufficiency or livedoid vasculopathy. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to define the definite indications for the thrombophilia workups. PMID:24861090
Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S
Background Venous leg ulcers are common, troublesome, and their failure to heal is often related to a heavy bio-burden. Ionized silver has both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The ulcer healing properties of the silver releasing foam dressing Biatain Ag has been examined in 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Aim To evaluate ulcer healing through a meta-analytic approach after treatment with either Biatain Ag or a non-active dressing. Patients and Methods 685 subjects with pure or mixed hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers were included in the meta-analysis. Results Biatain Ag showed a significant treatment effect (p<0.0001), responder rate (p<0.001), and healing rate (p?=?0.002). Conclusion The meta-analysis of the 4 RCTs provided statistical significant evidence to support the use of Biatain Ag dressing in treatment of hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers. PMID:23843984
Leaper, David; Münter, Christian; Meaume, Sylvie; Scalise, Alessandro; Mompó, Nacho Blanes; Jakobsen, Birte Petersen; Gottrup, Finn
Cutaneous leg ulcers are common in sickle cell anaemia and their risk might be genetically determined. We studied sickle cell anaemia patients to examine the relationship of leg ulcers with haemolysis and with SNPs in candidate genes that could affect sickle vasoocclusion. Leg ulcer patients had lower haemoglobin levels and higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase and reticulocytes than did control patients with sickle cell anaemia but without leg ulcers. Age-adjusted comparisons showed that sickle cell anaemia-? thalassaemia was more frequent among controls than cases. These results strongly suggested that the likelihood of having leg ulcers was related to the intensity of haemolysis. Two-hundred fifteen SNPs in more than 100 candidate genes were studied. Associations were found with SNPs in Klotho, TEK and several genes in the TGF-?/BMP signaling pathway by genotypic association analyses. KL directly or indirectly promotes endothelial NO production and the TEK receptor tyrosine kinase is involved in angiogenesis. The TGF-?/BMP signaling pathway modulates wound healing and angiogenesis, among its other functions. Haemolysis-driven phenotypes like leg ulcers could be improved by agents that reduce sickle erythrocyte density or increase NO bioavailability. PMID:16681647
Nolan, Vikki G.; Adewoye, Adeboye; Baldwin, Clinton; Wang, Ling; Ma, Qianli; Wyszynski, Diego F.; Farrell, John J.; Sebastiani, Paola; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Steinberg, Martin H.
Objective To review the evidence of effectiveness of dressings applied to venous leg ulcers. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Hand searches of journals and searches of electronic databases, conference proceedings, and bibliographies up to April 2006; contacts with dressing manufacturers for unpublished studies. Studies reviewed All randomised controlled trials that evaluated dressings applied to venous leg ulcers were eligible for inclusion. Data from eligible studies were extracted and summarised independently by two reviewers using a data extraction sheet. Methodological quality was assessed independently by two reviewers. Results The search strategy identified 254 studies; 42 of these fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Hydrocolloids were no more effective than simple low adherent dressings used beneath compression (eight trials; relative risk for healing with hydrocolloid 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.28). For other comparisons, insufficient evidence was available to allow firm conclusions to be drawn. None of the dressing comparisons showed evidence that a particular class of dressing healed more ulcers. Some differences existed between dressings in terms of subjective outcome measures and ulcer healing rates. The results were not affected by the size or quality of trials or the unit of randomisation. Insufficient data were available to allow conclusions to be drawn about the relative cost effectiveness of different dressings. Conclusions The type of dressing applied beneath compression was not shown to affect ulcer healing. The results of the meta-analysis showed that applying hydrocolloid dressings beneath compression produced no benefit in terms of ulcer healing compared with applying simple low adherent dressings. No conclusive recommendations can be made as to which type of dressing is most cost effective. Decisions on which dressing to apply should be based on the local costs of dressings and the preferences of the practitioner or patient. PMID:17631512
Nelson, E Andrea; Michaels, Jonathan A
Background Chronic wounds are managed almost entirely by community nurses. Almost all individuals with leg ulcers report acute pain usually related to dressing change. Little is known about pain after healing. The purpose of this study was to explore the course of pain from baseline to time of healing of leg ulcers (venous or mixed etiology). In order to understand this phenomenon and develop implications for nursing practice, objectives included: 1) Measure incidence and prevalence of pain at baseline and healing; 2) Describe characteristics associated with leg ulcer pain at baseline; 3) Identify predictors of leg ulcer pain at healing. Methods Data were from one randomized controlled trial (2004-2008) of 424 individuals with leg ulcers in the community receiving evidence-informed nursing management. The primary outcome was pain at the time of healing. Predictive factors included demographic, circumstance of living, clinical and ulcer characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression identified the subset of predictors of pain at healing. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Results Eighty-two percent of participants reported pain at baseline and 32% at healing. Five percent with no pain at baseline reported pain at healing. Thirty-seven percent reported moderate to severe pain at baseline and 11% at healing. Twenty percent of all those who healed reported pain interfered with work moderately to extremely at time of healing. Being female (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.00, 2.68, p=0.05), use of short-stretch vs. four-layer bandages (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.06, 2.82, p=0.03), lower SF-12 PCS (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.94, 0.99, p=0.02) and MCS (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.00, p=0.04) scores, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR=2.28, 95% CI 1.06, 4.88, p=0.03), and tender pain (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.29, 3.66, p=<0.01) were associated with pain at time of healing. Conclusions Pain is an issue on admission for chronic wounds and at healing, yet 58% with moderate to severe pain on admission were not taking pain medication(s). Future studies should examine the role of pain at healing and at subsequent ulcer recurrence. Mobility and other factors that may contribute to pain at time of healing should also be assessed. Community nurses are encouraged to consider pain when planning care on admission and also after wound healing, when most patients are discharged from care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00202267 PMID:23388350
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers are a common and distressing condition that can impair quality of life. Larval therapy has been widely promoted for the treatment of different types of chronic wounds, yet little is known about its acceptability to patients. OBJECTIVES: To explore patients' experiences of venous leg ulceration and of the acceptability of larval therapy as a treatment. DESIGN: Qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews alongside a randomized controlled trial. Interview data were transcribed and analysed for thematic content. Data were collected from April 2007 to July 2007. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen people (12 men, 6 women), aged between 29 and 93 years (median age 64 years), with at least one venous leg ulcer, took part in the study. Fourteen people were recruited from two vascular clinics (one attached to a hospital and the other located in a community setting). A further four people were recruited through referral from a team of community nurses. FINDINGS: Participants portrayed lives blighted by the presence of one or more leg ulcers. The majority were willing to try 'maggots' (larvae) and able to overcome feelings of squeamishness because of their strong desire to heal their ulcers. Five people treated with larvae were included in the study. Initial improvements in the condition of their ulcers were not sustained, and two participants experienced severe pain. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Patients may hold unrealistic expectations that larval therapy will effect a longed-for cure for their leg ulcer(s) but an absence of healing may lead to feelings of disappointment or despair. PMID:23409783
McCaughan, Dorothy; Cullum, Nicky; Dumville, Joanne
Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a clonal stem-cell disorder characterized by persistent thrombocytosis. Patients with ET and risk factors for thrombotic complications have been shown to benefit from cytoreductive therapy, the most common agent used being, hydroxycarbamide. Although this agent is usually well-tolerated, one of the recognized adverse effects is the development of leg ulcers. We undertook retrospective analysis of consecutive ET patients treated with hydroxcarbamide and identified several specific features for this complication including advanced age, female preponderance, reduced overall survival, tendency to develop future vascular events and intolerance to the second line agent, anagrelide. PMID:22196956
Francis, Sebastian; Bareford, David; Baggott, Christina; Baginott, Christina; Thachil, Jecko
Hydroxyurea (HU) is effective in controlling thrombocytosis while reducing the risk of thrombosis in essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and myelofibrosis (MF). However, HU may carry more or less severe side-effects. Rare cases of patients with painful leg ulcers have been published. We report our experience on such a side-effect in a large cohort of patients with ET and PV treated with HU and review the literature on the topic. Five (4%) out of our 124 patients (69 ET, 51 PV, 4 MF; 49 males, 75 females; mean age at diagnosis 59.1+/-11.8 years) treated with HU developed painful leg ulcers. Sixty-one other patients affected with Phmyeloproliferative disorders (Ph- MPD) developing HU-related painful leg ulcers are described in the English literature. All our five patients were women and developed leg ulcers over the age of 75. Sixty-five percent of all described cases are women; 59% were over 65 years of age and 45% over 70. Most cases received over 1 gr HU per day for at least 1 year. The pathogenesis of HU-induced skin ulcers remains elusive. Treatment is difficult and requires prompt cessation of HU therapy. PMID:16804363
Ruzzon, Elisabetta; Randi, Maria Luigia; Tezza, Fabiana; Luzzatto, Gguido; Scandellari, Raffaella; Fabris, Fabrizio
Background: Some of the views contrasting the beneficial and toxic effects of antimicrobials upon wound healing remain controversial. Objective: To assess the clinical relevance of histological findings following antimicrobial applications on chronic leg ulcers. Method: The present study was performed in three parallel groups of 17 patients suffering from at least 2 similar chronic leg ulcers. Clinical planimetric assessments were
I. Fumal; C. Braham; P. Paquet; C. Piérard-Franchimont; G. E. Piérard
The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract on the epithelialization of lower leg venous ulcers. The experiment was carried out in 34 patients with venous leg ulcers. The patients were divided into two groups. In the first (experimental) group, patients were treated with an ointment containing marigold extract, which was prepared in an apparatus devised by Soxleth and was incorporated into a neutral base. Twenty-one patients with 33 venous ulcers were treated. Therapy was applied twice a day for 3 weeks. The second group was a control group that consisted of 13 patients with 22 venous ulcers. In the control group, saline solution dressings were applied to ulcers for 3 weeks. In the experimental group the total surface of all the ulcers at the beginning of the therapy was 67,544 mm2. After the third week the total surface of all the ulcers was 39,373 mm2 (a decrease of 41.71%). In seven patients, complete epithelialization was achieved. In the control group the total surface of all the ulcers at the beginning of the therapy was 69,722 mm2. After the third week the total surface of all the ulcers was 58,743 mm2 (a decrease of 14.52%). In four patients, complete epithelialization was achieved. There was a statistically significant acceleration of wound healing in the experimental group (p < 0.05). The results obtained are preliminary, but they suggest the positive effects of the ointment with marigold extract on venous ulcer epithelialization. PMID:16372475
Duran, V; Matic, M; Jovanov?, M; Mimica, N; Gajinov, Z; Poljacki, M; Boza, P
We present the case of a 63-year-old white male with bilateral chronic leg ulcers due to polycythemia vera and hydroxyurea therapy who demonstrated dramatic healing of his wounds in response to ruxolitinib (Jakafi®, Novartis), a novel Janus kinase-1 and -2 inhibitor. This patient’s wound had previously been refractory to multiple surgical interventions and immunosuppression. After the initiation of ruxolitinib, the patient underwent successful split-thickness skin grafting, with resultant healing of his wounds. He was stable without prednisone and other immunosuppressant therapy and had healed at 6 months. Ruxolitinib therapy could represent a novel option for patients who develop persistent inflammatory wounds in the setting of polycythemia vera and hydroxyurea therapy. PMID:23953278
Shanmugam, Victoria K.; McNish, Sean; Shara, Nawar; Hubley, Katherine J.; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Dunning, David M.; Attinger, Christopher E.; Steinberg, John S.
The gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43), has critical roles in the inflammatory, edematous, and fibrotic processes following dermal injury and during wound healing, and is abnormally upregulated at the epidermal wound margins of venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Targeting Cx43 with ACT1, a peptide mimetic of the carboxyl-terminus of Cx43, accelerates fibroblast migration and proliferation, and wound reepithelialization. In a prospective, multicenter clinical trial conducted in India, adults with chronic VLUs were randomized to treatment with an ACT1 gel formulation plus conventional standard-of-care (SOC) protocols, involving maintaining wound moisture and four-layer compression bandage therapy, or SOC protocols alone. The primary end point was mean percent ulcer reepithelialization from baseline to 12 weeks. A significantly greater reduction in mean percent ulcer area from baseline to 12 weeks was associated with the incorporation of ACT1 therapy (79% (SD 50.4)) as compared with compression bandage therapy alone (36% (SD 179.8); P=0.02). Evaluation of secondary efficacy end points indicated a reduced median time to 50 and 100% ulcer reepithelialization for ACT1-treated ulcers. Incorporation of ACT1 in SOC protocols may represent a well-tolerated, highly effective therapeutic strategy that expedites chronic venous ulcer healing by treating the underlying ulcer pathophysiology through Cx43-mediated pathways. PMID:25072595
Ghatnekar, Gautam S; Grek, Christina L; Armstrong, David G; Desai, Sanjay C; Gourdie, Robert G
The management of non-healing leg ulcers in patients with CREST syndrome and subdermal calcification is rarely reported in medical literature. Only one similar case was found in the literature (1). Dealing with such patients can be a challenge for wound specialists. In this article, we discuss the clinical progress of an interesting case of extensive non-healing leg ulcers in a CREST patient with dystrophic calcification. The combination of systemic physiological deficits and immune compromise, along with the local physical abnormalities associated with the wound pose a complex multifactorial aetiological mix. There is no conclusive data on the optimal management of these wounds in CREST patients. It seems that ablation of the calcific deposits may offer some hope. PMID:21827631
Al-Najjar, Mahmoud; Jackson, Mark J
Background: Current treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers are time consuming, expensive, and only moderately successful. Recent data suggest that creating a subatmospheric pressure by vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C., KCI Concepts, San Antonio, Texas) therapy supports the wound healing process. Methods: The efficacy of vacuum-assisted closure in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers was prospectively studied in a randomized controlled trial
Jeroen D. D. Vuerstaek; Tryfon Vainas; Jan Wuite; Patty Nelemans; Martino H. A. Neumann; Joep C. J. M. Veraart
Chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) affect approximately 600,000 people annually in the United States and accrue yearly treatment costs of US$2.5–5 billion. As the population ages, demands on health care resources for CVLU treatments are predicted to drastically increase because the incidence of CVLUs is highest in those ?65 years of age. Furthermore, regardless of current standards of care, healing complications and high recurrence rates prevail. Thus, it is critical that factors leading to or exacerbating CVLUs be discerned and more effective, adjuvant, evidence-based treatment strategies be utilized. Previous studies have suggested that CVLUs’ pathogenesis is related to the prolonged presence of high numbers of activated neutrophils secreting proteases in the wound bed that destroy growth factors, receptors, and the extracellular matrix that are essential for healing. These events are believed to contribute to a chronically inflamed wound that fails to heal. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to review studies from the past 15 years (1996–2011) that characterized neutrophil activity in the microenvironment of human CVLUs for new evidence that could explicate the proposed relationship between excessive, sustained neutrophil activity and CVLUs. We also appraised the strength of evidence for current and potential therapeutics that target excessive neutrophil activity. PMID:23551462
McDaniel, Jodi C.; Roy, Sashwati; Wilgus, Traci A.
Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC-) and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+)--with no leg ulcers at the time of the study--were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers) and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties). The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR), which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels) was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio) may play a role. PMID:24223994
Connes, Philippe; Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Waltz, Xavier; Mougenel, Danièle; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tarer, Vanessa; Tressières, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc
Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC-) and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+) - but with no leg ulcers at the time of the study – were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers) and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties). The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR), which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels) was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio) may play a role. PMID:24223994
Connes, Philippe; Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Waltz, Xavier; Mougenel, Danièle; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tarer, Vanessa; Tressières, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc
Objective To determine differences in TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-10, sICAM-1 concentrations, leg hypoxia and whole blood viscosity (WBV) at shear rates of 46 sec-1 and 230 sec-1 in persons with homozygous S sickle cell disease (SCD) with and without chronic leg ulceration and in AA genotype controls. Design & Methods: fifty-five age-matched participants were recruited into the study: 31 SS subjects without leg ulcers (SSn), 24 SS subjects with leg ulcers (SSu) and 18 AA controls. Haematological indices were measured using an AC.Tron Coulter Counter. Quantification of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and adhesion molecules was performed by ELISA. Measurement of whole blood viscosity was done using a Wells Brookfield cone-plate viscometer. Quantification of microvascular tissue oxygenation was done by Visible Lightguide spectrophotometry. Results TNF-? and whole blood viscosity at 46 sec-1 and 230 sec-1 (1.75, 2.02 vs. 0.83, 1.26, p<0.05) were significantly greater in sickle cell disease subjects than in controls. There were no differences in plasma concentration of sICAM-1, IL-1? and IL-10 between SCD subjects and controls. IL-1? (median, IQR: 0.96, 1.7 vs. 0, 0.87; p<0.01) and sICAM-1 (226.5, 156.48 vs. 107.63, 121.5, p<0.005) were significantly greater in SSu group compared with SSn. However there were no differences in TNF-? (2, 3.98 vs. 0, 2.66) and IL-10 (13.34, 5.95 vs. 11.92, 2.99) concentrations between SSu and SSn. WBV in the SSu group at 46 sec-1 and at 230 Sec 1 were 1.9 (95%CI; 1.2, 3.1) and 2.3 (1.2, 4.4) times greater than in the SSn group. There were no differences in the degree of tissue hypoxia as determined by lightguide spectrophotometry. Conclusion Inflammatory, adhesion markers and WBV may be associated with leg ulceration in sickle cell disease by way of inflammation-mediated vasoocclusion/vasoconstriction. Impaired skin oxygenation does not appear to be associated with chronic ulcers in these subjects with sickle cell disease. PMID:23922670
Bowers, Andre S.; Reid, Harvey L.; Greenidge, Andre; Landis, Clive; Reid, Marvin
Background International studies report that nurse clinics improve healing rates for the leg ulcer population. However, these studies did not necessarily deliver similar standards of care based on evidence in the treatment venues (home and clinic). A rigorous evaluation of home versus clinic care is required to determine healing rates with equivalent care and establish the acceptability of clinic-delivered care. Methods Health Services RCT was conducted where mobile individuals were allocated to either home or nurse clinic for leg ulcer management. In both arms, care was delivered by specially trained nurses, following an evidence protocol. Primary outcome: 3-month healing rates. Secondary outcomes: durability of healing (recurrence), time free of ulcers, HRQL, satisfaction, resource use. Data were collected at base-line, every 3 months until healing occurred, with 1 year follow-up. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results 126 participants, 65 randomized to receive care in their homes, 61 to nurse-run clinics. No differences found between groups at baseline on socio-demographic, HRQL or clinical characteristics. mean age 69 years, 68% females, 84% English-speaking, half with previous episode of ulceration, 60% ulcers at inclusion < 5 cm2 for < 6 months. No differences in 3-month healing rates: clinic 58.3% compared to home care at 56.7% (p = 0.5) or in secondary outcomes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that organization of care not the setting where care is delivered influences healing rates. Key factors are a system that supports delivery of evidence-based recommendations with care being provided by a trained nursing team resulting in equivalent healing rates, HRQL whether care is delivered in the home or in a community nurse-led clinic. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System: NCT00656383 PMID:19036149
Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D; Lorimer, Karen; VandenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Buchanan, Maureen; Wells, Phil S; Brandys, Tim; Pierscianowski, Tadeusz
Significance: Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are susceptible to microbial invasion, and serious complications can result without the timely control of infection. Diagnosis of wound infection is primarily based on subjective clinical characteristics and patient-reported symptoms, and the treatment with antimicrobials has not consistently shown improvement in healing outcomes. This is a review of studies using bacterial cultures and/or new molecular-based methods associating microbial bioburden with healing outcomes in VLU patients, with the goal of guiding future studies to better determine significant patterns of microbial involvement in chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Studies reviewed here use cultivation-based identification of bacteria and next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to gain insight into microbial bioburden in VLUs. Further application of sophisticated DNA sequencing and bioinformatic analyses has the potential to revolutionize our ability to further discern, with high resolution, complex microbial communities in chronic wounds. Critical Issues: Few previous studies of microbial bioburden in VLUs have incorporated the knowledge of clinical treatments, which includes close monitoring of patients' symptoms and responses to therapy. Thus, wound care practitioners are currently without evidence-based guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of wound infections. Future Directions: Clinically relevant breakthroughs are possible by combining advanced microbial detection techniques with improved study designs that reflect clinical practices. Well-designed longitudinal studies have great potential to lead to better evidence-based diagnosis of chronic wounds. A greater understanding of microbial bioburden in chronic wounds is likely to lead to better therapies that speed healing and prevent wound infection without risking the development of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:25566410
Tuttle, Marie S.
During 2005-2007 128 patients at the age from 21 to 80 years with extensive trophic ulcers of legs were treated in the contaminated surgery department of A.V. Vishnevsky Surgery Institute and Korolenko Hospital. In 87 patients (69.9%) varicosity was the cause of venous insufficiency, in 41 patients--post-thrombotic disease. 23 patients (17.97%) had double-sided throphic ulcers. In 50 patients (39.1%) ulcer area exceeded 40 cm2. In microscopical analysis fungi were discovered in 87 patients (89.06%). In the remaining 15 patients diagnosis was verified culturally. System etiotropic antimycotic antibacterial treatment including hyposensitizative, anti-inflammatory, antihistamine drugs was carried out. 34 patients (26.57%) received broad spectrum antibiotic from terbinafine group (Terbizil) in dosage 250 mg once a day during 3 moths with concurrent use of topical antimycotics. 34 patients (26.56%) recieved pulse therapy with broad spectrum antibiotic Rumicoz 400 mg a day during 7 days in combination with topical antimycotics. Nizoral 400 mg a day during 30 days was prescribed to 26 patients (20.3%). 34 patients (26.56%) were treated only with topical antimycotics. After preoperative preparation and reduction of inflammatory process 64 patients had underwent excision of trophic ulcers whereupon the therapy was continued. In these patients regress of varicose eczema manifestation was achieved on the 10th day. In patients who hadn't received surgical cure regress of varicose eczema was signed on the 23-25th day after onset of treatment. Question of plastic closing of throphic ulcers and wounds after their excision was solved particularly. 14 patients needed recurring surgical management becose inflammatory process was continued. Comprehensive approach to therapy taking into account mycotic semination appears to be appropriate and effective. Proactive surgical tactics (excision of throphic ulcer) allows to quicken preoperative preparation for correction of venous blood flow. PMID:19301489
Svetukhin, A M; Askerov, N G; Batkaev, E A; Makhulaeva, A M; Malinina, V N
Biatain and Biatain-Ag are two identical wound dressings except the fact that Biatain-Ag releases silver. In the present multinational double-blinded randomised controlled trial the effect of the two dressings were compared for treatment of venous leg ulcers. A total of 181 patients were treated for 6 weeks with either Biatain or Biatain-Ag followed by 4 weeks treatment with Biatain. Biatain-Ag showed superior performance in relative wound area reduction after 6 weeks treatment and the estimated treatment difference increased after 10 weeks indicating that the effect of silver continues at least for 4 weeks after treatment. A subgroup of the patients differed significantly from the others with respect to parameters associated with a poor healing prognosis; patients were older, had significant history of venous thrombosis, larger ulcers with longer duration and more often recurrent. For this subgroup of patients Biatain-Ag showed significant (P < 0·05) better performance in terms of relative ulcer area reduction and healing rate. In conclusion, this study suggests the superior performance of Biatain-Ag compared with the non silver-releasing dressing Biatain in particular for patients having ulcers associated with a poor healing prognosis. PMID:23374589
Senet, Patricia; Bause, Renzo; Jørgensen, Bo; Fogh, Karsten
Numerous comorbidities and cofactors have been known to influence wound healing processes. In this multicentre study, clinical data of 1?000 patients with chronic leg ulcers from ten specialised dermatological wound care centers were analysed. The patient cohort comprised 567 females and 433 males with an average age of 69·9?years. The wounds persisted on average for 40·8?months and had a mean size of 43·7?cm(2) . Venous leg ulcers represented the most common entity accounting for 51·3% of all chronic wounds, followed by mixed-type ulcers in 12·9% and arterial ulcerations in 11·0% of the patients. Vasculitis was diagnosed in 4·5%, trauma in 3·2%, pyoderma gangrenosum in 2·8%, lymphoedema in 1·7%, neoplasia in 1·0% and delayed post-surgical wound healing in 0·6% of the included patients. In total, 70·5% of patients suffered from arterial hypertension, 45·2% were obese, 27·2% had non-insulin dependent diabetes, and 24·4% dyslipidaemia. Altogether 18·4% suffered from metabolic syndrome. Cofactors and comorbidities of patients with chronic leg ulcers have previously been studied but not in detail. Here, we were able to demonstrate the existence of several potentially relevant cofactors, comorbidities of their associations and geographical distributions, which should be routinely examined in patients with chronic leg ulcers and - if possible - treated. PMID:25483380
Jockenhöfer, Finja; Gollnick, Harald; Herberger, Katharina; Isbary, Georg; Renner, Regina; Stücker, Markus; Valesky, Eva; Wollina, Uwe; Weichenthal, Michael; Karrer, Sigrid; Kuepper, Bernhard; Roesch, Alexander; Dissemond, Joachim
BACKGROUND Venous ulcers have a significant impact on patient quality of life, and constitute a worldwide public health problem. Treatment is complex, with high failure rates. OBJECTIVES To identify clinical and therapeutic factors that influence healing of venous ulcers. METHODS Retrospective cohort study of patients with venous ulcers. Ulcer area was measured at the first visit (T0) and after 6 months (T6) and 1 year (T12). A reduction in ulcer area of 50% or more at T6 and T12 was the outcome of interest, weighted by clinical, demographic and treatment aspects. RESULTS Ninety-four patients were included (137 ulcers). A reduction in ulcer area of 50% or more was seen in 40.1% of patients (95%CI 31.9 to 48.4%) at T6 and 49.6% (95%CI 41.2 to 58.1%) at T12. Complete healing occurred in 16.8% (95%CI 10.5 to 23.1%) at T6 and 27% (95%CI 19.5 to 39.5%) at T12. The lowest ulcer area reductions at T6 were associated with longstanding ulcer (RR=0.95; 95%CI 0.91 to 0.98), poor adherence to compression therapy (RR=4.04; 95%CI 1.31 to 12.41), and infection episodes (RR= 0.42; 95%CI 0.23 to 0.76). At T12, lower reductions were associated with longstanding ulcer (RR=0.95; 95%CI 0.92 to 0.98), longer topical antibiotic use (RR=0.93; 95%CI 0.87 to 0.99), and systemic antibiotic use (RR=0.63; 95%CI 0.40 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS Longstanding ulcer, infection, poor adherence to compression therapy, and longer topical and systemic antibiotic use were independently correlated with worse healing rates. PMID:24937814
Scotton, Marilia Formentini; Miot, Hélio Amante; Abbade, Luciana Patricia Fernandes
Chronic venous ulcer can often be associated with asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD), which usually remains undiagnosed adding significantly to the morbidity of these patients. The Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) is suggested for PAD evaluation. Many PAD studies were conducted in western countries, but there is a scarcity of data on the prevalence of PAD in clinical venous ulcer patient in developing countries. We conducted a study in a tertiary care hospital of eastern part of India to find out the prevalence of PAD in venous ulcer patients, and also to find the sensitivity of ABPI as a diagnostic tool in these patients. We evaluated clinically diagnosed patients with venous ulcer using ABPI and Colour Doppler study for the presence of PAD. Possible associations such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, hypertension and atherosclerosis were studied. All results were analysed using the software Statistica version 6. PAD was present in 23 (27·71%) patients. Older age, longer duration, smoking, high BMI and hypertension were found to be significantly associated with PAD. A very strong level of agreement was found between venous Doppler and ABPI. Assessment for the presence of PAD is important in all clinically diagnosed venous ulcer patients. ABPI being a simple, non-invasive outpatient department (OPD)-based procedure, can be routinely used in cases of venous ulcer to find out the hidden cases of PAD even in developing countries. PMID:23170845
Nag, Falguni; De, Abhishek; Hazra, Avijit; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Surana, Trupti V
BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering is an emerging field. Novel bioengineered skin substitutes and genetically derived growth factors offer innovative approaches to reduce the burden of diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers for both patients and health care systems. However, they frequently are very costly. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this study assesses the cost-effectiveness of these growth factors
Astrid Langer; Wolf Rogowski
Background Exercise and adequate self-management capacity may be important strategies in the management of venous leg ulcers. However, it remains unclear if exercise improves the healing rates of venous leg ulcers and if a self-management exercise program based on self-efficacy theory is well adhered to. Method/design This is a randomised controlled in adults with venous leg ulcers to determine the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention. Participants with venous leg ulcers are recruited from 3 clinical sites in Australia. After collection of baseline data, participants are randomised to either an intervention group or control group. The control group receive usual care, as recommended by evidence based guidelines. The intervention group receive an individualised program of calf muscle exercises and walking. The twelve week exercise program integrates multiple elements, including up to six telephone delivered behavioural coaching and goal setting sessions, supported by written materials, a pedometer and two follow-up booster calls if required. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weekly steps and lower limb exercises. The control group are supported by a generic information sheet that the intervention group also receive encouraging lower limb exercises, a pedometer for self-management and phone calls at the same time points as the intervention group. The primary outcome is the healing rates of venous leg ulcers which are assessed at fortnightly clinic appointments. Secondary outcomes, assessed at baseline and 12 weeks: functional ability (range of ankle motion and Tinetti gait and balance score), quality of life and self-management scores. Discussion This study seeks to address a significant gap in current wound management practice by providing evidence for the effectiveness of a home-based exercise program for adults with venous leg ulcers. Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies that can improve an individual’s exercise self-efficacy and self-management capacity could have a significant impact in improving the management of people with venous leg ulcers. Information gained from this study will provide much needed information on management of this chronic disease to promote health and independence in this population. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000475842. PMID:25277416
BACKGROUND Chronic leg ulcer may have an impact on patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to identify the impact of leg ulcers on patient's quality of life using the Dermatology Life Quality Index and to define the main factors correlated with this perception. METHOD Cross-sectional, non-probabilistic sampling study. We included patients with chronic leg ulcers being treated for at least 3 months. A sociodemographic and clinical survey was conducted to assess the profile of the ulcers. We administered a screening for depressive symptoms and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney test for categorical data, Pearson for numeric variables, and multiple regression for categorical data. RESULTS Forty-one patients were assessed. Their mean age was 61.78 years. Venous ulcers (48.8%) were the most prevalent. Seventy-three percent of the sample perceived no impact/low impact on quality of life in the past week, and 26.8% perceived moderate/high impact. A multiple regression analysis identified the causes of lesion, pain related to the ulcers, time of onset, and severity of the depressive symptoms as the variables that had an influence on quality of life. CONCLUSIONS The majority of the sample perceived low or no impact of the condition on the quality of the life. The variables etiology of the lesion (p<0.001), pain related to the ulcers (p=0.001), time of onset (p=0.006), and severity of the depressive symptoms (p<0.001) had an influence on the quality of life, suggesting the need for further studies with more robust designs to confirm the causal relationship between these characteristics and quality of life. PMID:24626651
Wachholz, Patrick Alexander; Masuda, Paula Yoshiko; Nascimento, Dejair Caitano; Taira, Cecilia Midori Higashi; Cleto, Norma Gondim
Wound pain is a serious problem for elderly patients suffering from chronic leg ulcers, and it may lead to reduced wound healing rates and reduced quality of life. Biatains-Ibu Non-adhesive (Coloplast A\\/S), a new pain-reducing moist wound healing dressing containing ibuprofen was tested for pain reduction, safety, and efficacy on 1012 patients in a single-blinded crossover study against Biatain Non-adhesive
Bo Jorgensen; Gitte Juel Friis; Finn Gottrup
Chronic leg ulcers influence the daily lives of patients. Besides the burden of therapy, research results in the field of quality of life indicate constraints in the psychological, physiological, occupational and social parts of life. In order to take an active role in coping with the chronic disease, patients need knowledge and information that account for individual needs. Therefore our study had the objective to describe the lived experience of patients with leg ulcer and their corresponding needs for patient education. We used a qualitative study design. In a first step we made five narrative interviews. In a second step we made seven interviews using an interview guide that was based on results of the narrative interviews. Participants were recruited in two regions in Germany via two specialist practices and a hospital. We used a purposeful sampling strategy in order to account for the heterogenity of the patient group. Data was analysed using the content analysis approach by Mayring. Our analysis identified 4 interconnected main categories: living with the illness, experiences of wound care, being an expert, and educational needs. Patients are trying to integrate their illness into daily life and maximize their independence. They prefer individual counselling during regulartreatment to group counselling or meetings with other leg ulcer patients. Overall the described problems and solutions illustrate the complexities of the disease and its care. PMID:23951685
Schneider, Iris; Keller, Anita; Fleischer, Steffen; Berg, Almuth
Previous systematic reviews of silver-impregnated dressings have been contradictory regarding the healing of leg wounds/ulcers. Our systematic review was restricted to randomized controlled trials. Cochrane Library, Scopus, and MEDLINE databases were searched using the term "silver" in combination with "wound" or "ulcer" (and plural versions) without date/language restriction. Study quality was assessed and meta-analysis conducted for complete wound healing, wound size reduction, and healing rates. Overall study quality was fair with most studies having some bias. Evidence for wound healing using individual studies was poor. Meta-analyses found strong evidence for wound healing based on wound size reduction but no evidence based on complete wound-healing or healing rates. Although our results provide some evidence that silver-impregnated dressings improve the short-term healing of wounds and ulcers, long-term effects remain unclear. Clinical trial data with longer follow-up times are needed to address these issues. PMID:20471135
Carter, Marissa J; Tingley-Kelley, Kimberly; Warriner, Robert A
Using data from a national wound-specific electronic medical record (WoundExpert, Net Health, Pittsburgh, PA), we compared the effectiveness of a bilayered living cellular construct (BLCC) and an acellular porcine small intestine submucosa collagen dressing (SIS) for the treatment of venous leg ulcer. Data from 1,489 patients with 1,801 refractory venous leg ulcers (as defined by failure to have >40% reduction in size in the 4 weeks prior to treatment) with surface areas between 1 and 150?cm2 in size, treated between July 2009 and July 2012 at 158 wound care facilities across the US were analyzed. Patient baseline demographics and wound characteristics were comparable between groups. Kaplan-Meier–derived estimates of wound closure for BLCC (1,451 wounds) was significantly greater (p?=?0.01, log-rank test) by weeks 12 (31% vs. 26%), 24 (50% vs. 41%), and 36 (61% vs. 46%), respectively, compared with SIS (350 wounds). BLCC treatment reduced the median time to wound closure by 44%, achieving healing 19 weeks sooner (24 vs. 43 weeks, p?=?0.01, log-rank test). Treatment with BLCC increased the probability of healing by 29% compared with porcine SIS dressing (hazard ratio?=?1.29 [95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.56], p?=?0.01). PMID:24628712
Marston, William A; Sabolinski, Michael L; Parsons, Nathan B; Kirsner, Robert S
newsletter | contact Share | Diabetic Ulcer (Neurogenic Ulcer) Information for adults A A A A neurogenic ulcer begins with thickening and a callus on ... the right. Overview Neurogenic ulcers, also known as diabetic ulcers, are ulcers that occur most commonly on ...
Diabetic Foot; Varicose Ulcer; Pressure Ulcer; Surgical Wound Dehiscence; Vasculitis; Skin Ulcer; Leg Ulcer; Wounds and Injuries; Pyoderma; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Diabetic Neuropathies; Lymphedema; Venous Insufficiency; Diabetes Complications; Amputation Stump
Background Venous leg ulcers constitute a chronic recurring complaint that affects 1.0–1.3% of the adult population at some time in life, and which corresponds to approximately 75% of all chronic ulcers of the leg. Multilayer compression bandaging is, at present, the only treatment that has been proved to be effective in treating this type of ulcer. There is no consensus, however, about the dressings that may be applied, beneath the compression, to promote the healing of this type of ulcer, as there does not seem to be any added benefit from using special dressings rather than simple, low-adherence ones. As well as analgesia, acupuncture provokes peripheral vasodilation, in skin and muscles – which has been demonstrated both experimentally and in clinical practice – probably due to the axon reflex, among other mechanisms. The aim of the present study is to measure the effectiveness and cost of compression treatment for venous leg ulcers combined with special dressings, in comparison with low-adherence ones and acupuncture. Methods/design Cluster-randomized open-labeled trial, at 15 primary healthcare clinics in the Sevilla-Sur Healthcare District, with a control group treated with compression bandaging and low-adherence dressings; the experiment will consist, on the one hand, of the compression treatment applied in combination with special dressings (Treatment 1), and on the other, the compression treatment applied in association with low-adherence dressings, together with acupuncture (Treatment 2). Discussion The results will be measured and recorded in terms of the median time elapsed until complete healing of the ulcer, and the rate of complete healing at 3 months after beginning the treatment. An economic analysis will also be made. This study, carried out in the context of real clinical practice, will provide information for decision-taking concerning the effectiveness of special dressings. Moreover, for the first time a high-quality study will evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the process of healing venous leg ulcers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN26438275. PMID:18547419
Vas, Jorge; Modesto, Manuela; Mendez, Camila; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Aguilar, Inmaculada; Carrasco-Lozano, Jesus Manuel; Faus, Vicente; Martos, Francisco
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the use of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allografts and multilayer compression therapy vs. multilayer compression therapy alone in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.
Venous leg ulcers produce significant clinical and economic burdens on society and often require advanced wound therapy. The purpose of this multicenter, randomized, controlled study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of one or two applications of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft and multilayer compression therapy vs. multilayer compression therapy alone in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. The primary study outcome was the proportion of patients achieving 40% wound closure at 4 weeks. Of the 84 participants enrolled, 53 were randomized to receive allograft and 31 were randomized to the control group of multilayer compression therapy alone. At 4 weeks, 62% in the allograft group and 32% in the control group showed a greater than 40% wound closure (p?=?0.005), thus showing a significant difference between the allograft-treated groups and the multilayer compression therapy alone group at the 4-week surrogate endpoint. After 4 weeks, wounds treated with allograft had reduced in size a mean of 48.1% compared with 19.0% for controls. Venous leg ulcers treated with allograft had a significant improvement in healing at 4 weeks compared with multilayer compression therapy alone. PMID:25224019
Serena, Thomas E; Carter, Marissa J; Le, Lam T; Sabo, Matthew J; DiMarco, Daniel T
Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue-penetration and with a low thermal burden to the surface of the skin. wIRA is able to improve essential and energetically meaningful factors of wound healing by thermal and non-thermal effects. Aim of the study: prospective study (primarily planned randomised, controlled, blinded, de facto with one exception only one cohort possible) using wIRA in the treatment of patients with recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs with thermographic follow-up. Methods: 10 patients (5 males, 5 females, median age 62 years) with 11 recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs were treated with water-filtered infrared-A and visible light irradiation (wIRA(+VIS), Hydrosun® radiator type 501, 10 mm water cuvette, water-filtered spectrum 550–1400 nm) or visible light irradiation (VIS; only possible in one patient). The uncovered wounds of the patients were irradiated two to five times per week for 30 minutes at a standard distance of 25 cm (approximately 140 mW/cm2 wIRA and approximately 45 mW/cm2 VIS). Treatment continued for a period of up to 2 months (typically until closure or nearly closure of the ulcer). The main variable of interest was “percent change of ulcer size over time” including complete wound closure. Additional variables of interest were thermographic image analysis, patient’s feeling of pain in the wound, amount of pain medication, assessment of the effect of the irradiation (by patient and by clinical investigator), assessment of feeling of the wound area (by patient), assessment of wound healing (by clinical investigator) and assessment of the cosmetic state (by patient and by clinical investigator). For these assessments visual analogue scales (VAS) were used. Results: The study showed a complete or nearly complete healing of lower leg ulcers in 7 patients and a clear reduction of ulcer size in another 2 of 10 patients, a clear reduction of pain and pain medication consumption (e.g. from 15 to 0 pain tablets per day), and a normalization of the thermographic image (before the beginning of the therapy typically hyperthermic rim of the ulcer with relative hypothermic ulcer base, up to 4.5°C temperature difference). In one patient the therapy of an ulcer of one leg was performed with the fully active radiator (wIRA(+VIS)), while the therapy of an ulcer of the other leg was made with a control group radiator (only VIS without wIRA), showing a clear difference in favour of the wIRA treatment. All mentioned VAS ratings improved remarkably during the period of irradiation treatment, representing an increased quality of life. Failures of complete or nearly complete wound healing were seen only in patients with arterial insufficiency, in smokers or in patients who did not have venous compression garment therapy. Discussion and conclusions: wIRA can alleviate pain considerably (with an impressive decrease of the consumption of analgesics) and accelerate wound healing or improve a stagnating wound healing process and diminish an elevated wound exudation and inflammation both in acute and in chronic wounds (in this study shown in chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs) and in problem wounds including infected wounds. In chronic recalcitrant wounds complete healing is achieved, which was not reached before. Other studies have shown that even without a disturbance of wound healing an acute wound healing process can be improved (e.g. reduced pain) by wIRA. wIRA is a contact-free, easily used and pleasantly felt procedure without consumption of material with a good penetration effect, which is similar to solar heat radiation on the surface of the earth in moderate climatic zones. Wound healing and infection defence (e.g. granulocyte function including antibacterial oxygen radical formation of the granulocytes) are critically dependent on a sufficient energy supply (and on sufficient oxygen). The good clinical effect of wIRA on wounds and also on problem woun
Mercer, James B.; Nielsen, Stig Pors; Hoffmann, Gerd
A novel, non-invasive diagnostic clinical procedure for the determination of an oxygenation status of chronic lower leg ulcers using peri-ulceral transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure measurements: Results of its application in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)
The basis for the new procedure is the simultaneous transcutaneous measurement of the peri-ulceral oxygen partial pressure (tcPO2), using a minimum of 4 electrodes which are placed as close to the wound margin as possible, additionally, as a challenge the patient inhales pure oxygen for approximately 15 minutes. In order to evaluate the measurement data and to characterise the wounds, two new oxygen parameters were defined: (1) the oxygen characteristic (K-PO2), and (2) the oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO2) of a chronic wound. The first of these is the arithmetic mean of the two lowest tcPO2 measurement values, and the second is the variation coefficient of the four measurement values. Using the K-PO2 parameter, a grading of wound hypoxia can be obtained. To begin with, the physiologically regulated (and still compensated) hypoxia with K-PO2 values of between 35 and 40 mmHg is distinguished from the pathological decompensated hypoxia with K-PO2 values of between 0 and 35 mmHg; the first of these still stimulates self-healing (within the limits of the oxygen balance). The decompensated hypoxia can be (arbitrarily) divided into “simple” hypoxia (Grade I), intense hypoxia (Grade II) and extreme hypoxia (Grade III), with the possibility of intermediate grades (I/II and II/III). Measurements were carried out using the new procedure on the skin of the right inner ankle of 21 healthy volunteers of various ages, and in 17 CVI (chronic venous insufficiency) wounds. Sixteen of the 17 CVI wounds (i.e., 94%) were found to be pathologically hypoxic, a state which was not found in any of the healthy volunteers. The oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO2) of the individual chronic wounds increased exponentially as a function of the hypoxia grading (K-PO2), with a 10-fold increase with extreme hypoxia in contrast to a constant value of approximately 14% in the healthy volunteers. This pronounced oxygen inhomogeneity explains inhomogeneous wound healings, resulting in the so-called mosaic wounds. The hypoxia grades found in all of the chronic wounds was seen to be evenly distributed with values ranging from 0 to 40 mmHg, and therefore extremely inhomogeneous. In terms of oxygenation, chronic wounds are therefore inhomogeneous in two respects: (1) within the wound itself (intra-individual wound inhomogeneity) and (2) between different wounds (inter-individual wound inhomogeneity). Due to the extreme oxygen inhomogeneity, single measurements are not diagnostically useful. In healthy individuals the oxygen inhalation challenge (see above) results in synchronised tcPO2 oscillations occurring at minute rhythms, which are not seen in CVI wounds. These oscillations can be interpreted as a sign of a functioning arterial vasomotor system. The new procedure is suitable for the routine characterisation of chronic wounds in terms of their oxygen status, and correspondingly, their metabolically determining (and limiting) potential for healing and regeneration. The oxygen characteristic K-PO2 can furthermore be used as a warning of impending ulceration, since the oxygen provision worsens over time prior to the demise of the ulcerated tissue, thus making a controlled prophylaxis possible. PMID:22737104
Barnikol, Wolfgang K. R.; Pötzschke, Harald
Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are the most prevalent chronic wounds in western countries with a heavy socioeconomic impact. Compression therapy is the etiologic treatment of VLU but until now no wound dressing has been shown to be more effective than another. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a new dressing in the management of VLU. Adult patients presenting a noninfected VLU and receiving effective compression therapy were enrolled in this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. The VLUs were assessed every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. The primary study outcome was the relative Wound Area Reduction (WAR, in %), and the secondary objectives were absolute WAR, healing rate, and percentage of wounds with >40% surface area reduction. One hundred eighty-seven patients were randomly allocated to treatment groups. Median WAR was 58.3% in the Lipido-Colloid Technology-Nano-OligoSaccharide Factor (TLC-NOSF) dressing group (test group) and 31.6% in the TLC dressing group (control group) (difference: -26.7%; 95% confidence interval: -38.3 to -15.1%; p = 0.002). All other efficacy outcomes were also significant in favor of the TLC-NOSF dressing group. Clinical outcomes for patients treated with the new dressing are superior to those patients treated with the TLC dressing (without NOSF compound), suggesting a strong promotion of the VLU healing process. PMID:22681551
Meaume, Sylvie; Truchetet, François; Cambazard, Frédéric; Lok, Catherine; Debure, Clélia; Dalac, Sophie; Lazareth, Isabelle; Sigal, Michèle-Léa; Sauvadet, Anne; Bohbot, Serge; Dompmartin, Anne
Foot and leg cramps are among the most frequent complaints presented by patients of both sexes, especially older persons. Similar cramping may occur in the thighs or in other skeletal muscles of the extremities and trunk. Foot and leg cramps usually occur after unusual exertion or during sleep. “Nocturnal leg cramps” may be of sufficient intensity to prevent sleep. “Pregnancy cramps” are particularly distressing. Effective treatment of foot and leg cramps requires an understanding of the etiology, pathophysiology and diagnostic techniques. Weight reduction and improved diet are essential. Among the useful supplementary medications are calcium lactate or gluconate, vitamin-mineral supplements, sympathetic blocking agents, vasodilators, ataraxics, muscle relaxants, quinine, hydrochloride, antihistamines, and nonmercurial diuretics. Improved foot care and correction of foot imbalance is usually required. Edema and venous insufficiency are improved by elastic support, by repeated foot elevation for massages, by manipulations and exercises and by the use of diuretics. There may be need for operations on the veins and for sclerotherapy. Patients with arterial insufficiency are often benefited by lumbar sympathetic blocks with long-acting anesthetics and intra-arterial injections with relaxants, vasodilators, thrombolytic enzymes and anticoagulants. Sympathectomy, angiography and reconstructive arterial operations are indicated in only a small proportion of patients with foot and leg cramps. PMID:13822692
One of the most often diseases of the European population is the venous chronic leg ulcer. It requires a long-term and expensive therapy. Basic elements of the therapy are elastic banding of the leg, diuretics, antibiotics and local treatment. In some cases a profit can be acquired from surgical procedure, which includes the stripping and/or crossectomy of the saphenous vein or the subfascial ligation of insufficient perforators and skin grafting (two phases operation). This procedure shorts the time of therapy and prevents the ulcer recurrence, because it resolves the reason and the results of the disease. We present 22 patients treated by this cure during the last 3 years at our surgery department of the 3rd faculty of medicine Charles University in Prague. 21 patients (95.5%) are healed. PMID:16447575
Ston, R; Havl?j, L; Ocadlík, M; Masri, A
Ulcerative colitis in children has been seldom described in Chile. The cases of a 14 year old girl and a 10 year old boy with this disease are presented. Both had diarrhea for more than two months--which was continuous in the first case and intermittent in the other one--, bloody stools, weight loss, anemia and abdominal pain. Bacteriological and parasitological examination of stools were negative. Diagnosis of ulcerative colitis was based on barium enema, which showed mucosal ulceration and loss of the normal claustral pattern, rectosigmoidoscopy, that revealed hyperemia, friability and erosions of the corresponding segments of intestinal mucosa, and on histological examination of multiple mucosal biopsies, which disclosed crypt abscess, distorted crypt pattern, inflammation of the lamina propria and decreased number of goblet cells. Both cases were treated with salazosulfapyridine with satisfactory response. PMID:1688231
Chávez, E; Ceresa, S; Rossel, M; Las Heras, J
The revised guideline of 2013 is an update of the 2005 guideline "venous leg ulcer". In this special project four separate guidelines (venous leg ulcer, varicose veins, compression therapy and deep venous disorders) were revised and developed simultaneously. A meeting was held including representatives of any organisation involved in venous disease management including patient organizations and health insurance companies. Eighteen clinical questions where defined, and a new strategy was used to accelerate the process. This resulted in two new and two revised guidelines within one year. The guideline committee advises use of the C of the CEAP classification as well as the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and a Quality of life (QoL) score in the assessment of clinical signs. These can provide insight into the burden of disease and the effects of treatment as experienced by the patient. A duplex ultrasound should be performed in every patient to establish the underlying aetiology and to evaluate the need for treatment (which is discussed in a separate guideline). The use of the TIME model for describing venous ulcers is recommended. There is no evidence for antiseptic or antibiotic wound care products except for a Cochrane review in which some evidence is presented for cadexomer iodine. Signs of infection are the main reason for the use of oral antibiotics. When the ulcer fails to heal the use of oral aspirin and pentoxifylline can be considered as an adjunct. For the individual patient, the following aspects should be considered: the appearance of the ulcer (amount of exudate) according to the TIME model, the influence of wound care products on moisturising the wound, frequency of changing compression bandages, pain and allergies. The cost of the dressings should also be considered. Education and training of patients t improves compliance with compression therapy but does not influence wound healing rates. PMID:24843102
Maessen-Visch, M Birgitte; de Roos, Kees-Peter
The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in the general population is high, but the awareness of primary care providers of the disease process is low. The disease is not recognized by primary care providers. Early recognition and treatment of venous diseases that progress to postphlebotic syndrome, such as after a deep vein thrombosis, will prevent venous ulcers that add considerable expense to the health care system. Vascular assessment, including routine ABI measurement of patients who are in risk categories for vascular disease will identify those patients so that prevention programs can be put into place early. Major contributions to the understanding and management of leg ulcers and wound healing have been made in the last decade. However, there is still confusion as to the exact mechanism behind ulcer development and the best method to manage, cure,and prevent these ulcers has yet to be found. PMID:15924901
As leg ulcer research has generally focused on aspects of treatment, the psychosocial impact of leg ulceration remains understudied. This article reports the findings of a study exploring the prevalence of anxiety and depression in 190 patients with chronic venous ulceration across 9 Trusts in the northwest of England. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was used to screen patients for the presence of anxiety and depression using a cut-off point of 9 for level of "caseness". A total of 52 (27%) people scored as depressed while 50 (26%) scored as anxious. The two symptoms which appeared to be associated with anxiety and depression were pain and odour, while there was no association found between living alone, mobility and exudate. These findings suggest that the focus of care needs to be redirected for many patients for whom cure is not an option, but who are left to live with a chronic wound. Furthermore, psychological factors, including depression, should be a focus in assessment and ongoing review of patients with leg ulceration. PMID:16835511
Jones, June; Barr, Wally; Robinson, Jude; Carlisle, Caroline
Introduction Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to a third of people in hospitals or community care, and a fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in people at risk of developing pressure ulcers? What are the effects of treatments in people with pressure ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 60 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: air-filled vinyl boots, air-fluidised supports, alternating pressure surfaces (including mattresses), alternative foam mattresses, constant low-pressure supports, debridement, electric profiling beds, electrotherapy, hydrocellular heel supports, low-air-loss beds (including hydrotherapy beds), low-level laser therapy, low-tech constant low-pressure supports, medical sheepskin overlays, nutritional supplements, orthopaedic wool padding, pressure-relieving overlays on operating tables, pressure-relieving surfaces, repositioning (regular "turning"), seat cushions, standard beds, standard care, standard foam mattresses, standard tables, surgery, therapeutic ultrasound, topical lotions and dressings, topical negative pressure, and topical phenytoin. PMID:19450317
Introduction Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in people at risk of developing pressure ulcers? What are the effects of treatments in people with pressure ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 64 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: air-filled vinyl boots, air-fluidised supports, alternating-pressure surfaces (including mattresses), alternative foam mattresses, constant low-pressure supports, debridement, electric profiling beds, electrotherapy, hydrocellular heel supports, low-air-loss beds (including hydrotherapy beds), low-level laser therapy, low-tech constant-low-pressure supports, medical sheepskin overlays, nutritional supplements, orthopaedic wool padding, pressure-relieving overlays on operating tables, pressure-relieving surfaces, repositioning (regular "turning"), seat cushions, standard beds, standard care, standard foam mattresses, standard tables, surgery, therapeutic ultrasound, topical lotions and dressings, topical negative pressure, and topical phenytoin. PMID:21524319
Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common with the following situations: Being overweight Blood clot in the leg Increased age Leg infection Veins ...
476 endoscopic reports of 435 children under 15 years old of both sexes were reviewed to determine the morbility of gastroduodenal peptic ulcer. Endoscopy was performed because they had symptoms referred to the upper gastrointestinal tract between December 1989 and December 1994. Gastroduodenal ulcer was diagnosed in forty five children (10,3%). Primary ulcer was diagnosed in twenty four patients (55%) and secondary ulcers in twenty one (45%), being the administration of ulcerogenic drugs the main factor involved. Primary ulcer was more frequently diagnosed in older children and teenagers and localized mainly in the duodenum. Male sex was predominant in both types of ulcers. 42% of children with primary ulcers had familiar ocurrence of ulcer disease. Thirty three patients (73%) had complications, being gastrointestinal bleeding the most frequent. Ulcer disease is not rare in children and must be suspected in patients with recurrent abdominal pain. PMID:12219102
Trujillo T, María; García, Rosario; Sagaró G, Eduardo; Fragoso A, Trini; Lazo D, Odalys; Borbolla, Elvira; Rodríguez G, Nancy
The authors assess the pathogenic causes of leg-ulcers which all have as a common denominator chronic venous incompetence. It is vital to have a correct identification of prevention of frequent relapse as well as cure. The authors suggest their strategy of topic treatment which, despite its simplicity and economy, has never proved unsuccessful. PMID:4023087
Berta, V; Russo, R; Pellegrino, R
The concentration of zinc in the skin has been determined noninvasively in patients with varicose vein ulcers. The examinations were performed with the use of diagnostic x-ray spectrometry, a method based on x-ray fluorescence for in vivo noninvasive evaluation of trace elements. Four skin foci were examined: at the periphery of the ulcer and control areas in a nonulcerated area in the diseased leg, in the noninvolved leg, and in the proximal inner surface of the arm. Zinc levels around the ulcer (mean +/- SD, 9.8 +/- 4.0 micrograms of zinc in 1 g of wet tissue) were higher than those in the nonulcerated skin in the diseased leg (6.9 +/- 3.0 micrograms/g, p greater than 0.05) and those in the noninvolved leg (5.4 +/- 2.0 micrograms/g, p less than 0.01). The concentration of zinc in the inner proximal surface of the arm (9.8 +/- 2.8 micrograms/g) was significantly higher than those of a control group (5.3 +/- 1.9 micrograms/g, p less than 0.01). These results suggest a defect of zinc distribution in patients with varicose vein ulcers.
Ackerman, Z.; Loewenthal, E.; Seidenbaum, M.; Rubinow, A.; Gorodetsky, R. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel))
Intestinal ulcers can be a painful and dangerous situation. Ulcers are associated not only with pain and discomfort, but may also be a source of significant blood loss. Ulcers are treatable but may require several medications and sometimes multiple rounds of these medications. It is important to know that there are several nutrimental factors that may help improve the success
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We present the first case of retrograde ablation of the small saphenous vein to treat active venous ulceration. A 73-year-old gentleman with complicated varicose veins of the left leg and a non-healing venous ulcer despite previous successful endovenous treatment to his left great saphenous vein underwent mechanochemical ablation of his small saphenous vein with the ClariVein® system, under local anaesthetic, using a retrograde cannulation technique. Post-operatively the patient had improved symptomatically and the ulcer size had reduced. This report highlights that patients with small saphenous vein incompetence and active ulceration can be treated successfully with retrograde mechanochemical ablation. PMID:24347131
Moore, Hayley M; Lane, Tristan Ra; Franklin, Ian J; Davies, Alun H
Diabetes mellitus is a serious, life-long condition that is the sixth leading cause of death in North America. Dermatologists frequently encounter patients with diabetes mellitus. Up to 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus will develop diabetic foot ulcers. Foot ulcer patients have an increased risk of amputation and increased mortality rate. The high-risk diabetic foot can be identified with a simplified screening, and subsequent foot ulcers can be prevented. Early recognition of the high-risk foot and timely treatment will save legs and improve patients' quality of life. Peripheral arterial disease, neuropathy, deformity, previous amputation, and infection are the main factors contributing to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. Early recognition of the high-risk foot is imperative to decrease the rates of mortality and morbidity. An interprofessional approach (ie, physicians, nurses, and foot care specialists) is often needed to support patients' needs. PMID:24355275
Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S
Every year, nearly four million people in the United States are afflicted with stomach ulcers. The explanation of how you contract an ulcer has evolved from what seemed like an educated guess 50 years ago to something based more in scientific fact today. In 1982, two Australian scientists were able to link a specific bacteria to most stomach ulcers. They eventually went on to win the 2005 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their work.
Venous ulcers (stasis ulcers, varicose ulcers) are the wounds occurring due to inappropriate functioning of venous valves, usually of the legs. It is one of the most serious chronic venous insufficiency complications. The overall incidence rate is 0.76% in men and 1.42% in women. When a venous valve gets damaged, it prevents the backflow of blood, which causes pressure in the veins that leads to hypertension and, in turn, venous ulcers. These are mostly along the medial distal leg, which is often very painful, can bleed, and get infected. Treating varicose ulcers is a difficult task to the physician and a nightmare to the suffering patients, though a good number of the treatment principles are mentioned and practiced in allied sciences. In Ayurveda, this condition is considered as du??a vra?a. It can be managed with the specific s’odhana therapy. So, the same treatment protocol was used to treat the case discussed here, i.e. with Nitya virecana and by Basti karma. The wound was successfully treated and, therefore, is discussed in detail. PMID:24501445
Patil, Deepa; Jahagirdhar, Sangeeta H.; Toshikhane, Hemant D.
Venous ulcers (stasis ulcers, varicose ulcers) are the wounds occurring due to inappropriate functioning of venous valves, usually of the legs. It is one of the most serious chronic venous insufficiency complications. The overall incidence rate is 0.76% in men and 1.42% in women. When a venous valve gets damaged, it prevents the backflow of blood, which causes pressure in the veins that leads to hypertension and, in turn, venous ulcers. These are mostly along the medial distal leg, which is often very painful, can bleed, and get infected. Treating varicose ulcers is a difficult task to the physician and a nightmare to the suffering patients, though a good number of the treatment principles are mentioned and practiced in allied sciences. In Ayurveda, this condition is considered as du??a vra?a. It can be managed with the specific s'odhana therapy. So, the same treatment protocol was used to treat the case discussed here, i.e. with Nitya virecana and by Basti karma. The wound was successfully treated and, therefore, is discussed in detail. PMID:24501445
Patil, Deepa; Jahagirdhar, Sangeeta H; Toshikhane, Hemant D
A series of 31 infants and children with acute duodenal ulcer verified by endoscopy was studied over an eight year period. Eighteen (58%) of them were under 2 years of age. The most common symptom was upper gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 27, 87%). Twenty nine patients (94%) had a preceding illness characterised by diarrhoea, upper respiratory tract infection, or fever, which was not necessarily treated with antipyretic drugs. Initial endoscopy showed that ulcer lesions were solitary in 14 patients and present on the anterior wall (n = 11), posterior wall (n = 2), or both (n = 1). Multiple ulcers were found in 17 patients, and present in the bulb with (n = 6) or without (n = 11) extension into the second part of duodenum. The most conspicuous finding was the irregularly shaped ulcers seen in eight young children with similar clinical and endoscopic features. Sixteen patients were re-endoscoped one to two weeks after the initial examination; the ulcers had entirely disappeared in 13, and there were only small residual ulcers in three. Thirty patients were treated medically and only one (with uncontrollable haemorrhage) required operation. Most patients were symptom free two to six years after the initial diagnosis. Our results suggest that young children may develop acute duodenal ulcers after viral illnesses whether or not they are treated with drugs, mainly antipyretics. This kind of acute duodenal ulcer usually heals quickly irrespective of the morphology, site, and number of ulcers. Images Figure PMID:2774612
Hsu, H Y; Chang, M H; Wang, T H; Hsu, J Y; Wang, C Y; Lin, M I; Wu, M H
Lupus vulgaris (LV), is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced. PMID:25657427
Nair, Pragya A; Mehta, Malay J; Patel, Bhumi B
The lower extremity vascular ulcers currently represent a major public health problem, particularly because of different situations: the chronic nature of the injury, a poor response to treatment, recurrence rates, high absenteeism, poor training in some cases of the health staff that treats, etc. Lower extremity ulcers mean a serious personal, family, health and social problem, with a significant expenditure of human and material resources. Since the prevalence and incidence of lower extremity vascular ulcers is high worldwide, it is necessary to go into detail about the knowledge of the epidemiology and to favour, in different countries, the creation of interdisciplinary research groups that addresses issues related to risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment, health care costs, quality of life and, above all, specialized training aimed at health professionals. PMID:24984301
López Herranz, Marta; Bas Caro, Pedro; Moraleja Millán, Tania; Mateos García, Marina; García Jábega, Rosa Ma; López Corral, Juan Carlos
Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9–23.4) 13.1–25.7 (3100) All health care settings 26 (25.2–26.8) 13.1–53.3 (7774) * CI indicates confidence interval. † Nonacute care included sub-acute care, chronic care, complex continuing care, long-term care, and nursing home care. ‡ Mixed health care includes a mixture of acute, nonacute, and/or community care health care delivery settings. Pressure ulcers have a considerable economic impact on health care systems. In Australia, the cost of treating a single stage IV ulcer has been estimated to be greater than $61,000 (AUD) (approximately $54,000 CDN), (3) while in the United Kingdom the total cost of pressure ulcers has been estimated at £1.4–£2.1 billion annually or 4% of the National Health Service expenditure. (4) Because of the high physical and economic burden of pressure ulcers, this review was undertaken to determine which interventions are effective at preventing the development of pressure ulcers in an at-risk population. Review Strategy The main objective of this systematic review is to determine the effectiveness of pressure ulcer preventive interventions including Risk Assessment, Distribution Devices, Nutritional Supplementation, Repositioning, and Incontinence Management. A comprehensive literature search was completed for each of the above 5 preventive interventions. The electronic databases searched included MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. As well, the bibliographic references of selected studies were searched. All studies meeting explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria for each systematic review section were retained and the quality of the body of evidence was determined using the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. (5) Where appropriate, a meta-analysis was undertaken to determine the overall estimate of effect of the preventive intervention under review. Summary of Findings Ris
We report two cases of severe leg ulcerations in patients being treated with thalidomide for graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation. Local wound care and debridement were attempted, but one patient required skin grafting to ensure healing. We propose that this complication may be due to the antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide and urge careful attention to skin breakdown in patients being treated with this compound. PMID:11281398
Schlossberg, H; Klumpp, T; Sabol, P; Herman, J; Mangan, K
Background: Pyoderma ga ngrenosum (PG) is a rare, inflammatory, destructive neutrophilic dermatosis, which mimics other ulcerative conditions. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study based on patients diagnosed with PG over a 3-year period (2010–2013), we evaluated demographics, anatomical sites, number of lesions, subtypes, histopathology, associated conditions, treatment regimens, healing time, and recurrence. Results: Of our five patients, there were three males and two females, age ranging between 19 and 58 years (mean age 38 years). Four had single lesions localized to the lower limbs while one had multiple lesions (more than five) over bilateral hands and legs. Ulcerative subtype was observed in all the patients. One exhibited pathergy. Skin biopsies were done in four patients, revealing dense neutrophilic infiltrates in three cases and leukocytoclastic vasculitis in one. Associated systemic diseases were observed in all patients, four having inflammatory bowel disease and one having both systemic lupus erythematosus and anti-phospholipid syndrome. The patients were all treated with systemic corticosteroids either alone or in combination with immunosuppressants (e.g., azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus), and wound dressing. Split-thickness skin graft was done in one patient. Complete healing was achieved in all patients, ranging from one to 3 months after diagnosis. No recurrence was reported. Conclusions: Systemic corticosteroids, either alone or in combination with steroid-sparing agents are the mainstay of treatment. Should family physicians encounter a rapidly progressing ulcer that has poor response to usual wound management, timely referral to dermatology should be made. PMID:25657946
Tay, Daniel Zunsheng; Tan, Ki-Wei; Tay, Yong-Kwang
Objectives To investigate changes in ulcer healing time and antibiotic treatment in Sweden following the introduction of the Registry of Ulcer Treatment (RUT), a national quality registry, in 2009. Design A statistical analysis of RUT data concerning the healing time and antibiotic treatment for patients with hard-to-heal ulcers in Sweden between 2009 and 2012. Setting RUT is a national web-based quality registry used to capture areas of improvement in ulcer care and to structure wound management by registering patients with hard-to-heal leg, foot and pressure ulcers. Registration includes variables such as gender, age, diagnosis, healing time, antibiotic treatment, and ulcer duration and size. Population Every patient with a hard-to-heal ulcer registered with RUT between 2009 and 2012 (n=1417) was included. Main outcome measures Statistical analyses were performed using Stata V.12.1. Healing time was assessed with the Kaplan-Meier analysis and adjustment was made for ulcer size. A log-rank test was used for equality of survivor functions. Results According to the adjusted registry in December 2012, patients’ median age was 80?years (mean 77.5?years, range 11–103?years). The median healing time for all ulcers, adjusted for ulcer size, was 146?days (21?weeks) in 2009 and 63?days (9?weeks) in 2012 (p=0.001). Considering all years between 2009 and 2012, antibiotic treatment for patients with hard-to-heal ulcers was reduced from 71% before registration to 29% after registration of ulcer healing (p=0.001). Conclusions Healing time and antibiotic treatment decreased significantly during 3?years after launch of RUT. PMID:23959752
Öien, Rut F; Forssell, Henrik W
1532 cases with genital ulcers were investigated, of whom 610 presented with features suggestive of chancroid; classic, multiple lesions of chancroid were observed in 312, while its other variants, i.e. dwarf, giant and phagedaenic chancroid were also seen. In addition, 162 cases had a conspicuous morphology characterised by a single ulcer which was well-defined, soft, tender, non-indurated and had weakening
V. N. Sehgal; Shyam Prasad
In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation.The
M. N. Satyanarayana
There is a need for practical methods to predict the healing time of venous leg ulcers. In a prospective cohort study of 81 patients with venous leg ulcers, we used a recently described laser-based three-dimensional measurement of the ulcers at days 0 and 28 to estimate the predictive power of horizontal (HIHR) and vertical initial healing rates (VIHR) for wound healing by week 24. The rates were calculated by Gilman's equation [(A(1)-A(2))/((p(1)+p(2))/2)((0-4))] and by its modification [(V(1)-V(2))/((A(1)+A(2))/2)((0-4))], respectively. The influence of risk factors on both the initial healing rates was also studied. The HIHR and VIHR are important predictors of healing at 24 weeks. They are not influenced by age, ulcer duration, initial ulcer area, and insufficient sapheno-femoral junction, and/or calf perforating veins. Together with ulcer duration, they are independent predictors of the 24-week healing (the area under ROC curve equals to 0.9). VIHR gives us additional information and significantly improves the prediction of 24-week healing. PMID:18638269
Kecelj Leskovec, Nada; Perme, Maja Pohar; Jezersek, Matija; Mozina, Janez; Pavlovi?, Milos D; Lunder, Tomaz
Objective: Multiple large decubitus ulcers present a reconstructive challenge to the plastic surgeon. When stage IV pressure sores become recurrent or extensive, traditional flaps either have already been exhausted or would not be sufficient to cover the defect. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all paraplegic patients who had chronic, extensive, and stage IV decubitus ulcers, and underwent reconstruction using a pedicled continuous musculocutaneous flap of the entire leg between 1998 and 2007. The extent and size of the debrided pressure sores, number of previous flap reconstructions, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, and years of follow-up were all recorded. A description of the operative technique is also given. Results: Four patients underwent a total leg fillet flap in the study period, with follow-up ranging from 2 to 7 years. Indications included extensive and bilateral trochanteric, sacral, and ischial pressure sores. Complications included intraoperative blood loss and postoperative heterotopic calcification. Conclusions: The total leg fillet flap is a very large and robust flap that offers paraplegic patients coverage of extensive stage IV pressure sores of the trochanteric, sacral, and ischial areas. PMID:19946358
Jandali, Shareef; Low, David W.
... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Diabetic Foot Ulcers D iabetic foot ulcers are sores ... article about preventing diabetic foot ulcers. WHAT CAUSES DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS? FOR MORE INFORMATION • National Diabetes Information ...
Venous ulcers are the most common ulcers of the lower limb. It has a high morbidity and results in economic strain both at a personal and at a state level. Chronic venous hypertension either due to primary or secondary venous disease with perforator paucity, destruction or incompetence resulting in reflux is the underlying pathology, but inflammatory reactions mediated through leucocytes, platelet adhesion, formation of pericapillary fibrin cuff, growth factors and macromolecules trapped in tissue result in tissue hypoxia, cell death and ulceration. Duplex scan with colour flow is the most useful investigation for venous disease supplying information about patency, reflux, effects of proximal and distal compression, Valsalva maneuver and effects of muscle contraction. Most venous disease can be managed conservatively by leg elevation and compression bandaging. Drugs of proven benefit in venous disease are pentoxifylline and aspirin, but they work best in conjunction with compression therapy. Once ulceration is chronic or the patient does not respond to or cannot maintain conservative regime, surgical intervention treating the underlying venous hypertension and cover for the ulcer is necessary. The different modalities like sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping of superficial varicose veins, endoscopic subfascial perforator ligation, endovenous laser or radiofrequency ablation have similar long-term results, although short-term recovery is best with radiofrequency and foam sclerotherapy. For deep venous reflux, surgical modalities include repair of incompetent venous valves or transplant or transposition of a competent vein segment with normal valves to replace a post-thrombotic destroyed portion of the deep vein. PMID:23162226
Chatterjee, Sasanka S
A 33-year-old man presented with a history of a penile ulcer of four days' duration. He was immediately treated with 2.4 million IU of benzathine penicillin IM and tested for syphilis, but subsequently proved non-reactive. He was already receiving doxycycline BID from another physician for this nonspecific genital ulcer and minocycline for acne. Past medical history revealed periodic flares of hidradenitis suppurativa, limited to the buttocks and inguinal region; acne, involving the face and back; and angiokeratoma of the scrotum. He had no known drug allergies, nor had he admitted to taking any other medicaments. Examination revealed an 8 x 15 mm irregularly shaped, shallow, tender ulcer over a larger purpuric base and involving part of the corona and the distal portion of the shaft. No inguinal adenopathy or buboes could be found on palpation. The patient was placed on a cream containing 3% iodochlorhydroxyquin 1% hydrocortisone. By the end of two weeks of therapy, the lesion had healed with no residual discoloration. Subsequently, the patient revealed that he masturbated daily, rubbing his penis back and forth on the bed sheet while lying prone on the bed. Eleven months later, he consulted us again for a new purpuric penile ulcer, because he had begun to masturbate in his usual fashion. The ulcer healed within several days, and there were no sequellae. PMID:15075044
Witkowski, Joseph A; Parish, Jennifer L; Parish, Lawrence Ch
Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.
Myers, William Neil (Inventor)
Non ulcer dyspepsia is one of the most common problems encountered in primary care practice. The underlying pathophysiology of non ulcer dyspepsia is not fully understood, but it is known that this condition is associated with H. pylori infection and motility disorder. The presenting abdominal symptoms are non specific: they include bloating, belching, flatulence, excessive fullness after eating and nausea. Psychological condition such as anxiety, depression and stress do play a role in the recurrence of symptoms. Upper GI endoscopy is necessary in patients who presents with alarm symptoms suggestive of possible underlying organic condition before one makes the diagnosis of non ulcer dyspepsia. Pharmacological therapy using H2 receptor antagonist and proton pump inhibitors are effective for symptom relief. Patient's education and supportive care should be part of the management strategy in recurrent chronic dyspepsia. PMID:18942314
Loh, K Y; Siang, T K
A randomized controlled trial of Solcoseryl, DuoDerm and conventional conservative therapy with Eusol has been performed in 32 patients with homozygous sickle-cell (SS) disease. After 12 weeks' baseline observation, patients were randomized to one of three therapies and monitored for a further 12 weeks. Of 44 ulcerated legs, 20 received control treatment, 12 Solcoseryl and 12 DuoDerm. DuoDerm was generally unacceptable, and two-thirds of the patients defaulted from this treatment. Solcoseryl increased ulcer healing compared to the controls but the difference was not significant. Solcoseryl was well tolerated and may have a role in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers of sickle-cell disease. PMID:8273321
La Grenade, L; Thomas, P W; Serjeant, G R
Our case report presents successful treatment of corneal ulcer caused by the most common pathogen of infectious keratitis--Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Treatment was followed by LASIK as a final refractive error solution. 20 year old patient (contact lens wearer) was admitted for acute infectious corneal ulcer in her left eye. Her visual acuity was 0.5 partial with full correction. Intensive local treatment with Tobramycin, Ofloxacin and Scopolamin was started. After healing of infectious focuses, local steroids (Fluorometholonin acetas) were used to clear residual stromal haze. Refractive error was corrected after stabilisation using LASIK. Longstanding visual acuity is thanks to the early and intensive therapy 1.0 bilaterally. PMID:22132646
Procházková, S; Netuková, M; Klecka, D; Novák, P
We have developed criteria for radionuclide angiography to assess skin ulcer perfusion as an indicator of healing capacity. Twenty-six studies were performed on 21 consecutive patients with nonhealing ulcers of the lower leg; 20 mCi of technetium-99m phosphate was injected intravenously with immediate sequential scintillation camera imaging of the ulcer and surrounding area at 2 second intervals, followed by blood pool and delayed static images. Two radiologists without clinical bias graded the perfusion to the ulcer on the images as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite limb. Patients were either followed as outpatients for more than 10 days, as inpatients for at least 10 days, or both to determine whether ulcers showed clinical evidence of wound healing with optimal outpatient and in-hospital care. Of the 17 patients whose ulcers healed, imaging with technetium-99m phosphate predicted the outcome in 16. In nine patients the ulcers did not heal. This was correctly predicted by technetium-99m phosphate in eight of the patients. Overall, the sensitivity was 94 percent and the specificity was 89 percent. This technique appears to be a simple, reliable way to predict the microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing.
Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.; Disbro, M.A.; Alazraki, N.
1532 cases with genital ulcers were investigated, of whom 610 presented with features suggestive of chancroid; classic, multiple lesions of chancroid were observed in 312, while its other variants, i.e. dwarf, giant and phagedaenic chancroid were also seen. In addition, 162 cases had a conspicuous morphology characterised by a single ulcer which was well-defined, soft, tender, non-indurated and had weakening edges. These were termed chancroidal ulcers. The latter had a longer incubation period of 8-11 days. Absence of lymphadenopathy was prominent in these cases. The male/female ratio was 27/1. Persons of low socio-economic status in the sexually vulnerable age-group were predominantly affected. The prepuce, coronal sulcus and glans penis were the common sites of affliction in males, while the labia minora was frequently involved in females. Due to the limited value of gram-stained smears for the detection of H. ducreyi and lack of good culture media, chancroid and chancroidal ulcers should be differentiated clinically. PMID:3979640
Sehgal, V N; Shyam Prasad, A L
Significant advances continue to be made in the area of gastritis and ulcer disease. Studies to identify the most appropriate use of capsule endoscopy have now confirmed that it is superior to other methods for identifying small-bowel mucosal pathology and sites of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has increasingly been recognized that the complications of ulcer disease are secondary to the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and to interactions between NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori. Effective prophylaxis for NSAID ulcers in H. pylori-negative individuals continues to be a challenge, as it has become clear that conclusions from studies focusing on "endoscopic ulcers" in patients whose H. pylori status was unknown provided a false sense of security. The concept of multifocal atrophic gastritis has been challenged. The precursor lesion to gastric cancer now appears to be a sheet of pseudopyloric metaplasia advancing into the gastric body with islands of intestinal metaplasia embedded within it. Multifactorial models such as those proposed for understanding periodontal disease, including the organism, environmental factors, and host factors, appear particularly applicable to understanding the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated gastric cancer. PMID:14722854
Dore, M P; Graham, D Y
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LED therapy associated with compression therapy on chronic venous leg ulcers (CVUs). The study included CVU patients (n?=?17, eight men) who were eligible for Unna's boot treatment. Ulcers were treated on a weekly basis with either LED therapy (625 nm, 4 J/cm(2)) and an Unna's boot (LED ulcers, n?=?14) or a placebo treatment and an Unna's boot (control ulcers, n?=?14). The total surface area of the ulcers, the relative ulcer area, and the healing rate were recorded over a period of 30 weeks. Ulcer exudates were collected for determination of local tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) levels. The total area was not significantly different between the LED and control ulcers (P?>?0.05, Mann-Whitney U test) throughout the study. However, the relative area indicated that non-healing treatment resistant ulcers (n?=?6) persisted in the control group after 19 weeks (P?0.05, Mann-Whitney U Test). No differences in median healing rate were observed (hazard ratio 0.89, CI 95 %: 0.40-1.98) between LED (15 weeks) and control ulcers (19.5 weeks). No differences in TNF-? levels were detected (P?>?0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). The results suggest that LED therapy improved the effectiveness of the Unna's boot since no refractory ulcer was observed in the LED group after 19 weeks. However, LED therapy did not alter the local secretion of TNF-? nor accelerate wound healing. PMID:25315022
Siqueira, Cláudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Gobbi, Cynthia A A; Shigaki, Leonardo; Kashimoto, Roberto K; Venâncio, Emerson José; de Oliveira Toginho Filho, Dari; Castaldin, André G; Felinto, Alan S; Silva, Francisco Pereira; Silva, Ricardo B; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano
In this three-day (or three-part) math lesson, learners represent the number eight in writing and with a variety of manipulatives related to spiders. Learners construct sets of eight by cutting eight strips of paper and counting eight pretzel sticks that represent spider legs. Learners also use eight plastic spiders to show eight with a ten frame and count on from a given number to make eight. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions. Note: The snack activity involves peanut butter, but any other creamy food can be used instead.
Golden, Deeanna D.
AIMS(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energyx ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.METHODSSequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49
R Y T Sung; P Lau; C W Yu; P K W Lam; E A S Nelson
Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions? Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? Background A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by as much as 400%, to increase the frequency and duration of hospitalization, and to decrease the quality of life of affected patients. The cost of treating pressure ulcers has been estimated at approximately $9,000 (Cdn) per patient per month in the community setting. Considering the high prevalence of pressure ulcers in the Ontario health care system, the total cost of treating pressure ulcers is substantial. Technology Wounds normally heal in 3 phases (inflammatory phase, a proliferative phase of new tissue and matrix formation, and a remodelling phase). However, pressure ulcers often fail to progress past the inflammatory stage. Current practice for treating pressure ulcers includes treating the underlying causes, debridement to remove necrotic tissues and contaminated tissues, dressings to provide a moist wound environment and to manage exudates, devices and frequent turning of patients to provide pressure relief, topical applications of biologic agents, and nutritional support to correct nutritional deficiencies. A variety of adjunctive physical therapies are also in use. Method Health technology assessment databases and medical databases were searched from 1996 (Medline), 1980 (EMBASE), and 1982 (CINAHL) systematically up to March 2008 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the following treatments of pressure ulcers: cleansing, debridement, dressings, biological therapies, pressure-relieving devices, physical therapies, nutritional therapies, and multidisciplinary wound care teams. Full literature search strategies are reported in appendix 1. English-language studies in previous systematic reviews and studies published since the last systematic review were included if they had more than 10 subjects, were randomized, and provided objective outcome measures on the healing of pressure ulcers. In the absence of RCTs, studies of the highest level of evidence available were included. Studies on wounds other than pressure ulcers and on surgical treatment of pressure ulcers were excluded. A total of 18 systematic reviews, 104 RCTs, and 4 observational
Macular lymphocytic arteritis describes a recently reported entity, clinically characterized by asymptomatic hyperpigmented macules on the lower limbs, without association of systemic diseases. Histopathologically it is characterized by a lymphocytic arteritis with a hyalinized fibrin ring. We report a new case presenting with ulceration, a finding not previously described. A 25-year-old Hispanic woman was evaluated for a 1-year history of a gradually progressive, asymptomatic eruption that begins at level of both knees and progressively affects both legs and feet. She also referred recently appeared ulcers on inner right ankle without previous traumatism. Physical examination revealed multiple fairly well-defined light brown and faint pink patches with petechiae on as well as retiform crusts and livedoid lesions on inner right ankle. Both types of lesions were biopsied showing lymphocytic arteritis with fibrinoid necrosis and thrombus. There were no relevant laboratory alterations. The clinical peculiarity of our case is the clinical image of the lesions mimicking a pigmented purpuric dermatosis and the presence of a non-traumatic ulcer which could be explained because chronic lymphocytic damage may cause ischemic damage. Ulceration in our case supports consideration of macular arteritis as a latent form of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. PMID:23384039
Llamas-Velasco, M; García-Martín, P; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Sotomayor, E; Fraga, J; García-Diez, A
The authors describe the case of a 39-year-old man who presented to our hospital with easy fatigability and malaise. On physical examination, hypertension was noted without any cushingoid appearance. Laboratory testing revealed normochromic-normocytic anaemia with positive results of occult blood in the stool, hyperglycaemia and hypokalemia. Upper endoscopy revealed active gastric ulcer with Helicobacter pylori infection, likely causing gastrointestinal bleeding. Endocrine examinations showed that both serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol were elevated with loss of diurnal variation. A diagnosis of Cushing’s disease secondary to pituitary adenoma was made as results of brain MRI and blood sampling from inferior petrosal sinus. In a patient with peptic ulcer disease, physician should be alert to the possible endocrine background. PMID:22700935
Hoshino, Chisho; Satoh, Noriyuki; Narita, Masashi; Kikuchi, Akio; Inoue, Minoru
Venous disease has a spectrum of presentations. The most advanced state of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) managed by wound care specialists being ulceration of the lower extremity. The goal of all treatments for advanced venous disease is to decrease ambulatory venous hypertension. Treatment can be divided into exogenous and endogenous methods. Exogenous methods include those applied externally such as compression, elevation, debridement and wound dressings. Endogenous methods treat the underlying venous pathology either due to venous valvular dysfunction or venous obstruction leading to venous hypertension. Recently, significant advances in endogenous methods have evolved. The development of a new concept, minimally invasive vein surgery (MIVS), has improved upon traditional, open, invasive treatments of venous disease. MIVS techniques are performed percutaneously, with minimal anesthesia, no incisions and rarely require hospital admission. This article summarizes the concept of MIVS, describes each method of MIVS and its complementary role in the management of venous leg ulcers patients. PMID:24527103
Poblete, Honesto; Elias, Steven
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic sensorimotor disorder, with a negative impact in the quality of life and sleep architecture. Despite its reported high prevalence, remains under-recognized and under-treated. The diagnosis is based on the presence of four essential criteria, three supportive clinical features, and other three associated features. The primary or idiopathic RLS is the most common presentation form, but it is very important to exclude other RLS secondary forms and other differential diagnosis. The physiopathology of the idiopathic RLS remains unclear, however changes in the dopamine pathway have been proposed, and justifies the use of dopaminergic agents as first line treatment. Iron therapy, opioids, anti-epileptics (gabapentin) and benzodiazepines are others non-dopaminergic options of treatment in selected patients. PMID:19094811
Santos, Bruno; Oliveira, Ana Sofia; Canhão, Cristina; Teixeira, Joana; Dias, Ana Rita; Pinto, Paula; Bárbara, Cristina
We report a case of triple acid-base disorder with metabolic alkalosis as the primary disorder in a 65-year-old man due to ingestion and application to leg ulcers of baking soda (calcium bicarbonate). The blood pH was 7.65 with hypochloremia, hypokalemia, and prerenal azotemia. He was treated with isotonic saline with K replacement, and the patient improved without any adverse clinical consequences. We discuss the causes, mechanisms, and management of Cl-responsive (depletion) metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21185672
John, Ruby Samuel; Simoes, Sonia; Reddi, Alluru S
In the spring of 2002, the nurses working in a 300-bed Midwest care center embarked on a mission to decrease patient suffering from skin breakdown and pressure ulcers. A continuous automated pressure ulcer monitoring system was developed to improve decision making and identify educational needs. As a result, the nurses have changed the skin culture of the facility and positively affected the rate of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers and non-pressure-related breakdown. PMID:17538267
Dobbs, Nancy Ann; Spanbauer, Pam; Datz, David
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder with an estimated prevalence of between 1% and 5%. The symptomatology\\u000a is characterized by unpleasant sensations experienced predominantly in the legs and rerely in the arms. The symptoms occur\\u000a only at rest and become more pronounced in the evening or at night. In addition, the patients suffer from a strong urge
Thomas C. Wetter; Thomas Pollmächer
Prized for their performance on prepared surfaces, wheeled vehicles are often limited in mobility by rough and unstructured terrain. Conversely, systems that rely on legs have shown promising rough terrain performance but ...
McKenzie, Jacob Elijah
Locomotion assistive devices can be broadly classified as either being passive or powered. Both have been created to aid in the leg's generation of a ground reaction force which supports the torso during locomotion, yet ...
Carvey, Andrew W. (Andrew Williams), 1980-
STUDY OBJECTIVE--Comparison of four layer bandage system with traditional adhesive plaster bandaging in terms of (a) compression achieved and (b) healing of venous ulcers. DESIGN--Part of larger randomised trial of five different dressings. SETTING--Outpatient venous ulcer clinic in university hospital. PATIENTS--(a) Pressure exerted by both bandage systems was measured in the same 20 patients. (b) Healing with the four layer bandage was assessed in 148 legs in 126 consecutive patients (mean age 71 (SE 2); range 30-96) with chronic venous ulcers that had resisted treatment with traditional bandaging for a mean of 27.2 (SE 8) months. INTERVENTIONS--(a) Four layer bandage system or traditional adhesive plaster bandaging for pressure studies; (b) four layer bandaging applied weekly for studies of healing. END POINTS--(a) Comparison of pressures achieved at the ankle for up to one week; (b) complete healing within 12 weeks. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--(a) Four layer bandage produced higher initial pressures at the ankle of 42.5 (SE 1) mm Hg compared with 29.8 (1.8) for the adhesive plaster (p less than 0.001; 95% confidence interval 18.5 to 6.9). Pressure was maintained for one week with the four layer bandage but fell to 10.4 (3.5) mm Hg at 24 hours with adhesive plaster bandaging. (b) After weekly bandaging with the four layer bandage 110 of 48 venous ulcers had healed completely within 12 (mean 6.3 (0.4)) weeks. CONCLUSION--Sustained compression of over 40 mm Hg achieved with a multilayer bandage results in rapid healing of chronic venous ulcers that have failed to heal in many months of compression at lower pressures with more conventional bandages. PMID:3144330
Blair, S. D.; Wright, D. D.; Backhouse, C. M.; Riddle, E.; McCollum, C. N.
Penile ulcers may be caused by several different agents. Rarely, cutaneous leishmaniasis may also be accompanied by penile ulcers. We report a five-year-old boy with who had an ulcer on the glans penis. Smears from the ulcer demonstrated amastigotes, biopsy showed histopathological features of leishmaniasis and Leishmania was grown in culture. Treatment with meglumine antimoniate injections led to improvement. PMID:24823403
Yesilova, Yavuz; Turan, Enver; Sürücü, Hacer Altun; Kocarslan, Sezen; Tanrikulu, Osman; Eroglu, Naime
Factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer were studied simultaneously in seven patients with strictly defined type 1 gastric ulcer (single benign ulcer above the incisura of the stomach) and in six healthy controls. After ingestion of an ordinary solid-liquid meal, patients with gastric ulcer demonstrated gastric hyposecretion of acid, pepsin, and water; delayed gastric emptying of solids with
Laurence J. Miller; Juan-R. Malagelada; George F. Longstreth; Vayliang W. Go
A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.
The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.
Gribik, Anastasia M. [Bechtel Bettis, Inc., Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States); DiLorenzo, Peter A. [KAPL, Inc., Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Schenectady, NY 12301 (United States)
... www.npuap.org • Association for the Advancement of Wound Care www.aawcone.org/patientresources .shtml INFORM YOURSELF To ... Ulcer Advisory Board, Association for the Advancement of Wound Care, American Academy of Family Physicians The JAMA Patient ...
Laparoscopic techniques have become increasingly used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: in experienced hands, they are safe and feasible. Recovery advantages have not been consistently demonstrated and functional results have been comparable to open surgery. Other possible benefits and costs issues have also been inconsistent. Further investigation on the role of laparoscopic surgery for ulcerative colitis with larger populations and longer follow-up with a focus on recovery parameters, quality of life, and costs are needed. PMID:22131895
There is a group of diseases characterized by inflammatory nodules which generally located on the lower leg. They have certain clinical appearances in common, which often makes a differential diagnosis difficult or impossible on clinical grounds alone. There is a great variation in histopathologic appearance, which depends on the duration of the lesions and sites from specimens are obtained for biopsy. Therefore, separating and subclassifying inflammatory nodule lesions of the legs, based on the subtle clinical and histological variation, is not easy. Despite all these difficulties, a specific diagnosis can be made with an adequate clinic-pathologic correlation. PMID:23197902
We present the results obtained in a case of a 20-year-old Caucasian woman with a posttraumatic injury “hard-to-heal” of the left leg treated using autologous fat graft. Considering our experience in treatment of chronic posttraumatic ulcers by autologous fat graft, we decided to use this surgical technique to induce a regenerative effect in this young patient. We have had complete wound closure with only a single surgical procedure after 1 month; after the second intervention of autologous fat graft we observed an improvement in the quality of the scar tissue. The patient satisfaction was excellent. The results were long lasting and remained virtually unchanged after 1 year. PMID:23319957
Caviggioli, Fabio; Klinger, Francesco Maria; Vinci, Valeriano; Cornegliani, Guido; Klinger, Marco
Serum pepsinogen, alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) and blood groups were studied as genetic markers in 32 patients with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer and 44 control subjects with no family history of ulcer disease. Serum pepsinogen was determined by the modified method of Edward et al, alpha 1-AT by single radial immunodiffusion (RID) and phenotyping was carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF). Duodenal ulcer patients with hyper- pepsinogenemia (28%) and low serum alpha 1-AT (35%) had a dominant blood group O, lower mean age, an early onset of disease, a higher frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and ulcer perforation. These parameters were found considerably different in patients with normal serum pepsinogen and alpha 1-AT. Phenotype analysis of alpha 1-AT revealed that four duodenal ulcer patients had partial deficiency of the protease inhibitor and none of the normal exhibited the deficiency pattern. The etiology of the disease appears to be genetic anomaly in 28% of patients while the rest (72%) had ulcers as a result of neuroendocrinological or environmental factors. PMID:9230579
Shahid, A; Zuberi, S J; Siddiqui, A A; Waqar, M A
Thrombo-embolic complications are still amongst the most serious encountered in surgery and in certain medical afflictions, despite the different forms of prophylaxis, and in particular subcutaneous heparin. Thus, in 1983, an investigation by Salleras in Barcelona based on 37,400 cases, assessed the incidence of these complications after surgery at a rate of 2.5%. That is why post-phlebitic syndromes, the results of late diagnosis at the acute stage and/or inappropriate treatment, are disorders which are still very widespread, chronic, and more or less incapacitating. At the root of tissue modifications and trophic disorders which are seen in the post-phlebitic illness, a state of venous stasis at the periphery of the limbs is very often encountered; it depends on the following processes: the obstruction of a large venous collector (obstructive syndrome), the size of the stasis depending on the functional value of the anastomotic channels; the insufficiency of the superficial network; orthostatic reflux in the repermeabilized deep veins whose valvular system has broken down. The main trophic complications are: oedema, hypodermatitis and leg ulceration, which is the most formidable complication and which still occurs very frequently. Most post-phlebitic ulcers heal after a well-executed phlebological treatment on an ambulatory basis. A certain number of these ulcers prove, however, to respond badly to ambulatory treatment; they are called resistant post-phlebitic ulcers. By definition, they are difficult to cure; however, it has recently been apparent that the classical treatments associated with long-term isovolaemic haemodilution are more effective and enable healing to take place by treating the venous stasis and the increased blood viscosity. PMID:3777547
Duruble, M; Ouvry, P; Guenneguez, H
In this lesson, students are given a variety of materials and are asked to design a heat loss experiment that will result in a reasonable explanation of why whales do not have legs. Students will learn that natural selection favors a body design that is energy efficient.
This paper is about the use of control algorithms to animate dynamic legged locomotion. Control could free the animator from specifying the details of joint and limb motion while producing both physically realistic and natural looking results. We implemented computer animations of a biped robot, a quadruped robot, and a kangaroo. Each creature was modeled as a linked set of
Marc H. Raibert; Jessica K. Hodgins
Non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) includes functional forms, related to secretory and/or motor disorders, but also refers to forms with gastritis and/or duodenitis (erosive or not, Helicobacter pylori positive or not), as well as to idiopathic forms. NUD pathophysiology is multifactorial. Secretory abnormalities, H. pylori infection and in particular digestive and interdigestive disorders of gastrointestinal motility are often detected in NUD patients, but psychological, social and environmental factors can be also involved in NUD pathogenesis. With regard to symptom genesis, there is still no convincing evidence as to whether and to what extent pathogenetic factors have a causal relationship with dyspeptic symptoms. Upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy with biopsies and abdominal ultrasonography must be performed in patients over 45 years complaining of sudden symptoms, in patients under 45 years suffering from symptoms suggestive of severe organic disease and in patients with unexplained worsening of chronic symptoms. Ex adjuvantibus therapy may be employed in the remainder of dyspeptics. Oligosymptomatic dyspepsia needs no pharmacological treatment and in most cases it is enough to advise modifications of dietary habits and life style. Many drugs are usually employed in the pharmacological treatment of severe NUD but only H2-antagonists, pirenzepine and prokinetics are reported to be more effective than placebo. Efficacy of therapy should be checked after 4 weeks of treatment. If no improvement occurs, combined or different therapy might be employed. Treatment should be checked again after 8 weeks: therapeutic failure at this time indicates the need for endoscopic examination. PMID:1840814
Blasi, A; Mangiameli, A
OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 159 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS THE COTE D'IVOIRE - GHANA TRANSFORM MARGIN on the sedimentary records. Leg 159 will investigate the Cote dlvoire-Ghana (CIG) Margin in the eastern equatorial
In order to perform a wide range of locomotive tasks, a legged robot should be able to autonomously adjust its stride and properly move its legs so as to fit the current locomotion requirement. We develop an adaptive intelligent system that controls the movement of a jointed leg during a running stride. This paper focuses on the ballistic controller, which
P. Israel Doerschuk; V. Nguyen; W. Simon; F. Kwong
INTRODUCTION The current management of vulvar cancer depends on the extension of disease, and includes primary tumor resection with safety margin as well as inguinofemoral lymph node staging. We report the case of the first leg videoendoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy performed in a woman with a squamous cell vulvar carcinoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 74 years old female referred to our institution complaining of vulvar mass associated with bleeding and swelling from external genitals, vaginal burning sensation and dysuria for 5 months. A vulvar–vaginal examination under narcosis reported a right major labium lesion of 5 cm with an irregular and ulcerated surface, easily bleeding on palpation, involving anteriorly the clitoral region and with a histological finding of a poorly differentiated squamous cell invasive carcinoma of the vulva ulcerating the surface epithelium. We performed, after adequate informed consent, a radical vulvectomy with a standard right inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy and a contralateral simultaneous video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy-Leg procedure. DISCUSSION Our minimally invasive VEIL-Leg approach, performed for the first time in literature in a woman with vulvar cancer, could reduce the presence of high risk factors represented by surgical incision and by procedure-related complications, including wound infection and breakdown, hematoma, cellulitis and hernia formation. CONCLUSION A multicenter prospective randomized study will be helpful to clarify how this procedure could replace the standard laparotomic approach to inguinal lymphadenectomy in the vulvar cancer treatment and staging. PMID:24973526
Naldini, Angelica; Rossitto, Cristiano; Morciano, Andrea; Panico, Giovanni; Campagna, Giuseppe; Paparella, Pierluigi; Scambia, Giovanni
A 61-year-old male presents to the emergency room with complaints of fatigue, dizziness and bright red blood per rectum (BRBPR) for 2 days. Past medical history was significant for gastroesophageal reflux disease, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced ulcer, and end-stage renal disease (GFR < 30) status post 2 failed renal grafts. Pertinent medications include pantoprazole and sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol (Kayexalate 30 g/d orally). On esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) there was a single shallow, flat, non-bleeding gastric ulcer (3 mm) in the pre-pyloric region of the stomach with no stigmata of bleeding. A colonoscopy was performed showing evidence of colitis and localized ulcerations in the cecum which were biopsied. Histopathology revealed basophilic, nonpolarizable, rhomboid-like crystals without evidence of necrosis. PMID:24759345
Albeldawi, Mazen; Gaur, Varun; Weber, Luke
A 61-year-old male presents to the emergency room with complaints of fatigue, dizziness and bright red blood per rectum (BRBPR) for 2 days. Past medical history was significant for gastroesophageal reflux disease, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced ulcer, and end-stage renal disease (GFR < 30) status post 2 failed renal grafts. Pertinent medications include pantoprazole and sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol (Kayexalate 30 g/d orally). On esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) there was a single shallow, flat, non-bleeding gastric ulcer (3 mm) in the pre-pyloric region of the stomach with no stigmata of bleeding. A colonoscopy was performed showing evidence of colitis and localized ulcerations in the cecum which were biopsied. Histopathology revealed basophilic, nonpolarizable, rhomboid-like crystals without evidence of necrosis. PMID:24759345
Albeldawi, Mazen; Gaur, Varun; Weber, Luke
Focal myositis is a rare, benign inflammatory pseudotumor of the skeletal muscle of unknown etiology. In Korea, there is no case report of focal myositis, which is not combined with connective tissue disease. We present an unusual case of focal myositis with ankle contracture, involving more than two muscles. A 26-year-old man visited our clinic complaining of right ankle contracture and leg muscle pain. Physical examination revealed no muscle weakness or any other neurological abnormality. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the right leg demonstrated diffuse high signal intensity of the right gastrocnemius, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior muscles. Needle electromyography showed profuse denervation potentials with motor unit action potentials of short duration and small amplitude from the involved muscles. All these findings suggested a diagnosis of focal inflammatory myositis and the patient was put under oral prednisolone and physical therapy. PMID:22506226
Jun, Jin; Im, Sun; Park, Joo Hyun; Yoo, Soon Hei
Shoes are necessary for protection and warmth. Normal children do not require shoes for support. There is no scientific evidence that shoes—‘orthopedic’ or otherwise—influence or alter the growth or shape of the normal child's foot except, perhaps, adversely if they fit poorly. Family physicians must understand common variations of normal foot and leg development if they are to effectively advise and reassure parents about appropriate footwear. Flat feet, knock knees, bow legs, in-toeing, and out-toeing in otherwise normal children can easily be distinguished from similar but more serious deformities associated with disease or congenital anomaly. ImagesFig. 1AFig. 1BFig. 2AFig. 2B PMID:21274231
Wedge, John H.
Patients with vulval aphthae, also termed Lipschütz ulcers, often present to genitourinary medicine clinics. Typically, these ulcers present as acute, painful, vulval ulcers in young women and adolescents. The aetiology is unknown, and often these ulcers are accompanied by flu-like symptoms. Previous case reports have linked such lesions to acute viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and influenza A. We report the first case of influenza B virus and adenovirus infections associated with this presentation. PMID:24970475
Haidari, G; MacMahon, E; Tong, Cyw; White, Ja
The effect of acupuncture therapy for duodenal ulcer was investigated in 21 male and female patients. The diagnosis and healing were verified by gastroscopy. It was found that the needle therapy for 3 weeks led to complete recovery in 76 percent of the patients. Diet, alcohol and cigarette abstinency were necessary for healing. Cuti-visceral reflex activation eliciting the improvement of the secretory and motor function of the gastrointestinal tract and effects in the CNS leading to analgesia and tranquilization may play a role in the mechanism of action. Our conclusion is that acupuncture can be satisfactory method to cure duodenal ulcer. PMID:2904207
Debreceni, L; Denes, L
The pronounced geographical and temporal variations in gastric and duodenal ulcer suggest that important environmental factors must play a part in their aetiology. To determine the nature of possible factors, the Registrar General's decennial supplement and the vital statistics special reports of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on occupational mortality were analysed for occupation-specific mortality from peptic ulcer. The data disclose a high mortality from both types of ulcer among manual workers and a low mortality among sedentary occupations. This general pattern runs parallel to a low mortality from gastric and duodenal ulcer among the high social classes and a high mortality in the low social classes. Married women displayed a gradient of gastric ulcer mortality increasing from social class 1 to social class 5 but gave no evidence of social class correlation with respect to duodenal ulcer. The significant correlation between mortality from gastric and duodenal ulcer among different occupations could suggest that both types of ulcer hold some of the precipitating environmental risks in common. In duodenal ulcer the varying extent of energy expenditure among different occupations may be responsible for the different risk of contracting duodenal ulcer and dying from it. The association between energy expenditure and peptic ulcer mortality seems to be less important for gastric ulcer where additional factors associated with social class may also be operating. PMID:3947561
Sonnenberg, A; Sonnenberg, G S
Patients undergoing surgery are prone to develop pressure ulcers during surgery. The aim of this study was to identify pressure ulcer risk indicators in patients undergoing surgery which lasted more than four hours. A prospective follow-up study was conducted in 208 patients. Data on presence or absence of pressure ulcers and risk indicators were collected preoperatively, during surgery, and postoperatively.
Lisette Schoonhoven; Tom Defloor; Ingeborg van der Tweel; Erik Buskens; Maria H. F. Grypdonck
Decubitus pressure ulcers are a worldwide health crisis and their prevention and treatment has become a national priority. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Board estimates that as many as three million people in the United States have pressure ulcers. The causes of the ailment include both extr...
Non-healing wounds are associated with an inflammatory and proteolytic wound environment, and recent therapeutic strategies have been focused on reversing these changes. Connexins, as members of gap junctions, are important in intercellular signaling and wound repair. Connexin 43 (Cx43) downregulation is associated with normal wound healing, and it has been found to be upregulated in non-healing venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Ghatnekar et al. (2014) report findings of a small phase II trial performed in Indian patients with chronic VLUs, reporting that ACT1, a mimetic peptide of Cx43, accelerates healing in the treatment group. Despite standard care with compression therapy and adjuvant therapy for refractory wounds, at present in clinical practice a significant number of patients remain unhealed. The potential for ACT1 exists to help heal refractory VLUs, but it faces additional regulatory hurdles. PMID:25501380
Kirsner, Robert S; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Fox, Joshua D; Liu, Sophia N
The authors present an account on a successful cure of a mixed crural ulcer using combined therapy by a classical vascular surgical method and endoscopic surgery of the venous perforators of the leg. In the described case this combined treatment is the method of choice because it was not possible to use the classical Linton operation and also to protect a vascular prosthesis from infection. PMID:9828659
Stádler, P; Netuka, I; Sebesta, P
Parastomal ulcers that develop after stoma surgery have reportedly been associated with recurrent inflammatory bowel disease and chronic infection. We report 13 patients with refractory parastomal ulcers, which occurred at a mean of 11 years after surgery. Parastomal ulcers in eight patients were the result of dermatologic conditions (e.g., contact dermatitis, bullous pemphigoid, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, eczema, or psoriasis) or contact ulcers from dermatitis of the skin around the stoma and faceplate pressure. These ulcers healed after treatment with topical medications at a mean of 4 weeks. Five patients with inflammatory bowel disease had pyoderma gangrenosum ulcerations, which healed with systemic treatment at a mean of 25 weeks. Thus nonpyoderma gangrenosum parastomal ulcerations that occur late after stoma surgery require early enterostomal therapy nursing intervention and dermatologic evaluation, since they respond rapidly to appropriate local therapy. PMID:1350739
Ng, C S; Wolfsen, H C; Kozarek, R A; Brubacher, L L; Kayne, A L
Pain radiated from the chest to one or both legs (17 cases), or from the legs to the chest (two cases) in 19 patients with angina or acute myocardial infarction. The leg pain was assumed to be related to the angina pectoris when both were of a similar character and occurred together, when the leg pain occurred at rest, and when there were normal peripheral pulses in the leg. Pain was felt in the left leg by 10 patients, the right leg by two patients, and in both legs by seven. Three patients experienced pain in the thigh(s), six in the shin(s), and 10 had pain in both. In six patients the pain extended down to the inner two to four toes. The pain was always felt in front of the legs. This distribution accords with the suggestion that some sensory cardiac nerve fibres occur in the lumbar sympathetic ganglia and that pain is projected into the corresponding dermatomes. PMID:3942655
Kolettis, M T; Kalogeropoulos, C K; Tzannetis, G C; Vitakis, S K; Xaplanteris, P P; Novas, I A
Background Mixed venous and arterial ulcers account for approximately 15%–30% of all venous leg ulcerations. Several studies have shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) play a central role in the pathophysiology of venous and arterial diseases. Some studies have shown the efficacy of glycosaminoglycans, such as sulodexide (SDX), in treating patients with leg ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical effects of SDX and its correlation with MMPs and NGAL expression in patients with mixed arterial and venous leg ulcers. Methods Patients eligible for this study were of both sexes, older than 20 years, and with a clinical and instrumental diagnosis of mixed ulcer. Results Fifty-three patients of both sexes were enrolled and divided into two groups by means of randomization tables. Group A (treated group) comprised 18 females and ten males (median age: 68.7 years) treated with standard treatment (compression therapy and surgery) + SDX (600 lipoprotein lipase-releasing units/day intramuscularly) for 15 days followed by SDX 250 lipase-releasing units every 12 hours day orally for 6 months as adjunctive treatment. Group B (control group) comprised 17 females and eight males (median age: 64.2 years) treated with standard treatment only (compression therapy and surgery). The type of surgery was chosen according to anatomical level of vein incompetence: superficial venous open surgery and/or subfascial endoscopic perforating surgery. In all enrolled patients, blood samples were collected in order to evaluate the plasma levels of MMPs and NGAL through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results were compared to another control group (Group C) of healthy individuals. Moreover, biopsies of ulcers were taken to evaluate the tissue expression of MMPs and NGAL through Western blot analysis. Our results revealed that SDX treatment is able to reduce both plasma levels and tissue expression of MMPs improving the clinical conditions in patients with mixed ulcers. Conclusion Inhibition of MMPs could represent a possible therapeutic intervention to limit the progression of leg ulceration. In particular, our findings demonstrate the efficacy of SDX in patients with mixed arterial and venous chronic ulcers of the lower limbs. PMID:24872682
Serra, Raffaele; Gallelli, Luca; Conti, Angela; De Caridi, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; Spinelli, Francesco; Buffone, Gianluca; Caliò, Francesco Giuseppe; Amato, Bruno; Ceglia, Simona; Spaziano, Giuseppe; Scaramuzzino, Luca; Ferrarese, Alessia Giovanna; Grande, Raffaele; de Franciscis, Stefano
Lymphoedema is a progressive condition that can have a marked physical and psychological impact on affected patients and significantly reduce the quality of life. The ulcers on chronic lymphoedema patient, which often also makes it impossible for them to work. If left untreated, tends to progress or worsen. Ulcers in lymphoedema patients, therefore, represent not only a medical but also a psychological problem. The treatment is often regarded as being worse than it actually is. In our study of more than 25 years shows around 10% cases are due to chronic lymphodema. Ulcers of chronic lymphoedema are classified into four stages according to their presentation. Their management depends upon their stage of presentation. Patients with chronic lymphoedema and ulceration require a different approach to treatment. The specific issues associated with managing the patient with lymphoedematous ulceration include, limb shape distortion i.e., elephantiasis, care of the skin creases and folds, and swelling of the toes and fore foot. Stage I ulcers will heal with conservative treatment without any surgical intervention. Stage II ulcers needs debridement of the wound and split-thickness skin grafting. The most difficult to treat are the stage III and IV ulcers, due to associated skin changes and reduced vascularity. These cases need debulking along with excision of the ulcer. In order to prevent recurrence of the ulcer in all the four stages needs prolonged follow-up and limb care. PMID:23162225
Karnasula, Vishnu M.
The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…
Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.
AIM: This paper reports a study examining the interrater and intrarater reliability of classifying pressure ulcers according to the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel classification system when using photographs of pressure ulcers and incontinence lesions. BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcer classification is an essential tool for assessing ulcers and their severity and determining which preventive or therapeutic action is needed. Many classification
Tom Defloor; Lisette Schoonhoven; K. van der Wee; Jan Weststrate; Dries Myny
Objective. To compare the prevalence of pressure ulcers and prevention before and after a quality improvement program; determine whether patient characteristics differed for those who did and did not develop pressure ulcers; identify pressure ulcer prevention implemented at admission and whether prevention and risk factors varied by pressure ulcer severity. Design. Descriptive comparative study based on two cross-sectional pressure ulcer
LENA GUNNINGBERG; NANCYA. STOTTS
Cancer morbidity at all sites has been studied in a series of 676 patients with ulcerative colitis under long-term review, of whom more than two-thirds had extensive disease, and the level and pattern of risk over time examined. Age-, sex-, and site-specific incidence rates were used to compute the number of cancers that might have been expected to occur. A
P Prior; S N Gyde; J C Macartney; H Thompson; J A Waterhouse; R N Allan
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease featuring recurrent inflammation of the colonic mucosa. The goal of medical treatment is to rapidly induce a steroid-free remission while at the same time preventing complications of the disease itself and its treatment. The choice of treatment depends on severity, localization and the course of the disease. For proctitis, topical therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds is used. More extensive or severe disease should be treated with oral and local 5-ASA compounds and corticosteroids to induce remission. Patients who do not respond to this treatment require hospitalization. Intravenous steroids or, when refractory, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus), tumor necrosis factor-? antibodies (infliximab) or immunomodulators (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine) are then called for. Indications for emergency surgery include refractory toxic megacolon, perforation, and continuous severe colorectal bleeding. Close collaboration between gastroenterologist and surgeon is mandatory in order not to delay surgical therapy when needed. This article is intended to give a general, practice-orientated overview of the key issues in ulcerative colitis treatment. Recommendations are based on published consensus guidelines derived from national and international guidelines on the treatment of ulcerative colitis. PMID:21912469
Meier, Johannes; Sturm, Andreas
Ulcerative inflammation of the cornea occurs in the perilimbal cornea, and is associated with autoimmune collagen vascular and arthritic diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most frequent underlying disease. The tendency for peripheral location is due to the distinct morphologic and immunologic characteristics of the limbal conjunctiva, which provides access for circulating immune complexes to the peripheral cornea via the capillary network. Deposition of immune complexes in the terminal ends of limbal vessels initiates immune-mediated vasculitis, and causes inflammatory cell and protein leakage due to vessel wall damage. Development of peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with systemic disease may represent worsening of a potentially life-threatening disease. Accompanying scleritis, particularly the necrotizing form, is usually observed in severe cases, which may result in corneal perforation and loss of vision. Although first-line treatment with systemic corticosteroids is indicated for acute phases, immunosuppressive and cytotoxic agents are required for treatment of peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with multisystem disorders. Recently, infliximab, a chimeric antibody against proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, was reported to be effective in cases refractory to conventional immunomodulatory therapy. The potential side effects of these therapies require close follow-up and regular laboratory surveillance. PMID:22654502
True stress ulcers are primarily superficial gastric fundic lesions that occur in the clinical setting of severe shock, trauma, burns, and sepsis, especially peritonitis. They are to be clearly differentiated from Cushing's ulcers, exacerbation of pre-existent chronic ulcers, and drug-induced gastritis, all of which have completely different pathogenetic mechanisms. The etiology of true stress ulcers is most importantly related to ischemia and tissue acidosis, although luminal acid and pepsin are requisite for ulceration to occur. The sole clinical manifestation of stress ulcers is hemorrhage. Prophylaxis with antacids alone, or with a combination of antacids and H2 receptor antagonists is highly efficacious if luminal pH is carefully monitored. The treatment of exsanguinating hemorrhage, once established, carries with it an extremely high morbidity and mortality. PMID:2887324
OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 112 PRELIMINARY REPORT PERU CONTINENTAL MARGIN Roland von Huene Co Staff Scientist, Leg 112 Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 be obtained from the Director, Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843
The treatment of severe ulcerative colitis remains a challenge for gastroenterologists. A not inconsiderable number of patients will experience severe flares throughout their lives and will require hospitalization. Mortality in severe ulcerative colitis is still high and consequently treatment must be aggressive, avoiding delays in rescue therapies or even surgery. The aim of this review was to describe the medical treatment of severe ulcerative colitis, highlighting recent therapeutic advances. PMID:25015428
Montserrat, Aceituno; Yamile, Zabana; Maria, Esteve
Antacids can reduce gastroduodenal acidity for long periods if taken in substantial quantities after food. Their healing effect on gastric ulcer is minimal, if present at all, and easily overwhelmed by the benefit obtained from admission to hospital. Intensive antacid therapy appears effective in healing duodenal ulcer and preventing haemorrhage from stress ulcer, and is comparable in these respects with cimetidine but with a higher incidence of side-effects. Clinical impression strongly suggests that antacids relieve pain in peptic ulcer but objective confirmation is lacking. PMID:38192
Morris, T; Rhodes, J
To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.
Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.
The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that indicates the amount by which the spool has been turned. When the robot is ready to hop, the electromagnetic clutch disengages the motor from the spool, thus releasing the cable restraints on the springs and allowing the springs to extend all six legs simultaneously.
Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand
Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height. PMID:21569779
Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre
Colonoscopic evaluation is an important tool in the evaluation of ulcerative colitis (UC). UC is divided by disease extent into proctitis, proctosigmoiditis, left-sided colitis, and pan-colitis. In addition, a cecal or peri-appendiceal patch and backwash ileitis are associated with UC. The extent and behavior of UC has been characterized further using various indices and scoring systems; among these systems is the Mayo Score, which is widely used in current clinical trials for new medications. As these medical therapies for UC have developed, achieving mucosal healing with medications has become an important therapeutic objective. PMID:24879406
Paine, Elizabeth R.
Chronic parastomal ulcers in patients with ileostomy or colostomy stomas are unusual. Previous reports have implicated infections, fistulas, recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), pyoderma gangrenosum, and trauma. Over the past 8 years we have evaluated 10 cases of such refractory parastomal ulcers that occurred at a mean of 11 years after stomal surgery. Eight patients had had an ileostomy for IBD while two had undergone colostomy for colon cancer. Five patients with IBD were diagnosed as having pyoderma gangrenosum ulcerations. They required systemic treatment for a mean of 25 weeks to effect ulcer healing. The other five patients had either parastomal ulcers on the basis of dermatoses (contact dermatitis, eczema, or bullous pemphigoid) or contact ulcers due to face-plate pressure and parastomal dermatitis. These patients received topical treatment with healing of ulcers in a mean of 4 weeks. We conclude that parastomal ulcers occurring in patients without IBD or IBD patients without classic pyoderma gangrenosum require early dermatologic evaluation as they respond relatively quickly to appropriate local therapy. PMID:1979985
Wolfsen, H C; Brubacher, L L; Ng, C S; Kayne, A L; Kozarek, R A
Pressure ulcer in an otherwise sick patient is a matter of concern for the care givers as well as the medical personnel. A lot has been done to understand the disease process. So much so that USA and European countries have established advisory panels in their respective continents. Since the establishment of these organizations, the understanding of the pressure ulcer has improved significantly. The authors feel that the well documented and well publicized definition of pressure ulcer is somewhat lacking in the correct description of the disease process. Hence, a modified definition has been presented. This disease is here to stay. In the process of managing these ulcers the basic pathology needs to be understood well. Pressure ischemia is the main reason behind the occurrence of ulceration. Different extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been described in detail with review of literature. There are a large number of risk factors causing ulceration. The risk assessment scales have eluded the surgical literature and mostly remained in nursing books and websites. These scales have been reproduced for completion of the basics on decubitus ulcer. The classification of the pressure sores has been given in a comparative form to elucidate that most of the classifications are the same except for minor variations. The management of these ulcers is ever evolving but the age old saying of “prevention is better than cure” suits this condition the most. PMID:23162223
Agrawal, Karoon; Chauhan, Neha
Dragstedt believed that basal hypersecretion of gastric acid was the root cause of duodenal ulcer, that the hypersecretion was due to an increased vagal stimulation, and that vagotomy would therefore cure duodenal ulcer. He introduced vagotomy and demonstrated that the operation was successful in curing most patients of their duodenal ulcers. This article reviews how further research in the succeeding half century has demonstrated that it is the effect of vagotomy on stimulated, rather than upon basal secretion that cures duodenal ulcer and that the apparent basal hypersecretion of patients with duodenal ulcer is due to an increased parietal cell mass. The article points out that there is no convincing explanation as yet of the mechanism whereby vagotomy reduces histamine-stimulated gastric secretion. PMID:7502527
Conventional medical treatment for ulcerative colitis can have limited efficacy or severe adverse reactions requiring additional treatment or colectomy. Hence, different biological agents that target specific immunological pathways are being investigated for treating ulcerative colitis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents were the first biologics to be used for treating inflammatory bowel disease. For example, infliximab and adalimumab, which are anti-TNF agents, are being used for treating ulcerative colitis. Recently, golimumab, another anti-TNF agent, and vedolizumab, an anti-adhesion therapy, have been approved for ulcerative colitis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In addition, new medications such as tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, and etrolizumab, another anti-adhesion therapy, are emerging as therapeutic agents. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to select appropriate patient groups for these biologics and to improve the outcomes of ulcerative colitis treatment through appropriate medical usage. PMID:25547087
Park, Sung Chul; Jeen, Yoon Tae
Impaired metabolism of short-chain fatty acids, as well as a modified fecal ionogram, have been reported in ulcerative colitis. Fecal water samples from 62 patients with ulcerative colitis were analyzed in the present investigation to evaluate changes in SCFAs and lactic acid in relation to activity and severity of disease. Short-chain fatty acid levels were high in quiescent and mild disease (162.6 +/- 63.6 and 147.8 +/- 63.2 mM/L, respectively), but significantly decreased in the severe form (64.7 +/- 46.9 mM/L). Lactate showed a progressive increase from mild colitis (3.0 +/- 1.8 mM/L) to severe colitis (21.4 +/- 18.6 mM/L). It thus appears that mild colitis displayed a fecal pattern characterized by normal pH and bicarbonate, slightly impaired electrolyte handling, high short-chain fatty acid values, and only moderately increased lactate. Severe colitis, on the other hand, was characterized by low fecal pH, bicarbonate, and potassium, high sodium and chloride, low short-chain fatty acid levels, and very high lactate levels. A critical lowering of intraluminal pH, which shifts bacterial metabolism from short-chain fatty acid to lactate production, may be responsible for the intraluminal pooling of lactate. PMID:3181680
Vernia, P; Caprilli, R; Latella, G; Barbetti, F; Magliocca, F M; Cittadini, M
Specimens from nonkeratinized oral mucosa were obtained from diseased and clinically healthy mucosa from 7 patients with minor recurrent aphthous ulcers. The innervation of the specimens was visualized using antibodies to neuron-specific intermediate cytoskeletal neurofilament fiber, the cytoplasmic protein gene product 9.5 and a 38 kDa integral membrane protein of synaptic vesicles applied in avidin-biotin-peroxidase staining. Mapping with these 3 antibodies revealed dense and basically similar pattern of innervation in the specimens of the clinically healthy oral mucosa. In recurrent aphthous ulcers, all 3 general markers disclosed peripheral nerve fibers also in the lesions, apart from the necrotic area, among the inflammatory cells without signs of retraction from the diseased area. Synaptophysin staining suggested that these peripheral nerve fibers in the inflammatory areas still contained synaptic vesicles. Accordingly, they were shown to contain substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, which are known to be released upon stimulation of the nerve and can exert potent paracrine actions, possibly on the local inflammatory cells as suggested by a close spatial relationship between neuropeptide-containing nerves and inflammatory cells. PMID:7478757
Konttinen, Y T; Hayrinen-Immonen, R H; Nordstrom, D; Malmstrom, M J; Hukkanen, M; Sorsa, T; Polak, J
Forty-four Asian immigrants in Birmingham and 44 age- and sex-matched white Caucasians with ulcerative colitis were compared to investigate the existence of any ethnic differences in the pattern of disease. Asian immigrants demonstrated a male preponderance of 2:1, and compared to the matched Caucasians there was a higher incidence of presenting eosinophilia and a milder course of disease, with more patients experiencing only a single initial attack. In spite of this clinical difference, total or subtotal colitis was the commonest pathological type in both white Caucasians and Indians, whereas in Pakistanis localized distal disease predominated. All ethnic groups suffered the same overall complication rate (55%) which is at variance with the experience of low complication rates in India. The age of onset of ulcerative colitis was related to age at immigration with a mean interval of 11 years. Although in some respects Asian immigrants share the disease pattern of the indigenous population, the observed significant differences could be of importance with regard to pathogenesis. PMID:3422862
Benfield, G. F.; Montgomery, R. D.; Asquith, P.
USGS biologists are leading the monitoring and reintroduction effort of the Southern California mountain yellow-legged frog -- federally listed as endangered with only 200 wild adults remaining in the mountains surrounding Los Angeles County....
K. Graber and Lori J. Cagle #12;Leg 194 Scientific Prospectus Page 3 ABSTRACT Cretaceous rifting in the western Coral Sea (offshore northeast Australia) formed continental fragments that are now capped
OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 102 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS DOWNHOLE MEASUREMENTS IN THE WESTERN ATLANTIC will depart Miami, Florida on March 19, and steam to Site 418 to conduct downhole geophysical studies
Assessing suitable sites in southern California for reintroducing endangered southern mountain yellow-legged frogs, USGS scientists rediscovered a population in the San Jacinto Wilderness, 50 years since this frog was last seen there....
Ipsilateral motor or sensory symptoms associated with carotid occlusive diseases are rare. We report a 52-year-old man who presented with aphasia, right hemiparesis, mild left leg weakness, and bilateral Babinski's signs. During the previous 10 days, he had experienced three episodes of left leg numbness and incoordination that occurred either alone or in association with right arm and leg weakness. Computed tomography showed infarcts in the right frontoparietal (parasagittal), left frontal, and left parietal lobes. Cerebral angiography revealed 60% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery, 80% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery, absence of the A1 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery, filling of the right anterior cerebral artery from the left carotid circulation only, and a normal vertebrobasilar system. This report illustrates that leg weakness may occur ipsilateral to carotid disease if the contralateral anterior cerebral artery is supplied by the ipsilateral carotid artery. PMID:2396275
Chimowitz, M I; Lafranchise, E F; Furlan, A J; Awad, I A
A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.
Miller, Christopher R. (inventor)
The static stability of a Tension Leg Platform (TLP) with an intact tendon system is principally provided by its tendons and hence quite different from those of a conventional ship or even a floating structure positioned by its mooring system...
Forward propulsion is a central task of walking that depends on the generation of appropriate anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (AP GRFs). The AP impulse (i.e., time integral of the AP GRF) generated by the paretic relative to non-paretic leg is a quantitative measure of the paretic leg’s contribution to forward propulsion and is variable across hemiparetic subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of propulsion generation in hemiparetic walking by identifying the biomechanical predictors of AP impulses. Three-dimensional kinematics and GRFs were recorded from 51 hemiparetic and 21 age-matched control subjects walking at similar speeds on an instrumented treadmill. Hierarchical regression models were generated for each leg to predict the AP impulse from independent biomechanical variables. Leg extension was a significant predictor and positively related to the propulsive impulse in the paretic, non-paretic and control legs. Secondarily, the hip flexor impulse was negatively related to the propulsive impulse. Also, the relationship of paretic and non-paretic ankle moments with the propulsive impulse depended on the paretic step ratio, suggesting the plantar flexor contribution to the propulsive impulse depends on leg angle. These results suggest that increasing paretic leg extension will increase propulsion. Increasing paretic leg plantar flexor output and decreasing paretic leg hip flexor output could also increase paretic leg propulsion. While increased pre-swing hip flexor output has been suggested to compensate for decreased plantar flexor output, such output may further impair propulsion by the paretic leg if it occurs too soon in the gait cycle. PMID:20656492
Peterson, Carrie L.; Cheng, Jing; Kautz, Steven A.; Neptune, Richard R.
The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.
Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian
The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.
Hayward, David R.
INTRODUCTION: Farley & Morgenroth (1999) studied contributions to leg elasticity during maximal and sub maximal vertical jumping in a young population. Using a computer model for leg elasticity they found that ankle joint stiffness was the main contibutor to leg elasticity and showed that it was directly proportional to overall leg stiffness. The aim of this study was to track
Ceri Diss; David Kerwin
OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb amputation unless a prompt, rational, multidisciplinary approach to therapy is taken. Factors that affect development and healing of diabetic patients' foot ulcers include the degree of metabolic control, the presence of ischemia or infection, and continuing trauma to feet from excessive plantar pressure or poorly fitting shoes. Appropriate wound care for diabetic patients addresses these issues and provides optimal local ulcer therapy with débridement of necrotic tissue and provision of a moist wound-healing environment. Therapies that have no known therapeutic value, such as foot soaking and topical antiseptics, can actually be harmful and should be avoided. CONCLUSION: Family physicians are often primary medical contacts for patients with diabetes. Patients should be screened regularly for diabetic foot complications, and preventive measures should be initiated for those at risk of ulceration. PMID:11398715
Bowering, C. K.
Acute corneal ulceration in malnourished children is the commonest cause of childhood blindness in Northern Nigeria and usually develops after measles. Other severe diseases in malnourished children rarely precipitate corneal ulceration. A survey in a school for blind children showed that 69% of the children were blind from corneal disease, and a survey of children with corneal scars showed that at least 42% were caused by ulceration after measles. The clinical appearance of the active ulcers was very varied. The serum retinol-binding protein and prealbumin levels in children with corneal ulcers following measles were below normal, but a group of malnourished children without eye complaints following measles were found to have even lower levels. Thus a specific deficiency of vitamin A does not appear to be the primary cause of these ulcers, though it may be a contributory one. A specific measles keratitis and secondary herpes simplex infectious may be local factors contributing to this ulceration, and there is nearly always a background of protein calorie malnutrition. Racial factors may also be of some significance. PMID:508686
Sandford-Smith, J H; Whittle, H C
The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality. PMID:24355276
Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S
Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) is a sight-threatening condition characterized by an epithelial defect, crescent-shaped stromal inflammation, and progressive stromal thinning. Peripheral ulcerative keratitis as a purely inflammatory entity is most commonly associated with collagen vascular diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener granulomatosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and relapsing polychondritis. PUK can also be associated with infectious and inflammatory conditions such as hepatitis, syphilis, herpes simplex keratitis, fungal keratitis, Mooren ulcer, and marginal keratitis. We describe a case report of PUK associated with the inflammatory condition of sarcoidosis. PMID:23993305
Harthan, Jennifer S; Reeder, Renée E
The present study is designed to explore the mechanism of action of herbal formulation Lucer against experimentally induced gastric ulcers. The aqueous extract (120 and 180 mg/kg) of Lucer was tested against aspirin and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The drug has been found to be very effective in inhibiting gastric ulceration. This is evident from reduction in ulcer index parameters. Besides, significant reduction in acid secretory parameters such as total acidity, total acid output and volume of gastric secretion were also observed. It is concluded from this study that the drug possesses anti-ulcer activity in both the models. The anti-ulcer activity of the drug can be attributed to inhibition of acid secretary parameters and strengthening of gastric mucosal barrier. PMID:23559812
Shah, Jigna S.; Patel, Jetun R.
BackgroundPressure ulcers continue to be a significant problem in hospitals, nursing homes and community care settings. Pressure ulcer incidence is widely accepted as an indicator for the quality of care. Negative attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention may result in suboptimal preventive care. A reliable and valid instrument to assess attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention is lacking.
D. Beeckman; T. Defloor; L. Demarré; A. Van Hecke; K. Vanderwee
Little published information exists regarding the magnitude and time course of cephalad fluid shift resulting from microgravity simulations. Six subjects were exposed to 150 min each at horizontal bed rest, 6-deg head-down tilt, and horizontal water immersion. Fluid shift was estimated by calculating leg volumes from eight serial girth measurements from groin to ankle before, during, and after exposure. Results were compared with data from the first 3 h of spacecraft. By the end of exposure, total leg volume for the six subjects decreased by 2.6 +/- 0.8 percent, 1.7 +/- 1.2 percent, and 4.0 +/- 1.6 percent for horizontal, head-down, and immersion, respectively. Changes had plateaued for horizontal and head-down and had slowed for immersion. Relatively more fluid was lost from the lower leg than the thigh for all three conditions, particularly head-down. During the first 3 h of spaceflight, total leg volume decreased by 8.6 percent, and relatively more fluid was lost from the thigh than the lower leg. The difference in volume changes in microgravity and simulated microgravity may be caused by the small transverse pressures still present in ground-based simulations and the extremely nonlinear compliance of tissue.
Thornton, William E.; Hedge, Vickie; Coleman, Eugene; Uri, John J.; Moore, Thomas P.
FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. The story of the serendipitous discovery of the link between Helicobacter pylori and stomach ulcers. This story includes how this finding was applied to epidemiology, cancer research, and drug development.
PhD Nancy A. Lynch (University of Iowa College of Medicine)
This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreover, in several experimental models of gastric ulcer, tannins have been shown to present antioxidant activity, promote tissue repair, exhibit anti Helicobacter pylori effects, and they are involved in gastrointestinal tract anti-inflammatory processes. The presence of tannins explains the anti-ulcer effects of many natural products. PMID:22489149
de Jesus, Neyres Zinia Taveira; de Souza Falcão, Heloina; Gomes, Isis Fernandes; de Almeida Leite, Thiago Jose; de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Batista, Leonia Maria
An 18-year-old female presented with a severe ulcerative lesion on her right ear of 6 weeks duration. Her right ear was edematous and erythematous with a large, painless ulcerative lesion covering a third of the pinna and satellite papular lesions on the posterior. She was diagnosed with chiclero's ulcer. A skin smear stained with Diff-quik showed abundant Leishmania parasites. Chiclero's ulcer is a rare clinical presentation and is typically severe and difficult to treat. Physicians in Ecuador recommend administering prolonged intramuscular Glucantime. Side effects are common and can be severe resulting in low patient compliance. Because of preferences of the patient and the large volume needed for her weight, we recommended topical treatment with a lotion of Glucantime mixed half and half with white Merthiolate. After applying this lotion to the lesion 3 to 4 times a day for 6 weeks, the lesion healed. PMID:23926136
Calvopiña, Manuel; Martinez, Leonardo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
The possibility of using cycloferon (interferon inductor) for a complex treatment (in combination with the main drug solcoseryl possessing pronounced therapeutic properties) of duodenum ulcers was experimentally studied in male rats. The experiments showed a considerable difference in the interferon status of animals with model duodenum ulcers treated with cycloferon, solcoseryl, their combination, and placebo (control). The healing effect of solcoseryl administered in combination with cycloferon exceeded that of each component administered separately. PMID:11871237
Bul'on, V V; Khnychenko, L K; Sapronov, N S; Kuznetsova, N N; Anikin, V B; arinenko, R Iu; Kovalenko, A L; Alekseeva, L E
Epidermoid carcinoma in nonhealing scar tissue, known as Marjolin's ulcer, is not uncommon and is thought to behave in a more aggressive fashion than those from other causes. Between 1982 and 1997, 56 patients with Marjolin's ulcer were treated at our center, Ege University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey. All lesions were secondary to various kinds of burns. Forty of these patients could be followed up 5 years or more. These 40 patients' medical records were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:11761388
Ozek, C; Cankayali, R; Bilkay, U; Guner, U; Gundogan, H; Songur, E; Akin, Y; Cagdas, A
When conducting prevalence surveys pressure ulcers were found in participants clearly identified not to be at risk. This article\\u000a determines and analyses persons in German hospitals and nursing homes who suffer from pressure ulcers but are not at risk.\\u000a In the years 2002, 2003 and 2004 there were 7,097 nursing home residents and 23,966 hospital patients examined in annual pressure
Nils A. Lahmann; Ruud J. G. Halfens; Theo Dassen
The authors present the investigation of inpatient treatment of 137 patients with trophic ulcers of venous aethiology. All the patients were hospitalized in the "Road clinical hospital" on the Krasnoyarsk station. A comparative analysis of treatment results of the patients with trophic ulcers using different medical methods was made. The efficacy of combined use of low-frequency ultrasound and ozone therapy was proved. PMID:25306640
Karapetian, G É; Iakimov, S V; Mikitin, I L; Kochetova, L V; Pakhomova, R A
Marjolin's ulcers are rare cutaneous malignancies that most commonly present as squamous cell carcinomas in previously injured, chronically inflamed, or scarred skin. Acute and chronic types have been distinguished by the length of latency; by definition, the acute type occurs within 12 months of injury whereas the chronic type appears over 12 months after injury. In this report, 3 cases of acute Marjolin's ulcers are described and questions are raised about the diagnosis of acute Marjolin's ulcer. Other than a discrepancy in lag time, it is unclear if there is any difference in clinical or histological characteristics or even prognosis between acute and chronic Marjolin's ulcers. In fact, the acute type may simply be a preemptive diagnosis that conveniently describes a carcinoma associated with a nonhealing wound and discovered within a short time span. Moreover, the rarity of the diagnosis and the relatively rapid rate of malignant degeneration from the inciting injury lead one to question whether the injury may have simply revealed or accelerated a previously existing occult cutaneous malignancy. With no definitive clinical, histological, or prognostic distinction between acute and chronic Marjolin's ulcers, the use of such terminology may not benefit a clinician's understanding or practice. In fact, it merely supports the clinical guideline that any nonhealing wound, acute or chronic, should be biopsied and sent for pathologic examination to ensure that it does not represent a Marjolin's ulcer. PMID:24691319
Chang, Jessica B; Kung, Theodore A; Cederna, Paul S
The purpose of this article is to provide education to the RN regarding pressure ulcer prevention and best practice interventions. This investigation focuses on the definition of a pressure ulcer, risk factors for pressure ulcers, and the benefits and importance of using unlicensed assistive personnel to help prevent pressure ulcers. A comprehensive literature review was completed using the Texas Woman's University Library, the Texas Christian University Library, and the World Wide Web. The search engine used was Google. The databases included were CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source. The literature was current, defined as from the last 10 years, and the primary language searched was English. Full-text articles from these databases were included as well as print publications from the university collections. The key search terms from the literature review included (a) pressure ulcer, (b) prevention, (c) unlicensed assistive personnel, (d) nursing assistant, (e) theory of nursing knowledge, (f) incidence, (g) prevalence, (h) Braden scale, (i) moisture, and (j) repositioning. Best practice guidelines were reviewed via the Joanna Briggs database, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Cochrane Library, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, and the National Institutes of Health. Literature was synthesized to define evidence-based practices that would justify the use of unlicensed assistive personnel for the prevention and care of pressure ulcers. PMID:20827067
Walker Sewill, Danielle K; Van Sell, Sharon; Kindred, Chris
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:24833849
Graham, David Y
The probability of failure, Pf, for various square-arrayed thermoelectric device designs using bismuth telluride, lead telluride, or skutterudite thermoelectric materials were estimated. Only volume- or bulk-based Pf analysis was considered in this study. The effects of the choice of the thermoelectric material, the size of the leg array, the height of the thermoelectric legs, and the boundary conditions on the Pf of thermoelectric devices were investigated. Yielding of the solder contacts and mounting layer was taken into account. The modeling results showed that the use of longer legs, using skutterudites, allowing the thermoelectric device to freely deform while under a thermal gradient, and using smaller arrays promoted higher probabilities of survival.
Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL
Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results. PMID:23960288
Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.
Ray, C. A.
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare dermatosis of unknown etiology and variable clinical presentation. The disease is challenging for the medical staff, from the frequent diagnostic difficulties to the lack of scientific evidence with a good level to support the management of extensive and refractory cases. Our patient is a 50 year-old man with an extensive and deep ulcer on the left leg, which exemplifies the therapeutic difficulties inherent to the disease and who, fortunately, has progressed with excellent result after association of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and skin grafting to the immunosuppression therapy initially proposed. PMID:24346912
Araújo, Fernanda Mendes; Kondo, Rogério Nabor; Minelli, Lorivaldo
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare dermatosis of unknown etiology and variable clinical presentation. The disease is challenging for the medical staff, from the frequent diagnostic difficulties to the lack of scientific evidence with a good level to support the management of extensive and refractory cases. Our patient is a 50 year-old man with an extensive and deep ulcer on the left leg, which exemplifies the therapeutic difficulties inherent to the disease and who, fortunately, has progressed with excellent result after association of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and skin grafting to the immunosuppression therapy initially proposed. PMID:24346912
Araújo, Fernanda Mendes; Kondo, Rogério Nabor; Minelli, Lorivaldo
Stress ulcers are multiple, superficial erosions which occur mainly in the fundus and body of the stomach. They develop after shock, sepsis, and trauma and are ofter found in patients with peritonitis and other chronic medical illness. Stress ulcers should be differentiated from reactivation of chronic duodenal or gastric ulcers. Cushing's ulcer following head injury, or drug-induced gastritis. Digestive symptoms are usually absent, hemorrhage is the most common manifestation, and perforation and obstruction are rare. The presence of luminal acid and ischemia are necessary for the production of stress ulcer, while disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier by refluxed duodenal content may contribute to the pathogenesis. Endoscopy is the mainstay of the diagnostic procedure, and angiography should be used if endoscopy fails to identify the bleeding lesions. Medical management should include volume replacement, nasogastric aspiration, and the use of antacid. Selective intraarterial infusion of pitressin has shown encouraging preliminary results. Surgical treatment is reserved only for those patients who continue to bleed despite all medical management. The operation of choice is open to question. We prefer vagotomy, pyloroplasty, and oversewing the ulcers as an initial operation. Since the result of all forms of therapy has been poor, it seems resonable to try to prevent ulcer development. The use of vitamin A, hyperalimentation, and growth hormones is still in an experimental stage. Large clinical studies with case control are necessary before recommendations can be made. The use of potent and frequent antacid to buffer the gastric content has shown promising results; however, these observations need to be confirmed in a properly controlled and randomized study. PMID:793064
Moody, F G; Cheung, L Y
deepening through the dike/gabbro and/or Layer 2/3 transition(s). Located in 5.9-m.y.-old crust, Hole 504B and underlying gabbros in the context of a complete crustal section. The leg is scheduled for 21 March to 1 May
Get Your Legs Ready For Summer! Free seminars: Treatments for spider veins The vascular program at UC Davis Health System is the most comprehensive in the Sacramento area for the treatment of varicose and spider veins. The UC Davis Vascular Center's vein program offers advanced cosmetic and therapeutic
Leistikow, Bruce N.
The control of a legged locomotion system over uneven terrain requires a new approach to coordination. The system has a high degree of static indeterminacy and, because of the stiffness of the structural and actuation systems, has stability problems if position-velocity control is used. The problem has many similarities to that of grasping and manipulating an object in a multi-fingered
Kenneth J. Waldron
of this publication may be obtained from the ODP Publications Home Page on the World Wide Web at http K. Graber #12;Leg 181 Scientific Prospectus Page 3 ABSTRACT The circulation of cold, deep Antarctic the world ocean through the Southwest Pacific Gateway as a thermohaline drive Deep Western Boundary Current
OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 185 PRELIMINARY REPORT IZU-MARIANA MARGIN Dr. Terry Plank Co U.S.A. Internet: firstname.lastname@example.org Work: (785) 864-2725 Fax: (785) 864-5276 John N. Ludden Internet: email@example.com Work: (33) 3-83-594213 Fax: (33) 3-83511798 Carlota Escutia Staff
Five principles to reestablish static ligamentous sta bility are introduced, including secure, temporary, ti biofemoral fixation to protect against early postoper ative stretch or disruption. The necessity for empha sizing this point is demonstrated by a cadaver study. Knee motion in and out of long leg plaster casts was carefully studied in necropsy specimens. Casts ap plied over minimal or
Kenneth A. Krackow; William Laughlin Vetter
The paper introduces a systematic approach for dealing with legged robot mechanism analysis. First, we briefly summarize basic mathematical tools for studying the dynamics of these multi-loop and parallel mechanisms using a unified spatial formulation which is useful for computer algorithms. The dynamic behavior analysis is based on two stages. The first one deals with establishing the equations of motion
F. B. Ouezdou; O. Bruneau; J. C. Guinot
A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.
Leg stiffness is often computed from ground reaction force (GRF) registrations of vertical hops to estimate the force-resisting capacity of the lower-extremity during ground contact, with leg stiffness values incorporated in a spring-mass model to describe human motion. Individual biomechanical characteristics, including leg stiffness, were investigated in 40 healthy males. Our aim is to report and discuss the use of 13 different computational methods for evaluating leg stiffness from a double-legged repetitive hopping task, using only GRF registrations. Four approximations for the velocity integration constant were combined with three mathematical expressions, giving 12 methods for computing stiffness using double integrations. One frequency-based method that considered ground contact times was also trialled. The 13 methods thus defined were used to compute stiffness in four extreme cases, which were the stiffest, and most compliant, consistent and variable subjects. All methods provided different stiffness measures for a given individual, but the between-method variations in stiffness were consistent across the four atypical subjects. The frequency-based method apparently overestimated the actual stiffness values, whereas double integrations' measures were more consistent. In double integrations, the choice of the integration constant and mathematical expression considerably affected stiffness values, as variations during hopping were more or less emphasized. Stating a zero centre of mass position at take-off gave more consistent results, and taking a weighted-average of the force or displacement curve was more forgiving to variations in performance. In any case, stiffness values should always be accompanied by a detailed description of their evaluation methods, as our results demonstrated that computational methods affect calculated stiffness. PMID:24188972
Hébert-Losier, Kim; Eriksson, Anders
Fungal elements are frequently noted overlying the base of chronic peptic ulcers of the stomach and it has been suggested that the fungi enhance the degree of necrosis and that these cases have protracted disease and deeper ulcers with more perforations. It has also been postulated that the number of fungal elements might be increased in the stomach of patients who are receiving potent medications such as H2-receptor antagonists to reduce gastric acidity, but there have not been adequate control studies, and the deleterious effects from the presence of the fungi in these cases have not been substantiated. We present a very rare case of invasive mucormycosis (phycomycosis) occurring in the base of a chronic gastric ulcer in a 55 years old diabetic male. This case was clinically and radiologically been mistaken for a gastric carcinoma. In addition, the ulcer was complicated by perforation and fungal septicemia with subsequent fatal outcome. The clinical, radiological and histopathological features are described together with a literature review of other reported fungal gastric ulcers. PMID:11533800
Al-Rikabi, A C; Al-Dohayan, A D; Al-Boukai, A A
Tissues such as skin and muscle have a limited repertoire of morphological response to injury. The two most important phenomena that determine the outcome of cell injury appear to be a) critical cell membrane damage, with associated fluid and ionic imbalances; and b) inability of mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, to restart ATP synthesis. In fish, skin ulcers can have many different etiologies, including infectious agents, toxins, physical causes, immunologic causes, and nutritional and metabolic perturbations. This article is concerned primarily with the possible pathways of disease involved in ulcerative lesions of fish. In particular, the high prevalence of ulcerative lesions in Atlantic menhaden found along the mid-Atlantic coast, especially in North Carolina estuarine waters, has received much recent attention. These ulcerative lesions are likely to be initiated by a series of factors that lead ultimately to a breach of the normal barrier function of the skin. Bioassays that attempt to define the role of individual etiologic agents such as fungi (oomycetes) or putative Pfiesteria toxin(s) should recognize this multiplicity of factors and should include appropriate quality control measures for water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrogenous wastes, etc.) as well as bacterial and other contaminants that may confound bioassay results and their interpretation. Consideration of these factors along with the whole animal in the context of its environment can only advance the science, perhaps provide clues to the causative pathways of skin ulcers in fish, and give us keener insight into the health of the aquatic environment. PMID:11677175
Background Hydroxyurea at a relatively low dose is frequently prescribed to induce hemoglobin F production in patients with sickle cell and ?-thalassemia diseases because of its good efficacy and safety profiles. However, a potentially fatal gastrointestinal ulceration was recently found and herein reported. Case presentation A thirty-seven-year-old man with transfusion dependent hemoglobin E/?-thalassemia disease was treated with hydroxyurea to induce hemoglobin F production since 2007 without incident. From 2008 to April 2010, episodes of hematochezia, mucous diarrhea and epigastric pain intermittently manifested. Four colonoscopies done during the period repeatedly showed ulcerative lesions from the terminal ileum to the ascending colon with a non-specific histo-pathologic finding. Subsequently, ulcerative lesions also developed at the pharynx, histo-pathologic findings of which were not different from those in the colon. These ulcerative lesions resolved within a month after discontinuing hydroxyurea in April 2010 and have not recurred since. Conclusion The findings suggested role of hydroxyurea in the pathogenesis of these ulcers, and that it must be immediately discontinued to prevent further damage to the digestive mucosa. PMID:25082414
Conventional medical treatment for ulcerative colitis can have limited efficacy or severe adverse reactions requiring additional treatment or colectomy. Hence, different biological agents that target specific immunological pathways are be-ing investigated for treating ulcerative colitis. Anti-tumor ne-crosis factor (TNF) agents were the first biologics to be used for treating inflammatory bowel disease. For example, inflix-imab and adalimumab, which are anti-TNF agents, are be-ing used for treating ulcerative colitis. Recently, golimumab, another anti-TNF agent, and vedolizumab, an anti-adhesion therapy, have been approved for ulcerative colitis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In addition, new medications such as tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, and etrolizumab, another anti-adhesion therapy, are emerging as therapeu-tic agents. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to select appropriate patient groups for these biologics and to improve the outcomes of ulcerative colitis treatment through appropriate medical usage. (Gut Liver 2015;9:18-27). PMID:25547087
Park, Sung Chul; Jeen, Yoon Tae
Background: Restless legs syndrome is a common yet frequently undiagnosed sensorimotor disorder. In 1995, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group developed standardized criteria for the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome. Since that time, additional scientific scrutiny and clinical experience have led to a better understanding of the condition. Modification of the criteria is now necessary to better reflect that
Richard P Allen; Daniel Picchietti; Wayne A Hening; Claudia Trenkwalder; Arthur S Walters; Jacques Montplaisi
Diabetic foot ulceration represents a major medical, social and economic problem all over the world. While more than 5% of diabetic patients have a history of foot ulceration, the cumulative lifetime incidence may be as high as 15%. Ethnic differences exist in both ulcer and amputation incidences. Foot ulceration results from the interaction of several contributory factors, the most important of which is neuropathy. The use of the total-contact cast is demonstrated in the treatment of plantar neuropathic ulcers. Histological evidence suggests that pressure relief results in chronic foot ulcers changing their morphological appearance by displaying some features of an acute wound. Thus, repetitive stresses on the insensate foot appear to play a major role in maintaining ulcer chronicity. It is hoped that research activity in foot disease will ultimately result in fewer ulcers and less amputation in diabetes. PMID:15918113
Rathur, H M; Boulton, A J
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity of a leg-to-leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) system in predicting body composition as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body fat mass (FM), %Fat and fat free mass (FFM) were measured in 124 postmenopausal women (age: 51–63 y, body mass index (BMI): 17–38 kg\\/m2) first by the leg-to-leg BIA system, and
X Xie; N Kolthoff; O Bärenholt; SP Nielsen
Aim This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Background Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The foundation for the risk assessment component incorporated a systematic review and a consensus study that highlighted the need to propose a new conceptual framework. Design Discussion Paper. Data Sources The new conceptual framework links evidence from biomechanical, physiological and epidemiological evidence, through use of data from a systematic review (search conducted March 2010), a consensus study (conducted December 2010–2011) and an international expert group meeting (conducted December 2011). Implications for Nursing A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework incorporating key physiological and biomechanical components and their impact on internal strains, stresses and damage thresholds is proposed. Direct and key indirect causal factors suggested in a theoretical causal pathway are mapped to the physiological and biomechanical components of the framework. The new proposed conceptual framework provides the basis for understanding the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and has the potential to influence risk assessment guidance and practice. It could also be used to underpin future research to explore the role of individual risk factors conceptually and operationally. Conclusion By integrating existing knowledge from epidemiological, physiological and biomechanical evidence, a theoretical causal pathway and new conceptual framework are proposed with potential implications for practice and research. PMID:24684197
Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane; Keen, Justin; Wilson, Lyn; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Dealey, Carol; Stubbs, Nikki; Farrin, Amanda; Dowding, Dawn; Schols, Jos MGA; Cuddigan, Janet; Berlowitz, Dan; Jude, Edward; Vowden, Peter; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Bader, Dan L; Gefen, Amit; Oomens, Cees WJ; Nelson, E Andrea
A two-year-old, female, simian immunodeficiency virus E543-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia due to a history of diarrhea, weight loss, and a small, round ulcer along the left labial commisure. Histopathologic examination of the ulcer revealed infiltration by large numbers of degenerate and non-degenerate neutrophils and macrophages admixed with syncytial epithelial cells. Rare epithelial cells contained herpetic inclusion bodies. These cells stained positive for Human herpesvirus 1 via immunohistochemistry and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of closely related Macacine herpesvirus 1 (B virus). PMID:21383117
Bailey, C. C.; Miller, A. D.
Tropical ulcer is a disease found most commonly in the tropics, although the disease is not confined to those areas. Young children are affected most frequently and the disease is thought to be a polymicrobial infection with fusobacteria, aerobic microorganisms and spirochaetes each playing a role. The fusobacteria have been reported on smears but have not been cultured thus far. We report the isolation and culture of these organisms from 46 ulcers and have also demonstrated the same organisms in skin biopsies from these lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3678397
Adriaans, B.; Drasar, B. S.
A 26-year-old man with ulcerative colitis was independently evaluated in different emergency rooms on two occasions, separated by six years, for episodes of severe chest pain consistent with myopericarditis. Cardiac enzyme and electrocardiographic changes were accompanied by extensive colonic inflammatory changes. Treatment with corticosteroids led to resolution. While his cardiac findings were initially believed to be caused by a previously reported drug hypersensitivity to mesalamine (5-aminosalicylate), sulphasalazine was tolerated. Recurrent myopericarditis with ulcerative colitis appears to be rare, but responsive to steroids. It may occur more often than is currently appreciated and may lead to fatal arrhythmias or cardiac failure. PMID:21165365
Freeman, Hugh James; Salh, Baljinder
PURPOSE: Perineal pressure ulcers are a common and devastating complication for paralyzed or chronically bedridden patients. Controversy exists on the benefit of fecal diversion for the treatment and prevention of these ulcers. This study compared outcomes in bed-bound patients with pressure ulcers who electively underwent fecal diversion with those who did not. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all
Sebastian G. de la Fuente; L. Scott Levin; James D. Reynolds; Carmen Olivares; Theodore N. Pappas; Kirk A. Ludwig; Christopher R. Mantyh
This experimental study was designed to identify the etiology of pressure ulcers in a surgical sample and to evaluate a special OR mattress overlay in preventing pressure ulcer development. Surgical patients (N = 413) were randomized to receive “usual perioperative care” or the new mattress overlay. Over six postoperative days, 89 patients (21.5%) developed pressure ulcers, primarily stage I. Only
Alyce A. Schultz; Maureen Bien; Karen Dumond; Kathleen Brown; Amanda Myers
Bouten CV, Oomens CW, Baaijens FP, Bader DL. The etiology of pressure ulcers: skin deep or muscle bound? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:616-9. Pressure ulcers are areas of soft tissue breakdown that result from sustained mechanical loading of the skin and underlying tissues; they can affect the quality of life of many individuals. Despite considerable efforts to prevent pressure ulcers,
Carlijn V. Bouten; Cees W. Oomens; Frank P. Baaijens; Daniel L. Bader
Background: Hemangiomas represent the most common benign tumor of infancy, with ulceration its most frequent complication. Objective: Our purpose was to review our experience with this challenging problem by evaluating the clinical features, management, and therapeutic responses of ulcerated hemangiomas. Methods: A retrospective analysis of ulcerated hemangiomas at the University of California, San Francisco outpatient pediatric dermatology clinics and Oakland
Ho Jin Kim; Mary Colombo; Ilona J. Frieden
A number of studies have reported the analgesic effect of morphine when applied topically to painful skin ulcers. It has been suggested that morphine may exert a local action, as opioid receptors have been demonstrated on peripheral nerve terminals. In this study, we investigated the bioavailability of topically applied morphine to cutaneous ulcers. Six hospice inpatients with skin ulcers were
Maria D. C. Ribeiro; Simon P. Joel; Giovambattista Zeppetella
Background. Pressure ulcers among elderly hospital patients diminish quality of life and increase the cost of hospital care. Evidence suggests that pressure ulcers can arise after only a few hours of immobility. The goals of this study were to estimate the incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers in the first 2 days of the hospital stay and to identify patient characteristics
Mona Baumgarten; David J. Margolis; A. Russell Localio; Sarah H. Kagan; Robert A. Lowe; Bruce Kinosian; John H. Holmes; Stephanie B. Abbuhl; William Kavesh; Althea Ruffin
Patients undergoing cardiac surgery have increased risks for developing pressure ulcers. The researchers conducted this study to identify preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers among patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. The significant factors associated with pressure ulcer development in the study patients were presence of diabetes mellitus and other significant
Linda J. Lewicki; Lorraine Mion; Karen G. Splane; Doris Samstag; Michelle Secic
Marginal ulceration at the gastrojejunal anastomosis is a common complication following Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Hemodynamically significant hemorrhagic marginal ulcers are usually treated either endoscopically or surgically. We describe a unique case of life-threatening hemorrhagic marginal ulcer eroding into the main splenic artery. This condition was initially managed with angiographic embolization, followed by surgical intervention. PMID:23743389
Sidani, Shafik; Akkary, Ehab
Automated Pressure Ulcer Lesion Diagnosis for Telemedicine Systems Dimitrios I. Kosmopoulos dkosmo for automated pressure ulcer stage classification can be integrated into an asynchronous telemedicine system, telemedicine I. Introduction A pressure ulcer is a lesion caused by unrelieved pressure resulting in damage
Kosmopoulos, Dimitrios I.
During a survey of yaws prevalence in the Solomon Islands, we collected samples from skin ulcers of 41 children. Using PCR, we identified Haemophilus ducreyi infection in 13 (32%) children. PCR-positive and PCR-negative ulcers were phenotypically indistinguishable. Emergence of H. ducreyi as a cause of nongenital ulcers may affect the World Health Organization’s yaws eradication program. PMID:25271477
Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Pillay, Allan; Sokana, Oliver; Pavluck, Alex; Mabey, David C.; Chen, Cheng Y.; Solomon, Anthony W.
Objective To compare topical natamycin vs voriconazole in the treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis. Methods This phase 3, double-masked, multicenter trial was designed to randomize 368 patients to voriconazole (1%) or natamycin (5%), applied topically every hour while awake until reepithelialization, then 4 times daily for at least 3 weeks. Eligibility included smear-positive filamentous fungal ulcer and visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months; secondary outcomes included corneal perforation and/or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Results A total of 940 patients were screened and 323 were enrolled. Causative organisms included Fusarium (128 patients [40%]), Aspergillus (54 patients [17%]), and other filamentous fungi (141 patients [43%]). Natamycin-treated cases had significantly better 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity than voriconazole-treated cases (regression coefficient=?0.18 logMAR; 95% CI, ?0.30 to ?0.05; P=.006). Natamycin-treated cases were less likely to have perforation or require therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (odds ratio=0.42; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.80; P=.009). Fusarium cases fared better with natamycin than with voriconazole (regression coefficient=?0.41 logMAR; 95% CI, ?0.61 to ?0.20; P<.001; odds ratio for perforation=0.06; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.28; P<.001), while non-Fusarium cases fared similarly (regression coefficient=?0.02 logMAR; 95% CI, ?0.17 to 0.13; P=.81; odds ratio for perforation=1.08; 95% CI, 0.48 to 2.43; P=.86). Conclusions Natamycin treatment was associated with significantly better clinical and microbiological outcomes than voriconazole treatment for smear-positive filamentous fungal keratitis, with much of the difference attributable to improved results in Fusarium cases. Application to Clinical Practice Voriconazole should not be used as monotherapy in filamentous keratitis. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996736 PMID:23710492
Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Prajna, Lalitha; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Raghavan, Anita; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Porco, Travis C.; Acharya, Nisha R.; Lietman, Thomas M.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic, chronic inflammation of the colon which may present with a range of mild to severe symptoms. The disease may be localized to the rectum or can be more extensive and involve the left side of the colon or the whole colon. Treatment in UC is directed towards inducing and maintaining remission of symptoms and mucosal inflammation. The key parameters to be assessed for the most appropriate treatment are the severity and extent of the inflammation. Meta-analyses of published trials have shown that topical treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the treatment of choice in active distal mild-to-moderate UC. Oral aminosalicylates are effective in both distal and extensive mild-to-moderate disease, but in distal disease, the rates of remission are lower than those obtained with topical 5-ASA. New steroids, such as budesonide and beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), administered as enemas, constitute an alternative to 5-ASA therapy. In some studies, these have been shown to be as effective as conventional steroids but with significantly lower inhibition of plasma cortisol levels. Patients with unresponsive disease or those with more severe presentation will require oral corticosteroids and sometimes intravenous therapy. Approximately 10% of patients with unresponsive UC have severe attacks requiring hospitalization. Patients with severe disease should be managed jointly by a medical and surgical team, and intensive intravenous treatment should be started with high-dose steroids. Early recognition of failure of therapy will allow the introduction of immunosuppressive therapy with intravenous cyclosporine. Patients who respond are shifted to oral cyclosporine associated with azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine, whereas those who fail will require proctocolectomy. Oral aminosalicylates are the first-line therapy in maintenance of remission. Topical 5-ASA may play a role in distal disease. Patients who are steroid dependent can be started on azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine although it may take up to 3 months for the treatment to become effective. They may have reversible immediate side effects, such as pancreatitis or bone marrow suppression, which disappear upon discontinuation of therapy. Close monitoring of these hematologic and biochemical parameters will improve safety. The use of biologic therapy with infliximab in more severe disease has not been established. PMID:14571113
Gionchetti, Paolo; Rizzello, Fernando; Habal, Flavio; Morselli, Claudia; Amadini, Cristina; Romagnoli, Rossella; Campieri, Massimo
We present a case of epitheloid sarcoma that was referred with a 2x3 cm ulcerated lesion on the right ankle and edema of the lower leg. Foot drop of the right side was present that had caused walking difficulty. After a few months, he developed several sporthricoidal nodular lesions on the medial aspect of right thigh, inguinal lymphadenopathy, weight loss, anorexia and respiratory symptoms. Chest x-ray and HRCT showed pulmonary metastasis. Histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemical profile of both skin lesion and involved inguinal lymph node were consistent with epitheloid sarcoma. The case is interesting because as far as we know there has been no report of epitheloid sarcoma in literature presenting with foot drop and edema prior to obvious skin involvement. PMID:21137674
Balighi, Kamran; Farsinejad, Khalil; Barzegar, Mohamadreza; Naraghi, Zahra; Mortazavizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Ali
Forty patients were studied prospectively for complications of ascending phlebography. The commonest immediate complication was pain at the site of injection and the commonest delayed complication pain in the foot or calf. Out of 30 patients with pain in the foot and calf, 15 had venous thrombosis. Review of 200 case notes disclosed only one recorded complication--namely, necrosis of the dorsal skin of the foot. Complications of the procedure reported by referring clinicians over 10 years comprised four cases of necrosis of the dorsum of the foot and two of gangrene of the foot, in one of which the gangrene spread to the leg. Major complications of ascending phlebography are rare, though when they occur may cause serious morbidity. If a scrupulous technique is used contrast phlebography remains the most accurate method of diagnosing venous disease of the leg. PMID:687897
Thomas, M L; MacDonald, L M
The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study, a 48 year-old man is admitted to the hospital with Ã¢ÂÂa three week history of back pain, progressive right leg weakness and bilateral lower leg numbness.Ã¢ÂÂ A detailed patient history and account of the attending doctorÃ¢ÂÂs examination is provided in the Ã¢ÂÂPatient HistoryÃ¢ÂÂ section. MRI and CT images of the patient, as well as gross and microscopic descriptions of the condition are included as well. Clicking on the Ã¢ÂÂFinal DiagnosisÃ¢ÂÂ provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.
Goldberg, Herbert; Lavi, Ehud; Mourelatos, Zissimos; Quan, Dianna; Sinson, Grant
This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.
Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl
Background. Currently, there is no instrument that provides an accurate and simple method of monitoring pressure ulcer healing in clinical practice. This article reports the two studies that were conducted to assess the validity of the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) as a tool to monitor healing of stage II-IV pressure ulcers. Methods. Subjects in both studies ( N
Nancy A. Stotts; George T. Rodeheaver; David R. Thomas; Rita A. Frantz; Alfred A. Bartolucci; Carrie Sussman; Bruce A. Ferrell; Janet Cuddigan
We propose that a long-term cure for the recalcitrant chronic venous ulcer must involve a dual surgical approach including (1) wide excision of the ulcer and surrounding liposclerotic tissue bed, and (2) replacement by a free flap containing multiple, competent microvenous valves with a normal microcirculation. Advantages of free flaps over skin grafting include improvement of the underlying pathophysiology; increase in blood supply to the area; ability to cover exposed bone, joint, or tendon; and a lower incidence of recurrence. During the past 8 years, 20 consecutive muscle free flaps were performed in 18 patients for 19 recalcitrant venous ulcers (two "sequential" flaps to the ipsilateral leg in 1 patient and a repeat flap after initial failure in 1 patient). Twelve males and 6 females ranged in age from 17 to 76 years (mean, 44 years). Nontraumatic, nonosteomyelitic venous ulcers had been present for an average of 3.5 years (range, 1-10 years) and failed an average of 2.4 skin grafts (range, 0-6 grafts). Defects ranged from 100 to 600 cm2 (mean, 238 cm2). Donor tissues included rectus abdominis (N = 13), latissimus dorsi (N = 5), gracilis (N = 1), and serratus (N = 1) muscles. Recipient vessels included posterior tibial (N = 12), anterior tibial (N = 6), and peroneal (N = 2). In all instances except one, only one vein, usually one of the venae comitantes, was anastomosed in end-to-end fashion. Successful free tissue transfer was accomplished in 18 of 20 flaps (90%). Complications included infection with partial flap and/or skin graft loss (three flaps), and partial skin graft loss (two flaps). There were no recurrences within the flaps; however, breakdown occurred at the junction between the flap and residual adjacent liposclerotic skin in 1 patient. Follow-up average 32.7 months (range, 8-65 months); 3 patients were lost to follow-up. Free muscle transfer can provide a long-term cure for the recalcitrant venous ulcer by replacing the diseased tissue bed with healthy tissue containing multiple, competent microvenous valves and a normal microcirculation. This can be accomplished in one reconstructive procedure with excellent long-term results. PMID:9188977
Weinzweig, N; Schuler, J
We examined the relationship among the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ulcerative colitis, and immune status under ulcerative colitis. MDR1 P-gp expression and interleukin-8 levels in ulcerative colitis were determined using immunohistochemistry and a double-antibody sandwich avidin-biotin complex-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Nitric oxide content and nitric oxide synthase activity in the colonic mucosa were determined using a colorimetric method; CD4(+) and CD25(+) T cell subset percentages in the peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. The positive expression rate of P-gp in patients with ulcerative colitis (17.4%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (31.4%). The expression rate decreased to 10.1, 9.2, and 8.3% after 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment, respectively, which were significantly lower than the expression rate before treatment (17.4%). P-gp expression levels during the remission phase and active phase of ulcerative colitis were 15.2 and 17.1%, respectively, which were significantly lower than that in normal controls (31.4%). Compared with P-gp-negative patients, nitric oxide content, nitric oxide synthase activity, and interleukin-8 levels were significantly higher in P-gp-positive patients with moderately active, severely active, early onset, chronic relapsing, chronic persistent, and acute fulminant ulcerative colitis. CD4(+) and CD25(+) T cell subsets were significantly lower in the peripheral blood of patients with severely active and acute fulminant ulcerative colitis than in control subjects. Expression of the multidrug resistance gene and its product P-gp was observed in normal colon tissues and may be closely related to ulcerative colitis. PMID:25526204
Zhang, Y J; Xu, J J; Wang, P; Wang, J L
ObjectiveTo evaluate the effectiveness of two pressure-ulcer screening tools against clinical judgement in preventing pressure ulcers.DesignA single blind randomised controlled trial.SettingA large metropolitan tertiary hospital.Participants1231 patients admitted to internal medicine or oncology wards. Patients were excluded if their hospital stay was expected to be 2 days or less.InterventionsParticipants allocated to either a Waterlow (n=410) or Ramstadius (n=411) screening tool group
Joan Webster; Kerrie Coleman; Alison Mudge; Louise Marquart; Glenn Gardner; Monica Stankiewicz; Julie Kirby; Catherine Vellacott; Margaret Horton-Breshears; Alice McClymont
Primary biliary cirrhosis and ulcerative colitisare two diseases with many features of autoimmunity.Thirteen cases of coexistence of the two diseases havebeen reported in the literature so far. Patients are usually younger and more often males thanthe ordinary primary biliary cirrhosis patient, whilethe colitis is mild and easily controllable. In ahomogeneous population of 550,000 inhabitants of the island of Crete, 412
M. Koulentaki; I. E. Koutroubakis; E. Petinaki; M. Tzardi; H. Oekonomaki; I. Mouzas; E. A. Kouroumalis
Ulcerative colitis (UC) has a bimodal age distribution, with the majority of patients being diagnosed between the second and fourth decades of life. However, a second peak in diagnosis occurs in older patients and an estimated 15% of patients present after age 65. Caring for older UC patients who have either presented later in life or who have carried an
Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan; David G. Binion
When a systematic, coordinated treatment plan is used, many seemingly refractory ulcers can be treated in the home. Communication between the treatment team, which includes the patient, must be maintained. This article describes the various preventive measures, debriding, cleansing, granulating and epithelializing agents, their modes of action and their methods of application.
This paper illustrates the implementation of a computerised guideline for pressure ulcer prevention. In particular, it describes the aspects related to the site-specification of a guideline delivered by the Agency for Health Care Policy Research (AHCPR), to its integration with the electronic patient record, and to its implementation within the clinical routine. The primary goal of the system is both
S Quaglini; M Grandi; P Baiardi; M. C Mazzoleni; C Fassino; G Franchi; S Melino
A prospective surveillance programme for patients with longstanding (> = 8 years), extensive (> = splenic flexure) ulcerative colitis was undertaken between 1978 and 1990. It comprised annual colonoscopy with pancolonic biopsy. One hundred and sixty patients were entered into the programme and had 739 colonoscopies (4.6 colonoscopies per patient; 709 patient years follow up). Eight eight per cent of
D A Lynch; A J Lobo; G M Sobala; M F Dixon; A T Axon
Furazolidone (FZ) has been used in China as a treatment of peptic ulcer disease for about 20 years. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that it has good short-term and long-term effects on both human and animal ulcers. The ulcer healing rate is related to the dosage and course of treatment. The healing rate of a high dose, 2 week course is about 70-75% and the relapse rate after 3 years is 9.5%. The adverse reactions to FZ are not severe, and are well tolerated in most patients. However the mutagenic studies of several biological systems indicate that it has a mutagenic effect, but the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on humans and animals remain questionable, because FZ has been biotransformed into other metabolites. The mechanisms of FZ in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease are not fully understood, perhaps partly due to the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory reaction and partly to the antibacterial activity to Helicobacter pylori (HP). The long-term effects of FZ are still not clear. PMID:1391736
Zheng, Z T; Wang, Y B
Tunga penetrans is the smallest biting flea known. In cattle, infestation by T. penetrans (tungiasis) typically affects the skin of the distal legs, udder, prepuce, and perianal area. A detailed clinical and pathologic description of bovine tungiasis, together with electron microscopy and molecular diagnostics to establish the identity of the parasite are described. Ninety percent of the cows and heifers and 80% of the bulls in a herd in northwest Argentina had proliferative and ulcerative skin lesions affecting the coronary band, interdigital space, heels, and rudimentary toes of the fore and/or rear limbs, teats, and/or prepuce. These proliferative lesions had multiple large cavities filled with hemorrhagic fluid, necrotic debris, and Tunga spp. parasites. Histologically, the skin showed diffuse papillary epithelial hyperplasia with severe orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and it was multifocally ulcerated and inflamed. Multifocally, sections of arthropod parasites were observed embedded in the epidermis and dermis with the posterior end toward the surface. Images of wet mounts and scanning electron microscopy of the parasite showed morphologic characteristics compatible with Tunga spp. Polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II and the internal transcribed spacer region indicated 99% homology to published T. penetrans sequences. Tungiasis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for proliferative lesions in skin of cattle. PMID:25525141
Marin, Raul E; Houston, Robin; Omanska-Klusek, Alicja; Alcaraz, Ana; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is one of the most common diseases with a prevalence increasing with age. If blood sugar is not controlled, complications arise and diabetic foot ulcer occurs. Depending on the blood vessels involved, we distinguish venous and arterial ulcers. Venous ulcers respond very well to modern methods of treatment such as compression therapy and hydrocolloid dressings, but for arterial ulcer prevention is most significant, e.g. weight loss, dietary modification, etc. The aim of this study was to show that despite all the available therapeutic options, we cannot cure ulcers completely because the patient's readiness to change his lifestyle plays a decisive role. Therefore, we present a patient having suffered from venous ulcers for several years and arterial ulcer that healed only after the patient had lost about 20 pounds. PMID:24371990
Seremet, Jasmina; Laginja, Stanislava; Marinovi?, Marin
[Purpose] This study verified the leg muscle activities of elderly subjects performing leg cycle ergometer exercise. [Subjects] Forty-one elderly persons were the subjects of this study. [Methods] For the three distances corresponding to knee flexion angles of 15, 45, and 70, the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius were measured while the subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer. [Results] The rectus femoris and biceps femoris showed statistically significant increases as the distance between the cycle ergometer and the body increased, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscle activation showed a statistically significant increase as the distance from the body to the cycle ergometer decreased. [Conclusion] When the elderly have limb muscle weakness, leg cycle ergometer distances should be adjusted. PMID:25364121
Kim, Seon-Chill; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Young-Ik
Running-specific prostheses (RSF) are designed to replicate the spring-like nature of biological legs (bioL) during running. However, it is not clear how these devices affect whole leg stiffness characteristics or running dynamics over a range of speeds. We used a simple spring-mass model to examine running mechanics across a range of speeds, in unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputees and performance-matched controls. We found significant differences between the affected leg (AL) of unilateral amputees and both ALs of bilateral amputees compared with the bioL of non-amputees for nearly every variable measured. Leg stiffness remained constant or increased with speed in bioL, but decreased with speed in legs with RSPs. The decrease in leg stiffness in legs with RSPs was mainly owing to a combination of lower peak ground reaction forces and increased leg compression with increasing speeds. Leg stiffness is an important parameter affecting contact time and the force exerted on the ground. It is likely that the fixed stiffness of the prosthesis coupled with differences in the limb posture required to run with the prosthesis limits the ability to modulate whole leg stiffness and the ability to apply high vertical ground reaction forces during sprinting. PMID:22337629
McGowan, Craig P; Grabowski, Alena M; McDermott, William J; Herr, Hugh M; Kram, Rodger
Overuse injuries of the Achilles tendon cause impairment in lower leg muscle-tendon function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate leg stiffness in patients suffering unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. 51 athletes with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy underwent leg stiffness testing by modeling the vertical ground reaction force in a contact mat, measuring flight and contact time during hopping. Clinical status was estimated with a pain VAS and a validated questionnaire (VISA-A). The 'leg stiffness ratio' (LSR=stiffness of injured leg/stiffness of healthy leg) was calculated to determine the relative patient affectation and for intra-group comparison. 84 percent of subjects showed lower leg stiffness in the affected side during hopping. Leg stiffness was significantly lower in the limb affected by Achilles tendinopathy than in the healthy side (14.07±3.74 kN/m vs. 15.61±4.01 kN/m, p=0.047); overall LSR was 0.90±0.09. Intra-group comparison did not show significant differences related to patients' age, gender, sport level, and site of tendon injury (midportion or insertional). Leg stiffness was significantly reduced in patients with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy probably related to increasing ankle compliance. Regular leg stiffness assessment would be beneficial for athletes suffering Achilles tendon problems in terms of quantifying performance capabilities and providing objective data for a safer return to sport activity. PMID:22499572
Context: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an irresistible urge to move legs that usually occur during inactivity and at night. This neurologic condition is associated with increased risk of nocturnal hypertension as well as cardiovascular events and affects patient’s sleep, which leads to anxiety, depression, and decreases quality of life. Presence of RLS in patients on hemodialysis is associated with higher mortality rate. Most of the times, patients have indescribable symptoms. The aim of this review was to provide physicians with information to be aware and turn their attention to the patient’s symptoms, which are the most important clue to diagnosis of RLS. Evidence Acquisition: For data extraction, we reviewed PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, the Cochrane collaboration, and Up to Date databases with the keywords of restless legs syndrome, sleep disorders, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The most recent review articles, clinical trials, and cross-sectional studies with large sample sizes that had used International RLS Study Group criteria (IRLSSG) and had focused on demographic characteristics and renal function were included. This situation has described in primary and secondary forms. The former usually occurs in younger patients and seems to have genetic tendencies and the latter is due to the iron deficiency state, pregnancy, and ESRD. Results: Two major theories are developed regarding the pathophysiology of RLS. The first one concerns central nervous system dopamine imbalance and the second one concerns intracellular iron dysregulation. The most common used pharmacologic agents in treatment of RLS are dopamine agonists. Other used therapeutic agents include levodopa, Alpha-2-delta calcium channel ligands, opioids, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, clonidine, iron therapy in low levels of serum ferritin, and nonpharmacologic therapies. Conclusions: The most important factor in diagnosis is physician’s attention and clinical experience with this condition and using IRLSSG.
Einollahi, Behzad; Izadianmehr, Neda
This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature. PMID:22352134
Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian
Background This study examined the effects of different levels of compression (0, 20 and 40 mmHg) produced by leg garments on selected psycho-physiological measures of performance while exposed to passive vibration (60 Hz, amplitude 4-6 mm) and performing 3-min of alpine skiing tuck position. Methods Prior to, during and following the experiment the electromygraphic (EMG) activity of different muscles, cardio-respiratory data, changes in total hemoglobin, tissue oxygenation and oscillatory movement of m. vastus lateralis, blood lactate and perceptual data of 12 highly trained alpine skiers were recorded. Maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance were assessed before and after the experiment. Results The knee angle (?10°) and oscillatory movement (?20-25.5%) were lower with compression (P?0.05 in all cases). The EMG activities of the tibialis anterior (20.2-28.9%), gastrocnemius medialis (4.9-15.1%), rectus femoris (9.6-23.5%), and vastus medialis (13.1-13.7%) muscles were all elevated by compression (P?0.05 in all cases). Total hemoglobin was maintained during the 3-min period of simulated skiing with 20 or 40 mmHg compression, but the tissue saturation index was lower (P?0.05) than with no compression. No differences in respiratory parameters, heart rate or blood lactate concentration were observed with or maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance following simulated skiing for 3 min in the downhill tuck position were the same as in the absence of compression. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that with leg compression, alpine skiers could maintain a deeper tuck position with less perceived exertion and greater deoxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle, with no differences in whole-body oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. These changes occurred without compromising maximal leg strength, jumping performance or balance. Accordingly, our results indicate that the use of lower leg compression in the range of 20-40 mmHg may improve alpine skiing performance by allowing a deeper tuck position and lowering perceived exertion. PMID:24004479
Background Ghana is a Buruli ulcer (BU) endemic country yet there is paucity of socio-cultural research on BU. Examining distinctive experiences and meanings for pre-ulcers and ulcers of BU may clarify the disease burden, illness experience and local perceptions of causes and spread, and environmental features of BU, which are useful to guide public health programmes and future research. This study aimed to explain local meanings and experiences of BU for persons with pre-ulcers and ulcers in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Accra. Methods Semi-structured interviews based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue framework were administered to 181 respondents comprising 15 respondents with pre-ulcers and 166 respondents with ulcers. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare categories of illness experiences (PD) and perceived causes (PC) among respondents with pre-ulcer and ulcer conditions. The Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the most troubling PD and the most important PC variables. Qualitative phenomenological analysis of respondents’ narratives clarified illness experiences and meanings with reference to PC and PD variables. Results Families of respondents with pre-ulcers and the respondents themselves were often anxious about disease progression, while families of respondents with ulcers, who had to give care, worried about income loss and disruption of school attendance. Respondents with pre-ulcers frequently reported swimming in ponds and rivers as a perceived cause and considered it as the most important PC (53.3%). Respondents with ulcers frequently attributed their BU illness to witchcraft (64.5%) and respondents who claimed they had no water contact, questioned the credibility of health messages Conclusions Affected persons with pre-ulcers are likely to delay treatment because of social and financial constraints and the absence of pain. Scepticism on the role of water in disease contagion and prolonged healing is perceived to make ideas of witchcraft as a PC more credible, among respondents with ulcers. Health messages should address issues of locally perceived risk and vulnerability. Guided by study findings, further research on the role of environmental, socio-cultural and genetic factors in BU contagion, is also needed to clarify and formulate health messages and strengthen public health initiatives. PMID:22471884
. Sony has provided a remarkable platform for research anddevelopment in robotic agents, namely fully autonomous legged robots.In this paper, we describe our work using Sony's legged robots to participatein the RoboCup'98 legged robot demonstration and competition.The robots are fully autonomous with on-board vision, control,and navigation. The challenges we addressed in this framework includethe color calibration of the vision hardware,
Manuela M. Veloso; William T. B. Uther
Single angle members are often used in applications requiring significant amounts of flexural ductility when subjected to bending in the plane of one of the angle legs. Such applications arise in the nuclear power and defense industries where angle members may serve as hangers for vital duct work and piping systems in reactor facilities. Lateral accelerations due to seismic loading
C. J. Earls
of the most closely related insect orders to Diptera (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster) (Common, 1975; Regier et harbored inside the larva. Bombyx mori (B. mori), a Lepidopteran insect, develops adult wings from larval wing imaginal discs. However, it has been debated whether the adult legs of B. mori arise from imaginal
Los Angeles to Hawaii (Leg00a), and Ernie Lewis and Mike Reynolds continued on the ship for the return Ernie Lewis Brookhaven National Laboratory Brad Orr Argonne National Laboratory Mike Reynolds Remote Angeles, CA February 16-23, 2012 Ernie Lewis (Brookhaven National Laboratory) Brad Orr (Argonne National
As summer is upon us, we thought a discussion of tennis leg would be beneficial to our fellow clinicians. Tennis leg is a relatively common clinical condition, classically manifesting as acute, sports-related pain in the mid-calf. First described in 1883, the pathogenesis has been debated--tennis leg was first attributed to rupture of the plantaris tendon, though more recent investigations have implicated rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius at its myotendinous junction. For simplicity, many authors use the term tennis leg to describe all such acute muscle injuries in the superficial calf. PMID:24195182
Pacheco, Rafael A; Stock, Harlan
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting disease characterised by chronic mucosal and submucosal inflammation of the colon and rectum. Treatment may vary depending upon the extent and severity of inflammation. Broadly speaking medical treatments aim to induce and then maintain remission. Surgery is indicated for inflammatory disease that is refractory to medical treatment or in cases of neoplastic transformation. Approximately 25% of patients with UC ultimately require colectomy. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the standard of care for patients with ulcerative colitis who ultimately require colectomy. This review will examine indications for IPAA, patient selection, technical aspects of surgery, management of complications and long term outcome following this procedure. PMID:17659667
Bach, Simon P; Mortensen, Neil J
Aortoesophageal fistula is a rare but fatal disease. Many such fistulas are caused by an aortic aneurysm, a previous operation, or esophageal disease. We report a case of aortoesophageal fistula due to an esophageal ulcer. A 66-year-old man suffered massive hematemesis; he was diagnosed as having an aortoesophageal fistula due to an esophageal ulcer after examination by upper endoscopy, computed tomography, and angiography. He had no aortic aneurysm, nor was there a history of a previous operation. An emergency operation was performed, but we could only accomplish closure because clamping of the aorta was impossible, and the source of the bleeding could not be established. He died 4 days later after sudden hemorrhage. Surgical outcome depends on early surgical intervention before massive hemorrhage occurs. PMID:19440823
Takano, Shinji; Katsuhara, Kazuhiro; Nobuhara, Kenji; Ueda, Shigeharu; Imura, Masato; Hohjo, Yoshihisa
Patients with longstanding chronic ulcerative colitis are “at risk” of developing colorectal cancer. Approximately 1 in 6 patients will die as a result of colorectal malignancy, which can often be difficult to detect using conventional “white light” colonoscopy. New endoscopic techniques and technologies including the use of dye sprays, “chromoendoscopy”, high magnification chromoscopic colonoscopy and recently chromoscopic assisted confocal laser scanning in vivo endomicroscopy have now been introduced to improve the diagnostic yield of intraepithelial neoplasia at screening colonoscopy. This review details the true “risk” of colorectal cancer complicating ulcerative colitis, discusses the objective evidence to support current endoscopic screening guidelines, and describes the imminent technological paradigm shift about to occur in the endoscopic management and detection of intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:17621613
Hurlstone, David Paul; Brown, Steve
Colonic lipomas are relatively uncommon tumors of mesenchymal origin, composed of well-differentiated adipose tissue supported by fibrous tissue, that usually occur in cecum and ascending colon. Colonic lipomas rarely cause symptoms and are usually detected incidentally. However, if the lesion is large, it may produce symptoms, such as abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, obstruction, intussusception, and even weight loss. Large colonic lipomas can be mistaken for malignancy, which may result in extensive surgical operations. We report a large broad-based ulcerated cecal lipoma in a 68-year-old woman, who presented with abdominal pain and weight loss. The ulcerated lesion was highly suspicious for malignancy radiologically and endoscopically. The patient underwent laparoscopic right-hemicolectomy, and the lesion was diagnosed as a cecal submucosal lipoma. The surgical approach remains the treatment of choice for large and complicated cases. PMID:21160661
Zhang, Xuchen; Ouyang, Jie; Kim, Yong-Doo
The authors describe a case of 33 year old Caucasian married man with an irregular 6 cm penile mass associated with multiple penile ulcers. He reluctantly admitted that 10 years ago he had multiple mineral oil (Vaseline) self injections into the penis, for penile enlargement purposes. The patient had a surgical intervention 10 years ago, but he has recurrent ulcers on his penis. We have administered an intravenous antibiotic therapy combined with local therapy. The term paraffinoma describes a distinct histopathological finding that results from the injection of foreign oily substances into the skin. Although such procedure may be considered rare, they are still performed in some countries. The major point we want emphasis is following: a lot of people seek penile augmentations, it is necessary to remind physicians and the public that nonscientific and inadequate procedure such as Vaseline may lead to debilitating and destructive consequences (Tab. 1, Ref. 12). PMID:22180996
Bobik, O; Bobik, O
The monitoring of patients with ulcerative colitis is easier than in patients with Crohn's disease for several reasons: the severity of symptoms and activity of inflammation tend to run parallel in ulcerative colitis when involvement of the large bowel is more extensive. The easy accessibility of the colonic mucosa by endoscopic and histologic examination provides further information concerning the degree of inflammation. In severe attacks, the patient must be admitted to hospital and monitored carefully. Clinical and laboratory parameters (such as daily stools, CRP, fever, haemoglobin, albumin, etc.) and plain abdominal X-ray are useful in monitoring the activity of the disease and to predict the outcome. In mild to moderate attacks, endoscopic and histologic evaluation are the best methods for choosing the appropriate treatment and for assessing response. PMID:12047252
Rizzello, F; Gionchetti, P; Venturi, A; Amadini, C; Romagnoli, R; Campieri, M
Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease that can affect any part of the body, including the mouth. An upsurge in the number of tuberculosis cases, with a strong association with HIV infection, has been noted. We present a case of tuberculosis that clinically resembles a malignant chronic ulcer in the retromolar trigone-an uncommon site of occurrence. Histologically, the case demonstrated an atypical epitheloid granuloma with reduced lymphocyte count. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed following sputum culture of M tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy improved the patient's condition. Although rare, tuberculosis must be considered as a differential diagnosis in chronic ulcers in the oral region; and its association with HIV must not be overlooked. PMID:18265771
Mahajan, Sumita; Srikant, Natarajan; George, Thomas
Healing processes of duodenal ulcers induced by mepirizole and effects of several drugs on the ulcer healing were studied in rats. Mepirizole-induced duodenal ulcers, except for the perforated ones within 3 days after ulceration, gradually diminished in size and depth by the 15th day. Several ulcers persisted for up to 40 days, but complete healing in all rats occurred by
Y. Ishihara; S. Okabe
Ulceration of the gastroduodenal mucosa occurs frequently in humans, particularly in patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease. In order for healing to occur, mucosal damage stimulates secretion of growth factors in the adjacent mucosa and ulcer bed. Peptic ulcer healing is accomplished by the filling of the mucosal defect with cells that migrate from the ulcer margin and
The objective of the present work was to determine the effect of treating Helicobacter pylori infection on the recurrence of peptic ulcer bleeding. We prospectively followed 66 out of 70 consecutive H. pylori-positive (histology and\\/ or culture) patients with conservatively and endoscopically managed peptic ulcer bleeding (duodenal ulcer; n = 39, gastric ulcer: n = 25, gastroduodenal double ulcer: n
Joachim Labenz; Gereon Borsch
Pressure ulcers (PUs) are an important aspect of geriatrics and palliative care that amplifies morbidity of the chronically bed-ridden patients posing a threat to health-care economy and resources. PUs can interfere with functional recovery, may be complicated by pain and infection and can prolong hospital length of stay. Their presence may be a marker of poor overall prognosis and premature mortality. The pathogenesis and progress in the management of PUs is discussed. PMID:22408340
Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sprint performance is related to lower leg musculoskeletal geometry within a homogeneous group of highly trained 100-m sprinters. Using a cluster analysis, eighteen male sprinters were divided into two groups based on their personal best (fast: N=11, 10.30±0.07s; slow: N=7, 10.70±0.08s). Calf muscular fascicle arrangement and Achilles tendon moment arms (calculated by the gradient of tendon excursion versus ankle joint angle) were analyzed for each athlete using ultrasonography. Achilles tendon moment arm, foot and ankle skeletal geometry, fascicle arrangement as well as the ratio of fascicle length to Achilles tendon moment arm showed no significant (p>0.05) correlation with sprint performance, nor were there any differences in the analyzed musculoskeletal parameters between the fast and slow sprinter group. Our findings provide evidence that differences in sprint ability in world-class athletes are not a result of differences in the geometrical design of the lower leg even when considering both skeletal and muscular components. PMID:21474319
Karamanidis, Kiros; Albracht, Kirsten; Braunstein, Bjoern; Moreno Catala, Maria; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease that specifically affects the mucosa of the rectum and colon. Although the etiology of this recurring inflammatory disorder remains essentially unknown, there have been significant advances in identifying the likely genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. The clinical course of the disease typically manifests with remissions and exacerbations characterized by rectal bleeding and diarrhea. Since ulcerative colitis most commonly affects patients in their youth or early middle age, the disease can have serious long-term local and systemic consequences. There is no specific medical therapy that is curative. Although medical therapy can ameliorate the inflammatory process and control most symptomatic flares, it provides no definitive treatment for the disease. Proctocolectomy or total removal of the colon and rectum provides the only complete cure; however, innovative surgical alternatives have eliminated the need for a permanent ileostomy. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed account of the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. PMID:23189226
Parray, Fazl Q; Wani, Mohd L; Malik, Ajaz A; Wani, Shadab N; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan
The series included 52 patients with acute bleeding stress ulcers of the stomach and duodenum seen at the Mayo Clinic during a 25-year period. All patients underwent operation for control of massive bleeding that was unresponsive to intensive medical therapy. All ulcers were superficial and occurred during clinically stressful circumstances. No patient had a history or findings suggestive of pre-existing peptic ulcer disease or imbibation of ulcerogenic substances. Overall operative mortality was 54%, and this rate seemed to be related to multiple factors acting together; patients with multiple predisposing stress factors and those requiring large transfusion volumes (greater than 17 total units) were at greatest risk of death. Fifty-two patients underwent 60 operative procedures for control of hemorrhage. Of the 60 procedures, 23 (38%) failed to prevent rebleeding. Of the 28 patients who died, six (21%) died of hemorrhage and five (18%) died of hemorrhage as one of many contributing factors. Of eight different procedures performed, near-total to total gastrectomy was the single procedure that was most effective in controlling hemorrhage. The authors support the selection of rapid intervention and generous extirpative surgery once intensive medical measures fail to control hemorrhage. PMID:7387229
Hubert, John P.; Kiernan, Paul D.; Welch, John S.; ReMine, William H.; Beahrs, Oliver H.
A 52 year old male presented with peripheral ulcerative keratitis in the right eye. Patient’s history included retinitis pigmentosa, pseudophakia (right eye), cataract (left eye), bilateral partial deafness, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, type 1 diabetes mellitus, depression, hyperparathyroidism, hypertriglycemia and renal failure. The patient was on weekly hemodialysis. The peripheral corneal ulceration remained stable until he developed sudden and rapid thinning after eight months of regular follow up and management. Laboratory investigations including immunological studies were negative and we had to rely on treatment based on clinical signs, including the visual acuity, size, depth and staining of the ulcer and perilimbal, episcleral, scleral, corneal and anterior chamber reactions. The patient was treated with medical and conservative approaches and the eye was protected with a plastic shield to avoid injury. Despite our efforts, the patient perforated his eye due to a trivial trauma during sleep. He was managed successfully with cyanoacrylate glue and a bandage contact lens. The anterior chamber reformed after the perforation was sealed and the patient is on a regular follow up with a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:25278804
Al-Qahtani, Bandar; Asghar, Salman; Al-Taweel, Hassan Mohammad; Jalaluddin, Imran
We report a 47 year old man who presented with painful non-healing tongue ulcers of 3 months duration. Examination revealed an additional buccal ulcer that he was unaware of. Histopathology of the ulcers showed caseation necrosis. Following this report, chest radiography and sputum microscopy performed revealed pulmonary tuberculosis. From this case-study, one should be aware of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with chronic non-healing oral ulcers, both for diagnosis as well as prevention of transmission through respiratory droplets. PMID:24883035
Nagaraj, Vezhavendhan; Sashykumar, Shanthi; Viswanathan, Stalin; Kumar, Sathish
A controlled trial of oral acyclovir in herpetic dendritic corneal ulcers was carried out on 31 patients. All patients received minimal wiping debridement of the ulcer, following which they were randomly allocated to receive either oral acyclovir or placebo for 7 days. At the end of treatment 67% of dendritic ulcers in patients receiving acyclovir had healed compared with 43% in placebo recipients. The proportion of ulcers healed in the 2 groups at 7 days showed no significant difference (p = 0.18), but the rate of healing was significantly faster in acyclovir group (p = 0.03). PMID:6372855
Hung, S. O.; Patterson, A.; Clark, D. I.; Rees, P. J.
During the period of 13 months, the authors have operated on seven patients with perforated gastroduodenal ulcers. All surgeries were completely performed by the laparoscopic method. The laparoscopic suture of perforated ulcers was performed with lavage and only in one case it involved omentoplasty. The healing process was free of any complications in all patients. The advantage of laparoscopic operations of perforated ulcers resides in fast convalescence and in the fast restoration of working abilities. This method is appropriate in cases when the surgeon performing laparoscopic surgeries has sufficient experience in coincidence with the treatment of perforated ulcers. PMID:9721467
Ferencík, O; Tutka, S; Sabol, V; Lycius, M; Jalcovík, M; Cierny, A; Stepienová, A
Pressure ulcer is defined as localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear. The most frequent sites for pressure ulcers are the occiput, sacrum, ischial tuberosities, trochanters, lateral malleoli and posterior heels. Herein, we present a case of grade III pressure ulcer seen in popliteal region which is an unusual localisation that is rarely seen in the literature. An awareness of this unusual localisation of pressure ulcer is necessary to prevent decrease in quality of life, particularly in the wheelchair-dependent population. PMID:24698383
Ozer, Kadri; Colak, Ozlem; Goktas, Fethiye B; Sungur, Nezih; Kocer, Ugur
ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.
Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.
Emulating Human Leg Impairments and Disabilities on Humanoid Robots Walking SÂ´ebastien Lengagne for emulating human walking motions with leg impairments or disabilities using humanoid robots. Our optimal dynamic multi-contact motion software generates the emulated motions. We take into account the full
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Controlling the running movement of a machine with jointed legs is a difficult problem in robotics. The control of a single running stride can be broken down into three phases: takeoff, ballistic, and landing. The paper describes the development of an intelligent controller for the landing phase of a simulated jointed leg's running stride. The landing controller takes control when
P. I. Doerschuk; Qing Lin
Modeling techniques for animating legged figures are described which are used in the PODA animation system. PODA utilizes pseudoinverse control in order to solve the problems associated with manipulating kinematically redundant limbs. PODA builds on this capability to synthesize a kinematic model of legged locomotion which allows animators to control the complex relationships between the motion of the body of
Michael Girard; Anthony A. Maciejewski
Dynamics of legged locomotion: Models, analyses, and challenges Philip Holmes1 , Robert J. Full2 legged locomotion models, and provide numerous examples of such models, from the simplest, completely. A little reflection reveals, however, that locomotion, like other animal behaviors, emerges from complex
A gravity balancing lower extremity exoskeleton is a simple mechanical device composed of rigid links, joints and springs, which is adjustable to the geometry and inertia of the leg of a human subject wearing it. This passive exoskeleton does not use any motors or controllers, yet can still unload the human leg joints of the gravity load over the full
Sunil Kumar Agrawal; Sai K. Banala; Abbas Fattah
Water striders (Gerris remigis) have remarkable non-wetting legs that enable them to stand effortlessly and move quickly on water, a feature believed to be due to a surface-tension effect caused by secreted wax. We show here, however, that it is the special hierarchical structure of the legs, which are covered by large numbers of oriented tiny hairs (microsetae) with fine
Xuefeng Gao; Lei Jiang
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the swing leg movement on running stability. A simple model was used describing a forward hopping motion. The model consisted of two sub-models, namely a spring-mass system for the stance phase and a functional control model for the swing phase (represented by a passive or actively driven pendulum). To verify the main simulation results, an experimental study on treadmill running was performed. The results of the model indicated that for certain running speeds and pendulum lengths, the behavior of the mechanical system was stable. The following characteristic dependencies between the model parameters were observed. (1) Pendulum length and hip muscle activity determined running height and therefore swing duration. (2) Horizontal velocity was inversely related to leg angle of attack. Increased speed corresponded to flatter leg angles at touch-down, which is in agreement with experimental studies and previous predictions of spring-mass running. It was shown that a biologically motivated control approach with oscillating leg movements is well capable of generating stable hopping movements. Due to its simplicity, however, the monopedal model failed to explain more detailed mechanisms like the swing-leg to stance-leg interaction or the functional role of the leg segmentation. This simple model is therefore considered as a functional mechanical template for legged locomotion, which could help to build more elaborate models in the future. PMID:16213046
Knuesel, Heidi; Geyer, Hartmut; Seyfarth, Andre
The aetiological aspects as well as postural attitude implications represent an open question in scoliosis evaluation and treatment. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is often recognised in scoliotic patients, but surprisingly still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge corrections in order to compensate pelvis tilt. In fact, literature reports conflicting results on the efficacy of LLD equalization also given the argued uncertainty of LLD clinical assessment and limitations related to X-ray measurements. Moreover concern is about anatomic and functional LLD and associated estimation of the pelvic torsion. In such a topic, a significant helpful tool has been demonstrated to be 3D kinematic optoelectronic measurements and other useful data obtained from force platforms and/or baropodographic systems. 135 (94.4%) out of 143 Scoliotic patients sample (av. age 16.4±10.2 Y range 4-66 Y), have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 143 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of ?=10.2±5.2mm associated to a mean main scoliotic curve ?=16.4°±9.4° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset ?=7.5±5.5mm and mean Global offset ?=10.1±7.1mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered postural parameters, after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The present investigation confirm results of a previous study demonstrating the efficacy of under-foot wedge use in leg asymmetry correction, posture re-balancing and spine deformities reduction, pointing out the significant contribution of the 3D opto-electronic measurement approach in the critical process of assessing the correct under-foot wedge size, therapy planning and monitoring. PMID:22744478
D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul
For mobile robots, the essential units of actuation, computation, and sensing must be designed to fit within the body of the robot. Additional capabilities will largely depend upon a given activity, and should be easily reconfigurable to maximize the diversity of applications and experiments. To address this issue, we introduce a modular architecture originally developed and tested in the design and implementation of the X-RHex hexapod that allows the robot to operate as a mobile laboratory on legs. In the present paper we will introduce the specification, design and very earliest operational data of Canid, an actively driven compliant-spined quadruped whose completely different morphology and intended dynamical operating point are nevertheless built around exactly the same "Lab on Legs" actuation, computation, and sensing infrastructure. We will review as well, more briefly a second RHex variation, the XRL platform, built using the same components.
Haynes, G. Clark; Pusey, Jason; Knopf, Ryan; Johnson, Aaron M.; Koditschek, Daniel E.
The authors compared leg stiffness (KVERT), muscle activation, and joint movement patterns between 11 men and 10 women during hopping. Physically active and healthy men and women performed continuous 2-legged hopping at their preferred rate and at 3.0 Hz. Compared with men, women demonstrated decreased KVERT; however, after the authors normalized for body mass, gender differences in KVERT were eliminated. In comparison with men, women also demonstrated increased quadriceps and soleus activity, as well as greater quadriceps-to-hamstrings coactivation ratios. There were no significant gender differences for joint movement patterns (p > .05). The relationship between the observed gender differences in muscle recruitment and the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in women requires further study. PMID:15730945
Padua, Darin A.; Arnold, Brent L.; Carcia, Christopher R.; Granata, Kevin P.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Both RLS and DLB can be effectively treated by dopaminergic medications, suggesting the role of dopamine dysfunction in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Here, I report on a Japanese woman with probable DLB and RLS who was treated with gabapentin enacarbil, a non-dopaminergic agent. Because a dopamine agonist, a first-line therapy for moderate to severe RLS, caused the occurrence of metamorphopsia, an alternative treatment of gabapentin enacarbil was used; this treatment improved the patient's RLS without worsening her psychiatric symptoms. An alternative treatment is desirable for DLB patients with RLS because they often experience intolerable side-effects with a dopamine agonist, especially visual hallucinations. Administering gabapentin enacarbil also improved the continuous leg pain that occurred in conjunction with the development of RLS. Although the neurobiological mechanism in the development of pain remains unclear, a range of non-dopaminergic structures likely mediated pain processing in DLB in the present case based on neuropharmacological results. This is the first report reporting the effects of gabapentin enacarbil for RLS and leg pain in a DLB patient with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:24528871
BackgroundProfound knowledge of pressure ulcers is important to enable good prevention. Validity and reliability of instruments assessing pressure ulcer knowledge are limited evaluated in previous research.
D. Beeckman; K. Vanderwee; L. Demarré; L. Paquay; A. Van Hecke; T. Defloor
Purpose: To study the association of various risk factors and epidemiological variables of mycotic keratitis treated at a tertiary referral hospital of upper Assam. Materials and Methods: In this hospital-based prospective study a total of 310 consecutive corneal ulcer cases attending the ophthalmology outpatient department of Assam Medical College were enrolled between April 2007 and March 2009. After clinical and slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination in all suspected cases, smears and culture examination for fungus was done to establish the etiology. Demographic information and associated probable risk factors of individual cases were noted in a predesigned questionnaire. Results: In 188 (60.6%) cases fungal etiology could be established. Out of them 67.6% were males. The most commonly affected age group was 41-50 years (25.5%). The maximum (23.4%) cases were reported during the paddy harvesting season in Assam (January and February). Fungal element could be demonstrated in 65.2% cases in direct potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount. The commonest predisposing factor was corneal injury (74.5%). While diabetes was a significant systemic predisposing factor in mixed bacterial and fungal infections in 11.1% cases, blocked naso-lacrimal duct was the local predisposing factor in 11.1% of cases. Fusarium solani (25%) was the commonest isolate followed by Aspergillus species (19%), Curvularia species (18.5%) and Penicillium species (15.2%). Yeasts were isolated in 2.7% (n=5) cases. Conclusions: Ocular trauma was the commonest cause of fungal corneal ulcer in Assam and Fusarium solani was the commonest species responsible for it. Most of the mycotic ulcer cases come from rural areas including the tea gardens. PMID:21836342
Nath, Reema; Baruah, Syamanta; Saikia, Lahari; Devi, Bhanu; Borthakur, A K; Mahanta, J
Hypo and hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous system have been associated with chronic bowel inflammation diseases. We investigated the autonomic function in 11 patients with chronic ulcerative colitis (UC) and 17 healthy controls by means of cardiovascular autonomic tests and heart rate variability. Autonomic responses were normal in patients and controls. At rest, LF/HF ratios were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in chronic UC patients (2.4 +/- 1.6) compared to controls (1.2 +/- 1.0). Our results suggest a higher sympathetic tone at rest in patients with chronic UC. PMID:17574503
Maule, Simona; Pierangeli, Giulia; Cevoli, Sabina; Grimaldi, Daniela; Gionchetti, Paolo; Barbara, Giovanni; Rizzello, Fernando; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Campieri, Massimo; Cortelli, Pietro
Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a debilitating potential complication of ulcerative colitis (UC). We report a case of PLE in a 26-year-old male patient with UC. The patient lost 50 pounds in the setting of a UC flare and was found to have an albumin level of 1.2 g/dl. Although the patient's UC was clinically controlled with steroids, the weight loss and hypoalbuminemia persisted with the patient's course complicated by development of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The diagnosis of PLE was confirmed with measurement of stool alpha-1-antitrypsin clearance. The patient's condition significantly improved following procto-colectomy. PMID:22679407
Ungaro, Ryan; Babyatsky, Mark W.; Zhu, Hongfa; Freed, Jeffrey S.
Idiopathic chronic ulcerative enteritis is uncommon. It is a term that describes ulceration of the small bowel in the absence of a recognisable cause. Patients mainly present with a surgical abdomen and their management often proves to be a therapeutic challenge. Our series describes three such cases: the first patient presented with a tender left iliac fossa mass and rectal
C. D. Sutton; S. A. White; L. J. Marshall; A. R. Dennison; W. M. Thomas
Aorto-esophageal fistula (AEF) is a rare and life threatening condition, which can be rapidly fatal. More than half of such cases are secondary to aortic aneurysm rupture. There are only two previous reports describing AEF caused by penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. We present multidetector computed tomography findings in a case of AEF secondary to penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. PMID:22988408
Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Puneet; Mittal, Gaurav
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are idiopathic, chronic, relapsing, inflammatory conditions that are immunologically mediated. Although their exact etiologies remain uncertain, results from research in animal models, human genetics, basic science and clinical trials have provided important new insights into the pathogenesis of chronic, immune-mediated, intestinal inflammation. These studies indicate that Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are heterogeneous diseases characterized
R Balfour Sartor
Longstanding ulcerative colitis, particularly pancolitis, is associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia. For this reason surveillance colonoscopy at regular intervals has been recommended to identify early cancers or high grade dysplasia. Three cases are described of patients with ulcerative colitis of greater than 10 years duration who presented with colorectal carcinoma within three years of colonoscopy. PMID:8174972
Catnach, S M; Rutter, K R; Bown, R L
Clinical studies have suggested that treatment with the prostaglandin E1 analog, misoprostol, leads to significant healing of ulcers in patients taking regular nonsteroidal antiinflammatory therapy. This study aimed to investigate mechanisms involved in this healing using a rat model. Gastric ulcers were induced by application of acetic acid using a standard technique. Rats were treated with 200 mg\\/kg aspirin, 100
Angela G. Penney; Fiona J. Andrews; Paul E. O'Brien
Purpose: This study was completed to determine the current knowledge and documentation patterns of nursing staff in the prevention of pressure ulcers and to identify the prevalence of pressure ulcers.Methods: This pre-post intervention study was carried out in three phases. In phase I, 67 nursing staff members completed a modified version of Bostrom's Patient Skin integrity Survey. A Braden Scale
Barbara Provo; Linda Piacentine; Susan Dean-Baar
Nurses enter the profession with knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention and care and acquired from their basic educational programs. A prior review of nursing textbooks regarding pressure ulcer content published almost a decade ago revealed that incomplete, inaccurate, and at times limited information (as few as 200 lines of text) was contained in 10 commonly used textbooks. A review of
Elizabeth A Ayello; Geraldine Meaney
Four patients with chronic non-specific ulcerative duodenojejunoileitis (CNSUDJI) are reported. The clinical picture included abdominal pain, fever, and a malabsorption syndrome. Main rediological findings were diffuse narrowing of the jejunal loops with total effacement of the mucosal folds. Multiple peroral biopsies of the small intestine showed various degrees of mucosal abnormalities from total villous atrophy to normal villi, but ulcerations
R Modigliani; P Poitras; A Galian; B Messing; P Guyet-Rousset; M Libeskind; J L Piel-Desruisseaux; J C Rambaud
A case of congenital erythropoietic porphyria, with corneoscleral ulceration, a rare association in this disorder, was reported. Anterior segment ischemia is believed to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of corneoscleral ulceration. Remarkable improvement occurred with use of topical heparin drops (500 units/ml). PMID:3411808
Mohan, M; Goyal, J L; Pakrasi, S; Panda, A
We compared the rate of perceived exertion for respiratory (RPE,resp) and leg (RPE,legs) muscles, using a 10-point Borg scale, to their specific power outputs in 10 healthy male subjects during incremental cycle exercise at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA, 4559 m). Respiratory power output was calculated from breath-by-breath esophageal pressure and chest wall volume changes. At HA ventilation was increased at any leg power output by ? 54%. However, for any given ventilation, breathing pattern was unchanged in terms of tidal volume, respiratory rate and operational volumes of the different chest wall compartments. RPE,resp scaled uniquely with total respiratory power output, irrespectively of SL or HA, while RPE,legs for any leg power output was exacerbated at HA. With increasing respective power outputs, the rate of change of RPE,resp exponentially decreased, while that of RPE,legs increased. We conclude that RPE,resp uniquely relates to respiratory power output, while RPE,legs varies depending on muscle metabolic conditions. PMID:21435397
Aliverti, A; Kayser, B; Lo Mauro, A; Quaranta, M; Pompilio, P; Dellacà, R L; Ora, J; Biasco, L; Cavalleri, L; Pomidori, L; Cogo, A; Pellegrino, R; Miserocchi, G
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare inflammatory skin condition, characterized by progressive and recurrent skin ulceration. There may be rapidly enlarging, painful ulcers with undermined edges and a necrotic, hemorrhagic base. Disorders classically associated with pyoderma gangrenosum include rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, paraproteinemia and myeloproliferative disorders. There have been some reports of the occurrence of pyoderma gangrenosum in Africa, and in Nigeria, but only one specifically reported pyoderma gangrenosum in association with ulcerative colitis. We report on a 45-year-old man who presented with pyoderma gangrenosum associated with ulcerative colitis; the second report in Nigeria. The skin lesions were managed with daily honey wound dressings. Oral dapsone and prednisolone were started. The frequency of the bloody diarrhea decreased, and was completely resolved by the second week after admission. The ulcers also showed accelerated healing. The goal of therapy is directed towards the associated systemic disorder, if present. PMID:19142449
Alese, Olatunji B; Irabor, David O
Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU) risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed. PMID:21197359
Kottner, Jan; Balzer, Katrin
There has been little research into pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in hospices. In this study, interviews with hospice directors of clinical services and direct-care nurses were analyzed using qualitative methods. Several general themes were found. Both pressure ulcer prevention and treatment can be painful to hospice patients. Comfort may supersede prevention and wound care when patients are actively dying or have conditions causing them to have a single position of comfort. Family caregivers must face additional burdens when a pressure ulcer develops. In conclusion, hospice providers, patients, and family caregivers together must balance patient comfort with pressure ulcer prevention and treatment, which often leads to decisions to accept death with a pressure ulcer. Future studies should clarify how these parties can best work together, especially to identify when prevention or treatment has become futile. PMID:12710110
Eisenberger, Andrew; Zeleznik, Jomarie
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus in patients with ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Many studies suggested that CMV infection is an exacerbating factor in patients with ulcerative colitis. The role of CMV in exacerbations of ulcerative colitis has been discussed. One of studies starting this discussion is an article entitled “CMV positive ulcerative colitis: A single center experience and literature review” by Kopylov et al. However, we think that there are some points that should be emphasized about the study. Especially, the small number of patients in the study has led to meaningless results. Large controlled prospective trials are needed to clarify the benefit of antiviral therapy for active ulcerative colitis patients. PMID:25401002
In this article we reviewed experiences in approach and procedure with dyspepsia, with special accent on non-ulcer dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori infection. Dyspepsia makes around 50% of gastroenterology cases. In 20% of cases it is caused by peptic ulcer disease and in 50% of cases non-ulcer dyspepsia. Around 50% of non-ulcer dyspepsia is followed by coexistent Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis. Dyspepsia followed by alarming symptoms in patients who are over 55 years old or in patients who are using NSAID indicated urgent endoscopic procedure--gastroscopy. In other patients non-invasive testing on Helicobacter pylori infection is recommended where eradication therapy should be applied in Helicobacter pylori positive and empirical cure by antisecreting drugs or prokinetics in Helicobacter pylori negative patients. Final gastroscopic evaluation is indicated after unsuccessful therapy. Ceasing of non-ulcer dyspeptic symptoms could be predicted in 20% of patients with cured Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID:12592820
Buljevac, Mladen; Bani?, Marko; Kujundzi?, Milan; Dominis, Mara; Coli?-Cvrlje, Vesna; Kardum, Dusko; Katici?, Miroslava
In order to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of ulcerative colitis, we conducted a matched case-control study of ulcerative colitis. Fifty patients with ulcerative colitis diagnosed at three hospitals in Kyoto, Osaka and Hyogo Prefectures in Japan during 1984 and 1987 were interviewed about their habitual and pre-illness diets, personal habits, past histories and family histories. The results were compared to those for fifty healthy controls who were matched for sex and age (+/- 2 years) and participated in health-screening examinations in Kyoto or Osaka during the same period. Frequent intake of rice (4 or more bowls a day), bread (3 or more times a week), and green tea (7 or more cups a day) significantly increased the relative risk of ulcerative colitis. However, a past history of appendectomy was negatively correlated with the disease. There were no relationships between ulcerative colitis and consumption of animal foods and tobacco. PMID:2051629
Higashi, A; Watanabe, Y; Ozasa, K; Yan, S; Hayashi, K; Aoike, A; Kawai, K; Tada, M
The management of patients with trophic ulcers and their consequences is difficult not only because it is a recurrent and recalcitrant problem but also because the pathogenesis of the ulcer maybe different in each case. Methodically and systematically evaluating and ruling out concomitant pathologies helps to address each patient's specific needs and hence bring down devastating complications like amputation. With incidence of diabetes being high in our country, and leprosy being endemic too the consequences of neuropathy and angiopathy are faced by most wound care specialists. This article presents a review of current English literature available on this subject. The search words were entered in PubMed central and appropriate abstracts reviewed. Relevant full text articles were retrieved and perused. Cross references from these articles were also reviewed. Based on these articles and the authors’ experiences algorithms for management have been presented to facilitate easier understanding. It is hoped that the information presented in this article will help in management of this recalcitrant problem. PMID:23162234
Puri, Vinita; Venkateshwaran, N; Khare, Nishant
Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746
Aim The study aims to document the oral lesions in patients with UC. Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is comprised of two chronic, tissue-destructive and clinical entities including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), both of which are immunologically based. Patients and methods The population of the study includes fifty patients with UC, as the experimental group, and fifty patients without gastrointestinal disease as the control group. All patients had an oral examination and completed the relevant questionnaire. Results There was a significant statistical relationship among tongue coating (<0.0001), halitosis (<0.0001), and oral ulceration (0.001) in patients suffering from severe UC compared to the control group. Also there was a higher prevalence of oral manifestations in patients with moderate UC compared to that of control group; but taste change (0.001) was the only significant factor. Acidic taste and taste change were among the symptoms more commonly found in patients suffering from pancolitis (40% each). Conclusion The results of the present study show that patients with UC had more oral signs and symptoms than the patients in the normal group. Further researches on oral lesions in UC are also recommended so that these diseases can be better understood. PMID:24834217
Elahi, Maryam; Samadi, Vahid; Vakili, Hadi
Objectives: Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that rarely exists in isolation in affected patients. We examined the association of ulcerative colitis and International Classification of Diseases mental disorder, as well as the temporal comorbidity of three broad International Classification of Diseases groupings of mental disorders in patients with ulcerative colitis to determine if mental disorder is more likely to occur before or after ulcerative colitis. Methods: We used physician diagnoses from the regional health zone of Calgary, Alberta, for patient visits from fiscal years 1994 to 2009 for treatment of any presenting concern in that Calgary health zone (763,449 patients) to identify 5113 patients age younger than 1 year to age 92 years (2120 males, average age = 47 years; 2993 females, average age = 48 years) with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. Results: The 16-year cumulative prevalence of ulcerative colitis was 0.0058%, or 58 cases per 10,000 persons (95% confidence interval = 56–60 per 10,000). Although the cumulative prevalence of mental disorder in the overall sample was 5390 per 10,000 (53.9%), we found that 4192 patients with ulcerative colitis (82%) also had a diagnosis of a mental disorder. By annual rate of ulcerative colitis, patients with mental disorder had a significantly higher annual prevalence. The mental disorder grouping neuroses/depressive disorders was most likely to arise before ulcerative colitis (odds ratio = 1.87 for males; 2.24 for females). Conclusions: A temporal association was observed between specific groups of International Classification of Diseases mental disorder and ulcerative colitis, indicating a possible etiologic relationship between the disorders or their treatments, or both. PMID:25663206
Cawthorpe, David; Davidson, Marta
Paleontologists occasionally find ancient tracks and footprints preserved in the rocks. This lesson opens the door to analysing those footprints, and gleaning information about body size and activities of the extinct animals that made the tracks. Students will learn that patterns can reveal much about the past, in light of the present; and that bipedalism has appeared several times. Relationships will be found between foot length and leg length; foot length and height; leg length and height; stride length and leg length; and stride length and speed.
In this paper, the problem of determining optimal booking policy for multiple fare classes in a pool of identical seats for multi-leg flights is considered. For large commercial airlines, efficiently setting and updating seat allocation targets for each passenger category on each multi-leg flight is an extremely difficult problem. This paper presents static and dynamic policies of allocation of airline seats for multi-leg flights with multiple fare classes, which allow one to maximize an expected contribution to profit. The dynamic policy uses the most recent demand and capacity information and allows one to allocate seats dynamically with anticipation over time. A numerical example is given.
Nechval, Nicholas A.; Rozite, Kristine; Strelchonok, Vladimir F.
A deuterium-hydride ice target with frozen spin polarization is under development for use at LEGS, TJNAF, and elsewhere. This target features favorable dilution factors and an open geometry. HD gas is isotopically purified by distillation, doped with a small amount of ortho-H2 and frozen into a mesh of aluminum wires which conducts away the heat from the ortho to para conversion of the H2. The wires constitute only about 20% of the target by mass and their contribution is readily determined by empty target measurements. The 2.5 cm diameter by 5 cm long cylinder of ice is created inside a dilution refrigerator-superconducting magnet system, where it is subsequently cooled to 15 mK in a 17 T magnetic field. The H reaches its equilibrium polarization of 80% in a few days. Transfers of spin from the H to the D, and subsequent re-polarizations of the H, allow a D polarization of 50% to be reached. After 6 to 8 weeks of aging, the ortho-H2 decays sufficiently to allow removal of the target and storage in a separate dewar. The target is transferred into an inbeam dewar for bombardment. After an NMR calibration, the target is vaporized, ready to begin a new cycle. The current status and future program are discussed.
Lowry, M. M.; Lincoln, F.; Miceli, L.; Saitoh, T.; Sandorfi, A. M.; Wei, X.; Whisnant, C. S.
A list and description of Drosophila genes involved in leg pattern formation and development. Genes for transcription factors ligands and secreted proteins are noted. A subset of the Interactive Fly collection.
PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)
The paper presents an urgent problem of modem aircraft power supply development. Paper proposes three level inverter with four leg for frequency converter systems. Simulation results and analysis are presented.
A. V. Geist; S. A. Kharitonov
These results clearly demonstrate that dynamic leg exercise against the footward force produced by LBNP substantially improves tolerance to LBNP, and that even cyclic ankle flexion without load bearing also increases tolerance. This exercise-induced increase of tolerance was actually an underestimate, because subjects who completed the tolerance test while exercising could have continued for longer periods. Exercise probably increases LBNP tolerance by multiple mechanisms. Tolerance was increased in part by skeletal muscle pumping venous blood from the legs. Rosenhamer and Linnarsson and Rosenhamer also deduced this for subjects cycling during centrifugation, although no measurements of leg volume were made in those studies: they found that male subjects cycling at 98 W could endure 3 Gz centrifugation longer than when they remained relaxed during centrifugation. Skeletal muscle pumping helps maintain cardiac filling pressure by opposing gravity-, centrifugation-, or LBNP-induced accumulation of blood and extravascular fluid in the legs.
Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Stout, M. S.; Murthy, G.; Whalen, R. T.; Hargens, A. R.
The NASA Exploration program is investigating the merits of land landing concepts for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Four options are under investigation: retro-rockets which fire and slow the vehicle before contact with the landing surface, deployable crushable material which deploys just before landing and crushes during land contact, airbags which deploy just before landing and deflate during land contact, and deployable legs which deploy before landing and contain material that absorbs energy during land contact. The purpose of the present work is to determine the effectiveness of the deployable leg concept. To accomplish this goal, structural models of the deployable leg concept are integrated with the Crew Model (CM) and computational simulations are performed to determine vehicle and component loadings and acceleration levels. Details of the modeling approach, deployable leg design, and resulting accelerations are provided.
Lawrence, Charles; Solano, Paul; Bartos, Karen
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory large bowel disease with recurrent variable periods of exacerbation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the correlation of UCEIS with fecal calprotectin (FC) level to assess disease activity in UC patients in order to determine whether FC can prognosticate clinical outcome and disease activity of UC instead of colonoscopic evaluation. Our endoscopic investigations revealed the extension of UC as the following: proctitis (11.6 %), procto-sigmoiditis (18.5 %), left-sided colitis (15.8 %), extensive colitis (11.7 %), and normal endoscopy (42.4 %). Conclusively, we suggest that FC can be used as a reliable tool to evaluate disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients. Moreover, our findings indicate a significant correlation between FC level and mucosal healing. PMID:25366383
Taghvaei, Tarang; Maleki, Iradj; Nagshvar, Farshad; Fakheri, Hafez; Hosseini, Vahid; Valizadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Neishaboori, Hassan
This study aims to evaluate the microclimate and development of pressure ulcers and superficial skin changes. A prospective cohort study was conducted in an acute care ward in Indonesia. Risk factors for pressure ulcers and superficial skin changes were identified based on the Bergstrom Braden conceptual model. Microclimate data were collected every 3 days for 15 days while the development of pressure ulcers and superficial skin changes was observed every day. Pressure ulcers and superficial skin changes were developed in 20 of the 71 participants. Total mean difference in skin temperature was higher for patients with pressure ulcers and superficial skin changes (0·9 ± 0·6°C) compared with controls (0·6 ± 0·8°C) (P = 0·071). Binary logistic regression predictor values for pressure ulcers and superficial skin changes were 0·111 for type of sheet and 0·347 for Braden Scale results. In conclusion, difference in skin temperature seems to be a predictor for pressure ulcer development and superficial skin changes, while synthetic fibre sheets are able to maintain a beneficial microclimate. PMID:23490303
Yusuf, Saldy; Okuwa, Mayumi; Shigeta, Yoshie; Dai, Misako; Iuchi, Terumi; Rahman, Sulaiman; Usman, Awaluddin; Kasim, Sukmawati; Sugama, Junko; Nakatani, Toshio; Sanada, Hiromi
Pressure ulcers are a significant healthcare problem affecting the quality of life in wheelchair bounded or bed-ridden people and are a major cost to the healthcare system. Various assessment tools such as the Braden scale have been developed to quantify the risk level of pressure ulcers. These tools have provided an initial guideline on preventing pressure ulcers while additional assessments are needed to improve the outcomes of pressure ulcer prevention. Skin blood flow function that determines the ability of the skin in response to ischemic stress has been proposed to be a good indicator for identifying people at risk of pressure ulcers. Wavelet spectral and nonlinear complexity analyses have been performed to investigate the influences of the metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic activities on microvascular regulation in people with various pathological conditions. These findings have contributed to the understanding of the role of ischemia and viability on the development of pressure ulcers. The purpose of the present review is to provide an introduction of the basic concepts and approaches for the analysis of skin blood flow oscillations, and present an overview of the research results obtained so far. We hope this information may contribute to the development of better clinical guidelines for the prevention of pressure ulcers. PMID:23602509
Liao, Fuyuan; Burns, Stephanie; Jan, Yih-Kuen
Objective To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2?000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids. PMID:23836366
Gregory, Marslin; Divya, B.; Mary, Revina Ann; Viji, M. M. Hipolith; Kalaichelvan, V. K.; Palanivel, V.
Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation rsulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions. PMID:167207
Pearson, G L; Pass, D A; Beggs, E C
Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.
Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.
We report an apparently unusually high incidence of leg injury in Willow Flycatch- ers (Empidonax traillii) as a result of banding and color banding. Color bands and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) bands applied to Willow Flycatchers from 1988-1995 resulted in an overall leg injury rate of 9.6% to birds returning to our study areas in subsequent years. Most
JAMES A. SEDGWICK
Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Btiieo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron micro- scopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo s'irgini- anus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting
G. L. PEARSON; D. A. PASSI; E. C. BEGGS
The World Health Organization recognizes Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer) as a reemerging disease. Classically, lesions are indolent, undermined ulcers of the skin. The characteristic histopathologic changes are provoked by a soluble toxin of M ulcerans that is necrotizing and immunosuppressive. After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli ulcer is the third most common mycobacterial disease in humans. We report Buruli ulcer
Fides Marie V. Abalos; Julia Aguiar; Augustin Guédénon; Françoise Portaels; Wayne M. Meyers
Pressure ulcers and malnutrition frequently co-exist in frail patients. Nutritional parameters have been correlated with development and with healing in chronic pressure ulcers, leading to suggestions that improving nutritional status can prevent or treat pressure ulcers. Despite a strong association, a causal relationship of poor nutritional status to development of pressure ulcers has not been established. Support for a causal
David R Thomas
AIM: The role of intravenous pantoprazole in treatment of patients with high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers following endoscopic hemostasis remains uncertain. We therefore conducted the pilot prospective randomized study to assess whether intravenous pantoprazole could improve the efficacy of H2-antagonist as an adjunct treatment following endoscopic injection therapy for bleeding ulcers. METHODS: Patients with active bleeding ulcers or ulcers with major
Ping-I Hsu; Gin-Ho Lo; Ching-Chu Lo; Chiun-Ku Lin; Hoi-Hung Chan; Chung-Jen Wu; Chang-Bih Shie; Pei-Min Tsai; Deng-Chyang Wu; Wen-Ming Wang; Kwok-Hung Lai
Both Helicobacter pylori and NSAIDs play important roles in the healing and relapse of peptic ulcers in man. We examined how H. pylori infection, indomethacin, and their combination affects the healing of gastric ulcers and whether or not such factors provoke a relapse of healed gastric ulcers in Mongolian gerbils. Gastric ulcers were induced by serosal application of an acetic
Yoshihiro Keto; Misako Ebata; Kazuyoshi Tomita; Susumu Okabe
•ABSENCE OF PRESSURE ULCERS is increasingly being used as an indicator of quality nursing care, based on the premise that pressure ulcers are preventable.•THIS RETROSPECTIVE STUDY examined the occurrence, presentation, and timing of pressure ulcer development in 150 patients undergoing cardiac surgery.•PRESSURE ULCER INCIDENTS were recorded in groups of patients who underwent surgery with use of a standard foam OR
Dennis Sewchuk; Cynthia Padula; Evelyn Osborne
PURPOSE. To summarize clinical and empirical knowledge about pressure ulcers in infants and children and to describe an approach developed at ChildrenS Hospital, Boston, to prevent and manage pressure ulcers POPULATION. Acutely ill children with potential or actual alteration in skin integrity due to pressure ulcers CONCLUSIONS. The three-pronged approach for pressure ulcer prevention and management developed by the Skin
Sandy M. Quigley; Martha A. Q. Curley
Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of PUD involves an imbalance between offensive factors like acid, pepsin and defensive factors like nitric oxide and growth factors. The clinical evaluation of antiulcer drugs showed tolerance, incidence of relapses and side-effects that make their efficacy arguable. An indigenous drug like Musa sapientum possessing fewer side-effects is the major thrust area of present day research, aiming at a better and safer approach for the management of PUD. Material and Methods: The unripe plantain bananas (Musa sapientum) were shade-dried, powdered and used for phytochemical analysis and as antiulcer drug. In our present study Group I rats served as control and were treated with saline, Group II was indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats, Group III received aqueous extract of Musa sapientum along with indomethacin and Group IV received esomeprazole along with indomethacin for 21 days. The anti-ulcerogenic activity was investigated by performing hematological, mucosal, antioxidant profile in comparison with the standard drug esomeprazole. Results: Our findings from High - Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that Musa sapientum has an active compound a monomeric flavonoid (leucocyanidin) with anti-ulcerogenic activity. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. All our results are in congruous with the results of standard drug esomeprazole. Conclusion: It could be clearly concluded that administration of the aqueous extract of Musa sapientum at the dose used in this study tends to ameliorate ulcers. Its use in indigenous medicine should be scientifically scrutinized with further research. PMID:22224045
Prabha, P.; Karpagam, Thirunethiran; Varalakshmi, B.; Packiavathy, A. Sohna Chandra
Pressure ulcer is an area of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue caused by pressure, shear, friction and/or combination of these things. Prevalence of this entity is between 3 and 66%, depending of the patients and the pathology. Pressure ulcer is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. One of the most important risk factors to develop a pressure ulcer is nutritional status. We can use different interventional strategies, first of all (primary intervention) before the patient has developed a ulcer and secondly, the treatment of a established ulcer (secondary prevention). In the most important primary prevention study with 662 patients, two oral nutritional supplements per day were given to the patients. The incidence of pressure ulcer was 40% (118/295) in the interventional group and 48% (181/377) in control group. A relative risk to develop a pressure ulcer with supplementation of 0.83 (CI95%: 0.70 a 0.99). In the studies with secondary prevention, when we analyze in an individual way the different nutrients, zinc has not demonstrated the utility in an independent way. Vitamin C shows contradictory data in two randomized clinical trial with the same dose (500 mg each 12 hours). Recently, some randomized clinical trials have demonstrated an improvement in healing rates with enhanced enteral formulas (zinc, arginine, vitamin C). Oral supplementation without taking account micronutrients decreases risk of pressure ulcer. However, studies of secondary prevention due to heterogeneity have not let clear conclusions. However, enteral enhanced formula could improve ulcer healing. PMID:18020893
de Luis, D; Aller, R
Ulcerative keratitis is a common and potentially blinding ocular disease of horses, capable of progressing to corneal perforation in as little as 24 h. This rapid stromal degeneration is mediated in part by exogenous and endogenous proteinases. We measured and compared the concentrations of two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and a serine proteinase (neutrophil elastase) present in the precorneal tear film of normal horses and horses with rapidly progressing ulcerative keratitis. Precorneal tear film samples were collected from 23 ulcerated and 21 unaffected eyes of 23 horses with unilateral ulcerative keratitis, and from 33 normal eyes of 17 control horses. MMP-2, MMP-9, and neutrophil elastase were identified by casein and gelatin zymography and quantified by computerized image analysis. Median MMP-9 levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of young control horses vs. older control horses (P = 0.005). Median MMP-2, MMP-9, and neutrophil elastase levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of ulcerated eyes when compared to age-matched normal controls (P = 0.004, P = 0.001, and P = 0.012, respectively). Median MMP-2 levels were also significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of contralateral eyes of affected horses when compared to age-matched normal controls (P = 0.004). No significant differences in median proteinase levels were detected between 'sterile' ulcers and those from which bacteria or mixed infections (bacteria and fungi) were isolated. However, median MMP-2 and neutrophil elastase levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of eyes with 'sterile' ulcers when compared with ulcerated eyes from which fungi were isolated (P < 0.05). The results of this study support the use of topical antiproteinase therapy which targets both MMPs and serine proteinases in progressive equine ulcerative keratitis. PMID:11397292
Strubbe, D.T.; Brooks, D.E.; Schultz, G.S.; Willis-Goulet, H.; Gelatt, K.N.; Andrew, S.E.; Kallberg, M.E.; MacKay, E.O.; Collante, W.R.
A previous work suggests that sucralfate labeled by binding to Tc-99m HSA permits the visualization of gastric ulcers. Potential problems with this technique are: 1) decreased binding of sucralfate to ulcer sites due to the labeling method of binding to exogenous protein (HSA); 2) overlying activity that may obscure identification of the ulcer. Because of these problems we have examined the possibility of direct in vivo Tc-99m labeling of sucralfate after it has already bound to the ulcer. In vitro studies were done to determine the binding of Tc-99m pertechnetate to sucralfate in the presence of tin in HCl solution at pHs comparable to those found in the stomach. Rapid and efficient labeling was achieved with 75-95% of the label bound to sucralfate at 30 minutes. In vivo studies were performed in rabbits with aspirin induced ulcers and in ulcer free human volunteers. The animal studies confirm that orally administered Tc-99m pertechnetate will bind to previously ingested sucralfate and that the labeled material will bind to the ulcers. Tc-99m pertechnetate was also shown to bind well to previously ingested sucralfate in humans. The results suggest that it is possible to label sucralfate in vivo. This method would offer the following advantages: 1) a simpler labeling procedure; 2) the potential of increased sensitivity by delaying the labeling until much of the sucralfate not bound to ulcer has passed, and thus decreasing the activity that remains in the stomach; and also by leaving the protein binding sites of the sucralfate free to interact with the ulcer since no exogenous protein is involved in labeling.
Pera, A.; Rose, H.; Seavers, R.; Bekerman, C.; Pinsky, S.
A hybrid rocket is composed of a solid fuel and a separate liquid or gaseous oxidizer. These rockets may be throttled like liquid rockets, are safer than solid rockets, and are much less complex than liquid rockets. However, hybrid rockets produce thrust oscillations that are not practical for large scale use. A lab scale hybrid rocket at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) Hybrid Rocket Facility is used to develop sensors to measure physical properties of hybrid rockets. Research is currently being conducted to design a six degree of freedom force sensor to measure the thrust and torque in all three spacial dimensions. The detector design uses six force sensor legs. Each leg utilizes strain gauges and a Wheatstone bridge to produce a voltage propotional to the force on the leg. The leg was designed using the CAD software ProEngineer and ProMechanica. Computer models of the strains on the single leg will be presented. A prototype leg was built and was tested in an INSTRON and results will be presented.
Woten, Douglas; McGehee, Tripp; Wright, Anne
A running animal coordinates the actions of many muscles, tendons, and ligaments in its leg so that the overall leg behaves like a single mechanical spring during ground contact. Experimental observations have revealed that an animal's leg sti¡ness is independent of both speed and gravity level, suggesting that it is dictated by inherent musculoskeletal properties. However, if leg sti¡ness was
Daniel P. Ferris; Micky Louie; Claire T. Farley
A platform for micro-positioning, actuated by three piezo legs, is described. The legs have no joints and motion is performed by slow bending and quick stretching of the legs. During the quick stretching phase the leg tips slip over the ground surface and the platform moves for a small increment. Repetition of this procedure results in a continuous motion. Although
L. Juhas; A. Vujanic; N. Adamovic; Laszlo Nagy; Branislav Borovac
Biologic agents such as anti-TNF? have been employed in treatment paradigms for ocular inflammation. Peripheral corneal ulceration (PUK) is a devastating disorder consisting of a crescent-shaped area of destructive inflammation at the margin of the corneal stroma. It is associated with an epithelial defect, the presence of stromal inflammatory cells, and progressive stromal degradation and thinning, leading to ocular perforation and devastating visual loss. Macroulcerative PUK is usually a local manifestation of a systemic vasculitis. In many cases, the disease may be resistant to high doses of systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Chimeric anti-TNF? has been employed when all other treatments have failed. Isolated cases and short series of cases have been reported. This paper summarizes the available reports on the use, efficacy, and safety of infliximab in the treatment of PUK. PMID:25474432
Huerva, Valentín; Ascaso, Francisco J; Grzybowski, Andrzej
A 75-year-old retired nurse, originally from Barbados, presented to her general practitioner (GP) with a scaling ulcerated nodule on the left side of her nose. She was taking medication for type 2 diabetes, hypertension and glaucoma, but was otherwise well with no systemic symptoms. Her GP diagnosed a patch of eczema; however, a trial of topical steroids was not effective and she was referred to dermatology. A skin biopsy confirmed the clinical suspicion that this patient had a nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC). BCCs account for 75% of all skin cancers; they very rarely metastasise, but can spread to invade local structures. Our patient has type VI skin. Skin cancer is rare in patients with skin type VI; however, in this group, morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high in relation to cancer incidence. PMID:23595174
Maybury, Catriona M; Craythorne, Emma; Martin, Blanca
A 57-year-old man was seen with a 2-week history of progressive enlargement of an asymptomatic genital ulcer associated with bilateral inguinal lymphadenomegaly. Multiple unprotected heterosexual contacts were reported. The family doctor misdiagnosed primary syphilis with the following laboratory results: negative findings on the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test, positive findings on the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (titer 1:1280), and IgM negative on the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay. The patient was treated with penicillin G for the diagnosis of indeterminate latent syphilis and initially denied authorization for a skin biopsy. After 2 weeks, fast enlargement of the lesion was documented. He underwent skin biopsy, and the histopathologic examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma, and polymerase chain reaction for human papillomavirus 16 was positive. PMID:22748894
Brunasso, Alexandra Maria Giovanna; Bandelloni, Roberto; Massone, Cesare
Ulcerative colitis (UC) may have diverse extraintestinal manifestations. Nutritional deficiencies, medications or immune-mediated epiphenomena are considered to be pathogenic mechanisms involved. We describe a case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with rapidly progressive tingling paraesthesias in both lower limbs followed by sensory ataxia, ascending spastic quadriparesis, urgency and urge incontinence of 3?months duration. She had an episode of bloody diarrhoea 1?month later for which a colonoscopy was carried out with colonic biopsy features revealing a diagnosis of UC. In view of lack of alternative aetiology, the posterolateral column disease in our patient was attributed to an extraintestinal manifestation of UC. She improved dramatically with a course of intravenous steroids followed by tapering dose of oral steroids and oral mesalamine for her UC. Although rare, UC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of posterolateral column disease of the spinal cord in the appropriate clinical scenario. PMID:25564640
Kesav, Praveen; Khurana, Dheeraj
Audit of treatment of duodenal ulcer disease has allowed management to improve and keep abreast of rapid advances in care. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori was assessed by 14C urea breath test one to two months after anti-Helicobacter therapy. The old triple therapy regime of bismuth, tetracycline and metronidazole for two weeks was found to be toxic and of low effectiveness (82%). Regimes with lansoprazole for one month and antibiotics for one week gave 90-98% success rates. The best success has been with regimes containing both clarithromycin and a nitro-imidazole. There was complete success in 98% of 109 patients given quadruple therapy with lansoprazole 30 mg daily for one month plus tetracycline 500 mg twice daily, clarithromycin 250 mg twice daily and metronidazole 400 mg twice daily for one week. PMID:9519185
Bateson, M. C.; Diffey, B. L.
The involvement of the H1 and H2 receptors for histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers was investigated in rats. Metiamide, an H2 receptor antagonist, reliably reduced ulceration produced by stress alone or by a combination of stress and aspirin. In contrast, pyrilamine, which blocks only the H1 receptor, was without effect under these same conditions. The results support the hypothesis that histamine mediates both stress and stress plus aspirin induced ulceration by a mechanism involving the H2 receptor.
Brown, P. A.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Brown, T. H.
Long-standing burns, fissures, and ulcers that undergo malignant transformation into a variety of malignancies, including squamous cell carcinoma, is commonly referred to as a Marjolin's ulcer. It is well recognized that squamous cell carcinomas of the lung and esophagus can cause humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy secondary to paraneoplastic secretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide. However, it is extremely rare for a squamous cell carcinoma developing in a sacral decubitus ulcer to cause humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. We describe the first case of a patient found to have elevated serum levels of parathyroid hormone related peptide related to his Marjolin's ulcer. A 45-year-old African American man with T6 paraplegia and a sacral decubitus ulcer present for 20 years was admitted for hypercalcemia of unclear etiology. He was subsequently found to have elevated parathyroid hormone related peptide and an excisional biopsy from the ulcer showed invasive squamous cell carcinoma suggestive of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. The patient ultimately succumbed to sepsis while receiving chemotherapy for his metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy is a rare and likely underrecognized complication that can occur in a Marjolin's ulcer. PMID:25197285
O'Malley, John T.; Schoppe, Candace; Husain, Sameera; Grossman, Marc E.
Leg problems and resulting mortality can exceed 1% per week in turkey toms starting at approxi- mately 15 wk of age. Dietary supplementation of organ- ic trace minerals (MIN) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (HyD) may improve performance, decrease incidence of leg abnormalities, and increase bone strength. Nicholas 85X700 toms were assigned to 4 treatments consisting of a factorial arrangement of 2 concentrations
P. R. Ferket; E. O. Oviedo-Rondon; P. L. Mente; D. V. Bohorquez; A. A. Santos Jr.; J. L. Grimes; J. D. Richards; J. J. Dibner; V. Felts
Ocimum sanctum (OS) is known to possess various therapeutic properties. We evaluated its anti-ulcerogenic activity in cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (ASP), alcohol (AL), pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in Sprague–Dawley rats, histamine-induced duodenal (HST) ulcer in guinea pigs, and ulcer-healing activity, in acetic acid-induced (AC) chronic ulcer model. We found that OS, decreased the incidence of ulcers and
Poonam Dharmani; Vijay Kumar Kuchibhotla; Rakesh Maurya; Sudhir Srivastava; Sharad Sharma; Gautam Palit
The algorithm of trajectory planning and four leg coordination for quasi-static stair climbing in a quadruped robot is reported. The development is based on the geometrical interactions between the robot legs and the stair, starting from single-leg analysis, followed by two-leg collaboration, and then four-leg coordination. A brief study on stability of the robot is included. In addition, the first-step
Shen-Chiang Chen; Ke Jung Huang; Cheng-Hsin Li; Pei-Chun Lin
Treatment of patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis is still a challenge for physicians. A recent study has evaluated the effectiveness and safety of sequential rescue therapies in this subgroup of patients. PMID:25023033
Gionchetti, Paolo; Rizzello, Fernando
Because the normal faecal flora includes bacteria which can produce mucus-digesting glycosidases, it follows that increased digestion of colonic mucus by these bacterial enzymes could be important in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal activities of potential mucus-degrading glycosidases have therefore been assayed in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal controls. The enzymes alpha-D-galactosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-NAc-D-glucosaminidase alpha-L-fucosidase and neuraminidase were assayed. Considerable glycosidase activity was present in most faecal samples. Similar activities of all the enzymes assayed were found in faeces from patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and normal controls and there was no significant correlation with disease activity. These results imply that relapse of ulcerative colitis is not initiated by increased degradation of colonic mucus by faecal glycosidases but do not exclude a role for bacterial mucus degradation in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. PMID:2991089
Rhodes, J M; Gallimore, R; Elias, E; Allan, R N; Kennedy, J F
Research has demonstrated an association between more nurses and more qualified nursing staff in hospitals and better patient outcomes. Patient falls and pressure ulcers have been advanced as nursing-sensitive outcomes. This article evaluates the state of the science linking nurse staffing to falls and pressure ulcers. Studies that employed multivariate analysis to discern the effect of nurse staffing on patient falls and pressure ulcers in hospitals were evaluated. Eleven studies that met inclusion criteria were contrasted on their data sources and measures, data analysis, risk adjustment, and results. The evidence of an effect of nursing hours or skill mix on patient falls and pressure ulcers is equivocal. Substantial differences in research methods across studies may account for the mixed findings. Two study types were identified based on the level at which nurse staffing was measured, hospital or nursing unit, which exhibited systematic differences in measures and methods. Improvements in measurement and methods are suggested. PMID:16946108
Lake, Eileen T; Cheung, Robyn B
Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common amongst equine athletes of various disciplines and linked to decreased performance. Prevalence among racehorses has been reported to be over 90%, performance horses at 60%, and endurances horses...
Skin ulcers are defined as tissue loss interesting the deeper layers of the dermis and hypodermis, with low tendency to spontaneous healing. They cause disability related to pain, risk of infection and amputation, chronic management, requiring working absence with notably economic burden. The major cause is often related to underlying vascular disease, infections, tumors, autoimmunity, trauma, even if literature occasionally reported several cases of drug inducing skin ulceration. Most of drugs involved are chemotherapy agents and more recently molecular target therapies. Evidences supporting these drugs as the major cause of skin ulcers include delay of onset after therapy initiation, improvement after withdrawal of the drug, recurrence after its reintroduction and, sometimes, simultaneous occurrence of other skin lesions that have previously been reported to be associated with these agents. Attention should be reserved to patients undergoing antineoplastic agents, especially if previously affected by predisposing comorbidities, considering such side effect as possible differential diagnosis for skin ulceration in neoplastic patients. PMID:25203350
D'Epiro, S; Salvi, M; Luzi, A; Mattozzi, C; Luci, C; Macaluso, L; Marzocca, F; Salvo, V; Cantisani, C; Paolino, G; Calvieri, S; Richetta, A G
This case describes a young white British man with a one-year history of recurrent genital ulceration managed by the GP. Initially this was thought to be a drug reaction; however, presentation at our genitourinary medicine clinic and onward review with dermatology allowed the diagnosis of Behçet's disease to be made. The clinical diagnosis was made based on painful oral and genital ulcers, eye irritation, erythema nodosum and positive pathergy test. Treatment with oral prednisolone was initiated by dermatology, which resulted in rapid improvement in the genital ulceration. This case highlights that clinicians should consider Behçet's disease in patients with recurrent genital ulceration to ensure prompt diagnosis and prevention of systemic involvement. PMID:24676131
Warren, Sian; Alden, Katrin; Lomax, Nicola
Complications after endoscopic injection therapy to control bleeding from peptic ulcers are uncommon and rarely fatal. We report a case of fatal gastroduodenal necrosis and postulate that accidental intra-arterial injection may be responsible for this event. PMID:8463616
Goldberg, P A; Krige, J E
Pressure ulcers are painful sores that arise from prolonged exposure to high pressure points, which restricts blood flow and leads to tissue necrosis. This is a common occurrence among patients with impaired mobility, ...
We measured how much metabolic energy is expended to swing a human leg. A previous dynamical model of walking predicted that increasing metabolic costs for walking with step length and step frequency trade-off against each other to determine the optimum step combination at a given speed. Simple pendulum dynamics indicate that the cost of walking at high step frequencies could be associated with driving the legs back and forth relative to the body, at a rate increasing approximately with the fourth power of frequency, possibly due to the low economy of producing muscle force for short durations. A similar cost would be expected for isolated swinging of a leg at faster than its natural frequency. We constructed an apparatus to measure work performed on the leg, and measured metabolic cost as human subjects (N=12) swung one leg at frequencies 0.5-1.1 Hz and fixed amplitude. Rate of mechanical work ranged from 0.02-0.27 W kg(-1) over these frequencies. Net metabolic rate for leg swinging (subtracting that for quiet standing) increased from 0.41-2.10 W kg(-1), approximately with the fourth power of frequency (R(2)=0.92) and in proportion to a hypothesized cost of force production for short durations. The costs of producing force and work could account for the increase. In a crude comparison, moving the legs back and forth at a typical stride frequency of 0.9 Hz, might consume about one-third of the net energy (2.8+/-0.8 W kg(-1)) needed for walking at 1.3 m s(-1). PMID:15671332
Doke, Jiro; Donelan, J Maxwell; Kuo, Arthur D
Objective: to estimate the annual cost of treating pressure ulcers in the UK. Design: costs were derived from a bottom-up methodology, based on the daily resources required to deliver protocols of care reXecting good clinical practice. Setting: health and social care system in the UK. Subjects: patients developing a pressure ulcer. Methods: a bottom-up costing approach is used to estimate
GERRY BENNETT; CAROL DEALEY; JOHN POSNETT; Hull HU
96 unrelated patients suffering from ulcerative colitis were typed for the electrophoretic variants of alpha1-antitrypsin (?1-AT). None of the phenotypes showed a definite association with this condition. The serum concentration of ?1-AT was increased compared with healthy control subjects. There was a positive correlation between the serum concentration of ?1-AT and activity of the ulcerative colitis.Copyright © 1984 S. Karger
I. Biemond; W. S. Selby; D. P. Jewell; E. C. Klasen
Pressure ulcers are a serious problem that can lead to pain and delayed recovery. In Turkey, the selection of dressing products is usually left to the nurse managing the patient and depends on several factors, including the condition of the wound, the nurse's knowledge, and the nurse's experience. The aim of this study was to determine prevention and management strategies for pressure ulcer care in hospitalized patients in Turkey and to identify the factors that influence the selection of products by nurses. The descriptive study was carried out in various departments (orthopedic, neurological, oncology, and intensive care) where bedridden patients were found. A total of 110 nurses volunteered to participate. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire developed after a review of the literature. Only 32% of the nurses made use of a pressure ulcer care risk evaluation scale (Norton scale), and air mattresses were used by 89% as a preventive measure with patients who were at risk. When pressure ulcers occurred, advanced wound care products were preferred by most of the nurses. Seventy four percent of nurses considered the condition of wound for selection of products. Despite correctly noting several strategies for prevention of pressure ulcers, 9% of nurses also described massage around boney prominence and the use of inflatable rings as effective preventive strategies. This descriptive study shows that nurses in Turkey are primarily responsible for prevention and management of pressure ulcer care and that both traditional dressing products and advanced wound care products are used in the care of all stages of pressure ulcers in Turkey. It also illustrates the need for ongoing pressure ulcer education to promote evidence-based practice and reduce the use of ineffective (or harmful) strategies. PMID:16030462
Acaroglu, Rengin; Sendir, Merdiye
Background: The pathogenetic mechanisms of stomal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) are unclear. In order to study\\u000a the role of gastric acid, we measured acidity in the proximal pouch using a pH-sensitive probe. Methods: 6 patients (5 females,\\u000a mean age 45 years old at time of operation) with endoscopically confirmed stomal ulcer, were studied 2 to 6 years after
Jakob Hedberg; Hans Hedenström; Sven Nilsson; Magnus Sundbom; Sven Gustavsson
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether azathioprine can prevent relapse in ulcerative colitis. DESIGN--One year placebo controlled double blind trial of withdrawal or continuation of azathioprine. SETTING--Outpatient clinics of five hospitals. SUBJECTS--79 patients with ulcerative colitis who had been taking azathioprine for six months or more. Patients in full remission for two months or more (67), and patients with chronic low grade or
A. B. Hawthorne; R. F. Logan; C. J. Hawkey; P. N. Foster; A. T. Axon; E. T. Swarbrick; B. B. Scott; J. E. Lennard-Jones
The analgesic effects of morphine applied topically to painful ulcers was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study of five patients with painful sacral sores. Patients were treated for two days with either 10 mg morphine sulfate or placebo (water for injection) applied topically to the ulcer. After a two-day wash-out period, patients were crossed over for a
Giovambattista Zeppetella; James Paul; Maria D. C Ribeiro
AIMSTo present our experience of severe upper airway obstruction caused by ulcerative laryngitis in children.METHODSRetrospective case note review of 263 children with severe upper airway obstruction and a clinical diagnosis of croup admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) over a five year period.RESULTSA total of 148 children (56%) underwent microlaryngoscopy (Storz 3.0 rigid telescope). Laryngeal ulceration with oedema
M Hatherill; L Reynolds; Z Waggie; A Argent
background Concurrent therapy with a proton-pump inhibitor is a standard treatment for patients receiving aspirin who are at risk for ulcer. Current U.S. guidelines also recommend clo- pidrogel for patients who have major gastrointestinal intolerance of aspirin. We com- pared clopidogrel with aspirin plus esomeprazole for the prevention of recurrent bleed- ing from ulcers in high-risk patients. methods We studied
Francis K. L. Chan; Jessica Y. L. Ching; Lawrence C. T. Hung; Vincent W. S. Wong; Vincent K. S. Leung; Nelson N. S. Kung; Aric J. Hui; Justin C. Y. Wu; Wai K. Leung; Vivian W. Y. Lee; Kenneth K. C. Lee; Yuk T. Lee; James Y. W. Lau; Ka F. To; Henry L. Y. Chan; S. C. Sydney Chung; Joseph J. Y. Sung
Dopaminergic agents are the best-studied agents and are considered first-line treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Extensive data are available for levodopa, pramipexole, and ropinirole, which have approval for the indication RLS, and to a smaller extent for cabergoline, pergolide, and rotigotine. Apart from one recent study, comparing two active drugs (levodopa and cabergoline), no comparative studies have been published. The individual treatment regimen with the most appropriate agent concerning efficacy and side effects has to be selected by the treating physician. On the basis of these clinical trials and expert opinion of the authors, a treatment algorithm is proposed to support the search for the optimal individual treatment. Opioids and anticonvulsants such as gabapentine are second-line options in individual patients. Iron substitution is justified in people with iron deficiency related RLS (ferritin concentration lower than 50 microg/L). PMID:17516455
Oertel, Wolfgang H; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Zucconi, Marco; Benes, Heike; Borreguero, Diego Garcia; Bassetti, Claudio; Partinen, Markku; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin
Foot ulceration remains a serious health concern for diabetic patients and has a major impact on the cost of diabetes treatment. Early detection and preventive care, such as offloading or improved hygiene, can greatly reduce the risk of further complications. We aim to assess the use of hyperspectral tissue oximetry in predicting the risk of diabetic foot ulcer formation. Tissue oximetry measurements are performed during several visits with hyperspectral imaging of the feet in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus subjects that are at risk for foot ulceration. The data are retrospectively analyzed at 21 sites that ulcerated during the course of our study and an ulceration prediction index is developed. Then, an image processing algorithm based on this index is implemented. This algorithm is able to predict tissue at risk of ulceration with a sensitivity and specificity of 95 and 80%, respectively, for images taken, on average, 58 days before tissue damage is apparent to the naked eye. Receiver operating characteristic analysis is also performed to give a range of sensitivity/specificity values resulting in a Q-value of 89%.
Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nouvong, Aksone; Schomacker, Kevin; Pilon, Laurent
Context: Current evidence shows ambiguous relationship between tobacco use and the occurrence of aphthous. Objectives: We studied the relationship between the occurrence of recurrent aphthous ulcers and various forms of tobacco usage. Materials and Methods: A hospital based case control study was carried out in a dental teaching hospital in Cochin, India. One hundred and two outpatient subjects (Males 56.9%) were identified having aphthous ulceration using Natha’s diagnostic criteria and were classified as cases. One hundred and eight subjects (Males, 70.4%) with no aphthous ulceration were selected randomly as controls. Exposure ascertainment of tobacco usage was done by structured interview. Results: The adjusted odd ratio was found to be 0.41 (95% CI 0.19-0.87) for tobacco usage and occurrence of aphthous ulceration compared to non tobacco users. The odds ratio of 0.41 for tobacco usage infers that subjects using tobacco were 59% less likely to have aphthous ulcerations compared to nontobacco users. Conclusion: The tobacco consumers have less frequency of aphthous ulceration compared non users. PMID:25584320
Tendinopathies are a major cause of disability in the athletic population; the main purpose of the treatment of these injuries is to reduce pain and improve function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs on leg stiffness of patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. Twenty-eight eligible male athletes (aged 39.1 ± 10.3 y) suffering acute Achilles tendinopathy were treated with etoricoxib (120 mg oral once daily) during 7 days. Pain (100-mm visual analogue scale-VAS), analgesic effect (percentage of 100-mm VAS reduction), and leg stiffness were evaluated pre- and post- anti-inflammatory treatment. Results of this study showed that over the 7-day treatment period, etoricoxib provided significant relief of Achilles tendon pain (VAS) compared to that experienced at baseline: 54.5 ± 21.6 and 24.5 ± 24.8, respectively (p<0.001). Leg stiffness showed a significant improvement after one-week NSAID therapy: LSR 0.89 ± 0.1 vs. 0.97 ± 0.1; (p=0.02). In conclusion, findings of this study demonstrated that patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy increased their leg stiffness of the affected side after oral anti-inflammatory therapy. Effective control of tendon pain in the acute phase of such sports-related injuries may contribute to improve capabilities associated with high performance like leg stiffness. PMID:24583548
Maquirriain, J; Kokalj, A
ContextPrevious studies report that pressure ulcer classification and differentiation from incontinence associated dermatitis are difficult. Incorrect classification and differentiation result in incorrect prevention and treatment. Education is important to spread evidence-based insights about this topic and to improve classification skills.AimTo assess the effectiveness of the Pressure Ulcer Classification (PUCLAS) education tool. PUCLAS was developed by the PUCLAS Workgroup of the
Dimitri Beeckman; Lisette Schoonhoven; Jacqui Fletcher; Katia Furtado; Hilde Heyman; Louis Paquay; Dirk De Bacquer; Tom Defloor
L-Theanine is a unique non-protein-forming amino acid present in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. In the present work, we evaluated the healing effect of L-theanine on NSAID (indomethacin)-induced gastric ulcer. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the third day after indomethacin administration (18 mg/kg, single dose p.o.) which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation; protein carbonylation; Th1 cytokine synthesis, and depletion of thiol, mucin, prostaglandin (PG) E, Th2 cytokine synthesis; and total antioxidant status in mice. L-Theanine healed gastric ulcer at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. but aggravated the ulcerated condition at a higher dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. At 10 mg/kg b.w., L-theanine significantly alleviated the adverse oxidative effect of indomethacin through enhanced synthesis of PGE2 by modulation of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and 2 [COX-1 and COX-2] expression, Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, and restoration of cellular antioxidant status at the gastric ulcer margin. The present study revealed for the first time the dose-dependent biphasic effect of a natural neuroprotective agent, L-theanine, on gastric ulcer disease. PMID:24981317
Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Chatterjee, Ananya; Roy, Surmi; Bera, Biswajit; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder with a prevalence of 5% to 15%. Primary care physicians must become familiar with management of this disorder. This algorithm for the management of RLS was written by members of the Medical Advisory Board of the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation and is based on scientific evidence and expert opinion. Restless legs syndrome is divided into intermittent, daily, and refractory types. Nonpharmacological approaches, including mental alerting activities, avoiding substances or medications that may exacerbate RLS, and addressing the possibility of iron deficiency, are discussed. The role of carbidopa/levodopa, dopamine agonists, opioids, benzodiazepines, and anticonvulsants for the different types of the disorder is delineated. PMID:15244390
Silber, Michael H; Ehrenberg, Bruce L; Allen, Richard P; Buchfuhrer, Mark J; Earley, Christopher J; Hening, Wayne A; Rye, David B
Water striders capture the amazing feature to walk on water surface, and this phenomenon triggered extensive investigations in the past decades. We model the strider leg as a fiber vertically pressing into water surface and explore some striking mechanics behaviors in this process. First, the meniscus morphology is exactly solved by a numerical scheme. Based upon this solution, a non-dimensional parameter is defined in order to properly characterize the "capillary effect" of the objects with different volumes. The discussion of the buoyant force shows that the apparent contact angle has little impact on the variation of the water-supporting force. Besides this, there is no need for the strider leg to pierce into water, for the pinning of the triple contact line ensures a bigger buoyant force. In addition, the radius of the leg should be in an appropriate range to support the body weight. These analyses may cast light on how to design new-typed miniature aquatic devices.
Liu, Jianlin; Sun, Jing; Mei, Yue
Torsion of the leg was measured in 50 adults by computed tomography. The tangent to the dorsal aspect of the femoral condyles gave the proximal reference line. The distal reference line joined the centers of the medial and lateral malleoli. Tibial torsion was measured as the inclination between the dorsal tangent to the tibial condyles and the distal reference line, and torsion of the leg was measured as the inclination between the proximal and the distal reference lines. The anatomy of the dorsal aspects of the tibial condyles was more inconsistent than the anatomy of the dorsal aspects of the femoral condyles. In the females the external torsion of the leg was 38 +/- 9 degrees on the right side and 37 +/- 11 degrees on the left side. In the males the values were 41 +/- 6 degrees and 40 +/- 10 degrees, respectively. PMID:2750510
Reikerås, O; Høiseth, A
The present study used a microelectronic neural bridge comprised of electrode arrays for neural signal detection, functional electrical stimulation, and a microelectronic circuit including signal amplifying, processing, and functional electrical stimulation to bridge two separate nerves, and to restore the lost function of one nerve. The left leg of one spinal toad was subjected to external mechanical stimulation and functional electrical stimulation driving. The function of the left leg of one spinal toad was regenerated to the corresponding leg of another spinal toad using a microelectronic neural bridge. Oscilloscope tracings showed that the electromyographic signals from controlled spinal toads were generated by neural signals that controlled the spinal toad, and there was a delay between signals. This study demonstrates that microelectronic neural bridging can be used to restore neural function between different injured nerves. PMID:25206698
Shen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhigong; Lv, Xiaoying; Huang, Zonghao
This case describes a 60-year-old gentleman who presented with a pulsating mass behind his knee. Before this, he had a fasciotomy for suspected compartment syndrome of leg following knee arthroscopy, but this failed to resolve his leg symptoms. He was hemodynamically stable on presentation. His left calf was swollen with a circumference of 3 cm greater than right. There was a large pulsating mass palpable in his left popliteal fossa. Distal neurovascular status of the leg was intact. He had a normal cardiovascular, respiratory, abdominal and neurological examination. Ultrasound showed a cystic mass in the popliteal fossa suggestive of aneurysm. CT angiogram demonstrated a 6 × 5 × 4 cm pseudoaneurysm compressing and displacing the left popliteal artery with satisfactory three-vessel run-off. An emergency repair was performed. An arteriotomy was identified at the proximal end of pseudoaneurysm and it was closed with a patch of small saphenous vein. It led to a good clinical outcome. PMID:25362730
Sajjad, Jahangir; Coveney, Andrew; Ahmed, Abubakr; Fulton, Gregory
A pressurized water nuclear reactor system includes a vortex mitigator in the form of a cylindrical conduit between the hot leg conduit and a first section of residual heat removal conduit, which conduit leads to a pump and a second section of residual heat removal conduit leading back to the reactor pressure vessel. The cylindrical conduit is of such a size that where the hot leg has an inner diameter D.sub.1, the first section has an inner diameter D.sub.2, and the cylindrical conduit or step nozzle has a length L and an inner diameter of D.sub.3 ; D.sub.3 /D.sub.1 is at least 0.55, D.sub.2 is at least 1.9, and L/D.sub.3 is at least 1.44, whereby cavitation of the pump by a vortex formed in the hot leg is prevented.
Lau, Louis K. S. (Monroeville, PA)
With 300,000 paraplegic persons only in France, ischial pressure ulcers represent a major public health issue. They result from the buttocks? soft tissues compression by the bony prominences. Unfortunately, the current clinical techniques, with - in the best case - embedded pressure sensor mats, are insufficient to prevent them because most are due to high internal strains which can occur even with low pressures at the skin surface. Therefore, improving prevention requires using a biomechanical model to estimate internal strains from skin surface pressures. However, the buttocks? soft tissues? stiffness is still unknown. This paper provides a stiffness sensitivity analysis using a finite element model. Different layers with distinct Neo Hookean materials simulate the skin, fat and muscles. With Young moduli in the range [100-500 kPa], [25-35 kPa], and [80-140 kPa] for the skin, fat, and muscles, respectively, maximum internal strains reach realistic 50 to 60% values. The fat and muscle stiffnesses have an important influence on the strain variations, while skin stiffness is less influent. Simulating different sitting postures and changing the muscle thickness also result in a variation in the internal strains. PMID:24873863
Luboz, Vincent; Petrizelli, Marion; Bucki, Marek; Diot, Bruno; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Payan, Yohan
The association between ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been acknowledged. One of the most serious and life threatening consequences of UC is the development of CRC (UC-CRC). UC-CRC patients are younger, more frequently have multiple cancerous lesions, and histologically show mucinous or signet ring cell carcinomas. The risk of CRC begins to increase 8 or 10 years after the diagnosis of UC. Risk factors for CRC with UC patients include young age at diagnosis, longer duration, greater anatomical extent of colonic involvement, the degree of inflammation, family history of CRC, and presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis. CRC on the ground of UC develop from non-dysplastic mucosa to indefinite dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and finally to invasive adenocarcinoma. Colonoscopy surveillance programs are recommended to reduce the risk of CRC and mortality in UC. Genetic alterations might play a role in the development of UC-CRC. 5-aminosalicylates might represent a favorable therapeutic option for chemoprevention of CRC. PMID:25469007
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic condition requiring lifelong medication to minimize the incidence of symptomatic flares. Nevertheless, studies have shown that a large proportion of patients are nonadherent to their prescribed therapeutic regimen. This review examines studies of patient adherence to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy in real world settings and considers the reasons that patients do not adhere to medication. Patients offer numerous reasons for not taking medication as prescribed; however, neither clinical nor community studies have consistently identified the same groups of patients as being high risk for poor adherence. Indeed, the problem of nonadherence is complex and requires a combination of strategies to be improved. Physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners need to take the time to explain the importance of continual therapy, even when patients feel well, and should engage patients in a discussion to aid in the understanding of their nonadherence. Then, healthcare providers can determine how to best amend the regimen to improve adherence. As taking several tablets several times daily may be confusing or difficult for patients, higher strength 5-ASA formulations that require fewer daily doses have the potential to enhance patient adherence as part of an overall management strategy. PMID:21960790
Summary Calciphylaxis, also referred to as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a relatively rare but well described syndrome that occurs most commonly in patients with late stage CKD. It is characterized by very painful placques or subcutaneous nodules and violaceous, mottled skin lesions that may progress to nonhealing ulcers, tissue necrosis, and gangrene with a 1-year mortality rate >50%. The pathogenesis of calciphylaxis is poorly understood. Risk factors include female sex, obesity, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, longer dialysis vintage, hypercoagulable states, and use of calcium-containing phosphate binders and warfarin. Treatment strategies for calciphylaxis are limited by inadequate understanding of its pathophysiology. Therapy is generally focused on correcting disturbances of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Additional therapy focuses on decreasing inflammation and on dissolution of tissue calcium deposits with sodium thiosulfate and/or bisphosphonates. Successful treatment generally results in improvement of pain and healing of the lesions within 2–4 weeks, but the disorder generally takes many months to completely resolve. PMID:24202137
The management strategy of acute severe ulcerative colitis has evolved over the past decade from being entirely restricted to twin choices of intravenous steroids or colectomy to include colon rescue therapies like cyclosporin as well as infliximab. However it still remains a medical emergency requiring hospitalization and requires care from a multidisciplinary team comprising of a gastroenterologist and a colorectal surgeon. The frame shift in management has been the emphasis on time bound decision making with an attempt to curtail the mortality rate to below 1%. Intravenous corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. Response to steroids should be assessed at day 3 of admission and partial/non-responders should be considered for alternative medical therapy/surgery. Medical rescue therapies include intravenous cyclosporin and infliximab. Cyclosporin is administered in a dose of 2 mg/kg per day and infliximab is administered as a single dose intravenous infusion of 5 mg/kg. Approximately 75% patients have short term and 50% patients have long term response to cyclosporin. Long term response to cyclosporin is improved in patients who are thiopurine naïve and are started on thiopurines on day 7. Infliximab also has a response rate of approximately 70% in short term and 50% in long term. Both cyclosporin and infliximab are equally efficacious medical rescue therapies as demonstrated in a recent randomized control trial. Patients not responding to infliximab or cyclosporin should be considered for colectomy. PMID:25401001
Kedia, Saurabh; Ahuja, Vineet; Tandon, Rakesh
The management strategy of acute severe ulcerative colitis has evolved over the past decade from being entirely restricted to twin choices of intravenous steroids or colectomy to include colon rescue therapies like cyclosporin as well as infliximab. However it still remains a medical emergency requiring hospitalization and requires care from a multidisciplinary team comprising of a gastroenterologist and a colorectal surgeon. The frame shift in management has been the emphasis on time bound decision making with an attempt to curtail the mortality rate to below 1%. Intravenous corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. Response to steroids should be assessed at day 3 of admission and partial/non-responders should be considered for alternative medical therapy/surgery. Medical rescue therapies include intravenous cyclosporin and infliximab. Cyclosporin is administered in a dose of 2 mg/kg per day and infliximab is administered as a single dose intravenous infusion of 5 mg/kg. Approximately 75% patients have short term and 50% patients have long term response to cyclosporin. Long term response to cyclosporin is improved in patients who are thiopurine naïve and are started on thiopurines on day 7. Infliximab also has a response rate of approximately 70% in short term and 50% in long term. Both cyclosporin and infliximab are equally efficacious medical rescue therapies as demonstrated in a recent randomized control trial. Patients not responding to infliximab or cyclosporin should be considered for colectomy. PMID:25401001
Kedia, Saurabh; Ahuja, Vineet; Tandon, Rakesh
The analysis of inter-leg coordination in insect walking is generally a study of six-legged locomotion. For decades, the stick insect Carausius morosus has been instrumental for unravelling the rules and mechanisms that control leg coordination in hexapeds. We analysed inter-leg coordination in C. morosus that freely walked on straight paths on plane surfaces with different slopes. Consecutive 1.7 s sections were assigned inter-leg coordination patterns (which we call gaits) based on footfall patterns. Regular gaits, i.e. wave, tetrapod or tripod gaits, occurred in different proportions depending on surface slopes. Tetrapod gaits were observed most frequently, wave gaits only occurred on 90 deg inclining slopes and tripod gaits occurred most often on 15 deg declining slopes, i.e. in 40% of the sections. Depending on the slope, 36-66% of the sections were assigned irregular gaits. Irregular gaits were mostly due to multiple stepping by the front legs, which is perhaps probing behaviour, not phase coupled to the middle legs' cycles. In irregular gaits, middle leg and hindleg coordination was regular, related to quadrupedal walk and wave gaits. Apparently, front legs uncouple from and couple to the walking system without compromising middle leg and hindleg coordination. In front leg amputees, the remaining legs were strictly coordinated. In hindleg and middle leg amputees, the front legs continued multiple stepping. The coordination of middle leg amputees was maladapted, with front legs and hindlegs performing multiple steps or ipsilateral legs being in simultaneous swing. Thus, afferent information from middle legs might be necessary for a regular hindleg stepping pattern. PMID:22972892
Grabowska, Martyna; Godlewska, Elzbieta; Schmidt, Joachim; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia
Background Effective control of (upright) body posture requires a proper representation of body orientation. Stroke patients with pusher syndrome were shown to suffer from severely disturbed perception of own body orientation. They experience their body as oriented 'upright' when actually tilted by nearly 20° to the ipsilesional side. Thus, it can be expected that postural control mechanisms are impaired accordingly in these patients. Our aim was to investigate pusher patients' spontaneous postural responses of the non-paretic leg and of the head during passive body tilt. Methods A sideways tilting motion was applied to the trunk of the subject in the roll plane. Stroke patients with pusher syndrome were compared to stroke patients not showing pushing behaviour, patients with acute unilateral vestibular loss, and non brain damaged subjects. Results Compared to all groups without pushing behaviour, the non-paretic leg of the pusher patients showed a constant ipsiversive tilt across the whole tilt range for an amount which was observed in the non-pusher subjects when they were tilted for about 15° into the ipsiversive direction. Conclusion The observation that patients with acute unilateral vestibular loss showed no alterations of leg posture indicates that disturbed vestibular afferences alone are not responsible for the disordered leg responses seen in pusher patients. Our results may suggest that in pusher patients a representation of body orientation is disturbed that drives both conscious perception of body orientation and spontaneous postural adjustment of the non-paretic leg in the roll plane. The investigation of the pusher patients' leg-to-trunk orientation thus could serve as an additional bedside tool to detect pusher syndrome in acute stroke patients. PMID:16928280
Johannsen, Leif; Broetz, Doris; Karnath, Hans-Otto
The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgical off-loading to heal diabetic foot ulcers and prevent ulcer recurrence. Usually, structural foot deformities such as hallux rigidus, hammertoe deformities and equinus of the ankle contribute to abnormal pressure and shear forces and non-healing foot ulcers. Elective surgery to remove the deformity and restore joint mobility has been shown to be safe and effective to improve wound healing of recalcitrant ulcer and to reduce the risk of re-ulceration. Unfortunately, there is very little high-level evidence to help guide patient selection or to compare clinical outcomes. PMID:22271725
Lavery, Lawrence A
The adapters of modular prostheses are the structural components mostly likely to fail during the use of prostheses because of the high forces and moments occurring during the human gait. In this study, structural performance of a modular uniaxial leg adapter during gait is analysed utilizing computer software. By analysing the results, the relevant product was redesigned in order to prevent possible failures. Subsequently, the developed modular uniaxial leg adapter was tested in accordance with ISO 10328 in order to ensure the safety of the design. Further, the test results are compared with a finite element analysis to evaluate the performance of the numerical analysis. PMID:17365881
Dincel, Ozan; Gursel, K Turgut; Yildiz, Hasan
A criterion-referenced Web-based test was designed and administered to 256 individuals at 48 randomly sampled National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) member hospitals to determine the reliability of the NDNQI pressure ulcer indicator. Overall ? values for pressure ulcer identification, staging, and sourcing indicate moderate to near perfect reliability. Findings suggest that nurses can accurately differentiate pressure ulcers from other ulcerous wounds in Web-based photographs, reliably stage pressure ulcers, and reliably identify community versus nosocomial pressure ulcers. PMID:20859098
Hart, Sara; Bergquist, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron; Dunton, Nancy
A criterion-referenced Web-based test was designed and administered to 256 individuals at 48 randomly sampled National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) member hospitals to determine the reliability of the NDNQI pressure ulcer indicator. Overall kappa values for pressure ulcer identification, staging, and sourcing indicate moderate to near perfect reliability. Findings suggest that nurses can accurately differentiate pressure ulcers from other ulcerous wounds in Web-based photographs, reliably stage pressure ulcers, and reliably identify community versus nosocomial pressure ulcers. PMID:16816607
Hart, Sara; Bergquist, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron; Dunton, Nancy
AIMS--To study ulcerative colitis associated neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA) in respect of class and subclass distribution, antigen specificity, and (sub)cellular localisation of the antigen(s) to which these antibodies are directed. METHODS--p-ANCA positivity was determined using the standard indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT). The immunoglobulin (Ig) subclass distribution of p-ANCA was investigated using monoclonal antibodies directed against IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4. Intracellular antigen localisation studies were performed on (fractionated) neutrophils using antigen-specific antibodies. RESULTS--In contrast to vasculitis associated ANCA, ulcerative colitis p-ANCA are mainly of IgG1 and IgG3 subclass and lack IgG4. Ulcerative colitis p-ANCA are myeloid specific. IIFT data indicate that the related antigen(s) seem(s) to be located not in the cytosol, but in the granules (most likely the azurophil granules) of the neutrophil. CONCLUSIONS--p-ANCA in ulcerative colitis have a different immunoglobulin subclass distribution than the ANCA of systemic necrotising vasculitis and necrotising and crescentic glomerulonephritis. This may point to differences in immune regulation between these diseases. Both cathepsin G and lactoferrin are recognised by a subpopulation of ulcerative colitis p-ANCA. In our series, eight out of 36 (22%) of ulcerative colitis associated p-ANCA react with lactoferrin and seven (19.5%) other sera with cathepsin G. None of them recognised both antigens. The main target antigen(s) of ulcerative colitis p-ANCA still remain(s) to be identified. PMID:8163698
Ellerbroek, P M; Oudkerk Pool, M; Ridwan, B U; Dolman, K M; von Blomberg, B M; von dem Borne, A E; Meuwissen, S G; Goldschmeding, R
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Mimusops elengi (Sapotaceae) against experimental gastric ulcers. The 50% alcoholic extract of Mimusops elengi (Ext E) and its different fractions namely ethyl acetate (Ext E1), n-butanol (Ext E2), methanol (Ext E3) and aqueous (Ext E4) were studied (p.o.) against ethanol-induced gastric damage. Ext E1 was also studied in ethanol-induced, pylorus-ligated and water-immersion plus stress-induced gastric ulcer models. Ranitidine HCl (80 mg kg(-1)) was used as a reference standard. In ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model, pantoprazole (20 mg kg(-1)) was also used as a reference standard. Ext E1 tested in mice up to the dose of 5000 mg kg(-1) (p.o.) did not produce any sign of toxicity. Ext E at the doses of 50, 100, 300 and 500 mg kg(-1) and its different fractions (100 mg kg(-1)) showed reduction in gastric ulceration (P < 0.05). Ext E1 at the doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) showed dose-dependent inhibition of gastric lesions against ethanol-induced gastric damage. In 19 h pylorus-ligated animals, Ext E1 at 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) doses showed significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.05). Significant reduction was also observed in total acidity, volume of gastric acid secretion, total acid output and pepsin activity (P < 0.05) when compared with the control group. Besides, Ext E1 showed increase in the mucosal glycoproteins that was evident from significant rise in total carbohydrates to protein ratio (TC:PR ratio) (P < 0.05), which is an indication of mucin activity. Ext E1 also showed protection against water-immersion plus stress-induced gastric lesions that was evident from dose-dependent decrease in ulcer index (P < 0.05), score for intensity (P < 0.05) and total lesion area (P < 0.05) when compared with the control group. It can be concluded from our study that Ext E1 possesses anti-ulcer activity against experimental gastric ulcers. The mechanism of anti-ulcer activity can be attributed to decrease in gastric acid secretory activity along with strengthening of mucosal defensive mechanisms. PMID:14611897
Shah, Payal J; Gandhi, Mitesh S; Shah, Mamta B; Goswami, Sunita S; Santani, Devdas
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the risk factors that could delay gastric ulcer healing when either a proton pump inhibitor or an H2-receptor antagonist is used for gastric ulcer treatment. Endoscopically-diagnosed gastric ulcer patients (216 men and 96 women, mean age: 57+/-13 years) were investigated. All patients were consecutively recruited and randomly assigned to receive H2-receptor antagonist (n = 196) or proton pump inhibitor (n = 116) treatment for eight weeks. Chi-squared tests and multivariate analysis to determine factors influencing ulcer healing were used to analyse the patients profiles, endoscopic findings, and Helicobacter pylori-infection status. In the H2-receptor antagonist group, the most important risk factor was a large ulcer size (> 2 cm diam.), followed by a linear shape of the ulcer, undermining tendency of ulcer, previous history of gastric ulcer, and H. pylori infection. In the proton pump inhibitor group, linear shape of the ulcer was the only significant risk factor for slow ulcer healing; other factors, including H. pylori infection, were insignificant. These results indicate that ulcer morphology may be the most important information for predicting ulcer healing, and that H. pylori infection does not delay gastric ulcer healing when proton pump inhibitor treatment is used. PMID:10467958
Sasakii, M; Joh, T; Yokoyama, Y; Seno, K; Tsuchida, K; Kurokawa, T; Itoh, M
Peptic ulcer prevalence and five year incidence were assessed in a sex and age stratified population sample of 3608 Danish subjects aged 30-60 years. Statements of peptic ulcer disease obtained from questionnaires were scrutinised by reviewing medical records. Life time ulcer prevalence (95% confidence intervals) was 5.6 (4.9-6.4) per cent. Male to female prevalence ratio was 2.2:1, and duodenal to gastric ulcer prevalence ratio was 3.8:1. Thirty two participants with no previous history of peptic ulceration developed an ulcer within the observation period resulting in a five year ulcer incidence of 11.3 (7.4-15.2) per 1000 persons at risk with no demonstrable sex difference. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer has declined in Denmark whereas gastric ulcer prevalence in men has increased slightly. A decline in male duodenal ulcer incidence has probably contributed to the low male to female ulcer incidence ratio, implying that women today incur the same risk of developing an ulcer as men. If such trends continue, they will bring about a new era in ulcer epidemiology characterised by equal incidence in men and women and an even distribution of lesions in the stomach and duodenum. PMID:7615266
Rosenstock, S J; Jørgensen, T
The authors revise the latest evidence in the literature regarding managing of osteoporosis in ulcerative colitis (UC), paying particular attention to the latest tendency of the research concerning the management of bone damage in the patient affected by UC. It is wise to assess vitamin D status in ulcerative colitis patients to recognize who is predisposed to low levels of vitamin D, whose deficiency has to be treated with oral or parenteral vitamin D supplementation. An adequate dietary calcium intake or supplementation and physical activity, if possible, should be guaranteed. Osteoporotic risk factors, such as smoking and excessive alcohol intake, must be avoided. Steroid has to be prescribed at the lowest possible dosage and for the shortest possible time. Moreover, conditions favoring falling have to been minimized, like carpets, low illumination, sedatives assumption, vitamin D deficiency. It is advisable to assess the fracture risk in all UC patient by the fracture assessment risk tool (FRAX® tool), that calculates the ten years risk of fracture for the population aged from 40 to 90 years in many countries of the world. A high risk value could indicate the necessity of treatment, whereas a low risk value suggests a follow-up only. An intermediate risk supports the decision to prescribe bone mineral density (BMD) assessment and a subsequent patient revaluation for treatment. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry bone densitometry can be used not only for BMD measurement, but also to collect data about bone quality by the means of trabecular bone score and hip structural analysis assessment. These two indices could represent a method of interesting perspectives in evaluating bone status in patients affected by diseases like UC, which may present an impairment of bone quality as well as of bone quantity. In literature there is no strong evidence for instituting pharmacological therapy of bone impairment in UC patients for clinical indications other than those that are also applied to the patients with osteoporosis. Therefore, a reasonable advice is to consider pharmacological treatment for osteoporosis in those UC patients who already present fragility fractures, which bring a high risk of subsequent fractures. Therapy has also to be considered in patients with a high risk of fracture even if it did not yet happen, and particularly when they had long periods of corticosteroid therapy or cumulative high dosages. In patients without fragility fractures or steroid treatment, a medical decision about treatment could be guided by the FRAX tool to determine the intervention threshold. Among drugs for osteoporosis treatment, the bisphosphonates are the most studied ones, with the best and longest evidence of efficacy and safety. Despite this, several questions are still open, such as the duration of treatment, the necessity to discontinue it, the indication of therapy in young patients, particularly in those without previous fractures. Further, it has to be mentioned that a long-term bisphosphonates use in primary osteoporosis has been associated with an increased incidence of dramatic side-effects, even if uncommon, like osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical sub-trochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures. UC is a long-lasting disease and the majority of patients is relatively young. In this scenario primary prevention of fragility fracture is the best cost-effective strategy. Vitamin D supplementation, adequate calcium intake, suitable physical activity (when possible), removing of risk factors for osteoporosis like smoking, and avoiding falling are the best medical acts. PMID:25339798
Piodi, Luca Petruccio; Poloni, Alessandro; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo
Healed or open venous ulcers may be present in up to 1% of Western populations and consume a large amount of healthcare resources. These ulcers are characterized by a chronic inflammatory environment with impaired healing and often require months for closure. The average monthly cost of care for an open ulcer has been estimated to be $4095. The fundamental tenets of ulcer care include adequate compression and maintaining a moist wound environment with an appropriate primary dressing. A number of specialized products including semi-occlusive/occlusive, antimicrobial, and advanced wound matrix dressings are now available. However, there is little data from appropriate clinical studies to suggest significantly improved outcomes with any of these dressings. Data regarding their cost-effectiveness is also limited, often conflicting, and subject to bias. At present, there is little solid evidence to guide the choice of primary dressings and a patient-centered approach focusing on characteristics of both the patient and their ulcer, while paying attention to costs, may be most appropriate. PMID:24843106
Meissner, Mark H
The escalating incidence of diabetic mellitus has given rise to the increasing problems of chronic diabetic ulcers that confront the practice of medicine. Peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy, and infection contribute to the multifactorial pathogenesis of diabetic ulcers. Approaches to the management of diabetic ulcers should start with an assessment and optimization of the patient's general conditions, followed by considerations of the local and regional factors. This paper aims to address the management strategies for wound bed preparation in chronic diabetic foot ulcers and also emphasizes the importance of preventive measures and future directions. The “TIME” framework in wound bed preparation encompasses tissue management, inflammation and infection control, moisture balance, and epithelial (edge) advancement. Tissue management aims to remove the necrotic tissue burden via various methods of debridement. Infection and inflammation control restores bacterial balance with the reduction of bacterial biofilms. Achieving a moist wound healing environment without excessive wound moisture or dryness will result in moisture balance. Epithelial advancement is promoted via removing the physical and biochemical barriers for migration of epithelium from wound edges. These systematic and holistic approaches will potentiate the healing abilities of the chronic diabetic ulcers, including those that are recalcitrant. PMID:23476800
Mat Saad, Arman Zaharil; Khoo, Teng Lye; Halim, Ahmad Sukari
Duodenal ulcer perforation in pediatric age group is an uncommon entity; hence, it is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in these patients. It is important for the emergency physician to consider perforated peptic ulcer in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, or shock. We report a 6½-year-old male child with thalassemia major who presented to emergency room with an acute abdomen and shock, who was subsequently found to have a perforated duodenal ulcer, probably related to use of oral chelating agent, deferasirox. Although, gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain has been mentioned as infrequent adverse event in the scientific product information of deferasirox, in our current knowledge this is the first case report of perforated duodenal ulcer after oral deferasirox.